WorldWideScience

Sample records for diesel aggregate final

  1. Characterization of Diesel Soot Aggregates by Scattering and Extinction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Takeyuki

    2006-07-01

    Characteristics of diesel soot particles sampled from diesel exhaust of a common-rail turbo-charged diesel engine are quantified by scattering and extinction diagnostics using newly build two laser-based instruments. The radius of gyration representing the aggregates size is measured by the angular distribution of scattering intensity, while the soot mass concentration is measured by a two-wavelength extinction method. An approach to estimate the refractive index of diesel soot by an analysis of the extinction and scattering data using an aggregates scattering theory is proposed.

  2. Characterization of Diesel Soot Aggregates by Scattering and Extinction Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Takeyuki

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of diesel soot particles sampled from diesel exhaust of a common-rail turbo-charged diesel engine are quantified by scattering and extinction diagnostics using newly build two laser-based instruments. The radius of gyration representing the aggregates size is measured by the angular distribution of scattering intensity, while the soot mass concentration is measured by a two-wavelength extinction method. An approach to estimate the refractive index of diesel soot by an analysis of the extinction and scattering data using an aggregates scattering theory is proposed

  3. Minimization of the noise emitted by a stationary, multifuel DI diesel aggregate. Final report; Minimierung der Aussengeraeusche eines stationaeren, vielstoffaehigen, direkteinspritzenden Dieselaggregats. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haentsche, J.; Zimdahl, G.

    1999-03-01

    Engine noise is caused by the combustion process, flow processes and by the mechanical noise of engine components. This project investigated the dynamic response of the engine structure as an important source of noise transmission to the outer surface and ambient air. The engine investigated was a multifuel 'eco' DI diesel engine of AMS Schoenebeck, with 4 cylinders, air-cooled supercharger and a power at full load of 160 kW at 2000 rpm. [German] Die Einhaltung der von Gesetzgeber zugelassenen Hoechstwerte der Schalleinwirkung auf den Menschen macht in immer staerkerem Masse die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Maschinen (Motoren) notwendig. Das Motorengeraeusch wird durch die Verbrennung, durch Stroemungsvorgaenge sowie die mechanischen Geraeuschanteile von Motorkomponenten bestimmt. Gegenstand des Projektes ist die Untersuchung des dynamischen Verhaltens der Motorstruktur als massgeblicher Faktor der Schallweiterleitung vom Ort der Entstehung an die schallabstrahlende aeussere Oberflaeche und deren Luftschallabstrahlung. Untersuchungsobjekt war ein Oeko-Vielstoff-Dieselmotor der AMS Schoenebeck, Motordaten: 4-Zylinder-Reihenmotor, Abgasturboaufladung mit Ladeluftkuehlung, Vollast: 160 kW bei 2000 1/min, Direkteinspritzer. (orig.)

  4. Final report : Alberta renewable diesel demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    The Alberta renewable diesel demonstration (ARDD) was a demonstration project aimed at providing information and operating experience to stakeholders in the diesel fuel industry. The demonstration took renewable diesel from the lab to the road, providing hands-on experience at 2 and 5 per cent blends (B2 in winter and B5 in shoulder and summer seasons). The ARDD fleet consisted of 59 vehicles running on two types of renewable diesel, notably fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and hydrogenated-derived renewable diesel (HDRD). This report was a summary of the observations of the ARDD. The report provided a general account of the project scope, methods and observations employed in a multi-stakeholder, real-world demonstration of low-level renewable diesel fuels in challenging winter conditions. The purpose of the report was to provide feedback to stakeholders regarding the use of renewable diesel fuels in Canada's on-road diesel fuel market and to confirm the operability of low level renewable diesel blends under the specific conditions tested ensuring full and continuous compliance with CAN/CGSB 3.520. The report discussed Canada's fuel distribution system in western Canada; the blending facility; blending techniques; fuel retail locations; fuel properties; fuel handling; fuel selection; and fuel testing. It was concluded that the ARDD demonstrated that B2 blends of canola methyl ester and 2 per cent blends of hydrogenation derived renewable diesel were fully operable in winter conditions in the study area when cloud points were adjusted to meet CAN/CGSB requirements. 4 refs., 15 tabs., 20 figs., 2 appendices.

  5. Management of auxiliary aggregates - development and testing of methods for improved use of auxiliary aggregates of diesel and spark ignition engines in stationary and unstationary operation. Final report; Nebenaggregate-Management - Entwicklung und Erprobung von Verfahren zum verbesserten Einsatz der Nebenaggregate an Diesel- und Ottomotoren bei stationaerem und instationaerem Betrieb. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M; Lenzen, B; Groef, S; Isermann, R [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Hohenberg, G [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    1998-07-01

    Aggregate management is aimed at aggregate operation in consideration of demand, consumption and exhaust. Demands on reliability are high. Investigations were made using modelling, simulation, model reduction and identification, with the focus on model reduction. The resulting concepts for consumption reduction vary depending on the vehicle type and application. [German] Das Nebenaggregate-Management hat den bedarfs-, verbrauchs- und abgasorientierten Betrieb der Nebenaggregate im Kraftfahrzeug zum Ziel. Der sehr weit gespannte Einsatzbereich von Kraftfahrzeugen und die hohen Anforderungen an die Betriebszuverlaessigkeit stellen entsprechende Anforderungen an das Management. Zur Untersuchung eines verbesserten Betriebs von Nebenaggregaten wrden Verfahren der Regelungstechnik wie z.B. Modellbildung, Simulation, Modellreduktion und Identifikation eingesetzt, wobei der Modellreduktion in anbetracht des komplexen Gesamtsystems Kraftfahrzeug eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen sind Konzepte zur Verringerung des Verbrauchsanteils der Nebenaggregate, die je nach Fahrzeugtyp und Einsatzzweck variieren. (orig.)

  6. Primary and Aggregate Size Distributions of PM in Tail Pipe Emissions form Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masataka; Amagai, Kenji; Nakaji, Takayuki; Hayashi, Shinji

    Particulate matter (PM) emission exhausted from diesel engine should be reduced to keep the clean air environment. PM emission was considered that it consisted of coarse and aggregate particles, and nuclei-mode particles of which diameter was less than 50nm. However the detail characteristics about these particles of the PM were still unknown and they were needed for more physically accurate measurement and more effective reduction of exhaust PM emission. In this study, the size distributions of solid particles in PM emission were reported. PMs in the tail-pipe emission were sampled from three type diesel engines. Sampled PM was chemically treated to separate the solid carbon fraction from other fractions such as soluble organic fraction (SOF). The electron microscopic and optical-manual size measurement procedures were used to determine the size distribution of primary particles those were formed through coagulation process from nuclei-mode particles and consisted in aggregate particles. The centrifugal sedimentation method was applied to measure the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Aerodynamic diameters of nano and aggregate particles were measured with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The peak aggregate diameters detected by SMPS were fallen in the same size regime as the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Both of primary and Stokes diameters of dry-soot decreased with increases of engine speed and excess air ratio. Also, the effects of fuel properties and engine types on primary and aggregate particle diameters were discussed.

  7. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  8. Publication of the KTA 3702.1 safety rule of the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss from July 3, 1980. Stand-by units with diesel aggregates in nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The rule applies to stationary nuclear power plants. Depending on their application, one of the following diesel aggregates should be chosen: Stand-by aggregates, fast emergency aggregates, or no-delay emergency aggregates. (HP) [de

  9. Aggregated Dispatch of Distributed Generation Units: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    This final report describes a project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of aggregating distributed generating resources in New York State. This project demonstrates a system that allows distributed generation (DG) to participate in competitive markets in much the same way as large central-station power plants. This approach involves aggregating the distributed demand-side resources into a single transaction entity consistent with the requirements of the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). This single entity then buys or sells capacity and energy (i.e., curtailment) in NYISO markets.

  10. Alternative Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Transition Program for Alaska Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule will implement the requirements for sulfur, cetane and aromatics for highway, nonroad, locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced in, imported into, and distributed or used in the rural areas of Alaska.

  11. Dynamics of final sectoral energy demand and aggregate energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern of change for aggregate energy intensity. The simulations performed show that there is no a priori reason for it to exhibit a bell-shape, as reported in the literature. Depending on initial conditions, the weight of basic needs in total consumption and the availability of modern commercial energy resources, various forms might emerge. - Research Highlights: → The residential sector accounts for most of final energy consumption at low income levels. → Its share drops at the benefit of the industrial, services and road transportation sectors in turn. → Sectoral shares' pattern is affected by changes in geographic, sociologic and economic factors. → Final energy intensity may show various shapes and does not exhibit necessarily a bell-shape.

  12. Final Rule for Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to establish nonconformance penalties (NCPs) for manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines (HHDDE) in model years 2012 and later for emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) because we have found the criteria for NCPs.

  13. Inventory of concepts for mixed diesel fuels containing renewable components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, B. [Inst. for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult, Solna (Sweden); Berg, J. [Svenska Lantmaennen/Agro Oil, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    The present report has involved the assembly of two sub-reports, which have been put together to form this final report. Both of the sub-reports deal with the incorporation of ethanol in diesel fuels. The potential advantages are the decreased net emissions of carbon dioxide, due to the renewable nature of ethanol (if obtained from renewable raw materials), and the decrease of NO{sub x} emissions, due to the decreased combustion temperature. The first sub-report is a compilation of scientific articles and patents/patent applications regarding the possibility to blend ethanol into diesel to form a stable solution in the form of a so called microemulsion, with the aid of surfactants and/or co-solvents. The second sub-report briefly describes the test work, both in the laboratory and in field tests, that is being done in various countries, regarding the blending of ethanol into diesel fuel.

  14. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  15. Device on a diesel motor to supply power to emergency aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.; Boekemeier, V.; Schilling, R.

    1977-01-01

    The invented arrangement of a diesel motor for the emergency supply of a nuclear power plant ensures that in the case of a fire in the environment of the emergency feeding building, no air with too much flue gas reaches the diesel motor via the suction pipe. The discharge pipe with a nozzle-shaped discharge opening and the suction pipe running above it pass horizontally through a wall of the building. There are vertical walls on both sides of the openings which prevent a sideways flowing of air to the exhaust gas flow in the vicinity of the building. (HGOE) [de

  16. Characterization of Diesel Combustion inside the EHPC. Final Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florent, D.

    2006-07-01

    In part 1 will be discussed the possibility of providing quantitative schlieren with the EHPC (Eindhoven High Pressure Cell) in order to measure temperature. Firstly, some generalities about schlieren are given and the apparatus already used with the EHPC is described. Secondly, the apparatus for quantitative schlieren measurements is described and the mathematical model is explained. Thirdly, we conclude on the possibility of making quantitative schlieren in the EHPC according to the optical components needed and other difficulties. Also two examples will be given of quantitative schlieren study consulted in the literature. In the first one details are discussed of the measurement of the temperature of axisymmetric partially premixed flames (PPFs) established on a coannular burner. The second example details an isothermal helium jet discharged vertically into ambient air. The purpose of this part is to describe most precisely the way of acquiring data from a schlieren image. The different steps are illustrated with some curves and pictures. Next, a summary and analysis is given of the paper published by R. Rubinstein and P. S. Greenberg. In fact, they explain that some functions which are useful for representing axisymmetric refractive index distribution have exact solutions for Abel transformation of the resulting angular deflection data. The objective is to have a better overview on this mathematical step needed to provide quantitative schlieren. Finally, in part 1, a summary is given of the paper published by Douglas A. Feikema. The author presents a numerical analysis based on the software Chemkin and experimental results in order to provide quantitative measurements of the temperature distribution of a spherical diffusion flame using rainbow schlieren deflectometry in normal and microgravity. In fact, the purpose is to discuss the application of quantitative schlieren for a laminar spherical flame. In part 2 the use of some laser diagnostics to study

  17. Demonstration of diesel fired coolant heaters in school bus applications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Engine block pre-heating can reduce fuel consumption, decrease pollution, extend engine life, and it is often necessary for reliably starting diesel engines in cold climates. This report describes the application and experience of applying 36 diesel ...

  18. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  19. DELTA-DIESEL ENGINE LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATION Contract DE-FC05-97OR22606 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike

    2003-05-27

    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  20. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  1. To solve the specific emissions of locomotive diesel engines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, R.; Maeaettaenen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ministry of Transport has made a goal to create an uniform system to make it possible to compare emissions of different transport forms. Kymenlaakso Polytechnic was supported by the Mobile Research Programme to measure the specific emissions of locomotive diesel engines. VR Osakeyhtioe has also supported economically the research work. During the research specific emissions of three diesel engines used in locomotives and calculated according to ISO 8178 standard were measured. In all, emissions of 14 engines were measured. For 12 engines measurements were made after the engine shop repair and for two engines before the repairing. Gaseous emissions: nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and total hydrocarbons contents were measured. Based on measured emissions and sulphur contents of the oil the weighted emissions were calculated in units g/kWh and g/kg fuel . Particular emissions were measured with dilution method and specific emissions were calculated in same units as for gaseous emissions

  2. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  3. Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use in an urban bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J.; Camobreco, V.; Duffield, J.; Graboski, M.; Shapouri, H.

    1998-05-01

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. It presents information on raw materials extracted from the environment, energy resources consumed, and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel substitute. It can be made from a variety of natural oils and fats. Biodiesel is made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Methanol has been the most commonly used alcohol in the commercial production of biodiesel. In Europe, biodiesel is widely available in both its neat form (100% biodiesel, also known as B1OO) and in blends with petroleum diesel. European biodiesel is made predominantly from rapeseed oil (a cousin of canola oil). In the United States, initial interest in producing and using biodiesel has focused on the use of soybean oil as the primary feedstock mainly because the United States is the largest producer of soybean oil in the world. 170 figs., 148 tabs.

  4. Annex 34 : task 1 : analysis of biodiesel options : biomass-derived diesel fuels : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Aakko-Saksa, P; Nylund, N O [TransEnergy Consulting Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Biofuels are derived from woody biomass, non-woody biomass, and organic wastes. The properties of vegetable oil feedstocks can have profound effects on the properties of the finished biodiesel product. However, all biodiesel fuels have beneficial effects on engine emissions. This report discussed the use of biodiesel fuels as replacements for part of the diesel fuel consumed throughout the world. Biodiesel fuels currently being produced from fatty acid esters today were reviewed, as well as some of the more advanced diesel replacement fuels. The report was produced as part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement Annex 34, and was divided into 14 sections: (1) an introduction, (2) biodiesel and biomass, (3) an explanation of biodiesel, (4) properties of finished biodiesel fuels, (5) exhaust emissions of finished biodiesel fuels and blends, (6) life-cycle emissions and energy, (7) international biodiesel (FAME) technical standards and specifications, (8) growth in production and use of biodiesel fuels, (9) biofuel refineries, (10) process technology, (11) development and status of biorefineries, (12) comparison of options to produce biobased diesel fuels, (13) barriers and gaps in knowledge, and (14) references. 113 refs., 37 tabs., 74 figs.

  5. Alternatives to Diesel Fuel in California - Fuel Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Possible Replacements Due to the TAC Diesel Particulate Decision; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher L. Saraicks; Donald M. Rote; Frank Stodolsky; James J. Eberhardt

    2000-01-01

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression ignition by spark ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, ressionignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOx emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM10 reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated

  6. Experimental submarine with closed cycle diesel engine. Final report. Experimentaltauchboot mit Argon-Kreislaufdieselmotor. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J.

    1990-08-01

    The Experimental Submarine SEAHORSE-KD is a fully operational autonomous test platform for an air independent propulsion system based on a closed cycle diesel engine. The Argon-Diesel known as MOTARK was a contribution from MAN Technologie AG, Munich, which also included process technology and control. Within the Argon cycle the exhaust gas is cooled down, cleaned from CO{sub 2} in a rotary scrubber and fed into the engine again after addition of oxygen. On surface, the engine can be operated on ambient air. During closed cycle operation, no media are exchanged with the ambient. The process works independently from the depth. Bruker Meerestechnik GmbH had to define the complete vehicle, developed and integrated the subsystems such as the LOX-system, the chemical and condensate plant, the fuel system, the propulsion and the electric system, etc. and carried out extensive workshop tests, shallow water and sea trials. The reliable functioning of the CCD-plant and of the complete Experimental Submarine could be convincingly demonstrated. A certificate has been issued by the Germanischer Lloyd. (orig.) With 90 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T. [Integral Technologies, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  8. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  9. Displacement of diesel fuel with wind energy in rural Alaskan villages. Final progress and project closeout report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, Dennis [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States); Drouhilet, Steve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reeve, Brad [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States); Bergen, Matt [Kotzebue Electric Association, Kotzebue, AK (United States)

    2002-03-11

    The basic concept behind this project was to construct a wind diesel hybrid power system which combines and maximizes the intermittent and variable energy output of wind turbine(s) with diesel generator(s) to provide continuous high quality electric power to weak isolated mini-grids.

  10. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM(sub 2.5)). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO(sub x) and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles

  11. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  12. Dieselization in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kågeson, Per

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden the market share of diesel cars grew from below 10 per cent in 2005 to 62 per cent in 2011 despite a closing gap between pump prices on diesel oil and gasoline, and diesel cars being less favored than ethanol and biogas cars in terms of tax cuts and other subsidies offered to “environment cars”. The most important factor behind the dieselization was probably the market entrance of a number of low-consuming models. Towards the end of the period a growing number of diesel models were able to meet the 120 g CO 2 threshold applicable to “environment cars” that cannot use ethanol or biogas. This helped such models increase their share of the diesel car market from zero to 41 per cent. Dieselization appears to have had only a minor effect on annual distances driven. The higher average annual mileage of diesel cars is probably to a large extent a result of a self-selection bias. However, the Swedish diesel car fleet is young, and the direct rebound effect stemming from a lower variable driving cost may show up more clearly as the fleet gets older based on the assumption that second owners are more fuel price sensitive than first owners. - Highlights: ► This paper tries to explain the fast dieselization of the new Swedish car fleet. ► It identifies changes in supply and the impact of tax benefits. ► Finally it studies the impact on the annual average mileage

  13. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  14. Procedures for aggregating citizen preferences in the context of the nuclear waste management problem. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, H.W.; Sauer, G.L.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the theory of social choice and related disciplines, and to relate this theory to the concrete problem of nuclear waste management. In Section I of this report, an overview of the problem is provided. In Section II, two candidate preference aggregation procedures that can be used to identify a socially optimal waste management policy are identified. In Section III, a somewhat lengthy defense of the use of these two aggregation procedures is presented. Each is shown to be compatible with four intuitively appealing criteria of collective decision-making. In Section IV the application of one of the procedures to the evaluation of waste management alternatives is discussed. In Section V the problem of inferring evaluation parameters from expert and laypersons' judgments is addressed.

  15. Procedures for aggregating citizen preferences in the context of the nuclear waste management problem. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, H.W.; Sauer, G.L.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the theory of social choice and related disciplines, and to relate this theory to the concrete problem of nuclear waste management. In Section I of this report, an overview of the problem is provided. In Section II, two candidate preference aggregation procedures that can be used to identify a socially optimal waste management policy are identified. In Section III, a somewhat lengthy defense of the use of these two aggregation procedures is presented. Each is shown to be compatible with four intuitively appealing criteria of collective decision-making. In Section IV the application of one of the procedures to the evaluation of waste management alternatives is discussed. In Section V the problem of inferring evaluation parameters from expert and laypersons' judgments is addressed

  16. Performance evaluation of alternative fuel/engine concepts 1990- 1995. Final report including addendum of diesel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Ikonen, M.; Kytoe, M.; Lappi, M.; Westerholm, M.; Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    Annex V within the IEA Agreement on Alternative Motor Fuels is the first subtask to generate new experimental data. The objective of the task is to generate information on the emission potential of alternative fuels in severe operating conditions and to evaluate new emission measurement methods. The work was carried out in three phases, Engine Tests, Vehicle Tests and Addendum of Diesel Vehicles. The work was carried out at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) as a cost shared operation. Participants were Belgium (Parts Two and Three), Canada (Parts One and Two), Finland, Italy (Part One), Japan, the Netherlands Sweden and USA. The United Kingdom also joined at the end of the Annex. The work included 143 different vehicle/fuel/temperature combinations. FTP type emission tests were run on 14 vehicles powered with different gasoline compositions, methanol (M50 and M85), ethanol (E85), LPG, CNG and diesel. Both regulated and unregulated emission components were measured using the most up-to-date emissions measurement technology. The results indicated, that today`s advanced gasoline vehicles must be considered rather clean. Diesel is comparable with gasoline in the case of CO and HC. M85 gives low emissions in warm conditions, but unburned methanol must be controlled. Natural gas and LPG are inherently clean fuels which, using up-to-date engine technology, give low emissions in all conditions. (orig.) (29 refs.)

  17. Rudolph Diesel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Rudolph Diesel. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 406-424 Classics. Diesel's Rational Heat Motor · Rudolph Diesel · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  18. Inhalation toxicology of diesel fuel obscurant aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Final report, Phase 3, subchronic exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, S.; Dalbey, W.; Schmoyer, R.; Griesemer, R.

    1984-12-01

    Inhalation exposures were performed twice per week, for 13 weeks, to determine whether there was any potential toxicity to rats of comparatively low concentrations of a condensation aerosol from diesel fuel. Changes in breathing frequency and the response of animals to a loud sharp sound (startle response) were measured in selected animals prior to the start of the exposures, at various time points during the thirteen week exposure period, and at monthly intervals during the recovery period. Assays were performed on selected animals at the end of the exposure period, and again after the two month recovery period. Endpoints included pulmonary function tests, numbers of alveolar free cells, clinical chemistry, hematology, organ weights and histopathology. No mortalities were recorded during the exposure or recovery periods. Slight toxicity occurred at these low aerosol concentrations with the loss in body weight of all treated animals during the exposure period. During the exposure period there were also some slight changes in startle reflex, however, these were apparently acute effects, and there appeared to be no permanent CNS involvement as measured by this endpoint. Immediately post-exposure, the numbers of lavaged alveolar macrophages were slightly elevated in all aerosol exposed animals. Pulmonary function tests, pulmonary gas exchange and dynamic lung tests were all apparently unaffected by these low diesel fuel aerosol exposures. Changes in tissue weights in aerosol exposed animals were minor and the few histopathological lesions were randomly scattered amongst all groups included in this study and were more attributable to the age of the animals than any specific treatment group. No significant cumulative toxicity may be attributed to these diesel fuel aerosol exposures. 14 references, 1 figure, 42 tables.

  19. Pulsed Plasma Processing of Diesel Engine Exhaust Final Report CRADA No. TC-0336-92-1-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Bernard T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Broering, Louis [Cummins Engine Company, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The goal was to develop an exhaust-gas treatment process for the reduction of NOx and hydrocarbon from diesel engines. The project began believing that direct chemical reduction on NOx was possible through the use of non-thermal plasmas. The original CRADA began in 1993 and was scheduled to finish in 1996. It had as its goals three metrics: 1) remove two grams/brake-horse-power-hour of NOx, 2) have no more than five percent energy penalty, and 3) cost no more than ten percent of the engine cost. These goals were all aimed at heavy-duty diesel trucks. This CRADA had its Defense Program funding eliminated by DOE prior to completion in 1995. Prior to loss of funding from DOE, LLNL discovered that due to the large oxygen content in diesel exhaust, direct chemical reduction was not possible. In understanding why, a breakthrough was achieved that combined the use of a non-thermal plasma and a catalyst. This process was named Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reduction (P ACR). Because of this breakthrough, the CRADA became a funds-in only CRADA, once DOE DP funding ended. As a result, the funding decreased from about 1M dollars per year to about $400k per year. Subsequently, progress slowed as well. The CRADA was amended several times to reflect the funds-in nature. At each amendment, the deliverables were modified; the goals remained the same but the focus changed from heavy-duty to lightduty to SUVs. The diesel-engine NOx problem is similar to the furnace and boiler NOx emission problem with the added constraint that ammonia-like additives are impractical for a mobile source. Lean-burning gasoline engines are an additional area of application because the standard three-way catalyst is rendered ineffective by the presence of oxygen. In the P ACR process an electrical discharge is used to create a non-thermal plasma that contains oxidative radicals O and OH. These oxidative radicals convert NO to NO2. Selective catalytic

  20. A Dynamic Model for Road Gasoline and Diesel Consumption: An Application for Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marina González Marrero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the factors explaining the aggregate fuel consumption for road transport in Spain in a dynamic panel data framework. Three features on this study are the use of a balanced panel using regional data, the distinction between gasoline and diesel and the specification of a dynamic panel data (DPD model and estimate it by system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM. Our results show that most explanatory variables are significant in explaining the evolution of gasoline consumption, while diesel consumption is found to be independent of most of these factors. The differences between the markets of the gasoline (most for passenger transport use and the diesel (passenger and freight transport are important could explain the results for the diesel model. Moreover, the intensive dieselization process that has taken place in Spain over the last decade, which has resulted in diesel consumption being exposed to factors - i.e., regulatory - which are not of a strictly economic nature. This finding highlights the need to consider different explanatory variables and models for gasoline and diesel consumption, and to go further in the research. Finally, we find that traditional estimation procedures, such as fixed and random effect estimators, produce important differences with respect to system-GMM, which may even change policy recommendations.

  1. Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, S.; Rost, J.-M.

    2018-02-01

    We review Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of a few Rydberg atoms exhibiting energy transport through collective eigenstates, considering isolated atoms or assemblies embedded within clouds of cold ground-state atoms. We classify Rydberg aggregates, and provide an overview of their possible applications as quantum simulators for phenomena from chemical or biological physics. Our main focus is on flexible Rydberg aggregates, in which atomic motion is an essential feature. In these, simultaneous control over Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, external trapping and electronic energies, allows Born-Oppenheimer surfaces for the motion of the entire aggregate to be tailored as desired. This is illustrated with theory proposals towards the demonstration of joint motion and excitation transport, conical intersections and non-adiabatic effects. Additional flexibility for quantum simulations is enabled by the use of dressed dipole-dipole interactions or the embedding of the aggregate in a cold gas or Bose-Einstein condensate environment. Finally we provide some guidance regarding the parameter regimes that are most suitable for the realization of either static or flexible Rydberg aggregates based on Li or Rb atoms. The current status of experimental progress towards enabling Rydberg aggregates is also reviewed.

  2. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  3. The effect of increasing Diesel and lubricating oil contamination on the aggregate stability and compressibility of two soil materials (Ah and Bt material)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, M.; Goetz, D.; Wiechmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of mineral oil on two factors determining the soil mechanics properties is introduced: The water stability of the aggregates without loading and their compressibility under load, and the resulting density of storage. The unpolarized mineral oil immiscible with the water represents a 4th phase in the soil. The effect of the mineral oil on the sum of the acting forces (cohesion and adhesion forces, surface and boundary energy) and the wettability are shown with investigations, which describe the total effects. (orig.) [de

  4. Alternative Diesel from Waste Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bezergianni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The long term ambition of energy security and solidarity, coupled with the environmental concerns of problematic waste accumulation, is addressed via the proposed waste-to-fuel technology. Plastic waste is converted into automotive diesel fuel via a two-step thermochemical process based on pyrolysis and hydrotreatment. Plastic waste was pyrolyzed in a South East Asia plant rendering pyrolysis oil, which mostly consisted of middle-distillate (naphtha and diesel hydrocarbons. The diesel fraction (170–370 °C was fractionated, and its further upgrade was assessed in a hydroprocessing pilot plant at the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH in Greece. The final fuel was evaluated with respect to the diesel fuel quality specifications EN 590, which characterized it as a promising alternative diesel pool component with excellent ignition quality characteristics and low back end volatility.

  5. Final Technical Report on Investigation of Selective Non-Catalytic Processes for In-Situ Reduction of NOx and CO Emissions from Marine Gas Turbines and Diesel Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, Craig

    1997-01-01

    .... These observations suggest the possibility of utilizing SNCR for reducing NO(x) emissions from marine gas turbines and Diesel engines by direct injection of a reductant species into the combustion chamber, possibly as a fuel...

  6. moteur diesel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A board diagnostic system based on the use of fuzzy pattern recognition techniques was ... with model - Classification. ... ensemble de modèles du moteur diesel avec et .... classes). Nous nous plaçons dans le cas d'un apprentissage non supervisé car on ne connait ..... of noise in clustering, Pattern Recognition Letters,.

  7. Rudolf Diesel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Rudolf Diesel - The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine. Tilottama Shrinivasa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 319-320. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Evaluation of crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures for application to sealing of the final repository for reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaajasaari, M.; Saari, K.; Wang Zhen

    1986-09-01

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is planning to dispose the low- and intermediate level waste from the reactors of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Station into the bedrock of Olkiluoto at a depth of approximately 50-100 meters. In the TVO concept the reactor waste is disposed in silo shaped rock caverns. The bituminized waste is packed into steel drums, which are laid into a concrete silo inside the rock cavern. In this study the properties of sands, crushed aggregate and their mixtures with bentonite are reviewed. The applicability of these materials for use as a buffer on the top of the concrete silo is evaluated. This study is based on earlier experimental studies of the materials mentioned before and available literature. Gas production in the silo after disposal is estimated. General concepts of gas conductivity and gas migration in saturated soil are reviewed. The results of this study suggest that crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures are possible sealing materials for the silo in concern. But the need for further experimental study of their physical and mechanical properties and the gas migration processes through the saturated barrier is emphasized. A program for testing of these properties is presented

  9. Surface independent underwater energy supply system - Diesel engine with closed gas cycle. Final report; Dieselmotor mit geschlossenem Argon-Kreislauf - Prototyp. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehringer, H.; Seifert, K.

    1989-08-01

    MOTARK (MOTOR IM ARGON-KREISLAUF/engine in argon cycle) is an alternative drive and power-supply system integrated in the offshore-working submarine `Seahorse II`, which belongs to Messrs. Bruker Meerestechnik. The heart of the plant is a naturally aspirated diesel engine, MAN model D 2566 ME (100 kW, 1500 rpm), which can operate in a closed argon cycle independent of the outside air while the submarine is under water, and in the conventional manner after the vessel has surfaced. After it has been cooled down to room temperature, the final product carbon dioxide CO{sub 2}, which forms as a result of the combustion of fuel and oxygen, is removed from the circulating process gas with potassium hydroxide in a chemical process in a dual-stage rotary disintegrator. After dissipation of the heat thus generated, and subsequent to a cyclonic condensate cleaning cycle oxygen is supplied to the argon carrier gas in measured quantities. Governing of the MOTARK system and acquisition of the test data are performed by a custom-developed micro-processor unit. The functional tests in the submarine as well as the subsequent underwater tests at shallow sea gave convincing evidence for the fact that this prototype unit is now ready for regular operation. (orig.) With 16 figs. [Deutsch] Mit MOTARK - MOTOR IM ARGON-KREISLAUF wurde ein alternatives Antriebs- und Energiesystem entwickelt und in dem Offshore-Arbeits-U-Boot `Searhorse II` der Firma Bruker Meerestechnik integriert. Der Kern der Anlage ist ein selbstansaugender Dieselmotor des Typs MAN D 2566 ME (100 kW, 1500 l/min) der unter Wasser aussenluftunabhaengig im geschlossenen Argonkreislauf sowie ueber Wasser konventionell betrieben werden kann. Das Endprodukt Kohlendioxid CO{sub 2}, entstanden aus der Verbrennung von Kraftstoff und Sauerstoff, wird nach der Abkuehlung auf RT in einem zweistufigen Rotationswaescher mit Kalilauge chemisch aus dem zirkulierenden Prozessgas entfernt. Nach Abfuehrung der bei diesem Prozess

  10. Study of the combined effects of smoking and inhalation of uranium ore dust, radon daughters and diesel oil exhaust fumes in hamsters and dogs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Busch, R.H.; Stuart, B.O.

    1978-09-01

    Exposure to particulates from uranium ore dust and diesel exhaust soot provoked inflammatory and proliferative responses in lungs. Also exposure to radon and radon daughters yielded increased occurrences of bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and metaplastic changes of alveolar epithelium. The data suggest that this cellular change is also a precursor of premalignant change in hamsters. The authors suggest an animal model other than the hamster based on two observations: (1) the Syrian golden hamster has been shown to be highly refractory to carcinoma induction; and (2) that when exposed to realistic levels of agents in life-span exposure regimens, the hamster does not develop lesions. Dog studies with cigarette smoke exposure showed mitigating effects on radon daughter induced respiratory tract cancer. Two reasons are suggested although no empirical evidence was gathered. A strict comparison of human and animal exposures and interpolative models are not possible at this time. (PCS)

  11. Fact Sheet: Alternative Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Transition Program for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes EPA's final rule modifying the diesel fuel regulations to apply an effective date of 6-1-2010 for 15 ppm sulfur requirements for highway, nonroad, locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced/imported for, distributed

  12. Ecological Diesel Now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1999-01-01

    An ACPM (Diesel) lighter and of low contained of sulfur it will begin to elaborate the refinery of Ecopetrol in Barrancabermeja (Colombia); it will be the next product of the refinery that it receives the international certification of insurance of quality ISO-9002. The new ecological product will be dedicated initially to assist the demand in Bogota. Their characteristics understand 340 degrade Celsius of final point of boil and 0, 1% in weight of sulfur, what will contribute to reduce the levels of contamination of the air in the capital. It is the result of several years of the technical personnel's of the refinery investigation, where the distillation units adapted and the advantages that they offer took advantage raw light, of low contained of sulfur and paraffin

  13. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  14. Graph Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.

    Graph aggregation is the process of computing a single output graph that constitutes a good compromise between several input graphs, each provided by a different source. One needs to perform graph aggregation in a wide variety of situations, e.g., when applying a voting rule (graphs as preference

  15. Oxidation behaviours of particulate matter emitted by a diesel engine equipped with a NTP device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jianbing; Ma, Chaochen; Xing, Shikai; Sun, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Final oxidation temperatures increased for PM aggregation compared with raw PM. • Devolatilized PM aggregation exhibited similar oxidation rate constants. • DSC-based method is more accurate than TGA-based method. - Abstract: To resolve the regeneration problem of non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor, the oxidation behaviours of diesel particulate matter (PM) were investigated. Oxidation kinetic parameters were calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Friedman-Reich-Levi (FRL) methods based on thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results. The DSC-based method avoided the disadvantages of TGA-based method, and the oxidation kinetic parameters calculated using the two methods were compared. The results showed that the effect of plasma on the oxidation behaviours differed greatly for PM sampled at engine loads. The TGA profiles of PM aggregation (collected on the collection plate of NTP reactor) sampled at 60% and 100% engine loads were similar although they differed significantly for raw PM. Devolatilization of raw PM led the TGA profiles to shift slightly to lower temperature, however, the TGA curves shifted to higher temperature for PM aggregation and PM treated with plasma (PM escaping from NTP reactor). The oxidation rate constants of devolatilized PM aggregation sampled at different engine loads were almost the same. DSC-based method revealed the oxidation behaviours and kinetic parameters with more accuracy than TGA-based method.

  16. Panorama 2016 - Diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, Gaetan; Ivanic, Tanja; Alazard-Toux, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Diesel vehicles have been the focus of recent national and world news coverage. This solution, with greater overall efficiency than spark emission engines (gasoline, LPG and natural gas), remains an essential aspect of road freight transport. Diesel has even gained a significant share of the light vehicle market in certain regions of the world. However, diesel is currently the focus of numerous controversies and has been condemned for its negative impact on air quality. (authors)

  17. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  18. Remediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil using peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaly, R.A.; Pyke, J.B.; Ghaly, A.E.; Ugursal, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated a remediation process for diesel-contaminated soil, in which water was used to remove the diesel from the soil and peat was used to absorb the diesel layer formed on the surface of the water. The percolation of water through the soil was uniform. The time required for water to percolate the soil and for the layers (soil, water, and diesel) to separate depended on the soil depth. Both the depth of soil and mixing affected the thickness of the diesel layer and thus diesel recovery from the contaminated soil. Higher diesel recovery was achieved with smaller soil depth and mixing. The initial moisture content and the lower heating value of the peat were 7.1% and 17.65 MJ/kg, respectively. The final moisture content and lower heating value of the diesel-contaminated peat obtained from the experiment with mixing were 8.65 - 10.80% and 32.57 - 35.81 MJ/kg, respectively. The energy content of the diesel-contaminated peat is much higher than that of coal, and the moisture content is within the range recommended for biomass gasification. (author)

  19. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  20. Diesel fuel filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel's hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system

  1. Research into operational parameters of diesel engines running on RME biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lebedevas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of motor experimental researches on operational parameters of diesel engines F2L511 and A41 are presented in the publication. Change of harmful emission of exhaust gases was determined and evaluated, fuel economy and thrust characteristics of diesel engines running on RME biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. The influence of technical condition of fuel injection aggregates was evaluated for parameters of harmful emission of diesel engines running on biodiesel by simulation of setback of fuel injection in alowable range of technical conditions – the coking of nozzles of fuel injector. The complex improvement of all ecological parameters was evaluated by optimisation of fuel injection phase of diesel engines running on RME biodiesel. Objectives and aspects of further researches on indicator process of diesel engines were determined.

  2. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  3. Radium in diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, J.

    1977-05-01

    In order to determine the addition of radon and radium to the air in mines, originatiny from the combustion of petroleum, measurements of the content of radium in diesel oil have been performed. Knowing the radium content theradon content can easily be calculated. The procedures used for the chemical analysis of radium is desribed. The ash remaining after combustion of the diesel oil is soluted in water and radium is precipiated as sulphate. The radium is detected by a ZnS (Ag) detector. The diesel oils from different petroleum companies contained between o.019-0.5pCi radium - 226. The conclution is that the consumption of diesel oils in motors used in mines does not contribute to the radium - 226 content at the air move than permissible according to norms.(K.K.)

  4. Exhaust emissions evaluation of Colombian commercial diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jaime; Bello, Arcesio; Sarmiento, Jose; Rostkowski, Jacek; Brady, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Ecopetrol, based on the results obtained in the study, The effect of diesel properties on the emissions of particulate matter (Bello et al 2000), reformulated the diesel fuel distributed in Bogota, becoming it lighter and with lower sulfur content. In order to evaluate the environmental benefits that the reformulation of diesel fuel generate in Bogota, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP), with the assistance of emissions research and measurement division (ERMD) from environment Canada, arranged a research project to determine the changes in CO, THC, NO x , CO 2 and particulate matter emissions. The research program was developed in two steps. First one, developed in Bogota, involved a fleet test with 15 public service buses that normally operate in Bogota's savannah, using a portable emissions sampling technology developed for ERMD (DOES2) and following a representative transient driving cycle. Second step, carried out in ERMD's Heavy-Duty engine emissions laboratory in Ottawa, tested a 1995 caterpillar 3406E 324/5 KW (435 HP) diesel truck engine on the same samples of Colombian diesel fuels used in the fleet tests performed in Bogota, baselining the tests with a Canadian commercial low sulfur diesel fuel. The two commercial Colombian diesel fuels used had the following properties: High Sulfur Diesel (HSD), with 3000 ppm (0,3 wt %) of sulfur and a final boiling point (FBP) of 633 K and the new reformulated diesel fuel, with 1000 ppm (0,1 wt %) of sulfur and FBP of 613 K, which is currently been distributed in Bogota. Fleet test show small reduction on CO, THC and TPM, and small increments on CO 2 and NO x but with not statistically significant results, while engine testing shows a strong reduction of 40/8% in TPM when you use the new reformulated diesel fuel (0,1 wt % of sulfur) instead of high sulfur diesel

  5. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, April Z. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-09-02

    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell

  6. The diesel challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article is focused on the challenges being faced by the diesel producer and these include a number of interesting developments which illustrate the highly competitive world of the European refiner. These include: The tightening quality requirements being legislated coupled with the availability of the ''city diesel'' from Scandinavia and elsewhere which is already being sold into the market. For a time there will be a clear means of product differentiation. One of the key questions is whether the consumer will value the quality difference; a growing demand for diesel which is outstripping the growth in gasoline demand and causing refiners headaches when it comes to balancing their supply/demand barrels; the emergence of alternative fuels which are challenging the traditional markets of the refiner and in particular, the niche markets for the higher quality diesel fuels. All of this at a time of poor margins and over-capacity in the industry with further major challenges ahead such as fuel oil disposal, tighter environmental standards and the likelihood of heavier, higher sulphur crude oils in the future. Clearly, in such a difficult and highly-competitive business environment it will be important to find low-cost solutions to the challenges of the diesel quality changes. An innovative approach will be required to identify the cheapest and best route to enable the manufacture of the new quality diesel. (Author)

  7. Analysis of exhaust composition after purification in dielectric barrier discharges - Sub-project: Diesel exhaust purification in pulsed plasmas. Final report; Analyse der Abgaszusammensetzung bei Abgasreinigung in stillen Entladungen - Teilvorhaben: Reinigung von Dieselabgasen in gepulsten Plasmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Diesel engine exhaust purification by dielectric barrier discharges was investigated with varied pulse generators and with a combination of dielectric barrier discharge and catalytic converters and diesel particulate filters. The detailed exhaused analysis served to describe the reactions in the systems and to detect the formation of new and potentially harmful exhaust components. [German] Die Anwendung einer dielektrisch behinderten Entladung zur Reinigung dieselmotorischen Abgases wurde untersucht. Die Wirkung der elektrischen Entladung auf das Abgas wurde durch Variation der verwendeten Pulsgeneratoren sowie durch Kombination der Entladung mit Katalysatoren und Diesel-Partikelfiltern beeinflusst. Die detaillierte Abgasanalyse ermoeglichte die Erklaerung der in den Systemen ablaufenden Reaktionen. Insbesondere diente sie dazu, die moegliche Bildung neuer, moeglicherweise unerwuenschter Abgaskomponenten zu erkennen. (orig.)

  8. Diesel fuel stability; Estabilidade de oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo V.; Pinto, Ricardo R.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Fatima M.Z. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The demand for the reduction of the pollutants emissions by diesel engines has led to the adoption of more advanced injection systems and concern about fuel stability. The degradation of the diesel fuel can happen during storage and distribution, according to the acid-catalysed condensation of aromatic compounds such phenalenones and indolic nitrogenated heterocyclic compounds. These precursors appear in several streams used in diesel fuel formulation. In this study the sediment formation in model and real, aromatic and paraffinic fuels, containing such precursors naturally or by addition was analysed. The fuels were submitted to accelerated (16 hours at 90 deg C) and long term (13 weeks at 43 deg C) storage stability tests. The model fuels responded positively to the storage stability tests with formation of sediments, concluding that these methods can be considered adequate to verify the occurrence of the studied degradation process. The real fuels response was even more due to their chemical complexity, composition and impurities. The formation of sediments showed to be affected by the hydrocarbon distribution of the fuels. (author)

  9. Prices and taxes for gasoline and diesel in industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, R.

    2008-01-01

    This report present a comparative study on the prices and taxes of automotive fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel) in various industrialized countries, members of the OECD organization. Statistics are taken from a publication of the IEA (International Energy Agency), and concern the following fuel categories: regular gasoline, unleaded premium gasoline (SP 95 and SP 98), professional diesel fuel and domestic diesel fuel. It is shown that fuel prices are generally equivalent from one country to another, while taxes make all the difference for the retail final price. Somme global comparisons are also made between US and EU prices

  10. Short-term break in the French love for diesel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hivert, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    From 1980 to 1995, France was the first European country in which diesel cars became more popular than petrol cars. In addition to offering improved performance, this preference was notably due to a much cheaper cost of use, in line with the taxation on both fuel types. But the advantage of diesel technology does not clearly seem to extend to energy and CO2 savings. In this paper, French trends over the last 15 years and latest annual available statistics about both diesel car ownership and use are analysed, on the basis of the “ParcAuto” panel data source. The results notably show that, from the moment the gap between fuel prices was reduced, the annual mileage amounts of diesel cars have fallen faster than those of petrol cars. A specific section summarizes the results of our work on the behaviour of French households who chose to replace their petrol car with a diesel. Detailed examination of these switching behaviours, involving a complex set of variables, confirms that there are increases in driving associated with “new diesel motorists”. The final section of this paper briefly discusses recent evolutions of fuel expenditures. - Highlights: ► Latest figures/long-term trends about French diesel cars analysed using panel data. ► French preference for diesel was notably due to a much cheaper cost of use. ► Switching from petrol to diesel car commonly induced an increase in driving. ► Diesel sales and mileages have fallen faster when the gap between fuel prices reduced. ► Recent fuel prices sharp increase involved major changes in car use behaviours

  11. Understanding Combustion and Soot Formation in Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    distributions of PLII signals help understand the soot distributions within diesel/ biodiesel flames. In addition, planar laser-induced Figure 1. Transported ...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 9/14/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll This project investigated biodiesel ...emissions testing. 1 FINAL REPORT Project title: Understanding combustion and soot formation in biodiesel fuelled diesel engines Lead Institute and

  12. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  13. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  14. Changes in the Canadian diesel industry and their impact on trucking and farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, M.; Vail, S.; Clavet, F.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the workings of the diesel industry and provides a perspective on several issues that influence the industry, particularly retail pricing and how it affects truckers and farmers. These important users of diesel fuel have expressed concerns regarding the relationships between diesel prices and external factors. The five regions that were examined in depth were Moncton, New Brunswick, Saint-Hyacinthe,Quebec, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Regina, Saskatchewan and Guelph, Ontario. The diesel industry follows the economic rules of supply and demand. The study found that diesel fuel prices at the wholesale level are influenced by world crude oil prices as well as by continental and world conditions. The paper examined the structure, conduct and performance of the wholesale diesel industry as well as its competition. The components that make up the final cost of diesel fuel (such as taxes) were described along with the influence of continental factors that affect the diesel industry. Trucking companies have the flexibility to consider supply options in different regions in North America, depending on the routes they travel. In addition, carriers using large volumes of diesel also pay better prices for fuel than smaller carriers. Farmers use less fuel than truckers and must rely on fuel delivery to their farms. The price of diesel for farmers generally depends on the volume purchased. Grain farmers are affected by diesel fuel costs more than other types of farmers, particularly since they receive very low world prices for their harvest. 7 tabs., 11 figs

  15. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    fixation of man country life, the excellent and varied climatic conditions and several types of terrain become the country, with extensive workable areas, stand out in the world scenery if considering its great potentiality on generation of alternative fuels. The environmental preservation, important subject nowadays, makes that the human being work in searches for the development of alternative energies, mainly those originating from renewable and biodegradable sources of sustantable character. Taking in consideration those searches, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of a diesel engine working in different moments with mineral diesel and mixtures of mineral diesel and biodiesel in the equivalent proportions B2 (98% mineral diesel and 2%biodiesel, B5 (95% mineral diesel and 5%biodiesel, B20 (80% mineral diesel and 20%biodiesel, and, finally, B100 (100% biodiesel. The rehearsal was accomplished in the dependences of the Engineering Department at UFLA - Federal University of Lavras, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, in July, 2005. For the accomplishment of the rehearsals it, was used an engine cycle diesel of a tractor VALMET 85 id, of 58,2kW (78 cv, following it methodology established by the norm NBR 5484 of ABNT (1985, that refers to the rehearsal dynamometric of engines cycle Otto and Diesel being proceeded. One noticed ended that the potency of the motor when using biodiesel was lower than one when using mineral diesel. One observed that, in some rotations, the mixtures B5 and B20 presented the same potency or even higher, in some situations, than the one when if using mineral diesel. The best thermal efficiency of the motor was verified in the rotation of 540 rpm of equivalent TDP to 1720 rpm of the motor.

  16. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  17. Diesel characterization by high-resolution mass spectrometry - gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldrich, C.A

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry-gas chromatography is combined with the HC22 method in order to obtain detailed information about the chemical composition of diesel and the distribution of different compound types in terms of its final boiling temperature from a single analysis. The total time elapsed from sample injection and signal processing to obtain final results is 90 minutes. This fact makes this methodology a new and very important tool for the decision making process concerning the most suitable final boiling temperature and the type of treatment of the product in order to obtain diesel that fulfills the international standards. The consistency and repeatability of the experimental results are demonstrated

  18. Diesel exhaust controls and aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubeli, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed the safe use of diesel fuels in underground mines, with particular reference to advanced technology engines and system technology options for mines. The use of diesel fuels underground requires well designed diesel engines with an effective preventive maintenance programs utilizing diesel emissions testing. The mines must have a well-engineered ventilation system and an adequate air quality monitoring system. An outline of diesel pollutant formation was included in the presentation. Diesel emission control technologies can address localized air quality problems and control emissions at the source. This presentation summarized the best available diesel emission control technologies for underground mines, namely diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC); diesel particulate filters (DPF); active diesel particulate filters (A-DPF); selective catalytic reduction (SCR); water scrubbers; and fume diluters. An emissions control plan using aftertreatment technology should target the vehicles that are the biggest contributors to diesel exhaust. Low sulphur fuel is a prerequisite for most emission control technologies. The successful control of emissions requires knowledge of the high emitting vehicle groups; an integrated ventilation and emission control technology application plan; ambient and tailpipe emissions testing; and training of operators and mechanics. tabs., figs.

  19. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  20. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  1. Diesel sisustab / Jenni Juurinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurinen, Jenni

    2007-01-01

    Renzo Rosso poolt 1978. a. Itaalias asutatud rõivafirma Diesel sisustas 2007. a. kevadel Stay Inn-projekti raames katusekorteri Helsingi kesklinnas. Diesili kujundaja Vesa Kemppainen. Sisustuses on kasutatud peamiselt soome mööblit ja seintel eksponeeritud soome noorte kunstnike taieseid. Autoreid: Harri Koskinen (voodi), Thomas Pedersen (Stingrey kiiktool), Jenni Hiltunen (maalid)

  2. Combustion control for diesel engines with direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeschke, J.; Henn, M.; Lang, T.; Wendt, J.; Nitzke, H.G.; Mannigel, D. [Volkswagen AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This article looks at a new cylinder pressure-based combustion control for DI diesel engines that has been developed by Volkswagen. This cylinder pressure-based control uses cylinder pressure sensors that are integrated in the glow plugs. The description and the evaluation of these sensors form a main part of this article as they are a central element in the new diesel management system. The test and development phase in connection with a rapid prototyping system and the realisation of the combustion control algorithms in a diesel control unit are also described. Finally, results from use of the closed-loop combustion control with different applications on a diesel engine are presented. (orig.)

  3. LPG as a Fuel for Diesel Engines-Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Nutu, Nikolaos; Pana, Constantin; Negurescu, Niculae; Cernat, Alexandru; Mirica, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to reduce the pollutant emissions of a compression ignition engine, fuelling the engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aiming to maintain the energetic performances of the engine. To optimise the engine operation a corelation between the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG and the adjustments for the investigated regimens must be made in order to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning, fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions. The test bed situated in the Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermal Equipments and Refrigeration Instalations Department was adapted to be fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas. A conventional LPG fuelling instalation was adopted, consisting of a LPG tank, a vaporiser, conections between the tank and the vaporiser and a valve to adjust the gaseous fuel flow. Using the diesel-gas methode, in the intake manifold of the engine is injected LPG in gaseous aggregation state and the airr-LPG homogeneous mixture is ignited from the flame appeared in the diesel fuel sprays. To maintain the engine power at the same level like in the standard case of fuelling only with diesel fuel, for each investigated operate regimen the diesel fuel dose was reduced, being energetically substituted with LPG. The engine used for experimental investigations is a turbocharged truck diesel engine with a 10.34 dm3 displacement. The investigated working regimen was 40% load and 1750 rpm and the energetic substitute ratios of the diesel fuel with LPG was situated between [0-25%].

  4. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilik, Gregory K.; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Hedan; Haworth, Daniel C. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Herreros, Jose Martin [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine, with a focus on exhaust emissions. Hydrogen was substituted for diesel fuel on an energy basis of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% by aspiration of hydrogen into the engine's intake air. Four speed and load conditions were investigated (1800 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output and 3600 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output). A significant retarding of injection timing by the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) was observed during the increased aspiration of hydrogen. The retarding of injection timing resulted in significant NO{sub X} emission reductions, however, the same emission reductions were achieved without aspirated hydrogen by manually retarding the injection timing. Subsequently, hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was examined, with the pilot and main injection timings locked, to study the effects caused directly by hydrogen addition. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion resulted in a modest increase of NO{sub X} emissions and a shift in NO/NO{sub 2} ratio in which NO emissions decreased and NO{sub 2} emissions increased, with NO{sub 2} becoming the dominant NO{sub X} component in some combustion modes. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) of the hydrogen assisted diesel combustion process captured this trend and reproduced the experimentally observed trends of hydrogen's effect on the composition of NO{sub X} for some operating conditions. A model that explicitly accounts for turbulence-chemistry interactions using a transported probability density function (PDF) method was better able to reproduce the experimental trends, compared to a model that ignores the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean chemical production rates, although the importance of the fluctuations is not as strong as has been reported in some other recent modeling studies. The CFD results confirm

  5. Effect of partial replacement of diesel or biodiesel with gas from biomass gasification in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, J.J.; Lapuerta, M.; Barba, J.

    2015-01-01

    The injected diesel fuel used in a diesel engine was partially replaced with biomass-derived gas through the intake port, and the effect on performance and pollutant emissions was studied. The experimental work was carried out in a supercharged, common-rail injection, single-cylinder diesel engine by replacing diesel fuel up to 20% (by energy), keeping constant the engine power. Three engine loads (60, 90, 105 Nm), three different EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) ratios (0, 7.5, 15%) and two intake temperatures (45, 60 °C) were tested. Finally, some of the tested conditions were selected to replace diesel injection fuel with biodiesel injection. Although the brake thermal efficiency was decreased and hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions increased with increasing fuel replacement, particulate emissions decreased significantly and NO x emissions decreased slightly at all loads and EGR ratios. Thermodynamic diagnostic results showed higher premixed ratio and lower combustion duration for increasing diesel fuel replacement. High EGR ratios improved both engine performance and emissions, especially when intake temperature was increased, which suggest removing EGR cooling when diesel fuel is replaced. Finally, when biodiesel was used instead of diesel fuel, the gas replacement improved the efficiency and reduced the hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. - Highlights: • Replacing injected fuel with gas permits an efficient valorization of waste biomass. • Inlet gas was inefficiently burned after the end of liquid fuel injection. • Engine parameters were combined to simultaneously reduce particle and NO x emissions. • Hot EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) and biodiesel injection are proposed to improve efficiency and emissions

  6. 77 FR 72746 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel Sulfur Programs AGENCY... Fuel Standard (``RFS'') program under section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act. The direct final rule also... marine diesel fuel produced by transmix processors, and the fuel marker requirements for 500 ppm sulfur...

  7. Application of biosurfactants, rhamnolipid, and surfactin, for enhanced biodegradation of diesel-contaminated water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen G; Ma, Chih-Chung; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2008-02-28

    This study investigated potential application of two biosurfactants, surfactin (SF) and rhamnolipid (RL), for enhanced biodegradation of diesel-contaminated water and soil with a series of bench-scale experiments. The rhamnolipid used in this study, a commonly isolated glycolipid biosurfactant, was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa J4, while the surfactin, a lipoprotein type biosurfactant, was produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. Both biosurfactants were able to reduce surface tension to less than 30 dynes/cm from 72 dynes/cm with critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of 45 and 50 mg/L for surfactin and rhamnolipid, respectively. In addition, the results of diesel dissolution experiments also demonstrated their ability in increasing diesel solubility with increased biosurfactant addition. In diesel/water batch experiments, an addition of 40 mg/L of surfactin significantly enhanced biomass growth (2500 mg VSS/L) as well as increased diesel biodegradation percentage (94%), compared to batch experiments with no surfactin addition (1000 mg VSS/L and 40% biodegradation percentage). Addition of surfactin more than 40 mg/L, however, decreased both biomass growth and diesel biodegradation efficiency, with a worse diesel biodegradation percentage (0%) at 400 mg/L of SF addition. Similar trends were also observed for both specific rate constants of biomass growth and diesel degradation, as surfactin addition increased from 0 to 400 mg/L. Addition of rhamnolipid to diesel/water systems from 0 to 80 mg/L substantially increased biomass growth and diesel biodegradation percentage from 1000 to 2500 mg VSS/L and 40 to 100%, respectively. Rhamnolipid addition at a concentration of 160 mg/L provided similar results to those of an 80 mg/L addition. Finally, potential application of surfactin and rhamnolipid in stimulating indigenous microorganisms for enhanced bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil was also examined. The results confirmed their enhancing capability

  8. STRATEGY DETERMINATION FOR DIESEL INJECTION USING AVL ESE DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrublevskiy, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the design of research AVL FIRE ESE DIESEL environment they proposed to reduce noise and NOx emissions in the exhaust gases of the automobile diesel engine using two-stage injection. The parameters of the fuel for idling are determined.

  9. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J J; Dorronsoro Arenal, J L; Rojas Garcia, E; Perez Pastor, R; Garcia Alonso, S

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...

  12. 150 years of Rudolf Diesel; 150 Jahre Rudolf Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)

    2008-03-15

    'My engine is still making great progress', Rudolf Diesel wrote in a letter to his wife on 3 July 1895. The fact that Diesel's statement still holds true can be seen every day on our roads and at sea. But it is equally true that the idea of this eccentric and doubter who wanted to dedicate himself with an over-inflated self-belief to the welfare of humanity, needed a certain time to take a form that others could recognise in order to continuously refine this life's work. Diesel himself did not live to see most of the milestones that were repeatedly set thanks to his engine. It was not until 23 years after his unexplained death in 1913 that people were able to buy the first passenger car to be equipped with a diesel engine - with a top speed of 90 km/h. Today, diesel cars can easily reach speeds of up to 300 km/h, and even if there is little point in such excessive speeds outside racetracks like Le Mans, they are nevertheless clear evidence of the incredible evolution of the noisy, smoky truck engine to a high-tech racing power unit, from the ear-splitting rattle of the pre-chamber diesel to the highly refined, soot-free, common-rail diesel engine of today. The Publisher hopes you enjoy reading this unique progress report. (orig.)

  13. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  14. Sixth international wind-diesel workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    At a workshop on hybrid wind/diesel power generation systems, papers were presented on international research programs, demonstration projects, wind/diesel deployment strategies and requirements, wind/diesel market development and economics, wind turbine design requirements, and wind/diesel models and analytical tools. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 11 papers from this workshop

  15. Sixth international wind-diesel workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    At a workshop on hybrid wind/diesel power generation systems, papers were presented on international research programs, demonstration projects, wind/diesel deployment strategies and requirements, wind/diesel market development and economics, wind turbine design requirements, and wind/diesel models and analytical tools. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 11 papers from this workshop.

  16. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  17. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khola, G.; Ghazala, B.

    2011-01-01

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  18. Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.; Ayodele, T.R.; Akinola, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm is used for tri-objective design of hybrid energy system. • The objective is minimizing the Life Cycle Cost, CO_2 emissions and dump energy. • Small split diesel generators are used in place of big single diesel generator. • The split diesel generators are aggregable based on certain set of rules. • The proposed algorithm achieves the set objectives (LCC, CO_2 emission and dump). - Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to implement a tri-objective design of a grid independent PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for a typical residential building with the objective of minimizing the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), CO_2 emissions and dump energy. To achieve some of these objectives, small split Diesel generators are used in place of single big Diesel generator and are aggregable based on certain set of rules depending on available renewable energy resources and state of charge of the battery. The algorithm was utilized to study five scenarios (PV/Battery, Wind/Battery, Single big Diesel generator, aggregable 3-split Diesel generators, PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery) for a typical load profile of a residential house using typical wind and solar radiation data. The results obtained revealed that the PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery is the most attractive scenario (optimal) having LCC of $11,273, COE of 0.13 ($/kW h), net dump energy of 3 MW h, and net CO_2 emission of 13,273 kg. It offers 46%, 28%, 82% and 94% reduction in LCC, COE, CO_2 emission and dump energy respectively when compared to a single big Diesel generator scenario.

  19. Information Aggregation in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the analysis of information aggregation procedures within organizations. Facing uncertainty about the consequences of a collective decision, information has to be aggregated before making a choice. Two main questions are addressed. Firstly, how well is an organization suited for the aggregation of decision-relevant information? Secondly, how should an organization be designed in order to aggregate information efficiently? The main part deals with information a...

  20. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  1. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    associated with the management of temporal data. Indeed, temporal aggregation is complex and among the most difficult, and thus interesting, temporal functionality to support. This paper presents a general framework for temporal aggregation that accommodates existing kinds of aggregation, and it identifies...

  2. Practical testing of diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, C.W.; Meyer, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The testing of diesel generators is a very important facet of the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Improper testing can lead to increased failures and unavailability of the engines resulting in a reduced safety factor for a nuclear plant. For a testing program to be successful it must be well planned and effectively implemented. In addition, inspections and maintenance activities also impact diesel generator availability. This paper describes elements of a suggested diesel generator testing program as well as some of the pitfalls to be avoided

  3. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public industry...

  4. Intensive use of diesels underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R W

    1980-07-01

    At a US mine, coal is extracted by room and pillar mining. Tyred diesel vehicles are used to transport men and materials, to spread gravel on the roadway, and to tow and provide hydraulic power to rock dusting machines. Hydraulic power take-offs from the vehicles are used to operate equipment such as drills and chain saws. A deisel ambulance is kept underground, and diesel lubrication units and maintenance tracks are used. A diesel generator provides electrical power when or where no permanent electricity supply is available e.g. for tramming continuous miners in to or out of the mine.

  5. Optimization of diesel engine performances for a hybrid wind-diesel system with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Younes, R.; Basbous, T.; Ilinca, A.; Dimitrova, M.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity supply in remote areas around the world is mostly guaranteed by diesel generators. This relatively inefficient and expensive method is responsible for 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in Canada annually. Some low- and high-penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) have been experimented in order to reduce the diesel consumption. We explore the re-engineering of current diesel power plants with the introduction of high-penetration wind systems together with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This is a viable alternative to major the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity. In this paper, we present the operative principle of this hybrid system, its economic benefits and advantages and we finally propose a numerical model of each of its components. Moreover, we are demonstrating the energy efficiency of the system, particularly in terms of the increase of the engine performance and the reduction of its fuel consumption illustrated and supported by a village in northern Quebec. -- Highlights: → The Wind-Diesel-Compressed Air Storage System (WDCAS) has a very important commercial potential for remote areas. → The WDCAS is conceived like the adaptation of the existing engines at the level of the intake system. → A wind turbine and an air compression and storage system are added on the diesel plant. → This study demonstrates the potential of WDCAS to reduce fuel consumption and increase the efficiency of the diesel engine. → This study demonstrates that we can expect savings which can reach 50%.

  6. Monitoring diesel particulate matter and calculating diesel particulate densities using Grimm model 1.109 real-time aerosol monitors in underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbal, Kyle C; Pahler, Leon; Larson, Rodney; VanDerslice, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is no Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)-approved sampling method that provides real-time results for ambient concentrations of diesel particulates. This study investigated whether a commercially available aerosol spectrometer, the Grimm Portable Aerosol Spectrometer Model 1.109, could be used during underground mine operations to provide accurate real-time diesel particulate data relative to MSHA-approved cassette-based sampling methods. A subset was to estimate size-specific diesel particle densities to potentially improve the diesel particulate concentration estimates using the aerosol monitor. Concurrent sampling was conducted during underground metal mine operations using six duplicate diesel particulate cassettes, according to the MSHA-approved method, and two identical Grimm Model 1.109 instruments. Linear regression was used to develop adjustment factors relating the Grimm results to the average of the cassette results. Statistical models using the Grimm data produced predicted diesel particulate concentrations that highly correlated with the time-weighted average cassette results (R(2) = 0.86, 0.88). Size-specific diesel particulate densities were not constant over the range of particle diameters observed. The variance of the calculated diesel particulate densities by particle diameter size supports the current understanding that diesel emissions are a mixture of particulate aerosols and a complex host of gases and vapors not limited to elemental and organic carbon. Finally, diesel particulate concentrations measured by the Grimm Model 1.109 can be adjusted to provide sufficiently accurate real-time air monitoring data for an underground mining environment.

  7. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  8. Reliability of diesel generators in the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Huovinen, T.; Norros, L.; Vanhala, J.

    1989-10-01

    Diesel generators are used as emergency AC-power sources in nuclear power plants and they produce electric power for other emergency systems during accidents in which offsite power is lost. The reliability of diesel generators is thus of major concern for overall safety of nuclear power plants. In this study we consider the reliability of diesel generators in the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants on the basis of collected operational experience. We classify the occurred failures according to their functional criticality, type and cause. The failures caused by human errors in maintenance and testing are analysed in detail. We analyse also the reliability of the diesel generator subsystems. Further, we study the effect of surveillance test and the type of test on the reliability. Finally we construct an unavailability model for single diesel generator unit and discuss the findings of the study giving some practical recommendations

  9. Noise Optimization in Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Euro 6 norms emphasize on reduction of emissions from the engines. New injection methods are being adopted for homogenous mixture formation in diesel engines. During steady state conditions homogenous combustion gave noise levels in lower frequencies. In this work noise produced in a 440 cc diesel engine has been investigated. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters.

  10. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  11. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Younes, R.; Ilinca, A.; Dimitrova, M.; Perron, J.

    2010-01-01

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada . Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost.

  12. Flexibility in using Diesel or biodiesel: an approach via real options; Flexibilidade na utilizacao de Diesel ou biodiesel: uma abordagem via opcoes reais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Edson Daniel Lopes [Fundacao Getulio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: edson@fgvmail.br; Ferreira, Leonardo Leandro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: leonardo.ferreira@petrobras.com.br

    2008-09-15

    This work will approach the bio diesel development as renewable source fuel in the Brazilian energetic matrix. Essentially, the utilization flexibility will be considered between the traditional petroleum origin Diesel and the vegetable origin Biodiesel. So, our target is the evaluation of the flexibility existent between those two fuels. A consideration will be made via real options, where the fuel choice for supplying is modelled as a an european options sequence. Those switch input real options attributes a value to the project and minimizes the risks associated to the energy offer shortage which is another recurrent problem inside our reality. At least, some comments will be made on the potential gain on the aggregate value for the Brazil, as a consequence of Diesel dependent road transportation.

  13. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Mueller, C J

    2009-12-09

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and n-dodecane that are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For two-ring compounds, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multi-dimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real

  14. Trends in Asian diesel fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific petrol and diesel markets is presented covering the diesel demand and quality in the sub regions of Australia/New Zealand, East Asia (Japan, China), South Asia, and Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Singapore) and the trend towards lower sulphur diesels in Asia. Plots are presented illustrating Asia-Pacific diesel demand by regional submarket (1985-2005), the steady reductions in Asia-Pacific diesel sulphur levels (1990-2000), and the average sulphur content and tpd sulphur in Asian diesel

  15. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  16. Hydrodesulfurization device for diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Asadi, Nadija

    2004-01-01

    New gas oil hydrodesulfurization unit was erected in OKTA Refinery. This unit is meant to produce low sulfur diesel. Capacity of the unit s 363.000 tons. Actually unit is producing diesel fuel with sulfur content of 0.035% wt, with possibility of decreasing sulfur content up to 0.005% wt. With this possibility OKTA reaches the target to supply market with diesel fuel satisfying local, and European fuel specifications. Feedstock for this unit are two gas oil fractions from the Crude oil atmospheric distillation column. As a result of new generation of CoMo and NiMo catalysts performance, high degree of desulfurization is reached at lower temperatures. Milder conditions enables longer operating period between two regenerations, savings of fuel, power etc. With further investments, and practically without changes, the unit will be able of producing diesel with sulfur content of 50 ppm and later with upgrading, 10 ppm. This means that OKTA has solved diesel quality problem for longer period. (Author)

  17. Morphology and nano-structure analysis of soot particles sampled from high pressure diesel jet flames under diesel-like conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Tie; Wang, Yifeng; He, Pengfei

    2018-04-01

    Soot particles emitted from diesel engines have a significant impact on the atmospheric environment. Detailed understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes is helpful for reducing the pollution of soot particles, which requires information such as the size and nano-structure parameters of the soot primary particles sampled in a high-temperature and high-pressure diesel jet flame. Based on the thermophoretic principle, a novel sampling probe minimally disturbing the diesel jet flame in a constant volume combustion vessel is developed for analysing soot particles. The injected quantity of diesel fuel is less than 10 mg, and the soot particles sampled by carriers with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid and lacey TEM grid can be used to analyse the morphologies of soot aggregates and the nano-structure of the soot primary particles, respectively. When the quantity of diesel fuel is more than 10 mg, in order to avoid burning-off of the carriers in higher temperature and pressure conditions, single-crystal silicon chips are employed. Ultrasonic oscillations and alcohol extraction are then implemented to obtain high quality soot samples for observation using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. An in-house Matlab-based code is developed to extract the nano-structure parameters of the soot particles. A complete sampling and analysis procedure of the soot particles is provided to study the formation and oxidation mechanism of soot.

  18. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  19. Life-cycle assessment of biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Camobreco, V.; Sheehan, J.; Duffield, J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the US Department of Agriculture's Office of Energy, and Ecobalance are carrying out a comprehensive Life-Cycle Assessment of soy-based diesel fuel (biodiesel) to quantify the environmental aspects of the cradle-to-grave production and use of biodiesel. The purpose of the project is to produce an analytical tool and database for use by industry and government decision makers involved in alternative fuel use and production. The study also includes a parallel effort to develop a life-cycle model for petroleum diesel fuel. The two models are used to compare the life-cycle energy and environmental implications of petroleum diesel and biodiesel derived from soybean. Several scenarios are studied, analyzing the influence of transportation distances, agricultural practice and allocation rules used. The project also includes effort to integrate spatial data into the inventory analysis and probabilistic uncertainty considerations into the impact assessment stage. Traditional life-cycle inventory analysis includes an aggregation process that eliminates spatial, temporal, and threshold information. This project will demonstrate an approach to life-cycle inventory analysis that retains spatial data for use in impact assessment. Explicit probabilistic treatment of uncertainty in impact assessment will take account of scientific uncertainties, and will attempt to identify the level of spatial detail that most efficiently reduces impact assessment uncertainties

  20. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  1. Heavy-Duty Diesel Fuel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's heavy-duty diesel fuel analysis program sought to quantify the hydrocarbon, NOx, and PM emission effects of diesel fuel parameters (such as cetane number, aromatics content, and fuel density) on various nonroad and highway heavy-duty diesel engines.

  2. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  3. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  4. Dependent failures of diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1982-01-01

    This survey of dependent failures (common-cause failures) is based on the data of diesel generator failures in U. S. nuclear power plants as reported in Licensee Event Reports. Failures were classified into random and potentially dependent failures. All failures due to design errors, manufacturing or installation errors, maintenance errors, or deviations in the operational environment were classified as potentially dependent failures.The statistical dependence between failures was estimated from the relative portion of multiple failures. Results confirm the earlier view of the significance of statistical dependence, a strong dependence on the age of the diesel generator was found in each failure class excluding random failures and maintenance errors, which had a nearly constant frequency independent of diesel generator age

  5. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  6. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  7. High quality diesel fuels by VO-LSGO hydrotreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanica-Ezeanu, Dorin; Juganaru, Traian [Petroleum and Gas Univ. of Ploiesti (Romania)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to obtain a high quality Diesel fuel by hydro-deoxigenation of vegetable oils (VO) mixed with a low sulfur gasoil (LSGO). The process is possible by using a bi-functional catalyst Ni-Mo supported by an activated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing 2% Ultrastable Y-zeolite. The experimental conditions were: T =340 - 380 C, Pressure = 50 bar, LHSV = 1,5 h{sup -1}, H{sub 2}/Feed ratio = 15 mole H{sub 2} /mole liquid feed. The liquid product was separated in two fractions: a light distillate (similar to gasoline) and a heavy distillate (boiling point > 200 C) with very good characteristics for Diesel engines. The reaction chemistry is very complex, but the de-oxygenation process is decisive for the chemical structure of hydrocarbons from final product. Finally, a schema for the reaction mechanism is proposed. (orig.)

  8. Bio-diesel. Initiatives, potential and prospects in Thailand. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardhana, Manjula; Opathella, G.K.C.; Jha, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Thailand experiences a great economic and industrial development and is the second largest energy consumer in South East Asia. Being a net oil importer, Thai government has declared a renewable energy development programme in order to secure sustainable development and energy security. Thailand spends more than 10% of GDP for energy imports and transport sector accounts for 36% of total final energy consumption of which 50% is diesel. Diesel marks a huge impact on Thai economy. Thai government's bio-diesel development strategy is to replace 10% of petro-diesel in transport sector by bio-diesel by 2012. The plan is to increase the use of bio-diesel from 365 million liters in 2007 to 3100 million liters by 2012. This paper reviews the current status and potential of bio-diesel in Thailand and investigates and discusses the qualities and weaknesses of the proposed road-map. The proposed road-map definitely gives immediate solution for soaring oil prices, but the long-term economic, environmental and social impacts need to be examined. (author)

  9. Aggregates in monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rey, María; Lang, Dietmar A

    2011-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have proved to be a highly successful class of therapeutic products. Large-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical antibodies is a complex activity that requires considerable effort in both process and analytical development. If a therapeutic protein cannot be stabilized adequately, it will lose partially or totally its therapeutic properties or even cause immunogenic reactions thus potentially further endangering the patients' health. The phenomenon of protein aggregation is a common issue that compromises the quality, safety, and efficacy of antibodies and can happen at different steps of the manufacturing process, including fermentation, purification, final formulation, and storage. Aggregate levels in drug substance and final drug product are a key factor when assessing quality attributes of the molecule, since aggregation might impact biological activity of the biopharmaceutical. In this review it is analyzed how aggregates are formed during monoclonal antibody industrial production, why they have to be removed and the manufacturing process steps that are designed to either minimize or remove aggregates in the final product. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  11. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  12. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  13. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  14. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  16. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  17. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  18. Diesel exhaust emissions : health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    Despite modern day ventilation, underground miners are exposed to diesel particulate matter (DPM) composed of elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulphates, metals and ashes. Diesel exhaust contains over 40 air contaminants that have been recognized as toxic, carcinogenic or reproductive and developmental hazards. Nearly all components of diesel exhaust interact with the human body at the bloodstream or tissue level. This presentation discussed the following 4 potential levels of threat posed by the physical and chemical nature of diesel exhaust: (1) cancer of the lungs and bladder, (2) toxins that affect the nervous, endocrine, reproductive and immune system as well as the liver and kidneys, (3) fine particulate matter that can cause premature death and an increase in respiratory illness, and (4) nitrogen oxides that contribute to increased ozone and smog. Non-cancer health effects from short-term exposure include acute irritation and respiratory symptoms. This presentation also referred to cancer risk assessments of diesel exhaust by national, state, and world health organizations. Particulate exposure standards for Canada, Quebec, Ontario and the United States were listed along with the percentage of DPM samples in excess of various exposure limits in 2008 according to Canadian underground mine data. DPM concentration levels in mines are in the range that environmental agencies would consider high for general population exposure. Solutions for underground mines include pollution control at the source; use of modern engines with certification for underground mining; emissions based maintenance; exhaust treatment; use of clean or alternative fuels such as hydrogen; regular sampling and monitoring; ventilation; training and technology transfer; and regulations. tabs., figs.

  19. Inertial deposition of nanoparticle chain aggregates: Theory and comparison with impactor data for ultrafine atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, Teresa L.; Lall, Anshuman Amit; Zhu Yifang; Yu Rongchung; Friedlander, Sheldon K.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticle chain aggregates (NCAs) are often sized and collected using instruments that rely on inertial transport mechanisms. The instruments size segregate aggregates according to the diameter of a sphere with the same aerodynamic behavior in a mechanical force field. A new method of interpreting the aerodynamic diameter of NCAs is described. The method can be used to calculate aggregate surface area or volume. This is useful since inertial instruments are normally calibrated for spheres, and the calibrations cannot be directly used to calculate aggregate properties. A linear relationship between aggregate aerodynamic diameter and primary particle diameter based on published Monte-Carlo drag calculations is derived. The relationship shows that the aggregate aerodynamic diameter is independent of the number of primary particles that compose an aggregate, hence the aggregate mass. The analysis applies to aggregates with low fractal dimension and uniform primary particle diameter. This is often a reasonable approximation for the morphology of nanoparticles generated in high temperature gases. An analogy is the use of the sphere as an approximation for compact particles. The analysis is applied to the collection of NCAs by a low-pressure impactor. Our results indicate the low-pressure impactor collects aggregates with a known surface area per unit volume on each stage. Combustion processes often produce particles with aggregate structure. For diesel exhaust aggregates, the surface area per unit volume calculated by our method was about twice that of spheres with diameter equal to the aerodynamic diameter. Measurements of aggregates collected near a major freeway and at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) were made for two aerodynamic cutoff diameter diameters (d a,50 ), 50 and 75 nm. (Aerodynamic cutoff diameter refers to the diameter of particles collected with 50% efficiency on a low-pressure impactor stage.) Near-freeway aggregates were probably primarily a

  20. Successful testing of an emergency diesel generator engine at very low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, A.; Loeper, St.

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the nuclear power industry has been concerned about the ability of emergency diesel generator sets (EDGs) to operate for extended periods of time at low loads (typically less than 33% of design rating) and still be capable of meeting their design safety requirement. Most diesel engine manufacturers today still caution owners and operators to avoid running their diesel engines for extended periods of time at low loads. At one nuclear power plant, the emergency electrical bus arrangement only required approximately 25% of the EDG's design rating, which necessitated that the plant operators monitor EDG operating hours and periodically increase electrical load. In order to eliminate the plant operations burden of periodically loading the EDGs, the nuclear power plant decided to conduct a low-load test of a ''spare'' diesel engine. A SACM Model UD45V16S5D diesel engine was returned to the factory in Mulhouse, France where the week long testing at rated speed and 3% of design rating was completed. The test demonstrated that the engine was capable of operating for seven days (168 hours) at very low loads, with no loss of performance and no unusual internal wear or degradation. The planning and inspections associated with preparing the diesel engine for the test, the engine monitoring performed during the test, the final test results, and the results and material condition of the engine following the test are described. The successful diesel engine low-load test resulted in the elimination of unnecessary nuclear power plant operation restrictions that were based on old concerns about long-term, low-load operation of diesel engines. The paper describes the significance of this diesel engine test to the nuclear power plant and the entire nuclear power industry. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby individually designated: (1) Motor vehicle diesel fuel, grade 1-D; (2) Motor vehicle diesel...

  2. A poluição gerada por máquinas de combustão interna movidas à diesel - a questão dos particulados. Estratégias atuais para a redução e controle das emissões e tendências futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Silvana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust emissions of vehicles greatly contribute to environmental pollution. Diesel engines are extremely fuel-efficient. However, the exhaust compounds emitted by diesel engines are both a health hazard and a nuisance to the public. This paper gives an overview of the emission control of particulates from diesel exhaust compounds. The worldwide emission standards are summarized. Possible devices for reducing diesel pollutants are discussed. It is clear that after-treatment devices are necessary. Catalytic converters that collect particulates from diesel exhaust and promote the catalytic burn-off are examined. Finally, recent trends in diesel particulate emission control by novel catalysts are presented.

  3. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  4. ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN STRUCTURE, AGGREGATION AND MODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinakin K. Makwana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is an intrinsically unstructured protein, involved in various neurodegenerative disorders. In vitro/in vivo experiments, as well as genetic mutation studies establish a direct link between alphasynuclein and synucleinopathies. Due to its natively unfolded state, alpha synuclein can adopt numerous conformations upon interaction with its partners and cellular factors, offering explanation for its diverse interactions. Aggregated form of alpha-synuclein has been observed in the brain of patients with synucleinopathies, a hallmark of neurodegeneration, and cell death has been attributed to aggregation induced toxicity. The process of aggregation involves nucleation, followed by intermediate oligomeric states, and finally the fibrillar amyloids. Of the various conformations/species that alpha-synuclein assumes before it transforms into mature amyloid fibrils, the oligomeric species is the most toxic. Thus, an effective way to limit disease progression is by modifying/slowing down protein aggregation/deposition in the brain. Various small natural products, synthetic chemicals, peptides and antibodies specific to alpha-synuclein have been designed/identified to reduce its rate of aggregation. Unfortunately, not even a handful of the molecules have cleared the clinical trials. Even today, medications available for Parkinson’s patients are mostly the drugs that adjust for loss of dopamine in the brain, and hence do not stop the progression of the disease or cure the symptoms. Thus, more molecular level studies are warranted to fully elucidate the process of alpha-synuclein aggregation, which in turn could help in identifying novel therapeutics and preventives. The present review summarizes the insights gained into the structure, in vitro aggregation and inhibitors/modulators of alpha-synuclein aggregation, that can be used to design better and effective inhibitors against the diseases.

  5. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  6. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  7. Numerical modelling of diesel spray using the Eulerian multiphase approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujanović, Milan; Petranović, Zvonimir; Edelbauer, Wilfried; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical model for fuel disintegration was presented. • Fuel liquid and vapour were calculated. • Good agreement with experimental data was shown for various combinations of injection and chamber pressure. - Abstract: This research investigates high pressure diesel fuel injection into the combustion chamber by performing computational simulations using the Euler–Eulerian multiphase approach. Six diesel-like conditions were simulated for which the liquid fuel jet was injected into a pressurised inert environment (100% N 2 ) through a 205 μm nozzle hole. The analysis was focused on the liquid jet and vapour penetration, describing spatial and temporal spray evolution. For this purpose, an Eulerian multiphase model was implemented, variations of the sub-model coefficients were performed, and their impact on the spray formation was investigated. The final set of sub-model coefficients was applied to all operating points. Several simulations of high pressure diesel injections (50, 80, and 120 MPa) combined with different chamber pressures (5.4 and 7.2 MPa) were carried out and results were compared to the experimental data. The predicted results share a similar spray cloud shape for all conditions with the different vapour and liquid penetration length. The liquid penetration is shortened with the increase in chamber pressure, whilst the vapour penetration is more pronounced by elevating the injection pressure. Finally, the results showed good agreement when compared to the measured data, and yielded the correct trends for both the liquid and vapour penetrations under different operating conditions

  8. Reliability of the emergency diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstegen, C.; Kotthoff, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, D-5000 Koeln 1, Cologne (Germany)

    1986-02-15

    The paper deals with a statistical investigation on the availability of diesel generators, which has been performed recently The investigation is based on the operating experiences of a total of 40-diesel generators in 10 German NPP's. Both unavailability of the diesel generators due to failures and due to maintenance and repair have been considered.The probability of diesel failure during start and short-time operation amounts?o about 8 x 10{sup -3}/demand. The probability of common mode failures is approximately one order of magnitude smaller. The influence of various parameters on the failure probability has been discussed. A statistically significant dependence could not be identified In addition the investigation shows that the unavailability of the diesel generators due to maintenance and repair is about of the same order magnitude as the probability of diesel failures. (authors)

  9. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Arifin Nur; Yanuandri Putrasari; Iman Kartolaksono Reksowardojo

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices we...

  10. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  11. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  12. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  13. Diesel-powered Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Diesel-powered automobiles are in the news following emission concerns raised by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This fact sheet contains background information on diesel-powered motor vehicles and diesel fuel.

  14. Ion currents in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents an experimental and modelling investigation into ion formation in diesel engines, its uses in the field of engine performance and emissions prediction and the mechanisms by which these uses are made possible. Ion sensors have been employed in engines for a variety of purposes, including estimation of air-fuel ratio, start of combustion and in-cylinder pressure, detection of knock, misfire and combustion resonance, prediction of soot formation, and control of spark ...

  15. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Niran K. Ibrahim; Walla A. Noori; Jaffar M. Khasbag

    2016-01-01

    Due to the dramatic environmental impact of sulfur emissions associated with the exhaust of diesel engines, last environmental regulations for ultra-low-sulfur diesel require a very deep desulfurization (up to 15 ppm), which cannot be met by the conventional hydrodesulfurization units alone. The proposed method involves a batch ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAODS) of a previously hydrotreated diesel (containing 480 ppm sulfur) so as to convert the residual sulfur-bearing comp...

  17. Experimental Investigation of Embedded Controlled Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    R.Govindaraju; M.Bharathiraja; Dr. K.Ramani; Dr.K.R.Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in Automobiles, Agriculture and Power generation sectors in a large scale. The modern techniques have contributed a lot in the saving of fuel in these diesel engines. However, from 1970 onwards the fuel consumption becomes a serious concern because of a manifold increase of automobiles and fast depletion of non renewable sources of energy. Since the fuel injection system plays a major role in the consumption of fuel in diesel engines, various control measures we...

  18. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1997-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  19. Diesel particles - a health hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, C.

    2004-08-15

    To all appearances, small particles belong to the pollutants presenting the biggest health hazards. Particles come especially from diesel-powered vehicles. According to researchers, particles cause thousands of early deaths each year in the big cities in Denmark alone, and up to 1,250 of these deaths could be prevented by fitting particle filters on diesel-powered vehicles. That is more than deaths caused by traffic accidents. Especially the elderly are affected. In addition, the small particles seem to aggravate asthma incidences, including the many children with asthma. What makes the small particles so very dangerous is that they can enter the smallest of vessels of the lungs. There is a solution within sight to this grave health hazard. The solution is called particle filters, but they will not come automatically. It requires initiatives in the form of legislation, green taxes and subsidies. The EU is introducing stricter regulations regarding particle emission from heavy vehicles from 2006, though only for new vehicles. It will therefore take many years to abate the problem this way. In the present pamphlet, the Danish Ecological Council offers a number of specific proposals on how to further the introduction of filters on diesel vehicles. The Danish government has taken a small step in the right direction by establishing a subsidy scheme for particle filters. Yet the amount allocated is too small and, because it is not followed up by setting taxes on polluting vehicles, it will have little effect. (au)

  20. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  1. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xiaochen; Pei, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiao, Mingwei; He, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NO X emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NO x and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NO x emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  2. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  3. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  4. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...... aggregation response and ISS. Higher TRAP values were associated with death due to cerebral injuries (P 

  5. Revalidation program for nuclear standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muschick, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the program which Duke Power Company carried out to revalidate the diesel engines used in diesel generators for nuclear standby service at Unit 1 of the Catawba Nuclear Station. The diesels operated satisfactorily during the tests, and only relatively minor conditions were noted during the test and inspections, with one exception. This exception was that cracks were detected in the piston skirts. The piston skirts have been replaced with improved design skirts. The diesels have been fully revalidated for their intended service, and have been declared operable

  6. Decomposition of diesel oil by various microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Netzsch-Lehner, A

    1969-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated the decomposition of diesel oil in different soils. In this experiment the decomposition of /sup 14/C-n-Hexadecane labelled diesel oil by special microorganisms was studied. The results were as follows: (1) In the experimental soils the microorganisms Mycoccus ruber, Mycobacterium luteum and Trichoderma hamatum are responsible for the diesel oil decomposition. (2) By adding microorganisms to the soil an increase of the decomposition rate was found only in the beginning of the experiments. (3) Maximum decomposition of diesel oil was reached 2-3 weeks after incubation.

  7. Diesel-generator reliability at nuclear power plants: data and preliminary analysis. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClymont, A.; McLagan, G.

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under RP1233-1 relating to the collection and analysis of data pertaining to diesel generator reliability in nuclear power plants. Drawing from data collected on-site at plants, data supplied by utilites, and data from Licensee Event Reports (LERs), the report describes methods of deriving reliability estimates from data for use in probabilistic risk assessment and presents results when these methods are applied to data collected from 14 plants. Specifically, data are used to estimate diesel failure probabilities for failures to start and failure rates for failures to continue to run. A sampling theory approach and a Bayesian approach to failure probability estimation are compared. The data are used to derive estimates of diesel repair time for some plants, maintenance outages, and multiple diesel failure rates. In addition, a section is included that presents suggestions for failure-rate estimation when an accurate count of diesel start attempts at a plant is not available. The final section presents an analysis of diesel failures based on data from LERs, including a breakdown of failure event by subsystem, failure mode, and failure cause. Appendixes include detailed summaries of the data used in the analysis of previous sections

  8. Quality characteristics of alternative diesel from hydrotreatment of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karonis, Dimitrios; Chilari, Despina [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants; Bezergianni, Stella [Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH)

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the properties of alternative diesel fuel that is derived from the hydrotreatment of used frying oils (UFO). Used frying oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UFO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins in the diesel fuel range. The results obtained show that the use of hydrotreated UFO has many advantages in comparison conventional diesel. Particularly, this renewable fuel has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (> 90) justified from its paraffinic character. Furthermore, this finding complies with the lower value of density in comparison to diesel, reinforcing the paraffinic nature of this fuel, comprising straight chain alkanes and negligible content of aromatic hydrocarbons in its composition. Due to the hydrotreating, these fuels do not contain olefinic bonds, therefore they are resistant to oxidation, permitting long term storage abilities. Despite these benefits, there are some considerations from the use of HFOs. Hydrotreating is a process which successfully removes heteroatoms such as S, N, O and eliminates the existence of double unstable bonds, rendering to fuel appreciable characteristics. Unfortunately, these high ignition quality oils suffer from lower lubricity and worse cold flow properties in comparison to diesel, making their use during winter period inevitable. These problems could be addressed by blending hydrotreated UFO with regular diesel. A compromise should be found in order to promote a renewable fuel with lower cetane number but with much better lubricity in order to meet the EN 590 European Standard regarding the main quality characteristics of the final fuel. (orig.)

  9. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple

  10. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  11. Aggregation kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Spirito, M; Bassi, F A; Di Stasio, E; Giardina, B; Arcovito, G

    2002-01-01

    Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients affected by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Aggregation and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the aggregation kinetics and of the final macro- molecular structure of the aggregates is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius R/sub g/ and the fractal dimension D/sub m/ of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial ...

  12. METHOD OF CONVERSION OF HIGH- AND MIDDLE-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES INTO GAS DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Shatrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the development of fuel supply and electronic control systems for boosted high- and middle-speed transport engines. A detailed analysis of different ways of converting diesel engine to operate on natural gas was carried out. The gas diesel process with minimized ignition portion of diesel fuel injected by the Common Rail (CR system was selected. Electronic engine control and modular gas feed systems which can be used both on high- and middle-speed gas diesel engines were developed. Also diesel CR fuel supply systems were developed in cooperation with the industrial partner, namely, those that can be mounted on middle-speed diesel and gas diesel engines. Electronic control and gas feed systems were perfected using modeling and engine tests. The high-speed diesel engine was converted into a gas diesel one. After perfection of the gas feed and electronic control systems, bench tests of the high-speed gas diesel engine were carried out showing a high share of diesel fuel substitution with gas, high fuel efficiency and significant decrease of NOх and СО2 emissions.

  13. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  14. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  15. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Aydin, Kadir [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  16. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran; Aydin, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  17. Effect of lubricant oil additive on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of diesel particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuesen; Liang, Xingyu; Shu, Gequn; Wang, Xiangxiang; Sun, Xiuxiu; Liu, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pour point depressant (PPD) has great impact on particulate matters. • The number of nanoparticles increases sharply after PPD is added. • Ambiguous boundaries can be found when the PPD additive was added. • PPD changes the size distribution into bimodal logarithmic. • Three nanostructure parameters are changed greatly by PPD. - Abstract: Effects of lubricant oil additive on the characterization of particles from a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine were investigated. Neat diesel and blended fuel containing oil pour point depressant (PPD) additive were chosen as the test fuels. Effects of different fuels on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of the diesel particles were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) were employed to study the morphology and nanostructure parameters. Particle size distribution was measured by fast particulate spectrometer (DMS 500). According to the experimental results, distribution of the primary particles size of the two fuels conforms to Gaussian distribution, whereas the mean diameter of blended fuel is larger than that of neat diesel at 1200 rpm, which is contrarily smaller at 2400 rpm. Besides, fractal dimension (D f ) of aggregates increases close to 2 (D f = 1.991), indicating that the structure became compacter with adding PPD. As to the nanostructure parameters of the blended fuel particles, the layer fringe length decreases from 1.191 nm to 1.064 nm, while both the separation distance and tortuosity increase. The changes in the nanostructure parameters indicate that the particles are more ordered and compressed with burning pure diesel. Results of blended fuel from DMS show that more particles, particularly nucleation mode particles, were discharged. In addition, its size distribution become bimodal logarithmic at 2400 rpm. All these results can provide new information of the effects of oil PPD additive on the formation and characterization of

  18. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  19. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  20. One step processing for future diesel specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The trend in diesel fuel specifications is to limit the sulfur level to less than 0.05 wt- per cent. Many regions have also specified that diesel fuels must have lower aromatic levels, higher cetane numbers, and lower distillation end points. These changes will require significant refinery investment to meet the new diesel fuel specifications. The changes may also significantly affect the value of synthetic crude stocks. UOP has developed a new hydroprocessing catalyst which makes it possible to meet the new diesel specifications in one single processing step and at minimal cost. The catalyst saturates aromatics while opening ring structures at the same time. By selectively cracking heavy components into the diesel range with minimal cracking to gas or naphtha, heavier feedstocks can be upgraded to diesel, and refinery diesel yield can be augmented. Synthetic crude distillate is often high in aromatics and low in cetane number. This new UOP hydroprocessing system will allow synthetic crude producers and refiners to produce diesel fuels with higher cetane numbers, high-quality distillate blendstocks and distillate fuels. 26 figs

  1. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  2. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  3. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  4. Displacing the dinosaurs. [Diesel engine electric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-05-01

    This article describes how giant power stations are being replaced by smaller, cleaner units. These include plants using combined-cycle gas turbines and diesel engines of low, medium and high speeds. The use of these diesel engines in power generation is discussed. (UK).

  5. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  6. Predicting emergency diesel starting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBey, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy effort to extend the operational lives of commercial nuclear power plants has examined methods for predicting the performance of specific equipment. This effort focuses on performance prediction as a means for reducing equipment surveillance, maintenance, and outages. Realizing these goals will result in nuclear plants that are more reliable, have lower maintenance costs, and have longer lives. This paper describes a monitoring system that has been developed to predict starting performance in emergency diesels. A prototype system has been built and tested on an engine at Sandia National Laboratories. 2 refs

  7. Aggregation Algorithms in Heterogeneous Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous tables are most used in the problem of aggregation. A solution for this problem is to standardize these tables of figures. In this paper, we proposed some methods of aggregation based on the hierarchical algorithms.

  8. Familial Aggregation of Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C; Morin, Charles M; Rochefort, Amélie; Ivers, Hans; Dauvilliers, Yves A; Savard, Josée; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Merette, Chantal

    2017-02-01

    There is little information about familial aggregation of insomnia; however, this type of information is important to (1) improve our understanding of insomnia risk factors and (2) to design more effective treatment and prevention programs. This study aimed to investigate evidence of familial aggregation of insomnia among first-degree relatives of probands with and without insomnia. Cases (n = 134) and controls (n = 145) enrolled in a larger epidemiological study were solicited to invite their first-degree relatives and spouses to complete a standardized sleep/insomnia survey. In total, 371 first-degree relatives (Mage = 51.9 years, SD = 18.0; 34.3% male) and 138 spouses (Mage = 55.5 years, SD = 12.2; 68.1% male) completed the survey assessing the nature, severity, and frequency of sleep disturbances. The dependent variable was insomnia in first-degree relatives and spouses. Familial aggregation was claimed if the risk of insomnia was significantly higher in the exposed (relatives of cases) compared to the unexposed cohort (relatives of controls). The risk of insomnia was also compared between spouses in the exposed (spouses of cases) and unexposed cohort (spouses of controls). The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed biological relatives was 18.6% and 10.4%, respectively, yielding a relative risk (RR) of 1.80 (p = .04) after controlling for age and sex. The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed spouses was 9.1% and 4.2%, respectively; however, corresponding RR of 2.13 (p = .28) did not differ significantly. Results demonstrate evidence of strong familial aggregation of insomnia. Additional research is warranted to further clarify and disentangle the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in insomnia. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The economic impact of strengthening fuel quality regulation-reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.J.; Cho, G.L.; Kim, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of strengthening vehicle emission regulation on economic activities. The government attempts to use three regulation measures to protect air quality from transportation emission. The measures include the aggregate limit (bubbles), the vehicle emission standard, and the fuel quality standard. Especially, we focus on the economic impact of reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel quality standard. Sulfur content in diesel fuel is one of the main factors in worsening local air quality. The emission from diesel vehicle accounts for 51.8% of total vehicle emission in Korea. If sulfur content reduction regulation is implemented, then the petroleum industry should build more facility to produce low sulfur content diesel, leading to additional production costs and increasing prices and decreasing outputs. We use computable general equilibrium model to analyze how the sulfur reduction regulation affects economic activities and trace out local emission reduction cost and GDP loss. And we suggest the tax-recycling mechanism to mitigate the negative economic costs due to the sulfur reduction regulation

  10. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  12. Noise source separation of diesel engine by combining binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiachi; Xiang, Yang; Qian, Sichong; Li, Shengyang; Wu, Shaowei

    2017-11-01

    In order to separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine, a noise source separation and identification method that combines a binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method is proposed. During a diesel engine noise and vibration test, because a diesel engine has many complex noise sources, a lead covering method was carried out on a diesel engine to isolate other interference noise from the No. 1-5 cylinders. Only the No. 6 cylinder parts were left bare. Two microphones that simulated the human ears were utilized to measure the radiated noise signals 1 m away from the diesel engine. First, a binaural sound localization method was adopted to separate the noise sources that are in different places. Then, for noise sources that are in the same place, a blind source separation method is utilized to further separate and identify the noise sources. Finally, a coherence function method, continuous wavelet time-frequency analysis method, and prior knowledge of the diesel engine are combined to further identify the separation results. The results show that the proposed method can effectively separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine. The frequency of the combustion noise and the piston slap noise are respectively concentrated at 4350 Hz and 1988 Hz. Compared with the blind source separation method, the proposed method has superior separation and identification effects, and the separation results have fewer interference components from other noise.

  13. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel equipment underground, shall prepare and submit in writing to the District Manager, an inventory of diesel equipment...

  14. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  15. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillate diesel fuel. 1065.703... Standards § 1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and... distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust...

  17. Understanding curcumin-induced modulation of protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Basir; Borana, Mohanish S; Chaudhary, Ankur P

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin, a diarylheptanoid compound, found in spice turmeric is known to alter the aggregation of proteins and reduce the toxicity of the aggregates. This review looks at the molecular basis of modulating protein aggregation and toxicity of the aggregates. Foremost, we identify the interaction of curcumin and its derivatives with proteins/peptides and the effect of their interaction on the conformational stability and unfolding/folding pathway(s). The unfolding/folding processes generate partially folded/unfolded intermediate, which serve as aggregation precursor state. Secondly, we discuss the effect of curcumin binding on the kinetics parameters of the aggregation process, which give information about the mechanism of the aggregation inhibition. We describe, in addition, that curcumin can accelerate/promote fibril formation by binding to oligomeric intermediate(s) accumulated in the aggregation pathway. Finally, we discuss the correlation of curcumin-induced monomeric and/or oligomeric precursor states with aggregate structure and toxicity. On the basis of these discussions, we propose a model describing curcumin-induced inhibition/promotion of formation of amyloid-like fibrils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Palm oil transesterified by metanolysis as diesel engine biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Santamaria, John R; Pena, Diego Leon; Mejia, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews a general background of biodiesel and its potentialities and possibilities as automotive fuel. The paper also compares the colombian production capacity in the world context, and shows its advantages and disadvantages as diesel engine biofuel. The paper discusses some relevant processing techniques of crude palm oil, the methanol transesterification technique being found to be the most suitable one. Finally it shows the results of some important physicochemical characterization of a crude palm oil transesterificated with methanol at the Universidad de Antioquia

  19. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO_2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  20. Novel Tribotester for Cylinder Liner/Piston Ring Contacts of Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder

    2009-01-01

    A good tribological description for the cylinder liner and piston ring materials is always desired in order to achieve an improved combination of the materials. The piston ring package in a two-stroke-diesel engine operates in three lubrication regimes and the materials must be characterized...... in relation to this before a final selection is made. A tribo-test-apparatus is developed to study the tribological performance and to rank the different combinations of cylinder liner and piston ring materials of two stroke marine diesel engines. The test apparatus is based on the block-on-ring principle...

  1. 40 CFR 80.592 - What records must be kept by entities in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? 80.592 Section 80.592... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? (a) Records that must be...

  2. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-02-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  3. The design and performance of the first fully automatic non-grid 5 MW multi-diesel / mini hydro / battery converter power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shadzli Abdul Wahab

    2000-01-01

    biggest system is the 5 MW diesel/minihydro stations in Sabah, Malaysia. This technology had brought about radical transformation in the ways remote diesel stations are operated and maintained not only in alleviating environmental damages related to diesel generation but also in improving the occupational health and safety of diesel engines operators. This paper discusses the installation of IPS technology in a local electricity grid powered by multi diesel sets and mini hydro machines, in Ranau/Kundasang, Sabah. The drastic system improvement and significant cost savings the system have entailed, have convinced the electric utility of its effectiveness and reliability. Finally, we believe strongly that IPS technology will pave way for modernisation of diesel-based remote power generating station in Malaysia, and elsewhere in other developing countries. (Author)

  4. Concrete = aggregate, cement, water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concrete for the Temelin nuclear power plant is produced to about 70 different formulae. For quality production, homogeneous properties of aggregates, accurate proportioning devices, technological discipline and systematic inspections and tests should be assured. The results are reported of measuring compression strength after 28 days for different concrete samples. The results of such tests allow reducing the proportion of cement, which brings about considerable savings. Reduction in cement quantities can also be achieved by adding ash to the concrete mixes. Ligoplast, a plasticizer addition is used for improving workability. (M.D). 8 figs

  5. Performance diagnostic system for emergency diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Diesel generators are commonly used for emergency backup power at nuclear stations. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) are subject to both start-up and operating failures, due to infrequent and fast-start use. EDG reliability can be critical to plant safety, particularly when station blackout occurs. This paper describes an expert diagnostic system designed to consistently evaluate the operating performance of diesel generators. The prototype system is comprised of a suite of sensor monitoring, cylinder combustion analyzing, and diagnostic workstation computers. On-demand assessments of generator and auxiliary equipment performance are provided along with color trend displays comparing measured performance to reference-normal conditions

  6. Impact of fuels on diesel exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an investigation of the emissions from eight diesel fuels with different sulphur and aromatic content. A bus and a truck were used in the investigation. Chemical analysis and biological testing have been performed. The aim of this project was to find a 'good' diesel fuel which can be used in urban areas. Seven of the fuels were meant to be such fuels. It has been confirmed in this study that there exists a quantifiable relationship between the variables of the diesel fuel blends and the variables of the chemical emissions and their biological effects. 119 figs., 12 tabs., approx. 100 refs

  7. Diesel engines for independent power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berc, Dj.

    1999-01-01

    During recent years an increasing demand has been experienced in the stationary diesel engine market for 10-70 MW diesel units. For larger units this demand is being met by two-stroke low-speed crosshead uniflow scavenged diesel engines, capable of burning almost any fuel available on the market, both liquid of gaseous. The paper deals with service experience gained from such engines and their fuel capability. Examples of actual installations for IPPs and captive plants, together with an example of a typical feasibility study of such plants, is presented in the Appendix. (author)

  8. Exergic, economic and environmental impacts of natural gas and diesel in operation of combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi Khoshkar Vandani, Amin; Joda, Fatemeh; Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of natural gas and diesel on the power plant performance. • Exergy, economic and environmental evaluation of a combined cycle power plant. • Using life cycle assessment (LCA) to perform the environmental evaluation. • Optimizing the power plant in terms of exergy and economic. • Better performance of natural gas with respect to diesel. - Abstract: Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) play an important role in electricity production throughout the world. Their energy efficiency is relatively high and their production rates of greenhouse gases are considerably low. In a country like Iran with huge oil and gas resources, most CCPP’s use natural gas as primary fuel and diesel as secondary fuel. In this study, effect of using diesel instead of natural gas for a selected power plant will be investigated in terms of exergy, economic and environmental impacts. The environmental evaluation is performed using life cycle assessment (LCA). In the second step, the operation of the plant will be optimized using exergy and economic objective functions. The results show that the exergy efficiency of the plant with natural gas as fuel is equal to 43.11%, while this efficiency with diesel will be 42.03%. Furthermore, the annual cost of plant using diesel is twice as that of plant using natural gas. Finally, diesel utilization leads to more contaminants production. Thus, environmental effects of diesel are much higher than that of natural gas. The optimization results demonstrate that in case of natural gas, exergy efficiency and annual cost of the power plant improve 2.34% and 4.99%, respectively. While these improvements for diesel are 2.36% and 1.97%.

  9. The technical development on recycled aggregate concrete for nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukekiyo, M.; Saishu, S.; Ishikura, T.; Ishigure, K.

    2000-01-01

    The large amount of non-radioactive concrete waste generated by decommissioning has a very big impact on the final disposal site. Therefore, NUPEC has been developing technology which recovers at a high ratio the aggregate from the dismantling concrete with a quality which can be used to construct a new nuclear power plant. The developed high-quality recycled aggregate meets the quality standards of the natural aggregate stipulated by the Japanese architectural standard specifications for nuclear power plant facilities. As a result of these experiments, it was confirmed that the recycled concrete which used this high-quality recycled aggregate had a performance equal or better than ordinary concrete which used natural aggregate. (authors)

  10. Energy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    S Abbasi; H Bahrami; B Ghobadian; M Kiani Deh Kiani

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel a...

  11. The impact of the type of operation on the parameters of a shunting diesel locomotive with hybrid power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falendysh Anatoliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In designing a traction vehicle it is necessary to take into account the type of field operation it is meant for. It was found out that during shunting operation a ChME3 diesel locomotive is in idling mode for almost half of its general running time. That is why, the introduction of a less powerful engine along with an energy storage device for shunting operations at a shunting diesel locomotive is appropriate. The calculations were made using a modernized shunting diesel locomotive ChME3 with hybrid transmission of power as an example. The dependences of the general running time of a diesel locomotive on the position of the engine driver controller under performing shunting, transportation and hump operation were given in percentages. For every operation mode there was calculated the optimum power of a diesel-generator plant and the optimum energy capacity of an energy storage system taking into account the above-mentioned dependences. It was found out that due to the introduction of a hybrid drive for the section discussed above and the corresponding mass of a train the aggregate fuel consumption will be reduced by 25% and the efficiency of travel will increase by one third.

  12. Practical experience with measurement of diesel engine smoke pursuant to ECE-R 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, W

    1975-01-01

    Since the ECE regulation 24 demands that diesel smoke of automobiles be measured with opacimeters or units yielding equivalent results, the smoke density of diesel engines was measured with opacimeters and filter units for comparison. Conversion tables, comparative curves, and calculations are provided permitting the conversion of grey tones into opacity units with an accuracy sufficient for practical use. The correlation of measurements obtained with the filters and opacimeters was studied during operation at constant full load and at free acceleration. A relationship could be found in most cases; however, it provided no basis for setting up correlations. Finally, smoke characteristics of induction diesel engines were compared with supercharged engines at different geographical altitudes, based upon practical road tests in the Grossglockner mountains. A linear smoke increase with increasing altitude or decreasing air density was observed.

  13. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  14. Conversion of diesel engines to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S W; DeMaere, D A

    1984-02-01

    A device to convert a diesel engine to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operation was developed and evaluated. Preliminary experimentation has indicated that as much as 30% of the diesel fuel consumed in diesel engines could be displaced with propane, accompanied by an improvement in fuel efficiency, engine maintenance and an overall reduction in emission levels. Dual fuel operations in both transportation and stationary applications would then project a saving of ca 90,000 barrels of diesel fuel per day by the year 1990. A turbo-charged 250 hp diesel engine was directly coupled to a dynamometer under laboratory conditions, and operated at speeds between 500 and 2500 rpm and at various torque levels. At each rpm/torque point the engine first operated on diesel fuel alone, and then increasing quantities of propane were induced into the air intake until detonation occured. Results indicate that the proportion of propane that can be safely induced into a diesel engine varies considerably with rpm and torque so that a sophisticated metering system would be required to maximize diesel oil displacement by propane. Conversion is not cost effective at 1983 price levels.

  15. Development of a robust and compact kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Mohan, Balaji; An, Hui; Zhou, Dezhi; Yu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach is used to develop a robust kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism. • Ignition delay of the kerosene sub-mechanism is well validated with experiments. • The kerosene sub-mechanism reproduces the flame lift-off lengths of Jet-A reasonably well. • The kerosene sub-mechanism performs reasonably well under engine conditions. - Abstract: The use of kerosene fuels in internal combustion engines is getting more widespread. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization military is pushing for the use of a single fuel on the battlefield in order to reduce logistical issues. Moreover, in some countries, fuel adulteration is a serious matter where kerosene is blended with diesel and used in diesel engines. So far, most investigations done regarding the use of kerosene fuels in diesel engines are experimental and there is negligible simulation work done in this area possibly because of the lack of a robust and compact kerosene reaction mechanism. This work focuses on the development of a small but reliable kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism, suitable to be used for diesel engine simulations. The new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism consists only of 48 species and 152 reactions. Furthermore, the kerosene sub-mechanism in this new mechanism is well validated for its ignition delay times and has proven to replicate kerosene combustion well in a constant volume combustion chamber and an optical engine. Overall, this new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism is proven to be robust and practical for diesel engine simulations.

  16. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  18. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  19. Investigation of the cavitating flow in injector nozzles for diesel and biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjun; He, Zhixia; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Zhaochen; Fu, Yanan

    2013-07-01

    In diesel engines, the cavitating flow in nozzles greatly affects the fuel atomization characteristics and then the subsequent combustion and exhaust emissions. At present the biodiesel is a kind of prospective alternative fuel in diesel engines, the flow characteristics for the biodiesel fuel need to be investigated. In this paper, based on the third-generation synchrotrons of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation facility (SSRF), a high-precision three-dimension structure of testing nozzle with detailed internal geometry information was obtained using X-ray radiography for a more accurate physical model. A flow visualization experiment system with a transparent scaled-up vertical multi-hole injector nozzle tip was setup. A high resolution and speed CCD camera equipped with a long distance microscope device was used to acquire flow images of diesel and biodiesel fuel, respectively. Then, the characteristics of cavitating flow and their effects on the fuel atomization characteristics were investigated. The experimental results show that the nozzle cavitating flow of both the diesel and biodiesel fuel could be divided into four regimes: turbulent flow, cavitation inception, development of cavitation and hydraulic flip. The critical pressures of both the cavitating flow and hydraulic flip of biodiesel are higher than those of diesel. The spray cone angle increases as the cavitation occurs, but it decreases when the hydraulic flip appears. Finally, it can be concluded that the Reynolds number decreases with the increase of cavitation number, and the discharge coefficient increases with the increase of cavitation number.

  20. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.

  1. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, W.U.; Rashid, A.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal

  2. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  3. Diesel upgrading into a low emissions fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tailleur, Roberto Galiasso [Department of Thermodynamics, Simon Bolivar University, Sartenejas, Baruta, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-09-15

    The revamp of existing diesel hydrotreating units using SHP technology was studied to improve the emission of the diesel engine. Gas and liquid-phase reactors were sequentially added to the actual trickle bed reactor. A special catalyst was employed. Micro-plant kinetic studies were performed and the results compared with those obtained with conventional trickle bed reactor operation. It was shown that using the gas and liquid-phase reactor, the hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and ring-opening reactions can be enhanced, so can be the sulfur and cetane number properties. The new scheme decreased the mono-aromatic content in the lighter part of the diesel that improve the NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in exhaust gases of a diesel engine. A simplified kinetic model for gas and liquid-phase reactors was developed to optimize SHP reactors and to minimize investment. (author)

  4. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines (ARSDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of an airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  5. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  6. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  7. Desulfurization of oxidized diesel using ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfred, Cecilia D.; Salleh, M. Zulhaziman M.; Mutalib, M. I. Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The extraction of oxidized sulfur compounds from diesel were carried out using ten types of ionic liquids consisting of different cation and anion i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium thiocyanate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, trioctylmethylammonium chloride, 1-propionitrile-3-butylimidazolium thiocyanate, 1-propionitrile-3-butylimidazolium dicyanamide and 1-butyl-6-methylquinolinium dicyanamide. The oxidation of diesel was successfully done using phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant and trioctylmethylammonium chloride as the phase transfer agent. The oxidation of diesel changes the sulfur compounds into sulfone which increases its polarity and enhances the ionic liquid's extraction performance. Result showed that ionic liquid [C4mquin][N(CN)2] performed the highest sulfur removal (91% at 1:5 diesel:IL ratio) compared to the others.

  8. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  9. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  10. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  11. Review of wind/diesel strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infield, D G; Lipman, N H; Musgrove, P J; Slack, G W

    1983-12-01

    A large potential demand exists for electricity in areas isolated from grid supply. Diesel generation in these usually remote areas is expensive and wind/diesel systems, with the wind turbine viewed primarily as a fuel saver, can be seen as attractive. Integration of wind energy is not straightforward, and in particular can cause operational problems for the diesel generator set. These difficulties are discussed and various approaches, including a twin diesel system, are presented. The role of energy storage is examined, both to deal with operational problems and to improve wind-energy utilisation. An example of battery storage is developed in some detail. A summary of actual installations and their performance is included to highlight some of the problems, and indicate the approaches being taken to deal with them.

  12. Denitrification in Soil Aggregate Analogues-Effect of Aggregate Size and Oxygen Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schlüter

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne nitrous oxide (N2O emissions have a high spatial and temporal variability which is commonly attributed to the occurrence of hotspots and hot moments for microbial activity in aggregated soil. Yet there is only limited information about the biophysical processes that regulate the production and consumption of N2O on microscopic scales in undisturbed soil. In this study, we introduce an experimental framework relying on simplified porous media that circumvents some of the complexities occuring in natural soils while fully accounting for physical constraints believed to control microbial activity in general and denitrification in particular. We used this framework to explore the impact of aggregate size and external oxygen concentration on the kinetics of O2 consumption, as well as CO2 and N2O production. Model aggregates of different sizes (3.5 vs. 7 mm diameter composed of porous, sintered glass were saturated with a defined growth medium containing roughly 109 cells ml−1 of the facultative anaerobic, nosZ-deficient denitrifier Agrobacterium tumefaciens with N2O as final denitrification product and incubated at five different oxygen levels (0–13 vol-%. We demonstrate that the onset of denitrification depends on the amount of external oxygen and the size of aggregates. Smaller aggregates were better supplied with oxygen due to a larger surface-to-volume ratio, which resulted in faster growth and an earlier onset of denitrification. In larger aggregates, the onset of denitrification was more gradual, but with comparably higher N2O production rates once the anoxic aggregate centers were fully developed. The normalized electron flow from the reduced carbon substrate to N-oxyanions (edenit-/etotal- ratio could be solely described as a function of initial oxygen concentration in the headspace with a simple, hyperbolic model, for which the two empirical parameters changed with aggregate size in a consistent way. These findings confirm the

  13. Analysis of Marketing communication of Diesel company

    OpenAIRE

    Zvadová, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to highlight the specifics of marketing communications in the fashion industry on an example of a particular company, an Italian company Diesel. Theoretical knowledge of fashion marketing, management of fashion companies and the characteristics of the fashion market are applied to the brand Diesel. Marketing Communication is subject of analysis of individual campaigns and then summarized the common characteristics of the whole communication. Common features ...

  14. Should Diesel cars in Europe be discouraged?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for the different tax treatment of gasoline and diesel cars currently observed in Europe. First, we analyse possible justifications for a different tax treatment: pure tax revenue considerations, externality cons0iderations and constraints on the tax instruments used for cars and trucks. Next, an applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the welfare effects of revenue neutral changes in the vehicle and fuel taxes on diesel and gasoline cars. The mod...

  15. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  16. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  17. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  18. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  19. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  20. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  1. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S; Yokota, H; Kakegawa, T [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  3. Diesel Consumption of Agriculture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shusen Gui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As agricultural mechanization accelerates the development of agriculture in China, to control the growth of the resulting energy consumption of mechanized agriculture without negatively affecting economic development has become a major challenge. A systematic analysis of the factors (total power, unit diesel consumption, etc. influencing diesel consumption using the SECA model, combined with simulations on agricultural diesel flows in China between 1996 and 2010 is performed in this work. Seven agricultural subsectors, fifteen categories of agricultural machinery and five farm operations are considered. The results show that farming and transportation are the two largest diesel consumers, accounting for 86.23% of the total diesel consumption in agriculture in 2010. Technological progress has led to a decrease in the unit diesel consumption and an increase in the unit productivity of all machinery, and there is still much potential for future progress. Additionally, the annual average working hours have decreased rapidly for most agricultural machinery, thereby influencing the development of mechanized agriculture.

  4. Experimental study on combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with 2,5-dimethylfuran–diesel, n-butanol–diesel and gasoline–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guisheng; Shen, Yinggang; Zhang, Quanchang; Yao, Mingfa; Zheng, Zunqing; Liu, Haifeng

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, combustion and emissions of a multi-cylinder CI (compression-ignition) engine fueled with DMF–diesel, n-butanol–diesel and gasoline–diesel blends were experimentally investigated, and fuel characteristics of DMF, n-butanol and gasoline were compared. Diesel was used as the base fuel. And 30% of DMF, n-butanol and gasoline were blended with the base fuel by volume respectively, referred to as D30, B30 and G30. Results show that compared to B30 and G30, D30 has longer ignition delay because of lower cetane number, which leads to faster burning rate and higher pressure rise rate. With increasing EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate, D30 gets the lowest soot emissions, and extended ignition delay and fuel oxygen are two key factors reducing soot emissions, and ignition delay has greater effects than fuel oxygen on soot reduction. In addition, D30 and B30 improve the trade-off of NO x -soot remarkably and extend low-emission region without deteriorating fuel efficiency by utilizing medium EGR rates ( x , THC and CO emissions and BSFC, but reduce soot greatly. • Fuel oxygen is more efficient than air oxygen while ignition delay has greater effects than fuel oxygen to reduce soot. • As diesel additive, DMF is superior to n-butanol and gasoline for reducing soot emissions. • Using DMF–diesel blends combined with medium EGR may be a better way to meet future emission standards

  5. Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The volatile fraction of diesel fuel played a major role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. - The use of plant-based systems to remediate contaminated soils has become an area of intense scientific study in recent years and it is apparent that plants which grow well in contaminated soils need to be identified and screened for use in phytoremediation technologies. This study investigated the effect of diesel fuel on germination of selected plant species. Germination response varied greatly with plant species and was species specific, as members of the same plant family showed differential sensitivity to diesel fuel contamination. Differences were also seen within plant subspecies. At relatively low levels of diesel fuel contamination, delayed seed emergence and reduced percentage germination was observed for the majority of plant species investigated. Results suggest the volatile fraction of diesel fuel played an influential role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. In addition, the remaining diesel fuel in the soil added to this inhibitory effect on germination by physically impeding water and oxygen transfer between the seed and the surrounding soil environment, thus hindering the germination response

  6. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  7. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease. (paper)

  8. Information Aggregation and Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hellwig; Aleh Tsyvinski; Elias Albagli

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies an environment in which information aggregation interacts with investment decisions. The first contribution of the paper is to develop a tractable model of such interactions. The second contribution is to solve the model in closed form and derive a series of implications that result from the interplay between information aggregation and the value of market information for the firms' decision problem. We show that the model generates an information aggregation wedge between ...

  9. Optimised operation of an off-grid hybrid wind-diesel-battery system using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Leong Kit; Shek, Jonathan K.H.; Mueller, Markus A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Diesel generator’s operation is optimised in a hybrid wind-diesel-battery system. • Optimisation is performed using wind speed and load demand forecasts. • The objective is to maximise wind energy utilisation with limited battery storage. • Physical modelling approach (Simscape) is used to verify mathematical model. • Sensitivity analyses are performed with synthesised wind and load forecast errors. - Abstract: In an off-grid hybrid wind-diesel-battery system, the diesel generator is often not utilised efficiently, therefore compromising its lifetime. In particular, the general rule of thumb of running the diesel generator at more than 40% of its rated capacity is often unmet. This is due to the variation in power demand and wind speed which needs to be supplied by the diesel generator. In addition, the frequent start-stop of the diesel generator leads to additional mechanical wear and fuel wastage. This research paper proposes a novel control algorithm which optimises the operation of a diesel generator, using genetic algorithm. With a given day-ahead forecast of local renewable energy resource and load demand, it is possible to optimise the operation of a diesel generator, subjected to other pre-defined constraints. Thus, the utilisation of the renewable energy sources to supply electricity can be maximised. Usually, the optimisation studies of a hybrid system are being conducted through simple analytical modelling, coupled with a selected optimisation algorithm to seek the optimised solution. The obtained solution is not verified using a more realistic system model, for instance the physical modelling approach. This often led to the question of the applicability of such optimised operation being used in reality. In order to take a step further, model-based design using Simulink is employed in this research to perform a comparison through a physical modelling approach. The Simulink model has the capability to incorporate the electrical

  10. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  11. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  15. Commonised diesel and gasoline catalyst architecture; Standardisierte Katalysatorarchitektur fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurell, Mats; Sjoers, Johan; Wernlund, Bjoern [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden); Brueck, Rolf [Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH, Lohmar (Germany). Forschung, Entwicklung und Applikation

    2013-11-01

    Volvo Cars has developed a standardised catalytic converter architecture for diesel and gasoline engines - the scalable so-called Compact Cat. The system covers both Euro 6 and SULEV applications for gasoline engines as well as Euro 6 applications for diesel engines. The standardised design using shared parts results in a considerable reduction in unit costs and tooling requirements. (orig.)

  16. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Nur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices were mounted on the exhaust pipe. The test of fuel variations started from 100% diesel fuel (D100 to 2.5% (DE2.5, 5% (DE5, 7.5% (DE7.5, and 10% (DE10 ethanol additions. Performance test was conducted at 1500 rpm with load variations from 0 to 60 Nm by increasing the load on each level by 10 Nm. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel (DE5 increased the average pressure of combustion chamber indication to 48% as well as reduced the specific fuel consumption to 9.5%. There were better exhaust emission characteristics at this mixture ratio than diesel engine which used pure diesel fuel (D100, the reduction of CO to 37%, HC to 44% and opacity to 15.9%.

  17. [Particle emission characteristics of diesel bus fueled with bio-diesel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    With the use of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS), a study on the characteristics of particle emissions was carried out on a China-IV diesel bus fueled with blends of 5% , 10% , 20% , 50% bio-diesel transformed from restaurant waste oil and China-IV diesel (marked separately by BD5, BD10, BD20, BD50), pure bio-diesel (BD100) and pure diesel (BD0). The results indicated that particulate number (PN) and mass (PM) emissions of bio-diesel blends increased with the increase in bus speed and acceleration; with increasing bio-diesel content, particulate emissions displayed a relevant declining trend. In different speed ranges, the size distribution of particulate number emissions (PNSD) was bimodal; in different acceleration ranges, PNSD showed a gradual transition from bimodal shape to unimodal when bus operation was switched from decelerating to accelerating status. Bio-diesel blends with higher mixture ratios showed significant reduction in PN emissions for accumulated modes, and the particulate number emission peaks moved towards smaller sizes; but little change was obtained in PN emissions for nuclei modes; reduction also occurred in particle geometric diameter (Dg).

  18. The effect of diesel properties on the emissions of particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, A; Torres, J; Herrera, J; Sarmiento, J

    2000-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out on the effect that modifying some properties of Colombian diesel fuel, such as final boiling point (FBP), density and sulfur content, has on the emissions of particulate matter (PM). Four diesel engines with different technologies and work capacity were used for the evaluation. Different alternatives to modify the properties of commercial diesel fuel, from the fuel treatment viewpoint, as well as that of the incorporation or segregation of some of the streams from the pool at the Barrancabermeja refinery were studied. The particulate matter was measured using a partial flow (AVL-SPC472) Constant volume sampler (CVS) with following the 13-step steady state European cycle and the ECE-R49 European guideline. The tests were performed at the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo. (ICP) test cell in the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia. General tendencies show reductions of up to 25% in PM emissions when final boiling point and sulfur content are reduced. But levels of reduction vary from one engine to another depending on technology and working time. As a baseline, the emission levels of the commercial diesel fuel for each engine are used, and as a reference the results obtained are compared with the EURO I and II European standards defined for the emission levels of heavy duty engines

  19. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  20. Diesel oil: self sufficiency is possible for Brazil; Oleo diesel: auto-suficiencia e possivel para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascalicchio, Agostinho Celso [AES Eletropaulo Metropolitana - Eletricidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: agostinho.pascalicch@AES.com; Franco, Armando Cesar [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: armandofranco@mackenzie.com.br; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper addresses to analyze the Brazil possibility to be a self - sufficient diesel oil producer. Diesel increase production as result to modernization effort and technological development implemented by PETROBRAS in its refinery and this increase is greater than internal demand for the product. Furthermore, new alternatives as bio-diesel that is adding to diesel oil up to 2% and vehicular natural gas in urban buses are in implementation process that will allow a decrease in diesel oil demand. With that in the short run Brazil could cease is international condition of oil diesel importer. (author)

  1. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  2. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  3. Collective Rationality in Graph Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.; Schaub, T.; Friedrich, G.; O'Sullivan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Suppose a number of agents each provide us with a directed graph over a common set of vertices. Graph aggregation is the problem of computing a single “collective” graph that best represents the information inherent in this profile of individual graphs. We consider this aggregation problem from the

  4. Evolving diesel common rail technology for future low emission standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, D.; Bercher, P.; Guerrassi, N.; Spadafora, P. [Delphi Diesel Systems, Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The Diesel fuel injection equipment will remain a key element for Diesel engine technology evolution. Achieving emission targets at competitive prices has been and will continue to be a major technical challenge to the engine manufacturer. Delphi is continously developing its Common Rail System and its components for fulfill future stricter emission legislation while simultaneously improving performance on noise, fuel consumption and power output. The outstanding and unique injector concept combined with innovative control strategies has largely contributed to the improvement of exhaust emission and performance, consumption and NVH over the lifetime of Diesel vehicles. Recently, Euro 4 common rail applications have been introduced on several applications by adding further capability such as multiple injection, small-injected quantity control and improved atomization. This papers will describe the latest Common Rail System developments that Delphi will introduce into the market to comply with future legislative emission targets. Further, a novel common rail injector will be presented, that uses a revolutionary, direct acting operating principle, where the nozzle is directly operated by a piezo actuator, without the use of a servo-hydraulic flow circuit. The superior performance of this injector concept will be shown, especially with regard to it's near square rate injection shape, minimum quantity capability as well as multiple injection performance. The direct acting operating principle allows rapid opening and closing of the injector, without compromising pilot quantity capability. The emission benefit obtained by such opening and closing behavior will be shown. Finally, based on the findings discussed, the papers will conclude on key features of future common rail systems. (orig.)

  5. Emergency diesel generator reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that utilities assess their station blackout duration and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for coping with a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) an EDG reliability equal to or greater than 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required levels. The resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI) B-56 embodies the identification of a suitable EDG reliability program structure, revision of pertinent regulatory guides and Tech Specs, and development of an Inspection Module. Resolution of B-56 is coupled to the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, Station Blackout, which resulted in the station blackout rule, 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout. This paper discusses the principal elements of an EDG reliability program developed for resolving GSI B-56 and related matters

  6. Disappointed by Diesel? The impact of the shift to Diesels in Europe through 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Lee (Precourt institute for Energy Efficiency, Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Fulton, Lew (International Energy Agency, Energy Technology Policy Div., Paris (France))

    2009-07-01

    A previous review of trends in light-duty diesel vehicle sales and usage in Europe through the mid 1990s questioned whether the shift toward diesels would yield large energy savings (Schipper, Fulton and Marie 2002, SFM). This study expands the sample of countries in the previous work and adds about ten years more data from both new vehicle test fuel economy and on-road performance, including usage. The updated findings renew the concerns first expressed in SFM. Although there is still evidence that diesels of a certain size have a substantial (volumetric) fuel economy advantage over gasoline vehicles of a similar size (perhaps 30% on average), average new diesel cars and the stock of diesels on the road maintain a smaller efficiency advantage over gasoline, on the order of 15% in most countries as of 2005. When the higher energy content of diesel is considered, the new vehicle and on-road figures shrink to less than a 5% and 7% fuel intensity advantage for new diesel vehicles and stock, respectively. The net CO{sub 2}/km emissions advantage for diesels is even less; for new cars, below 5% in all but one country and 0% on average across the 8 sampled countries in 2005. For total stock, diesel has a 2% average CO{sub 2} advantage. Even normalizing for the larger average size of diesels, their CO{sub 2} advantage appears to be no more than 15-18% for vehicles of a similar size class. Diesels are typically larger and are driven 60-100% more per year than gasoline cars. While much of these differences could be ascribed to self selection and related effects, some are likely due to a rebound effect created by diesel's better fuel economy and (in many countries) the lower price of diesel fuel. Using typical elasticity estimates to measure the driving rebound effect, the average result is about a 5% increase in annual driving and up to a 12% increase depending on the country and assumed elasticity. This is small compared to the observed driving difference between

  7. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  8. The effect of limestone aggregate porosity and saturation degree on the interfacial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Le Saout, G.; Devillers, P.; Garcia-Diaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The recycling of concrete wastes concerns the nuclear industry as many nuclear facilities will have to be dismantled and the reduction and reuse of the decommissioning concrete wastes in order to minimize the total waste volume is a key issue. The recycled aggregates have the potential to replace natural resources however it is necessary to assess the effect of recycled aggregates on the final concrete. One important issue to be addressed to achieve the required mechanical properties is the water absorption of the recycled aggregates. As a first step, we have used in this study limestone aggregates with different porosities (total porosity from 2 to 20 %) and have investigated the influence of the porosity and the initial saturation degree of these aggregates on the porosity of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) using scanning electron microscope. The equation of Feret for the strength-porosity relationship of our mortars was applied σ = K(100-p) 2 where σ is the compressive strength in MPa, p is the capillary pore volume in % and K a constant. Aggregates with lower porosity follow the same law characterized by a K value higher than the value for the more porous aggregate law. The K parameter is not dependent of the humidity degree of the aggregate: for a given aggregate, family mortars made with dry and wet aggregate follow the same law. But for porous aggregates as the meso-porosity of the ITZ for a given time of hydration is higher for mortars made with wet aggregates, the compressive strength of these mortars is less than those of mortars made with dry aggregates. Contrary to the low porous aggregate, it was not possible for porous limestone aggregates, and with a calculation based on the saturated surface dry state as reference state to obtain the same net water to cement ratio with wet and dry aggregates. This study reflects the difficulty to control the amount of efficient water in concrete when using porous aggregates and its influence on compressive

  9. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  10. energy characteristics of ethanol-diesel mix for automotive use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigates the power output obtained from ethanol- diesel mix from a diesel engine. A 1% to 5% by volume of 99.6% ethanol was mixed with diesel fuel. A 500ml of each mix was used to power a 9.545kW diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were ...

  11. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  12. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel small...

  13. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y J; Ju, U S; Park, Y C [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  14. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  15. MEA and DEE as additives on diesel engine using waste plastic oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappula Bridjesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastic oil (WPO is a standout amongst the most promising alternative fuels for diesel in view of most of its properties similar to diesel. The challenges of waste management and increasing fuel crisis can be addressed while with the production of fuel from plastic wastes. This experimental investigation is an endeavour to supplant diesel at least by 50% with waste plastic oil alongside 2-methoxy ethyl acetate (MEA and diethyl ether (DEE as additives. Test fuels considered in this study are WPO, 50D50W (50%Diesel + 50%WPO, 50D40W10MEA (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%MEA and 50D40W10DEE (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%DEE. The test results are compared with diesel. An increase in brake thermal efficiency and abatement in brake specific fuel consumption are seen with 50D40W10MEA, as well as reduction in hydro carbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. 50D40W10DEE showed reduced NOx emission whereas 50D40W10MEA has almost no impact. Engine performance and emission characteristics under different loads for different test fuels are discussed. Keywords: 2-Methoxy ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, Waste plastic oil, Pyrolysis

  16. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  17. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  18. Kinetics of aggregation with choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2016-12-01

    We generalize the ordinary aggregation process to allow for choice. In ordinary aggregation, two random clusters merge and form a larger aggregate. In our implementation of choice, a target cluster and two candidate clusters are randomly selected and the target cluster merges with the larger of the two candidate clusters. We study the long-time asymptotic behavior and find that as in ordinary aggregation, the size density adheres to the standard scaling form. However, aggregation with choice exhibits a number of different features. First, the density of the smallest clusters exhibits anomalous scaling. Second, both the small-size and the large-size tails of the density are overpopulated, at the expense of the density of moderate-size clusters. We also study the complementary case where the smaller candidate cluster participates in the aggregation process and find an abundance of moderate clusters at the expense of small and large clusters. Additionally, we investigate aggregation processes with choice among multiple candidate clusters and a symmetric implementation where the choice is between two pairs of clusters.

  19. Estimation of common cause failure parameters for diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirira, J.; Lanore, J.M.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of some results concerning the feedback analysis of French Emergency diesel generator (EDG). The database of common cause failure for EDG has been updated. The data collected covers a period of 10 years. Several latent common cause failure (CCF) events counting in tens are identified. In fact, in this number of events collected, most are potential CCF. From events identified, 15% events are characterized as complete CCF. The database is organised following the structure proposed by 'International Common Cause Data Exchange' (ICDE project). Events collected are analyzed by failure mode and degree of failure. Qualitative analysis of root causes, coupling factors and corrective actions are studied. The exercise of quantitative analysis is in progress for evaluating CCF parameters taking into account the average impact vector and the rate of the independent failures. The interest of the average impact vector approach is that it makes it possible to take into account a wide experience feedback, not limited to complete CCF but including also many events related to partial or potential CCF. It has to be noted that there are no finalized quantitative conclusions yet to be drawn and analysis is in progress for evaluating diesel CCF parameters. In fact, the numerical coding CCF representation of the events uses a part of subjective analysis, which requests a complete and detailed event examination. (authors)

  20. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  1. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements...

  2. 7 CFR 2902.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to a motor... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 2902.13 Section 2902.13...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. (g) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface shall only be used to transport diesel fuel... storage facility. (h) The diesel fuel piping system must not be located in a borehole with electric power... entry as electric cables or power lines. Where it is necessary for piping systems to cross electric...

  4. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  5. Bio-diesel: A candidate for a Nigeria energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, T.; Dim, L. A.; Funtua, I. I.; Oladipo, M. O. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a review of bio-diesel development and economic potentials. The basics of biodiesel and its production technology are described. Attention is given to development potential, challenges and prospests of bio-diesel in Nigeria with ground facts on bio-diesel production feasibility in Nigeria highlighted.

  6. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  7. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks and...

  8. Emission Characterization of Diesel Engine Run on Coconut Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Diesel engine, diesel, coconut oil biodiesel, blends, emissions. Introduction ... Automobile exhaust ... power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and the increase in ... diesel fuel in terms of power and torque and none or ... gas analyzer (Motorscan 8050) made in Italy which .... different injection pressures.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

  10. Emission characterization of diesel engine run on coconut oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biodiesel in running diesel has been called for, with a view to mitigating the environmental pollution, depletion, cost and scarcity associated with the use diesel in running diesel engine. So the need to characterize the emissions from these biodiesel, cannot be overemphasized, hence this paper presents the ...

  11. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  12. Managing diesel emissions at Vale Inco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C.L.; O' Connor, D.F. [Vale Inco, Copper Cliff, ON (Canada). Mines Technical Support

    2009-07-01

    In an effort to improve the underground environment and improve the health and safety of its workforce, Vale Inco has taken measures to improve the air quality in underground mines. This presentation provided details of the company's efforts, with particular reference to air quality monitoring, ambient air sampling, undiluted engine exhaust sampling, maintenance practices, engine selection, use of ultra low sulphur diesel fuel and the installation of good auxiliary ventilation systems and diesel particulate filters. Vale Inco uses the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monitoring method for diesel particulates using a risk based rational. A semi-quantitative methodology is being used to conduct an occupational risk assessment. The sampling strategy is based on sampling the identified high risk tasks. Concentration trends in elemental carbon at Vale Inco were also highlighted. tabs., figs.

  13. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  14. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  15. Adaptive vibration isolation system for diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tie-jun; ZHANG Xin-yu; XIAO You-hong; HUANG Jin-e; LIU Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    An active two-stage isolation mounting, on which servo-hydraulic system is used as the actuator (secondary vibration source) and a diesel engine is used as primary vibration source, has been built. The upper mass of the mounting is composed of a 495diesel and an electrical eddy current dynamometer. The lower mass is divided into four small masses to which servo-hydraulic actuator and rubber isolators are attached. According to the periodical characteristics of diesel vibration signals, a multi-point adaptive strategy based on adaptive comb filtered algorithm is applied to active multi-direction coupled vibrations control for the engine. The experimental results demonstrate that a good suppression in the effective range of phase compensation in secondary path (within 100Hz) at different operation conditions is achieved, and verify that this strategy is effective. The features of the active system, the development activities carried out on the system and experimental results are discussed in the paper.

  16. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  17. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  18. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  19. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  20. Combustion Heat Release Rate Comparison of Algae Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel to F-76 in a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    was recorded. Figure 14 shows the gauge on the rocker arm during calibration . Figure 14. Mechanical Injector Rocker Arm Strain Gauge. D. DATA...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE by John H. Petersen June 2013 Thesis...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) John H

  1. Ultrasound-Assisted Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niran K. Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dramatic environmental impact of sulfur emissions associated with the exhaust of diesel engines, last environmental regulations for ultra-low-sulfur diesel require a very deep desulfurization (up to 15 ppm, which cannot be met by the conventional hydrodesulfurization units alone. The proposed method involves a batch ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAODS of a previously hydrotreated diesel (containing 480 ppm sulfur so as to convert the residual sulfur-bearing compounds into their corresponding highly polar oxides, which can be eliminated easily by extraction with a certain highly polar solvent. The oxidizing system utilized was H2O2 as an oxidant, CH3COOH as a promoter, with FeSO4 as a catalyst; whereas acetonitrile was used as extractant. The major influential parameters related to UAODS process have been investigated, namely: ratio of oxidant/fuel, ratio of the promoter/oxidant, dose of catalyst, reaction temperature, and intensity of ultrasonic waves. Kinetics of the reaction has been also studied; it was observed that the UAODS of diesel fuels fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics under the best experimental conditions, whereas values of the apparent rate constant and activation energy were 0.373 min-1 and 24 KJ/mol, respectively. The oxidation treatment, in combination with ultrasonic irradiation, revealed a synergistic effect for diesel desulfurization. The experimental results showed that sulfur removal efficiency could amount to 98% at mild operating conditions (70 ○C and 1 bar. This indicates that the process is efficient and promising for the production of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuels.

  2. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  3. Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John H. Stang

    2000-01-01

    The Automotive Market in the United States is moving in the direction of more Light Trucks and fewer Small Cars. The customers for these vehicles have not changed, only their purchase decisions. Cummins has studied the requirements of this emerging market. Design and development of an engine system that will meet these customer needs has started. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of early testing are presented which show that the diesel is possibly a good solution

  4. Soft start technique for diesel generator sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredlund, Lars [Swedish State Power Board, Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, S-430 22, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    1986-02-15

    A diesel motor in a nuclear power plant should be of a well-proven design. It is designed for long periods of trouble-free duty, but not for the frequent and rapid test starts called for by the technical specifications. In order to decrease the dynamic forces and thermal stresses, a soft-start scheme has been implemented. By limiting the fuel injection the diesel generator will reach full speed in appr. 30 seconds. The fuel limiter is a pneumatic cylinder which mechanically limits the travel of the terminal shaft of the governor. (author)

  5. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L.; Lewis, B.-A.

    1992-01-01

    At one installation in California, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, resulting in contamination at depths from 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. This paper summarizes a surfactant screening/surfactant flooding research program in which 22 surfactants were screened for their effectiveness in mobilizing the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  6. Soft start technique for diesel generator sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, Lars

    1986-01-01

    A diesel motor in a nuclear power plant should be of a well-proven design. It is designed for long periods of trouble-free duty, but not for the frequent and rapid test starts called for by the technical specifications. In order to decrease the dynamic forces and thermal stresses, a soft-start scheme has been implemented. By limiting the fuel injection the diesel generator will reach full speed in appr. 30 seconds. The fuel limiter is a pneumatic cylinder which mechanically limits the travel of the terminal shaft of the governor. (author)

  7. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  8. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Finney, Charles E.A.; Daw, C. Stuart; Foster, Dave; Rutland, Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique

  9. Application of diagnostic system for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Takeshi; Hayashi, Haruji; Usui, Hiromi; Tsuruzono, Atsuya; Matsuda, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) began to implement Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) for rotating components (pumps, fans and electric motors) from 1999 and, also has begun to apply diesel engine diagnostic techniques at our three nuclear power plants since 2004. This paper provides a description of the CBM methods used for diesel engines in nuclear standby service, a summary of the procedures to introduce these diagnostic techniques to our nuclear power plants, and experience with the application of these methods to JAPC nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Performance of ceramic coatings on diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, S.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coatings were plasma sprayed on the valve faces and tulips and the piston crowns and cylinder heads of a locomotive size diesel engine at a designated thickness of 375μm (0.015''). They were tested over a range of throttle settings for 500 hours using No. 2 diesel oil fuel. Properly applied coatings performed with no change in composition, morphology or thickness. Improperly applied coatings underwent spalling durability was dependent on quality control of the plasma spray process

  11. Common rail technology for future low emission diesel vehicles; Common Rail Technologie fuer zukuenftige Diesel Fahrzeuge mit niedrigen Emissionswerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, D.; Bercher, P.; Guerrassi, N.; Spadafora, P.

    2004-07-01

    The diesel fuel injection equipment will remain a key element for diesel engine technology evolution. Achieving emission targets at competitive prices has been and will continue to be a major technical challenge to the engine manufacturer. Delphi is continuously developing its common rail system and its components to fulfill future stricter emission legislation while simultaneously improving performance on noise, fuel consumption and power output. This paper will describe the latest developments that delphi introduced into the market in their common rail system to comply with future legislative emission targets. Further, a novel common rail injector will be presented, that uses a revolutionary, direct acting operating principle, where the nozzle is directly operated by a piezo actuator, without the use of a servo-hydraulic flow circuit. The superior performance of this injector concept will be shown, especially in minimum quantity capability as well as multiple injection performance. The direct acting operating principle allows rapid opening and closing of the injector, without compromising pilot quantity capability. The emission benefit obtained by such opening and closing behavior will be shown. Finally, based on the findings discussed, the paper will conclude on key features of future common rail systems. (orig.)

  12. Carcinogenic potential of noxious emissions of diesel engines; Potencial cancerigeno de emisiones nocivas en motores a diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Lopez, Alejandro F [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The carcinogenic effects of the solid particles of carbonaceous nature, generated during the combustion process in the diesel engines, has been a concern of public and private entities in the developed countries, specially during the two last decades. This paper includes a short revision of the recent and preceding publications, found in the technical bibliography. The engine manufacturing enterprises have carried out spectacular changes in the internal design of the diesel engines, to diminish as much as possible, the solid particle generation inside the engine itself. The effort can not come from one part only, also the fuel producing enterprises in developed countries have carried out substantial efforts to improve the fuels as well as the lubricants. The goal of this measures is to practically eliminate the sulfur content, specially in the fuel, since the formation of solid particles linearly depends, among other factors, of this noxious element content in the diesel fuel. Finally, a short discussion is included of some exhaust gases post-treatment systems, that seems to be unavoidable in order to attain the strict standards that for year 1994 and the following years have been established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA. The Mexican legislation is also analyzed through the Normas Tecnicas Ecologicas (NTE) (Ecological Technical Standards), emitted by the Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), now Secretaria de Desarrolo Economico y Social (SEDESOL), simply to have a comparison reference with the international legislation. [Espanol] Los efectos cancerigenos de las particulas solidas de caracter carbonaceo, generadas durante el proceso de combustion de los motores diesel, ha sido preocupacion de organismos publicos y privados en los paises desarrollados, en especial durante las ultimas dos decadas. El trabajo incluye una revision breve de publicaciones recientes y anteriores, que se encuentran en la literatura tecnica. Las

  13. Carcinogenic potential of noxious emissions of diesel engines; Potencial cancerigeno de emisiones nocivas en motores a diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Lopez, Alejandro F. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The carcinogenic effects of the solid particles of carbonaceous nature, generated during the combustion process in the diesel engines, has been a concern of public and private entities in the developed countries, specially during the two last decades. This paper includes a short revision of the recent and preceding publications, found in the technical bibliography. The engine manufacturing enterprises have carried out spectacular changes in the internal design of the diesel engines, to diminish as much as possible, the solid particle generation inside the engine itself. The effort can not come from one part only, also the fuel producing enterprises in developed countries have carried out substantial efforts to improve the fuels as well as the lubricants. The goal of this measures is to practically eliminate the sulfur content, specially in the fuel, since the formation of solid particles linearly depends, among other factors, of this noxious element content in the diesel fuel. Finally, a short discussion is included of some exhaust gases post-treatment systems, that seems to be unavoidable in order to attain the strict standards that for year 1994 and the following years have been established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA. The Mexican legislation is also analyzed through the Normas Tecnicas Ecologicas (NTE) (Ecological Technical Standards), emitted by the Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), now Secretaria de Desarrolo Economico y Social (SEDESOL), simply to have a comparison reference with the international legislation. [Espanol] Los efectos cancerigenos de las particulas solidas de caracter carbonaceo, generadas durante el proceso de combustion de los motores diesel, ha sido preocupacion de organismos publicos y privados en los paises desarrollados, en especial durante las ultimas dos decadas. El trabajo incluye una revision breve de publicaciones recientes y anteriores, que se encuentran en la literatura tecnica. Las

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  15. Effect of two-stage injection on combustion and emissions under high EGR rate on a diesel engine by fueling blends of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol, diesel/gasoline/n-butanol and pure diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zunqing; Yue, Lang; Liu, Haifeng; Zhu, Yuxuan; Zhong, Xiaofan; Yao, Mingfa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage injection using diesel blended fuel at high EGR (46%) was studied. • Blending fuels induce retarded pilot heat release and have less effect on MPRR. • Effects of injection parameters of blended fuels on emissions are similar to diesel. • Different fuels have little influence on post combustion heat release. • Small quantity post injection close to main results in better efficiency and emissions. - Abstract: The effect of two-stage injection on combustion and emission characteristics under high EGR (46%) condition were experimentally investigated. Four different fuels including pure diesel and blended fuels of diesel/gasoline, diesel/n-butanol, diesel/gasoline/n-butanol were tested. Results show that blending gasoline or/and n-butanol in diesel improves smoke emissions while induces increase in maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR). Adopting pilot injection close to main injection can effectively reduce the peak of premixed heat release rate and MPRR. However, for fuels blends with high percentage of low cetane number fuel, the effect of pilot fuel on ignition can be neglected and the improvement of MPRR is not that obvious. Pilot-main interval presents more obvious effect on smoke than pilot injection rate does, and the smoke emissions decrease with increasing pilot-main interval. A longer main-post interval results in a lower post heat release rate and prolonged combustion duration. While post injection rate has little effect on the start of ignition for post injection. The variation in fuel properties caused by blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel does not impose obvious influence on post combustion. The smoke emission increases first and then declines with retard of post injection timing. Compared to diesel, the smoke emissions of blended fuels are more sensitive to the variation of post injection strategy

  16. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  17. Laser characterization of fine aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to establish the feasibility of using a laser monitoring system to provide real-time data to characterize aggregate properties in a laboratory or field environment. This was accomplished by using...

  18. Integration of autothermal diesel reformer for hydrogen production feeding a PEMFC; Integracion de reformador diesel con pilas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, F. I.; Briceno, Y. B.; Navarro, R. M.; Alvarez, C.; Bordons, C.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents carried out actions to design and construct an autothermal diesel reformer for hydrogen production feeding a PEMFC.These activities have been performed by INTA, AICIA, CIDAUT and ICP-CSIC trough a collaborative effort 50% funded by INTA and by partners as in kind contributions as a function of developed tasks.The paper presents activities carried out to date: selection of a catalyst, simulation of the process, design and construction of a 5 kW autothermal diesel reformer. Reformer will be characterized during the second half of 2004 and, finally, will be installed for a proper operation together with a 5 kW PEMFC at the promises of INTA located in Centro de Experimentacion de Arenosillo at Huelva. (Author)

  19. Development of multi-component diesel surrogate fuel models – Part I: Validation of reduced mechanisms of diesel fuel constituents in 0-D kinetic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Pang, Kar Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, development and validation of reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for several different hydrocarbons are performed. These hydrocarbons are potential representative for practical diesel fuel constituents. n-Hexadecane (HXN), 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN), cyclohexane...... (CHX) and toluene are selected to represent straight-alkane, branched-alkane, cyclo-alkane and aromatic compounds in the diesel fuel. A five-stage chemical kinetic mechanism reduction scheme formulated in the previous work is applied to develop the reduced HMN and CHX models based on their respective...... detailed mechanisms. Alongside with the development of the reduced CHX model, a skeletal toluene sub-mechanism is constructed since the elementary reactions for toluene are subset of the detailed CHX mechanism. The final reduced HMN mechanism comprises 89 species with 319 elementary reactions, while...

  20. Aggregate Supply and Potential Output

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    The New-Keynesian aggregate supply derives from micro-foundations an inflation-dynamics model very much like the tradition in the monetary literature. Inflation is primarily affected by: (i) economic slack; (ii) expectations; (iii) supply shocks; and (iv) inflation persistence. This paper extends the New Keynesian aggregate supply relationship to include also fluctuations in potential output, as an additional determinant of the relationship. Implications for monetary rules and to the estimati...

  1. Eco-toxicological studies of diesel and biodiesel fuels in aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapinskiene, Asta; Martinkus, Povilas; Rebzdaite, Vilija

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare diesel fuel to biodiesel fuel by determining the toxicity of analyzed materials and by quantitatively evaluating the microbial transformation of these materials in non-adapted aerated soil. The toxicity levels were determined by measuring the respiration of soil microorganisms as well as the activity of soil dehydrogenases. The quantitative evaluation of biotransformation of analyzed materials was based on the principle of balancing carbon in the following final products: (a) carbon dioxide; (b) humus compounds; (c) the remainder of non-biodegraded analyzed material; and (d) intermediate biodegradation products and the biomass of microorganisms. The results of these studies indicate that diesel fuel has toxic properties at concentrations above 3% (w/w), while biodiesel fuel has none up to a concentration of 12% (w/w). The diesel fuel is more resistant to biodegradation and produces more humus products. The biodiesel is easily biotransformed. - The comparison of diesel and biodiesel fuels' eco-toxicological parameters in non-adapted aerated soil is relevant when considering the effects of these substances on the environment in cases of accidental spills

  2. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  3. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  4. CA Air Resource Board's Off-Road Diesel Equipment Regulation 2017 DOORS Reporting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, Pradnya [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/CA (SNL/CA) operates 14 diesel vehicles subject to the Off-Road Diesel Equipment Regulation; all the vehicles are classified as low-use vehicles. Annually, SNL/CA must report to the CA Air Resources Board (ARB) the hour-meter readings on our Off-Road Low-Use Diesel Equipment. This is to verify to the CA ARB that our equipment is being operated less than 200 hr/yr and therefore is considered “low-use” and not subject to the strict emissions standards for off-road diesel equipment. The reporting is done using DOORS, the CA ARB’s on-line reporting tool. The hour meter data for CY2017 has already been submitted using DOORS. The final step in the annual reporting process, which needs to be done by DOE, is to submit the Responsible Official Affirmation of Reporting (ROAR), which affirms that the information reported using DOORS is accurate. The ROAR is to be signed by a “Responsible Official” and can be submitted as a hardcopy ROAR or an electronic ROAR (e-ROAR) by March 1st, 2018. CA ARB’s preferred mechanism of ROAR submission is by using the e-ROAR.

  5. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  6. Combustion Model and Control Parameter Optimization Methods for Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a method to construct a combustion model and a method to optimize some control parameters of diesel engine in order to develop a model-based control system. The construction purpose of the model is to appropriately manage some control parameters to obtain the values of fuel consumption and emission as the engine output objectives. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was applied to construct combustion model with the polynomial model. Using the experimental data of a single cylinder diesel engine, the model of power, BSFC, NOx, and soot on multiple injection diesel engines was built. The proposed method succesfully developed the model that describes control parameters in relation to the engine outputs. Although many control devices can be mounted to diesel engine, optimization technique is required to utilize this method in finding optimal engine operating conditions efficiently beside the existing development of individual emission control methods. Particle swarm optimization (PSO was used to calculate control parameters to optimize fuel consumption and emission based on the model. The proposed method is able to calculate control parameters efficiently to optimize evaluation item based on the model. Finally, the model which added PSO then was compiled in a microcontroller.

  7. Macrophage triggering by aggregated immunoglobulins. II. Comparison of IgE and IgG aggregates or immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, J; Dessaint, J P; Joseph, M; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages incubated with complexed or aggregated IgE released beta-glucuronidase (beta-G) within 30 min. In contrast in the presence of aggregated or complexed IgG, macrophages liberated equivalent amount of beta-G only after 6 h incubation. In addition the rapid macrophage stimulation induced by aggregated IgE was also followed by a faster 3H-glucosamine incorporation when compared to the delayed activation caused by aggregated IgG. However, macrophages stimulated either by IgG or by IgE oligomers produced the same percentage of plasminogen activator at 24 h. In contrast, while the interaction between macrophages and aggregated IgE was only followed by a peak of cyclic GMP and a beta-G release during the first 30 min of incubation, the interaction between macrophages and IgG oligomers was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cyclic GMP and AMP nucleotides and by an absence of beta-G exocytosis. Moreover, the beta-G release induced by aggregated IgE was increased when macrophages were preincubated with aggregated IgG. This additive effect was not observed in the reverse situation. Finally macrophages activated by IgG oligomers were demonstrated to exert a cytotoxic effect on tumour cells and to kill schistosomula in the presence of a low level of complement. Taken together these results underline the peculiar ability of aggregated or complexed IgE to trigger rapidly the macrophage activation compared to aggregated IgG and can explain the important role of complexed IgE in some macrophage dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms (i.e. in parasitic diseases). PMID:6088135

  8. System for exposing animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.A.; Wolf, I.; Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Mokler, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    One approach to determining the deposition and fate of inhaled diesel particles is the conduct of inhalation exposure studies with radiolabeled diesel fuel. A system was designed, constructed and tested for the simultaneous exposure of animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust and collection of large quantities of radiolabeled diesel exhaust particles from a single cylinder diesel engine. The system performance was characterized and evaluated over a range of operating conditions: 0 to 1800 watts of engine load, 1000 to 2500 rpm and dilution air rates of 1:2 and 1:10. The exposure system met required design and operating criteria for safety, portability, space and flexibility

  9. Study on biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Phan Minh; Wattanavichien, Kanit

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a small IDI biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled CI engine used in agricultural applications. Engine performance, diesel fuel substitution, energy consumption and long term use have been concerned. The attained results show that biogas-diesel dual fuelling of this engine revealed almost no deterioration in engine performance but lower energy conversion efficiency which was offset by the reduced fuel cost of biogas over diesel. The long term use of this engine with biogas-diesel dual fuelling is feasible with some considerations

  10. Experience with emergency diesels at the Swiss NPP Goesgen (KKG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, W. [Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, CH-5303 Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1986-02-15

    The Goesgen nuclear power plant, a 970 MWe KWU pressurized water reactor, is fitted with 4 x 50 X emergency diesels and 2 x 100 % special emergency (Notstand) diesel units. Since the start-up tests of the diesels in 1977 several severe incidents occurred. As a consequence, different back-fitting actions were taken on the diesels and the emergency electrical System. The presentation will treat the following subjects: - lay-out of the onsite electrical power sources, - experiences and problems, - back-fitting measures, - periodic testing of the diesels. (author)

  11. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  12. Experience with emergency diesels at the Swiss NPP Goesgen (KKG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Goesgen nuclear power plant, a 970 MWe KWU pressurized water reactor, is fitted with 4 x 50 X emergency diesels and 2 x 100 % special emergency (Notstand) diesel units. Since the start-up tests of the diesels in 1977 several severe incidents occurred. As a consequence, different back-fitting actions were taken on the diesels and the emergency electrical System. The presentation will treat the following subjects: - lay-out of the onsite electrical power sources, - experiences and problems, - back-fitting measures, - periodic testing of the diesels. (author)

  13. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both [ 3 H]NaBH 4 reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated

  14. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  15. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheman, H.; Phadatare, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NO x to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution. (author)

  16. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  17. Feasibility Demonstration of Exciplex Fluorescence Measurements in Evaporating Laminar Sprays of Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-15

    code) 1 FEASIBILITY DEMONSTRATION OF EXCIPLEX FLUORESCENCE MEASUREMENTS IN EVAPORATING LAMINAR SPRAYS OF DIESEL FUEL Final Technical Report Grant...fluorescence is found to increase with temperature up to 538 K and then declines. Fluorescence from the liquid phase, i.e. the exciplex (Naphthalene+TMPD...to have as well characterized a description of the spray environment and assess conclusively the potential of the exciplex approach for more

  18. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  19. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  20. Aggregation models on hypergraphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberici, Diego, E-mail: diego.alberici2@unibo.it; Contucci, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.contucci@unibo.it; Mingione, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.mingione2@unibo.it; Molari, Marco, E-mail: marco.molari3@studio.unibo.it

    2017-01-15

    Following a newly introduced approach by Rasetti and Merelli we investigate the possibility to extract topological information about the space where interacting systems are modelled. From the statistical datum of their observable quantities, like the correlation functions, we show how to reconstruct the activities of their constitutive parts which embed the topological information. The procedure is implemented on a class of polymer models on hypergraphs with hard-core interactions. We show that the model fulfils a set of iterative relations for the partition function that generalise those introduced by Heilmann and Lieb for the monomer–dimer case. After translating those relations into structural identities for the correlation functions we use them to test the precision and the robustness of the inverse problem. Finally the possible presence of a further interaction of peer-to-peer type is considered and a criterion to discover it is identified.

  1. Laser diagnosis and plasma technology: Fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in DI internal combustion engines. Sub-project: Purification of diesel exhaust in pulsed plasma. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Teilvorhaben: Reinigung von Dieselabgasen in gepulsten Plasmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Birckigt, R.

    2000-12-01

    Selective catalytic reduction using ammonia based reducing agents is known to reduce the NOx-emissions from Diesel cars. However, it does not work efficiently under cold starting and urban driving conditions, because efficient reduction requires catalyst temperatures above 170 C. Without additional measures, pulsed plasma treatment does not cause reduction but mainly oxidation of nitric oxides preferably emitted as NO. By the combination of pulsed DBD-plasma treatment with selective catalytic reduction efficient NOx-reduction was obtained at catalyst temperatures below 170 C. It could be shown, that this low temperature reduction is a synergistic effect caused by plasma induced oxidation of some fraction of the NO. Based on this knowledge of the reaction mechanism plasma- and SCR-reactors were built, which were tested on a test bench equipped with a modern cars Diesel engine. Under cold starting and urban driving conditions by application of average plasma powers below 300 W the NOx-emissions were reduced for about 60%, the maximum degree of NOx-reduction was 85%. The plasma induced removal of hydrocarbons and particles, as well as the formation of by-products and the influence of hydrocarbons on the plasma induced selective catalytic reduction processes were investigated. No disadvantageous by-products could be found. (orig.) [German] Die selektive katalytische Reduktion mit Ammoniak als Reduktionsmittel ist ein bekanntes Verfahren zur Reduktion der Stickoxidemissionen von Diesel-Pkw, arbeitet aber erst ab Katalysatortemperaturen oberhalb 170 C und ist damit unter Kaltstart- und Stadtverkehrsbedingungen wenig wirksam. Gepulste Plasmen bewirken ohne zusaetzliche Massnahmen keine ausreichende chemische Reduktion sondern ueberwiegend Oxidation der als NO emittierten Stickoxide. Durch Kombination von DBE-Plasmen mit der selektiven katalytischen Reduktion hingegen konnte auch bei Katalysatortemperaturen unter 170 C wirkungsvolle NOx-Reduktion erzielt werden. Es konnte

  2. High speed diesel consumption and economic growth in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal [Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon 122001 (India)

    2010-04-15

    This study probes the long-term equilibrium relationship among High Speed Diesel (HSD) consumption, real GDP and price of HSD in India using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration for the time span 1972-1973 to 2005-2006. Empirical results reveal that the series are cointegrated and long term income elasticity for HSD demand in India is 1.27 while that for short-run is 0.46. Both long-run and short-run price elasticities are found to be statistically insignificant. The study also establishes a short-run bi-directional causality between economic growth and HSD consumption and the existence of a long-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth to HSD consumption. Finally, a set of policy prescriptions have been suggested to reduce the consumption of HSD, which should have no adverse impact on economy in the long-run. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the Use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Oil for an Emergency Diesel Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Young-Chul; Chung, Woo-Geun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the compatibility and effect on driving an emergency diesel generator using ULSD examining the specific gravity and lubricity of the oil. Because generators at NPPs use ULSD which is not mostly used for medium-large diesel generator engines, this study seeks to provide effective precautions for the driving stability of emergency diesel generators. One of the major fuel oils used in medium-large diesel engines for the normal driving of vessels and the generation of emergency power at power plants is heavy fuel oil. There are no vessels and power generation engines known to use high-quality diesel oil which is widely used in cars. The findings of this study suggest that when driving a diesel generator, there will be increased fuel consumption by 3.6% [m 3 /hr.]. Furthermore, the mechanical fuel limiter on the engine needs an upward adjustment because the system is set for 110% load operations for the former LSD fuel. Both LSD and ULSD retain lubricity with a WSD around 330~350μm. These results clearly show that bad lubricity problems are not expected to occur. We had presumed an increased amount of foreign particulates because of the increased additives for high lubricity and oxidative stability

  4. Evaluation of the Use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Oil for an Emergency Diesel Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young-Chul; Chung, Woo-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the compatibility and effect on driving an emergency diesel generator using ULSD examining the specific gravity and lubricity of the oil. Because generators at NPPs use ULSD which is not mostly used for medium-large diesel generator engines, this study seeks to provide effective precautions for the driving stability of emergency diesel generators. One of the major fuel oils used in medium-large diesel engines for the normal driving of vessels and the generation of emergency power at power plants is heavy fuel oil. There are no vessels and power generation engines known to use high-quality diesel oil which is widely used in cars. The findings of this study suggest that when driving a diesel generator, there will be increased fuel consumption by 3.6% [m{sup 3}/hr.]. Furthermore, the mechanical fuel limiter on the engine needs an upward adjustment because the system is set for 110% load operations for the former LSD fuel. Both LSD and ULSD retain lubricity with a WSD around 330~350μm. These results clearly show that bad lubricity problems are not expected to occur. We had presumed an increased amount of foreign particulates because of the increased additives for high lubricity and oxidative stability.

  5. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available (SOPAC Miscellaneous Report 406, 2005). The battery bank is cycled frequently, shortening its lifetime. If the inverter fails there is complete loss of power to the load, unless the load can be supplied directly from the diesel generator for emergency purposes....5 Sizing the inverter ............................................................................................... 67 5.6 Sizing the charge Controller ............................................................................... 68 5.7 Sizing...

  6. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verchot, L. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Head Quarters, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi (Kenya); Franken, Y.J. [FACT Foundation, Horsten 1, 5612 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mathijs, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Willem de Croylaan 42 Box 2424, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, V.P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  7. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B.; Verchot, L.; Franken, Y.J.; Mathijs, E.; Singh, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  8. Safety implications of diesel generator aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant safety improvements can be achieved in diesel-generator management related to aging, testing, and other important regulatory concerns. This paper reports on the progress of aging research related to nuclear service diesel generators, which developed data and information supporting the recommended safety improvements. The key to diesel-generator safety improvements is the development of a new balanced approach where testing, inspections, monitoring and trending, training, and maintenance all have appropriate importance. Safety improvement is projected in a management program that concurrently achieves three goals: first, the reduction of the fast-start stressor by regulatory and utility actions; second, the establishment of more appropriate testing and trending procedures; third, the adoption and use of reliability-centered maintenance activities. This paper describes the recommended safety improvements and the positive role of utility management in the process and outlines a new recommended regulatory approach. Diesel generator aging and wear is the subject of research sponsored by the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The research was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated for the US Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, A. D.; Sadhra, S.

    2004-01-01

    There is currently no OEL for diesel fumes in the UK. This study reports parallel measurements of airborne levels of diesel fume pollutants in nine distribution depots where diesel powered fork-lift trucks (FLTs) were in use. Correlations between individual pollutants are assessed as well as their spatial distribution. Samples were collected on board FLTs and at background positions at nine distribution depots. Substances measured and the range of exposures by site were: respirable dust (n = 76) GM ≤ 80-179 μg/m 3 ; elemental carbon (n = 79) GM = 7-55 μg/m 3 ; organic carbon (n = 79) GM 11-69 μg/m 3 ; ultrafine particles (n = 17) range = 58-231 x 10 3 particles/cm 3 ; selected particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (n - 14) range = 6-37 ng/m 3 . In addition, a tracer method based on ultrafine particle measurements was used to estimate the spatial distribution of total carbon and PAHs at the sites monitored. The spatial distribution was found to be reasonably uniform. Major diesel fume aerosol components were, in general, well correlated (r = 0.62-0.97). CO 2 measurements were also made and found to be below the HSE guideline of 1000 p.p.m., with most levels below 600 p.p.m. (Author)

  10. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  11. Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, M.A.; Jerger, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation techniques were successfully employed in the cost-effective cleanup of approximately 8400 gallons of diesel fuel which had been accidentally discharged at a warehouse in New Jersey. Surrounding soils were contaminated with the diesel fuel at concentrations exceeding 1,470 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbons as measured by infrared spectroscopy (TPH-IR, EPA method 418.1, modified for soils). This paper reports on treatment of the contaminated soils through enhanced biological land treatment which was chosen for the soil remediation pursuant to a New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System - Discharge to Ground Water (NJPDES-DGW) permit. Biological land treatment of diesel fuel focuses on the breakdown of the hydrocarbon fractions by indigenous aerobic microorganisms in the layers of soil where oxygen is made available. Metabolism by these microorganisms can ultimately reduce the hydrocarbons to innocuous end products. The purpose of biological land treatment was to reduce the concentration of the petroleum hydrocarbon constituents of the diesel fuel in the soil to 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)

  12. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  13. Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  15. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (POSTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV is presenting a poster at the EPA's 2005 Science Forum from May 16-18, 2005 in Washington, DC. This poster will contain a summary of the performance results realized by the six verified diesel retrofit technologies, as well as potential impacts that could be realized if sigi...

  16. An experimental study of the combusition and emission performances of 2,5-dimethylfuran diesel blends on a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Helin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. The combustion and emission performances of diesel-dimethylfuran blends were investigated under various loads ranging from 0.13 to 1.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure, and a constant speed of 1800 rpm. Results indicate that diesel-dimethylfuran blends have different combustion performance and produce longer ignition delay and shorter combustion duration compared with pure diesel. Moreover, a slight increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency occurs when a Diesel engine operates with blended fuels, rather than diesel fuel. Diesel-dimethylfuran blends could lead to higher NOx emissions at medium and high engine loads. However, there is a significant reduction in soot emission when engines are fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. Soot emissions under each operating conditions are similar and close to zero except for D40 at 0.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The total number and mean geometric diameter of emitted particles from diesel-dimethylfuran blends are lower than pure diesel. The tested fuels exhibit no significant difference in either CO or HC emissions at medium and high engine loads. Nevertheless, diesel fuel produces the lowest CO emission and higher HC emission at low loads of 0.13 to 0.38 MPa brake mean effective pressure.

  17. A study on the detection of misfiring cylinder of the diesel engine in excavation machinery using improved ALM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, M.; Kawamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ujihira, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Engineering; Akhmetov, D.F.; Ito, F.; Aoshima, N. [NTT DoCoMo Inc. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Mechanical problems in large-scale mining equipment can result in serious losses in operational efficiency and profits. A misfiring cylinder in a diesel engine can cause engine failure in a short period of time. Regular maintenance and inspection of machinery is therefore critical for mining and construction operations. For that reason, an innovative method was developed to detect whether a cylinder is misfiring, and if so, which one. This study established a simple, reliable and sure method using the improved aggregative learning method (ALM) analysis for the early diagnosis and repair of misfiring cylinders. A minimum number of sensors were applied on the side of 2 cylinders on a diesel engine in order to set up an abnormal diagnostic system that detects anomalies at an early stage by analyzing the acceleration waveform using the ALM method. The detection method is better than traditional methods that require accelerometers. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Baruah, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency.

  19. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  20. Aggregated recommendation through random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy.

  1. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  2. Preparation of AAO-CeO2 nanotubes and their application in electrochemical oxidation desulfurization of diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yumeng; Yi, Chenxi; Chen, Yu; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-02-01

    The coaxial arrays of AAO-CeO2 NTs have been successfully galvanostatically deposited on an anode, characterized and adopted as a catalyst for removing organic sulfurs from diesel. The influence of the main electrochemical oxidation factors on the efficiency of desulfurization have also been investigated. The results show that the fabrication process of AAO-CeO2 NTs is accompanied by the formation of a new phase, namely Al3Ce, and the main oxidation products of the diesel are soluble inorganic sulphides, especially Ce2(SO4)3. When compared with dibenzothiophene and 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, benzothiophene is much more easily removed, with a removal efficiency that reaches 87.2%. Finally, a possible electrochemical oxidation desulfurization pathway for diesel is proposed.

  3. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  4. A Functional Reference Architecture for Aggregators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Aggregators are considered to be a key enabling technology for harvesting power system services from distributed energy resources (DER). As a precondition for more widespread use of aggregators in power systems, methods for comparing and validating aggregator designs must be established. This paper...... proposes a functional reference architecture for aggregators to address this requirement....

  5. Exposure of miners to diesel exhaust particulates in underground nonmetal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H J; Borak, J; Hall, T; Sirianni, G; Chemerynski, S

    2002-01-01

    A study was initiated to examine worker exposures in seven underground nonmetal mines and to examine the precision of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 5040 sampling and analytical method for diesel exhaust that has recently been adopted for compliance monitoring by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Approximately 1000 air samples using cyclones were taken on workers and in areas throughout the mines. Results indicated that worker exposures were consistently above the MSHA final limit of 160 micrograms/m3 (time-weighted average; TWA) for total carbon as determined by the NIOSH 5040 method and greater than the proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLV limit of 20 micrograms/m3 (TWA) for elemental carbon. A number of difficulties were documented when sampling for diesel exhaust using organic carbon: high and variable blank values from filters, a high variability (+/- 20%) from duplicate punches from the same sampling filter, a consistent positive interference (+26%) when open-faced monitors were sampled side-by-side with cyclones, poor correlation (r 2 = 0.38) to elemental carbon levels, and an interference from limestone that could not be adequately corrected by acid-washing of filters. The sampling and analytical precision (relative standard deviation) was approximately 11% for elemental carbon, 17% for organic carbon, and 11% for total carbon. An hypothesis is presented and supported with data that gaseous organic carbon constituents of diesel exhaust adsorb onto not only the submicron elemental carbon particles found in diesel exhaust, but also mining ore dusts. Such mining dusts are mostly nonrespirable and should not be considered equivalent to submicron diesel particulates in their potential for adverse pulmonary effects. It is recommended that size-selective sampling be employed, rather than open-faced monitoring, when using the NIOSH 5040 method.

  6. Revisión de las emisiones de material particulado por la cumbustión de diesel y biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Y. Rojas

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de estudios comparativos entre las emisiones de material particulado por la combustión de diesel de petróleo, biodiesel y mezclas de los dos combustibles, basados no sólo en la concentración másica de las partículas emitidas, sino también en la distribución de su tamaño, concentración y composición química. Finalmente, se presenta la necesidad del país de realizar una caracterización completa de las emisiones de material particulado por la combustión de diesel, biodiesel de aceite de palma y mezclas de los dos, dadas las características particulares de estos combustibles en Colombia. La revisión fue presentada en el I Seminario Internacional de Biocombustibles, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, agosto 4 al 6 de 2004. / This paper shows a review of studies comparing particulate emissions from diesel engines running on diesel, biodiesel and their blends, based not only on particle mass concentrations, but also on particle number concentrations and particulate chemical composition. Finally, it summarizes the need for thoroughly characterizing particulate matter emissions in studies comparing Colombian diesel and biodiesel from palm oil (or other oil-producing Colombian species.

  7. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R; Guillén-Flores, J; Martínez, J D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. [69 FR 39171, June 29, 2004] ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment...

  9. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for problems to take on tractable forms. Aggregation may lead to loss of information, i.e. the aggregated formulation may be an approximation of the original problem. In branch-and-bound context, aggregation can also complicate branching, e.g. when...... optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem....

  10. Development and validation of spray models for investigating diesel engine combustion and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sibendu

    combusting data from Sandia National Laboratory. The KH-ACT model is observed to provide better predictions for spray dispersion, axial velocity decay, sauter mean diameter, and liquid and lift-off length interplay which is attributed to the enhanced primary breakup predicted by this model. In addition, experimentally observed trends with changing nozzle conicity could only be captured by the KH-ACT model. Results further indicate that the combustion under diesel engine conditions is characterized by a double-flame structure with a rich premixed reaction zone near the flame stabilization region and a non-premixed reaction zone further downstream. Finally, the differences in inner nozzle flow and spray characteristics of petrodiesel and biodiesel are quantified. The improved modeling capability developed in this work can be used for extensive diesel engine simulations to further optimize injection, spray, combustion, and emission processes.

  11. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...... aggregation aim at balancing flexibilities in production and consumption to reduce the probability of congestions and reduce the complexity of scheduling. We present results of our extensive experiments....

  12. Turbulent breakage of ductile aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioli, Cristian; Soldati, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we study breakage rate statistics of small colloidal aggregates in nonhomogeneous anisotropic turbulence. We use pseudospectral direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow and Lagrangian tracking to follow the motion of the aggregates, modeled as sub-Kolmogorov massless particles. We focus specifically on the effects produced by ductile rupture: This rupture is initially activated when fluctuating hydrodynamic stresses exceed a critical value, σ>σ(cr), and is brought to completion when the energy absorbed by the aggregate meets the critical breakage value. We show that ductile rupture breakage rates are significantly reduced with respect to the case of instantaneous brittle rupture (i.e., breakage occurs as soon as σ>σ(cr)). These discrepancies are due to the different energy values at play as well as to the statistical features of energy distribution in the anisotropic turbulence case examined.

  13. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.

  15. SHAPE CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE AGGREGATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In general, properties of conventional concrete have been found favoured by optimum packing density of the aggregate. Particle size is a common denominator in such studies. Size segregation in the ITZ among the binder particles in the fresh state, observed in simulation studies by concurrent algorithm-based SPACE system, additionally governs density as well as physical bonding capacity inside these shell-like zones around aggregate particles. These characteristics have been demonstrated qualitatively pertaining also after maturation of the concrete. Such properties of the ITZs have direct impact on composite properties. Despite experimental approaches revealed effects of aggregate grain shape on different features of material structure (among which density, and as a consequence on mechanical properties, it is still an underrated factor in laboratory studies, probably due to the general feeling that a suitable methodology for shape characterization is not available. A scientific argument hindering progress is the interconnected nature of size and shape. Presently, a practical problem preventing shape effects to be emphasized is the limitation of most computer simulation systems in concrete technology to spherical particles. New developments at Delft University of Technology will make it possible in the near future to generate jammed states, or other high-density fresh particle mixtures of non-spherical particles, which thereupon can be subjected to hydration algorithms. This paper will sketch the outlines of a methodological approach for shape assessment of loose (non-embedded aggregate grains, and demonstrate its use for two types of aggregate, allowing

  16. A preference aggregation model and application in AHP-group decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taiyi; Yang, De; Chao, Xiangrui

    2018-04-01

    Group decision making process integrate individual preferences to obtain the group preference by applying aggregation rules and preference relations. The two most useful approaches, the aggregation of individual judgements and the aggregation of individual priorities, traditionally are employed in the Analytic Hierarchy Process to deal with group decision making problems. In both cases, it is assumed that the group preference is approximate weighted mathematical expectation of individual judgements and individual priorities. We propose new preference aggregation methods using optimization models in order to obtain group preference which is close to all individual priorities. Some illustrative examples are finally examined to demonstrate proposed models for application.

  17. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  18. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  19. Multi-zone modeling of Diesel engine fuel spray development with vegetable oil, bio-diesel or Diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a model of fuel sprays development in the cylinders of Diesel engines that is two-dimensional, multi-zone, with the issuing jet (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection as well as across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber before and after wall impingement. After the jet break up time, a group of droplets is generated in each zone, with the model following their motion during heating, evaporation and mixing with the in-cylinder air. The model is applied for the interesting case of using vegetable oils or their derived bio-diesels as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives to petroleum distillates since they are derived from biological sources. Although there are numerous experimental studies that show curtailment of the emitted smoke with possible increase of the emitted NO x against the use of Diesel fuel, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these biologically derived fuels. Thus, in the present work, a theoretical detailed model of spray formation is developed that is limited to the related investigation of the physical processes by decoupling it from the chemical effects after combustion initiation. The analysis results show how the widely differing physical properties of these fuels, against the normal Diesel fuel, affect greatly the spray formation and consequently the combustion mechanism and the related emissions

  20. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  2. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  3. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  4. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10/90 and 20/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' Diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements, i.e. cottonseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and their corresponding methyl esters, as well as rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester, corn oil and olive kernel oil. The series of tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at a medium and high load. In each test, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and total unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are measured. From the first measurement, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are computed. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat Diesel fuel, are determined and compared. This comparison is extended between the use of the vegetable oil blends and the bio-diesel blends. Theoretical aspects of Diesel engine combustion, combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of these Diesel fuel supplements against the normal Diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  5. Lab-scale investigation on remediation of diesel-contaminated aquifer using microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciglia, Pietro P; Maddalena, Riccardo; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Messina, Valeria; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

    2016-02-01

    Aquifer contamination with diesel fuel is a worldwide environmental problem, and related available remediation technologies may not be adequately efficient, especially for the simultaneous treatment of both solid and water phases. In this paper, a lab-scale 2.45 GHz microwave (MW) treatment of an artificially diesel-contaminated aquifer was applied to investigate the effects of operating power (160, 350 and 500 W) and time on temperature profiles and contaminant removal from both solid and water phases. Results suggest that in diesel-contaminated aquifer MW remediation, power significantly influences the final reachable temperature and, consequently, contaminant removal kinetics. A maximum temperature of about 120 °C was reached at 500 W. Observed temperature values depended on the simultaneous irradiation of both aquifer grains and groundwater. In this case, solid phase heating is limited by the maximum temperature that interstitial water can reach before evaporation. A minimal residual diesel concentration of about 100 mg kg(-1) or 100 mg L(-1) was achieved by applying a power of 500 W for a time of 60 min for the solid or water phase, respectively. Measured residual TPH fractions showed that MW heating resulted in preferential effects of the removal of different TPH molecular weight fractions and that the evaporation-stripping phenomena plays a major role in final contaminant removal processes. The power low kinetic equation shows an excellent fit (r(2) > 0.993) with the solid phase residual concentration observed for all the powers investigated. A maximum diesel removal of 88 or 80% was observed for the MW treatment of the solid or water phase, respectively, highlighting the possibility to successfully and simultaneously remediate both the aquifer phases. Consequently, MW, compared to other biological or chemical-physical treatments, appears to be a better choice for the fast remediation of diesel-contaminated aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  6. The alkali–aggregate reaction for various aggregates used in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón, V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of the interactions between aggregates and the components of the interstitial phase of concrete and to determine whether those aggregates that are subsequently used in the manufacture of concrete are reagents and are therefore likely to undergo a progressive deterioration of their initial properties. An initial petrographic study of each aggregate is performed in order to be able to determine its subsequent behaviour and reactivity under the influence of various factors. The potential reactivity of different silicaceous aggregates (slates, gneiss, hornfels, granites, quartzite and serpentine is then determined by a chemical method for evaluating the potential reactivity of aggregates and an accelerated method in mortar specimens, and finally the surface reactivity is investigated. The results of these studies suggest that some aggregates are able to react with the components of the interstitial phase of concrete. The existence of this kind of interaction is confirmed by the results of the surface investigations before and after the basic reaction.

    Este trabajo pretende contribuir al conocimiento de las reacciones de interacción entre los áridos y los componentes de la fase intersticial del hormigón y determinar si estos áridos, empleados posteriormente en la fabricación del hormigón, son reactivos y por tanto susceptibles de provocar una disminución progresiva de sus propiedades iniciales. Para la caracterización de cada árido se ha realizado un estudio petrográfico, fundamental a la hora de determinar su posterior comportamiento en términos de reactividad frente a diversos factores. Seguidamente, se ha analizado la reactividad potencial de diferentes áridos silicatados (pizarras, gneis, corneanas, granitos, cuarcita y serpentina mediante los dos métodos normalizados existentes: el método químico para la determinación de la reactividad potencial de áridos y

  7. Projects to Improve Air Quality at Ports – 2014 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Funding Opportunity - Closed Announcement FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTAQ is soliciting proposals that achieve reductions in diesel emissions produced by diesel engines and diesel emissions exposure, from fleets operating at marine and inland water ports under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA).

  8. Projects to Improve Air Quality at Ports – 2013 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Funding Opportunity - Closed Announcement FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTAQ is soliciting proposals that achieve reductions in diesel emissions produced by diesel engines and diesel emissions exposure, from fleets operating at marine and inland water ports under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA).

  9. Emergency diesel generator reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    A program to apply some of the techniques of reliability engineering to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was started on August 8, 1992. Part of the program was to track the conditional probabilities of the emergency diesel generators responding to a valid demand. This was done to determine if the performance of the emergency diesel generators (which are more than 25 years old) has deteriorated. The conditional probabilities of the diesel generators were computed and trended for the period from May 1990 to December 1992. The calculations indicate that the performance of the emergency diesel generators has not deteriorated in recent years, i.e., the conditional probabilities of the emergency diesel generators have been fairly stable over the last few years. This information will be one factor than may be considered in the decision to replace the emergency diesel generators

  10. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2......, NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...... that have been evaluated during the experiments. Both vehicle types were operated on conventional crude oil based fuels and alternative fuels. The diesel vehicle was operated on conventional diesel fuel from a Danish fuel station, low sulfur diesel from Sweden and biodiesel, which was bought at a fuel...

  11. Formation and emission of organic pollutants from diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoli, C.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A.; Barbella, R.

    1993-01-01

    The emission of soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from diesel engines results from the competition between oxidative and pyrolytic routes which the fuel takes in the unsteady, heterogeneous conditions of the diesel combustion process. In-cylinder sampling and analysis of particulate (soot and condensed hydrocarbon species), light hydrocarbons and gaseous inorganic species were carried out in two locations of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine by means of a fast sampling valve in order to follow the behaviour of a diesel fuel during the engine cycle. The effect of fuel quality (volatility, aromatic content, cetane number) and air/fuel mass feed ratio on soot, PAH, and light and heavy hydrocarbons was also investigated by direct sampling and chemical analysis of the exhausts emitted from a direct injection diesel engine (D.I.) and an indirect injection diesel engine (I.D.I.)

  12. Biodiesel as a lubricity additive for ultra low sulfur diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subongkoj Topaiboul1 and 2,*

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide trend to reduce emission from diesel engines, ultra low sulfur diesel has been introduced with thesulfur concentration of less than 10 ppm. Unfortunately, the desulfurization process inevitably reduces the lubricity of dieselfuel significantly. Alternatively, biodiesel, with almost zero sulfur content, has been added to enhance lubricity in an ultralow sulfur diesel. This work has evaluated the effectiveness of the biodiesel amount, sourced from palm and jatropha oil,and origin in ultra low sulfur diesel locally available in the market. Wear scar from a high-frequency reciprocating rig isbenchmarked to the standard value (460 m of diesel fuel lubricity. It was found that very small amount (less than 1% ofbiodiesel from either source significantly improves the lubricity in ultra low sulfur diesel, and the biodiesel from jatropha oilis a superior lubricity enhancer.

  13. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  14. Performance characteristics of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jizhou; Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu

    2009-01-01

    The Diesel refrigeration cycle using an ideal quantum gas as the working substance is called quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle, which is different from Carnot, Ericsson, Brayton, Otto and Stirling refrigeration cycles. For ideal quantum gases, a corrected equation of state, which considers the quantum behavior of gas particles, is used instead of the classical one. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum gas as the working substance on the performance of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle. It is found that coefficients of performance of the cycle are not affected by the quantum degeneracy of the working substance, which is the same as that of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. However, the refrigeration load is different from those of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. Lastly, the influence of the quantum degeneracy on the performance characteristics of the quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle operated in different temperature regions is discussed

  15. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  16. Lignocellulosic Biobutanol as Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pexa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery of lignocellulosic waste material in the form of liquid fractions can yield alcohol-based fuels such as bioethanol or biobutanol. This study examined biobutanol derived from lignocellulosic material that was then used as an additive for diesel engines. Biobutanol was used in fuel mixtures with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME obtained by esterification of animal fat (also a waste material in the amounts of 10%, 30%, and 50% butanol. 100% diesel and 100% FAME were used as reference fuels. The evaluation concerned the fuel’s effect on the external speed characteristics, harmful exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption while using the Non-Road Steady Cycle test. When the percentage of butanol was increased, the torque and the power decreased and the brake specific fuel consumption increased. The main advantage of using biobutanol in fuel was its positive effect on reducing the fuel’s viscosity.

  17. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.; Montemagno, C.D.; Lewis, B.

    1991-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which 21 surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site

  18. Asian gasoline and diesel fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Nancy D.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the economic slowdown in the late 1990s, gasoline and diesel demand in the Asia-Pacific region has increased significantly. Regional demand is the highest in the world and most new refinery projects worldwide during the 1990s have been here. Generalisations are difficult because the region contains countries at different stages of economic development and environmental quality standards. Gasoline and diesel demand for 1985-2005 for Australasia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Asia is shown in four histograms. The trend towards unleaded gasoline, average gasoline aromatics levels and the quality of gasoline in Australasia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia are examined. A further three histograms show the growth in Asia-Pacific unleaded gasoline market share 1991-2000, the rise in octane levels as lead levels fall (1991-2005) and the calculated aromatics content of gasoline in 11 Asia-Pacific countries

  19. Life cycle assessment of gasoline and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuholt, Edgar

    1995-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out to compare production and use of three different fuel products: regular gasoline, gasoline with MTBE and diesel. The study quantifies energy consumption and emissions through the production chain and assesses the potential impacts to the environment. Some of the methodological problems performing the LCA are discussed. The study indicates that production of gasoline with MTBE has potentially larger environmental impacts than production of regular gasoline, caused by the extra facilities for production of MTBE. The study also shows that the results are highly sensitive to the actual product specifications and assumptions that are made. Different product specifications can therefore lead to other conclusions. The results also indicate that production of diesel leads to significantly lower potential impacts than the gasolines

  20. An expert system for diesel generator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.C.; Read, J.W.; Kaplan, S.; Liming, J.K.; Brosee, N.M.; Hanley, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The idea of developing artificial intelligence (AI) systems to capture the knowledge of human experts is receiving much attention these days. The idea is even more attractive when important expertise resides within a single individual, especially one who is nearing retirement and who has not otherwise recorded or passed along his important knowledge and thought processes. The diesel generators at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station have performed exceptionally well, primarily due to the care and attention of one man. Therefore, the authors are constructing an expert system for the diagnosis of diesel generator problems at Pilgrim. This paper includes a description of the expert system design and operation, examples from the knowledge base, and sample diagnoses, so the reader can observe the process in action

  1. The diesel engine and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the development of engines has been oriented towards reducing the emissions of exhaust substances that are harmful to the environment. In the case of diesel engines, emission control is mainly concentrated to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulates. Exhaust emission control has already advanced so far that the results achieved would have been regarded unrealistic a mere ten years ago. Diesel exhaust gases also include hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), although technology is approaching the stage at which these substances will have been eliminated. This report summarizes problem areas of exhaust emission control, exhaust emission theory, exhaust gas substances and environmental chemistry, emission regulations, risks of automotive exhaust gases, among others. 33 refs

  2. Shape characterization of concrete aggregate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; Hu, J.

    2006-01-01

    As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In

  3. Aggregate modeling of manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, A.A.J.; Armbruster, H.D.; Kempf, K.G.; Keskinocak, P.; Uzsoy, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we will present three approaches to model manufacturing systems in an aggregate way leading to fast and effective (i.e., scalable) simulations that allow the development of simulation tools for rapid exploration of different production scenarios in a factory as well as in a whole

  4. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashkpour, Ashkan; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Mandemakers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    Historical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  5. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ashkpour (Ashkan); A. Meronõ-Peñuela (Albert); C.A. Mandemakers (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHistorical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  6. Aggregate modeling of manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, A.A.J.; Armbruster, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    In this report we will present three approaches to model manufacturing systems in an aggregate way leading to fast and effective (i.e., scalable) simulations that allow the development of simulation tools for rapid exploration of different production scenarios in a factory as well as in a whole

  7. Diversity, intent, and aggregated search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, intent and aggregated search are three core retrieval concepts that receive significant attention. In search result diversification one typically considers the relevance of a document in light of other retrieved documents. The goal is to identify the probable "aspects" of an ambiguous

  8. Experimental Study on the Plasma Purification for Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zu, Kan; Wang, Mei

    2018-02-01

    It is known that the use of ternary catalysis is capable of significantly reducing the emission of pollutants from petrol vehicles. However, the disadvantages such as the temperature and other limitations make it unsuitable for diesel engines. The plasma-assisted catalyst technology has been applied in dealing with the diesel exhaust in the experiment in order to do further research on the effects of plasma in exhaust processing. The paper not only includes the experimental observation on the change of particle concentration after the operation of purification device, but also builds the kinetic model of chemical reactions to simulate the reactions of nitrogen oxides in plasma through using the software of Matlab, then compares the calculation results with experimental samples and finally gets some useful conclusions in practice.

  9. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  10. Research on the Diesel Engine with Sliding Mode Variable Structure Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhexuan; Mao, Xiaobing; Cai, Le

    2018-05-01

    This study constructed the nonlinear mathematical model of the diesel engine high-pressure common rail (HPCR) system through two polynomial fitting which was treated as a kind of affine nonlinear system. Based on sliding-mode variable structure control (SMVSC) theory, a sliding-mode controller for affine nonlinear systems was designed for achieving the control of common rail pressure and the diesel engine’s rotational speed. Finally, on the simulation platform of MATLAB, the designed nonlinear HPCR system was simulated. The simulation results demonstrated that sliding-mode variable structure control algorithm shows favourable control performances which are overcoming the shortcomings of traditional PID control in overshoot, parameter adjustment, system precision, adjustment time and ascending time.

  11. Plant-specific evaluations of Transamerica Delaval diesel engines for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingee, D.A.; Laity, W.W.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1985-03-01

    This paper discusses the approach taken to evlauate the readiness of Transamerica Delaval, Inc. (TDI) diesel generators for nuclear service at five power plants: Catawba, Comanche Peak, Grand Gulf, San Onofre, and Shoreham. TDI engines in these and other nuclear power plants have been the subject of a coordinated effort by 13 nuclear utilities to address reliability and quality issues. The utilities formed the TDI Diesel Generator Owners' Group and prepared a comprehensive plan for requalifying the engines as emergency power sources. Prior to full implementation of the plan by the Owners' Group and final review of the findings by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several member plants became candidates for operating licenses. The TDI engines in those plants, including the five listed above, were evaluated on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the factors discussed in this paper. 2 refs

  12. Combustion Property Analysis and Control System for the Dynamics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding to global environment problems in recent year, the technology for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission of engine was needed. Simulation of transient engine response is needed to predict engine performance that frequently experience rapid changes of speed. The aim of this research is to develop a non-linear dynamic control model for direct injection single cylinder diesel engine which can simulate engine performance under transient conditions. In this paper, the combustion model with multistage injection and conducted experiments in the transient conditions to clarify the combustion characteristics was proposed. In order to perform the analysis of acceleration operation characteristics, it was built a Model Predictive Control (MPC to reproduce the characteristic values of the exhaust gas and fuel consumption from the control parameters in particular. Finally, MPC is an effective method to perform the analysis of characteristic in diesel engine under transient conditions.

  13. Use of Spent Zeolite Sorbents for the Preparation of Lightweight Aggregates Differing in Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Franus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight aggregates (LWAs made by sintering beidellitic clay deposits at high temperatures, with and without the addition of spent zeolitic sorbents (clinoptilolitic tuff and Na-P1 made from fly ash containing diesel oil, were investigated. Mineral composition of the aggregates determined by X-ray diffraction was highly uniformized in respect of the initial composition of the substrates. The microstructure of the LWAs, which were studied with a combination of mercury porosimetry, microtomography, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy, was markedly modified by the spent zeolites, which diminished bulk densities, increased porosities and pore radii. The addition of zeolites decreased water absorption and the compressive strength of the LWAs. The spent Na-P1 had a greater effect on the LWAs’ structure than the clinoptilolite.

  14. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications. PMID:28788372

  15. Durability Indicators in High Absorption Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled aggregates in structural concrete production has the inconvenience of increasing the fluid transport properties, such as porosity, sorptivity, and permeability, which reduces the resistance against penetration of environmental loads such as carbon dioxide and chloride ion. In this paper, behavior of ten concrete mixtures with different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement was studied. The recycled material was recovered by crushing of concrete rubble and had high absorption values. The results showed that it is possible to achieve good resistance to carbonation and chloride penetration with up to 50% replacement of recycled coarse aggregate for 0.5 water/cement ratio. Finally, new indexes for porosity and sorptivity were proposed to assess the quality of concrete.

  16. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-10-31

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  17. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  18. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  19. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  20. Diesel generator trailer acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document compliance with the requirements of WHC-S-0252 Rev. 1 and ECNs 609271, and 609272. The equipment being tested is a 150KW Diesel Generator mounted on a trailer with switchgear. The unit was purchased as a Design and Fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and will be performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing the test at the Seller's location

  1. Hydrogen, nitrogen and syngas enriched diesel combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulou, Fanos

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University On-board hydrogen and syngas production is considered as a transition solution from fossil fuel to hydrogen powered vehicles until problems associated with hydrogen infrastructure, distribution and storage are resolved. A hydrogen- or syngas-rich stream, which substitutes part of the main hydrocarbon fuel, can be produced by supplying diesel fuel in a fuel-reforming reactor, integrated within ...

  2. Diesel soot oxidation under controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haiwen

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 11/12/2003. In order to improve understanding of diesel soot oxidation, an experimental rig was designed and set up, in which the soot oxidation conditions, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and CO2 partial pressure, could be varied independently of each other. The oxidizing gas flow in the oxidizer was under laminar condition. This test rig comprised a naturally-aspirated single ...

  3. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  4. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  5. A Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation Based on ECC in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes’ privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC. The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes.

  6. The economics of a variable speed wind-diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, W.

    1992-01-01

    A remote community power supply system generating over 1,000 kWH/d will have at least one diesel generator running all the time. If one or more wind turbine generators are added to such a system, the diesel generator will produce less power when wind speeds are adequate, but its fuel efficiency will gradually decrease as load decreases. In the variable speed wind/diesel concept, the diesel rpm is reduced with decreasing load and a high fuel efficiency is maintained over virtually the full power range. The outputs of the diesel and wind turbine generators are fed into an inverter which synthesizes a desired voltage wave-shape with controlled magnitude and frequency. The variable speed wind/diesel concept may make vertical axis wind turbines suitable for remote community power supply because the inverter effectively isolates the power ripple of the wind turbine. A possible wind/diesel system configuration using the variable speed concept is illustrated. The economics of a 50-kW variable speed diesel and a 80-kW variable speed wind turbine generator was analyzed. Going from a constant speed diesel generator to a variable speed generator operating at 55% capacity factor, a 6% fuel saving was achieved. Adding one 80-kW wind turbine increased fuel savings to 32% at 5 m/s wind speed, but the unit energy cost rose 8.5%. At 7 m/s wind speed, fuel savings were 59% and energy savings were 7.8%. Economics are better for a peaking variable speed 50-kW wind/diesel system added to an existing diesel system to extend the installed capacity. At 7 m/s wind speed the fuel savings translate into ca $40,000 over 10 y and purchase of a $150,000 diesel generator is postponed. 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  8. Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    F. Halek; A. Kavousi; M. Banifatemi

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester or FAME) because of the similarity in its properties when compared to those of diesel fuels. Diesel engines operated on biodiesel have lower emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and air toxics than when operated on petroleum-based diesel fuel. Production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed (nonedible oil) fatty acid distillate having high free fatty acids (FFA) ...

  9. Analysis of operation events for HFETR emergency diesel generator set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiqiang; Ji Xifang; Deng Hong

    2015-01-01

    By the statistic analysis of the historical failure data of the emergency diesel generator set, the specific mode, the attribute, and the direct and root origin for each failure are reviewed and summarized. Considering the current status of the emergency diesel generator set, the preventive measures and solutions in terms of operation, handling and maintenance are proposed, and the potential events for the emergency diesel generator set are analyzed. (authors)

  10. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    state Figure 5. Q criterion isosurface colored by streamwise velocity in the diesel spray injector as viewed from the nozzle exit. Figure 6. U contour...fidelity simulation approach was adopted to study the atom- ization physics of a diesel injector with detailed nozzle internal geometry. The nozzle flow...26; Stanford, CA 14. ABSTRACT A high fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector has been

  11. 40 CFR 80.602 - What records must be kept by entities in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements... in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel additive production, importation, and...

  12. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  13. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  14. Vale nails down reduction of diesel particulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmour, A.

    2010-09-01

    This article discussed innovations for reducing emissions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from light-duty underground vehicles. DPM is a byproduct of diesel-powered equipment. Controlling these emissions at the source of generation is necessary for a healthy work environment and more cost effective than fresh air ventilation to reduce contaminant concentrations. Previous diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems required extensive human intervention, but this was deemed too inefficient. A DPF system that does not require human intervention was developed and proved successful in filter regeneration, longevity, and reliability. This DPF system uses a sintered metal filter element, a base metal, fuel-borne catalyst with an on-board dosing system, an electric heater that uses on-board power, and a sensor-based control unit. Software in the control unit adjusts fuel dosing rates and heater timing to ensure filter regeneration for different engines and operating scenarios. The new filter system is robust, and it has a compact design and long service-intervals. The product is still being tested to determine the costs and service life of the filter. More testing on fuel additives was deemed to be warranted, as was designing filter elements for larger engines used in heavy-duty vehicles.

  15. Pyramid mountain diesel fuel storage site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brolmsa, M.; Sandau, C. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Remediation activities during the decommissioning of a microwave tower facility where a tram line was used to transfer diesel fuel from the base of a mountain to its summit were described. As the site was leased from Parks Canada, federal guidelines were used to assess levels of contamination. Underground storage tanks (USTs) used for diesel storage had been replaced with aboveground storage tanks (AST) in 1994. Remediation was also complicated by the remote location and altitude of the site, as well as by extreme weather conditions. Hand auguring and test pitting were used at both the summit and base to allow characterization and preliminary delineation of impacted soils. A heavy lift helicopter was used to place demolition and excavation equipment on the summit. An excavator was used to remove hydrocarbon impacted soils. Following the remedial excavation for the summit diesel AST, residual soil impacts in excess of the applicable remediation guidelines were present at the bottom of the tank nest and under a floor slab. An environmental liner was installed, and a quantitative screening level risk assessment demonstrated the low level of risk for the area, as well as for waste oil impacted soils on the slope below the summit. Contaminants of potential concern were barium, zinc, naphthalene, and petroleum hydrocarbon fractions F1-F4. It was concluded that there are now no unacceptable ecological or human risks from residual impacts at the site. 1 tab., 19 figs.

  16. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  17. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  18. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils Biodegradabilidade de óleos diesel comercial e intemperizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 - dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de diferentes microrganismos em degradar óleo diesel comercial em comparação com um óleo diesel intemperizado coletado da água subterrânea em um posto de combust

  20. The Particle Number Emission Characteristics of the Diesel Engine with a Catalytic Diesel Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their adverse health effects and their abundance in urban areas, diesel exhaust ultrafine particles caused by the aftertreatment devices have been of great concern in the past years. An experiment of particles number emissions was carried out on a high-pressure, common rail diesel engine with catalytic diesel particle filter (CDPF to investigate the impact of CDPF on the number emission characteristics of particles. The results indicated that the conversion rates of CDPF is over 97%. The size distributions of particles are bimodal lognormal distributions downstream CDPF at 1400 r/min and 2300 r/min. CDPF has a lower conversion rates on the nucleation mode particles. The geometric number mean diameters of particles downstream CDPF is smaller than that upstream CDPF.

  1. The all new BMW top diesel engines; Die neuen Diesel Spitzenmotorisierungen von BMW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardey, N.; Wichtl, R.; Steinmayr, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Hiemesch, D.; Stuetz, W. [BMW Motoren GmbH, Steyr (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    From the very beginning, diesel drivetrains have been important components of the BMW EfficientDynamics strategy. High levels of driving dynamics in combination with attractive fuel consumption have become features of a wide range of models. With the introduction of 2-stage turbocharging for passenger car diesel engines in 2004, BMW was able to significantly enhance the power density without increasing the number of cylinders or the cylinder capacity. In the meantime, the BMW TwinPower Turbo diesel engine variants achieve a rated power of up to 160 kW on the 2.0-litre 4-cylinder engine and 230 kW on the 3.0-litre 6-cylinder engine. In order to extend the leading position in the premium segment, a new BMW TwinPower Turbo variant has been developed. The major objectives were to achieve a range of power output, torque and comfort at least at the level of 8-cylinder competitors, but at the same time equal the lower fuel consumption and power/weight ratio that is typical for existing BMW 6-cylinder diesel engines. The new engine will be used for the first time in the emphatically sports-oriented BMW M Performance Automobiles (MPA) of the X5/X6 and 5 Series. The charging and injection technology as well as capability of high cylinder pressures in the core engine are key technologies for the enhancement of performance. The new BMW TwinPower Turbo diesel drivetrain is based on the main dimensions of the existing 3.0-litre 6-cylinder inline diesel engines. The core element of the new engine is a 2-stage turbocharging system, consisting of 3 exhaust turbochargers. A common rail injection system with a system pressure up to 2200 bar is deployed for the first time. The drive unit has been configured for a maximum cylinder pressure of 200 bar, an innovative feature is the aluminium crankcase with its screwed tension anchor connection. The cooling system contains an indirect 2-stage intercooler. The exhaust system of the new BMW diesel engine in the 5 Series is equipped as

  2. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on less aggregated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiangjie; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Liping

    2017-03-15

    As a novel single-atom-thick sheet of sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms, graphene (GR) has attracted extensive attention in recent years because of its unique and remarkable properties, such as excellent electrical conductivity, large theoretical specific surface area, and strong mechanical strength. However, due to the π-π interaction, GR sheets are inclined to stack together, which may seriously degrade the performance of GR with the unique single-atom layer. In recent years, an increasing number of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reported, which may reflect that GR has been considered as a kind of hot and promising electrode material for electrochemical sensor and biosensor construction. However, the active sites on GR surface induced by the irreversible GR aggregations would be deeply secluded inside the stacked GR sheets and therefore are not available for the electrocatalysis. So the alleviation or the minimization of the aggregation level for GR sheets would facilitate the exposure of active sites on GR and effectively upgrade the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Less aggregated GR with low aggregation and high dispersed structure can be used in improving the electrochemical activity of GR-based electrochemical sensors or biosensors. In this review, we summarize recent advances and new progress for the development of electrochemical sensors based on less aggregated GR. To achieve such goal, many strategies (such as the intercalation of carbon materials, surface modification, and structural engineering) have been applied to alleviate the aggregation level of GR in order to enhance the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Finally, the challenges associated with less aggregated GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well as related future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long term reliability analysis of standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The long term reliability of 11 diesel generators of 125 to 250 kV A size has been analysed from 26 years of data base information on individual diesel service as standby power supplies for the Chalk River research reactor facilities. Failure to start on demand and failure to run data is presented and failure by diesel subsystem and multiple failures are also analysed. A brief comparison is made with reliability studies of larger diesel generator units used for standby power service in nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  5. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  6. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  7. Pemanfaatan Energi Gas Buang Motor Diesel Stasioner untuk Pemanas Air

    OpenAIRE

    Rahardjo Tirtoatmodjo

    1999-01-01

    Exhaust gas from a diesel engine is having a big deal of energy. In a stationer diesel engine, the enthalpy of water will be increased by flowing the water in a spiral pipe which is located in the exhaust manifold of the engine. Using copper pipes in this heat exchanger, it's efficiency is found up to 69,5 %. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Gas buang dari motor diesel masih memiliki sejumlah energi panas yang cukup tinggi. Pada motor diesel stasioner, dengan mengalirkan air pada pipa spiral ya...

  8. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  9. Status of Wind-Diesel Applications in Arctic Climates: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Corbus, D.

    2007-12-01

    The rising cost of diesel fuel and the environmental regulation for its transportation, use, and storage, combined with the clear impacts of increased arctic temperatures, is driving remote communities to examine alternative methods of providing power. Over the past few years, wind energy has been increasingly used to reduce diesel fuel consumption, providing economic, environmental, and security benefits to the energy supply of communities from Alaska to Antarctica. This summary paper describes the current state of wind-diesel systems, reviews the operation of wind-diesel plants in cold climates, discusses current research activities pertaining to these systems, and addresses their technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems in Alaska will be reviewed. Specific focus will also be given to the control of power systems with large amounts of wind generation and the complexities of replacing diesel engine waste heat with excess wind energy, a key factor in assessing power plants for retrofit. A brief overview of steps for assessing the viability of retrofitting diesel power systems with wind technologies will also be provided. Because of the large number of isolated diesel minigrids, the market for adding wind to these systems is substantial, specifically in arctic climates and on islands that rely on diesel-only power generation.

  10. Improvement of ecological characteristics of the hydrogen diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriashvili, T.; Kavtaradze, R.; Glonti, M.

    2018-02-01

    In the article are considered the questions of influence of a swirl intensity of the shot and injector design on the ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel, little-investigated till now. The necessity of solution of these problems arises at conversion of the serial diesel engine into the hydrogen diesel. The mathematical model consists of the three-dimensional non-stationary equations of transfer and also models of turbulence and combustion. The numerical experiments have been carried out with the use of program code FIRE. The optimal values of parameters of the working process, ensuring improvement of the effective and ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel are determined.

  11. Modeling JP-8 Fuel Effects on Diesel Combustion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schihl, Peter; Hoogterp, Laura; Pangilinan, Harold; Schwarz, Ernest; Bryzik, Walter

    2006-01-01

    .... Since engine manufacturers rely solely on DF-2 for commercial vehicle applications most domestic industry, university, and national laboratory lead diesel engine combustion system research activities...

  12. Crude palm oil as fuel extender for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed M El-Awad; Fuad Abas; Mak Kian Sin

    2000-01-01

    In this work an investigation has been conducted into the use of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as an extender fuel for diesel engines. Mixtures of CPO with normal diesel fuel (with a percentage of 25%, 50% and 75% CPO by volume) were used to fuel a stationary diesel engine and the engine performance variables, i.e., power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust-gas emission, were compared to those of normal diesel fuel. The results obtained, for a fixed throttle opening and variable speed, indicate that at high engine speeds, the engine performance with CP0/diesel mixtures with up to 50% CPO is comparable to that of diesel fuel. However, the results of the 75% CPO mixture showed a higher temperature and emission of CO and NO compared to the diesel fuel. At low engine speeds, the engine performance with CPO mixtures gave higher power output and lower emission of NO compared to that with diesel fuel, but showed higher specific fuel consumption and higher emission of CO. Based on these results, the study recommends that CPO can be used to extend diesel fuel in a mixture of up to 50% CPO by volume for an unmodified engine. (Author)

  13. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO 2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  14. PENGUJIAN MESIN DIESEL YANG DIMODIFIKASI MENJADI BERBAHAN BAKAN GAS LPG

    OpenAIRE

    Himsar Ambarita

    2017-01-01

    Pada penelitian ini dilakukan modifikasi pada sebuah mesin diesel yang awalnya digerakkan dengan menggunakan bahan bakar diesel menjadi berbahan bakar LPG. Telah dirancang suatu alat uji yang menggunakan sebuah mesin diesel silinder tunggal dengan daya 2,5 kW dan 2,8 kW pada putaran mesin 3000 dan 3600 rpm. Kinerja mesin diesel kecil telah diuji dalam dua bahan bakar berbeda yaitu solar dan LPG. Pada penggunaan bahan bakar solar tidak ada perubahan yang dilakukan pada mesin disel. Pada penggu...

  15. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  16. Isolation and Screening of Diesel-Degrading Bacteria from the Diesel Contaminated Seawater at Kenjeran Beach, Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi Putri Pranowo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples of contaminated seawater by diesel were taken at Kenjeran Beach Surabaya using aseptic technique. Isolation was conducted using serial dilution and spread method on nutrient agar (NA media. The all bacteria colony were devided in to group based on with morphological characterization and gram staining. After that, those bacterial colonies were tested individually in NA media containing different concentration of diesel (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% for up to 7 days at 30°C. The results showed that eight bacterial strains were isolated from diesel contaminated seawater in Kenjeran Beach Surabaya. Screening on diesel showed that all the isolation bacteria were capable of degrading diesel and bacteria with code of B and E haves highly percentage growth in compared to other bacterial isolation. In conclusion, bacteria with code of B and E have potential to be used in diesel bioremediation in contaminated seawater.

  17. High Resolution Numerical Simulations of Primary Atomization in Diesel Sprays with Single Component Reference Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NC. 14. ABSTRACT A high-resolution numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at diesel engine... diesel fuel injector at diesel engine type conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in diesel fuel... diesel liquid sprays the complexity is further compounded by the physical attributes present including nozzle turbulence, large density ratios

  18. Bioremediation of diesel invert mud residues : annual report (1993-94)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aasen, A.K.; Bertram, H.L.; Chalupa, D.; Florence, L.Z.; Goski, B.C.; Guo, I.; Johnson, R.L.; Li, X.M.; Lofthaug, D.G.; McNabb, D.H.; Nguyen, H.V.; Norton, R.; Storey, J.; Xu, J.G.; Yeung, P.Y.; Danielson, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results achieved during 1993-1994 in a study of bioremediation of hydrocarbon and brine contaminated topsoil in a field-based bio-reactor at a gas processing plant in Nevis, Alberta were reviewed. Both laboratory and pilot field scale operations were conducted to study diesel invert mud residues (DIMR). DIMR was the second of three wastes studied. The other two were crude oil contaminated topsoil and flare pit sludge. Of the three wastes, DIMR had the highest concentration of hydrocarbons (mostly light ends with a significant portion of volatile compounds), and the highest level of soluble salts (mainly NaCl). Three treatments were tested in the field bio-reactor: (1) aggregation, (2) tillage, and (3) aeration. Salts were readily removed from the DIMR by leaching prior to the initiation of bioremediation. Aggregation did not produce large improvements in salt leaching. Tillage had a large impact on hydrocarbon reduction rate, while the effects of aggregation and aeration were not significant. Significant amounts of hydrocarbons were lost due to volatilization. Aerated cells lost about 10 per cent and non-aerated cells about 5 per cent of their total hydrocarbon pool. The fate of hydrocarbons from DIMR undergoing bioremediation was studied using the mass balance approach. Results showed that the aerated and non-aerated treatments had a significant effect on the ultimate fate of the hydrocarbons and on the amount of original hydrocarbon content that could be accounted for. 31 refs., 21 tabs., 39 figs

  19. Platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy adult llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rosanne M; Bird, Karyn E; Kutzler, Michelle A

    2009-03-01

    Limited information exists regarding hemostasis in camelids despite the importance of platelet function testing in the accurate identification of platelet disorders. As further importation of llamas to North America is restricted, variability in breeding stock will continue to decrease, potentially leading to an increase in heritable bleeding disorders. The objective of this study was to measure platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy llamas and provide baseline data to which abnormal platelet function may be compared in the future. Blood samples were collected from 39 healthy adult llamas, citrated, and centrifuged to produce platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Within 4 hours of the blood draw, 20 microL of each agonist reagent were added to 180 microL of PRP. Final concentrations of agonists were 2 x 10(-5) M ADP, 0.19 mg collagen/mL PRP, 1 x 10(-4) M epinephrine, and 500 microg arachidonic acid/mL PRP. Llama platelets were most responsive to ADP and collagen, with a maximum percent aggregation (mean+/-SD) of 71.3+/-18.6% and 55.8+/-19% and aggregation rates of 9.5+/-3.9 and 6.7+/-3.7 cm/min, respectively. Llama platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine and arachidonic acid was minimal to absent. This study is the first of its kind to establish baseline values for platelet aggregation in healthy adult llamas.

  20. Robustness of the Process of Nucleoid Exclusion of Protein Aggregates in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeli-Venkata, Ramakanth; Martikainen, Antti; Gupta, Abhishekh; Gonçalves, Nadia; Fonseca, Jose

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli segregates protein aggregates to the poles by nucleoid exclusion. Combined with cell divisions, this generates heterogeneous aggregate distributions in subsequent cell generations. We studied the robustness of this process with differing medium richness and antibiotics stress, which affect nucleoid size, using multimodal, time-lapse microscopy of live cells expressing both a fluorescently tagged chaperone (IbpA), which identifies in vivo the location of aggregates, and HupA-mCherry, a fluorescent variant of a nucleoid-associated protein. We find that the relative sizes of the nucleoid's major and minor axes change widely, in a positively correlated fashion, with medium richness and antibiotic stress. The aggregate's distribution along the major cell axis also changes between conditions and in agreement with the nucleoid exclusion phenomenon. Consequently, the fraction of aggregates at the midcell region prior to cell division differs between conditions, which will affect the degree of asymmetries in the partitioning of aggregates between cells of future generations. Finally, from the location of the peak of anisotropy in the aggregate displacement distribution, the nucleoid relative size, and the spatiotemporal aggregate distribution, we find that the exclusion of detectable aggregates from midcell is most pronounced in cells with mid-sized nucleoids, which are most common under optimal conditions. We conclude that the aggregate management mechanisms of E. coli are significantly robust but are not immune to stresses due to the tangible effect that these have on nucleoid size. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli segregates protein aggregates to the poles by nucleoid exclusion. From live single-cell microscopy studies of the robustness of this process to various stresses known to affect nucleoid size, we find that nucleoid size and aggregate preferential locations change concordantly between conditions. Also, the degree of influence of the nucleoid

  1. Gear ratting noise reduction of diesel engine; Diesel engine no gear hauchi soon teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Miura, Y [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Gear raffling noise of diesel engine at idling condition is required to reduce for keeping quiet environment and comfort of driver and passengers on track and bus. Decrease of gear backlash is generally adopted for reducing gear rattling noise. On the other hand, it has been found that newly devised measurement of gear teeth speed and gear meshing error has clarified phenomena of gear rattling between the crankshaft gear and the camshaft gear of the diesel engine. And it has been also found that gear ratting noise is reduced by changing meshing between the crankshaft gear and the camshaft gear. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  3. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  4. Effect of small proportion of butanol additive on the performance, emission, and combustion of Australian native first- and second-generation biodiesel in a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mofijur; Rasul, Mohammad Golam; Hassan, Nur Md Sayeed; Azad, Abul Kalam; Uddin, Md Nasir

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of the addition of 5% alcohol (butanol) with biodiesel-diesel blends on the performance, emissions, and combustion of a naturally aspirated four stroke multi-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds (1200 to 2400 rpm) under full load conditions. Three types of local Australian biodiesel, namely macadamia biodiesel (MB), rice bran biodiesel (RB), and waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCB), were used for this study, and the data was compared with results for conventional diesel fuel (B0). Performance results showed that the addition of butanol with diesel-biodiesel blends slightly lowers the engine efficiency. The emission study revealed that the addition of butanol additive with diesel-biodiesel blends lowers the exhaust gas temperature (EGT), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions whereas it increases hydrocarbon (HC) emissions compared to B0. The combustion results indicated that in-cylinder pressure (CP) for additive added fuel is higher (0.45-1.49%), while heat release rate (HRR) was lower (2.60-9.10%) than for B0. Also, additive added fuel lowers the ignition delay (ID) by 23-30% than for B0. Finally, it can be recommended that the addition of 5% butanol with Australian biodiesel-diesel blends can significantly lower the NOx and PM emissions.

  5. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June 1...

  6. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  7. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  8. Dazzled by diesel? The impact on carbon dioxide emissions of the shift to diesels in Europe through 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, Lee; Fulton, Lew

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies trends in new gasoline and diesel passenger car characteristics in the European Union between 1995 and 2009. By 2009 diesels had captured over 55% of the new vehicle market. While the diesel version of a given car model may have as much as 35% lower fuel use/km and 25% lower CO 2 emissions than its gasoline equivalent, diesel buyers have chosen increasingly large and more powerful cars than the gasoline market. As a result, new diesels bought in 2009 had only 2% lower average CO 2 emissions than new gasoline cars, a smaller advantage than in 1995. A Laspeyres decomposition investigates which factors were important contributors to the observed emission reductions and which factors offset savings in other areas. More than 95% of the reduction in CO 2 emissions per km from new vehicles arose because both diesel and gasoline new vehicle emissions/km fell, and only 5% arose because of the shift from gasoline to diesel technology. Increases in vehicle mass and power for both gasoline and diesel absorbed much of the technological efficiency improvements offered by both technologies. We also observe changes in the gasoline and diesel fleets in eight EU countries and find changes in fuel and emissions intensities consistent with the changes in new vehicles reported. While diesel cars continue to be driven far farther than gasoline cars, we attribute only some of this difference to a “rebound effect”. We conclude that while diesel technology has permitted significant fuel savings, the switch from gasoline to diesel in the new vehicle market contributed little itself to the observed reductions in CO 2 emissions from new vehicles. - Highlights: ► By 2009 diesels had captured over 55% of the new car market in the EU. ► New diesels in 2009 emitted only 2% lower average CO 2 than new gasoline cars. ► Diesel cars continue to be driven farther than gasoline cars. ► Overall there has been little net CO 2 reduction from the switch to diesels in

  9. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kholod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder. Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  10. Catanionic aggregates stability and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrin, Claire

    2004-01-01

    The catanionic system cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium hydroxide - myristic acid - water studied here has the advantage to produce aggregates with controlled charge. So, the ternary phase diagram presents some interesting aggregates (micelle, vesicle, disc, lamellar phase). The study of the CMC put in evidence some strong interactions between monomers: the interaction parameter is equal to -10 kT. On a microscopic point of view, the alkyl chains packing is hexagonal and we proved by WAXS and WANS that the head groups are liquid ordered. Moreover, the hydrogen bonds participate to the bilayer cohesion. The mechanical properties of the catanionic membrane are similar to the properties of phospholipids. We estimated the Young modulus to 100 MPa by compressibility measurements (acoustic propagation and Langmuir trough). The thermodynamic properties studied by DSC showed that the chain melting transition depends on the sample composition. (author) [fr

  11. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  12. Utilization of unbound aggregates for road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Fladvad, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Crushed rock aggregate is a non-renewable resource of great interest in road construction and other branches of the construction industry. To prevent resource scarcity, utilization of aggregates should be considered carefully. © 2016 Norsk Bergforening

  13. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  14. Aggregate Uncertainty, Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hongfei Sun

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...

  15. Intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zeshui

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the clustering algorithms for intuitionistic fuzzy values, the latest research results in intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation techniques, the extended results in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments, and their applications in multi-attribute decision making, such as supply chain management, military system performance evaluation, project management, venture capital, information system selection, building materials classification, and operational plan assessment, etc.

  16. Differences in rheological profile of regular diesel and bio-diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čupera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel represents a promising alternative to regular fossil diesel. Fuel viscosity markedly influences injection, spraying and combustion, viscosity is thus critical factor to be evaluated and monitored. This work is focused on quantifying the differences in temperature dependent kinematic viscosity regular diesel fuel and B30 biodiesel fuel. The samples were assumed to be Newtonian fluids. Vis­co­si­ty was measured on a digital rotary viscometer in a range of 0 to 80 °C. More significant difference between minimum and maximum values was found in case of diesel fuel in comparison with biodiesel fuel. Temperature dependence of both fuels was modeled using several mathematical models – polynomial, power and Gaussian equation. The Gaussian fit offers the best match between experimental and computed data. Description of viscosity behavior of fuels is critically important, e.g. when considering or calculating running efficiency and performance of combustion engines. The models proposed in this work may be used as a tool for precise prediction of rheological behavior of diesel-type fuels.

  17. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  18. Effects of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel and diesel oxidation catalysts on nitrogen dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachulak, J.S.; Zarling, D.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are used on diesel equipment in underground mines to reduce exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (C) and odour that are associated with gaseous HCs. New catalysts have also been formulated to minimize sulphate production, but little is know about their effects on nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions. DOCs are known to oxidize nitric oxide (NO) to NO 2 , which is more toxic than NO at low levels. Vale Inco uses ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel for its underground diesel equipment. Although ULSD is a cleaner burning fuel, its impact on the emissions performance of DOCs is not fully known. Technical material gathered during a literature review suggested that ULSD fuel may increase NO 2 production if DOCs are used, but that the increase would be small. This paper presented the results of a laboratory evaluation of DOCs with varying amounts of time-in service in Vale Inco mines. The 4 Vale Inco DOCs were found to produce excess NO 2 during some test conditions. In both steady-state and transient testing, there were no obvious trends in NO 2 increases with increasing DOC age. Two possibilities for these observations are that the DOCs may have been well within their useful life or their initial compositions differed. Future studies will make use of improved instrumentation, notably NO 2 analyzers, to definitely determine the influence of DOCs on NO 2 formation. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  19. Development of a portable remote sensing system for measurement of diesel emissions from passing diesel trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    A wireless remote-sensing system has been developed for measurement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) emissions from passing diesel trucks. The NOx measurement system has a UV light source with quartz fiber optics that focused the light source into...

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  5. Role of biodiesel-diesel blends in alteration of particulate matter emanated by diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shahid, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study is focused on the investigation of the role of biodiesel in the alteration of particulate matter (PM) composition emitted from a direct injection-compression ignition. Two important blends of biodiesel with commercial diesel known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume) and B50 were used for the comparative analysis of their pollutants with those of 100% or traditional diesel (D). The experiments were performed under the auspices of the Chinese 8-mode steady-state cycle on a test bench by coupling the engine with an AC electrical dynamometer. As per experimental results, over-50 nm aerosols were abated by 8.7-47% and 6-51% with B20 and B50, respectively, on account of lofty nitrogen dioxide to nitrogen oxides (NO2/NO) ratios. In case of B50, sub-50 nm aerosols and sulphates were higher at maximum load modes of the test, owing to adsorption phenomenon of inorganic nuclei leading to heterogeneous nucleation. Moreover, trace metal emissions (TME) were substantially reduced reflecting the reduction rates of 42-57% and 64-80% with B20 and B50, respectively, relative to baseline measurements taken with diesel. In addition to this, individual elements such as Ca and Fe were greatly minimised, while Na was enhanced with biodiesel blended fuels. (author)

  6. Application of wear resistant spraying for diesel engine; Diesel kikan eno taimamo yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuliding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-31

    Diesel engines used widely as propelling engines of ships have increasingly been provided with a high output and a high thermal efficiency; their structural members, particularly, the component parts for combustion chambers are therefore used under severe conditions, giving rise to the need of surface treatment and surface reforming of the members. Parts for marine diesel engines are huge, so that the technology applicable to the surface treatment and reforming are limited in point of facility and cost; therefore, most suitable is thermal spraying. This paper primarily discusses, among marine diesel engines, a 2-cycle low-speed engine with a 260-980mm bore used for the main engine of a merchant ship such as a container ship, bulk carrier or a tanker, and a 4-cycle medium-speed engine with a 300-420mm bore used for the main engine of a naval vessel; the paper explains the application status of a thermal spraying technology which is in progress to cope with the high output and high thermal efficiency of the diesel engines, explaining particularly the story of the development and the technological features of the wear resistant thermal spraying, which has been put to practical use, on the cylinder liner and the piston ring of the 4-cycle medium-speed engine. (NEDO)

  7. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  8. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  9. Diesel effects in allergic diseases: modulation of chemokines synthesis and development of an in vivo allergic model; Effets du diesel dans les maladies allergiques: modulation de la synthese de chimiokines et developpement d'un modele allergique in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senechal, St.

    2003-09-01

    chemokines. Thus, the possibility for diesel to induce chemokines linked with a Th-2 profile to non allergic people has been evaluated. The exposure of mono-nucleated cells of non-allergic people to diesel induces an IP-10 decay and a PARC induction, suggesting that diesel can also play a role in the genesis of allergic diseases. In order to evaluate the relevance of the results obtained in vivo, an in vivo model of human allergic reaction has been developed using SCID (severe combined immuno-deficient) humanized mice and grafted with human skin. The injection of the relevant allergen in the xeno-graft reproduces the human allergic reaction and can be modulated by antagonists of chemokines receptors. Finally, preliminary experiments using the SCID humanized model have permitted to determine the optimum conditions of a pulmonary response after intra-tracheal instillation of diesel particulates. In conclusion, these results are strong indications of a role of diesel in the rise of allergic diseases prevalence. (J.S.)

  10. The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cooney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cooney1, Anthony J Hickey21Department of Biomedical Engineering; 2School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process.Keywords: diesel exhaust particles, aerosol, inhalation toxicology

  11. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  12. Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer on the Microbial degradation of Diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Inorganic Fertilizer (IF) on the microbial degradation of diesel polluted soil in Abeokuta was assessed by collecting Top soil (0 – 15 cm depth) from diesel polluted site of Information and Communication Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Inorganic fertilizer was added to the polluted soil ...

  13. Fractal-like dimension of nanometer Diesel soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillas, G.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Measurements with a low-pressure impactor and a differential mobility analyser were conducted for Diesel soot at various engine loads. By means of these measurements a fractal-like dimension of Diesel soot particles, with diameters ranging from 55 up to 260 nm, was established. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  14. Diesel engine performance and emission analysis using soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel presents a large potential for replacing other fossil-based fuels. Thus, the present work aimed to assess the specific fuel consumption (SFC), thermal efficiency and emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), in a cycle diesel engine-generator set, using soybean biodiesel and diesel as fuels.

  15. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    , NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...

  16. Pemanfaatan Energi Gas Buang Motor Diesel Stasioner Untuk Pemanas Air

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtoatmodjo, Rahardjo

    1999-01-01

    Exhaust gas from a diesel engine is having a big deal of energy. In a stationer diesel engine, the enthalpy of water will be increased by flowing the water in a spiral pipe which is located in the exhaust manifold of the engine. Using copper pipes in this heat exchanger, it's efficiency is found up to 69,5 %.

  17. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...

  18. Diesel Technology: Engines. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    This diesel technology series offers secondary and postsecondary students an opportunity for learning required skills in the diesel industry. It aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in…

  19. Embarked diagnosis applied to a mechanical system "diesel engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of OBD (on-board diagnostic) systems for diesel engines has become an unavoidable necessity. From the models described in the literature, the latest generation diesel engine models as well as defects affecting it were established. A board diagnostic system based on the use of fuzzy pattern ...

  20. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)