WorldWideScience

Sample records for diesel aggregate final

  1. Aggregation of Diesel Contaminated Soil for Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying; Shi Xiu-hong; Li Song; Xu Jing-gang

    2014-01-01

    Diesel contaminated soil (DCS) contained a large amount of the hydrocarbons and salt which was dominated by soluble sodium chloride. Aggregation process which made the desired aggregate size distribution could speed up the degradation rate of the hydrocarbons since the aggregated DCS had better physical characteristics than the non-aggregated material. Artificial aggregation increased pores >30 µm by approximately 5% and reduced pores <1 µm by 5%, but did not change the percentage of the pores between 1 and 30 µm. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-aggregated DCS was 5×10-6 m• s-l, but it increased to 1×10-5 m• s-l after aggregation. The compression index of the non-aggregated DCS was 0.0186; however, the artificial aggregates with and without lime were 0.031 and 0.028, respectively. DCS could be piled 0.2 m deep without artificial aggregation; however, it could be applied 0.28 m deep when artificial aggregates were formed without limiting O2 transport.

  2. Minimization of the noise emitted by a stationary, multifuel DI diesel aggregate. Final report; Minimierung der Aussengeraeusche eines stationaeren, vielstoffaehigen, direkteinspritzenden Dieselaggregats. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haentsche, J.; Zimdahl, G.

    1999-03-01

    Engine noise is caused by the combustion process, flow processes and by the mechanical noise of engine components. This project investigated the dynamic response of the engine structure as an important source of noise transmission to the outer surface and ambient air. The engine investigated was a multifuel 'eco' DI diesel engine of AMS Schoenebeck, with 4 cylinders, air-cooled supercharger and a power at full load of 160 kW at 2000 rpm. [German] Die Einhaltung der von Gesetzgeber zugelassenen Hoechstwerte der Schalleinwirkung auf den Menschen macht in immer staerkerem Masse die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Maschinen (Motoren) notwendig. Das Motorengeraeusch wird durch die Verbrennung, durch Stroemungsvorgaenge sowie die mechanischen Geraeuschanteile von Motorkomponenten bestimmt. Gegenstand des Projektes ist die Untersuchung des dynamischen Verhaltens der Motorstruktur als massgeblicher Faktor der Schallweiterleitung vom Ort der Entstehung an die schallabstrahlende aeussere Oberflaeche und deren Luftschallabstrahlung. Untersuchungsobjekt war ein Oeko-Vielstoff-Dieselmotor der AMS Schoenebeck, Motordaten: 4-Zylinder-Reihenmotor, Abgasturboaufladung mit Ladeluftkuehlung, Vollast: 160 kW bei 2000 1/min, Direkteinspritzer. (orig.)

  3. Management of auxiliary aggregates - development and testing of methods for improved use of auxiliary aggregates of diesel and spark ignition engines in stationary and unstationary operation. Final report; Nebenaggregate-Management - Entwicklung und Erprobung von Verfahren zum verbesserten Einsatz der Nebenaggregate an Diesel- und Ottomotoren bei stationaerem und instationaerem Betrieb. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Lenzen, B.; Groef, S.; Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Hohenberg, G. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    1998-07-01

    Aggregate management is aimed at aggregate operation in consideration of demand, consumption and exhaust. Demands on reliability are high. Investigations were made using modelling, simulation, model reduction and identification, with the focus on model reduction. The resulting concepts for consumption reduction vary depending on the vehicle type and application. [German] Das Nebenaggregate-Management hat den bedarfs-, verbrauchs- und abgasorientierten Betrieb der Nebenaggregate im Kraftfahrzeug zum Ziel. Der sehr weit gespannte Einsatzbereich von Kraftfahrzeugen und die hohen Anforderungen an die Betriebszuverlaessigkeit stellen entsprechende Anforderungen an das Management. Zur Untersuchung eines verbesserten Betriebs von Nebenaggregaten wrden Verfahren der Regelungstechnik wie z.B. Modellbildung, Simulation, Modellreduktion und Identifikation eingesetzt, wobei der Modellreduktion in anbetracht des komplexen Gesamtsystems Kraftfahrzeug eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen sind Konzepte zur Verringerung des Verbrauchsanteils der Nebenaggregate, die je nach Fahrzeugtyp und Einsatzzweck variieren. (orig.)

  4. Primary and Aggregate Size Distributions of PM in Tail Pipe Emissions form Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masataka; Amagai, Kenji; Nakaji, Takayuki; Hayashi, Shinji

    Particulate matter (PM) emission exhausted from diesel engine should be reduced to keep the clean air environment. PM emission was considered that it consisted of coarse and aggregate particles, and nuclei-mode particles of which diameter was less than 50nm. However the detail characteristics about these particles of the PM were still unknown and they were needed for more physically accurate measurement and more effective reduction of exhaust PM emission. In this study, the size distributions of solid particles in PM emission were reported. PMs in the tail-pipe emission were sampled from three type diesel engines. Sampled PM was chemically treated to separate the solid carbon fraction from other fractions such as soluble organic fraction (SOF). The electron microscopic and optical-manual size measurement procedures were used to determine the size distribution of primary particles those were formed through coagulation process from nuclei-mode particles and consisted in aggregate particles. The centrifugal sedimentation method was applied to measure the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Aerodynamic diameters of nano and aggregate particles were measured with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The peak aggregate diameters detected by SMPS were fallen in the same size regime as the Stokes diameter of dry-soot. Both of primary and Stokes diameters of dry-soot decreased with increases of engine speed and excess air ratio. Also, the effects of fuel properties and engine types on primary and aggregate particle diameters were discussed.

  5. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  6. Coal-fueled diesel: Technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, G.; Hsu, B.; Flynn, P.

    1989-03-01

    This project consisted of four tasks: (1) to determine if CWM could be ignited and burned rapidly enough for operation in a 1000-rpm diesel engine, (2) to demonstrate that a durable CWM-fueled engine could in principle be developed, (3) to assess current emissions control technology to determine the feasibility of cleaning the exhaust of a CWM-fueled diesel locomotive, and (4) to conduct an economic analysis to determine the attractiveness of powering US locomotives with CWM. 34 refs., 125 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  8. Inventory of concepts for mixed diesel fuels containing renewable components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, B. [Inst. for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult, Solna (Sweden); Berg, J. [Svenska Lantmaennen/Agro Oil, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    The present report has involved the assembly of two sub-reports, which have been put together to form this final report. Both of the sub-reports deal with the incorporation of ethanol in diesel fuels. The potential advantages are the decreased net emissions of carbon dioxide, due to the renewable nature of ethanol (if obtained from renewable raw materials), and the decrease of NO{sub x} emissions, due to the decreased combustion temperature. The first sub-report is a compilation of scientific articles and patents/patent applications regarding the possibility to blend ethanol into diesel to form a stable solution in the form of a so called microemulsion, with the aid of surfactants and/or co-solvents. The second sub-report briefly describes the test work, both in the laboratory and in field tests, that is being done in various countries, regarding the blending of ethanol into diesel fuel.

  9. West Virginia Diesel Study, CRADA MC96-034, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gautam

    1998-08-05

    The global objective of the recently completed Phase 1 of the West Virginia Diesel Study, at West Virginia University, was to evaluate mass emission rates of exhaust emissions from diesel powered equipment specified by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission. The experimental data generated in this study has been utilized by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission to promulgate initial rules, requirements and standards governing the operation of diesel equipment in underground coal mines.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of ceramic coatings for diesel exhaust valves. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharnweber, D H; Vukovich, D T

    1980-11-01

    Diesel engine exhaust valves coated with zirconia and calcium silicate ceramic coating systems, developed by the Central Institute for Industrial Research, Oslo, Norway, were laboratory fixture tested to assess bond strength and structural integrity under representative mechanical and thermal stress conditions. The results indicate the zirconia coating systems are worthy of additional evaluation in a medium or high speed industrial/utility diesel engine.

  11. Residual shale-oil/diesel-engine operating compatibility program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, M.; Derbidge, C.; Kuby, W.; Niven, H.; Richard, R.

    1983-10-01

    As part of a DOE study to determine the effective utilization of alternate fuels in medium-speed diesel engines, a residual shale oil (RSO) was fired in an APE-Allen, 1000-rpm, 9.5-in. bore diesel engine. Various fuel injection modes were considered. Based on a fuel characterization study and go/no-go tests, it was determined that the direct firing of 100 percent RSO gave performance comparable with that using No. 2 diesel fuel; consequently, performance/endurance tests were performed using 100 percent RSO. Conclusions of this test program are: Laboratory tests showed low levels of corrosion and deposit-causing elements. Therefore, corrosion and wear of engine components, when using RSO, should be no worse than for standard diesel fuel. The high wax content of RSO requires heating for supply, handling, and injection systems. Laboratory tests showed that the cetane number of RSO was equivalent to No. 2 diesel; hence, no engine modifications should be needed to burn RSO. The engine performance on RSO was essentially similar to standard diesel fuel. The thermal efficiency was slightly lower and Bosch smoke and particulates were slightly higher, especially at low load. Soft carbon deposits, formed on injectors when using RSO, did not affect performance. The 115-hour endurance test showed no significant performance deterioration. The deposit accumulation in combustion chambers and ports was not severe but was greater than standard diesel fuel would produce. Longer endurance tests are required to fully establish this conclusion. 41 figures, 21 tables.

  12. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  13. DELTA-DIESEL ENGINE LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATION Contract DE-FC05-97OR22606 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike

    2003-05-27

    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  14. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.

  15. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  16. Development of stoichiometric diesel concept: Phase 2. Final report, March 1989-November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1991-12-18

    This report is an account of work performed on an SBIR Phase II work effect. The report details the results of a research program to design, construct and test a diesel engine which operates at stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. The program has shown that it is possible to achieve acceptable combustion with non-visible smoke emission at stoichiometric air/fuel ratio using a single cylinder Caterpillar lY73 laboratory engine. Based upon engine test results, computer analysis shows that the current U.S. Army 600 horsepower diesel engine used in the Bradley Fighting Vehicle can be increased to 950 horsepower with no increase in air flow or peak cylinder pressures by using the stoichiometric concept and incorporating turbocompounding to recover the additional exhaust energy.... Cycle simulation, Direct injection, Indirect injection, Stoichiometric diesel, Low-heat-rejection, Optimum prechamber, Turbocompound, Thermal barrier, Coating.

  17. Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

  18. Coal-fueled diesel technology development. Final report, March 3, 1988--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-01-31

    Since 1979, the US Department of Energy has been sponsoring Research and Development programs to use coal as a fuel for diesel engines. In 1984, under the partial sponsorship of the Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern Railroads, GE completed a 30-month study on the economic viability of a coal-fueled locomotive. In response to a GE proposal to continue researching the economic and technical feasibility of a coal-fueled diesel engine for locomotives, DOE awarded a contract to GE Corporate Research and Development for a three-year program that began in March 1985 and was completed in 1988. That program was divided into two parts: an Economic Assessment Study and a Technical Feasibility Study. The Economic Assessment Study evaluated the benefits to be derived from development of a coal-fueled diesel engine. Seven areas and their economic impact on the use of coal-fueled diesels were examined; impact on railroad infrastructure, expected maintenance cost, environmental considerations, impact of higher capital costs, railroad training and crew costs, beneficiated coal costs for viable economics, and future cost of money. The Technical Feasibility Study used laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to investigate the combustion of coal. The major accomplishments of this study were the development of injection hardware for coal water slurry (CWS) fuel, successful testing of CWS fuel in a full-size, single-cylinder, medium-speed diesel engine, evaluation of full-scale engine wear rates with metal and ceramic components, and the characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions. Full combustion of CWS fuel was accomplished at full and part load with reasonable manifold conditions.

  19. Annex 34 : task 1 : analysis of biodiesel options : biomass-derived diesel fuels : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Aakko-Saksa, P.; Nylund, N.O. [TransEnergy Consulting Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Biofuels are derived from woody biomass, non-woody biomass, and organic wastes. The properties of vegetable oil feedstocks can have profound effects on the properties of the finished biodiesel product. However, all biodiesel fuels have beneficial effects on engine emissions. This report discussed the use of biodiesel fuels as replacements for part of the diesel fuel consumed throughout the world. Biodiesel fuels currently being produced from fatty acid esters today were reviewed, as well as some of the more advanced diesel replacement fuels. The report was produced as part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement Annex 34, and was divided into 14 sections: (1) an introduction, (2) biodiesel and biomass, (3) an explanation of biodiesel, (4) properties of finished biodiesel fuels, (5) exhaust emissions of finished biodiesel fuels and blends, (6) life-cycle emissions and energy, (7) international biodiesel (FAME) technical standards and specifications, (8) growth in production and use of biodiesel fuels, (9) biofuel refineries, (10) process technology, (11) development and status of biorefineries, (12) comparison of options to produce biobased diesel fuels, (13) barriers and gaps in knowledge, and (14) references. 113 refs., 37 tabs., 74 figs.

  20. RC-1 organic Rankine bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNanno, L.R.; DiBella, F.A.; Koplow, M.D.

    1983-12-01

    A system analysis and preliminary design were conducted for an organic Rankine-cycle system to bottom the high-temperature waste heat of an adiabatic diesel engine. The bottoming cycle is a compact package that includes a cylindrical air-cooled condenser-regenerator module and other unique features. The bottoming cycle output is 56 horsepower at design point conditions when compounding the reference 317 horsepower turbocharged (TC) diesel engine with a resulting brake specific fuel consumption of 0.268 lb/hp-hr for the compound engine. The bottoming cycle when applied to a turbocompound (TCPD) diesel delivers a compound engine brake specific fuel consumption of 0.258 lb/hp-hr. This system for heavy-duty trnsport applications uses the organic working fluid RC-1, which is a mixture of 60 mole percent pentafluorobenzene (PFB) and 40 mole percent hexafluorobenzene (HFB). Included in these 1983 work efforts was the thermal stability testing of the RC-1 organic fluid in a dynamic fluid test loop that simulates the operation of Rankine-cycle. More than 1600 hours of operation were completed with results showing that the RC-1 is thermally stable up to 900/sup 0/F. This report describes the work performed for one of the multiple contracts awarded under the Department of Energy's Heavy-Duty Transport Technology Program.

  1. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T. [Integral Technologies, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  2. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T. [Integral Technologies, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  3. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  4. Displacement of diesel fuel with wind energy in rural Alaskan villages. Final progress and project closeout report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, Dennis [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States); Drouhilet, Steve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reeve, Brad [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States); Bergen, Matt [Kotzebue Electric Association, Kotzebue, AK (United States)

    2002-03-11

    The basic concept behind this project was to construct a wind diesel hybrid power system which combines and maximizes the intermittent and variable energy output of wind turbine(s) with diesel generator(s) to provide continuous high quality electric power to weak isolated mini-grids.

  5. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  6. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  7. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  8. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  9. Evaluation of improved materials for stationary diesel engines operating on residual and coal based fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results to date from an on-going research program on improved materials for stationary diesel engines using residual or coal-based fuels are presented with little discussion of conclusions about these results. Information is included on ring and liner wear, fuel oil qualities, ceramic materials, coatings, test procedures and equipment, and tribology test results. (LCL)

  10. 77 FR 55500 - Controlled Substances: Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... that the proposed adjusted 2012 aggregate production quotas for 3,4- Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV... 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) 30 g 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) 20 g 3,4,5...

  11. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  12. Procedures for aggregating citizen preferences in the context of the nuclear waste management problem. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, H.W.; Sauer, G.L.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the theory of social choice and related disciplines, and to relate this theory to the concrete problem of nuclear waste management. In Section I of this report, an overview of the problem is provided. In Section II, two candidate preference aggregation procedures that can be used to identify a socially optimal waste management policy are identified. In Section III, a somewhat lengthy defense of the use of these two aggregation procedures is presented. Each is shown to be compatible with four intuitively appealing criteria of collective decision-making. In Section IV the application of one of the procedures to the evaluation of waste management alternatives is discussed. In Section V the problem of inferring evaluation parameters from expert and laypersons' judgments is addressed.

  13. Procedures for aggregating citizen preferences in the context of the nuclear waste management problem. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, H.W.; Sauer, G.L.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the theory of social choice and related disciplines, and to relate this theory to the concrete problem of nuclear waste management. In Section I of this report, an overview of the problem is provided. In Section II, two candidate preference aggregation procedures that can be used to identify a socially optimal waste management policy are identified. In Section III, a somewhat lengthy defense of the use of these two aggregation procedures is presented. Each is shown to be compatible with four intuitively appealing criteria of collective decision-making. In Section IV the application of one of the procedures to the evaluation of waste management alternatives is discussed. In Section V the problem of inferring evaluation parameters from expert and laypersons' judgments is addressed.

  14. A Dynamic Model for Road Gasoline and Diesel Consumption: An Application for Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marina González Marrero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the factors explaining the aggregate fuel consumption for road transport in Spain in a dynamic panel data framework. Three features on this study are the use of a balanced panel using regional data, the distinction between gasoline and diesel and the specification of a dynamic panel data (DPD model and estimate it by system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM. Our results show that most explanatory variables are significant in explaining the evolution of gasoline consumption, while diesel consumption is found to be independent of most of these factors. The differences between the markets of the gasoline (most for passenger transport use and the diesel (passenger and freight transport are important could explain the results for the diesel model. Moreover, the intensive dieselization process that has taken place in Spain over the last decade, which has resulted in diesel consumption being exposed to factors - i.e., regulatory - which are not of a strictly economic nature. This finding highlights the need to consider different explanatory variables and models for gasoline and diesel consumption, and to go further in the research. Finally, we find that traditional estimation procedures, such as fixed and random effect estimators, produce important differences with respect to system-GMM, which may even change policy recommendations.

  15. An Aggregate Data Archive for the Russian Area Studies Center, Louisiana State University. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter R.

    This final report announces the completion of a project, the purpose of which was to develop in coded machine retrievable form, a biographical data archive on the Soviet political elite, and in addition, to gather data on socio-economic and political factors in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The computer processed data is intended to help…

  16. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  17. Mastering the diesel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antila, E.; Kaario, O.; Lahtinen, T. (and others)

    2004-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Mastering the Diesel Process'. The project has been a joint research effort of the Helsinki University of Technology, the Tampere University of Technology, the Technical Research Centre of Finland, and the Aabo Akademi University. Moreover, the contribution of the Michigan Technological University has been important. The project 'Mastering the Diesel Process' has been a computational research project on the physical phenomena of diesel combustion. The theoretical basis of the project lies on computational fluid dynamics. Various submodels for computational fluid dynamics have been developed or tested within engine simulation. Various model combinations in three diesel engines of different sizes have been studied. The most important submodels comprise fuel spray drop breakup, fuel evaporation, gas-fuel interaction in the spray, mixing model of combustion, heat transfer, emission mechanisms. The boundary conditions and flow field modelling have been studied, as well. The main simulation tool have been Star-CD. KIVA code have been used in the model development, as well. By the help of simulation, we are able to investigate the effect of various design parameters or operational parameters on diesel combustion and emission formation. (orig.)

  18. Toxicity of effluents emitted by the diesel engines vehicles; Toxicite des effluents emis par les vehicules a moteur diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcon, St.

    1998-04-29

    The exhaust gases of diesel engine vehicles are atmospheric pollutants. They are characterised by a gaseous phase and a particulate phase. The diesel particulates are composed of a nucleus formed with elementary carbon, forming aggregates that absorb the organic by-products at their surface. A first part treats the effluents of diesel engine vehicles: their characteristics, the factors influencing the diesel emissions, the noxiousness of the gaseous phase, the kinetics and the metabolism of the particulate phase and analysis methods. A second part tackles the experimental toxicity of diesel effluents on insisting on the nature of exposures, the mutagenicity, the carcinogenicity, the effects on the reproduction function and immuno-toxicity. A third part is devoted to the toxicity for man with epidemiology data and some studies under controlled exposures. Then, a fourth part, explains the toxicity mechanisms and the action modes of diesel effluents on the carcinogen effects and on respiratory diseases. (N.C.)

  19. Medicaid program; final limitations on aggregate payments to disproportionate share hospitals: Federal fiscal year 1996--HCFA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-23

    This notice announces the final Federal fiscal year (FFY) 1996 national target and individual State allotments for Medicaid payment adjustments made to hospitals that serve a disproportionate number of Medicaid recipients and low-income patients with special needs. We are publishing this notice in accordance with the provisions of section 1923(f)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act and implementing regulations at 42 CFR 447.297 through 447.299. The final FFY 1996 State DSH allotments published in this notice supersede the preliminary FFY 1996 DSH allotments that were published in the Federal Register on May 9, 1996.

  20. Medicaid program: final limitations on aggregate payments to disproportionate share hospitals: federal fiscal year 1997--HCFA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-15

    This notice announces the final Federal fiscal year (FFY) 1997 national target and individual State allotments for Medicaid payment adjustments made to hospitals that serve a disproportionate number of Medicaid recipients and low-income patients with special needs. We are publishing this notice in accordance with the provisions of section 1923 (f)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act and implementing regulations at 42 CFR 447.297 through 447.299. The final FFY 1997 State disproportionate share hospital (DSH) allotments published in this notice supersede the preliminary FFY 1997 DSH allotments that were published in the Federal Register on January 31, 1997.

  1. Development of wear-resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Volume 1, Coating development and tribological testing: Final report: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, M.G.S. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The tribological properties of a variety of advanced coating materials have been evaluated under conditions which simulate the piston ring -- cylinder liner environment near top ring reversal in a heavy duty diesel engine. Coated ``ring`` samples were tested against a conventional pearlitic grey cast iron liner material using a high temperature reciprocating wear test rig. Tests were run with a fresh CE/SF 15W40lubricant at 200 and 350{degrees}C, with a high-soot, engine-tested oil at 200{degrees}C and with no lubrication at 200{degrees}C. For lowest wear under boundary lubricated conditions, the most promising candidates to emerge from this study were high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) Cr{sub 3} C{sub 2} - 20% NiCr and WC - 12% Co cermets, low temperature arc vapor deposited (LTAVD) CrN and plasma sprayed chromium oxides. Also,plasma sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials were found to give excellent wear resistance in unlubricated tests and at extremely high temperatures (450{degrees}C) with a syntheticoil. All of these materials would offer substantial wear reductions compared to the conventional electroplated hard chromium ring facing and thermally sprayed metallic coatings, especially at high temperatures and with high-soot oils subjected to degradation in diesel environments. The LTAVD CrN coating provided the lowest lubricated wear rates of all the materials evaluated, but may be too thin (4 {mu}m) for use as a top ring facing. Most of the coatings evaluated showed higher wear rates with high-soot, engine-tested oil than with fresh oil, with increases of more than a factor of ten in some cases. Generally, metallic materials were found to be much more sensitive to soot/oil degradation than ceramic and cermet coatings. Thus, decreased ``soot sensitivity`` is a significant driving force for utilizing ceramic or cermet coatings in diesel engine wear applications.

  2. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  3. Study of the combined effects of smoking and inhalation of uranium ore dust, radon daughters and diesel oil exhaust fumes in hamsters and dogs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Busch, R.H.; Stuart, B.O.

    1978-09-01

    Exposure to particulates from uranium ore dust and diesel exhaust soot provoked inflammatory and proliferative responses in lungs. Also exposure to radon and radon daughters yielded increased occurrences of bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and metaplastic changes of alveolar epithelium. The data suggest that this cellular change is also a precursor of premalignant change in hamsters. The authors suggest an animal model other than the hamster based on two observations: (1) the Syrian golden hamster has been shown to be highly refractory to carcinoma induction; and (2) that when exposed to realistic levels of agents in life-span exposure regimens, the hamster does not develop lesions. Dog studies with cigarette smoke exposure showed mitigating effects on radon daughter induced respiratory tract cancer. Two reasons are suggested although no empirical evidence was gathered. A strict comparison of human and animal exposures and interpolative models are not possible at this time. (PCS)

  4. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  5. Effect of hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel usage on performance, emissions and diesel combustion in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Karagöz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are inevitable parts of our daily life and will be in the future. Expensive after-treatment technologies to fulfil normative legislations about the harmful tail-pipe emissions and fuel price increase in recent years created expectations from researchers for alternative fuel applications on diesel engines. This study investigates hydrogen as additive fuel in diesel engines. Hydrogen was introduced into intake manifold using gas injectors as additive fuel in gaseous form and also diesel fuel was injected into cylinder by diesel injector and used as igniter. Energy content of introduced hydrogen was set to 0%, 25% and 50% of total fuel energy, where the 0% references neat diesel operation without hydrogen injection. Test conditions were set to full load at 750, 900, 1100, 1400, 1750 and finally 2100 r/min engine speed. Variation in engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics with hydrogen addition was investigated. Hydrogen introduction into the engine by 25% and 50% of total charge energy reveals significant decrease in smoke emissions while dramatic increase in nitrogen oxides. With increasing hydrogen content, a slight rise is observed in total unburned hydrocarbons although CO2 and CO gaseous emissions reduced considerably. Maximum in-cylinder gas pressure and rate of heat release peak values raised with hydrogen fraction.

  6. Diesel particulate filter design simulation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Simulation is a powerful tool in the design and analysis of diesel particulate filters. Various models have been developed in the last three decades and great improvements have been made in terms of model comprehensiveness and accuracy. However, simulation of diesel particulate filter is still not a reliable resort to fine-tuning of diesel particulate filter and much effort is still needed. To promote the development of effective simulation models, first, the various models are viewed. Their characteristics and application occasions are discussed. Second, regarding the limitations of these models, some key submodels are introduced, which are pressure drop model in the wall, filtration model, and soot oxidation model. Finally, some conclusions are made and further researches are recommended.

  7. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  8. Diesel fuel stability; Estabilidade de oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo V.; Pinto, Ricardo R.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zotin, Fatima M.Z. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The demand for the reduction of the pollutants emissions by diesel engines has led to the adoption of more advanced injection systems and concern about fuel stability. The degradation of the diesel fuel can happen during storage and distribution, according to the acid-catalysed condensation of aromatic compounds such phenalenones and indolic nitrogenated heterocyclic compounds. These precursors appear in several streams used in diesel fuel formulation. In this study the sediment formation in model and real, aromatic and paraffinic fuels, containing such precursors naturally or by addition was analysed. The fuels were submitted to accelerated (16 hours at 90 deg C) and long term (13 weeks at 43 deg C) storage stability tests. The model fuels responded positively to the storage stability tests with formation of sediments, concluding that these methods can be considered adequate to verify the occurrence of the studied degradation process. The real fuels response was even more due to their chemical complexity, composition and impurities. The formation of sediments showed to be affected by the hydrocarbon distribution of the fuels. (author)

  9. Analysis of exhaust composition after purification in dielectric barrier discharges - Sub-project: Diesel exhaust purification in pulsed plasmas. Final report; Analyse der Abgaszusammensetzung bei Abgasreinigung in stillen Entladungen - Teilvorhaben: Reinigung von Dieselabgasen in gepulsten Plasmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Diesel engine exhaust purification by dielectric barrier discharges was investigated with varied pulse generators and with a combination of dielectric barrier discharge and catalytic converters and diesel particulate filters. The detailed exhaused analysis served to describe the reactions in the systems and to detect the formation of new and potentially harmful exhaust components. [German] Die Anwendung einer dielektrisch behinderten Entladung zur Reinigung dieselmotorischen Abgases wurde untersucht. Die Wirkung der elektrischen Entladung auf das Abgas wurde durch Variation der verwendeten Pulsgeneratoren sowie durch Kombination der Entladung mit Katalysatoren und Diesel-Partikelfiltern beeinflusst. Die detaillierte Abgasanalyse ermoeglichte die Erklaerung der in den Systemen ablaufenden Reaktionen. Insbesondere diente sie dazu, die moegliche Bildung neuer, moeglicherweise unerwuenschter Abgaskomponenten zu erkennen. (orig.)

  10. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    fixation of man country life, the excellent and varied climatic conditions and several types of terrain become the country, with extensive workable areas, stand out in the world scenery if considering its great potentiality on generation of alternative fuels. The environmental preservation, important subject nowadays, makes that the human being work in searches for the development of alternative energies, mainly those originating from renewable and biodegradable sources of sustantable character. Taking in consideration those searches, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of a diesel engine working in different moments with mineral diesel and mixtures of mineral diesel and biodiesel in the equivalent proportions B2 (98% mineral diesel and 2%biodiesel, B5 (95% mineral diesel and 5%biodiesel, B20 (80% mineral diesel and 20%biodiesel, and, finally, B100 (100% biodiesel. The rehearsal was accomplished in the dependences of the Engineering Department at UFLA - Federal University of Lavras, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, in July, 2005. For the accomplishment of the rehearsals it, was used an engine cycle diesel of a tractor VALMET 85 id, of 58,2kW (78 cv, following it methodology established by the norm NBR 5484 of ABNT (1985, that refers to the rehearsal dynamometric of engines cycle Otto and Diesel being proceeded. One noticed ended that the potency of the motor when using biodiesel was lower than one when using mineral diesel. One observed that, in some rotations, the mixtures B5 and B20 presented the same potency or even higher, in some situations, than the one when if using mineral diesel. The best thermal efficiency of the motor was verified in the rotation of 540 rpm of equivalent TDP to 1720 rpm of the motor.

  11. Combustion process evaluation in Diesel engines using the Second law analysis; Avaliacao do processo de combustao em motores diesel usando analise de segunda lei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Jose Velasquez; Milanez, Luiz Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1990-12-31

    Exergy balance equations are applied to a thermodynamic model in order to evaluate the combustion process for diesel engines. Thermomechanical and chemical availabilities are determined as well as the irreversibility produced. Finally the model is used to analyze experimental data obtained for a single cylinder diesel engine, at full load condition. (author) 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Diesel sisustab / Jenni Juurinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurinen, Jenni

    2007-01-01

    Renzo Rosso poolt 1978. a. Itaalias asutatud rõivafirma Diesel sisustas 2007. a. kevadel Stay Inn-projekti raames katusekorteri Helsingi kesklinnas. Diesili kujundaja Vesa Kemppainen. Sisustuses on kasutatud peamiselt soome mööblit ja seintel eksponeeritud soome noorte kunstnike taieseid. Autoreid: Harri Koskinen (voodi), Thomas Pedersen (Stingrey kiiktool), Jenni Hiltunen (maalid)

  13. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  14. Diesel sisustab / Jenni Juurinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurinen, Jenni

    2007-01-01

    Renzo Rosso poolt 1978. a. Itaalias asutatud rõivafirma Diesel sisustas 2007. a. kevadel Stay Inn-projekti raames katusekorteri Helsingi kesklinnas. Diesili kujundaja Vesa Kemppainen. Sisustuses on kasutatud peamiselt soome mööblit ja seintel eksponeeritud soome noorte kunstnike taieseid. Autoreid: Harri Koskinen (voodi), Thomas Pedersen (Stingrey kiiktool), Jenni Hiltunen (maalid)

  15. Special analyses of tailpipe gases - method development and applications. Development of measuring methods for unregulated components from otto and diesel engines. Final report; Pakokaasujen erikoisanalyysit - menetelmien jatkokehittaeminen ja soveltava koetoiminta. Paeaestoejen maeaeraet ja mittaaminen, mallilaskelmat. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, M.

    1998-07-01

    The project was a continuation to the previous MOBILE -project 204T (1993 - 1995). During the three year period (1996 - 1998) new measuring techniques were developed or the already earlier started topics were further processed, as stated below. The aim of the project is to improve monitoring techniques of the unregulated tailpipe emissions and to supply tools for more comprehensive evaluation of the health and environmental effects of automotive emissions as a whole. The following was developed: Construction of particle sampling device for low emitting vehicles; Construction of sampling technique for the semivolatile phase of the tailpipe gas; evaluation of different techniques; Application of Ames mutagenicity test for the semivolatiles of diesel and otto-engine exhausts; Application of the modified Ames mutagenicity test to minimum sample amounts or emissions of low response; Effect of sampling conditions of particulates and semivolatiles (PUP) on sample amount and quality; Applications of the particulate and PUF sampling technique to low-emittive otto-engine technologies or aftertreatment concepts (LPO, CNG, M85, TWC, lean-burn, GDI) and fuel flexible vehicle emissions (ethanol mixtures); Participation a European round-robin test for the PAH analysis of diesel engine particulates; Adoption and DNPH - FTIR comparison of monitoring technique for aldehyde speciation from modal heavy-duty diesel engine test; Evaluation of the CIMS real-time monitoring technique for low concentrations of emission components. Comparison with FTIR and conventional analytical techniques for aldehyde and HC speciation, verification of the measurement techniques in use at VTT; Spreadsheet for conversion of FTIR ppm trace into mass emissions; Evaluation of the various measuring techniques for the particulate sizing of diesel and otto-engine emissions, purchase of the device; Establishing a data bank for unregulated+regulated emission species based on 1993 - 1998 results obtained at VTT

  16. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, April Z. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-09-02

    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell

  17. STRATEGY DETERMINATION FOR DIESEL INJECTION USING AVL ESE DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrublevskiy, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the design of research AVL FIRE ESE DIESEL environment they proposed to reduce noise and NOx emissions in the exhaust gases of the automobile diesel engine using two-stage injection. The parameters of the fuel for idling are determined.

  18. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  19. Role of streams in myxobacteria aggregate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskowski, Maria A.; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

    2004-10-01

    Cell contact, movement and directionality are important factors in biological development (morphogenesis), and myxobacteria are a model system for studying cell-cell interaction and cell organization preceding differentiation. When starved, thousands of myxobacteria cells align, stream and form aggregates which later develop into round, non-motile spores. Canonically, cell aggregation has been attributed to attractive chemotaxis, a long range interaction, but there is growing evidence that myxobacteria organization depends on contact-mediated cell-cell communication. We present a discrete stochastic model based on contact-mediated signaling that suggests an explanation for the initialization of early aggregates, aggregation dynamics and final aggregate distribution. Our model qualitatively reproduces the unique structures of myxobacteria aggregates and detailed stages which occur during myxobacteria aggregation: first, aggregates initialize in random positions and cells join aggregates by random walk; second, cells redistribute by moving within transient streams connecting aggregates. Streams play a critical role in final aggregate size distribution by redistributing cells among fewer, larger aggregates. The mechanism by which streams redistribute cells depends on aggregate sizes and is enhanced by noise. Our model predicts that with increased internal noise, more streams would form and streams would last longer. Simulation results suggest a series of new experiments.

  20. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  1. Morphological and semi-quantitative characteristics of diesel soot agglomerates emitted from commercial vehicles and a dynamometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chin-Hsiang; LEE Whei-May; LIAW Jiun-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Diesel soot aggregates emitted from a model dynamometer and 11 on-road vehicles were segregated by a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The elemental contents and morphological parameters of the aggregates were then examined by scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and combined with a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processor. Two mode-size distributions of aggregates collected from diesel vehicles were confirmed. Mean mass concentration of 339 mg/m3 (dC/dlogdp) existed in the dominant mode (180-320 nm). A relatively high proportion of these aggregates appeared in PM1, accentuating the relevance regarding adverse health effects. Furthermore, the fBm processor directly parameterized the SEM images of fractal like aggregates and successfully quantified surface texture to extract Hurst coefficients (H) of the aggregates. For aggregates from vehicles equipped with a universal cylinder number, the H value was independent of engine operational conditions. A small H value existed in emitted aggregates from vehicles with a large number of cylinders. Generally, this study found that aggregate fractal dimension related to H was in the range of 1.641-1.775, which is in agreement with values reported by previous TEM-based experiments. According to EDS analysis, carbon content ranged in a high level of 30%-50% by weight for diesel soot aggregates. The presence of Na and Mg elements in these sampled aggregates indicated the likelihood that some engine enhancers composed of biofuel or surfactants were commonly used in on-road vehicles in Taiwan. In particular, the morphological H combined with carbon content detection can be useful for characterizing chain-like or cluster diesel soot aggregates in the atmosphere.

  2. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, L.M.J.; Enk, van den L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from vege

  3. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  4. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  5. Development of a quasidimensional multizone model for optimisation of the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of DI diesel engines. Final report; Entwicklung eines quasidimensionalen Mehrzonen-Modells zur Optimierung des Emissionsverhaltens und des Kraftstoffverbrauchs direkteinspritzender Dieselmotoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiesch, G.; Merker, G.P.

    2000-09-01

    The focus in modern diesel engines is on low fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Computer modelling serves to reduce costly and time-consuming experiments. Models should have a valid physical basis and use only a few empirical equations in order to make it more generally valid than existing models. [German] Bei der Entwicklung moderner Dieselmotoren liegen Schwerpunkte gleichzeitig auf der Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauches und auf der Reduzierung der Schadstoffemissionen. Rechenmodelle, die beide Groessen zuverlaessig berechnen koennen, tragen dazu bei, die Anzahl von zeit- und kostenintensiven experimentellen Untersuchungen zu reduzieren, und fuehren so zu einer schnelleren Entwicklung von schadstoffarmen und verbrauchsguenstigen Motoren. Das zu entwickelnde Modell soll auf einer abgesicherten physikalischen Basis stehen und mit moeglichst wenigen empirischen Gleichungen auskommen, so dass eine wesentlich verbesserte Allgemeingueltigkeit gegenueber existierenden Modellen erreicht wird. (orig.)

  6. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...... emission requirements as well as attempting to minimise fuel expenses, the engine speed has been lowered together with an increase in the engine mean pressure which in terms lead to larger bearing loads. With worsened operating conditions from two sides, the encountered problems are understandable...

  7. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  8. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  9. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [Wind Energy TechnoCentre, 51 Chemin de la mine, C.P. 1300, Murdochville, Quebec (Canada); Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boulevard de l' Universite, Quebec (Canada); Younes, R. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); 3M Laboratory - Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Ilinca, A. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); Perron, J. [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boulevard de l' Universite, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada. Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost. (author)

  10. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  11. Modelisation et simulation d'un systeme de jumelage eolien-diesel alimentant une charge locale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theubou Tameghe, Tommy Andy

    This thesis focuses on the modeling of a wind-diesel cogeneration system feeding a local load. The proposed system implements a wind turbine, connected to a diesel generator that supplies an electrical load. Such a system is commonly used in remote areas and allows the reduction of the diesel energy production. This yields a reduction of pollution and production costs of the electrical energy. At first, this report describes the socio-economic context and motivations of the subject. Thereafter, are inventoried the main technical issues related to wind-diesel cogeneration plants. To better meet the objectives of this work, study and mode ling of the system are organized into four key points: (1) a literature review based on general concepts related to wind-diesel systems and mathematical/numerical analysis tools; (2) the analysis and modeling of diesel generator, (3) of the wind turbine; (4) and finally, the interconnection of wind and diesel generators. Each point describes the dynamic equations, organized in the form of state model or transfer function, of the considered subsystem. Developed dynamic models were simulated using Matlab / Simulink. Typical values, commonly used in the literature, were used. Due to the lack of records and technical data on existing specific wind-diesel system, developed models were cross-validated, comparing the simulation results with those from the literature.

  12. 30 CFR 57.5075 - Diesel particulate records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5075 Diesel particulate records. (a) The table entitled “Diesel Particulate Matter Recordkeeping...

  13. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J

    2009-09-04

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and do-decane which are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For the cycloalkanes, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multidimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real diesel

  14. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Mueller, C J

    2009-12-09

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and n-dodecane that are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For two-ring compounds, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multi-dimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real

  15. A Comparison of the Stability Performance of Blends of Paraffinic Diesel and Petroleum-Derived Diesel, with RME Biodiesel Using Laboratory Stability Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Goede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, a new specification for synthetic fuels containing up to 7% biodiesel (FAME was approved (CEN TS 15940. This specification allows the sale of neat paraffinic diesel, such as Gas-to-Liquids (GTL diesel, to captive fleets in Europe. Several aspects are important in the final end-use application, including the stability of the fuel. The current study evaluated the stability of neat GTL diesel and FAME/paraffinic fuel blends via standard laboratory stability tests commonly used to study petroleum-derived fuels. The stability of GTL diesel, containing biodiesel, was evaluated using the Rancimat, PetroOxy, and ASTMD2274 tests. Selected samples were also evaluated using ASTM D5304. The Rancimat results indicated that FAME/GTL diesel blends performed similar to the FAME/petroleum derived fuel blends. In the PetroOxy test, the addition of more than 2 v/v% of a highly stable FAME resulted in an unexpected boost in the stability of the FAME/GTL diesel blend. The ASTM D2274 results were generally insensitive to the addition of FAME. The correlation between the PetroOxy and Rancimant tests was evaluated and found to be base fuel dependent. From this study it was concluded that GTL diesel (in blends with FAME performed similar to petroleum-derived reference fuels in standard laboratory stability.

  16. Industrial fermentation of renewable diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Patrick J; Gardner, Timothy S

    2011-06-01

    In commodity chemicals, cost drives everything. A working class family of four drives up to the gas pumps and faces a choice of a renewable diesel or petroleum diesel. Renewable diesel costs $0.50 more per gallon. Which fuel do they pick? Petroleum diesel will be the winner every time, unless the renewable fuel can achieve cost and performance parity with petrol. Nascent producers of advanced biofuels, including Amyris, LS9, Neste and Solazyme, aim to deliver renewable diesel fuels that not only meet the cost challenge, but also exceed the storage, transport, engine performance and emissions properties of petroleum diesel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transformation of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles from a Diesel Fuel Additive during Combustion in a Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, James G; Cox, Steven S; Vance, Marina E; Marr, Linsey C; Hochella, Michael F

    2017-02-21

    Nanoscale cerium oxide is used as a diesel fuel additive to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, but its fate in the environment has not been established. Cerium oxide released as a result of the combustion of diesel fuel containing the additive Envirox, which utilizes suspended nanoscale cerium oxide to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, was captured from the exhaust stream of a diesel engine and was characterized using a combination of bulk analytical techniques and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The combustion process induced significant changes in the size and morphology of the particles; ∼15 nm aggregates consisting of 5-7 nm faceted crystals in the fuel additive became 50-300 nm, near-spherical, single crystals in the exhaust. Electron diffraction identified the original cerium oxide particles as cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2, standard FCC structure) with no detectable quantities of Ce(III), whereas in the exhaust the ceria particles had additional electron diffraction reflections indicative of a CeO2 superstructure containing ordered oxygen vacancies. The surfactant coating present on the cerium oxide particles in the additive was lost during combustion, but in roughly 30% of the observed particles in the exhaust, a new surface coating formed, approximately 2-5 nm thick. The results of this study suggest that pristine, laboratory-produced, nanoscale cerium oxide is not a good substitute for the cerium oxide released from fuel-borne catalyst applications and that future toxicity experiments and modeling will require the use/consideration of more realistic materials.

  18. Gas-oil/water emulsion fuel for automotive diesel engines. energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the work performed within the contract EE-C-201-I is reported. The results achieved in the tests of high speed diesel engines with water in oil emulsion feeding system are summarized. First, carried out trials on test bench are described; then operation in light duty truck on the road and on roller test bench is reported and trials with constant speed diesel engine are related. Finally, the work about emulsion characterization is synthetized. The conclusion shows as the water in oil emulsion is a feeding system suitable for high speed diesel engine operation because BSFC, grade of smoke, exhaust temperature and emission are lowered without considerable troubles.

  19. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  20. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM; diesel particulate filters (DPFs, summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 2nd June 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010; Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 69-86. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/794 ]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  1. Adiabatic turbocompound diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, R.; Bryzik, W.

    1984-02-01

    The research and development of an adiabatic turbocompound engine have shown that the concept is feasible. The ability to meet the performance and sociability goals of the future power plants has been demonstrated. Low brake specific fuel consumption, low smoke and particulates, better NO /SUB x/ -BSFC trade-off, excellent multifuel capability, white smoke suppression, and potentially lower maintenance and greater reliability and durability are some of the attributes. The absence of the water cooling system adds to its attractiveness because of lower installed weight, cost, and reduction in parasitic losses. The operating environment of an adiabatic engine is shown as the basis for analysis and designing of adiabatic components. The types of material which can satisfy the needs of an adiabatic engine are presented. These materials include high temperature metals, high performance ceramics, and glass ceramics. The use of a turbocompound system to utilize the increased exhaust energy of an adiabatic engine is covered. A minimum fuel consumption of 0.285 lb/bhp-hr was achieved at 200 psi BMEP. Although the technical feasibility and viability of an adiabatic engine was demonstrated, the adiabatic diesel engine has problems which must be solved before it becomes a commercially viable product. These problem areas where more work is required are discussed.

  2. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  3. The Adlard Coles book of diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In clear, jargon-free English The Adlard Coles Book of Diesel Engines explains how a diesel engine works,and how to look after it, and takes into account developments inengine technology. Includes helpful tables and troubleshooting checklists.

  4. Soot sensor II. Development of a method of measurement for dynamic soot analysis in diesel engine exhaust. Final report; Russsensor II. Entwicklung eines Messverfahrens zur dynamischen Russbestimmung in Abgasen von Dieselmotoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, G.; Dietrich, S.; Koehler, M.; Kecke, H.

    1996-07-01

    A prototype soot sensor was tested in a test stand downstream of the turbo-supercharger of a 4-cylinder diesel engine. The tests were successful, and the soot sensor is recommended for measuring applications in engine and roller teset stands although it still requires further optimisation. [German] Die dynamische Erfassung der Russemission des Dieselmotors im unverduennten Abgas bietet vorteilhafte Anwendungen in der Realisierung eines geschlossenen Einspritzmengenregelkreises (EDC) sowie in der Anzeige von Defekten und Wartungsmaengeln (OBD II). Die genannten Anwendungsfaelle erfordern eine hohe zeitliche Aufloesung der Russkonzentration, wodurch eine moeglichst motornahe Messung im unverduennten Abgas notwendig ist. Es bestand die Aufgabe, die im Forschungsvorhaben 'Russsensor I' geschaffenen Grundlagen der dynamischen Russerfassung auf der Basis eines faseroptischen Extinktionsmessverfahrens fuer den Fahrzeugeinsatz weiterzuentwickeln. Der im Bericht vorgestellte Russsensor-Prototyp wurde unter Pruefstandsbedingungen nach dem Abgasturbolader eines 4-Zylinder-Dieselmotors in stationaeren und instationaeren Betriebszustaenden untersucht. Der Russsensor besitzt einen Messbereich von 0,4... 7,2 Bosch-Schwaerzungszahl bzw. 0,1... 18,3% Truebung und ermoeglicht mit seiner hohen Messdynamik bis 270 Hz zylinderselektive Messungen. Dynamische Vergleichsmessungen mit einem AVL-DPA 480 fuehrten zu einer guten Uebereinstimmung der Ergebnisse und zeigten, dass der Sensor keine Querempfindlichkeiten zu den Kohlenwasserstoffanteilen im Dieselmotorabgas besitzt. Mit Hilfe einer elektrischen Sensorheizung konnten die optischen Flaechen bei 180 Stunden Dauerbetrieb und zusaetzlichen 30 Kaltstarts nahezu russfrei gehalten werden. Der Russsensor ist in seiner gegenwaertigen Ausfuehrung noch nicht optimiert, gestattet aber einen ersten Fahrzeugeinsatz. Fuer messtechnische Applikationsaufgaben an Motoren- und Rollenpruefstaenden ist der Russsensor mit geringem

  5. Fuel preheater for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossett, J.J.; Crossett, M.C.

    1987-10-13

    A unit for preheating fuel for diesel engines is described having an engine coolant system and a lubrication system utilizing a flowable lubricant. The unit comprises a housing providing a fluid-tight enclosure, a heat exchange coil positioned in and spaced above the bottom of the enclosure and having loops providing a continuous path for the flow of the fuel to be heated. The heat exchange coil has at least one foot of length for each 25 cubic inches of volume of the enclosure and a diesel fuel outlet in the housing connected to one end of the heat exchange coil, a diesel fuel outlet in the housing and connected to the other end of the heat exchange coil, an inlet in the housing for connection of the interior of the enclosure surrounding the coil to a source of a hot heat exchange medium in a diesel engine so as to provide a source of heat for heating the heat exchange coil. An outlet near the top of the housing provides for return of the heat exchange medium to a diesel engine, and spray tube means extend horizontally from the inlet for the heat exchange medium and along the bottom of the housing beneath substantially the entire length of the heat exchange coil. The means have upwardly directed openings to provide for discharge of the heat exchange medium toward the coil and agitation of the heat exchange medium in the enclosure around and over the heat exchange coil.

  6. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  7. Resettable regime of diesel lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechaev E. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of engine oil saturation by microelements has been presented in the paper; it has been tested on vessels of the fishing fleet and in conditions of prolonged operation in the coastal diesel-engine power plants. The paper considers the results of performance tests of the most common diesel power plants of 6ЧН 25/34 type with the tribochemical reductant oil (TRO apparatus providing tribochemical lubrication. During comparative trials of two diesels the samples of lubricating oil m-10B2 and m-10 have been periodically collected and subjected to spectral analysis. In the samples the number of the following key microelements has been determined: iron (Fe, aluminum (Al, zinc (Zn, sodium (Na, barium (Ba, calcium (Ca, tin (Sn, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, sulfur (S, chlorine (Cl, silicon (Si. During the operation the processes of microelements' extraction and destruction in diesel motor oils evaluated by the relevant coefficients have been clearly manifested. Analyzing the obtained experimental data it should be noted that in both experiments the total balance of the controlled 15 trace elements has been balanced and approached within 1640.5–1650.3 g/t. And the greater measure refers to conventional oil. Stabilization and improvement of physical and chemical properties of motor oil in operation of a diesel engine is possible from the authors' viewpoint only in the tribochemical lubrication mode using the TRO apparatus and created hydrodynamic module – dispersant. The past performance tests suggest the possibility of use as a lubricant the conventional (pure oil under actual operating conditions. When in the tribochemical mode of diesel engine lubrication it has been established that in conventional (pure oil the oily medium has been formed with a spectrum of microelements equivalent to engine oil filler.

  8. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  9. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  10. Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Akhter, Md Shamim; Zaglul Shahadat, Mhia Md

    2006-02-01

    In this report combustion and exhaust emissions with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends have been investigated. In the investigation, firstly biodiesel from non-edible neem oil has been made by esterification. Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is chemically known as mono-alkyl fatty acid ester. It is renewable in nature and is derived from plant oils including vegetable oils. BDF is non-toxic, biodegradable, recycled resource and essentially free from sulfur and carcinogenic benzene. In the second phase of this investigation, experiment has been conducted with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends in a four stroke naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Compared with conventional diesel fuel, diesel-biodiesel blends showed lower carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. However, compared with the diesel fuel, NOx emission with diesel-biodiesel blends was slightly reduced when EGR was applied.

  11. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  12. A Comparative Study of Almond Biodiesel-Diesel Blends for Diesel Engine in Terms of Performance and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50 with diesel fuel (B0 were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NOx using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  13. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  14. Characterisation of solid particles emitted from diesel and petrol engines as a contribution to the determination of the origin of carbonaceous particles in urban aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, M.; Brzeżański, M.; Wilczyńska-Michalik, W.; Fisior, K.; Klimas, B.; Samek, L.; Pietras, B.

    2016-09-01

    Solid particles emitted from diesel and petrol engines were studied using a scanning electron microscope fitted with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The soot emitted from different engines under different operating conditions differed in particle size, and the form and size of aggregates. Identification of the soot particles emitted from diesel or petrol engines in urban aerosol based on their size and morphology was found to be impossible.

  15. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  16. Problems diagnosis in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leugner, L.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnosis of engine problems in diesel engines used in Western Canadian coal mines is discussed. Areas to which attention must be paid include the air cleaners, turbocharger, engine compression and the fuel system. Exhaust smoke should be analysed to help diagnose combustion related problems.

  17. Coal-fired diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  18. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapong Namliwan; Tanakorn Wongwuttanasatian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consum...

  19. Predictive models for deposition of inhaled diesel exhaust particles in humans and laboratory species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.P.; Xu, G.B. (State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, Amherst (USA))

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical and computer models of the respiratory tracts of human beings and of laboratory animals (rats, hamsters, guinea pigs) were used to estimate the deposition patterns of inhaled diesel exhaust particles from automobile emissions. Our goal was to be able to predict the relation between exposure to diesel exhaust particles and the deposition of these particles in the lungs of humans of various ages. Diesel exhaust particles are aggregates with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 0.2 micron. Their actual size depends on the conditions under which they are generated. Using an appropriate particle model, we derived mathematical expressions that describe the effects of diffusion, sedimentation, impaction, and interception on the deposition of these particles. Because of their small size, we found that most diesel exhaust particles deposited through diffusion, and that the role of the other mechanisms was minor. Anatomical models of the human lung from birth to adulthood, as well as models of the lungs of laboratory species were formulated mathematically using available morphometric data. We used these lung models, together with the corresponding ventilation conditions of each species, to calculate deposition of diesel exhaust particles in the lungs. Under normal breathing conditions, we calculated that 7 to 13 percent (depending on particle size) of inhaled diesel exhaust particles deposit in the alveolar region of the adult human lung. Although the breathing mode (nose or mouth breathing) did not appear to affect alveolar deposition, increasing the minute ventilation increased alveolar deposition significantly. The calculated deposition patterns for diesel exhaust particles in younger humans (under age 25) were similar.

  20. Effects of diesel and bio-diesel oils temperature on spray and performance of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkachai Sutheerasak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research paper is the spray and engine performance investigation from preheated diesel and biodiesel oils at fuel temperature from 60 to 90 o C by comparing with non-preheated oil. In the experiment, there are fuel injection modeling and diesel engine testing, which is direct injection, 4 stroke and 4 cylinders. Results of fuel spray show that preheated diesel oil increase 4.7degree of spray angle and decrease 4.30 % of fuel injection pressure, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 7.6degree of spray angle and decrease 13.90 % of fuel injection pressure to compare with non-preheated oil. As engine preformance testing results, preheated diesel oil increase 26.20% of thermal efficiency and decrease 4.30 % of BSFC, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 30% of thermal efficiency and decrease 29.90 % of BSFC to compare with non-preheated oil.

  1. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel,...

  2. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  3. Effects of diesel and bio-diesel oils temperature on spray and performance of a diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ekkachai Sutheerasak

    2014-01-01

    Research paper is the spray and engine performance investigation from preheated diesel and biodiesel oils at fuel temperature from 60 to 90 o C by comparing with non-preheated oil. In the experiment, there are fuel injection modeling and diesel engine testing, which is direct injection, 4 stroke and 4 cylinders. Results of fuel spray show that preheated diesel oil increase 4.7degree of spray angle and decrease 4.30 % of fuel injection pressure, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 7.6degree o...

  4. Study on Carbonyl Emissions of Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruina Li; Zhong Wang; Guangju Xu

    2017-01-01

      Biodiesel is a kind of high-quality alternative fuel of diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend were used in a single cylinder diesel engine to study the carbonyl emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of...

  6. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  7. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  8. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    adversely when used as concrete aggregate. In areas where suitable natural aggregate is not available or accessible, it may become necessary to improve the quality of existing aggregate, to import aggregate from outside the area, or to substitute artificial aggregate for natural aggregate. In most cases, all of these alternatives add substantially to the cost of the final product. Even though an area may be blessed with an abundance of aggregate suitable for the intended purpose, existing land uses, zoning, or regulations may preclude commercial exploitation of the aggregate. This report also discusses the aggregate industry in general terms, including exploration, mining, and processing, as well as aggregate production rates. Proper long-range planning based on an understanding of the aggregate industry can help assure adequate supplies of aggregate.

  9. Biofouling of Several Marine Diesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ultralow sulfur diesel, synthetic diesel, biodiesel, and hydrotreated renewable diesel fuels. Bulk chemical changes and differences in biofouing...of its large carbon footprint. NSWCCD-61-TR-2011/08 2 Biological material can be hydrotreated to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons which, with...additional treatment, is converted into a low-carbon footprint isoparaffinic fuel. Hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel derived from Camelina

  10. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  11. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  12. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  13. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eenjes, E.; J.M. Dragich; H. Kampinga (Harm); A. Yamamoto, A.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitinated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to diminished aggrega

  14. Quality characteristics of alternative diesel from hydrotreatment of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karonis, Dimitrios; Chilari, Despina [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants; Bezergianni, Stella [Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH)

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the properties of alternative diesel fuel that is derived from the hydrotreatment of used frying oils (UFO). Used frying oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UFO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins in the diesel fuel range. The results obtained show that the use of hydrotreated UFO has many advantages in comparison conventional diesel. Particularly, this renewable fuel has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (> 90) justified from its paraffinic character. Furthermore, this finding complies with the lower value of density in comparison to diesel, reinforcing the paraffinic nature of this fuel, comprising straight chain alkanes and negligible content of aromatic hydrocarbons in its composition. Due to the hydrotreating, these fuels do not contain olefinic bonds, therefore they are resistant to oxidation, permitting long term storage abilities. Despite these benefits, there are some considerations from the use of HFOs. Hydrotreating is a process which successfully removes heteroatoms such as S, N, O and eliminates the existence of double unstable bonds, rendering to fuel appreciable characteristics. Unfortunately, these high ignition quality oils suffer from lower lubricity and worse cold flow properties in comparison to diesel, making their use during winter period inevitable. These problems could be addressed by blending hydrotreated UFO with regular diesel. A compromise should be found in order to promote a renewable fuel with lower cetane number but with much better lubricity in order to meet the EN 590 European Standard regarding the main quality characteristics of the final fuel. (orig.)

  15. An evaluation of criteria for selecting vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hesterberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed selection criteria for diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG fueled vehicles, comparing engine emissions, fire and safety, toxicity, economics, and operations. Diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles with the latest emission-control technology, including engine-exhaust aftertreatment, have very similar emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, particles through all size ranges, and greenhouse gases. Although toxicity data are limited, no significant toxicity differences of engine emissions were reported. Operating and maintenance costs are variable, with no consistent difference between diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles. The main operating concern with CNG vehicles is that they are less fuel efficient. Higher infrastructure costs are involved with implementing a CNG-fueled vehicle fleet, giving diesel vehicles a distinct cost advantage over CNG vehicles. For a given budget, greater emissions reductions can thus be achieved with diesel+filter vehicles. Finally, diesel vehicles have a significant fire-and-safety advantage over CNG vehicles. In summary, infrastructure costs and fire-and-safety concerns are much greater for CNG-fueled vehicles. These considerations should be part of the decision-making process when selecting a fuel for a transportation system.

  16. Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Macadamia Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the prospects of biodiesel production from macadamia oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The biodiesel was produced using conventional transesterification process using the base catalyst (KOH. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emission of 5% (B5 and 20% (B20 macadamia biodiesel fuel at different engine speeds and full load condition. It was found that the characteristics of biodiesel are within the limit of specified standards American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and comparable to diesel fuel. This study also found that the blending of macadamia biodiesel–diesel fuel significantly improves the fuel properties including viscosity, density (D, heating value and oxidation stability (OS. Engine performance results indicated that macadamia biodiesel fuel sample reduces brake power (BP and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC while emission results indicated that it reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and particulate matter (PM emissions except nitrogen oxides (NOx than diesel fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that macadamia oil can be a possible source for biodiesel production and up to 20% macadamia biodiesel can be used as a fuel in diesel engines without modifications.

  17. Underground diesel use - fuel for thought. [USA - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Knight, D.L.; Roberts, W.K.; Knight, T.J. (Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Describes the use of diesel equipment at the Galatia Mine, Saline County, IL (USA). The Galatia Mine is a dual-seam underground mine. Diesel equipment covered includes: personnel vehicles; diesel forklifts; diesel front-end loaders; service vehicles; maintenance; boom trucks; fuel and lube vehicles; mobile ramcar rock duster; rock grader; diesel bolters; and a portable diesel generator. The use of diesel equipment for longwall set up and recovery and diesel equipment maintenance, ventilation and emission control is also discussed. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  19. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  20. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapong Namliwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and oxygen (O2 than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen oxides (NOX emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine.

  1. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  2. [Diesel emission control technologies: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Weng, Duan; Zi, Xin-Yun

    2007-06-01

    The authors reviewed the researches on diesel emission control for both new engine technologies and aftertreatment technologies. Emphases were focused on the recent advancements of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x). In addition, it was explored for the future development in this field.

  3. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  4. Hydrogenation Technology for Producing Clean Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuiyin; Xiong Zhenlin; Gao Xiaodong; Nie Hong

    2004-01-01

    With the standard of environmental protection becoming increasingly strict, it is required to remove sulfur and aromatics in diesel deeply. RIPP has developed several new hydrogenation catalysts and flexible processes, by means of which clean diesel fuel with low sulfur and low aromatic contents can be produced. From SRGO (Straight Run Gas Oil), which has an aromatic content of less than 30m%, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel or ultra-low sulfur diesel can be obtained by adopting a new process operating on highly active RN-series catalysts. From a feed with higher aromatic content (A=30~80m%),such as FCC-LCO, a low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel can be obtained by the SSHT, MHUG and DDA processes.

  5. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel equipment underground, shall prepare and submit in writing to the District Manager, an inventory of diesel...

  6. Series 190 Diesel Engines Used in China's Oil Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qimin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Jinan Diesel Engine Works, located in Jinan,Shandong Province, was established more than 70 years ago. Now it produces series 190 diesel engines and diesel generating sets. Over 95 percent of land drilling power engines used in China are from Jinan Diesel Engine Works.

  7. Combustion characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with Fischer-Tropsch diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yongcheng; ZHOU Longbao; PAN Keyu

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel is characterized by a high cetane number, a near-zero sulphur content and a very low aromatic level. On the basis of the recorded incylinder pressures and injector needle lifts, the combustion characteristics of an unmodified single-cylinder directinjection diesel engine operating on F-T diesel fuel are analyzed and compared with those of conventional diesel fuel operation. The results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits a slightly longer injection delay and injection duration, an average of 18.7% shorter ignition delay, and a comparable total combustion duration when compared to those of conventional diesel fuel. Meanwhile, F-T diesel fuel displays an average of 26.8% lower peak value of premixed burning rate and a higher peak value of diffusive burning rate. In addition, the F-T diesel engine has a slightly lower peak combustion pressure, a far lower rate of pressure rise, and a lower mechanical load and combustion noise than the conventional diesel engine. The brake specific fuel consumption is lower and the effective thermal efficiency is higher for F-T diesel fuel operation.

  8. Particulate matter, carbon emissions and elemental compositions from a diesel engine exhaust fuelled with diesel-biodiesel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraful, A. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    A comparative morphological analysis was performed on the exhaust particles emitted from a CI engine using different blending ratios of palm biodiesel at several operating conditions. It was observed from this experiment; peak particle concentration for PB10 at 1200 rpm is 1.85E + 02 and at 1500 rpm is 2.12E + 02. A slightly smaller amount of volatile material has found from the biodiesel samples compared to the diesel fuel sample. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the amount of volatile material in the soot from biodiesel fuels was slightly lower than that of diesel fuel. PB20 biodiesel blends reduced maximum 11.26% of volatile matter from the engine exhaust, while PB10 biodiesel blend reduced minimum 5.53% of volatile matter. On the other hand, the amount of fixed carbon from the biodiesel samples was slightly higher than diesel fuel. Analysis of carbon emissions, palm biodiesel (PB10) reduced elemental carbon (EC) was varies 0.75%-18%, respectively. Similarly, the emission reduction rate for PB20 was varies 11.36%-23.46% respectively. While, organic carbon (OC) emission rates reduced for PB20 was varied 13.7-49% respectively. Among the biodiesel blends, PB20 exhibited highest oxygen (O), sulfur (S) concentration and lowest silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) concentration. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images for PB20 showed granular structure particulates with bigger grain sizes compared to diesel. Particle diameter increased under the 2100-2400 rpm speed condition and it was 8.70% higher compared to the low speed conditions. Finally, the results indicated that the composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel, play an important role in the chemical composition of particulate matter emissions.

  9. A comparison of diesel, biodiesel and solar PV-based water pumping systems in the context of rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Pokharel, Govind Raj; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    using petro-diesel, jatropha-based biodiesel and solar photovoltaic pumps. The technical system design consists of system sizing of prime mover (engine, solar panel and pumps) and estimation of reservoir capacity, which are based on the annual aggregate water demand modelling. With these investigations...... area, the levelised cost of pumping 1 L of water is higher than that of a solar pump and even higher when compared with diesel, if the seed yield per plant is less than 2 kg and without subsidy on the investment cost of cultivation and processing. With the productivity of 2.5 kg/plant, a biodiesel......-based system is more attractive than that of the diesel-based pump, but still remains more expensive than that of solar pump. From the technical perspective (reliability and easiness in operation) and economic evaluation of the technical alternatives, solar pumping system is found to be the most viable...

  10. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  11. Platelet activation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Sander; Larsen, O H; Christiansen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a new laboratory model of whole blood platelet aggregation stimulated by endogenously generated thrombin, and explores this aspect in haemophilia A in which impaired thrombin generation is a major hallmark. The method was established to measure platelet aggregation initiated...

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian; Asokan Guruprasath; Marta Vivar; Skryabin Igor; Karuppian Srithar

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD) and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD) are taken for the experimental analysis. Ex...

  13. Research on Spray, Combustion and Emission Characteristics for DI Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To improve the combustion chamber shape that can decrease the directed injection (DI) diesel emission, the theories of DI diesel spray, combustion and pollutant formation model are analysed and implemented based on the CFD code FIRE. Results show that the chamber with contracting orifice can get stronger squish swirl intensity. The results of the verification studies show a good accordance with the measurements and reveal that the individual processes of spray evolution, combustion and pollutant formation are well captured in FIRE. Finally, based on the analyzing and comparing of the calculation results of different chambers, a combustion chamber of contracting orifice geometry with lower emission is proposed.

  14. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  15. Combustion and emissions of the diesel engine using bio-diesel fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The combustion and heat release of engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel have been investigated.The results illustrate that the combustion happens in advance and the ignition delay period is shortened.The initial heat release peak declines a little,the corresponding crankshaft angle changes in advance,and the combustion duration is prolonged.The economic performance and emission features of diesel engines using diesel fuel and bio-diesel fuel are compared.The results also show that the specific fuel consumption of bio-diesel increases by about 12% .The emissions,such as CO,HC,and particulate matter decrease remarkably whereas NOx increases a little.

  16. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  17. Effect of Diesel Sulfur on the Regeneration of Catalyst based Diesel Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruthviraj S Balekai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diesel particulate filters are used in diesel engines to clean the particulate matter, which is released into the atmosphere. These particulate filters have a mechanism, which is affected by diesel sulfur level. My study refers to the effect with which the sulfur in diesel affects the regeneration rate of the diesel particulate filters. Two filters with different coatings were taken. Diesel Sulfur with different concentrations was tested. It was observed that there was linear relation between sulfur level and balance point temperature. Also, it was observed that this was the cause for not using full-blend biodiesel, as the emission standards could not be met due to high sulfur levels in the biodiesel.

  18. Poly-Acrylic Acid Derivatives as Diesel Flow Improver for Paraffin-Based Daqing Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiyu Jiang; Ming Xu; Xiaoli Xi; Panlun Qi; Hongyan Shang

    2006-01-01

    Since the diesel products from paraffin-based Daqing crude oil showed low sensitivity to certain commercial diesel pour point depressant (PPDs) that resulted from the high content of paraffin, certain poly-acrylic acid derivatives (PADE) with-COOR,-COOH,-CONHR, and -COO-NH3+R groups by molecular design on the mechanics of diesel; PPDs were synthesized and evaluated as cold flow improver for Daqing 0# diesel in this paper. The pure PADE was superior to the commercial PPDs and displayed a substantial ability of wax crystals dispersion. There was a synergistic effect among the PADE and T1804 and secondary amine. The synergism clearly improved the low temperature performance of Daqing diesel products and could reduce the cold filter plugging point of 0# diesel by 6-7 ℃.

  19. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  20. Impact of Particle Aggregation on Nanoparticle Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassby, David

    2011-12-01

    decline in hydroxyl radical generation could be attributed to two key parameters. First, increased aggregate size was associated with increased particle shadowing, as determined from the observed decrease in the rate of optically induced transitions. Secondly, aggregate structure was associated both with increased shadowing (denser aggregates exhibited more shadowing than similarly sized loose aggregates), and with an increase in radical quenching on neighboring particle surfaces in an aggregate. Aggregation had a positive impact on hydroxylated fullerene membrane separation, increasing removal efficiency to around 80%, regardless of transmembrane pressure. However, the type of electrolyte used determined whether aggregation was successful at increasing removal. Divalent ions, capable of forming strong covalent bonds with surface oxygen groups, increased removal efficiency and made it pressure insensitive. In contrast, monovalent ions increased removal efficiency slightly, but maintained the pressure dependence of the removal efficiency. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that divalently aggregated hydroxylated fullerenes deform under increased pressure and partially penetrate the membrane. Finally, nanoparticle reactive properties depend on the primary particle aggregation state. Both size and structure are key factors when evaluating nanomaterial reactivity under aggregation-inducing conditions. However, the impact of aggregation is not easily predicted. Some materials exhibit a decreased reactivity while others experience an increase. Therefore, the impact of aggregation on nanoparticle reactive properties must be evaluated on a material-by-material basis, while considering all of the particle and aggregate characteristics as well as environmental ones.

  1. Aggregates in monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rey, María; Lang, Dietmar A

    2011-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have proved to be a highly successful class of therapeutic products. Large-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical antibodies is a complex activity that requires considerable effort in both process and analytical development. If a therapeutic protein cannot be stabilized adequately, it will lose partially or totally its therapeutic properties or even cause immunogenic reactions thus potentially further endangering the patients' health. The phenomenon of protein aggregation is a common issue that compromises the quality, safety, and efficacy of antibodies and can happen at different steps of the manufacturing process, including fermentation, purification, final formulation, and storage. Aggregate levels in drug substance and final drug product are a key factor when assessing quality attributes of the molecule, since aggregation might impact biological activity of the biopharmaceutical. In this review it is analyzed how aggregates are formed during monoclonal antibody industrial production, why they have to be removed and the manufacturing process steps that are designed to either minimize or remove aggregates in the final product. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intelligent Control of Diesel Generators Using Gain-Scheduling Based on Online External-Load Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Yang, Zhenyu;

    2014-01-01

    keep a consistent performance for a wide range of operating conditions. Technically, a general nonlinear dynamic model is firstly developed based on fundamental principles of diesel generators. Then, the system parameters of this model can be identified experimentally or partially retrieved from...... the data-sheet for a specific unit. By combining an online external-load estimation with this specific units model, finally an intelligent control using the online gain scheduling strategy is proposed. The proposed solution is verified and analyzed based on a lab-sized emulator of a diesel generator, where...... a controlled AC-motor is employed to emulate a diesel engine. The testing results clearly show that the proposed control solution can lead to a better overall system performance than most existing solutions do, especially subject to widely diverse operating conditions....

  3. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  4. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  5. Application of Improved LMD, SVD Technique and RVM to Fault Diagnosis of Diesel Valve Trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu刘昱; Zhang Junhong张俊红; Lin Jiewei林杰威; Bi Fengrong毕凤荣

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the non-stationary characteristics of diesel engine vibration signals and the limitations of sin-gular value decomposition (SVD) technique, a new method based on improved local mean decomposition (LMD), SVD technique and relevance vector machine (RVM) was proposed for the identification of diesel valve fault in this study. Firstly, the vibration signals were acquired through the vibration sensors installed on the cylinder head in one normal state and four fault states of valve trains. Secondly, an improved LMD method was used to decompose the non-stationary signals into a set of stationary product functions (PF), from which the initial feature vector matri-ces can be formed automatically. Then, the singular values were obtained by applying the SVD technique to the initial feature vector matrixes. Finally, slant binary tree and sort separability criterion were combined to determine the structure of multi-class RVM, and the singular values were regarded as the fault feature vectors of RVM in the identification of fault types of diesel valve clearance. The experimental results showed that the proposed fault diag-nosis method can effectively extract the features of diesel valve clearance and identify the diesel valve fault accu-rately.

  6. [Ecological effect of No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction on marine algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Qiang; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Zhu, Chen-Jian; Shi, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Hai-Yan; Li, Rui-Xiang; Sun, Sheng-Yu

    2007-02-01

    With batch culture experiments in field and laboratory, the ecological effect of No. 0 diesel water accommodated fraction on marine algae was studied. A growth model of marine algae under grazing pressure and a model of growth effect on marine algae with different doses No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction were proposed. Based on the model and experiments, the growth effect of No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction on marine algae was studied. The results show that, the growth model of marine algae under grazing pressure is more suited for the marine ecological system than Logistic model. And the final biomass (B(f)) of marine algae with different doses No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction was calculated by the model with none-linear fitting software. The results also show that, under the field and laboratory conditions, lower doses No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction promotes the growth of marine algae, and the most promoting ratio are 180% and 120% respectively, however, higher doses hardly promotes but bates the growth of marine algae.

  7. Protein aggregate myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregate myopathies (PAM are an emerging group of muscle diseases characterized by structural abnormalities. Protein aggregate myopathies are marked by the aggregation of intrinsic proteins within muscle fibers and fall into four major groups or conditions: (1 desmin-related myopathies (DRM that include desminopathies, a-B crystallinopathies, selenoproteinopathies caused by mutations in the, a-B crystallin and selenoprotein N1 genes, (2 hereditary inclusion body myopathies, several of which have been linked to different chromosomal gene loci, but with as yet unidentified protein product, (3 actinopathies marked by mutations in the sarcomeric ACTA1 gene, and (4 myosinopathy marked by a mutation in the MYH-7 gene. While PAM forms 1 and 2 are probably based on impaired extralysosomal protein degradation, resulting in the accumulation of numerous and diverse proteins (in familial types in addition to respective mutant proteins, PAM forms 3 and 4 may represent anabolic or developmental defects because of preservation of sarcomeres outside of the actin and myosin aggregates and dearth or absence of other proteins in these actin or myosin aggregates, respectively. The pathogenetic principles governing protein aggregation within muscle fibers and subsequent structural sarcomeres are still largely unknown in both the putative catabolic and anabolic forms of PAM. Presence of inclusions and their protein composition in other congenital myopathies such as reducing bodies, cylindrical spirals, tubular aggregates and others await clarification. The hitherto described PAMs were first identified by immunohistochemistry of proteins and subsequently by molecular analysis of their genes.

  8. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  9. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies on diesel soot from oxygenated fuel under various engine load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Shah, N.; Huggins, Frank E.; Kelly, K.E.; Sarofim, A.; Jacobsen, C.; Wirick, S.; Francis, H.; Ilavsky, J.; Thomas, G.E.; Huffman, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Diesel soot from reference diesel fuel and oxygenated fuel under idle and load engine conditions was investigated with X-ray scattering and X-ray carbon K-edge absorption spectroscopy. Up to five characteristic size ranges were found. Idle soot was generally found to have larger primary particles and aggregates but smaller crystallites, than load soot. Load soot has a higher degree of crystallinity than idle soot. Adding oxygenates to diesel fuel enhanced differences in the characteristics of diesel soot, or even reversed them. Aromaticity of idle soot from oxygenated diesel fuel was significantly larger than from the corresponding load soot. Carbon near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was applied to gather information about the presence of relative amounts of carbon double bonds (CC, CO) and carbon single bonds (C-H, C-OH, COOH). Using scanning X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM), the relative amounts of these carbon bond states were shown to vary spatially over distances approximately 50 to 100 nm. The results from the X-ray techniques are supported by thermo-gravimetry analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multimodel Control of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirstoiu, Silviu; Popescu, Dumitru; Dimon, Catalin; Olteanu, Severus

    2017-01-01

    In this article it is proposed and designed a modern control configuration of the type multicontroler-multimodel (MM) that pilots the nonlinear combustion process of the Diesel engine, needed to adjust the pressure in the intake manifold and the airflow circulating through the compressor. The MM simulator developed by the authors allows the implementation of control systems represented by pairs (Mi, Ci) with the Mi candidate closest to the current operating point of the process and the paired controller Ri, for controlling the key parameters of the combustion process. The proposed configuration is built with robust controllers and thus it is able to ensure superior performance, tolerance to nonlinearities and parametric and structural perturbations in the system.

  11. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    necessitates a rethinking of public governance that involve multilevel governance and integrating technology push and pull strategies. The agenda requires a re-conceptualisation of the innovation concept with special emphasis on value chain dynamics. The paper includes an analysis of the Danish innovation......This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... policy based on Michael Porters cluster theory. The paper however suggest that the narrow focus on productivity and economic growth in Porters theory should be qualified and integrated with a broader scope of societal policy aims including social and environmental issues. This suggestion also...

  12. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  13. Commercial Test of Two Diesel Demulsifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company conducted commercial tests for application of two types of diesel demulsifiers, the HPL-2 and GX-02 demulsifiers, in order to solve the emulsion problem arising from caustic washing of straight-run diesel fraction obtained from atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit at the Lanzhou refinery. After addition of each demulsifier into the diesel fraction the oil content in caustic residue was apparently decreased, and discharge of waste caustic was reduced, resulting in the elimination of emulsification and a significant increase of economic benefits. When 70 ppm of the HPL-2 demulsifier was added to diesel fraction, the oil content in waste caustic exiting the second-stage caustic wash settling tank was reduced to 2.45% from 7.90 %, whereas this value was reduced to 2.81% from 5.96% with addition of the GX-02 demulsifier.

  14. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  15. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S.; Yokota, H.; Kakegawa, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  17. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  18. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  19. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his `Adiabatic Diesel Engine` in the late 70`s. Kamo`s concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo`s work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as `convection vive.` Woschni`s work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components.

  20. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine.

  1. Comparative naval architecture analysis of diesel submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Torkelson, Kai Oscar

    2005-01-01

    CIVINS Many comparative naval architecture analyses of surface ships have been performed, but few published comparative analyses of submarines exist. Of the several design concept papers, reports and studies that have been written on submarines, no exclusively diesel submarine comparative naval architecture analyses have been published. One possible reason for few submarine studies may be the lack of complete and accurate information regarding the naval architecture of foreign diesel subma...

  2. Recycled aggregates concrete: aggregate and mix properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fonteboa, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate focuses on two issues: 1. The characterization of such aggregate on the Spanish market. This involved conducting standard tests to determine density, water absorption, grading, shape, flakiness and hardness. The results obtained show that, despite the considerable differences with respect to density and water absorption between these and natural aggregates, on the whole recycled aggregate is apt for use in concrete production. 2. Testing to determine the values of basic concrete properties: mix design parameters were established for structural concrete in non-aggressive environments. These parameters were used to produce conventional concrete, and then adjusted to manufacture recycled concrete aggregate (RCA concrete, in which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled material. Tests were conducted to determine the physical (density of the fresh and hardened material, water absorption and mechanical (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity properties. The results showed that, from the standpoint of its physical and mechanical properties, concrete in which RCA accounted for 50% of the coarse aggregate compared favourably to conventional concrete.

    Se aborda el estudio de hormigones estructurales fabricados con áridos reciclados procedentes de hormigón, incidiéndose en dos aspectos: 1. Caracterización de tales áridos, procedentes del mercado español. Para ello se llevan a cabo ensayos de densidad, absorción, granulometría, coeficiente de forma, índice de lajas y dureza. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que, a pesar de que existen diferencias notables (sobre todo en cuanto a densidad y absorción con los áridos naturales, las características de los áridos hacen posible la fabricación de hormigones. 2. Ensayos sobre propiedades básicas de los hormigones: se establecen parámetros de dosificaci

  3. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  4. Propagation of Tau aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2017-05-30

    Since 2009, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau aggregates form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagation of Tau aggregates is often called prion-like, which refers to the capacity of an assembled protein to induce the same abnormal conformation in a protein of the same kind, initiating a self-amplifying cascade. In addition, prion-like encompasses the release of protein aggregates from brain cells and their uptake by neighbouring cells. In mice, the intracerebral injection of Tau inclusions induced the ordered assembly of monomeric Tau, followed by its spreading to distant brain regions. Short fibrils constituted the major species of seed-competent Tau. The existence of several human Tauopathies with distinct fibril morphologies has led to the suggestion that different molecular conformers (or strains) of aggregated Tau exist.

  5. Aggregation and Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  6. Detection of Red Dye in Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Varughese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sensitive and effective instrument for detecting the presence of red dye in diesel fuel is very advantageous for governments in preventing tax loss by controlling illegal use of the diesel fuel. The objective of this work has been to investigate and develop an instrument to detect red dye in diesel, based on the principle of absorption. The peaks of absorption in red and pure diesel fuel were measured with the help of UV-spectrometer (Lambda 6/ PECSS. Optical interference filters of wavelengths 405 nm and 616 nm were used to modify the spectral transmittance of an optical system with appropriate spectral absorption characteristics. Two simultaneous light beams of two different colors were sent into the diesel fuel and the transmitted light from the fuel censored by a silicon photo detector. The signal from the detector was then amplified with the help of three operational amplifiers (OP-177 and sent to an analog device (AD 538 which can perform division operation. The voltage produced when the violet light passes through the medium was divided when the red light passes through the medium in the one quadrant division unit (AD 538. The output voltage from the analog device was measured with the help of a digital multi-meter. The results show that the output voltages decreases with the increase in percentage of red dye in diesel fuel.

  7. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  8. Particulate Emissions from the Combustion of Diesel Fuel with a Fuel-Borne Nanoparticulate Cerium Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conny, J. M.; Willis, R. D.; Weinstein, J. P.; Krantz, T.; King, C.

    2013-12-01

    To address the adverse impacts on health and climate from the use of diesel-fueled vehicles, a number of technological solutions have been developed for reducing diesel soot emissions and to improve fuel economy. One such solution is the use fuel-borne metal oxide catalysts. Of current interest are commercially-available fuel additives consisting of nanoparticulate cerium oxide (CeO2). In response to the possible use of CeO2-containing fuels in on-road vehicles in the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency is conducting research to address the potential toxicity and environmental effects of particulate CeO2 emitted with diesel soot. In this study, emissions from a diesel-fueled electric generator were size-segregated on polished silicon wafers in a nanoparticle cascade impactor. The diesel fuel contained 10 ppm Ce by weight in the form of crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles 4 nm to 7.5 nm in size. Primary CeO2 nanoparticles were observed in the diesel emissions as well as CeO2 aggregates encompassing a broad range of sizes up to at least 200 nm. We report the characterization of individual particles from the size-resolved samples with focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results show a dependency between the impactor size range and CeO2 agglomeration state: in the larger size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 560 nm to 1000 nm) CeO2 nanoparticles were predominantly attached to soot particles. In the smaller size fractions of the impactor (e.g., 100 nm to 320 nm), CeO2 aggregates tended to be larger and unattached to soot. The result is important because the deposition of CeO2 nanoparticles attached to soot particles in the lung or on environmental surfaces such as plant tissue will likely present different consequences than the deposition of unagglomerated CeO2 particles. Disclaimer The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development funded and collaborated in the research described

  9. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  10. Determination and distribution of diesel components in igneous rock surrounding underground diesel storage facilities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren, A; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K; Abrahamsson, K

    2001-01-15

    In Sweden, a preliminary investigation of the contamination situation of igneous rock surrounding underground storage facilities of diesel showed that the situation was severe. The diesel was believed to have penetrated into the rock as far as 50 m from the walls of the vaults. Consequently, the risk for contamination of groundwater and recipients could not be neglected. To be able to assess the fate of diesel components in rock, both a suitable drilling method and a method for the determination of a wide range of diesel components were needed. The analytical method presented made it possible to quantify a number of hydrocarbons in rock samples collected with triple-tube core drilling. The samples were dissolved in hydrofluoric acid (HF) with hexane in Teflon centrifuge tubes. After digestion of the rock, extraction of the analytes with hexane was performed. Determination of the individual hydrocarbons present was done with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was used to study the environmental impact of the underground storage of diesel. The drilling method enabled sampling without contamination risks. Our data show that the major transport of diesel components in rock occurs through fracture systems and that diffusion of diesel through the rock is of minor importance. The results have drastically changed the view of the contamination situation of diesel in the vicinity of storage facilities in hard rock in Sweden.

  11. Experimental studies on a DI diesel engine fueled with bioethanol-diesel emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulari Hansdah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the possibility of utilizing bioethanol obtained from Madhuca Indica flower as an alternative fuel in a direct injection (DI diesel engine. Three different percentages of bioethanol (5%, 10%, and 15% on volume basis were emulsified with diesel proportionality with the help of a surfactant. The emulsions were designated as BMDE5, BMDE10, and BMDE15 where the numeric value refers to the percentage of bioethanol. The emulsions were tested as fuels in a single cylinder, four stroke, and air cooled DI diesel engine developing a power of 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm. Results indicated that the bioethanol–diesel emulsions exhibited a longer ignition delay by about 2.2 °CA than that of diesel operation at full load. Overall, the nitric oxide (NO and smoke emissions were found to be lesser by about 4% and 20%, respectively, with the bioethanol–diesel emulsions compared to that of diesel operation at full load. The BMDE5 emulsion gave a better performance and lower emissions compared to that of BMDE10 and BMDE15. It is suggested that the bioethanol produced from Madhuca Indica flower can be used as a potential alternative fuel replacing 5% of petroleum diesel.

  12. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Nur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices were mounted on the exhaust pipe. The test of fuel variations started from 100% diesel fuel (D100 to 2.5% (DE2.5, 5% (DE5, 7.5% (DE7.5, and 10% (DE10 ethanol additions. Performance test was conducted at 1500 rpm with load variations from 0 to 60 Nm by increasing the load on each level by 10 Nm. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel (DE5 increased the average pressure of combustion chamber indication to 48% as well as reduced the specific fuel consumption to 9.5%. There were better exhaust emission characteristics at this mixture ratio than diesel engine which used pure diesel fuel (D100, the reduction of CO to 37%, HC to 44% and opacity to 15.9%.

  13. Commonised diesel and gasoline catalyst architecture; Standardisierte Katalysatorarchitektur fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurell, Mats; Sjoers, Johan; Wernlund, Bjoern [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden); Brueck, Rolf [Emitec Gesellschaft fuer Emissionstechnologie mbH, Lohmar (Germany). Forschung, Entwicklung und Applikation

    2013-11-01

    Volvo Cars has developed a standardised catalytic converter architecture for diesel and gasoline engines - the scalable so-called Compact Cat. The system covers both Euro 6 and SULEV applications for gasoline engines as well as Euro 6 applications for diesel engines. The standardised design using shared parts results in a considerable reduction in unit costs and tooling requirements. (orig.)

  14. Impact of Emissions of Marine Diesel Engines to Air Pollution on the Example of the Yugoslav River Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ljevaja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the impact which marine diesel engines have on air pollution. The combustion of fossil fuels for marine diesel engines produces emission of various greenhouse gases; including carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs, and sulphur dioxide (SO2. Gas emission calculation is shown on the example of the Yugoslav river shipping with two methods for calculating harmful emissions of the marine diesel engines. Technologies for reduction of harmful emissions of marine diesel engines and other engines are also presented, as well as the implementation of those technologies, using the example of the Yugoslav river shipping. One of the objectives of this paper is to determine the actual condition of the fleet, as well as the impact it has on air pollution in Serbia, as a country which plans to become a member of the European Union. A measurement on diesel engines of different production date was done with a special device, in order to get the results that represent reality (about harmful emissions in Serbia. Final task of this paper is to collect information in order to reduce harmful emissions of the marine diesel engines, along with preservation of the environment.

  15. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  16. Monitoring of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, P.

    1994-12-01

    In Chapter 1 the origin and toxicity of incomplete combustion products of diesel fuel are discussed. Chapter 2 deals with methods that can be used for the identification and quantitation of airborne diesel exhaust-derived contaminants in the working place (environmental monitoring). Chemical substances may be used as indicators for source apportionment or markers for toxicity. A short-term in vitro bioassay may be used for (semi)quantitative determination of the mutagenic potency of diesel exhaust-derived airborne contaminants. Results are presented that support the use of 1-nitropyrene as a marker for the mutagenic activity of diesel exhaust particulate extracts. In Chapter 3 the development of methods for the determination of diesel exhaust-derived metabolites in biological samples is described. The application of new Salmonella typhimurium strains for the detection of urinary metabolites of nitroarenes is investigated. An immunoassay is presented as a method that may be used to track down persons with high occupational exposure to diesel exhaust. The possibilities for measurement of early biological effects are explored in Chapter 4. A method for the determination of hemoglobin adducts was used to investigate the role of the intestinal micro flora in the formation of such adducts derived from diesel exhaust constituents in rats equipped with a human micro flora. The formation of hemoglobin adducts is compared to the formation of DNA adducts in rats treated with two model compounds, in the presence or absence of a micro flora. The applicability of the described methods is discussed in Chapter 5. Prospects and recommendations for future research are given. 23 figs., 41 tabs., 660 refs., 4 appendices

  17. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  18. Optical dynamics of molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the spectroscopy and dynamics of molecular aggregates in amorphous matrices. Aggregates of three different molecules were studied. The molecules are depicted in Fig. (1.1). Supersaturated solutions of these molecules show aggregate formation. Aggregation is a process si

  19. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  20. Performance and emission study on DICI and HCCI engine using raw pongamia oil and diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the performance and emission characteristics of pongamia oil and diesel fuelled direct injection compression ignition (DICI and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine. The primary objective of the work is to investigate the feasibility of application of unmodified pongamia oil in Diesel engine and to estimate the maximum fraction of diesel fuel replaced by the neat pongamia oil. This investigation also deals with the HCCI operation using unmodified pongamia oil. In DICI mode the neat pongamia oil is admitted into the engine in the form of pongamia oil and diesel blends. The blend that offers highest diesel replacement is considered as the test blend and it is tested further to find its maximum possible brake thermal efficiency by changing the engine operating parameters. The selected maximum blend is then tested in the new setting of the engine to determine the maximum possible performance and emission characteristics. The conventional emissions of DICI engine such as NO and smoke are disappeared in the homogeneous charge compression ignition mode of operation. The HCCI engine tested in the present work is fuelled by 40% neat pongamia oil and 60% diesel fuel through direct injection and vapour induction, respectively. The ignition or combustion phasing of the HCCI operation is carried out by the exhaust gas recirculation method. The amount of exhaust gas re-circulation governs the timing of combustion. The results of the experiments show that the neat pongamia oil performed well in HCCI mode and offered approximately ten times lower NO and smoke emission. Finally, the results of the DICI mode and HCCI mode are compared with each other to reveal the truths of neat pongamia oil in heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion.

  1. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-06-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  2. Performance, emission and economic assessment of clove stem oil-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    In this study the performance, emission and economic evaluation of using the clove stem oil (CSO)-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engine have been carried out. Experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine performance and emissions. The societal life cycle cost (LCC) was chosen as an important indicator for comparing alternative fuel operating modes. The LCC using the pure diesel fuel, 25% CSO and 50% CSO-diesel blended fuels in diesel engine are analysed. These costs include the vehicle first cost, fuel cost and exhaust emissions cost. A complete macroeconomic assessment of the effect of introducing the CSO-diesel blended fuels to the diesel engine is not included in the study. Engine tests show that performance parameters of the CSO-diesel blended fuels do not differ greatly from those of the pure diesel fuel. Slight power losses, combined with an increase in fuel consumption, were experienced with the CSO-diesel blended fuels. This is due to the low heating value of the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Emissions of CO and HC are low for the CSO-diesel blended fuels. NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel operation mode. A remarkable reduction in the exhaust smoke emissions can be achieved when operating on the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Based on the LCC analysis, the CSO-diesel blended fuels would not be competitive with the pure diesel fuel, even though the environmental impact of emission is valued monetarily. This is due to the high price of the CSO. (author)

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of the straining of nanoparticle chain aggregates: the case of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalis, Adamos; Friedlander, Sheldon K.

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that individual nanoparticle chain aggregates (NCAs) exhibit unusual mechanical behaviour when under strain inside the transmission electron microscope. NCAs made of various materials (e.g. carbon, metal oxides and metals) were strained by as much as 100% under tension. The nanoparticles that compose the chains were 5-10 nm in diameter and the chains of the order of 1 µm in length. Such aggregates are of technological importance in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials (e.g. rubber), aggregate break-up (e.g. sampling diesel emissions) and chemical-mechanical planarization. The goal of this study was to simulate the mechanical behaviour of chain aggregates with morphological properties similar to those of technological interest. Molecular dynamics (MD) and energy minimization computer simulations are employed to investigate, at the atomic scale, the behaviour of short nanoparticle aggregates under strain and to obtain quantitative information on the forces involved in aggregate straining and fracturing. The interaction potential used is that of copper obtained with the embedded atom method (EAM). Two seven-nanoparticle aggregates are studied, one linear and the other kinked. The seven nanoparticles in both aggregates are single crystals and about 2.5 nm in diameter each. The aggregates are strained along their longest dimension, to the breaking point, at strain rates spanning from 2.5 × 107 to 8.0 × 108 s-1 (MD simulations). The linear aggregate yield strain is about 0.1. The kinked aggregate elastic limit is also about 0.1, but only one-third of the stress develops along the straining direction compared to the linear aggregate. The kinked aggregate breaks at a strain of about 0.5, five times higher than the breaking strain of the linear aggregate. The ability of the kinked aggregate to straighten through combined nanoparticle interface sliding and rotation accounts for the extra strain accommodation. Simulation

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of the straining of nanoparticle chain aggregates: the case of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalis, Adamos; Friedlander, Sheldon K

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that individual nanoparticle chain aggregates (NCAs) exhibit unusual mechanical behaviour when under strain inside the transmission electron microscope. NCAs made of various materials (e.g. carbon, metal oxides and metals) were strained by as much as 100% under tension. The nanoparticles that compose the chains were 5-10 nm in diameter and the chains of the order of 1 µm in length. Such aggregates are of technological importance in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials (e.g. rubber), aggregate break-up (e.g. sampling diesel emissions) and chemical-mechanical planarization. The goal of this study was to simulate the mechanical behaviour of chain aggregates with morphological properties similar to those of technological interest. Molecular dynamics (MD) and energy minimization computer simulations are employed to investigate, at the atomic scale, the behaviour of short nanoparticle aggregates under strain and to obtain quantitative information on the forces involved in aggregate straining and fracturing. The interaction potential used is that of copper obtained with the embedded atom method (EAM). Two seven-nanoparticle aggregates are studied, one linear and the other kinked. The seven nanoparticles in both aggregates are single crystals and about 2.5 nm in diameter each. The aggregates are strained along their longest dimension, to the breaking point, at strain rates spanning from 2.5 × 10(7) to 8.0 × 10(8) s(-1) (MD simulations). The linear aggregate yield strain is about 0.1. The kinked aggregate elastic limit is also about 0.1, but only one-third of the stress develops along the straining direction compared to the linear aggregate. The kinked aggregate breaks at a strain of about 0.5, five times higher than the breaking strain of the linear aggregate. The ability of the kinked aggregate to straighten through combined nanoparticle interface sliding and rotation accounts for the extra strain accommodation

  5. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  6. Adams natural gas/diesel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The results of a ore-year program to demonstrate the viability of fuelling and operating diesel road vehicles on dual fuel natural gas/diesel under commercial operating conditions is presented. During this project a natural gas fuelling station designed to accomodate the specific needs of heavy trucks was constructed, and a Canada Safeway Ltd. tractor was converted to dual fuel natural gas/diesel operation. The truck accumulated more than 64,000 km during the one-year monitoring period, providing useful data in terms of comparative fuel efficiency, natural gas/diesel proportions of fuel use, operating range, and refuelling times, along with assessments of its performance by drivers and fleet management. In the dual fuel mode the truck experienced a 15% loss in thermal efficiency relative to straight diesel fuel during highway operation, and a 20% loss during local operation. Fuel cost savings resulting from the use of natural gas were not large given the increased level of fuel consumption and the purchase of natural gas at higher prices. If the fleet were to have its own natural gas fuelling station fuel cost savings would be substantially increased. Areas in which further development is needed for natural gas to emerge as a significant fuel for heavy trucks are mentioned. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Dual fuel diesel engine operation using LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, Al; Nutu, N. C.

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine fuelling with LPG represents a good solution to reduce the pollutant emissions and to improve its energetic performances. The high autoignition endurance of LPG requires specialized fuelling methods. From all possible LPG fuelling methods the authors chose the diesel-gas method because of the following reasons: is easy to be implemented even at already in use engines; the engine does not need important modifications; the LPG-air mixture has a high homogeneity with favorable influences over the combustion efficiency and over the level of the pollutant emissions, especially on the nitrogen oxides emissions. This paper presents results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on operation of a LPG fuelled heavy duty diesel engine at two operating regimens, 40% and 55%. For 55% engine load is also presented the exhaust gas recirculation influence on the pollutant emission level. Was determined the influence of the diesel fuel with LPG substitution ratio on the combustion parameters (rate of heat released, combustion duration, maximum pressure, maximum pressure rise rate), on the energetic parameters (indicate mean effective pressure, effective efficiency, energetic specific fuel consumption) and on the pollutant emissions level. Therefore with increasing substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG are obtained the following results: the increase of the engine efficiency, the decrease of the specific energetic consumption, the increase of the maximum pressure and of the maximum pressure rise rate (considered as criteria to establish the optimum substitute ratio), the accentuated reduction of the nitrogen oxides emissions level.

  8. Particulate matters from diesel engine exhaust emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Velimir S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by diesel engine emissions, especially particulate matters and nitric oxides emissions, is one of the biggest problems of current transportation. In the near future the emission of diesel particulate matters will become one of the most important factors that will affect the trend of engine development. Ambient airborne particles have adverse environmental and health effects and therefore their concentration in the air is regulated. Recent medical studies showed that different particle properties are important (for example: number/concentration, active surface, chemical composition/morphology and may take role in the responsibility for their human health impact. Thus, diesel engines are one of the most important sources of particles in the atmosphere, especially in urban areas. Studying health effects and diesel engine particulate properties, it has been concluded that they are a complex mixture of solids and liquids. Biological activity of particulate matter may be related to particle sizes and their number. The paper presents the activities of UN-ECE working group PMP on defining the best procedure and methodology for the measurement of passenger cars diesel engines particle mass and number concentrations. The results of inter-laboratory emissions testing are presented for different engine technologies with special attention on repeatability and reproducibility of measured data. .

  9. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-03-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  10. Fractals of Silica Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhinhongLi; DongWu; Yuhansun; JunWang; YiLiu; BaozhongDong; Zhinhong

    2001-01-01

    Silica aggregates were prepared by base-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxides in alcohol.Polyethylene glycol(PEG) was used as organic modifier.The sols were characterized using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) with synchrotron radiation as X-ray source.The structure evolution during the sol-gel process was determined and described in terms of the fractal geometry.As-produced silica aggregates were found to be mass fractals.The fractl dimensions spanned the regime 2.1-2.6 corresponding to more branched and compact structures.Both RLCA and Eden models dominated the kinetic growth under base-catalyzed condition.

  11. Linguistic Weighted Aggregation under Confidence Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop some new linguistic aggregation operators based on confidence levels. Firstly, we introduce the confidence linguistic weighted averaging (CLWA operator and the confidence linguistic ordered weighted averaging (CLOWA operator. These two new linguistic aggregation operators are able to consider the confidence level of the aggregated arguments provided by the information providers. We also study some of their properties. Then, based on the generalized means, we introduce the confidence generalized linguistic ordered weighted averaging (CGLOWA operator. The main advantage of the CGLOWA operator is that it includes a wide range of special cases such as the CLOWA operator, the confidence linguistic ordered weighted quadratic averaging (CLOWQA operator, and the confidence linguistic ordered weighted geometric (CLOWG operator. Finally, we develop an application of the new approach in a multicriteria decision-making under linguistic environment and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  12. Aggregation kinetics and structure of cryoimmunoglobulins clusters

    CERN Document Server

    De Spirito, M; Bassi, F A; Di Stasio, E; Giardina, B; Arcovito, G

    2002-01-01

    Cryoimmunoglobulins are pathological antibodies characterized by a temperature-dependent reversible insolubility. Rheumatoid factors (RF) are immunoglobulins possessing anti-immunoglobulin activity and usually consist of an IgM antibody that recognizes IgG as antigen. These proteins are present in sera of patients affected by a large variety of different pathologies, such as HCV infection, neoplastic and autoimmune diseases. Aggregation and precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins, leading to vasculiti, are physical phenomena behind such pathologies. A deep knowledge of the physico-chemical mechanisms regulating such phenomena plays a fundamental role in biological and clinical applications. In this work, a preliminary investigation of the aggregation kinetics and of the final macro- molecular structure of the aggregates is presented. Through static light scattering techniques, the gyration radius R/sub g/ and the fractal dimension D/sub m/ of the growing clusters have been determined. However, while the initial ...

  13. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  14. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil.

  15. Effects of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel on combustion and emissions of direct injection diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcheng HUANG; Shangxue WANG; Longbao ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine under different fuel delivery advance angles were investigated. The experi-mental results show that F-T diesel fuel exhibits shorter ignition delay, lower peak values of premixed burning rate, lower combustion pressure and pressure rise rate, and higher peak value of diffusion burning rate than con-ventional diesel fuel when the engine remains unmodified. In addition, the unmodified engine with F-T diesel fuel has lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher effective thermal efficiency, and presents lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions than conventional diesel fuel. When fuel delivery advance angle is retarded by 3 crank angle degrees, the combustion duration is obviously shor-tened; the peak values of premixed burning rate, the com-bustion pressure and pressure rise rate are further reduced; and the peak value of diffusion burning rate is further increased for F-T diesel fuel operation, Moreover, the retardation of fuel delivery advance angle results in a further significant reduction in NOx emissions with no penalty on specific fuel consumption and with much less penalty on HC, CO and smoke emissions.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A DIESEL ENGINE WITH BLENDS OF DIESEL-PLASTIC PYROLYSIS OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rajesh Guntur,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and depletion of oil reserves are matters of great concern around the globe. Developing countries like India depend heavily on crude oil import of about 125 Mt per annum (7:1diesel/gasoline. Diesel being the main transportation fuel in India, finding a suitable fuel alternative to diesel is an urgent need. In this context, pyrolysis of waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic pyrolysis oil is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in India because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. In the present work the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, and direct injection diesel engine using waste plastic pyrolysis oil blends as an alternate fuel were evaluated and the results are compared with the standard diesel fuel operation. Results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency was highercompared to diesel at part load condition. Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions were higher and oxygen emission was lower compared to diesel operation.

  17. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Diesel Obtained From Waste Cooking Oil and Its Blends with Diesel on Single Cylinder Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. B. Sharma; Dr. Amit Pal

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment a comprehensive experimental investigation of bio-diesel oil on single cylinder engine running with biodiesel obtained from Waste cooking oil and its blends with diesel was carried...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated... spillage of fuel and that activates an alarm system. (b) All piping, valves and fittings must be—...

  20. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  1. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated...

  2. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  3. Potential of Sagittaria trifolia for Phytoremediation of Diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinying; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Gu, Lingfeng; Hou, Yunyun; He, Chiquan; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential and responses of Sagittaria trifolia to diesel were investigated. In order to elucidate the biochemical and physiological responses of S. trifolia to diesel, the chlorophyll content, root vitality, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity (peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined in the plant tissues after 50 d of diesel treatment. The results showed the presence of S. trifolia significantly improved the removal ratios of diesel, from 21∼36% in the control soils to 54∼85% in the planted soils. The chlorophyll content, root vitality and soluble protein content all increased at low diesel concentration, then decreased at high diesel concentration. The activities of CAT and POD exhibited peak values at 5 g·kg(-1) diesel treatment and declined at higher diesel concentrations. However, the activity of SOD kept stable at lower diesel concentration (1 and 5 g·kg(-1)), and also declined at higher diesel concentration. Collectively, S. trifolia had the ability to tolerate certain amount of diesel, but when the concentration was up to 10 g·kg(-1), the growth of S. trifolia would be restrained. The results also showed that variation of antioxidant enzyme activity was an important response in plants to diesel pollution.

  4. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  5. Engineering property test of kaolin clay contaminated by diesel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志彬; 刘松玉; 蔡奕

    2015-01-01

    Engineering property of kaolin clay contaminated by diesel oil was studied through a series of laboratory experiments. Oil contents (mass fraction) of 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% were selected to represent different contamination degrees, and the soil specimens were manually prepared through mixing and static compaction method. Initial water content and dry density of the test kaolin clay were controlled at 10% and 1.58 g/cm3, respectively. Test results indicate that since part of the diesel oil will be released from soil by evaporation, the real water content should be derived through calibration of the quasi water content obtained by traditional test method. As contamination degree of the kaolin clay increases, both liquid limit and plastic limit decrease, but there’s only a slight increase for plasticity index. Swelling pressure of contaminated kaolin clay under confined condition will be lowered when oil-content gets higher. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the oil-contaminated kaolin clay is influenced by not only oil content but also curing period. Increase of contamination degree will continually lower UCS of the kaolin clay specimen. In addition, electrical resistivity of the contaminated kaolin clay with given water content decreases with the increase of oil content. However, soil resistivity is in good relationship with oil content and UCS. Finally, oil content of 8% is found to be a critical value for engineering property of kaolin clay to transit from water-dominated towards oil-dominated characteristics.

  6. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and High Speed Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gopinathan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Depleting petroleum reserves on the earth and increasing concerns about the environment leads to the question for fuels which are eco-friendly safer for human beings. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of coating on cylinder head of a Diesel engine on the performance and emission characteristics of exhaust gases using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel (HSD as a fuel. In this study the effect of Tin and Hard Chrome coating on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine was investigated using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel as a fuel. For this purpose the cylinder head of the test engine were coated with a Tin and Hard Chrome of 100 µ thick by the Electroplating method. For comparing the performance of the engine with coated components with the base engine, readings were taken before and after coating. To make the diesel engine to work with Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel a modification was done. The engine’s performance was studied for both Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel with and without Tin, Hard Chrome coating. Also the emissions values are recorded to study the engine’s behavior on emissions. Satisfactory performance was obtained with Tin and Hard Chrome coating compared with a standard diesel engine. The brake thermal efficiency was increased up to 2.08% for High Speed Diesel with Tin coating and there was a significant reduction in the specific fuel consumption. The CO emission in the engine exhaust decreases with coating. Using Bio Diesel and High Speed Diesel fuel for a LHR diesel engine causes an improvement in the performance characteristics and significant reduction in exhaust emissions.

  7. Restoring diesel engine camshafts by laser treatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashkevich, B. M.; Zinov'ev, G. S.; Voronin, I. N.

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of parts of the gas-distributing mechanism and drives of fuel pumps determines to a great degree the operating conditions of cylinder-piston parts and the economic characteristics of diesel engines. Intense wear of the camshaft pair disturbs the distribution phases and the lead angle of fuel supply to the diesel cylinders and increases the rigidity of the operation of the connecting rod-piston group. This causes incomplete combustion of fuel and fuming, a rise in the temperature of exhaust gases, sticking of the rings in the piston grooves and their premature failure, wear cracks, and chips and failure of the parts of the cylinder-piston unit, decreasing the efficiency of the diesel. Laser surface treatment is used to restore cams. It makes it possible to increase substantially the wear resistance of cams and restore their worn surfaces. This paper concerns the characteristics of the cams after such a treatment.

  8. Adaptive vibration isolation system for diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tie-jun; ZHANG Xin-yu; XIAO You-hong; HUANG Jin-e; LIU Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    An active two-stage isolation mounting, on which servo-hydraulic system is used as the actuator (secondary vibration source) and a diesel engine is used as primary vibration source, has been built. The upper mass of the mounting is composed of a 495diesel and an electrical eddy current dynamometer. The lower mass is divided into four small masses to which servo-hydraulic actuator and rubber isolators are attached. According to the periodical characteristics of diesel vibration signals, a multi-point adaptive strategy based on adaptive comb filtered algorithm is applied to active multi-direction coupled vibrations control for the engine. The experimental results demonstrate that a good suppression in the effective range of phase compensation in secondary path (within 100Hz) at different operation conditions is achieved, and verify that this strategy is effective. The features of the active system, the development activities carried out on the system and experimental results are discussed in the paper.

  9. Tertiary fatty amides as diesel fuel substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)

  10. Diesel vehicles shortage mobilizes the automotive industry; La penurie de diesel mobilise la filiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, P.Y.; Deheunynck, P.Y.; Demoulin, L.

    2000-12-01

    The infatuation for diesel vehicles in Europe has led to an unexpected growth of this market. The reason is linked with the improvements made in diesel engine technology and with the rise of automotive fuel prices. Car and vehicle equipment manufacturers and sub-contractors have to increase their production and manpower and to adopt new work schedules for a better exploitation of factories capacity. However, the development of the direct injection (common-rail) technology for diesel engines requires complex and precise machining procedures that are hardly compatible with an enhanced mass production. (J.S.)

  11. Geoinformation Generalization by Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jogun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geoinformation generalization can be divided into model generalization and cartographic generalization. Model generalization is the supervised reduction of data in a model, while cartographic generalization is the reduction of the complexity of map content adapted to the map scale, and/or use by various generalization operators (procedures. The topic of this paper is the aggregation of geoinformation. Generally, aggregation is the joining of nearby, congenial objects, when the distance between them is smaller than the minimum sizes. Most researchers in geoinformation generalization have focused on line features. However, the appearance of web-maps with point features and choropleth maps has led to the development of concepts and algorithms for the generalization of point and polygonal features. This paper considers some previous theoretical premises and actual examples of aggregation for point, line and polygonal features. The algorithms for aggregation implemented in commercial and free GIS software were tested. In the conclusion, unresolved challenges that occur in dynamic cartographic visualizations and cases of unusual geometrical features are highlighted.

  12. Erosion of dust aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 m/s and above. Though fractal aggregates as ...

  13. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  14. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  16. Adsorptive desulfurization of diesel with mesoporous aluminosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Huang; LI Wang-Liang; LIU Qing-Fen; GUAN Li-Li; SONG Jia-Qing; XING dian-Min; LIU Hui-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous aluminosilicates (MAS) bearing microporous zeolite units and mesoporous structures were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Adsorptive desulfurization ability of model oil and hy-drotreated diesel was studied. The effects of template concentration, crystalization time and calcination time were investigated. The desulfurization ability of adsorbents was improved by transitional metal ion-exchanging. The adsorptive desulfurization of diesel was carried out on a fixed-bed system. The results show that the adsorptive capacity is MASMCM-41NaY. The improvement of desulfurization ability of MAS by Cu+ is more significant than that of Ag+.

  17. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  18. Carcinogenic potential of noxious emissions of diesel engines; Potencial cancerigeno de emisiones nocivas en motores a diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Lopez, Alejandro F. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The carcinogenic effects of the solid particles of carbonaceous nature, generated during the combustion process in the diesel engines, has been a concern of public and private entities in the developed countries, specially during the two last decades. This paper includes a short revision of the recent and preceding publications, found in the technical bibliography. The engine manufacturing enterprises have carried out spectacular changes in the internal design of the diesel engines, to diminish as much as possible, the solid particle generation inside the engine itself. The effort can not come from one part only, also the fuel producing enterprises in developed countries have carried out substantial efforts to improve the fuels as well as the lubricants. The goal of this measures is to practically eliminate the sulfur content, specially in the fuel, since the formation of solid particles linearly depends, among other factors, of this noxious element content in the diesel fuel. Finally, a short discussion is included of some exhaust gases post-treatment systems, that seems to be unavoidable in order to attain the strict standards that for year 1994 and the following years have been established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA. The Mexican legislation is also analyzed through the Normas Tecnicas Ecologicas (NTE) (Ecological Technical Standards), emitted by the Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (SEDUE), now Secretaria de Desarrolo Economico y Social (SEDESOL), simply to have a comparison reference with the international legislation. [Espanol] Los efectos cancerigenos de las particulas solidas de caracter carbonaceo, generadas durante el proceso de combustion de los motores diesel, ha sido preocupacion de organismos publicos y privados en los paises desarrollados, en especial durante las ultimas dos decadas. El trabajo incluye una revision breve de publicaciones recientes y anteriores, que se encuentran en la literatura tecnica. Las

  19. Physically founded modelling of transient heat transfer in diesel engine combustion chambers with application of 3D-CFD calculations. Final report; Physikalisch fundierte Modellierung des instationaeren Wandwaermeueberganges im Brennraum von Dieselmotoren mit Applikation an 3D-CFD-Rechnungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, G.P.; Lettmann, H.

    2003-05-01

    A phenomenological wall heat transfer model was developed for diesel engines, enhanced for application of the 3D-CFC code KIVA-3V, and implemented in the code. Further, the heat flow was measurement near the cylinder head, bushel and piston of a DI one-cylinder experimental diesel engine. The influence of soot radiation and convective heat transfer on the wall are modelled separately. The insulating effect of soot deposits on the walls during engine operation is taken into acount as well. The multizone model and the 3D model are in good agreement with the models by Han and Reitz (1997) and with experimental findings. The spatial resolution of heat flow at the wall further shows that both the radiative and convective heat flow are strongly locally dependent. The model presents a physically correct description of the heat flow at the wall of a diesel engine combustion chamber. [German] Im Rahmen des gesamten Forschungsvorhabens wurden ein phaenomenologisches Wandwaermeuebergangsmodell fuer Dieselmotoren entwickelt, dieses wurde fuer die Anwendung in den 3D-CFD-Code KIVA-3V erweitert und in den Code implementiert. Zusaetzlich sind Waermestrommessungen im Brennraum an Zylinderkopf, Laufbuchse und Kolben durchgefuehrt worden. Dafuer stand ein direkteinspritzender Einzylinder-Versuchsdieselmotor zur Verfuegung. Das im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens entwickelte Waermeuebergangsmodell bildet den Einfluss der Russstrahlung und des konvektiven Wandwaermeueberganges separat ab. Die isolierende Wirkung von Russwandablagerungen waehrend des gefeuerten Motorbetriebes wird dabei ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Das Mehrzonenmodell sowie das 3D-Modell zeigen sehr gute Uebereinstimmungen des raeumlich gemittelten Wandwaermestroms mit den Modellen von Han und Reitz (1997) und den experimentellen Ergebnissen. Die raeumliche Aufloesung der Wandwaermestroeme zeigt weiter, dass auf der Brennraumoberflaeche die Strahlungswaermestroeme und die konvektiven Waermestroeme stark ortsabhaengig sind. Damit

  20. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  1. Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Used in a Direct Hydrocarbon Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a direct hydrocarbon phosphoric acid fuel cell, PAFC, was investigated using petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and n-hexadecane as the fuels. We believe this is the first study of a fuel cell being operated with petroleum diesel as the fuel at the anode. Degradation in fuel cell performance was observed prior to reaching steady state. The degradation was attributed to a carbonaceous material forming on the surface of the anode. Regardless of the initial degradation, a steady-state operation was achieved with each of the diesel fuels. After treating the anode with water the fuel cell performance recovered. However, the fuel cell performance degraded again prior to obtaining another steady-state operation. There were several observations that were consistent with the suggestion that the carbonaceous material formed from the diesel fuels might be a reaction intermediate necessary for steady-state operation. Finally, the experiments indicated that water in the phosphoric acid electrolyte could be used as the water required for the anodic reaction. The water formed at the cathode could provide the replacement water for the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the need to provide a water feed system for the fuel cell.

  2. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  3. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING THE LOGARITHMIC IMAGE PROCESSING FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of emission standards in Diesel Engines require a detailed understanding, combustion and after treatment. This paper focuses on the spray development as one key parameter in the mixture preparation. The presentation of a methodology to differentiate the internal symmetry of spray images taken under different environmental conditions is presented. In a first step, a preprocessing is performed, then an image re-centering is made using the logarithmic average, afterwards different symmetry axes based on grey levels or on the plume boundary are calculated and, finally, the logarithmic distance characterizing the spray plume internal symmetry is computed. This distance gives more importance to the high grey level pixels, so using our optical setup, it characterizes the liquid continuous core symmetry. The methodology relies on the logarithmic image processing framework, providing a set of specific algebraic and functional operations to analyze images. This paper is an application of the logarithmic image processing framework on Diesel spray characterization. This is a step further in the quantitative diesel spray characterization by means of image analysis. The presented method can be applied to Diesel sprays illuminated with polychromatic or monochromatic light, under atmospheric or pressurized conditions.

  5. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  6. A diesel fuel processor for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krekel, Daniel; Pasel, Joachim; Prawitz, Matthias; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    Producing a hydrogen-rich gas from diesel fuel enables the efficient generation of electricity in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in diesel reforming. One issue encountered is the stable operation of water-gas shift reactors with real reformates. A new fuel processor is developed using a commercial shift catalyst. The system is operated using optimized start-up and shut-down strategies. Experiments with diesel and kerosene fuels show slight performance drops in the shift reactor during continuous operation for 100 h. CO concentrations much lower than the target value are achieved during system operation in auxiliary power unit mode at partial loads of up to 60%. The regeneration leads to full recovery of the shift activity. Finally, a new operation strategy is developed whereby the gas hourly space velocity of the shift stages is re-designed. This strategy is validated using different diesel and kerosene fuels, showing a maximum CO concentration of 1.5% at the fuel processor outlet under extreme conditions, which can be tolerated by a high-temperature PEFC. The proposed operation strategy solves the issue of strong performance drop in the shift reactor and makes this technology available for reducing emissions in the transportation sector.

  7. Combustion Model and Control Parameter Optimization Methods for Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a method to construct a combustion model and a method to optimize some control parameters of diesel engine in order to develop a model-based control system. The construction purpose of the model is to appropriately manage some control parameters to obtain the values of fuel consumption and emission as the engine output objectives. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was applied to construct combustion model with the polynomial model. Using the experimental data of a single cylinder diesel engine, the model of power, BSFC, NOx, and soot on multiple injection diesel engines was built. The proposed method succesfully developed the model that describes control parameters in relation to the engine outputs. Although many control devices can be mounted to diesel engine, optimization technique is required to utilize this method in finding optimal engine operating conditions efficiently beside the existing development of individual emission control methods. Particle swarm optimization (PSO was used to calculate control parameters to optimize fuel consumption and emission based on the model. The proposed method is able to calculate control parameters efficiently to optimize evaluation item based on the model. Finally, the model which added PSO then was compiled in a microcontroller.

  8. Integration of autothermal diesel reformer for hydrogen production feeding a PEMFC; Integracion de reformador diesel con pilas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, F. I.; Briceno, Y. B.; Navarro, R. M.; Alvarez, C.; Bordons, C.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents carried out actions to design and construct an autothermal diesel reformer for hydrogen production feeding a PEMFC.These activities have been performed by INTA, AICIA, CIDAUT and ICP-CSIC trough a collaborative effort 50% funded by INTA and by partners as in kind contributions as a function of developed tasks.The paper presents activities carried out to date: selection of a catalyst, simulation of the process, design and construction of a 5 kW autothermal diesel reformer. Reformer will be characterized during the second half of 2004 and, finally, will be installed for a proper operation together with a 5 kW PEMFC at the promises of INTA located in Centro de Experimentacion de Arenosillo at Huelva. (Author)

  9. Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine with Preheated Bio Diesel with Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Vajja, Sai; Murali, R. B. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper mainly reviews about the usage of preheated bio diesel added with 0.5% Etchant as an alternative fuel and evaluates its performance for various blends with different loads. Bio diesel is added with Etchant for rapid combustion as for the bio diesel, the cetane number is high that results in shorter delay of ignition and the mixture is preheated to raise its temperature to improve the combustion process. Analysis of the parameters required to define the combustion characteristics such as IP, BP, ηbth, ηm, ISFC, BSFC, IMEP, MFC, Exhaust Gas Temperature, Heat Release and heat balance is necessary as these values are significant to assess the performance of engine and its emissions of preheated bio diesel.

  10. Diesel-Minimal Combustion Control of a Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Zurbriggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion only, we propose a method that simultaneously controls the combustion phasing and minimizes the amount of diesel used. Minimizing the amount of diesel while keeping the center of combustion at a constant value is formulated as an optimization problem with an equality constraint. A combination of feedback control and extremum seeking is used to solve this optimization problem online. The necessity to separate the different time scales is discussed and a structure is proposed that facilitates this separation for this specific example. The proposed method is validated by experiments on a test bench.

  11. Performance investigations of a diesel engine using ethyl levulinate-diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-wei Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl levulinate (EL can be produced from bio-based levulinic acid (LA and ethanol. Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate and compare the performances and exhaust emission levels of ethyl levulinate as an additive to conventional diesel fuel, with EL percentages of 5%, 10%, 15% (with 2% n-butanol, and 20% (with 5% n-butanol, in a horizontal single-cylinder four stroke diesel engine. Brake-specific fuel consumptions of the EL-diesel blends were about 10% higher than for pure diesel because of the lower heating value of EL. NOx and CO2 emissions increased with engine power with greater fuel injections, but varied with changing EL content of the blends. CO emissions were similar for all of the fuel formulations. Smoke emissions decreased with increasing EL content.

  12. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  13. Study on Laboratory Method for Refining of SR Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junling; Zheng Tinglu; Han Zhaping

    2006-01-01

    The method for refining the straight-run diesel fuel was studied in laboratory scale in order to make the acid number of diesel fraction comply with the standard while removing the naphthenic acids contained in diesel without causing environmental pollution. After comparing the effect of refining using three solvents, the isopropyl alcohol-HOA was specified as the best solvent. Meanwhile, the relationship between the acid number of diesel fraction and the amount of solvent used and the relationship between the concentration of solvent and temperature and the stability of diesel in terms of its acid number were also investigated. Experimental results had shown that when the mass fraction of the HOA-IPA solvent was 20% at a dosage of 17 mL of the solvent and a temperature of 30℃, the acid number of the refined diesel fraction was 0.015 mg KOH/g with a good stability of acidity in the diesel traction.

  14. Enhanced microbubbles assisted cleaning of diesel contaminated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2017-07-25

    In this article, we investigated the effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (US), temperature and salinity on cleaning efficacy of fine bubbles with diameter <50μm for diesel contaminated sands. About 47% and 76% diesel removal was achieved from 10% (w/w) diesel contaminated fine and medium sands respectively, after 30min treatment with 40kHz low intensity intermittent pulsed US together with MBs in contrast to 41% and 68% diesel removal while treatment with MBs alone. The effect of high temperature was found to be prominent during the initial stages of cleaning. In addition, MBs generated in 599mM saline water efficiently removed 85% diesel from fine sand within 30min in contrast to only 41% diesel removal with MBs in fresh water. This study provides evidence for developing highly efficient MBs based chemical free technology for diesel contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Oil for an Emergency Diesel Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young-Chul; Chung, Woo-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the compatibility and effect on driving an emergency diesel generator using ULSD examining the specific gravity and lubricity of the oil. Because generators at NPPs use ULSD which is not mostly used for medium-large diesel generator engines, this study seeks to provide effective precautions for the driving stability of emergency diesel generators. One of the major fuel oils used in medium-large diesel engines for the normal driving of vessels and the generation of emergency power at power plants is heavy fuel oil. There are no vessels and power generation engines known to use high-quality diesel oil which is widely used in cars. The findings of this study suggest that when driving a diesel generator, there will be increased fuel consumption by 3.6% [m{sup 3}/hr.]. Furthermore, the mechanical fuel limiter on the engine needs an upward adjustment because the system is set for 110% load operations for the former LSD fuel. Both LSD and ULSD retain lubricity with a WSD around 330~350μm. These results clearly show that bad lubricity problems are not expected to occur. We had presumed an increased amount of foreign particulates because of the increased additives for high lubricity and oxidative stability.

  16. High speed diesel consumption and economic growth in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal [Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon 122001 (India)

    2010-04-15

    This study probes the long-term equilibrium relationship among High Speed Diesel (HSD) consumption, real GDP and price of HSD in India using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration for the time span 1972-1973 to 2005-2006. Empirical results reveal that the series are cointegrated and long term income elasticity for HSD demand in India is 1.27 while that for short-run is 0.46. Both long-run and short-run price elasticities are found to be statistically insignificant. The study also establishes a short-run bi-directional causality between economic growth and HSD consumption and the existence of a long-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth to HSD consumption. Finally, a set of policy prescriptions have been suggested to reduce the consumption of HSD, which should have no adverse impact on economy in the long-run. (author)

  17. A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose Alonso, J.; Lopez, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C. [Dpto. Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the study of the vegetable oils (VO) used as fuel for heating. The properties of sunflower, rape and soya oils are studied and these are compared with the properties of C-diesel fuel (used for heating domestic purposes in Spain). The mixtures of VO and diesel are studied and characterized and, finally, the results of a series of combustion trials of the mixtures in a conventional heating installation with a mechanical pulverization burner are presented. The results show that viscosity of VO limits the use of blends up to 40% of them, and the oxygen present in their structures contributes to an efficiency gain. (author)

  18. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verchot, L. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Head Quarters, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi (Kenya); Franken, Y.J. [FACT Foundation, Horsten 1, 5612 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mathijs, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Willem de Croylaan 42 Box 2424, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, V.P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  19. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  20. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  1. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  2. Combined research effort on aggregate road materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Hoff, Inge; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Fladvad, Marit; Rieksts, Karlis; Loranger, Benoit; Barbieri, Diego

    2017-04-01

    In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tons per year (European Aggregates Association 2016), while the corresponding number in Norway is 11 tons (Neeb 2015). Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, e.g. in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of crushed rock aggregates. Neeb (2015) reports that half of the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction, and 33 % of the overall sold tonnage of crushed rock is exported. This resource has been more and more preferred over sand and gravel due to the significant technological development of its process and utilization phase. In Norway, the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the main approach to solve natural resource scarcity (Danielsen and Kuznetsova 2015). In order to reduce aggregates transportation, it is aimed to use local aggregates and aggregates processed from rock excavations, tunneling, road cuts, etc. One issue focused in this research is the influence from blasting and processing on the final quality of the crushed aggregates, specifically relating to the properties for road construction purposes. It is therefor crucial to plan utilization of available materials for use in different road layers following the same production line. New developments and improved availability of mobile crushing and screening equipment could produce more sustainable and profitable sources of good quality aggregate materials from small volume deposits in proximity to construction sites. One of the biggest challenges today to use these materials is that the pavement design manual sets rigid requirements for pavement layers. Four research projects are being conducted in Norway to improve the use of local materials for road construction. Four aspects are to be covered by the research: a) geological characteristics of the materials, their b

  3. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, T.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India); Baruah, D.C. [Energy Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency. (author)

  4. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Research advance on methanol-diesel emulsifying fuel%甲醇-柴油乳化燃料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国琳; 焦纬洲; 高璟; 于娜娜; 王笃政

    2012-01-01

    概述了甲醇-柴油乳化燃料的发展情况,介绍了甲醇-柴油乳化燃料的乳化、节能机理,重点介绍了甲醇-柴油乳化燃料的乳化剂和乳化设备及其燃烧特性研究进展,最后对甲醇-柴油乳化燃料的发展趋势进行了展望。%The development of methanol-diesel emulsifying fuel was summarized. The mechanism on emulsi lying and energy saving of methanol diesel emulsifying fuel was introduced. The advance in emulsifier, emulsif ying equipment and combustion characteristic of methanol-diesel emulsifying fuel were stressly described. Finally, the future development tendency of methanol-diesel emulsifying fuel was proposed.

  6. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  7. Preparation of AAO-CeO2 nanotubes and their application in electrochemical oxidation desulfurization of diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yumeng; Yi, Chenxi; Chen, Yu; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-02-01

    The coaxial arrays of AAO-CeO2 NTs have been successfully galvanostatically deposited on an anode, characterized and adopted as a catalyst for removing organic sulfurs from diesel. The influence of the main electrochemical oxidation factors on the efficiency of desulfurization have also been investigated. The results show that the fabrication process of AAO-CeO2 NTs is accompanied by the formation of a new phase, namely Al3Ce, and the main oxidation products of the diesel are soluble inorganic sulphides, especially Ce2(SO4)3. When compared with dibenzothiophene and 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, benzothiophene is much more easily removed, with a removal efficiency that reaches 87.2%. Finally, a possible electrochemical oxidation desulfurization pathway for diesel is proposed.

  8. Revisión de las emisiones de material particulado por la cumbustión de diesel y biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Y. Rojas

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de estudios comparativos entre las emisiones de material particulado por la combustión de diesel de petróleo, biodiesel y mezclas de los dos combustibles, basados no sólo en la concentración másica de las partículas emitidas, sino también en la distribución de su tamaño, concentración y composición química. Finalmente, se presenta la necesidad del país de realizar una caracterización completa de las emisiones de material particulado por la combustión de diesel, biodiesel de aceite de palma y mezclas de los dos, dadas las características particulares de estos combustibles en Colombia. La revisión fue presentada en el I Seminario Internacional de Biocombustibles, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, agosto 4 al 6 de 2004. / This paper shows a review of studies comparing particulate emissions from diesel engines running on diesel, biodiesel and their blends, based not only on particle mass concentrations, but also on particle number concentrations and particulate chemical composition. Finally, it summarizes the need for thoroughly characterizing particulate matter emissions in studies comparing Colombian diesel and biodiesel from palm oil (or other oil-producing Colombian species.

  9. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R; Guillén-Flores, J; Martínez, J D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser diagnosis and plasma technology: Fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in DI internal combustion engines. Sub-project: Purification of diesel exhaust in pulsed plasma. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Teilvorhaben: Reinigung von Dieselabgasen in gepulsten Plasmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Birckigt, R.

    2000-12-01

    Selective catalytic reduction using ammonia based reducing agents is known to reduce the NOx-emissions from Diesel cars. However, it does not work efficiently under cold starting and urban driving conditions, because efficient reduction requires catalyst temperatures above 170 C. Without additional measures, pulsed plasma treatment does not cause reduction but mainly oxidation of nitric oxides preferably emitted as NO. By the combination of pulsed DBD-plasma treatment with selective catalytic reduction efficient NOx-reduction was obtained at catalyst temperatures below 170 C. It could be shown, that this low temperature reduction is a synergistic effect caused by plasma induced oxidation of some fraction of the NO. Based on this knowledge of the reaction mechanism plasma- and SCR-reactors were built, which were tested on a test bench equipped with a modern cars Diesel engine. Under cold starting and urban driving conditions by application of average plasma powers below 300 W the NOx-emissions were reduced for about 60%, the maximum degree of NOx-reduction was 85%. The plasma induced removal of hydrocarbons and particles, as well as the formation of by-products and the influence of hydrocarbons on the plasma induced selective catalytic reduction processes were investigated. No disadvantageous by-products could be found. (orig.) [German] Die selektive katalytische Reduktion mit Ammoniak als Reduktionsmittel ist ein bekanntes Verfahren zur Reduktion der Stickoxidemissionen von Diesel-Pkw, arbeitet aber erst ab Katalysatortemperaturen oberhalb 170 C und ist damit unter Kaltstart- und Stadtverkehrsbedingungen wenig wirksam. Gepulste Plasmen bewirken ohne zusaetzliche Massnahmen keine ausreichende chemische Reduktion sondern ueberwiegend Oxidation der als NO emittierten Stickoxide. Durch Kombination von DBE-Plasmen mit der selektiven katalytischen Reduktion hingegen konnte auch bei Katalysatortemperaturen unter 170 C wirkungsvolle NOx-Reduktion erzielt werden. Es konnte

  11. Preparation and emission characteristics of ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Run-duo; HE Hong; SHI Xiao-yan; ZHANG Chang-bin; HE Bang-quan; WANG Jian-xin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated. Results showed the absolute ethanol can dissolve in diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio and a small quantity of water(0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. An organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The emission characteristics of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends, with or without additives, were compared with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection(DI) diesel engine. The experimental results indicated that the blend of ethanol with diesel fuel significantly reduced the concentrations of smoke, hydrocarbon(HC), and carbon monoxide(CO) in exhaust gas. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with the additive of 2% of the total volume, the optimum mixing ratio was achieved, at which the bench diesel engine testing showed a significant decrease in exhaust gas. Bosch smoke number was reduced by 55%, HC emission by 70%, and CO emission by 45%, at 13 kW/1540 r/min. However, ethanol-diesel fuel blends produced a few ppm acetaldehydes and more ethanol in exhaust gas.

  12. A study on the detection of misfiring cylinder of the diesel engine in excavation machinery using improved ALM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, M.; Kawamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ujihira, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Engineering; Akhmetov, D.F.; Ito, F.; Aoshima, N. [NTT DoCoMo Inc. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Mechanical problems in large-scale mining equipment can result in serious losses in operational efficiency and profits. A misfiring cylinder in a diesel engine can cause engine failure in a short period of time. Regular maintenance and inspection of machinery is therefore critical for mining and construction operations. For that reason, an innovative method was developed to detect whether a cylinder is misfiring, and if so, which one. This study established a simple, reliable and sure method using the improved aggregative learning method (ALM) analysis for the early diagnosis and repair of misfiring cylinders. A minimum number of sensors were applied on the side of 2 cylinders on a diesel engine in order to set up an abnormal diagnostic system that detects anomalies at an early stage by analyzing the acceleration waveform using the ALM method. The detection method is better than traditional methods that require accelerometers. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  13. Hydrophobic aggregation of ultrafine kaolinite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ping; HU Yue-hua; LIU Run-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The hydrophobic aggregation of ultrafine kaolinite in cationic surfactant suspension was investigated by sedimentation test, zeta potential measurement and SEM observation. SEM images reveal that kaolinite particles show the self-aggregation of edge-face in acidic media, the aggregation of edge-face and edge-edge in neutral media, and the dispersion in alkaline media due to electrostatic repulsion. In the presence of the dodecylammonium acetate cationic surfactant and in neutral and alkaline suspension, the hydrophobic aggregation of face-face is demonstrated. The zeta potential of kaolinite increases with increasing the concentration of cationic surfactant. The small and loose aggregation at a low concentration but big and tight aggregation at a high concentration is presented At pH=7 alkyl quarterly amine salt CTAB has the best hydrophobic aggregation among three cationic surfactants, namely, dodecylammonium acetate, alkyl quarterly amine salts 1227 and CTAB.

  14. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  15. Non-Arrhenius protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Roberts, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Protein aggregation presents one of the key challenges in the development of protein biotherapeutics. It affects not only product quality but also potentially impacts safety, as protein aggregates have been shown to be linked with cytotoxicity and patient immunogenicity. Therefore, investigations of protein aggregation remain a major focus in pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions. Due to the complexity of the aggregation process and temperature-dependent conformational stability, temperature-induced protein aggregation is often non-Arrhenius over even relatively small temperature windows relevant for product development, and this makes low-temperature extrapolation difficult based simply on accelerated stability studies at high temperatures. This review discusses the non-Arrhenius nature of the temperature dependence of protein aggregation, explores possible causes, and considers inherent hurdles for accurately extrapolating aggregation rates from conventional industrial approaches for selecting accelerated conditions and from conventional or more advanced methods of analyzing the resulting rate data.

  16. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  17. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.

  18. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  19. Effect of Bio Ethanol and Diesel Blend on Small Diesel Engine Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H Hashemi Fard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Bio-ethanol as an alternative diesel engine fuel is rapidly increasing. Bio-ethanol is mixed with diesel fuel at different ratios and used in CI and SI engines. Since vibrations have direct effects on users and engine components, for this reason analysis of vibration resulting from combustion in CI engines is very important. In this study, evaluation of vibration was performed for both diesel and ethanol blends. Commercial diesel fuel (D100, E2 (2% ethanol and 98% diesel fuel, E5, E10, E15 and E20 were used in a two-wheel MITSUBISHI tractor. The engine was tested in 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 rpm for all fuel blends, and also the effect of load was investigated for D100 and E10. Results showed that vibration is significantly affected by fuel blend. It was observed that E10 had the lowest vibration while E20 had the highest value. It was also observed that vibration increased as engine speed increased for all fuel blends. It was found that both axial and lateral vibrations affected significantly by load. The lateral vibrations decreased continuously with load rise , but the axial vibrations increased initially but started to follow a reverse trend.

  20. Improvement of thermal effciency in diesel engine. Diesel engine no koritsu kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, H. (Isuzu Ceramics Research Inst. Co. Ltd., Kanagawa, (Japan))

    1993-04-05

    Diesel engines cause worsening air pollution due to much more discharge of nitrogen oxides than gasoline engines, however for reduction of carbon dioxide, Diesel engines consuming less fuel are better than gasoline engines for protection of the global environment. Theoretical thermal efficiency is larger as compression ratio and isochronic burnup are bigger, hence such an engine is needed that is made on the basis of a Diesel engine, whose compression ratio is twice or more larger than that of gasoline engine and which has good thermal efficiency, and reduces its nitrogen oxides by the development of the combustion technique by means of controlling combustion temperature as well as fuel equivalent ratio. With regard to the improvement of thermal efficiency of Diesel engines, it can be attained, utilizing the respective features of the antechamber-type and the direct injection-type Diesels, by burning the homogeneous mixture, whose fuel equivalent ratio is big, in the initial stage and by controlling the main combustion period in the main chamber short. inaddition, a radiation shield-type turbocompound engine has been test fabricated and rough explanations are given on its structure, its combustion and the recovery of its exhaust gas energy. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-04-01

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 +/- 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m(3) of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 +/- 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 +/- 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m(-3) (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust.

  2. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Heeb, Norbert V. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter [University of Zurich-Vetsuisse, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zurich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX {sup registered}) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17{beta}-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 {+-} 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m{sup 3} of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 {+-} 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 {+-} 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m{sup -3} (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust. (orig.)

  3. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  4. Distribution of chromium contamination and microbial activity in soil aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Wan, Jiamin; Hazen, Terry C; Schwartz, Egbert; Firestone, Mary K; Sutton, Stephen R; Newville, Matthew; Olson, Keith R; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Rao, William

    2003-01-01

    Biogeochemical transformations of redox-sensitive chemicals in soils can be strongly transport-controlled and localized. This was tested through experiments on chromium diffusion and reduction in soil aggregates that were exposed to chromate solutions. Reduction of soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(II) occurred only within the surface layer of aggregates with higher available organic carbon and higher microbial respiration. Sharply terminated Cr diffusion fronts develop when the reduction rate increases rapidly with depth. The final state of such aggregates consists of a Cr-contaminated exterior, and an uncontaminated core, each having different microbial community compositions and activity. Microbial activity was significantly higher in the more reducing soils, while total microbial biomass was similar in all of the soils. The small fraction of Cr(VI) remaining unreduced resides along external surfaces of aggregates, leaving it potentially available to future transport down the soil profile. Using the Thiele modulus, Cr(VI) reduction in soil aggregates is shown to be diffusion rate- and reaction rate-limited in anaerobic and aerobic aggregates, respectively. Thus, spatially resolved chemical and microbiological measurements are necessary within anaerobic soil aggregates to characterize and predict the fate of Cr contamination. Typical methods of soil sampling and analyses that average over redox gradients within aggregates can erase important biogeochemical spatial relations necessary for understanding these environments.

  5. Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

  6. IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehman, Andre L.

    2000-08-20

    As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by

  7. Combustion Property Analysis and Control System for the Dynamics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding to global environment problems in recent year, the technology for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission of engine was needed. Simulation of transient engine response is needed to predict engine performance that frequently experience rapid changes of speed. The aim of this research is to develop a non-linear dynamic control model for direct injection single cylinder diesel engine which can simulate engine performance under transient conditions. In this paper, the combustion model with multistage injection and conducted experiments in the transient conditions to clarify the combustion characteristics was proposed. In order to perform the analysis of acceleration operation characteristics, it was built a Model Predictive Control (MPC to reproduce the characteristic values of the exhaust gas and fuel consumption from the control parameters in particular. Finally, MPC is an effective method to perform the analysis of characteristic in diesel engine under transient conditions.

  8. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  9. Optimizing Spray and Combustion in Diesel Engine by Multidimensional Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lei; ZHAO Chang-lu; ZHANG Fu-jun

    2005-01-01

    The calculation of spray and combustion in diesel engines is described by using the softwares FIRE and BOOST. The application of the resulting computational method to the simulation of fuel spray and breakup, mixture formation and combustion in a heavy duty diesel is presented. According to detailed insight into the governing processes provided by the simulation results, various aspects of the dependence of the spray propagation and combustion on the chamber geometry and spray angle are discussed. Then, global cylinderaveraged pressure traces are extracted from the space and time resolved field quantities and compared to incylinder pressure measurements. Finally, an optimized configuration of the chamber geometry and spray angle with a new injection rate of higher injection pressure is proposed.

  10. INFLUENCE OF SWIRL ON SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AND COMBUSTION, A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A CATERPILLER DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SREENIVASULU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the appropriate swirl ratio at which a DI diesel engine should be operated. In the process of identifying an appropriate swirl, the combustion behaviour was analysed by considering Pressure variations and Heat Release Rate variations against crank angle. The spray characteristics were also analysed by considering Penetration lengths, Sauter mean diameters, Spray cone angles against crank angle. Final conclusions were derived by considering NOx emission levels. A turbo charged DI diesel engine geometry was considered for the analysis. Proper care was taken inidentifying the range of Swirl Ratios. A 3-dimensional CFD code (RECARDO VECTIS, which is capable of solving 3-dimensional unsteady, turbulent flows, sprays and combustion of IC engines was used. In the first step CFD code was validated by comparing the obtained results with the experimental results. In the next step an attempt was made to study the influence of swirl on the spray characteristics and combustion.

  11. Control of an afterburner in a diesel fuel cell power unit under variable load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Pregelj, Boštjan; Petrovčič, Janko; Samsun, Remzi Can

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control system for a catalytic afterburner in a diesel fuel cell auxiliary power unit is presented. The catalytic afterburner is used to burn the non-utilised hydrogen and other possible combustible components of the fuel cell anode off-gas. To increase the energy efficiency of the auxiliary power unit, the thermal energy released in the catalytic afterburner is utilised to generate the steam for the fuel processor. For optimal operation of the power unit in all modes of operation including load change, stable steam generation is required and overall energy balance must be kept within design range. To achieve this, the reaction temperature of the catalytic afterburner must be stable in all modes of operation. Therefore, we propose the afterburner temperature control based on mass and thermal balances. Finally, we demonstrate the control system using the existing prototype of the diesel fuel cell auxiliary power unit.

  12. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  13. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  14. Characterization and analysis of diesel exhaust odor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, P.A.; Shala, F.J.; Cernansky, N.P.; Suffet, I.H.

    1987-04-01

    An analytical method was developed to determine which compound or compounds in the oxygenated fraction of diesel exhaust were changing in intensity and number with respect to the odor correlation between human sensory panels and diesel exhaust samples as developed at Arthur D. Little, Inc. A sample fractionation with silica Sep-Pak cartridges and gas chromatography analysis procedures were developed to analyze exhaust odor samples. By use of a chromatographic computer profiling method, correlations were developed indicating a linear relation between log (odor intensity) and log (concentration) of specific character impact peaks (which may or may not be odorous themselves). Excellent correlations were obtained with the character impact peaks identified as benzaldehyde and a methylbenzaldehyde isomer in this study. Correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.90, respectively, were obtained for the sample set. 17 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Panel discussion: Gas emissions with diesel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The second of three papers in the panel discussion outlined the characteristics of spark-ignited natural gas (SING) engines. Currently, the SING engine is considered less efficient than a diesel engine because of the reduced compression ratio, the use of air-throttles, retarded ignition for low NOx, and increased heat transfer. To improve upon these characteristics and to make the SING engine equal to, or even surpass the diesel engine in efficiency, more research work needs to be done on advanced controls. These include (knock, misfire, humidity detection), various ignition enhancements (variable energy/gap plug, long-life plug, laser ignition), and possibly camless operation (cylinder deactivation, throttleless operation). The late-cycle High Pressure Gas Injection (LaCHIP) as an alternate means of improving the efficiency of natural gas engines was also described.

  16. Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel-engine evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, J.L.; Werner, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    The turbocompound diesel engine has been under development since 1972. Development reached a mature stage following the evolution of three power turbine and gear train designs. In 1978, the Department of Energy sponsored a program for comprehensive vehicle testing of the turbocompound engine. Upon successful completion of the vehicle test program, an advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated in 1980 to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. This paper presents the individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements.

  17. Investigation of Diesel Engine Performance Based on Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Rosli A. Bakar; Abdul R. Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The single cylinder modeling and simulation for four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine requires the use of advanced analysis and development tools to carry out of performance the diesel engine model. The simulation and computational development of modeling for the research use the commercial of GT-SUITE 6.2 software. In this research, the one dimensional modeling of single cylinder for four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine developed. The analysis of the model is combustion performanc...

  18. Energy Policies Cause Unexpected Diesel Shortage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ An unprecedented diesel shortage is sweeping through Chinese cities, as numerous enterprises have to resort to diesel fuel to generate electricity to continue operation during periods of forced power outages.For example, the diesel shortage has recently paralyzed traffic on a pivotal expressway in Northwest China, with trucks waiting in long lines to fill their fuel tanks.China's Ministry of Commerce has recently required the local bureaus to ensure ample supply of fuel amid rising inflation.

  19. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, R.; Venkateswara R. Bella

    2011-01-01

    The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot) emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory...

  20. High Resolution Numerical Simulations of Primary Atomization in Diesel Sprays with Single Component Reference Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NC. 14. ABSTRACT A high-resolution numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at diesel engine ... diesel fuel injector at diesel engine type conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in diesel fuel...the capability of a recently adopted high fidelity two phase flow solver in the context of diesel engine sprays. Previous works relating to this

  1. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  2. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  3. Comparative Naval Architecture Analysis of Diesel Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    space required to enclose all of the requirements, this volume must be able to support the weight of the submarine. In other words, Archimedes ’ principle ...accurate information regarding the naval architecture of foreign diesel submarines. However, with some fundamental submarine design principles , drawings of...cycling and hiking, I thank you for pushing me to relieve stress through my favorite sports. Last but not least of all, I want to pay tribute to the

  4. Hydrogen, nitrogen and syngas enriched diesel combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulou, Fanos

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University On-board hydrogen and syngas production is considered as a transition solution from fossil fuel to hydrogen powered vehicles until problems associated with hydrogen infrastructure, distribution and storage are resolved. A hydrogen- or syngas-rich stream, which substitutes part of the main hydrocarbon fuel, can be produced by supplying diesel fuel in a fuel-reforming reactor, integrated within ...

  5. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Diesel power leads Yemen electrification plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarino, C.

    1980-10-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic ended a period of political isolation and is now pushing for social and economic development. A seven-year program announced in 1978 aims to establish and extend rural and urban electrification. A key element in this plan is the construction pf a series of diesel power stations to provide base load until larger steam plants are available in the mid-1980s.

  7. Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, J.L.; Werner, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  8. Biofiltration of gasoline and diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halecky, Martin; Rousova, Jana; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii; Seames, Wayne; Jones, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The ability of a biofilm to switch between the mixtures of mostly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated to assess biofiltration efficiency and potential substrate interactions. A switch from gasoline, which consisted of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, to a mixture of volatile diesel n-alkanes resulted in a significant increase in biofiltration efficiency, despite the lack of readily biodegradable aromatic hydrocarbons in the diesel mixture. This improved biofilter performance was shown to be the result of the presence of larger size (C₉-C(12)) linear alkanes in diesel, which turned out to be more degradable than their shorter-chain (C₆-C₈) homologues in gasoline. The evidence obtained from both biofiltration-based and independent microbiological tests indicated that the rate was limited by biochemical reactions, with the inhibition of shorter chain alkane biodegradation by their larger size homologues as corroborated by a significant substrate specialization along the biofilter bed. These observations were explained by the lack of specific enzymes designed for the oxidation of short-chain alkanes as opposed to their longer carbon chain homologues.

  9. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  10. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  11. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  12. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Current and future developments in diesel powered hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. C.; Stevens, M. J.; Buttigieg, J. A.

    After evaluating the development status of the application of diesel power to air-cushion vehicles (ACVs) and surface-effect ships (SESs), attention is given to the AP1-88 ACV, which is both the first and largest operational diesel-powered amphibious craft of this type. An account is given of the ACV and SES features that are dictated by the need to accommodate diesel power sources; the major advantages and disadvantages of diesel (vs gas turbine) engines are discussed. Although cost reductions are achievable against gas turbine powerplant use, lower payload fractions and slightly lower performance capabilities appear to be inescapable.

  14. Performance Test of Engine Fuelled With Diesel and Ethanol Blends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.L.Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (ICengines. As an alternative, biodegradable and renewable fuel, ethanol is receiving increasing attention. An experimental investigation on the application of the blends of ethanol with diesel to a diesel engine was carried out. First the solubility of ethanol and diesel was conducted with and without the additive of normal butanol (n-butanol. The purpose of this project is to find the optimum percentage of ethanol that gives simultaneously better performance and lower emissions. The experiments were conducted on a water-cooled single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI diesel engine using 0% (neat diesel fuel, 10% (E10-D, 15%(E15–D, 20% (E20–D, and 25%(E25–D ethanol–diesel blended fuels. Experimental tests were carried out to study the performance of the engine fuelled with the blends compared with those fuelled by diesel. The test results show that it is feasible and applicable for the blends with n-butanol to replace pure diesel as the fuel for diesel engine.

  15. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  16. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  17. Status of Wind-Diesel Applications in Arctic Climates: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Corbus, D.

    2007-12-01

    The rising cost of diesel fuel and the environmental regulation for its transportation, use, and storage, combined with the clear impacts of increased arctic temperatures, is driving remote communities to examine alternative methods of providing power. Over the past few years, wind energy has been increasingly used to reduce diesel fuel consumption, providing economic, environmental, and security benefits to the energy supply of communities from Alaska to Antarctica. This summary paper describes the current state of wind-diesel systems, reviews the operation of wind-diesel plants in cold climates, discusses current research activities pertaining to these systems, and addresses their technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems in Alaska will be reviewed. Specific focus will also be given to the control of power systems with large amounts of wind generation and the complexities of replacing diesel engine waste heat with excess wind energy, a key factor in assessing power plants for retrofit. A brief overview of steps for assessing the viability of retrofitting diesel power systems with wind technologies will also be provided. Because of the large number of isolated diesel minigrids, the market for adding wind to these systems is substantial, specifically in arctic climates and on islands that rely on diesel-only power generation.

  18. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils Biodegradabilidade de óleos diesel comercial e intemperizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 - dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de diferentes microrganismos em degradar óleo diesel comercial em comparação com um óleo diesel intemperizado coletado da água subterrânea em um posto de combust

  19. Performance and Emission Assessment of Multi Cylinder Diesel Engine using Surfactant Enhanced Water in Diesel Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohammed Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke, four cylinder, In-direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel with 5% water by volume on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 4500 rpm at full load conditions. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance with slight increase in emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value for 5% water and at all rpm, the torque, the power and the BMEP are found to have maximum values under these conditions when compared conve ntional disel. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed whereas increase in CO and NOX were minimum. In this work water in diesel emulsion was prepared by a mechanical homogenizer and their physical and chemical properties were examined.

  20. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June......

  1. 40 CFR 80.617 - How may California diesel fuel be distributed or sold outside of the State of California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation... California diesel fuel redesignates it as motor vehicle diesel meeting the 15 ppm sulfur standard; and (vi) The terminal includes the volumes of California diesel fuel redesignated as motor vehicle diesel...

  2. Experimental combustion analysis of a hsdi diesel engine fuelled with palm oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN AGUDELO; ELKIN GUTIÉRREZ; PEDRO BENJUMEA

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively). To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant po...

  3. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  4. Influence of fuel injection timing and pressure on in-flame soot particles in an automotive-size diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renlin; Kook, Sanghoon

    2014-07-15

    The current understanding of soot particle morphology in diesel engines and their dependency on the fuel injection timing and pressure is limited to those sampled from the exhaust. In this study, a thermophoretic sampling and subsequent transmission electron microscope imaging were applied to the in-flame soot particles inside the cylinder of a working diesel engine for various fuel injection timings and pressures. The results show that the number count of soot particles per image decreases by more than 80% when the injection timing is retarded from -12 to -2 crank angle degrees after the top dead center. The late injection also results in over 90% reduction of the projection area of soot particles on the TEM image and the size of soot aggregates also become smaller. The primary particle size, however, is found to be insensitive to the variations in fuel injection timing. For injection pressure variations, both the size of primary particles and soot aggregates are found to decrease with increasing injection pressure, demonstrating the benefits of high injection velocity and momentum. Detailed analysis shows that the number count of soot particles per image increases with increasing injection pressure up to 130 MPa, primarily due to the increased small particle aggregates that are less than 40 nm in the radius of gyration. The fractal dimension shows an overall decrease with the increasing injection pressure. However, there is a case that the fractal dimension shows an unexpected increase between 100 and 130 MPa injection pressure. It is because the small aggregates with more compact and agglomerated structures outnumber the large aggregates with more stretched chain-like structures.

  5. Novel aspects of platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka-Moya Y. M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation is an important process, which is critical for the hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. Recent studies have shown that the platelet aggregation is more complex and dynamic than it was previously thought. There are several mechanisms that can initiate the platelet aggregation and each of them operates under specific conditions in vivo. At the same time, the influence of certain plasma proteins on this process should be considered. This review intends to summarize the recent data concerning the adhesive molecules and their receptors, which provide the platelet aggregation under different conditions.

  6. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng-Min; WU Li-Li; LU Hang-Jun; LI Qiao-Wen; YE Gao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω the fractal dimension decreases with increasing ω, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  7. Fractal Aggregation Under Rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUFeng-Min; WULi-Li; LUHang-Jun; LIQiao-Wen; YEGao-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    By means of the Monte Carlo simulation, a fractal growth model is introduced to describe diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) under rotation. Patterns which are different from the classical DLA model are observed and the fractal dimension of such clusters is calculated. It is found that the pattern of the clusters and their fractal dimension depend strongly on the rotation velocity of the diffusing particle. Our results indicate the transition from fractal to non-fractal behavior of growing cluster with increasing rotation velocity, i.e. for small enough angular velocity ω; thefractal dimension decreases with increasing ω;, but then, with increasing rotation velocity, the fractal dimension increases and the cluster becomes compact and tends to non-fractal.

  8. Platelet aggregation following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED......). Inclusion criteria were trauma team activation and arterial cannula insertion on arrival. Blood samples were analyzed by multiple electrode aggregometry initiated by thrombin receptor agonist peptide 6 (TRAP) or collagen using a Multiplate device. Blood was sampled median 65 min after injury; median injury...... severity score (ISS) was 17; 14 (7%) patients received 10 or more units of red blood cells in the ED (massive transfusion); 24 (11%) patients died within 28 days of trauma: 17 due to cerebral injuries, four due to exsanguination, and three from other causes. No significant association was found between...

  9. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  10. Stability and filtering capacity of diesel oil; Estabilidade e filtrabilidade do oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo Vieira; Rocha, Mauro Iurk [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Combustiveis]. E-mails: marvial@petrobras.com.br; miurk@petrobras.com.br; Zotin, Fatima Maria Zanon [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: fzotin@uerj.br; Pinto, Ricardo Rodrigues da Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Recursos Humanos. Gerencia de Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologias]. E-mail: rcp@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The increasing demand for the reduction in the emission of polluting agents by diesel motors has led to the use of more advanced injection systems. These systems are increasingly reducing clearances and portray more restrictive filtering capacity, protecting them from the release of fuel particles. Those particles may originate in the degradation of oil products, formed by the acid-catalyzed condensation between aromatic compounds and heterocyclic nitrogens. These compounds appear in the various chains used in the composition of the fuel. We address here the aspects influencing the stability to oxidation and fuel filterability as well as the methods used to assess the degradation capacity of several diesel oil formulations. (author)

  11. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  12. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    OpenAIRE

    Teerawat Apichato; Gumpon Prateepchaikul1

    2003-01-01

    Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term perfor...

  13. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Diesel Obtained From Waste Cooking Oil and Its Blends with Diesel on Single Cylinder Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Sharma,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment a comprehensive experimental investigation of bio-diesel oil on single cylinder engine running with biodiesel obtained from Waste cooking oil and its blends with diesel was carried out for its performance and emission analysis. The results which obtained are significantly comparable to pure diesel. It shows that biodiesel obtained from cooking oil can be used as alternative fuel with better performance and lower emissions compared with diesel and play a very vital role for the overall economic development of the country.

  15. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-08-20

    The goal of this project was to quantify organic aerosol precursor concentrations in an urban environment and to measure suitable organic photoproduct species that can act as tracers of photochemical processing to identify the occurrence and rate of secondary organic aerosol formation. Field measurements were made as part of the ASR field program Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010. What is new in our approach is the measurement for the total concentration of long chain alkanes (>C10) and heavier alkyl substituted aromatics associated with diesel exhaust gas phase organic compound emissions. A method to measure these so called intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) was developed by modifying a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer instrument to perform both volatile organic compound (VOC) and IVOC analysis by thermal desorption from a Tenax adsorbent trap (TD-PTR-MS). Lab and field results show that the TD-PTR-MS technique can measure long chain alkanes associated with diesel engine emissions and thus provide a novel means to measure these compounds to better understand the impact of vehicle emissions on secondary organic aerosol formation.

  16. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  17. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  18. Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-06-01

    system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  19. Diesel effects in allergic diseases: modulation of chemokines synthesis and development of an in vivo allergic model; Effets du diesel dans les maladies allergiques: modulation de la synthese de chimiokines et developpement d'un modele allergique in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senechal, St.

    2003-09-01

    chemokines. Thus, the possibility for diesel to induce chemokines linked with a Th-2 profile to non allergic people has been evaluated. The exposure of mono-nucleated cells of non-allergic people to diesel induces an IP-10 decay and a PARC induction, suggesting that diesel can also play a role in the genesis of allergic diseases. In order to evaluate the relevance of the results obtained in vivo, an in vivo model of human allergic reaction has been developed using SCID (severe combined immuno-deficient) humanized mice and grafted with human skin. The injection of the relevant allergen in the xeno-graft reproduces the human allergic reaction and can be modulated by antagonists of chemokines receptors. Finally, preliminary experiments using the SCID humanized model have permitted to determine the optimum conditions of a pulmonary response after intra-tracheal instillation of diesel particulates. In conclusion, these results are strong indications of a role of diesel in the rise of allergic diseases prevalence. (J.S.)

  20. Exciton dynamics in molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augulis, R.; Pugžlys, A.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Pugzlys, A

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of exciton dynamics in double-wall cylindrical aggregates of cyanine dyes are studied by means of frequency resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The collective excitations of the aggregates, resulting from intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions have the characteri

  1. Aggregate resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Gessel, S.F. van; Veldkamp, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have built a 3D lithological model of the Netherlands, for the purpose of mapping on-land aggregate resources down to 50 m below the surface. The model consists of voxel cells (1000 · 1000 · 1 m), with lithological composition and aggregate content estimates as primary attributes. These attribute

  2. Exciton dynamics in molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augulis, R.; Pugžlys, A.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Pugzlys, A

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of exciton dynamics in double-wall cylindrical aggregates of cyanine dyes are studied by means of frequency resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The collective excitations of the aggregates, resulting from intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions have the

  3. The Aggregation of Huntingtin and α-Synuclein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Chánez-Cárdenas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s and Parkinson’s diseases are neurodegenerative disorders associated with unusual protein interactions. Although the origin and evolution of these diseases are completely different, characteristic deposits of protein aggregates (huntingtin and α-synuclein resp., are a common feature in both diseases. After these observations, many studies are performed with both proteins. Some of them try to understand the nature and driving forces of the aggregation process; others try to find a correlation between the genetic and failure in protein function. Finally with the combination of both approaches, it was proposed that possible strategies deal with pathologic aggregation. Unfortunately, if protein aggregation is a cause or a consequence of the neurodegeneration observed in these pathologies, it is still debatable. This paper describes the process of aggregation of two proteins: huntingtin and α synuclein. The characteristics of the aggregation reaction of these proteins have been followed with novel methods both in vivo and in vitro; these studies include both the combination with other proteins and the presence of various chemical compounds. The ultimate goal of this study was to summarize recent findings on protein aggregation and its possible role as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases and their role in biomaterial science.

  4. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  5. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  6. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  7. Optical monitoring of particle aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Methods for monitoring particle aggregation are briefly reviewed. Most of these techniques are based on some form of light scattering and may be greatly dependent on the optical properties of aggregates, which are not generally known. As fractal aggregates grow larger their density can become very low and this has important practical consequences for light scattering. For instance, the scattering coefficient may be much less than for solid objects, which means that the aggregates can appear much smaller than their actual size by a light transmission method. Also, for low-density objects, a high proportion of the scattered light energy is within a small angle of the incident beam, which may also be relevant for measurements with aggregates.Using the 'turbidity fluctuation' technique as an example, it is shown how the apparent size of hydroxide flocs depends mainly on the included impurity particles, rather than the hydroxide precipitate itself. Results using clay suspensions with hydrolyzing coagulants and under are discussed.

  8. Dye Aggregation in Ink Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Paul; Sarfraz Hussain

    2004-01-01

    Dye aggregation has long been recognised as a key factor in performance, and this is no less so in ink jet applications. The aggregation state was shown to be important in many different areas ranging from the use of dyes in photodynamic therapies all the way to colorants for dying of fabrics. Therefore different methods to investigate dye association qualitatively and quantitatively were developed. A simple procedure to study aggregation could be a useful tool to characterise dyes for ink jet printing. It is critically reviewed the methods used to study dye aggregation, and discussed some of the main conclusions. This will be illustrated by examples of ink jet dye aggregation and its study in aqueous and ink systems. The results are used to correlate the solution behaviour of dyes with their print performance.

  9. DRAG ON SUBMICRON NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.; Einar; Kruis

    2005-01-01

    A new procedure was developed for estimating the effective collision diameter of an aggregate composed of primary particles of any size. The coagulation coefficient of two oppositely charged particles was measured experimentally and compared with classic Fuchs theory, including a new method to account for particle non-sphericity. A second set of experiments were performed on well-defined nanoparticle aggregates at different stages of sintering, i.e. from the aggregate to the fully sintered stage. Here, electrical mobility was used to characterize the particle drag. The aggregates are being built from two different size-fractionated nanoparticle aerosols, the non-aggregated particles are discarded by an electrofilter and then they are passed through a furnace at concentrations low enough not to induce coagulation.

  10. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  12. Diesel-hydraulic locomotive becomes a diesel-electric hybrid locomotive; Dieselhydraulische Lokomotive wird dieselelektrische Hybridlokomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behmann, Uwe

    2013-01-15

    The operational partial load times cause a unnecessarily high fuel consumption and additional environmental pollutions in applications of shunting locomotives. High fuel consumption and additional environmental pollutions can be avoided by hybrid locomotives using a small-scale diesel engine with a generator only for the periodic charging of a large traction battery.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  14. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  15. Filtres à activité catalytique pour moteur Diesel Catalytic Activity Filters for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de l'examen des normes actuelles et envisagées dans le futur pour limiter les émissions de particules Diesel, et en considérant les propriétés physico-chimiques de ces particules, cet article expose les problèmes posés par la filtration des suies Diesel et leur élimination par combustion sur les différents types de filtres actuellement retenus. La régénération des filtres par combustion catalytique du dépôt est plus particulièrement discutée. From an examination of present regulations and ones being considered for the future to limit particle emissions by diesel engines, and considering the physicochemical properties of such particles, this article describes the problems raised by filtering soot from diesel engines and eliminating it by various types of filters now used. Filter regeneration by catalytic combustion of the deposit is considered in particular.

  16. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  17. Differences in rheological profile of regular diesel and bio-diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čupera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel represents a promising alternative to regular fossil diesel. Fuel viscosity markedly influences injection, spraying and combustion, viscosity is thus critical factor to be evaluated and monitored. This work is focused on quantifying the differences in temperature dependent kinematic viscosity regular diesel fuel and B30 biodiesel fuel. The samples were assumed to be Newtonian fluids. Vis­co­si­ty was measured on a digital rotary viscometer in a range of 0 to 80 °C. More significant difference between minimum and maximum values was found in case of diesel fuel in comparison with biodiesel fuel. Temperature dependence of both fuels was modeled using several mathematical models – polynomial, power and Gaussian equation. The Gaussian fit offers the best match between experimental and computed data. Description of viscosity behavior of fuels is critically important, e.g. when considering or calculating running efficiency and performance of combustion engines. The models proposed in this work may be used as a tool for precise prediction of rheological behavior of diesel-type fuels.

  18. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  19. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    , NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...

  20. Diesel Pollution Biodegradation: Synergetic Effect of Mycobacterium and Filamentous Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU-QING LI; HONG-FANG LIU; ZHEN-LE TIAN; LI-HUA ZHU; YIN-GHUI WU; HE-QING TANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To biodegrade the diesel pollution in aqueous solution inoculated with Mycobacterium and filamentous fungi.Methods Bacteria sampled from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated sites in Karamay Oilfield were isolated and identified as Mycobacterium hyalinum (MH) and cladosporium. Spectrophotometry and gas chromatography (GC) were used to analyze of the residual concentrations of diesel oil and its biodegradation products. Results From the GC data, the values of apparent biodegradation ratio of the bacterial strain MH to diesel oil were close to those obtained in the control experiments. Moreover, the number of MH did not increase with degradation time. However, by using n-octadecane instead of diesel oil, the real biotic degradation ratio increased to 20.9% over 5 days of degradation. Cladosporium strongly biodegraded diesel oil with a real degradation ratio of up to 34% after 5 days treatment. When the two strains were used simultaneously, a significant synergistic effect between them resulted in almost cornplete degradation of diesel off, achieving a total diesel removal of 99% over 5 days of treatment, in which one part of about 80% and another part of about 19% were attributed to biotic and abiotic processes, respectively. Conclusion The observed synergistic effect was closely related to the aromatics-degrading ability of Cladosporium, which favored the growth of MH and promoted the bioavailability of diesel oil.

  1. Exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer in miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The research, all part of the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study, was designed to evalu

  2. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Q&A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of ex

  3. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and (b...

  4. Laser-based diagnostics on NO in a diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Theodorus Maria

    1999-01-01

    Of all internal combustion engines diesel engines tend to be the most efficient. However, this high efficiency is coupled with specific emissions of nitric oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) and soot. Such emissions are best fought against at their very source: the diesel combustion process itself. The objec

  5. Fractal-like dimension of nanometer Diesel soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillas, G.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Measurements with a low-pressure impactor and a differential mobility analyser were conducted for Diesel soot at various engine loads. By means of these measurements a fractal-like dimension of Diesel soot particles, with diameters ranging from 55 up to 260 nm, was established. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  6. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  7. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery. (a) Spaces containing machinery must be fitted with adequate dripproof ventilators, trunks,...

  8. Interior flow and near-nozzle spray development in a marine-engine diesel fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, J.; Simmank, P.; Matlok, S.; Mayer, S.; Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-04-01

    A consolidated effort at optically characterising flow patterns, in-nozzle cavitation, and near-nozzle jet structure of a marine diesel fuel injector is presented. A combination of several optical techniques was employed to fully transparent injector models, compound metal-glass and full metal injectors. They were all based on a common real-scale dual nozzle hole geometry for a marine two-stroke diesel engine. In a stationary flow rig, flow velocities in the sac-volume and nozzle holes were measured using PIV, and in-nozzle cavitation visualized using high-resolution shadowgraphs. The effect of varying cavitation number was studied and results compared to CFD predictions. In-nozzle cavitation and near-nozzle jet structure during transient operation were visualized simultaneously, using high-speed imaging in an atmospheric pressure spray rig. Near-nozzle spray formation was investigated using ballistic imaging. Finally, the injector geometry was tested on a full-scale marine diesel engine, where the dynamics of near-nozzle jet development was visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy. The range of studies focused on a single common geometry allows a comprehensive survey of phenomena ranging from first inception of cavitation under well-controlled flow conditions to fuel jet structure at real engine conditions.

  9. Review of Some Methods for Improving Transient Response in Automotive Diesel Engines through Various Turbocharging Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos G. Giakoumis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharged diesel engines suffer from poor drivability, mostly at low loads and speeds, leading also to overshoot in exhaust emissions (primarily PM/soot and NOx during the transient operation after a speed or load increase. The main cause for this problematic behavior is located in the turbocharger in the form of high moment of inertia and unfavorable aerodynamic-type compressor flow characteristics. In the present work, various alternative turbocharging configurations are reviewed that have proven successful in improving the dynamic diesel engine operation. The configurations studied are: combined supercharging, variable geometry turbine, electrically assisted turbocharging, two stage series and sequential turbocharging, as well as lower turbine moment of inertia. It is shown that significant improvement in the engine’s transient response can be realized through reduction in the turbocharger mass moment of inertia (using lighter materials and/or more than one units. Increasing the available turbine torque (e.g. through elevated turbine back pressure in a variable-geometry turbine is another successful option, as well as enhancement of the compressor boost pressure (e.g. through the use of a positive displacement compressor upstream of the turbocharger. Finally, the use of external energy (e.g. in the form of electrical assistance on the turbocharger shaft during the critical turbocharger lag phase is another recently developed and highly promising measure to mitigate the drawbacks of the poor transient performance of turbocharged diesel-engined vehicles and limit their exhaust emissions.

  10. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  11. Optimal Operation Method for Microgrid with Wind/PV/Diesel Generator/Battery and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The power supply mode of island microgrid with a variety of complementary energy resources is one of the most effective ways to solve the problem of future island power supply. Based on the characteristics of seawater desalination system and water demand of island residents, a power allocation strategy for seawater desalination load, storage batteries, and diesel generators is proposed with the overall consideration of the economic and environmental benefits of system operation. Furthermore, a multiobjective optimal operation model for the island microgrid with wind/photovoltaic/diesel/storage and seawater desalination load is also proposed. It first establishes the objective functions which include the life loss of storage batteries and the fuel cost of diesel generators. Finally, the model is solved by the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. The island microgrid in a certain district is taken as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed optimal method. The results provide the theoretical and technical basis for the optimal operation of island microgrid.

  12. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  13. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so?

  14. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  15. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J M

    2015-01-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable non-adiabatic effects. A joint exciton/motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of non-adiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K.~Leonhardt {\\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~Lett. {\\bf 113} 223001 (2014)]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterise the ...

  16. Uso de etanol carburado en motores Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Luis Arnoby

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se ejecutó en el Taller de Maquinaria Agrícola de la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Seccional Palmira. Un motor diesel de 2 cilindros, 1260 cm3 y relación de comprensión 23:1, fue alimentado mediante un sistema dual formado por el sistema de inyección para ACPM y un sistema de carburación para etanol y mezclas etanol-agua. En primer término se varió el avance de la inyección entre 18 y 26° APMS(Antes de Punto Muerto Superior con el fin de determinar el avance óptimo de inyección en el motor original y el motor alimentado con el sistema dual. Con base en el punto de máxima potencia, se seleccionaron 20 y 22" como avances óptimos. En la segunda prueba, al operar el motor con carga y velocidad variables y alimentarlo con cuatro combustibles (ACPM, etanol y mezclas etanol- agua con 20 y 40 % agua, se incrementaron la velocidad en 10% la potencia máxima en 6.5% ; y el torque máximo en 3.73%, desde el motor original al sistema dual alimentado con la mezcla carburada de 40% agua. La mayor sustitución de combustible se presentó a alta velocidad donde se reemplazó hasta el 32 % de ACPM por etanol. Solo a alta velocidad se justifica la sobrealimentación con etanol carburado. En este rango se presentaron aumentos de potencia, velocidad, par torsor y sustitución de combustible.This work was performed in the Agricultural Mechanics Shop of the Universidad Nacional of Colombia in Palmira. A two-cylinder, 1260 cm3 diesel engine with a compression ratio of 23:1 was fueled by a dual system formed by its injection system for diesel oil and a carburation system for ethanol and ethanol-water blends. In a first test, m e injection advance was varied between 18 and 26 o BTDC (Before Top Dead Center to determine the optimum injection advance in the original engine and the engine fueled with the dual system. According to the maximum power point, 20 and 22° BTDC were selected as the optimum

  17. CO2 emission benefit of diesel (versus gasoline) powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J L; Baker, R E; Boyer, B A; Hammerle, R H; Kenney, T E; Muniz, L; Wallington, T J

    2004-06-15

    Concerns regarding global warming have increased the pressure on automobile manufacturers to decrease emissions of CO2 from vehicles. Diesel vehicles have higher fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions than their gasoline counterparts. Increased penetration of diesel powered vehicles into the market is a possible transition strategy toward a more sustainable transportation system. To facilitate discussions regarding the relative merits of diesel vehicles it is important to have a clear understanding of their CO2 emission benefits. Based on European diesel and gasoline certification data, this report quantifies such CO2 reduction opportunities for cars and light duty trucks in today's vehicles and those in the year 2015. Overall, on a well-to-wheels per vehicle per mile basis, the CO2 reduction opportunity for today's vehicles is approximately 24-33%. We anticipate that the gap between diesel and gasoline well-to-wheel vehicle CO2 emissions will decrease to approximately 14-27% by the year 2015.

  18. Investigation of Diesel Engine Performance Based on Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The single cylinder modeling and simulation for four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine requires the use of advanced analysis and development tools to carry out of performance the diesel engine model. The simulation and computational development of modeling for the research use the commercial of GT-SUITE 6.2 software. In this research, the one dimensional modeling of single cylinder for four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine developed. The analysis of the model is combustion performance process in the engine cylinder. The model simulation covers the full engine cycle consisting of intake, compression, power and exhaust. In this model it can to know the diesel engine performance effect with simulation and modeling in any speeds (rpm parameters. The performance trend of the diesel engine model developed result of this model based on the theoretical and computational model shows in graphics in the paper.

  19. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  20. Volatilization behaviors of diesel oil from the soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-ying; ZHENG Xi-lai; LI Bing; MA Yu-xin; CAO Jing-hua

    2004-01-01

    The volatilization of diesel oil, Shengli crude oil and 90# gasoline on glass surface of petri dishes were conducted at the ambient temperature of 25℃. Diesel oil evaporates in a power manner, where the loss of mass is approximately power with time. 90# gasoline evaporates in a logarithmic with time. Where as the volatilization of Shengli crude oil fit either the logarithmic or power equation after different time, and has similar R2. And the effects of soil type and diesel oil and water content on volatilization behavior in unsaturated soil were studied in this paper. Diesel oil and water content in the soils play a large role in volatilization from soils. Appropriate water helps the wicking action but too much water stops it. The wicking action behaves differently in four different types of soils in the same volatilization experiment of 18% diesel oil content and air-dry condition.

  1. The hard choice for alternative biofuels to diesel in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioca, J O B; Hiluy Filho, J J; Leal, M R L V; Macambira, F S

    2009-01-01

    This paper selects biofuel scenarios to substitute diesel in Brazil based on oil reserves increase, diesel imports, CO(2) emissions, crops agronomic yields, byproducts marketing and social impacts. This hard task still considers that agricultural practices in developing countries have large social impacts. Brazil presents high consumption of diesel oil in transport; low agronomic yield of traditional vegetable oil crops, which demand large cultivation areas contrasting with microalgae and palm oils which present high productivity. Concerning technologies, thermal cracking and transesterification of vegetable oils present a difficult economic situation related to vegetable oils price, food competition and glycerin market; BTL technology, meaning thermal gasification of biomass to liquids, faces problems related to low density of biomaterials and low viscosity of synthetic biodiesel produced. Biorefinery algal integrated systems and co-solvent technology to introduce up to 8% of ethanol into diesel seem to be feasible routes to reduce diesel consumption.

  2. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  3. Study on Kinetics for Desulfurization of Model Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jianhua; Zhou Yuenan; Liu Lin; Wang Yue; Xing Jinjuan; Lü Hong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, by means of the experiments for desulfurization of model diesel through oxi-dative extraction, the changes associated with the rate of desulfurization of diesel and the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides in diesel were explored. Through studying the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides and the principle of solvent extraction, the kinetic equation of desulfurization via oxidative extraction were determined. By means of the evaluation of model parameters and curve fitting, the reaction order between organic sulfide and sulfone, the intrinsic oxidation rate constant of organic sulfide and sulfone, and the equilibrium constant between suifone in model diesel and extractive sol-vent were determined. The experimental values of the desulfurization rate and the theoretical values of the corresponding model equation had closely demonstrated that the desulfurization reaction rate had high accuracy. And the reaction kinetics could provide an important basis for diesel desulfurization process in the future.

  4. Pathophysiological importance of aggregated damaged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Annika; Jung, Tobias; Grune, Tilman

    2014-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed continuously in the organism even under physiological conditions. If the level of ROS in cells exceeds the cellular defense capacity, components such as RNA/DNA, lipids, and proteins are damaged and modified, thus affecting the functionality of organelles as well. Proteins are especially prominent targets of various modifications such as oxidation, glycation, or conjugation with products of lipid peroxidation, leading to the alteration of their biological function, nonspecific interactions, and the production of high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. To ensure the maintenance of cellular functions, two proteolytic systems are responsible for the removal of oxidized and modified proteins, especially the proteasome and organelles, mainly the autophagy-lysosomal systems. Furthermore, increased protein oxidation and oxidation-dependent impairment of proteolytic systems lead to an accumulation of oxidized proteins and finally to the formation of nondegradable protein aggregates. Accordingly, the cellular homeostasis cannot be maintained and the cellular metabolism is negatively affected. Here we address the current knowledge of protein aggregation during oxidative stress, aging, and disease.

  5. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  6. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  7. The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cooney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cooney1, Anthony J Hickey21Department of Biomedical Engineering; 2School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process.Keywords: diesel exhaust particles, aerosol, inhalation toxicology

  8. Diesel combustion and emissions formation using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Understanding how emissions are formed during diesel combustion is central to developing new engines that can comply with increasingly stringent emission standards while maintaining or improving performance levels. Laser-based planar imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing the temporally and spatially resolved information required for this understanding. Using an optically accessible research engine, a variety of two-dimensional (2-D) imaging diagnostics have been applied to investigators of direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion and emissions formation. These optical measurements have included the following laser-sheet imaging data: Mie scattering to determine liquid-phase fuel distributions, Rayleigh scattering for quantitative vapor-phase-fuel/air mixture images, laser induced incandescence (LII) for relative soot concentrations, simultaneous LII and Rayleigh scattering for relative soot particle-size distributions, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to obtain early PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon) distributions, PLIF images of the OH radical that show the diffusion flame structure, and PLIF images of the NO radical showing the onset of NO{sub x} production. In addition, natural-emission chemiluminescence images were obtained to investigate autoignition. The experimental setup is described, and the image data showing the most relevant results are presented. Then the conceptual model of diesel combustion is summarized in a series of idealized schematics depicting the temporal and spatial evolution of a reacting diesel fuel jet during the time period investigated. Finally, recent PLIF images of the NO distribution are presented and shown to support the timing and location of NO formation hypothesized from the conceptual model.

  9. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  10. Mathematical modeling of diesel fuel hydrotreating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataurshikov, A.; Ivanchina, E.; Krivtcova, N.; Krivtsov, E.; Syskina, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrotreating of the diesel fraction with the high initial sulfur content of 1,4 mass% is carried out in the flow-through laboratory setup with the industrial GKD-202 catalyst at various process temperature. On the basis of the experimental data the regularities of the hydrogenation reactions are revealed, and the formalized scheme of sulfur-containing components (sulfides, benzothiophenes, and dibenzothiophenes) transformations is made. The mathematical model of hydrotreating process is developed, the constant values for the reaction rate of hydrodesulfurization of the specified components are calculated.

  11. Note on the sanitary impact of diesel particulates; Note sur l'impact sanitaire des particules diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    In the actual situation of scientific works, the epidemiology studies on environment do not allow to say the carcinogen contribution of diesel particulates at the concentration levels measured in the urban air. But according to the experimental data for the rat and the data observed for the personnel exposed to diesel particulates these particulates are classified as probably carcinogen. (N.C.)

  12. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no histori

  13. Diesel hybrid powertrain for passenger and light commercial vehicles; Diesel-Hybrid-Antriebsstrang fuer PKW und leichte Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, David [Ricardo Deutschland GmbH, Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany). Productgruppe Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Wren, Corin [Ricardo Midlands Technical Centre, Leamington Spa (United Kingdom). Hi-CEPS Project for Hybrid and Electrical Vehicles

    2011-03-15

    As part of the European funded FP6 project Hi-CEPS, Ricardo, Ford and Eldor have collaborated to develop an efficient diesel powertrain concept suitable for a family of vehicles on a C-segment platform, including a light commercial vehicle variant. The powertrain architecture incorporates a downsized diesel engine mated to an electromechanically actuated dual clutch transmission developed by Ricardo. (orig.)

  14. Residential photovoltaic installations in communities which possess Diesel generators; Instalacoes fotovoltaicas domiciliares em comunidades que possuam geradores a Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilles, Andre Mocelin Roberto; Morante, Federico [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos]. E-mail: mocelin@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a discussion on two possible options to provide with power energy one using Diesel generators with mini networks for distribution and other using residential photovoltaic systems. The objective of this article is to discuss some questions referring to the planing required by electrification projects using photovoltaic systems in communities already possessing distribution mini network and Diesel generators.

  15. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL EMULSIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE, COMBUSTION AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DI DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Parthasarathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the different ratio of emulsified fuels on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of four stroke single cylinder kirloskar TV-I direct injection compression ignition engine and compared with diesel fuel under different engine loads with constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. Four kinds of test fuels were prepared namely 80% diesel, 10% ethanol and 10% surfactant (Identified as D80E10; 70% diesel, 20% ethanol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D70 E20; 60% diesel 30% ethanol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D60 E30; 50% diesel, 40% ethanol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D50 E40 by volume respectively. In this test, Benzal konium chloride is added as an emulsifier to the diesel-ethanol blend to prevent layer formation and to make it a homogeneous blend. At maximum brake power, the comparison of best emulsified fuel ratio with diesel fuel results showed improvement in brake thermal efficiency with decrease in specific fuel consumption and smoke. The NOX, HC, CO2, cylinder pressure and heat release rate for D50 E40 emulsions are higher when compared to diesel fuel.

  16. Biochar Effects on Soil Aggregate Properties Under No-Till Maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah; Naveed, Muhammad; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    Soil aggregates are useful indicators of soil structure and stability, and the impact on physical and mechanical aggregate properties is critical for the sustainable use of organic amendments in agricultural soil. In this work, we evaluated the short-term soil quality effects of applying biochar (0......-over-end shaking, a Yoder-type wet-sieving method, and an unconfined compression test in soil samples collected 7 and 19 months after final biochar application. The highest rates of biochar and swine manure application resulted in the highest aggregate stability and lowest clay dispersibility. Applying both...... amendments systematically increased TS and SRE for large aggregates (4–8 and 8–16 mm) but not for small aggregates (1–2 and 2–4 mm). Increased biochar application also decreased the friability index of soil aggregates. Based on X-ray visualization, it was found that aggregates containing larger amounts...

  17. Use of whey protein soluble aggregates for thermal stability-a hypothesis paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kelsey N; Zhong, Qixin; Foegeding, Edward A

    2013-08-01

    Forming whey proteins into soluble aggregates is a modification shown to improve or expand the applications in foaming, emulsification, gelation, film-formation, and encapsulation. Whey protein soluble aggregates are defined as aggregates that are intermediates between monomer proteins and an insoluble gel network or precipitate. The conditions under which whey proteins denature and aggregate have been extensively studied and can be used as guiding principles of producing soluble aggregates. These conditions are reviewed for pH, ion type and concentration, cosolutes, and protein concentration, along with heating temperature and duration. Combinations of these conditions can be used to design soluble aggregates with desired physicochemical properties including surface charge, surface hydrophobicity, size, and shape. These properties in turn can be used to obtain target macroscopic properties, such as viscosity, clarity, and stability, of the final product. A proposed approach to designing soluble aggregates with improved thermal stability for beverage applications is presented.

  18. Sistema híbrido eólico-diesel para el abastecimiento de energía eléctrica de 20 cabañas turísticas en Cayo Caguamas. // Eolic-Diesel hybrid system for electric power supply of 20 tourist cabins in Caguamas Key.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alarcón Fernández

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los aspectos técnicos y económicos de la planificación de un sistema híbrido eólico-diesel para elabastecimiento de energía eléctrica de 20 cabañas turísticas en Cayo Caguamas. Se determina la demanda de energía y lacurva de carga de la instalación turística. Se dimensiona un sistema híbrido eólico-diesel formado por 6 aerogeneradores de10 kW y dos generadores Diesel de 75 kW cada uno. Finalmente se determina la influencia de la variación de algunosparámetros importantes sobre la rentabilidad del proyectoPalabras claves: Sistema eólico-diesel, generación eléctrica, aerogeneradores, planificación económica._____________________________________________________________________AbstractThe technical and economic aspects of the planning of an Eolic-Diesel hybrid system for the supply of electric power of 20tourist cabins in Caguamas Key are presented. The energy demand and the load curve of the tourist installation isdetermined. An Eolic-Diesel hybrid system formed by six 10 kW windmills and two Diesel generators of 75 kW each oneare dimensioned. Finally the influence of variation of some important parameters about the profitability of the project arestated.Key words:.Eolic-Diesel system, electic power generation, windmillgenerator, economic planning.

  19. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  20. 40 CFR 80.512 - May an importer treat diesel fuel as blendstock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel under §§ 80.593, 80.601, and 80.604. (4) If previously designated motor vehicle diesel fuel having... redesignate all the diesel fuel as 500 ppm sulfur motor vehicle diesel fuel for purposes of the...

  1. 40 CFR 80.610 - What acts are prohibited under the diesel fuel sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel... supply, store or transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel or heating oil... transport any diesel fuel for use in motor vehicle or nonroad engines that contains greater than...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1904 Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans. (a) Diesel fuel tanks used underground shall...

  3. 30 CFR 57.5060 - Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5060 Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter. (a) A miner's personal exposure to... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limit on exposure to diesel particulate matter...

  4. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  5. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  6. Cooling of a Diesel Reformate Fuelled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell by Internal Reforming of Methane: A Modelling Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaowei; Alexander Kromp

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a system combining a diesel reformer using catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) with the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) applications is modeled with respect to the cooling effect provided by internal reforming of methane in anode gas channel.A model mixture consisting of 80% n-hexadecane and 20% 1-methylnaphthalin is used to simulate the commercial diesel.The modelling consists of several steps.First,equilibrium gas composition at the exit of CPOX reformer is modelled in terms oxygen to carbon (O/C) ratio,fuel utilization ratio and anode gas recirculation.Second,product composition,especially methane content,is determined for the methanation process at the operating temperatures ranging from 500 ℃ to 520 ℃.Finally,the cooling power provided by internal reforming of methane in SOFC fuel channel is calculated for two concepts to increase the methane content of the diesel reformate.The results show that the first concept,operating the diesel reformer at low O/C ratio and/or recirculation ratio,is not realizable due to high probability of coke formation,whereas the second concept,combining a methanation process with CPOX,can provide a significant cooling effect in addition to the conventional cooling concept which needs higher levels of excess air.

  7. AGGREGATION OF FUZZY OPINIONS UNDER GROUP DECISION-MAKING BASED ON SIMILARITY AND DISTANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengguo LU; Jibin LAN; Zhongxing WANG

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a new method for aggregating fuzzy individual opinions into a group consensus opinion is proposed. To obtain the aggregation weights of each individual opinion, a consistency index of each expert with the other experts is introduced based on similarity and distance. The importance of each expert is also taken into consideration in the process of aggregation. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the procedure.

  8. Macrophage triggering by aggregated immunoglobulins. II. Comparison of IgE and IgG aggregates or immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, J; Dessaint, J P; Joseph, M; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages incubated with complexed or aggregated IgE released beta-glucuronidase (beta-G) within 30 min. In contrast in the presence of aggregated or complexed IgG, macrophages liberated equivalent amount of beta-G only after 6 h incubation. In addition the rapid macrophage stimulation induced by aggregated IgE was also followed by a faster 3H-glucosamine incorporation when compared to the delayed activation caused by aggregated IgG. However, macrophages stimulated either by IgG or by IgE oligomers produced the same percentage of plasminogen activator at 24 h. In contrast, while the interaction between macrophages and aggregated IgE was only followed by a peak of cyclic GMP and a beta-G release during the first 30 min of incubation, the interaction between macrophages and IgG oligomers was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cyclic GMP and AMP nucleotides and by an absence of beta-G exocytosis. Moreover, the beta-G release induced by aggregated IgE was increased when macrophages were preincubated with aggregated IgG. This additive effect was not observed in the reverse situation. Finally macrophages activated by IgG oligomers were demonstrated to exert a cytotoxic effect on tumour cells and to kill schistosomula in the presence of a low level of complement. Taken together these results underline the peculiar ability of aggregated or complexed IgE to trigger rapidly the macrophage activation compared to aggregated IgG and can explain the important role of complexed IgE in some macrophage dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms (i.e. in parasitic diseases). PMID:6088135

  9. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  10. Modeling pollution formation in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Modeling combustion under conditions that prevail in Diesel engine presents a great challenge. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has invested Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds to accelerate progress in this area. Research has been concerned with building a chemical mechanism to interface with a high fidelity fluid code to describe aspects of Diesel combustion. The complexity of these models requires implementation on massively parallel machines. The author will describe his efforts concerned with building such a complex mechanism. He begins with C and CO{sub 2} chemistry and adds sequentially higher hydrocarbon chemistry, aromatic production chemistry, soot chemistry, and chemistry describing NO{sub x} production. The metrics against which this chemistry is evaluated are flame velocities, induction times, ignition delay times, flammability limits, flame structure measurements, and light scattering. He assembles a set of elementary reactions, kinetic rate coefficients, and thermochemistry. He modifies existing Sandia codes to be able to investigate the behavior of the mechanism in well-stirred reactors, plug flow reactors, and one-dimensional flames. The modified combustion code with a chemical mechanism at the appropriate level of complexity is then interfaced with the high fidelity fluids code. The fluids code is distinguished by its ability to solve the requisite partial differential equations with adaptively refined grids necessary to describe the strong variation in spatial scales in combustion.

  11. Self-ignition of diesel spray combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuchakallaya, Isares; Watkins, A. P.

    2009-10-01

    This work presents the development and implementation of auto-ignition modelling for DI diesel engines by using the probability density function-eddy break-up (PDF-EBU) model. The key concept of this approach is to combine the chemical reaction rate dealing with low-temperature mode, and the turbulence reaction rate governing the high-temperature part by a reaction progress variable coupling function which represents the level of reaction. The average reaction rate here is evaluated by a PDF averaging approach. In order to assess the potential of this developed model, the well-known Shell ignition model is chosen to compare in auto-ignition analysis. In comparison, the PDF-EBU ignition model yields the ignition delay time in good agreement with the Shell ignition model prediction. However, the ignition kernel location predicted by the Shell model is slightly nearer injector than that by the PDF-EBU model leading to shorter lift-off length. As a result, the PDF-EBU ignition model developed here are fairly satisfactory in predicting the auto-ignition of diesel engines with the Shell ignition model.

  12. Dimensionless Parameter Scaling of Diesel Engine Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.; Filipi, Zoran

    1996-11-01

    Combustion in a modern heavy-duty Diesel engine with direct radial fuel injection typically takes place in a short nearly-cylindrical volume at a rate determined by turbulent mixing. Simple dimensionless-parameter scaling laws for turbulent gas-phase mixing and heat transfer have been shown to be effective for a variety of (oxidizer) flow and (fuel) injection conditions within a cylindrical geometry (Edwards et al., AIChE J., Vol. 31, 516 [1985].) (Breidenthal et al., JFM, Vol. 219, 531 [1990].) (Dowling et al., AIAA J. Thermophys. & HT, Vol. 4, 504 [1990].). These studies were driven by chemical laser applications emphasizing long cylinders and sidewall injection. The current investigation seeks to determine the applicability of dimensionless parameter scaling to the instantaneous in-cylinder fuel burning rate in a multi-cylinder Diesel engine typical of Class VIII trucks. Comparisons are made between scaled and unscaled fuel burning rate, as inferred from time-resolved in-cylinder pressure measurements, across the test engine's normal operating range. This research is supported by the US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center.

  13. Speed control of automotive diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbib, Rachid; Graton, Guillaume; Dovifaaz, Xavier; Younes, Rafic

    2014-04-01

    This paper deals with Diesel engine control. More precisely, a model-based approach is considered to stabilise engine speed around a defined value. The model taken into account is nonlinear and contains explicitly the expression of fuel conversion efficiency. In general in the literature, this experimentally obtained quantity is modelled with either a polynomial or an exponential form (see for instance Younes, R. (1993). Elaboration d'un modèle de connaissance du moteur diesel avec turbocompresseur à géométrie variable en vue de l'optimisation de ses émissions. Ecole Centrale de Lyon; Omran, R., Younes, R., Champoussin, J., & Outbib, R. (2011). New indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) model for predicting crankshaft movement. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 3376-3382). This paper focuses on engine speed feedback stabilisation when fuel conversion efficiency is modelled with an exponential form, which is more suitable for automative applications. Simulation results are proposed to highlight the closed-loop control performances.

  14. Hiilangaay Hydroelectric Project – Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twitchell, Sara [HDR, Omaha, NE (United States); Stimac, Michael [HDR, Omaha, NE (United States); Lang, Lisa [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States); Witwer, Doreen [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States); Jameson, Vincent [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Hiilangaay Hydroelectric Project (“Hiilangaay” or the “Project”) is a 5-megawatt hydroelectric resource currently under construction on Prince of Wales Island (POW), Alaska, approximately ten miles east of Hydaburg. The objective of the Project is to interconnect with the existing transmission grid on Prince of Wales Island, increasing the hydroelectric generation capability by 5 MW, eliminating the need for diesel generation, increasing the reliability of the electrical system, and allowing the interconnected portion of the island to have 100 percent renewable energy generation. Pre-construction activities including construction planning, permit coordination and compliance, and final design have made it possible to move forward with construction of the Hiilangaay Project. Despite repeated delays to the schedule, persistence and long-term planning will culminate in the construction of the Project, and make Prince of Wales Island independent of diesel-fueled energy

  15. Organic carbon, water repellency and soil stability to slaking at aggregate and intra-aggregate scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán López, Antonio; García-Moreno, Jorge; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Cerdà, Artemi; Alanís, Nancy; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    intensity of WR in aggregates of different sizes. [ii] the intra-aggregate distribution of OC and the intensity of WR and [iii] the structural stability of soil aggregates relative to the OC content and the intensity of WR in soils under different crops (apricot, citrus and wheat) and different treatments (conventional tilling and mulching). Soil samples were collected from an experimental area (Luvic Calcisols and Calcic Luvisols) in the province of Sevilla (Southern Spain) under different crops (apricot, citrus and wheat) and different management types (conventional tillage with moldboard plow) and mulching (no-tilling and addition of wheat residues at rates varying between 5 and 8 Mg/ha/year). At each sampling site, soil blocks (50 cm long × 50 cm wide × 10 cm deep) were carefully collected to avoid disturbance of aggregates as much as possible and transported to the laboratory. At field moist condition, undisturbed soil aggregates were separated by hand. In order to avoid possible interferences due to disturbance by handling, aggregates broken during this process were discarded. Individual aggregates were arranged in paper trays and air-dried during 7 days under laboratory standard conditions. After air-drying, part of each sample was carefully divided for different analyses: [i] part of the original samples was sieved (2 mm) to eliminate coarse soil particles and homogenized for characterization of OC and N contents, C/N ratio and texture; [ii] part of the aggregates were dry-sieved (0.25-0.5, 0.5-1 and 1-2 mm) or measured with a caliper (2-5, 5-10 and 10-15 mm) and separated in different sieve-size classes for determination of WR and OC content; [iii] aggregates 10-15 mm in size were selected for obtaining aggregate layers using a soil aggregate erosion (SAE) apparatus and WR and OC content were determined at each layer; finally, [iv] in order to study the relation between stability to slaking, WR and OC, these properties were determined in 90 air-dried aggregates

  16. Hybrid wind diesel system for a village in the Canary Islands. Operation results and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, I.; Arribas, L.; Gonzalez, A. [CIEMAT-IER, Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The first release from the operation data from the Hybrid Wind Diesel System carried-out one year ago in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are available. In this paper the results of the detailed analysis are presented, concerning the impact of the parameters from the different systems in the whole system. The performance of the operation strategy is demonstrated with computational results. Comparisons between different function modes are also included. These results show that the feasibility of the project is essentially affected by the wind energy penetration and by the reliability of the system. Finally, system energy balances will be given. (Author)

  17. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... energy data management and discuss strategies for aggregation and disaggregation of flex-objects while retaining flexibility. This paper further extends these approaches beyond flex-objects originating from energy consumption by additionally considering flex-objects originating from energy production...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  18. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  19. Effect ofHydrogen Use on Diesel Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraat, A.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Nutu, C.; Mirica, I.; Fuiorescu, D.

    2016-11-01

    Necessity of pollutant emissions decreasing, a great interest aspect discussed at 2015 Paris Climate Conference, highlights the necessity of alternative fuels use at diesel engines. Hydrogen is considered a future fuel for the automotive industry due to its properties which define it as the cleanest fuel and due to the production unlimited sources. The use of hydrogen as fuel for diesel engines has a higher degree of complexity because of some hydrogen particularities which lead to specific issues of the hydrogen use at diesel engine: tendency of uncontrolled ignition with inlet backfire, in-cylinder combustion with higher heat release rates and with high NOx level, storage difficulties. Because hydrogen storing on vehicle board implies important difficulties in terms of safety and automotive range, the partial substitution of diesel fuel by hydrogen injected into the inlet manifold represents the most efficient method. The paper presents the results of the experimental researches carried on a truck diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel and hydrogen, in-cylinder phenomena's study showing the influence of some parameters on combustion, engine performance and pollutant emissions. The paper novelty is defined by the hydrogen fuelling method applied to diesel engine and the efficient control of the engine running.

  20. Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lif, Anna; Holmberg, Krister

    2006-11-16

    Water-in-diesel emulsions are fuels for regular diesel engines. The advantages of an emulsion fuel are reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, which are both health hazardous, and reduction in fuel consumption due to better burning efficiency. An important aspect is that diesel emulsions can be used without engine modifications. This review presents the influence of water on the emissions and on the combustion efficiency. Whereas there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, there is an increase in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with increasing water content of the emulsion. The combustion efficiency is improved when water is emulsified with diesel. This is a consequence of the microexplosions, which facilitate atomization of the fuel. The review also covers related fuels, such as diesel-in-water-in-diesel emulsions, i.e., double emulsions, water-in-diesel microemulsions, and water-in-vegetable oil emulsions, i.e., biodiesel emulsions. A brief overview of other types of alternative fuels is also included.

  1. Minimum Favorable Conditions for Hydrogen-Diesel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jacob Dylan

    A test apparatus was designed and fabricated that allowed very small amounts of diesel fuel to be injected into a hydrogen-air mixture. This apparatus was designed to be able to operate near the limits of diesel fuel injectors. The purpose of this apparatus is to find out if the injectors in diesel engines are capable of igniting a hydrogen-air mixture when operated at their limits and to explore past their limits for further advancement in the field of dual-fuel hydrogen-diesel combustion. The minimum flow rate of diesel fuel the apparatus could produce was 120.46 (cm3)/min and the fastest response time that could be achieved was 1 ms. Both of these parameters at least met the limits of the current diesel injection setups. The smallest mass of diesel fuel that could be injected was 15.7 mg. This mass produced combustion in the hydrogen-air mixture for all hydrogen concentrations and temperatures tested.

  2. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  3. Price discrimination and tax incidence: Evidence from gasoline and diesel cars

    OpenAIRE

    Verboven, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The existing tax policies towards gasoline and diesel cars in European countries provide a unique opportunity to analyze quality-based price discrimination and implied tax incidence. We develop an econometric framework for the demand and pricing of gasoline and diesel cars. Consumers choose a gasoline or a diesel car based on their annual mileage. Manufacturers set gasoline and diesel car prices. Our empirical results show that the relative pricing of gasoline and diesel cars is consistent wi...

  4. Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrutia, O., E-mail: oihana.barrutia@ehu.es [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, C.; Epelde, L. [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Soil Microbial Ecology Group, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Sampedro, M.C.; Goicolea, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country/EHU, E-01006 Vitoria (Spain); Becerril, J.M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-09-01

    Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000 mg diesel kg{sup -1} DW soil. Thirty days after diesel addition, T. repens (white clover) and L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were sown in the pots and grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature 25/18 {sup o}C day/night, relative humidity 60/80% day/night and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 400 {mu}mol photon m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) for 5 months. A parallel set of unplanted pots was also included. Concentrations of n-alkanes in soil were determined as an indicator of diesel degradation. Seedling germination, plant growth, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}), pigment composition and lipophylic antioxidant content were determined to assess the impacts of diesel on the studied plants. Soil microbial community characteristics, such as enzyme and community-level physiological profiles, were also determined and used to calculate the soil quality index (SQI). The presence of plants had a stimulatory effect on soil microbial activity. L. perenne was far more tolerant to diesel contamination than T. repens. Diesel contamination affected soil microbial characteristics, although its impact was less pronounced in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. Rhizoremediation with T. repens and L. perenne resulted in a similar reduction of total n-alkanes concentration. However, values of the soil microbial parameters and the SQI showed that the more tolerant species (L. perenne) was able to better maintain its rhizosphere characteristics when growing in diesel-contaminated soil, suggesting a better soil health. We concluded that plant tolerance is of

  5. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  6. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  7. Laser diagnosis and plasma technology: fundamentals for reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in DI internal combustion engines. Spray/wall-interaction under diesel engine conditions. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch von DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Spray/Wand-Wechselwirkung bei der motorischen Einspritzung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, U.; Meingast, U.

    2001-02-01

    Spray/wall-interaction under diesel engine conditions is not yet investigated extensively in detail with high spatial resolution and high time resolution as those experiments require extremely accurate techniques. Numerical modelling to predict fluiddynamic and heat transfer processes are validated mostly under non engine conditions. The processes during spray/wall interaction under internal combustion engine conditions were investigated experimentally in an injection chamber using enhanced laser optical methods. To enable validation and development of numerical spray/wall models the data was collected under well known and reproducible conditions. Microscopic visualisation tools, Phase-Doppler Anemometry (PDA) to measure droplet diameter and velocity as well as fluorescence based film measurement technique and high speed surface thermocouples to determine the wall heat flux were used. The numerical predictions of the spray wall interaction using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) including two spray/wall models from the literature show qualitatively good agreement with the experiments. However, quantitatively some insufficiencies are observed because the models base on experiments under atmospheric conditions disregarding the influences of high pressure and high temperature. Here more detailed investigation is necessary in the future. The present results build up a comprehensive basis to validate future models and their interaction. Progress was done in using measurement techniques to investigate complex mechanisms under challenging conditions. (orig.) [German] Die Spray/Wand Wechselwirkung unter dieselmotorischen Bedingungen ist bisher nicht mit hoher Zeit- und Ortsaufloesung umfassend charakterisiert worden, weil deren Untersuchung hohe Anforderungen an die Messtechniken stellt. Numerische Modelle zur Vorhersage der Stroemungs- und Waermetransportvorgaenge sind nur teilweise unter reale Bedingungen verifiziert worden. Die Vorgaenge beim Auftreffen eines

  8. Kinetics of Monoclonal Antibody Aggregation from Dilute toward Concentrated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Jagielski, Jakub; Pfister, David; Lazzari, Stefano; Massant, Jan; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-04-07

    Gaining understanding on the aggregation behavior of proteins under concentrated conditions is of both fundamental and industrial relevance. Here, we study the aggregation kinetics of a model monoclonal antibody (mAb) under thermal stress over a wide range of protein concentrations in various buffer solutions. We follow experimentally the monomer depletion and the aggregate growth by size exclusion chromatography with inline light scattering. We describe the experimental results in the frame of a kinetic model based on population balance equations, which allows one to discriminate the contributions of the conformational and of the colloidal stabilities to the global aggregation rate. Finally, we propose an expression for the aggregation rate constant, which accounts for solution viscosity, protein-protein interactions, as well as aggregate compactness. All these effects can be quantified by light scattering techniques. It is found that the model describes well the experimental data under dilute conditions. Under concentrated conditions, good model predictions are obtained when the solution pH is far below the isoelectric point (pI) of the mAb. However, peculiar effects arise when the solution pH is increased toward the mAb pI, and possible explanations are discussed.

  9. Lysozyme Aggregation and Fibrillation Monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Louis; Flanders, Bret; Schmit, Jeremy; Sorensen, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins provides a rich phase space with significant biomedical implications, including a link with several age-related diseases. We employed dynamic light scattering to monitor the aggregation of lysozyme, a model protein, from a monomeric state until the formation of micron-sized fibrils. For an aqueous lysozyme solution buffered at pH 2, the auto-correlation function of the scattered light intensity was found to be well-fit by a single exponential function with decay time τ = 1/(2Dq^2) = 0.25 ms, which corresponds to a mean hydrodynamic radius (RH) of 2.2 nm, very likely generated by monomers. Ethanol (4% v/v final concentration) induced a partial unfolding, to RH = 4.6 nm. The subsequent addition of 70 mM KCl was found to shrink the size back to RH = 2.5 nm, as expected when a denatured protein refolds due to partial screening of the intramolecular repulsion. However, further aggregation was not observed. At pH 4, using a low-salt acetate buffer, more ethanol (10% v/v) was required to initiate unfolding, but once it occurred, larger aggregates formed. These results are consistent with the model that partial unfolding, which exposes beta-motif secondary structure, is a prerequisite for aggregation and fibrillation, but the aggregation fate depends on the protein charge state (pH) and screening (salt concentration).

  10. Experimental investigation on a DI diesel engine fuelled with Madhuca Indica ester and diesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Hall 11A, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune 411019, Maharashtra (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai (India); Puhan, Sukumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Veltech Engineering College, Avadi, Chennai (India)

    2010-06-15

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which is renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. One of the popularly used biodiesel in India is Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica). In the present investigation Mahua oil was transesterified using methanol in the presence of alkali catalyst and was used to study the performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel was tested on a single cylinder, four stroke compression ignition engine. Engine performance tests showed that power loss was around 13% combined with 20% increase in fuel consumption with Mahua oil methyl ester at full load. Emissions such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon were lesser for Mahua ester compared to diesel by 26% and 20% respectively. Oxides of nitrogen were lesser by 4% for the ester compared to diesel. (author)

  11. Activated carbon use in treating diesel engine exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Babyak, R.A. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Several active carbon materials were observed to be particularly effective in processes for the removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases. This paper describes the application of active carbon materials to two diesel engine exhaust gases at McClellan AFB in California. More specifically, one application involved a large diesel engine that supplies emergency power at the Base, and the second involved a mobile diesel-fueled generator that provides auxiliary power to aircraft. The designs of systems to control emissions for each application are discussed, and the results of tests on laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale systems are presented.

  12. Design and Research of the EQ6105DTAA Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The EQ6105DTAA diesel engine which first pattern en gi ne is EQD6105T is developed through the original EQ6102 diesel engine and other advanced engine structures. This paper analyses performance parameters, general layout and parts design process of the diesel engine. The development cycle is s horten by CAD/CAE/CAM technology. Through experiment, the general performance of the engine is in keeping ahead in our country. With boosting mid-cooling technology and related designing correction in EQ6105 DTAA...

  13. Lubricity Additives and Wear with DME in Diesel Injection Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kasper; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years it has been demonstrated that Dimethyl Ether (DME) possess many characteristics that could make it a successful alternative to diesel in the next century. High wear of the fuel injection system has been reported. This is caused by lack of natural protective constituents of Dimethyl...... wear of standard diesel jerk pump plungers elements were made with weight measurements, diameter measurements, 2-D and 3-D surface roughness measurements, and photography by a Michelson interferometer. Several lubricity additives were tested, but none reduced wear levels to those for diesel fuel...

  14. Wind diesel systems - design assessment and future potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infield, D.G.; Scotney, A.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-01-01

    system models for assessing both dynamic characteristics and overall performance and economics. An introduction is provided to the Wind Diesel Engineering Design Toolkit currently under development (for implementation on PC) by a consortium of leading wind diesel experts, representing six European......Diesels are the obvious form. of back-up electricity generation in small to medium sized wind systems. High wind penetrations pose significant technical problems for the system designer, ranging from component sizing to control specification and dynamic stability. A key role is seen for proven...

  15. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  16. Test and Analysis for Spraying Ammonia in Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华祥; 刘敬平; 贺力克; 陈方; 申奇志; 骆锐; 周正

    2011-01-01

    A certain amount of ammonia reducer were directly injected into the 4102BZLQ Diesel engine' s combustion chamber when the combustion temperature decreases to 1 573 - 1 073 K, NOx generated could be reduced to 1.11 g/( kW· h). Based on PRF combustion mechanism, NO was tested by using the heavy-duty diesel engine test cycle of ESC thirteen conditions , the ammonia spray angle and amount were tested and optimized in different conditions. The test results show that the thermal efficiency of Diesel engine does not decrease while NO exhaust decreases.

  17. Optimizing Hybrid Wind/Diesel Generator System Using BAT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Sharma,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid system comprising of Wind/Diesel generation system for a practical standalone application considers Wind turbine generators and diesel generator as primary power sources for generating electricity. Battery banks are considered as a backup power source. The total value of cost is reduced by meeting energy demand required by the customers. Bat optimization technique is implemented to optimize wind and battery modules. Wind and battery banks are considered as primary sources and diesel generator as a secondary power source for the system

  18. Use of Spent Zeolite Sorbents for the Preparation of Lightweight Aggregates Differing in Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Franus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight aggregates (LWAs made by sintering beidellitic clay deposits at high temperatures, with and without the addition of spent zeolitic sorbents (clinoptilolitic tuff and Na-P1 made from fly ash containing diesel oil, were investigated. Mineral composition of the aggregates determined by X-ray diffraction was highly uniformized in respect of the initial composition of the substrates. The microstructure of the LWAs, which were studied with a combination of mercury porosimetry, microtomography, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy, was markedly modified by the spent zeolites, which diminished bulk densities, increased porosities and pore radii. The addition of zeolites decreased water absorption and the compressive strength of the LWAs. The spent Na-P1 had a greater effect on the LWAs’ structure than the clinoptilolite.

  19. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20.

  20. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED USING JATROPHA BIO DIESEL BLENDED FUELED

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesels have recently been recognized as a potential substitute to Diesel oil. It is produced from oils or fats using a process called transesterification, in which oils are reacted with alcohols in order to form the esters, which are called biodiesels. Feedstock for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils Jatropha, Mahua, Sunflower, Palm, Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja), Cotton seed, Neem, Rubber seed, Corn, Sesame, Cotton seed. Biodiesel is a liquid closely similar in properties to foss...

  1. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  2. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Lei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30 under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa. The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  3. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa. PMID:21234367

  4. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  5. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Murali Manohar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the price of the fuel as well as the produce of the green house gases as the exhaust gas. In the present study, a new method has been employed to produce Bio-Diesel in a homely basis. Theproduction of the Bio-Diesel is done by using Bio-Diesel processor. It requires the used vegetable oil, methanol and the lye with the accurate proportionate. Generally, emissions of regulated compounds changed linearly with the blend level. The objective is to detect any posit ive or negative effects depending on blend levels, because conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel can be blended in every ratio. The known positive and negative effects of biodiesel varied accordingly and investigate the effect of Catalytic Converter on emission performance with Bio- Diesel Blends.

  6. Aggregation models on hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberici, Diego; Contucci, Pierluigi; Mingione, Emanuele; Molari, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Following a newly introduced approach by Rasetti and Merelli we investigate the possibility to extract topological information about the space where interacting systems are modelled. From the statistical datum of their observable quantities, like the correlation functions, we show how to reconstruct the activities of their constitutive parts which embed the topological information. The procedure is implemented on a class of polymer models on hypergraphs with hard-core interactions. We show that the model fulfils a set of iterative relations for the partition function that generalise those introduced by Heilmann and Lieb for the monomer-dimer case. After translating those relations into structural identities for the correlation functions we use them to test the precision and the robustness of the inverse problem. Finally the possible presence of a further interaction of peer-to-peer type is considered and a criterion to discover it is identified.

  7. Aggregation models on hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Alberici, Diego; Mingione, Emanuele; Molari, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Following a newly introduced approach by Rasetti and Merelli we investigate the possibility to extract topological information about the space where interacting systems are modelled. From the statistical datum of their observable quantities, like the correlation functions, we show how to reconstruct the activities of their constitutive parts which embed the topological information. The procedure is implemented on a class of polymer models with hard-core interactions. We show that the model fulfils a set of iterative relations for the partition function that generalise those introduced by Heilmann and Lieb for the monomer-dimer case. After translating those relations into structural identities for the correlation functions we use them to test the precision and the robustness of the inverse problem. Finally the possible presence of a further interaction of peer-to-peer type is considered and a criterion to discover it is identified.

  8. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  9. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured

  10. 77 FR 27451 - Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels-Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Common Synonyms: Automotive diesel oil; Diesel fuel; Diesel oil (petroleum); Diesel oils; Diesel test... and underground sources of drinking water versus any additional workload for applicants. Geomechanical... additional workload for applicants. Should the Agency request submittal of seismic data, such as the presence...

  11. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General... of marker solvent yellow 124. (2) All motor vehicle and NRLM diesel fuel shall be free of solvent... yellow 124 shall be considered motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel, as appropriate. (5)...

  12. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph T. Hupp

    2008-11-17

    The premise of this project was that coordination chemistry could be used to devise new kinds of microporous materials and that these materials could exhibit nanoscale porosity and selective chemical separation capabilities. Our initial materials focus was on aggregates of discrete hollow molecules, especially molecular squares. Subsequently our focus turned largely toward permanently microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Our approach emphasized coupling predictive & explanative computational modeling to materials design, synthesis, and property characterization.

  13. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  14. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  15. Alternatives to conventional diesel fuel-some potential implications of California's TAC decision on diesel particulate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-08-10

    Limitations on the use of petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to provisions of the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies. (1) Increased penetration of natural gas and greater gasoline use in the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some compression-ignition (CI) applications revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents. Each of these alternatives results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles, and gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not evaluated.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BIO-DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SHIVA SHANKAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion in world petroleum reserves and uncertainty in petroleum supply due to political and economical reasons, as well as, the sharp escalations in the petroleum prices have stimulated the search for alternatives to petroleum fuels. The situation is very grave in developing countries like India which imports 70% of the required fuel, spending 30% of her total foreign exchange earnings on oil imports. Petroleum fuels are being consumed by agriculture and transport sector for which diesel engine happens to be the prime mover. Diesel fuelled vehicles discharge significant amount of pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, soot, lead compounds which are harmful to the universe. Though there are wide varieties of alternative fuels available, the research has not yet provided the right renewable fuel to replace diesel. Vegetable oils due to their properties being close to diesel fuel may be a promising alternative for its use in diesel engines. The high viscosity and low volatility are the major drawbacks of the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines. India is the second largest cotton producing country in the world today. The cotton seeds are available in India at cheaper price. Experiments were conducted on 5.2 BHP single cylinder four stroke water-cooled variable compression diesel engine. Methyl ester of cottonseed oil is blended with the commercially available Xtramile diesel. Cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME is blended in four different compositions varying from 10% to 40% in steps of 10 vol%. Using these four blends and Xtramile diesel brake thermal efficiency (BTE and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC are determined at 17.5 compression ratio.

  17. The effect of biodiesel and bioethanol blended diesel fuel on nanoparticles and exhaust emissions from CRDI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwanam [Automobile Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Choi, Byungchul [School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Biofuel (biodiesel, bioethanol) is considered one of the most promising alternative fuels to petrol fuels. The objective of the work is to study the characteristics of the particle size distribution, the reaction characteristics of nanoparticles on the catalyst, and the exhaust emission characteristics when a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine is run on biofuel-blended diesel fuels. In this study, the engine performance, emission characteristics, and particle size distribution of a CRDI diesel engine that was equipped with a warm-up catalytic converters (WCC) or a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) were examined in an ECE (Economic Commission Europe) R49 test and a European stationary cycle (ESC) test. The engine performance under a biofuel-blended diesel fuel was similar to that under D100 fuel, and the high fuel consumption was due to the lowered calorific value that ensued from mixing with biofuels. The use of a biodiesel-diesel blend fuel reduced the total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions but increased nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions due to the increased oxygen content in the fuel. The smoke emission was reduced by 50% with the use of the bioethanol-diesel blend. Emission conversion efficiencies in the WCC and CPF under biofuel-blended diesel fuels were similar to those under D100 fuel. The use of biofuel-blended diesel fuel reduced the total number of particles emitted from the engine; however, the use of biodiesel-diesel blends resulted in more emissions of particles that were smaller than 50 nm, when compared with the use of D100. The use of a mixed fuel of biodiesel and bioethanol (BD15E5) was much more effective for the reduction of the particle number and particle mass, when compared to the use of BD20 fuel. (author)

  18. Comparative Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Fueled Using Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel Fuel Based on GT-POWER Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    The paper is investigated the application of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel and its performance effect in the diesel engines using GT-POWER computational simulation. The CNG as an alternative fuel for four stroke diesel engine modeling was developed from the real diesel engine using GT-POWER computational model with measure all of engine components size. The computational model will be running on mono CNG fuel and mono diesel fuel to simulate and investigate the engine pe...

  19. Tomorrow`s diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    After a review of the main principles governing combustion in diesel engines and the influence of ambient air conditions on pollutant emissions (and more especially NOx), emission level limits concerning NOx, CO, HC and ashes are presented and discussed according to their applications in the various types of diesel engines. The influence of fuel type is also examined and several ways to reduce NOx emissions in liquid fuel diesel engines are reported: mechanical modifications (compression ratio), water injection, exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust gas processing, fume and ash filtration. Cost issues are also discussed, through comparisons with gas turbines

  20. Gel cast foam diesel particulate filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binner, J.G.P.; Hughes, S. [IPTME, Loughborough Univ., Loughborough (United Kingdom); Sambrook, R.M. [Dytech Corp. Ltd., Dronfield (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    A new manufacturing route for foam ceramics based on gel casting has been developed and is being commercialised. Gel casting employs an organic monomer that is polymerised to cause the in-situ gelation of a foamed aqueous ceramic slurry. The primary advantage is the inherent flexibility of the process; the foams can be near net shape manufactured in a variety of shapes and sizes and after production are simply dried and fired. In addition, the porosity and pore size distribution can be varied to suit the application and a wide range of ceramics can be foamed with densities ranging from 5-40% of theoretical. Applications are diverse and include the potential to be used as diesel particulate filters (DPF). The present work examines this and concludes that filtration efficiencies of {>=}90% are achievable without generating a significant backpressure for the engine. (orig.)

  1. Investigation and Modelling of Diesel Hydrotreating Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Rasmus Risum

    This project consists of a series of studies, that are related to hydrotreating of diesel. Hy- drotreating is an important refinery process, in which the oil stream is upgraded to meet the required environmental specifications and physical properties. Although hydrotreating is a ma- ture technology...... on a commercial CoMo catalyst, and a simple kinetic model is presented. Hydrogenation of fused aromatic rings are known to be fast, and it is possible, that the reaction rates are limited by either internal or external mass transfer. An experiment conducted at industrial temperatures and pressure, using...... kinetic models. Hydrogenation reactions are quite fast, and in order to avoid mass transfer limitations, and only measure intrinsic rates, experiments are often conducted, at conditions that are milder than in industrial units. A reactor model for a Robinson-Mahoney reactor that takes mass transfer...

  2. Supercritical fluid mixing in Diesel Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Luis; Ma, Peter; Kurman, Matthew; Tess, Michael; Ihme, Matthias; Kweon, Chol-Bum

    2014-11-01

    A numerical framework for simulating supercritical fluids mixing with large density ratios is presented in the context of diesel sprays. Accurate modeling of real fluid effects on the fuel air mixture formation process is critical in characterizing engine combustion. Recent work (Dahms, 2013) has suggested that liquid fuel enters the chamber in a transcritical state and rapidly evolves to supercritical regime where the interface transitions from a distinct liquid/gas interface into a continuous turbulent mixing layer. In this work, the Peng Robinson EoS is invoked as the real fluid model due to an acceptable compromise between accuracy and computational tractability. Measurements at supercritical conditions are reported from the Constant Pressure Flow (CPF) chamber facility at the Army Research Laboratory. Mie and Schlieren optical spray diagnostics are utilized to provide time resolved liquid and vapor penetration length measurement. The quantitative comparison presented is discussed. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU).

  3. Vehicle testing of Cummins turbocompound diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, M. C.; Werner, J. R.; Hoehne, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two turbocompound diesel engines were installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption potential and performance characteristics. One turbocompound powered vehicle was evaluated at the Cummins Pilot Center where driveability, fuel consumption, torsional vibration, and noise were evaluated. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% benefit for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved driveability, improved gradeability, and marginally superior engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.

  4. Development of a diesel substitute fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Anton; Mair-Zelenka, Philipp [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Zeymer, Marc [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria). MRDI-D Product Development and Innovation

    2013-06-01

    Substitute fuels composed of few real chemical compounds are an alternative characterisation approach for conventional fuels as opposed to the traditional pseudo-component method. With the algorithm proposed in this paper the generation of such substitutes will be facilitated and well-established thermodynamic methods can be applied for physical property-data prediction. Based on some quality criteria like true boiling-point curve, liquid density, C/H ratio, or cloud point of a target fuel a surrogate which meets these properties is determined by fitting its composition. The application and capabilities of the algorithm developed are demonstrated by means of an exemplary diesel substitute fuel. The substitute mixture obtained can be generated and used for evaluation of property-prediction methods. Furthermore this approach can help to understand the effects of mixing fossil fuels with biogenic compounds. (orig.)

  5. Diesel injector fouling bench test methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinoha, Leon L.; Yost, Douglas M.; Lestz, Sidney J.

    1992-06-01

    Compared to conventional compression ignition (CI) engine operation with the fuel being delivered at approximately 149 C (300 F), adiabatic engine operation potentially may deliver the fuel at temperatures as high as 260 C (500 F). Hypergolic CI engine combustion systems now in theoretical design stages will deliver fuel at temperatures approaching 427 to 538 C (800 to 1000 F). The ability of a fuel to resist formation of deposits on internal injector system surfaces is a form of thermal oxidative stability for which test methodology will be required. The injector Fouling Bench Test (IFBT) methodology evaluated in this report will assist in defining fuel contribution to injector fouling and control of fuel thermal stability in procurement specifications. The major observations from this project are discussed. Forty-hour cyclic IFB tests employing both Bosch APE 113 and Detroit Diesel (DD) N70 injectors are viable procedures for evaluating fuel effects on injector fouling. Cyclic operation appears to be superior to steady-state operation for both type injectors. Eighty-hour cyclic tests are more discriminating than 40-hour cyclic tests using the Bosch APE 113 injectors. JFTOT tests of fuels provide directional information on thermal stability-related deposits and filter plugging but show limited good correlation with IFBT DD N70 ratings, and none with IFBT Bosch APE 113 injector ratings. Deposition on injector pintles was more realistically rated by optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) than conventional visual and bench rating methods. High-sulfur fuel readily caused sticking of Detroit Diesel injectors. Injector sticking is an important mode of injector fouling.

  6. Hierarchical organization in aggregates of protein molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer

    1997-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins into small clusters is studied by atomic force and electron microscopy. Scaling laws and fractal behaviour in the growth of the aggregates and in the correlation between aggregates is seen. A phase diagram of the aggregation process where the protonic concentration...

  7. A Functional Reference Architecture for Aggregators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver;

    2015-01-01

    Aggregators are considered to be a key enabling technology for harvesting power system services from distributed energy resources (DER). As a precondition for more widespread use of aggregators in power systems, methods for comparing and validating aggregator designs must be established. This paper...... proposes a functional reference architecture for aggregators to address this requirement....

  8. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  9. Monitoring diesel engine parameters based on FBG probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Bao-yan; Wang, Jun-jie

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an unprecedented systematic approach for real-time monitoring the temperature and flow of diesel engine by using embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG). By virtue of FBG's temperature effect, we design a novel sensitive FBG temperature sensing probe to measure the temperature of cylinder head and inlet flow of diesel engine. We also establish the corresponding software platform for intuitive data analysis. The experimental and complementary simulation results simultaneously demonstrate that the FBG-based optical fiber technique possesses extraordinary reproducibility and sensitivity, which makes it feasible to monitor the temperature and inlet flow of diesel engine. Our work can provide an effective way to evaluate the thermal load of cylinder head in diesel engine.

  10. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  12. Isolation and characterization of diesel oil degrading indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... achieved 86.94% of diesel degradation in 2 weeks. Additional degradation ... spills, especially in soil contamination have prompted research on ... hydrocarbons are natural products, it is not surprising to find organisms that ...

  13. MODELING OF FUEL SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AND DIESEL COMBUSTION CHAMBER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer model for coordination of fuel spray characteristics with diesel combustion chamber parameters has been created in the paper.  The model allows to observe fuel sprays  develоpment in diesel cylinder at any moment of injection, to calculate characteristics of fuel sprays with due account of a shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber, timely to change fuel injection characteristics and supercharging parameters, shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber. Moreover the computer model permits to determine parameters of holes in an injector nozzle that provides the required fuel sprays characteristics at the stage of designing a diesel engine. Combustion chamber parameters for 4ЧН11/12.5 diesel engine have been determined in the paper.

  14. Bioassay-Directed Fractionation of Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels are being developed as alternatives to petroleum-derived products, but published research is contradictory regarding the mutagenic activity of such emissions relative to those from petroleum diesel. We performed bioassay-directed fractionation and analyzed the polycyclic...

  15. DIESEL ENGINES' VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNATURE EXTRACTION BY WAVELET PACKET TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹剑; 陈进; 邹军; 耿遵敏

    2002-01-01

    Multisource unstable impulsive excitations, time-varying transmission path, concentrated mode, dispersion and reverberation that are important characteristics of reciprocating machines such as diesel engines result in wide-band non-stationary vibroacoustic responses which influence the effective extraction of vibroacoustic signatures and become a key factor to limit diesel engines' vibration diagnosis. In this paper, a serial theoretical deduction on the unstable dynamic properties of diesel engines was made; the mechanism of non-stationary vibroacoustic responses was elucidated. Based upon that, the wavelet packet technique was introduced. The reason for the existence of frequency aliasing in the Paley series from wavelet packets' decomposition was analyzed, and the wavelet packet frequency-shifting algorithm was given. Experiments on 190 serial diesel engines verify the given method's significant validity in vibroacoustic signature extraction and reciprocating machines' vibration diagnosis.

  16. Trends from the South African historical diesel particulate matter data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no occupational exposure limit (OEL) for diesel particulate matter (DPM) in South Africa. Recently the Department of Mineral Resources and the mining industry have made efforts to determine which concentration of DPM could...

  17. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  18. Exposure of firefighters to diesel emissions in fire stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froines, J.R.; Hinds, W.C.; Duffy, R.M.; Lafuente, E.J.; Liu, W.C.

    1987-03-01

    Personal sampling techniques were used to evaluate firefighter exposure to particulates from diesel engine emissions. Selected fire stations in New York, Boston and Los Angeles were studied. Firefighter exposure to total particulates increased with the number of runs conducted during an 8-hr period. In New York and Boston where the response level ranged from 7 to 15 runs during an 8-hr shift, the resulting exposure levels of total airborne particulates from diesel exhaust were 170 to 480 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (TWA). Methylene chloride extracts of the diesel particulates averaged 24% of the total. The authors' findings suggest that additional research is necessary to assess fire station concentrations of vehicle diesel exhaust that may have adverse health consequences to firefighters.

  19. Status of the Wind-Diesel Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation offers an overview of the wind-diesel market, including the range of power systems, recent progress, current energy situation of remote communities, operating projects, current market approaches and ongoing challenges.

  20. A Study On The Acute Toxicological Effects Of Commercial Diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    g/kg) of diesel fuel were administered intraperitoneally, into the rats and the effect monitored. I within 24hours. ... coagulation, to obtain the blood serum needed for enzyme assay. .... district biochemical changes manifesting as altered enzyme ...

  1. Comparison Tests of Fossil Diesel Fuel and TBK-Biofuel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    György Szabados; Tamás Merétei

    2015-01-01

      The objective of our measurements was to determine the most important properties of the TBK bio-diesel with relevance to ICE use and to evaluate its effects on the power output, fuel consumption...

  2. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  3. Maternal Diesel Inhalation Increases Airway Hyperreactivity in Ozone Exposed Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant exposure is linked with childhood asthma incidence and exacerbations, and maternal exposure to airborne pollutants during pregnancy increases airway hyperreactivity (ARR) in offspring. To determine if exposure to diesel exhaust during pregnancy worsened postnatal oz...

  4. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  5. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  6. Mistura de biodiesel de sebo bovino em motor diesel durante 600 horas Blend of biodiesel from beef tallow in a diesel engine during 600 hours of tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Maria Corrêa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O biodiesel de sebo bovino é considerado uma alternativa de baixo custo e de grande disponibilidade por ser resíduo da produção agropecuária brasileira, que é uma das maiores do mundo. Raros são os trabalhos que mostram a utilização do biodiesel de sebo bovino em motores diesel. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da mistura de biodiesel bovino na proporção de 5% ao óleo diesel comercial no desempenho do motor, possíveis consequências internas no motor e nas características do óleo lubrificante após o uso prolongado em motor diesel. Foram realizados ensaios em bancada dinamométrica utilizando um trator agrícola. O desempenho do motor foi determinado através da tomada de potência (TDP. O motor foi operado por 600h durante as quais foi determinada a potência, o consumo de combustível e analisadas as amostras de óleo lubrificante a cada 100h. Ao final do ensaio, o motor foi aberto e inspecionado. A análise do óleo lubrificante mostrou nível de contaminação crítico a partir das 400h, mas a inspeção visual do motor não detectou nenhum desgaste interno. O motor funcionou normalmente, embora tenha ocorrido tendência de redução na potência e aumento de consumo de combustível ao longo das 600h.Biodiesel from beef tallow has been considered a low-cost and high availability alternative due to be residue from the Brazilian livestock production, one of the world's largest. Papers that show the use of biodiesel from beef tallow in diesel engine are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blend of biodiesel from beef tallow (B5 in commercial diesel oil on engine performance, analyzing possible internal consequences and characteristics of lubricating oil after the prolonged use in a diesel engine. Engine performance was evaluated through tractor power take off (PTO tests. The engine was operated for 600 hours. Power and fuel consumption were measured. Samples of lubricating oil were

  7. Development of a self-ignition and combustion model for diesel engines; Modelisation de l`auto-inflammation et de la combustion pour les moteurs diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires Da Cruz, A.

    1997-12-09

    The work concerns self-ignition and combustion modelling in Diesel engines. Special attention is given to turbulence induced effects. Only gas fuel injection is taken into account. Turbulent mixing is identified as one of the main parameters controlling self-ignition in Diesel engines. However, turbulence effects are often neglected by models currently used in engine calculation codes. A new model based on results obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) is proposed. It includes turbulence effects by means of the scalar dissipation rate and presumed pdf of the mixture fraction and a chemical reaction progress variable. The model is validated through several steps. First, its results are compared to DNS in simple mixing and self-ignition cases. Then, its averaged version is integrated into the KIVA2-MB calculation code, where its behavior is tested in a one dimensional version and compared to other formulations. Finally, the model is validated with comparisons to experimental results of methane injection into a high pressure combustion chamber filled with hot air. The combustion chamber allows large optical access and therefore, optical diagnostics can be made. (author) 101 refs.

  8. Development of a self-ignition and combustion model for diesel engines; Modelisation de l`auto-inflammation et de la combustion pour les moteurs diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires Da Cruz, A.

    1997-12-09

    The work concerns self-ignition and combustion modelling in Diesel engines. Special attention is given to turbulence induced effects. Only gas fuel injection is taken into account. Turbulent mixing is identified as one of the main parameters controlling self-ignition in Diesel engines. However, turbulence effects are often neglected by models currently used in engine calculation codes. A new model based on results obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) is proposed. It includes turbulence effects by means of the scalar dissipation rate and presumed pdf of the mixture fraction and a chemical reaction progress variable. The model is validated through several steps. First, its results are compared to DNS in simple mixing and self-ignition cases. Then, its averaged version is integrated into the KIVA2-MB calculation code, where its behavior is tested in a one dimensional version and compared to other formulations. Finally, the model is validated with comparisons to experimental results of methane injection into a high pressure combustion chamber filled with hot air. The combustion chamber allows large optical access and therefore, optical diagnostics can be made. (author) 101 refs.

  9. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

    optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on aggregated variables. We present a generic exact solution method to remedy the drawbacks of aggregation. It combines the original and aggregated formulations and applies Benders' decomposition. We apply the method to the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem.......Aggregating formulations is a powerful approach for problems to take on tractable forms. Aggregation may lead to loss of information, i.e. the aggregated formulation may be an approximation of the original problem. In branch-and-bound context, aggregation can also complicate branching, e.g. when...

  10. Emission characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine fueled with gas-to-liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; ZHANG Wugao; FANG Junhua; HUANG Zhen

    2007-01-01

    Emission characteristics of a turbocharged,intercooled,heavy-duty diesel engine operating on neat gas-toliquids (GTL) and blends of GTL with conventional diesel were investigated and a comparison was made with those of diesel fuel.The results show that nitrogen oxides (NOx),smoke,and particulate matter (PM) emissions can be decreased when operating on GTL and diesel-GTL blends.Engine emissions decrease with an increase of GTL fraction in the blends.Compared with diesel fuel,an engine operatingon GTL can reduce NOx,PM,carbon monoxide (CO),and hydrocarbon (HC) by 23.7%,27.6%,16.6% and 12.9% in ECE R49 13-mode procedure,respectively.Engine speed and load have great influences on emissions when operating on diesel-GTL blends and diesel fuel in the turbocharged diesel engine.The study indicates that GTL is a promisingalternative fuel for diesel engines to reduce emissions.

  11. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkateswara Rao, B. V. Appa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME is used with additive Triacetin (T at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load. The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  13. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  14. Effect of Ferrofluid on the Performance and Emission Patterns of a Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Shafii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to investigate the effects of adding water-based ferrofluid to diesel fuel in a diesel engine. These effects included the combustion performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the diesel engine. To this end, emulsified diesel fuels of 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ferrofluid/diesel ratios by volume were used in a four-stroke diesel engine, operating at 2200 rpm. The results indicate that adding ferrofluid to diesel fuel has a perceptible effect on engine performance, increasing the brake thermal efficiency relatively up to 12% and decreasing the brake-specific fuel consumption relatively up to 11% as compared to diesel fuel. Furthermore, from the analysis of gaseous species of engine exhaust, it was found that NOx emissions were lower than that of diesel fuel while the CO emissions increased. In addition, it was found that nanoparticles can be collected at the exhaust flow using a magnetic bar.

  15. Gaschromatographic evaluation of the odor intensity of Diesel exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, H.W.; Oelert, H.H.; Zajontz, J.

    1977-03-01

    To establish an absolute method for the odor evaluation of Diesel exhausts olfactometric threshhold data are correlated with gaschromatographic results from a two column operation providing a high number of chemical informations. Single and multiple linear regression calculations for the experiments on two Diesel engines give several satisfying correlations especially for the overall paraffin distribution that could also be obtained by more simple analytical procedures.

  16. Vibration Feature Abstraction and Classification of Diesel Fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The feature of a periodic cyclic-nonstationary signal for a cyclic working machine such as a diesel engine is studied in the aspect of working procedure, force and vibration. On the basis of the study, a method of characteristic abstraction and classification is put forward for periodic cyclic-nonstationary vibration signal. The proposed method is applied to experimental data of an ISUZU C240 diesel engine. Experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in classification of engine faults.

  17. Experimental investigation and modeling of diesel engine fuel spray

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodnytska, R. V.; Karimi, K; Crua, C.; Heikal, M. R.; Sazhina, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    A model for spray penetration in diesel engines is suggested. It is based on momentum conservation for a realistic mass flow rate transient profile. The modelling approach is based on tracking of centre-of-fuel-mass (COFM) of injected diesel fuel. The model was validated for Bosch and Delphi injectors using the data obtained at Sir Harry Ricardo automotive centre, University of Brighton, UK. The model is shown to produce a good agreement with the experimental data until ...

  18. JET BREAKUP AND SPRAY FORMATION IN A DIESEL ENGINE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GLIMM,J.; LI,X.; KIM,M.N.; OH,W.; MARCHESE,A.; SAMULYAK,R.; TZANOS,C.

    2003-06-17

    The breakup of injected fuel into spray is of key interest to the design of a fuel efficient, nonpolluting diesel engine. We report preliminary progress on the numerical simulation of diesel fuel injection spray with the front tracking code FronTier. Our simulation design is set to match experiments at ANL, and our present agreement is semi-quantitative. Future efforts will include mesh refinement studies, which will better model the turbulent flow.

  19. Performance of Untreated Waste Cooking Oil Blends in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Isa Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Untreated waste cooking oil (UWCO is not a feasible diesel fuel. The major problems in engine operation are reported mainly due to UWCO’s high viscosity. To use  UWCO's in diesel engine without modification, it is necessary to make sure that the oils properties must be similar to diesel fuel. In this study, UWCO that has been used several times for frying purposes is investigated for the utilization as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. In order to reduce the viscosity, the UWCO were blend with diesel. Two various blends of UWCO and diesel were prepared and its important properties such as viscosity, density, calorific value and flash point were  evaluated and compared with that of diesel. The blends were then tested in a direct injection diesel engine  in 10% and 30% v/v blends with a reference diesel fuel. Tests were performed under a set of engine operating conditions. It was found that blending UWCO with diesel reduces the viscosity.  Blending of UWCO with diesel has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of UWCO. The experimental results also show that the basic engine performance such as power output and  fuelconsumptions are comparable to diesel and the emissions of CO and NOx from the UWCO/diesel blends were also found slightly higher than that of diesel fuel.

  20. Analysis of aggregation of platelets in thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    Platelets are key players in thrombus formation by first rolling over collagen bound von Willebrand factor followed by formation of a stable interaction with collagen. The first adhered platelets bind additional platelets until the whole injury is sealed off by a platelet aggregate. The coagulation system stabilizes the formed platelet plug by creating a tight fibrin network, and then wound contraction takes place because of morphological changes in platelets. Coagulation takes place by platelet activation and aggregation mainly through fibrinogen polymerization into fibrin fibers. The process includes multiple factors, such as thrombin, plasmin, and local shear-rate which regulate and control the process. Coagulation can be divided into two pathways: the intrinsic pathway and the extrinsic pathway. The intrinsic pathway is initiated by the exposure of a negatively charged. It is able to activate factor XII, using a complex reaction that includes prekallikrein and high-molecular-weight kininogen as cofactors.. Thrombin is the final enzyme that is needed to convert fibrinogen into fibrin. The extrinsic pathway starts with the exposure of tissue factor to the circulating blood, which is the major initiator of coagulation. There are several feedback loops that reinforce the coagulation cascade, resulting in large amounts of thrombin. It is dependent on the presence of pro-coagulant surfaces of cells expressing negatively charged phospholipids--which include phosphatidylserine (PS)--on their outer membrane. PS-bearing surfaces are able to increase the efficiency of the reactions by concentrating and co-localizing coagulation factors.. Aggregation of platelets are analyzed and compared to adhesion of platelet to erythrocyte and to endothelial cells. This abstract is replacing MAR16-2015-020003.

  1. The John Deere E diesel Test & Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Nathan; Mitchell, William E.

    2008-09-23

    Three non-road Tier II emissions compliant diesel engines manufactured by John Deere were placed on a durability test plan of 2000 hours each at full load, rated speed (FLRS). The fuel was a blend of 10% fuel ethanol and 90% low sulfur #2 diesel fuel. Seven operational failures involving twenty seven fuel system components occurred prior to completion of the intended test plan. Regulated emissions measured prior to component failure indicated compliance to Tier II certification goals for the observed test experience. The program plan included operating three non-road Tier II diesel engines for 2000 hours each monitoring the regulated emissions at 500 hour intervals for changes/deterioration. The program was stopped prematurely due to number and frequency of injection system failures. The failures and weaknesses observed involved injector seat and valve wear, control solenoid material incompatibility, injector valve deposits and injector high pressure seal cavitation erosion. Future work should target an E diesel fuel standard that emphasizes minimum water content, stability, lubricity, cetane neutrality and oxidation resistance. Standards for fuel ethanol need to require water content no greater than the base diesel fuel standard. Lubricity bench test standards may need new development for E diesel.

  2. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  3. Erythrocyte aggregation: Basic aspects and clinical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz K. Başkurt; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) aggregate to form two- and three-dimensional structures when suspended in aqueous solutions containing large plasma proteins or polymers; this aggregation is reversible and shear dependent (i.e., dispersed at high shear and reformed at low or stasis). The extent of aggregation is the main determinant of low shear blood viscosity, thus predicting an inverse relationship between aggregation and in vivo blood flow. However, the effects of aggregation on hemodynamic mechanis...

  4. Molecular Aggregation in Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gautam; Agra-Kooijman, D.; Collings, P. J.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-02-01

    Details of molecular aggregation in the mesophases of the anti-asthmatic drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) have been studied using x-ray synchrotron scattering. The results show two reflections, one at wide angles corresponding to π-π stacking (3.32 å) of molecules, and the other at small angles which is perpendicular to the direction of molecular stacking and corresponds to the distance between the molecular aggregates. The latter varies from 35 - 41 å in the nematic (N) phase and 27 -- 32 å in the columnar (M) phase. The temperature evolution of the stack height, positional order correlations in the lateral direction, and orientation order parameter were determined in the N, M, and biphasic regions. The structure of the N and M phases and the nature of the molecular aggregation, together with their dependence on temperature and concentration, will be presented.

  5. Competition between aggregation and migration processes of a multi-species system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Jian-Hong; Zhuang You-Yi; Lin Zhen-Quan; Ye Peng

    2005-01-01

    We propose a solvable multi-species aggregation-migration model, in which irreversible aggregations occur between any two aggregates of the same species and reversible migrations occur between any two different species. The kinetic behaviour of an aggregation-migration system is then studied by means of the mean-field rate equation. The results show that the kinetics of the system depends crucially on the details of reaction events such as initial concentration distributions and ratios of aggregation rates to migration rate. In general, the aggregate mass distribution of each species always obeys a conventional or a generalized scaling law, and for most cases at least one species is scaled according to a conventional form with universal constants. Moreover, there is at least one species that can survive finally.

  6. Natural gas in a D. I. diesel engine. A comparison of two different ways. [Direct injection diesel enginer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun-ming, Qu; Sorenson, S.C.; Kofoed, E.

    1987-01-01

    A D.I. diesel engine was modified for natural gas operation with pilot injection and with spark ignition so that a comparative analysis of these two different ways of using natural gas could be made. The results of the experiments indicate that for a diesel engine, it is possible that the operating characteristics of a straight natural gas engine are comparable with those of a diesel/gas engine at the same compression ratio and speed. For a dual fuel engine with pilot injection the best diesel/gas ratio by energy content is approximately 20/80 at full load operation. For straight natural gas engine with spark ignition, quality governed natural gas operation has good efficiency but poor NOx emissions. This problem could be improved through throttle controlled operation. These two different ways of using natural gas are best suited to stationary engines.

  7. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mech. Eng. Dept., UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi 17555 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-15

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized. (author)

  8. Evaluation of fuel properties for microalgae Spirulina platensis bio-diesel and its blends with Egyptian petro-diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biodiesel production from microalga Spirulina platensis has been investigated. The physico–chemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were studied according to the standards methods of analysis (ASTM and evaluated according to their fuel properties as compared to Egyptian petro-diesel. Blends of microalgae biodiesel and petro-diesel (B2, B5, B10 and B20 were prepared on a volume basis and their physico–chemical characteristics have been also studied. The obtained results showed that; with the increase of biodiesel concentration in the blends; the viscosity, density, total acid number, initial boiling point, calorific value, flash point, cetane number and diesel index increase. While the pour point, cloud point, carbon residue and sulfur, ash and water contents decrease. The observed properties of the blends were within the recommended petro-diesel standard specifications and they are in favor of better engine performance.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS IN A DIRECT-INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH KEROSENE/DIESEL BLENDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K R Patil; S S Thipse

    2014-01-01

      An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the effect of kerosene as an additive to diesel fuel on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct-injection...

  10. Modeling of Nitric Oxide Formation in Single Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Diesel-Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kannan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water injection into the combustion chamber of diesel engine found to be one of best method for in-cylinder control of NOx formation. Approach: The combustion of water-diesel emulsion in diesel engine was simulated using a computer program to estimate the heat release rate, cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and NO formation. Results: The numerical simulation was performed at different equivalence ratios, engine speeds and water percentages. The numerical simulation was preferred to study the combustion behavior and emission of diesel engine because the experimental investigations were time consuming and costly affair. Conclusion/Recommendations: Experiments also conducted to validate the predicted results of computer simulation. Though the zero dimensional simulation models predicted NO formation during combustion process, the first appearance of NO could not be identified using this method which can be solved by CFD technique.

  11. Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Meyer, Wagner; Mendonca, Elton Costa de; Roberti, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], Emails: raplopes@uem.br, rpneto@uem.br

    2009-07-01

    Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. In this paper, the performance of a tractor in chiseling operation was evaluated using oil diesel and biofuel (oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil mixture). Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage. Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. In the studied conditions, the tests demonstrate that the mixture oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil had not influenced in the performance of the tractor. (author)

  12. SHAPE CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE AGGREGATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As a composite material, the performance of concrete materials can be expected to depend on the properties of the interfaces between its two major components, aggregate and cement paste. The microstructure at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ is assumed to be different from the bulk material. In general, properties of conventional concrete have been found favoured by optimum packing density of the aggregate. Particle size is a common denominator in such studies. Size segregation in the ITZ among the binder particles in the fresh state, observed in simulation studies by concurrent algorithm-based SPACE system, additionally governs density as well as physical bonding capacity inside these shell-like zones around aggregate particles. These characteristics have been demonstrated qualitatively pertaining also after maturation of the concrete. Such properties of the ITZs have direct impact on composite properties. Despite experimental approaches revealed effects of aggregate grain shape on different features of material structure (among which density, and as a consequence on mechanical properties, it is still an underrated factor in laboratory studies, probably due to the general feeling that a suitable methodology for shape characterization is not available. A scientific argument hindering progress is the interconnected nature of size and shape. Presently, a practical problem preventing shape effects to be emphasized is the limitation of most computer simulation systems in concrete technology to spherical particles. New developments at Delft University of Technology will make it possible in the near future to generate jammed states, or other high-density fresh particle mixtures of non-spherical particles, which thereupon can be subjected to hydration algorithms. This paper will sketch the outlines of a methodological approach for shape assessment of loose (non-embedded aggregate grains, and demonstrate its use for two types of aggregate, allowing

  13. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  14. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...

  15. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...

  16. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  17. Cement-aggregate compatibility and structure property relationships including modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, H.M.; Xi, Y.

    1993-07-15

    The role of aggregate, and its interface with cement paste, is discussed with a view toward establishing models that relate structure to properties. Both short (nm) and long (mm) range structure must be considered. The short range structure of the interface depends not only on the physical distribution of the various phases, but also on moisture content and reactivity of aggregate. Changes that occur on drying, i.e. shrinkage, may alter the structure which, in turn, feeds back to alter further drying and shrinkage. The interaction is dynamic, even without further hydration of cement paste, and the dynamic characteristic must be considered in order to fully understand and model its contribution to properties. Microstructure and properties are two subjects which have been pursued somewhat separately. This review discusses both disciplines with a view toward finding common research goals in the future. Finally, comment is made on possible chemical reactions which may occur between aggregate and cement paste.

  18. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-10-31

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  19. Durability Indicators in High Absorption Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled aggregates in structural concrete production has the inconvenience of increasing the fluid transport properties, such as porosity, sorptivity, and permeability, which reduces the resistance against penetration of environmental loads such as carbon dioxide and chloride ion. In this paper, behavior of ten concrete mixtures with different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement was studied. The recycled material was recovered by crushing of concrete rubble and had high absorption values. The results showed that it is possible to achieve good resistance to carbonation and chloride penetration with up to 50% replacement of recycled coarse aggregate for 0.5 water/cement ratio. Finally, new indexes for porosity and sorptivity were proposed to assess the quality of concrete.

  20. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for