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Sample records for dielectric based accelerators

  1. Progress on Diamond-Based Cylindrical Dielectric Accelerating Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Conde, M.; Gai, W.

    2006-11-01

    The development of a high gradient diamond-based cylindrical dielectric loaded accelerator (DLA) is presented. A diamond-loaded DLA can potentially sustain accelerating gradients far in excess of the limits experimentally observed for conventional metallic accelerating structures. The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerators: high rf breakdown level, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest available thermoconductive coefficient. We used the hot-filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process to produce high quality 5-10 cm long cylindrical diamond layers. Our collaboration has also been developing a new method of CVD diamond surface preparation that reduces the secondary electron emission coefficient below unity. Special attention was paid to the numerical optimization of the waveguide to structure rf coupling section, where the surface magnetic and electric fields were minimized relative to the accelerating gradient and within known metal surface breakdown limits. We conclude with a brief overview of the use of diamond microstructures for use in compact rf sources.

  2. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  3. Dielectric laser accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  4. Cherenkov radiation and dielectric based accelerating structures: Wakefield generation, power extraction and energy transfer efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareykin, Alexei

    2010-06-01

    We present here our recent results of the Euclid Techlabs LLC/Argonne National Laboratory/St.Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI" collaboration on wakefield high energy acceleration of electron bunches in dielectric based accelerating structures. This program concentrates primarily on Cherenkov radiation studies providing efficient high energy generation aimed at a future 1 TeV collider. We report here on recent experiments in high power Cherenkov radiation and corresponding dielectric material developments and characterizations. Progress in diamond, quartz and microwave low-loss ceramic structure development in GHz and THz frequency ranges is presented. Beam Breakup effects and transverse bunch stability are discussed as well. We e report on recent progress on tunable dielectric based structure development. A special subject of our paper is transformer ratio enhancement schemes providing energy transfer efficiency for the dielectric based wakefield acceleration.

  5. A monolithic relativistic electron beam source based on a dielectric laser accelerator structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeur, Josh; Carranza, Nestor; Travish, Gil; Yin Hairong; Yoder, Rodney [UCLA Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); College of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610054 (China); Manhattanville College, Physics Dept., 2900 Purchase St., Purchase, NY 10577 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    Work towards a monolithic device capable of producing relativistic particle beams within a cubic-centimeter is detailed. We will discuss the Micro-Accelerator Platform (MAP), an optical laser powered dielectric accelerator as the main building block of this chip-scale source along with a field enhanced emitter and a region for sub-relativistic acceleration.

  6. Numerical investigations into a fiber laser based dielectric reverse dual-grating accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimidula, A., E-mail: aimidula.aimierding@liverpool.ac.uk [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Welsch, C.P. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Xia, G. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Koyama, K.; Uesaka, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan); Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mete, O. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Matsumura, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan)

    2014-03-11

    Dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) have great potential for applications, since they can generate acceleration gradients in the range of GeV/m and produce attosecond electron bunches. We described a novel reverse dual-grating dielectric accelerator structure made up of Silicon which is expected to improve beam confinement, and make fabrication easier. Numerical simulation results show that this structure effectively manipulates the laser field and generates a standing wave in the vacuum channel with a phase velocity synchronized to relativistic particles travelling through the structure. Optimum pillar height and channel width have been determined. All required laser parameters and initial particle energy have been analytically estimated and a suitable laser as an energy source is proposed. Finally, the effect of fabrication error on the acceleration gradient is discussed.

  7. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.

  8. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  9. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quantang; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S. C.; Shen, X. K.; Jing, Y.; Yu, C. S.; Li, Z. P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R. Q.; Zong, Y.; Wang, Y. R.; Zhao, H. W.

    2013-11-01

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60-70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article.

  10. STATUS OF THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Carroll, J; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-04-22

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system is capable of accelerating any charge to mass ratio particle. Applications of high gradient proton and electron versions of this accelerator will be discussed. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  11. Elements of a dielectric laser accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    McNeur, Joshua; Schönenberger, Norbert; Leedle, Kenneth J; Deng, Huiyang; Ceballos, Andrew; Hoogland, Heinar; Ruehl, Axel; Hartl, Ingmar; Solgaard, Olav; Harris, James S; Byer, Robert L; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of high energy particle beams in basic research, medicine and coherent X-ray generation coupled with the large size of modern radio frequency (RF) accelerator devices and facilities has motivated a strong need for alternative accelerators operating in regimes outside of RF. Working at optical frequencies, dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) - transparent laser-driven nanoscale dielectric structures whose near fields can synchronously accelerate charged particles - have demonstrated high-gradient acceleration with a variety of laser wavelengths, materials, and electron beam parameters, potentially enabling miniaturized accelerators and table-top coherent x-ray sources. To realize a useful (i.e. scalable) DLA, crucial developments have remained: concatenation of components including sustained phase synchronicity to reach arbitrary final energies as well as deflection and focusing elements to keep the beam well collimated along the design axis. Here, all of these elements are demonstrated wit...

  12. Investigations of the concept of a multibunch dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, I.N., E-mail: onish@kipt.kharkov.ua; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Pristupa, V.I.; Sotnikov, G.V.

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the physical principles of multibunch dielectric wakefield accelerator concept based on the wakefield excitation in the dielectric structure by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches are presented. The purpose of the concept is to enhance the wakefield intensity by means of the multibunch coherent excitation and wakefield accumulation in a resonator. The acceleration of bunches is achieved at detuning of bunch repetition frequency relative to the frequency of the excited wakefield. In such a way the sequence of bunches is divided into exciting and accelerated parts due to displacing bunches into accelerating phases of wakefield excited by a previous part of bunches of the same sequence. Besides the change of the permittivity and loss tangent of dielectrics under the irradiation by 100 MeV electron beam is studied.

  13. Optical booster for dielectric laser accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuka, Adi; Cohen, Chen; Lyabock, Haggai; Schächter, Levi

    2017-03-01

    We present a study of adiabatic tapering of a dielectric laser accelerator and the dynamics of the trapping process. The characteristics of the trapped electrons were studied for different initial conditions. Space-charge effects on the longitudinal motion were considered as well.

  14. TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-05-30

    Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at {approx}30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio ({approx}12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  15. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, B D; Andonian, G; Barber, S K; Fitzmorris, K L; Hakimi, S; Harrison, J; Hoang, P D; Hogan, M J; Naranjo, B; Williams, O B; Yakimenko, V; Rosenzweig, J B

    2016-09-14

    There is urgent need to develop new acceleration techniques capable of exceeding gigaelectron-volt-per-metre (GeV m(-1)) gradients in order to enable future generations of both light sources and high-energy physics experiments. To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium, are currently under intense investigation. One such wakefield based accelerator, the dielectric wakefield accelerator, uses a dielectric lined-waveguide to support a wakefield used for acceleration. Here we show gradients of 1.347±0.020 GeV m(-1) using a dielectric wakefield accelerator of 15 cm length, with sub-millimetre transverse aperture, by measuring changes of the kinetic state of relativistic electron beams. We follow this measurement by demonstrating accelerating gradients of 320±17 MeV m(-1). Both measurements improve on previous measurements by and order of magnitude and show promise for dielectric wakefield accelerators as sources of high-energy electrons.

  16. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  17. Beam manipulation and acceleration with Dielectric-Lined Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The development of next-generation TeV+ electron accelerators will require either immense footprints based on conventional acceleraton techniques or the development of new higher{gradient acceleration methods. One possible alternative is beam-driven acceleration in a high-impedance medium such as a dielectric-lined-waveguide (DLW), where a highcharge bunch passes through a DLW and can excite gradients on the order of GV/m. An important characteristic of this acceleration class is the transformer ratio which characterizes the energy transfer of the scheme. This dissertation discusses alternative methods to improve the transformer ratio for beam-driven acceleration and also considers the use of DLWs for beam manipulation at low energy.

  18. Engineering Prototype for a Compact Medical Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografos, Anthony; Hening, Andy; Joshkin, Vladimir; Leung, Kevin; Pearson, Dave; Pearce-Percy, Henry; Rougieri, Mario; Parker, Yoko; Weir, John [CPAC, Livermore, CA (United States); Blackfield, Donald; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Poole, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Hamm, Robert W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Pleasanton, CA (United States); Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Gelnhausen (Germany)

    2011-12-13

    A compact accelerator system architecture based on the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) for medical proton beam therapy has been developed by the Compact Particle Acceleration Corporation (CPAC). The major subsystems are a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) injector linac, a pulsed kicker to select the desired proton bunches, and a DWA linear accelerator incorporating a high gradient insulator (HGI) with stacked Blumleins to produce the required acceleration energy. The Blumleins are switched with solid state laser-driven optical switches integrated into the Blumlein assemblies. Other subsystems include a high power pulsed laser, fiber optic distribution system, electrical charging system, and beam diagnostics. An engineering prototype has been constructed and characterized, and these results will be used within the next three years to develop an extremely compact 150 MeV system capable of modulating energy, beam current, and spot size on a shot-to-shot basis. This paper presents the details the engineering prototype, experimental results, and commercialization plans.

  19. X-band Dielectric Loaded Rf Driven Accelerator Structures Theoretical And Experimental Investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, P

    2001-01-01

    An important area of application of high-power radio frequency (RF) and microwave sources is particle acceleration. A major challenge for the current worldwide research and development effort in linear accelerator is the search for a compact and affordable very-high-energy accelerator technology for the next generation supercolliders. It has been recognized for sometime that dielectric loaded accelerator structures are attractive candidates for the next generation very-high-energy linear accelerators, because they possess several distinct advantages over conventional metallic iris- loaded accelerator structures. However, some fundamental issues, such as RF breakdown in the dielectric, Joule heating, and vacuum properties of dielectric materials, are still the subjects of intense investigation, requiring the validation by experiments conducted at high power levels. An X-band traveling-wave accelerator based on dielectric-lined waveguide has been designed and constructed. Numerical calculation, bench measuremen...

  20. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS

  1. Vacuum Insulator Development for the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J R; Blackfield, D; Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Hawkins, S; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M; Managan, J E

    2008-03-17

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a new type of accelerator, known as a Dielectric Wall Accelerator, in which compact pulse forming lines directly apply an accelerating field to the beam through an insulating vacuum boundary. The electrical strength of this insulator may define the maximum gradient achievable in these machines. To increase the system gradient, we are using 'High Gradient Insulators' composed of alternating layers of dielectric and metal for the vacuum insulator. In this paper, we present our recent results from experiment and simulation, including the first test of a High Gradient Insulator in a functioning Dielectric Wall Accelerator cell.

  2. Diagnostic and Detectors for Charging and Damage of Dielectrics in High-gradient Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shchelkunov, S V; Hirshfield, J L

    2015-01-01

    The research is aimed to address issues of analysis and mitigation of high repetition rate effects in Dielectric Wakefield Accelerators, and more specifically, to study charging rate and charge distribution in a thin walled dielectric wakefield accelerator from a passing charge bunch and the physics of conductivity and discharge phenomena in dielectric materials useful for such accelerator applications. The issue is the role played by the beam halo and intense wakefields in charging of the dielectric, possibly leading to undesired deflection of charge bunches and degradation of the dielectric material. The detector that was developed is based on measurement of the complex electrical conductivity, which would appear as a transient phenomenon accompanying the passage of one or more charge bunches, by observing the change of complex admittance of a resonant microwave cavity that is fitted around the dielectric tubing. The detector also can detect permanent damage to the material. During initial stage of developm...

  3. Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator to drive the future FEL Light Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, C.; Power, J.; Zholents, A. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS)); ( HEP); (LLC)

    2011-04-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expensive instruments and a large part of the cost of the entire facility is driven by the accelerator. Using a high-energy gain dielectric wake-field accelerator (DWA) instead of the conventional accelerator may provide a significant cost saving and reduction of the facility size. In this article, we investigate using a collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator to provide a high repetition rate, high current, high energy beam to drive a future FEL x-ray light source. As an initial case study, a {approx}100 MV/m loaded gradient, 850 GHz quartz dielectric based 2-stage, wakefield accelerator is proposed to generate a main electron beam of 8 GeV, 50 pC/bunch, {approx}1.2 kA of peak current, 10 x 10 kHz (10 beamlines) in just 100 meters with the fill factor and beam loading considered. This scheme provides 10 parallel main beams with one 100 kHz drive beam. A drive-to-main beam efficiency {approx}38.5% can be achieved with an advanced transformer ratio enhancement technique. rf power dissipation in the structure is only 5 W/cm{sup 2} in the high repetition rate, high gradient operation mode, which is in the range of advanced water cooling capability. Details of study presented in the article include the overall layout, the transform ratio enhancement scheme used to increase the drive to main beam efficiency, main wakefield linac design, cooling of the structure, etc.

  4. Diagnostic for charging and damage of dielectrics in accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Particle accelerators for discovery science, industrial and medical applications employ dielectric elements that can be altered or seriously damaged by the accelerated particles. This project is to develop a diagnostic test to anticipate when these effects can be avoided, thereby increasing the reliability and lowering the cost of the accelerators.

  5. Accelerating Dielectrics Design Using Thinking Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasad, R.

    2013-03-01

    High energy density capacitors are required for several pulsed power and energy storage applications, including food preservation, nuclear test simulations, electric propulsion of ships and hybrid electric vehicles. The maximum electrostatic energy that can be stored in a capacitor dielectric is proportional to its dielectric constant and the square of its breakdown field. The current standard material for capacitive energy storage is polypropylene which has a large breakdown field but low dielectric constant. We are involved in a search for new classes of polymers superior to polypropylene using first principles computations combined with statistical and machine learning methods. Essential to this search are schemes to efficiently compute the dielectric constant of polymers and the intrinsic dielectric breakdown field, as well as methods to determine the stable structures of new classes of polymers and strategies to efficiently navigate through the polymer chemical space offered by the periodic table. These methodologies have been combined with statistical learning paradigms in order to make property predictions rapidly, and promising classes of polymeric systems for energy storage applications have been identified. This work is being supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  6. Detecting Energy Modulation in a Dielectric Laser Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaczyk, Louis [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The Dielectric Laser Acceleration group at SLAC uses micro-fabricated dielectric grating structures and conventional infrared lasers to accelerator electrons. These structures have been estimated to produce an accelerating gradient up to 2 orders of magnitude greater than that produced by conventional RF accelerators. The success of the experiment depends on both the laser damage threshold of the structure and the timing overlap of femtosecond duration laser pulses with the electron bunch. In recent dielectric laser acceleration experiments, the laser pulse was shorter both temporally and spatially than the electron bunch. As a result, the laser is theorized to have interacted with only a small portion of the electron bunch. The detection of this phenomenon, referred to as partial population modulation, required a new approach to the data analysis of the electron energy spectra. A fitting function was designed to separate the accelerated electron population from the un-accelerated electron population. The approach was unsuccessful in detecting acceleration in the partial population modulation data. However, the fitting functions provide an excellent figure of merit for previous data known to contain signatures of acceleration.

  7. Coaxial two-channel high-gradient dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Sotnikov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme for a dielectric wakefield accelerator is proposed that employs a cylindrical multizone dielectric structure configured as two concentric dielectric tubes with outer and inner vacuum channels for drive and accelerated bunches. Analytical and numerical studies have been carried out for such coaxial dielectric-loaded structures (CDS for high-gradient acceleration. An analytical theory of wakefield excitation by particle bunches in a multizone CDS has been formulated. Numerical calculations are presented for an example of a CDS using dielectric tubes with dielectric permittivity 5.7, having external diameters of 2.121 and 0.179 mm with inner diameters of 2.095 and 0.1 mm. An annular 5 GeV, 6 nC electron bunch with rms length of 0.035 mm energizes a wakefield on the structure axis having an accelerating gradient of ∼600  MeV/m with a transformer ratio ∼8∶1. The period of the accelerating field is ∼0.33  mm. If the width of the drive bunch channel is decreased, it is possible to obtain an accelerating gradient of >1  GeV/m while keeping the transformer ratio approximately the same. Full numerical simulations using a particle-in-cell code have confirmed results of the linear theory and furthermore have shown the important influence of the quenching wave that restricts the region of the wakefield to within several periods following the drive bunch. Numerical simulations for another example have shown nearly stable transport of drive and accelerated bunches through the CDS, using a short train of drive bunches.

  8. Influence of emittance on transverse dynamics of accelerated bunches in the plasma–dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniaziev, R.R., E-mail: rkniaziev@gmail.com [V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Sotnikov, G.V. [NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2016-09-01

    We study theoretically transverse dynamics of the bunch of charged particles with the finite emittance in the plasma–dielectric wakefield accelerator. Parameters of bunches are chosen the same as available from the 15 MeV Argonne Wakefield Accelerator beamline. The goal of the paper is to study the behavior of bunches of charged particles with different emittances while accelerating these bunches by wakefields in plasma–dielectric structures. Obtained results allow us to determine the limits of the emittance of the bunch where dynamics of the accelerated particles remains stable.

  9. Dielectric laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons at a photonic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, John

    2013-08-29

    This thesis reports on the observation of dielectric laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons via the inverse Smith-Purcell effect in the optical regime. Evanescent modes in the vicinity of a periodic grating structure can travel at the same velocity as the electrons along the grating surface. A longitudinal electric field component is used to continuously impart momentum onto the electrons. This is only possible in the near-field of a suitable photonic structure, which means that the electron beam has to pass the structure within about one wavelength. In our experiment we exploit the third spatial harmonic of a single fused silica grating excited by laser pulses derived from a Titanium:sapphire oscillator and accelerate non-relativistic 28 keV electrons. We measure a maximum energy gain of 280 eV, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 25 MeV/m, already comparable with state-of-the-art radio-frequency linear accelerators. To experience this acceleration gradient the electrons approach the grating closer than 100 nm. We present the theory behind grating-based particle acceleration and discuss simulation results of dielectric laser acceleration in the near-field of photonic grating structures, which is excited by near-infrared laser light. Our measurements show excellent agreement with our simulation results and therefore confirm the direct acceleration with the light field. We further discuss the acceleration inside double grating structures, dephasing effects of non-relativistic electrons as well as the space charge effect, which can limit the attainable peak currents of these novel accelerator structures. The photonic structures described in this work can be readily concatenated and therefore represent a scalable realization of dielectric laser acceleration. Furthermore, our structures are directly compatible with the microstructures used for the acceleration of relativistic electrons demonstrated in parallel to this work by our collaborators in

  10. A preliminary design of the collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.; Gai, W.; Doran, S.; Lindberg, R.; Power, J.G.; Strelnikov, N.; Sun, Y.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I. [ANL, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Li, Y. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); Gao, Q. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Shchegolkov, D.Y.; Simakov, E.I. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A preliminary design of the multi-meter long collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator that achieves a highly efficient transfer of the drive bunch energy to the wakefields and to the witness bunch is considered. It is made from ~0.5 m long accelerator modules containing a vacuum chamber with dielectric-lined walls, a quadrupole wiggler, an rf coupler, and BPM assembly. The single bunch breakup instability is a major limiting factor for accelerator efficiency, and the BNS damping is applied to obtain the stable multi-meter long propagation of a drive bunch. Numerical simulations using a 6D particle tracking computer code are performed and tolerances to various errors are defined.

  11. COAXIAL TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.

    2013-04-30

    Theory, computations, and experimental apparatus are presented that describe and are intended to confirm novel properties of a coaxial two-channel dielectric wake field accelerator. In this configuration, an annular drive beam in the outer coaxial channel excites multimode wakefields which, in the inner channel, can accelerate a test beam to an energy much higher than the energy of the drive beam. This high transformer ratio is the result of judicious choice of the dielectric structure parameters, and of the phase separation between drive bunches and test bunches. A structure with cm-scale wakefields has been build for tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Laboratory, and a structure with mm-scale wakefields has been built for tests at the SLAC FACET facility. Both tests await scheduling by the respective facilities.

  12. Rectangular Dielectric-loaded Structures for Achieving High Acceleration Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbiao; Yakovlev, V. P.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Rectangular dielectric-loaded structures are described that may sustain higher acceleration gradients than conventional all-metal structures with similar apertures. One structure is a test cavity designed to ascertain the breakdown limits of dielectrics, while a second structure could be the basis for a two-beam accelerator. CVD diamond is an attractive dielectric for a high-gradient structure, since the published DC breakdown limit for CVD diamond is ˜ 2 GV/m, although the limit has never been determined for RF fields. Here we present a design of a diamond-lined test cavity to measure the breakdown limit. The designed cavity operates at 34 GHz, where with 10-MW input power it is expected to produce an ˜800 MV/m field on the diamond surface—provided breakdown is avoided. The two channel rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide could be a two-beam accelerator structure, in which a drive beam is in one channel and an accelerated beam is in the other. The RF power produced by drive bunches in the drive channel is continuously coupled to the acceleration channel. The ratio of fields in the channels (transformer ratio) for the operating mode can be designed by adjusting the dimensions of the structure. An example of the two-channel structure is described, in which a train of five 3-nC drive bunches excites wake fields in the accelerator channel of up to 1.3 GV/m with a transformer ratio of 10 for the design mode.

  13. Laser-driven acceleration of subrelativistic electrons near a nanostructured dielectric grating: From acceleration via higher spatial harmonics to necessary elements of a dielectric accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeur, Josh, E-mail: Joshua.McNeur@FAU.de [Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kozak, Martin; Schönenberger, Norbert; Li, Ang; Tafel, Alexander [Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hommelhoff, Peter [Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Straße 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    The experimental setup that allows for the observation of energy gain of electrons interacting with Dielectric Laser Accelerators (DLAs) is reviewed. Moreover, recent results, including acceleration due to electron interaction with third, fourth and fifth spatial harmonics of a nanostructured grating are discussed and an extended outlook is given.

  14. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  15. Fabrication of a Prototype All-Dielectric Micro-Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; McNeur, J.; Travish, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Yoder, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    A laser-powered micron-scale, all-dielectric, slab-symmetric accelerator has been under development at UCLA for several years, with an experimental program underway. The device is built from dielectric Bragg reflectors and includes periodic nanoscale coupling structures, which requires micromanufacturing techniques and a cleanroom facility. We report here on results of fabrication experiments and the construction of a prototype device. A method for patterning the periodic coupling structures using electron beam lithography is described, and sputter deposition of thin films (such as ZrO2/SiO2) to create a distributed Bragg reflector is discussed. Future plan includes reflection and transmission measurements using the drive laser on prototype devices, and the resonance frequency and strength will be evaluated.

  16. Plasma Acceleration from RF Discharge in Dielectric Capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Dunaevsky; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch

    2005-08-09

    Plasma acceleration from rf discharge in dielectric capillary was demonstrated. Observed plasma flow had ion energies of approximately 100 eV and electron energies of approximately 20 eV. The discharge was powered by a MHz-range rf generator and fed by Ar. Experimental results indicate possible validity of assumptions about formation of a potential difference at the open end of the capillary and presence of hot electron fraction in the capillary discharge. Simplicity and small dimensions of the source are attractive for micro-propulsion applications.

  17. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  18. Progress on High Power Tests of Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Chunguang; Gold, Steven H; Kinkead, Allen; Konecny, Richard; Power, John G

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a progress report on a series of high-power rf experiments that were carried out to evaluate the potential of the Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure for high-gradient accelerator operation. Since the last PAC meeting in 2003, we have tested DLA structures loaded with two different ceramic materials: Alumina (Al2O3) and MCT (MgxCa1-xTiO3). The alumina-based DLA experiments have concentrated on the effects of multipactor in the structures under high-power operation, and its suppression using TiN coatings, while the MCT experiments have investigated the dielectric joint breakdown observed in the structures due to local field enhancement. In both cases, physical models have been set up, and the potential engineering solutions are being investigated.

  19. Electromagnetic simulation study of dielectric wall accelerator structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Quan-Tang; ZHANG Zi-Min; YUAN Ping; CAO Shu-Chun; SHEN Xiao-Kang; JING Yi; LIU Ming; ZHAO Hong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two types of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) structures,a bi-polar Blumlein line and zero integral pulse line (ZIP) structures were investigated.The high gradient insulator simulated by the particle in cell code confirms that it has little influence on the axial electric field.The results of simulations using CST microwave studio indicate how the axial electric field is formed,and the electric field waveforms agree with the theoretical one very well.The influence of layer-to-layer coupling in a ZIP structure is much smaller and the electric field waveform is much better.The axial of the Blumlein structure's electric field has better axial stability.From both of the above,it found that for a shorter pulse width,the axial electric field is much higher and the pulse stability and fidelity are much better.The CST simulation is very helpful for designing DWA structures.

  20. Multipactor Physics, Acceleration, and Breakdown in Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Richard P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Gold, Steven H. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this 3-year program is to study the physics issues associated with rf acceleration in dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures, with a focus on the key issue of multipactor loading, which has been found to cause very significant rf power loss in DLA structures whenever the rf pulsewidth exceeds the multipactor risetime (~10 ns). The experiments are carried out in the X-band magnicon laboratory at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC, who develop the test structures with support from the DoE SBIR program. There are two main elements in the research program: (1) high-power tests of DLA structures using the magnicon output (20 MW @11.4 GHz), and (2) tests of electron acceleration in DLA structures using relativistic electrons from a compact X-band accelerator. The work during this period has focused on a study of the use of an axial magnetic field to suppress multipactor in DLA structures, with several new high power tests carried out at NRL, and on preparation of the accelerator for the electron acceleration experiments.

  1. Development of High-Gradient Dielectric Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byer, Robert L.

    2013-11-07

    The thrust of Stanford's program is to conduct research on high-gradient dielectric accelerator structures driven with high repetition-rate, tabletop infrared lasers. The close collaboration between Stanford and SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) is critical to the success of this project, because it provides a unique environment where prototype dielectric accelerator structures can be rapidly fabricated and tested with a relativistic electron beam.

  2. Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, E A; Soong, K; England, R J; Colby, E R; Wu, Z; Montazeri, B; McGuinness, C; McNeur, J; Leedle, K J; Walz, D; Sozer, E B; Cowan, B; Schwartz, B; Travish, G; Byer, R L

    2013-11-07

    The enormous size and cost of current state-of-the-art accelerators based on conventional radio-frequency technology has spawned great interest in the development of new acceleration concepts that are more compact and economical. Micro-fabricated dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) are an attractive approach, because such dielectric microstructures can support accelerating fields one to two orders of magnitude higher than can radio-frequency cavity-based accelerators. DLAs use commercial lasers as a power source, which are smaller and less expensive than the radio-frequency klystrons that power today's accelerators. In addition, DLAs are fabricated via low-cost, lithographic techniques that can be used for mass production. However, despite several DLA structures having been proposed recently, no successful demonstration of acceleration in these structures has so far been shown. Here we report high-gradient (beyond 250 MeV m(-1)) acceleration of electrons in a DLA. Relativistic (60-MeV) electrons are energy-modulated over 563 ± 104 optical periods of a fused silica grating structure, powered by a 800-nm-wavelength mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The observed results are in agreement with analytical models and electrodynamic simulations. By comparison, conventional modern linear accelerators operate at gradients of 10-30 MeV m(-1), and the first linear radio-frequency cavity accelerator was ten radio-frequency periods (one metre) long with a gradient of approximately 1.6 MeV m(-1) (ref. 5). Our results set the stage for the development of future multi-staged DLA devices composed of integrated on-chip systems. This would enable compact table-top accelerators on the MeV-GeV (10(6)-10(9) eV) scale for security scanners and medical therapy, university-scale X-ray light sources for biological and materials research, and portable medical imaging devices, and would substantially reduce the size and cost of a future collider on the multi-TeV (10(12)

  3. Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, E. A.; Soong, K.; England, R. J.; Colby, E. R.; Wu, Z.; Montazeri, B.; McGuinness, C.; McNeur, J.; Leedle, K. J.; Walz, D.; Sozer, E. B.; Cowan, B.; Schwartz, B.; Travish, G.; Byer, R. L.

    2013-11-01

    The enormous size and cost of current state-of-the-art accelerators based on conventional radio-frequency technology has spawned great interest in the development of new acceleration concepts that are more compact and economical. Micro-fabricated dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) are an attractive approach, because such dielectric microstructures can support accelerating fields one to two orders of magnitude higher than can radio-frequency cavity-based accelerators. DLAs use commercial lasers as a power source, which are smaller and less expensive than the radio-frequency klystrons that power today's accelerators. In addition, DLAs are fabricated via low-cost, lithographic techniques that can be used for mass production. However, despite several DLA structures having been proposed recently, no successful demonstration of acceleration in these structures has so far been shown. Here we report high-gradient (beyond 250MeVm-1) acceleration of electrons in a DLA. Relativistic (60-MeV) electrons are energy-modulated over 563+/-104 optical periods of a fused silica grating structure, powered by a 800-nm-wavelength mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The observed results are in agreement with analytical models and electrodynamic simulations. By comparison, conventional modern linear accelerators operate at gradients of 10-30MeVm-1, and the first linear radio-frequency cavity accelerator was ten radio-frequency periods (one metre) long with a gradient of approximately 1.6MeVm-1 (ref. 5). Our results set the stage for the development of future multi-staged DLA devices composed of integrated on-chip systems. This would enable compact table-top accelerators on the MeV-GeV (106-109eV) scale for security scanners and medical therapy, university-scale X-ray light sources for biological and materials research, and portable medical imaging devices, and would substantially reduce the size and cost of a future collider on the multi-TeV (1012eV) scale.

  4. Observation of 690 MV m-1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with a Laser-Driven Dielectric Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, K.P.; Wu, Z.; /SLAC; Cowan, B.M.; /Tech-X, Boulder; Hanuka, A.; /SLAC /Technion; Makasyuk, I.V.; /SLAC; Peralta, E.A.; Soong, K.; Byer, R.L.; /Stanford U.; England, R.J.; /SLAC

    2016-06-27

    Acceleration of electrons using laser-driven dielectric microstructures is a promising technology for the miniaturization of particle accelerators. In this work, experimental results are presented of relativistic electron acceleration with 690±100 MVm-1 gradient. This is a record-high accelerating gradient for a dielectric microstructure accelerator, nearly doubling the previous record gradient. To reach higher acceleration gradients the present experiment employs 90 fs duration laser pulses.

  5. Development of a Compact Radiography Accelerator Using Dielectric Wall Accelerator Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sampayan, Stephen; Chen Yu Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven; Holmes, Clifford; McCarrick, James F; Nelson, Scott D; Nunnally, William; Poole, Brian R; Rhodes, Mark; Sanders, David; Sullivan, James; Wang, Lisa; Watson, James

    2005-01-01

    We are developing of a compact accelerator system primarily intended for pulsed radiography. Design characteristics are an 8 MeV endpoint energy, 2 kA beam current and a cell gradient of approximately 3 MV/m. Overall length of the device is below 3 m. Such compact designs have been made possible with the development of high specific energy dielectrics (> 10 J/cc), specialized transmission line designs and multi-gap laser-triggered low jitter (<1 ns) gas switches. In this geometry, the pulse forming lines, switches and insulator/beam pipe are fully integrated within each cell to form a compact stand-alone stackable unit. We detail our research and modeling to date, recent high voltage test results, and the integration concept of the cells into a radiographic system.

  6. A compact railgun accelerator for millimeter-sized dielectric solid armatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Sakharov, V. A.; Bobashev, S. V.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Reznikov, B. I.; Rozov, S. I.

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter-sized dielectric solid armatures have been accelerated in a compact railgun system. It is shown that application of an external pulsed magnetic field can solve the problem of catastrophic erosion of electrodes at the initial stage and accelerate small armatures up to a velocity of about 6 km/s.

  7. SLAB symmetric dielectric micron scale structures for high gradient electron acceleration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Schoessow, P. V.

    1999-06-12

    A class of planar microstructure is proposed which provide high accelerating gradients when excited by an infrared laser pulse. These structures consist of parallel dielectric slabs separated by a vacuum gap; the dielectric or the outer surface coating are spatially modulated at the laser wavelength along the beam direction so as to support a standing wave accelerating field. We have developed numerical and analytic models of the accelerating mode fields in the structure. We show an optimized coupling scheme such that this mode is excited resonantly with a large quality factor. The status of planned experiments on fabricating and measuring these planar structures will be described.

  8. Real-time diagnostic for charging and damage of dielectrics in accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchelkunov, S.V., E-mail: sergey.shchelkunov@gmail.com [Omega-P, Inc, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Marshall, T.C.; Hirshfield, J.L. [Omega-P, Inc, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We report on the progress made during the initial stage of our research to study charging rate and charge distribution in a thin walled dielectric wakefield accelerator (DWA) from a passing charge bunch and the physics of conductivity and discharge phenomena in dielectric materials useful in accelerator applications. The issue is the role played by the beam halo and intense wakefields in charging the dielectric, possibly leading to undesired deflection of charge bunches and degradation of the dielectric material: the effects that may grow over many pulses, albeit perhaps differently at different repetition rates. During the initial stage of development, a microwave apparatus was built and signal processing was developed to observe time-dependent charging of dielectric surfaces and/or plasmas located on or near the inner surface of a thin-wall hollow dielectric tube. Three frequencies were employed to improve the data handling rate and the signal-to-noise. The test and performance results for a plasma test case are presented; in particular, the performance of the test unit shows capability to detect small changes ~0.1% of a dielectric constant, which would correspond to the scraping-off of only 0.3 nC to the walls of the dielectric liner inside the cavity from the passing charge bunch.

  9. Real-time diagnostic for charging and damage of dielectrics in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelkunov, S. V.; Marshall, T. C.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the progress made during the initial stage of our research to study charging rate and charge distribution in a thin walled dielectric wakefield accelerator (DWA) from a passing charge bunch and the physics of conductivity and discharge phenomena in dielectric materials useful in accelerator applications. The issue is the role played by the beam halo and intense wakefields in charging the dielectric, possibly leading to undesired deflection of charge bunches and degradation of the dielectric material: the effects that may grow over many pulses, albeit perhaps differently at different repetition rates. During the initial stage of development, a microwave apparatus was built and signal processing was developed to observe time-dependent charging of dielectric surfaces and/or plasmas located on or near the inner surface of a thin-wall hollow dielectric tube. Three frequencies were employed to improve the data handling rate and the signal-to-noise. The test and performance results for a plasma test case are presented; in particular, the performance of the test unit shows capability to detect small changes 0.1% of a dielectric constant, which would correspond to the scraping-off of only 0.3 nC to the walls of the dielectric liner inside the cavity from the passing charge bunch.

  10. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  11. Numerically optimized structures for dielectric asymmetric dual-grating laser accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimidula, A. [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bake, M. A.; Wan, F.; Xie, B. S., E-mail: bsxie@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Welsch, C. P. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Xia, G.; Mete, O. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Uesaka, M.; Matsumura, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan); Yoshida, M.; Koyama, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Optical scale dielectric structures are promising candidates to realize future compact, low cost particle accelerators, since they can sustain high acceleration gradients in the range of GeV/m. Here, we present numerical simulation results for a dielectric asymmetric dual-grating accelerator. It was found that the asymmetric dual-grating structures can efficiently modify the laser field to synchronize it with relativistic electrons, therefore increasing the average acceleration gradient by ∼10% in comparison to symmetric structures. The optimum pillar height which was determined by simulation agrees well with that estimated analytically. The effect of the initial kinetic energy of injected electrons on the acceleration gradient is also discussed. Finally, the required laser parameters were calculated analytically and a suitable laser is proposed as energy source.

  12. Detecting Partial Energy Modulation in a Dielectric Laser Accelerator - Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaczyk, Louis [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-24

    The Dielectric Laser Acceleration group at SLAC uses micro-fabricated dielectric grating structures and conventional infrared lasers to accelerator electrons. These structures have been estimated to produce an accelerating gradient up to 2 orders of magnitude greater than that produced by conventional RF accelerators. The success of the experiment depends on both the laser damage threshold of the structure and the timing overlap of femtosecond duration laser pulses with the electron bunch. In recent dielectric laser acceleration experiments, the laser pulse was shorter both temporally and spatially than the electron bunch. As a result, the laser is theorized to have interacted with only a small portion of the electron bunch. The detection of this phenomenon, referred to as partial population modulation, required a new approach to the data analysis of the electron energy spectra. A fitting function was designed to separate the accelerated electron population from the unaccelerated electron population. The approach was unsuccessful in detecting acceleration in the partial population modulation data. However, the fitting functions provide an excellent figure of merit for previous data known to contain signatures of acceleration.

  13. Proposed Physics Experiments for Laser-Driven Electron Linear Acceleration in a Dielectric Loaded Vacuum, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byer, Robert L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics. Edward L. Ginzton Lab.

    2016-07-08

    This final report summarizes the last three years of research on the development of advanced linear electron accelerators that utilize dielectric wave-guide vacuum channels pumped by high energy laser fields to accelerate beams of electrons.

  14. Fitting Green’s Function FFT Acceleration Applied to Anisotropic Dielectric Scattering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A volume integral equation based fast algorithm using the Fast Fourier Transform of fitting Green’s function (FG-FFT is proposed in this paper for analysis of electromagnetic scattering from 3D anisotropic dielectric objects. For the anisotropic VIE model, geometric discretization is still implemented by tetrahedron cells and the Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson (SWG basis functions are also used to represent the electric flux density vectors. Compared with other Fast Fourier Transform based fast methods, using fitting Green’s function technique has higher accuracy and can be applied to a relatively coarse grid, so the Fast Fourier Transform of fitting Green’s function is selected to accelerate anisotropic dielectric model of volume integral equation for solving electromagnetic scattering problems. Besides, the near-field matrix elements in this method are used to construct preconditioner, which has been proved to be effective. At last, several representative numerical experiments proved the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. Experimental Study Of X-band Dielectric-loaded Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, C

    2005-01-01

    A joint Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) program is under way to investigate X- band dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures, using high-power 11.424GHz radiation from the NRL Magnicon facility. As an advanced accelerator concepts, the dielectric-loaded accelerator offers the potential for a simple, inexpensive alternative to high-gradient RF linear accelerators. In this thesis, a comprehensive account of X-band DLA structure design, including theoretical calculation, numerical simulation, fabrication and testing, is presented in detail. Two types of loading dielectrics, alumina and MgxCa1−xTiO 3 (MCT), are investigated. For alumina (with dielectric constant 9.4), no RF breakdown has been observed up to 5 MW of drive power (equivalent to 8MV/m accelerating gradient) in the high power RF testing at NRL, but multipactor was observed to absorb a large fraction of the incident microwave power. Experimental results on suppression of multipactor using TiN coating o...

  16. Electrodynamic acceleration of dielectric bodies in a rail gun in the constant current regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshevskii, E. M.; Zhukov, B. G.; Nazarov, E. V.; Rozov, S. I.; Sokolov, V. M.; Kurakin, R. O.; Savel'Ev, M. A.; Iuferov, S. V.

    1991-04-01

    Rail gun experiments are reported in which dielectric bodies were accelerated magnetohydrodynamically by a plasma piston to velocities at which the kinetic energy per each atom became comparable with or greater than the chemical bond energy. In the constant current approximation, a simple expression is obtained which unambiguously relates the acceleration path length to the amount of electricity passing through the system, irrespective of the acceleration rate and final velocity of the body. Practically constant accelerations of about 3 x 10 exp 6 g were achieved for polycarbonate projectiles with a linear current density close to the limit of explosive electrode evaporation (about 60 kA/mm)

  17. Tunable dielectric properties of ferrite-dielectric based metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, K; Huang, K; Zeng, L Y; Zhou, M H; Wang, Q M; Wang, Y G; Lei, M

    2015-01-01

    A ferrite-dielectric metamaterial composed of dielectric and ferrite cuboids has been investigated by experiments and simulations. By interacting with the electromagnetic wave, the Mie resonance can take place in the dielectric cuboids and the ferromagnetic precession will appear in the ferrite cuboids. The magnetic field distributions show the electric Mie resonance of the dielectric cuboids can be influenced by the ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboids when a certain magnetic field is applied. The effective permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. A good agreement between experimental and simulated results is demonstrated, which confirms that these metamaterials can be used for tunable microwave devices.

  18. A New Bio-based Dielectric Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Mingjiang; Wool, Richard P.

    2007-03-01

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials are widely used in modern high-speed microelectronics, such as printed circuit boards. A new bio-based composite was developed from soybean oil and chicken feather fibers, which has the potential to replace currently used petroleum-based dielectrics. Feather fibers have a unique hollow structure which distinguishes them from glass fibers and give very attractive properties. Due to the retained air in the hollow fibers, the dielectric constant can be lower than conventional epoxy-based dielectrics at both low and high frequencies. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the materials decrease with addition of feather fibers and even can be negative. By controlling the fraction of fibers, delamination caused by CTE mismatch between the dielectric and the metal lines can be avoided. The enhancement of adhesion between copper surface and polymer matrix was investigated. The tough structure of fibers significantly improved the mechanical properties of the composites, such as flexural properties and storage modulus. Supported by USDA

  19. Diamond field emitter array cathodes and possibilities of employing additive manufacturing for dielectric laser accelerating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Andrews, Heather L.; Herman, Matthew J.; Hubbard, Kevin M.; Weis, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Demonstration of a stand-alone practical dielectric laser accelerator (DLA) requires innovation in two major critical components: high-current ultra-low-emittance cathodes and efficient laser accelerator structures. LANL develops two technologies that in our opinion are applicable to the novel DLA architectures: diamond field emitter array (DFEA) cathodes and additive manufacturing of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. This paper discusses the results of testing of DFEA cathodes in the field-emission regime and the possibilities for their operation in the photoemission regime, and compares their emission characteristics to the specific needs of DLAs. We also describe recent advances in additive manufacturing of dielectric woodpile structures using a Nanoscribe direct laser-writing device capable of maskless lithography and additive manufacturing, and the development of novel infrared dielectric materials compatible with additive manufacturing.

  20. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  1. Potential applications of the dielectric wakefield accelerators in the SINBAD facility at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Y.C., E-mail: yuancun.nie@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Assmann, R.; Dorda, U.; Marchetti, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Weikum, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Strathclyde, G1 1XQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Zhu, J.; Hüning, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    Short, high-brightness relativistic electron bunches can drive ultra-high wakefields in the dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWFAs). This effect can be used to generate high power THz coherent Cherenkov radiation, accelerate a witness bunch with gradient two or three orders of magnitude larger than that in the conventional RF linear accelerators, introduce energy modulation within the driving bunch itself, etc. The paper studies potential applications of the DWFAs in the SINBAD facility at DESY. The simulations show that the ultra-short relativistic bunches from the SINBAD injector ARES can excite accelerating wakefields with peak amplitudes as high as GV/m at THz frequencies in proper DWFA structures. In addition, it illustrates that the DWFA structure can serve as a dechirper to compensate the correlated energy spread of the bunches accelerated by the laser plasma wakefield accelerator.

  2. High gradient insulator technology for the dielectric wall accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.; Carder, B. [and others

    1995-04-27

    Insulators composed of finely spaced alternating layers of dielectric and metal are thought to minimize secondary emission avalanche (SEA) growth. Most data to date was taken with small samples (order 10 cm{sup 2} area) in the absence of an ion or electron beam. The authors have begun long pulse (>1 {mu}s) high voltage testing of small hard seal samples. Further, they have performed short pulse (20 ns) high voltage testing of moderate scale bonded samples (order 100 cm{sup 2} area) in the presence of a 1 kA electron beam. Results thus far indicate a 1.0 to 4.0 increase in the breakdown electric field stress is possible with this technology.

  3. Tunable dielectric properties of ferrite-dielectric based metamaterial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bi

    Full Text Available A ferrite-dielectric metamaterial composed of dielectric and ferrite cuboids has been investigated by experiments and simulations. By interacting with the electromagnetic wave, the Mie resonance can take place in the dielectric cuboids and the ferromagnetic precession will appear in the ferrite cuboids. The magnetic field distributions show the electric Mie resonance of the dielectric cuboids can be influenced by the ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboids when a certain magnetic field is applied. The effective permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. A good agreement between experimental and simulated results is demonstrated, which confirms that these metamaterials can be used for tunable microwave devices.

  4. Transverse operator method for wakefields in a rectangular dielectric loaded accelerating structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Baturin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cherenkov radiation generated by a relativistic electron bunch in a rectangular dielectric-loaded waveguide is analyzed under the assumption that the dielectric layers are inhomogeneous normal to the beam path. We propose a method that uses eigenfunctions of the transverse operator applied to develop a rigorous full solution for the wakefields that are generated. The dispersion equation for the structure is derived and the wakefield analysis is carried out. The formalism developed here allows the direct solution of the inhomogeneous system of Maxwell equations, an alternative analytic approach to the analysis of wakefields in contrast to the previously used impedance method for rectangular structure analysis. The formalism described here was successfully applied to the analysis of rectangular dielectric-lined structures that have been recently beam tested at the Argonne (ANL/AWA and Brookhaven (BNL/ATF accelerator facilities.

  5. Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilizing Effect of Dielectric Coatings on Magnetically Accelerated Imploding Metallic Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awe, T J; Peterson, K J; Yu, E P; McBride, R D; Sinars, D B; Gomez, M R; Jennings, C A; Martin, M R; Rosenthal, S E; Schroen, D G; Sefkow, A B; Slutz, S A; Tomlinson, K; Vesey, R A

    2016-02-12

    Enhanced implosion stability has been experimentally demonstrated for magnetically accelerated liners that are coated with 70  μm of dielectric. The dielectric tamps liner-mass redistribution from electrothermal instabilities and also buffers coupling of the drive magnetic field to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A dielectric-coated and axially premagnetized beryllium liner was radiographed at a convergence ratio [CR=Rin,0/Rin(z,t)] of 20, which is the highest CR ever directly observed for a strengthless magnetically driven liner. The inner-wall radius Rin(z,t) displayed unprecedented uniformity, varying from 95 to 130  μm over the 4.0 mm axial height captured by the radiograph.

  6. SU-8 as Hydrophobic and Dielectric Thin Film in Electrowetting-on-Dielectric Based Microfluidics Device

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; N. N. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) based droplet actuation in microfluidic chip is designed and fabricated. EWOD is used as on-chip micro-pumping scheme for moving fluid digitally in Lab-on-a-chip devices. For enabling this scheme, stacked deposition of thin dielectric and hydrophobic layer in that order between microchannel and electrodes is done. The present paper investigates the potential use of SU-8 as hydrophobic layer in conjunction of acting as dielectric in the device. The objective...

  7. Development of a 20-MeV Dielectric-Loaded Accelerator Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Steven H; Gai, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Jing, Chunguang; Kinkead, Allen; Konecny, Richard; Lin, Y; Nantista, Christopher D; Power, John G; Tang, C; Tantawi, Sami G

    2006-01-01

    This paper will describe a joint project by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to develop a dielectric-loaded accelerator (DLA) test facility powered by the high-power 11.424-GHz magnicon that was developed by NRL and Omega-P, Inc. The magnicon can presently produce 25 MW of output power in a 250-ns pulse at 10 Hz, and efforts are in progress to increase this to 50 MW.* The facility will include a 5-MeV electron injector being developed by the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. The DLA test structures are being developed by ANL, and some have undergone testing at NRL at gradients up to ~8 MV/m.** SLAC is developing a means to combine the two magnicon output arms, and to drive an injector and accelerator with separate control of the power ratio and relative phase. The installation and testing of the first dielectric-loaded test accelerator, including injector, DLA structure...

  8. Summary report of working group 3: Laser and high-gradient structure-based acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonian, Gerard; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-03-01

    High-gradient particle acceleration with reduced power demands is essential for miniaturization and cost reduction of future accelerators. Applications for compact accelerators span collider research for High Energy Physics, light source development for Basic Energy Sciences and National Security, and industrial accelerators for Energy and Environmental Applications. Working Group 3 discussed and surveyed the recent advances in achieving higher gradients and better acceleration efficiency in externally powered, structure-based accelerators. The topics covered in Working Group 3 included dielectric laser acceleration, millimeter-wave accelerators, breakdown phenomena, exotic topologies such as photonic band-gap structures, artificial materials, and nanostructures, and novel rf technology.

  9. EM Structure-Based Accelerators Working Group Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, W. D.; Lidia, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    This Working Group (WG) focused on EM Structure-Based Accelerators, which covers a broad area of mechanisms and experiments. Topics covered included dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWA), photonic bandgap accelerators (PBGA), inverse free electron lasers (IFEL), vacuum laser accelerators (VLA), other novel schemes, and supporting analysis and modeling. In addition, this WG was tasked at the Workshop with developing conceptual (strawman) designs for a 1-GeV accelerator system based upon any of the experimentally-proven approaches covered in this WG. Two strawmen designs were developed based upon IFELs and DWAs. The presentations given and strawmen designs indicate great progress has been made in many areas. Proof-of-principle experiments will occur shortly in PBGA and VLA. Other well-proven devices, such as IFELs, are becoming accepted as "workhorse" providers of microbunches.

  10. Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention on metamaterials has been paid due to their exciting physical behaviors and potential applications. While most of such artificial material structures developed so far are based on metallic resonant structures, Mie resonances of dielectric particles open a simpler and more versatile route for construction of isotropic metamaterials with higher operating frequencies. Here, we review the recent progresses of Mie resonance-based metamaterials by providing a description of the underlying mechanisms to realize negative permeability, negative permittivity and double negative media. We address some potential novel applications.

  11. Directly patternable dielectric based on fluorinated polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Andrew R.; Bell, William K.; Luke, Brendan; Maines, Erin; Mueller, Brennan; Kohl, Paul A.; Rawlings, Brandon; Willson, C. Grant

    2015-03-01

    A photosensitive polyimide system based on amine catalyzed imidization of a precursor poly(amic ester) is described. The material is based on the meta ethyl ester of pyromellitic dianhydride and 2,2' bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine and acts as a negative tone resist when formulated with a photobase generator. The material exhibits a dielectric constant of 3.0 in the GHz range, a coefficient of thermal expansion of 6+/-2 ppm/K, and can be patterned to aspect ratios of greater than 2 when formulated with a high efficiency cinnamide type photobase generator.

  12. HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-04-12

    The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P's approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in

  13. All-dielectric left-handed metamaterial based on dielectric resonator: design, simulation and experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi-Ming; Wang Jia-Fu; Xia Song; Bai Peng; Li Zhe; Wang Jun; Xu Zhuo; Qu Shao-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Dipoles with Lorentz-type resonant electromagnetic responses can realise negative effective parameters in their negative resonant region. The electric dipole and magnetic dipole can realise, respectively, negative permittivity and negative permeability, so both the field distribution forms of electric and magnetic dipoles are fundamentals in designing left-handed metamaterial. Based on this principle, this paper studies the field distribution in high-permittivity dielectric materials. The field distributions at different resonant modes are analysed based on the dielectric resonator theory. The origination and influence factors of the electric and magnetic dipoles are confirmed. Numerical simulations indicate that by combining dielectric cubes with different sizes, the electric resonance frequency and magnetic resonance frequency can be superposed. Finally, experiments are carried out to verify the feasibility of all-dielectric left-handed metamaterial composed by this means.

  14. Laser Acceleration and Deflection of 96.3 keV Electrons with a Silicon Dielectric Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Leedle, Kenneth J; Byer, Robert L; Harris, James S

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency particle accelerators are ubiquitous in ultra-small and ultrafast science, but their size and cost has prompted exploration of compact and scalable alternatives like the dielectric laser accelerator. We present the first demonstration of high gradient laser acceleration and deflection of electrons with a silicon structure. Driven by a five nanojoule, 130 fs mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser at 907 nm wavelength, our devices achieve accelerating gradients in excess of 200 MeV/m and sub-optical cycle streaking of 96.30 keV electrons. These results pave the way for high gradient silicon dielectric laser accelerators using commercial lasers and sub-femtosecond electron beam experiments.

  15. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Siddiqui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide.

  16. Polycarbonate based three-phase nanocomposite dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, P. K.; Goyal, R. K.; Prasad, Y. V. S. S.; Bhargava, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    Three-phase polycarbonate (PC) matrix nanocomposites are prepared using the solution method. One of the nanocomposite fillers is dielectric and the other is conducting. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is used as the dielectric filler. The conducting fillers, nano-Cu and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), are used to make two different nanocomposites, MWCNT-PZT-PC and Cu-PZT-PC. The prepared nanocomposites are characterized using density measurement, x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Percolation is absent in both three-phase nanocomposites within the study’s concentration window of conducting fillers. The dielectric properties of the nanocomposites are evaluated using a precision impedance analyser. The dielectric constant of the Cu-PZT-PC nanocomposite increases to 14 (a dissipation factor of 0.17), whereas in the case of the MWCNT-PZT-PC nanocomposite it increases to 8.5 (a dissipation factor of 0.002). The melting point of both nanocomposites decreases with respect to the control PC. The frequency (1 kHz to 1 MHz) and temperature (room temperature to 200 °C) dependence of the dielectric constant and dissipation factor are examined. For the Cu-PZT-PC nanocomposites, the dielectric constant decreases with increasing frequency, whereas in the case of the MWCNT-PZT-PC nanocomposites the dielectric constant is almost constant. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor exhibit a slight temperature dependence.

  17. Simulation and experimental study of the solid pulse forming lines for dielectric wall accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Quan-Tang; YUAN Ping; ZHANG Zi-Min; CAO Shu-Chun; SHEN Xiao-Kang; LIU Ming; JING Yi; ZHAO Hong-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of pulse forming lines for dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) were investigated preliminarily.By simulation with CST Microwave Studio,the results indicate the pulse forming process,which can help to understand the voltage wave transmission process and optimize the line parameters.Furthermore,the principle of the pulse forming process was proved by experiments and some excellent pulse waveforms were obtained.During the experiments,the Blumlein line and zero integral pulse (ZIP) forming line,constructed with aluminum foil,poly plate and air gap self-closing switch,were tested.The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the waveform is 16 nanoseconds (BL) and 17 nanoseconds (ZIP line),and the formed pulse voltage amplitude is 5 kV (BL) and +2.2 kV/-1.6 kV (ZIP line).The experiments result coincides well with the simulation.

  18. Complete multipactor suppression in an X-band dielectric-loaded accelerating structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, C. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, Ohio 44139, USA; High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Gold, S. H. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA; Fischer, Richard [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2016-05-09

    Multipactor is a major issue limiting the gradient of rf-driven Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structures. Theoretical models have predicted that an axial magnetic field applied to DLA structures may completely block the multipactor discharge. However, previous attempts to demonstrate this magnetic field effect in an X-band traveling-wave DLA structure were inconclusive, due to the axial variation of the applied magnetic field, and showed only partial suppression of the multipactor loading [Jing et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 213503 (2013)]. The present experiment has been performed under improved conditions with a uniform axial magnetic field extending along the length of an X-band standing-wave DLA structure. Multipactor loading began to be continuously reduced starting from 3.5 kG applied magnetic field and was completely suppressed at 8 kG. Dependence of multipactor suppression on the rf gradient inside the DLA structure was also measured.

  19. Development of an X-Band Dielectric-Based Wakefield Power Extractor for Potential CLIC Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, C -J; Kanareykin, A; Schoessow, P; Conde, M E; Gai, W; Power, J G; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, tremendous efforts have been put into the development of the CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS), and significant progress has been made. However, one concern remains the manufacturing cost of the PETS, particularly considering the quantities needed for a TeV machine. A dielectric-based wakefield power extractor in principle is much cheaper to build. A low surface electric field to gradient ratio is another big advantage of the dielectric-loaded accelerating/decelerating structure. We are currently investigating the possibility of using a cost-effective dielectric-based wakefield power extractor as an alternative to the CLIC PETS. We designed a 12 GHz dielectric-based power extractor which has a similar performance to CLIC PETS with parameters 23 mm beam channel, 240 ns pulse duration, 135 MW output per structure using the CLIC drive beam. In order to study potential rf breakdown issues, as a first step we are building a 11.424 GHz dielectric-based power extractor scaled fr...

  20. Planned High-gradient Flat-beam-driven Dielectric Wakefield Experiments at the Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Zhu, Jun [Mianyang CAEP

    2014-07-01

    In beam driven dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWA), high-gradient short-wavelength accelerating fields are generally achieved by employing dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs)  with small aperture which constraints the beam sizes. In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a low-energy (50-MeV) flat beams to induce high-gradient wakes in a slab-symmetric DLW. We demonstrate via numerical simulations the possibility to produce axial electric field with peak amplitude close to 0.5 GV/m. Our studies are carried out using the Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) photoinjector beamline. We finally discuss a possible experiment that could be performed in the ASTA photoinjector and eventually at higher energies.  

  1. EM Structure Based and Vacuum Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E.R.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The importance of particle acceleration may be judged from the number of applications which require some sort of accelerated beam. In addition to accelerator-based high energy physics research, non-academic applications include medical imaging and treatment, structural biology by x-ray diffraction, pulse radiography, cargo inspection, material processing, food and medical instrument sterilization, and so on. Many of these applications are already well served by existing technologies and will profit only marginally from developments in accelerator technology. Other applications are poorly served, such as structural biology, which is conducted at synchrotron radiation facilities, and medical treatment using proton accelerators, the machines for which are rare because they are complex and costly. Developments in very compact, high brightness and high gradient accelerators will change how accelerators are used for such applications, and potentially enable new ones. Physical and technical issues governing structure-based and vacuum acceleration of charged particles are reviewed, with emphasis on practical aspects.

  2. SU-8 as Hydrophobic and Dielectric Thin Film in Electrowetting-on-Dielectric Based Microfluidics Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD based droplet actuation in microfluidic chip is designed and fabricated. EWOD is used as on-chip micro-pumping scheme for moving fluid digitally in Lab-on-a-chip devices. For enabling this scheme, stacked deposition of thin dielectric and hydrophobic layer in that order between microchannel and electrodes is done. The present paper investigates the potential use of SU-8 as hydrophobic layer in conjunction of acting as dielectric in the device. The objective for the investigation is to lower the cost and a thin simplification in fabrication process of EWOD-based devices. We have done design and optimization of dimensions of electrode array including gap between arrays for EWOD micropump. Design and optimization are carried out in CoventorWare. The designing is followed by fabrication of device and analysis for droplet motion. The fabrication of the device includes array of electrodes over the silicon surface and embedding them in hydrophobic SU-8 layer. Water droplet movement in the order of microliter of spherical shape is demonstrated. It has been shown that an SU-8 microchannel in the current design allows microfluidic flow at tens of voltages comparable with costlier and more complicated to fabricate designs reported in the literature.

  3. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on dipolar copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DES) are a promising new transducer technology, but high driving voltages limit their current commercial potential. One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permi......-4-nitrobenzene. Here, a high increase in dielectric permittivity (similar to 70%) was obtained without compromising other favourable DE properties such as elastic modulus, gel fraction, dielectric loss and electrical breakdown strength. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Jinghua; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2014-11-11

    Electromagnetic materials with tunable permeability and permittivity are highly desirable for wireless communication and radar technology. However, the tunability of electromagnetic parameters is an immense challenge for conventional materials and metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials. The magnetically tunable property is derived from the coupling of the Mie resonance of dielectric cube and ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboid. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the effective permeability and permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. This mechanism offers a promising means of constructing microwave devices with large tunable ranges and considerable potential for tailoring via a metamaterial route.

  5. Radiative damping in plasma-based accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Nerush, E. N.; Litvak, A. G.

    2012-11-01

    The electrons accelerated in a plasma-based accelerator undergo betatron oscillations and emit synchrotron radiation. The energy loss to synchrotron radiation may seriously affect electron acceleration. The electron dynamics under combined influence of the constant accelerating force and the classical radiation reaction force is studied. It is shown that electron acceleration cannot be limited by radiation reaction. If initially the accelerating force was stronger than the radiation reaction force, then the electron acceleration is unlimited. Otherwise the electron is decelerated by radiative damping up to a certain instant of time and then accelerated without limits. It is shown that regardless of the initial conditions the infinite-time asymptotic behavior of an electron is governed by a self-similar solution providing that the radiative damping becomes exactly equal to 2/3 of the accelerating force. The relative energy spread induced by the radiative damping decreases with time in the infinite-time limit. The multistage schemes operating in the asymptotic acceleration regime when electron dynamics is determined by the radiation reaction are discussed.

  6. Analytical and Numerical Calculations of Two-Dimensional Dielectric Photonic Band Gap Structures and Cavities for Laser Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Samokhvalova, Ksenia R; Liang Qian, Bao

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric photonic band gap (PBG) structures have many promising applications in laser acceleration. For these applications, accurate determination of fundamental and high order band gaps is critical. We present the results of our recent work on analytical calculations of two-dimensional (2D) PBG structures in rectangular geometry. We compare the analytical results with computer simulation results from the MIT Photonic Band Gap Structure Simulator (PBGSS) code, and discuss the convergence of the computer simulation results to the analytical results. Using the accurate analytical results, we design a mode-selective 2D dielectric cylindrical PBG cavity with the first global band gap in the frequency range of 8.8812 THz to 9.2654 THz. In this frequency range, the TM01-like mode is shown to be well confined.

  7. Dielectric elastomers, with very high dielectric permittivity, based on silicone and ionic interpenetrating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs), which represent an emerging actuator and generator technology, admittedly have many favourable properties, but their high driving voltages are one of the main obstacles to commercialisation. One way to reduce driving voltage is by increasing the ratio between dielectr...... as well as relatively high breakdown strength. All IPNs have higher dielectric losses than pure silicone elastomers, but when accounting for this factor, IPNs still exhibit satisfactory performance improvements....... is demonstrated herein, and a number of many and important parameters, such as dielectric permittivity/loss, viscoelastic properties and dielectric breakdown strength, are investigated. Ionic and silicone elastomer IPNs are promising prospects for dielectric elastomer actuators, since very high permittivities......Dielectric elastomers (DEs), which represent an emerging actuator and generator technology, admittedly have many favourable properties, but their high driving voltages are one of the main obstacles to commercialisation. One way to reduce driving voltage is by increasing the ratio between dielectric...

  8. Development of a dielectric ceramic based on diatomite-titania part two: dielectric properties characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Jamilson Pinto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric properties of sintered diatomite-titania ceramics are presented. Specific capacitance, dissipation factor, quality factor and dielectric constant were determined as a function of sintering temperature, titania content and frequency; the temperature coefficient of capacitance was measured as a function of frequency. Besides leakage current, the dependence of the insulation resistance and the dielectric strength on the applied dc voltage were studied. The results show that diatomite-titania compositions can be used as an alternative dielectric.

  9. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2015-01-01

    High driving voltages currently limit the commercial potential of dielectric elastomers (DEs). One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the synthesis o...

  10. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    High driving voltages currently limit the commercial potential of dielectric elastomers (DEs). One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the synthesis o...

  11. A compact 300 kV solid-state high-voltage nanosecond generator for dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yi; Xia, Liansheng; Zhang, Huang; Pan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jun; Shi, Jinshui; Zhang, Linwen; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-05-01

    Compact solid-state system is the main development trend in pulsed power technologies. A compact solid-state high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator with output voltage of 300 kV amplitude, 10 ns duration (FWHM), and 3 ns rise-time was designed for a dielectric wall accelerator. The generator is stacked by 15 planar-plate Blumlein pulse forming lines (PFL). Each Blumlein PFL consists of two solid-state planar transmission lines, a GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch, and a laser diode trigger. The key components of the generator and the experimental results are reported in this paper.

  12. 介质壁直线加速器加速单元间的电路耦合及解耦%Circuit coupling and decoupling between accelerating units of dielectric wall linear accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌怡; 张篁; 刘毅; 王卫; 叶茂; 夏连胜; 石金水; 章林文; 邓建军

    2016-01-01

    中国工程物理研究院流体物理研究所研发的介质壁直线加速器是基于固态脉冲形成线、GaAs光导开关和高梯度绝缘介质壁三项关键技术的新型直线脉冲加速器.在加速器调试阶段,测量出获得加速的质子束流能量远低于预期值,在排除功率源负载能力因素之后,发现脉冲功率源因连接回路引起的电路耦合效应是导致束流能量低的主要原因.基于介质壁直线加速器加速单元放电回路结构的分析,确认了加速单元之间的电路耦合的必然性.并通过测量回路电流,研究了几种不同工作模式下的电路耦合效应.结合电路耦合的特点,给出了两种基于磁芯隔离的解耦方法,并测量了这两种方法的解耦效率.%The dielectric wall linear accelerator,based on technologies of solid-state pulse forming lines,photoconductive semiconductor switches and high gradient insulators,is a new concept linear accelerator being developed at Institute of Fluid Phys-ics,CAEP.During accelerator test process,the measured energy gain of the accelerated proton beam is much lower than expec-ted.After the exclusion of the pulsed power source factor,we find that the coupling effect induced connecting circuit is the main factor of causing low beam energy gain.Based on discharge circuit analysis of the dielectric wall linear accelerator acceleration u-nit,we confirm that the circuit coupling between acceleration units is inevitable.The circuit coupling of several different operation modes is studied by measuring the circuit current.According to the characteristics of the coupled circuit,we give two kind of de-coupling methods based on the magnetic core isolation,and we measure the efficiency of the decoupling of the two methods.

  13. Analog Optical Computing Based on Dielectric Meta-reflect-array

    CERN Document Server

    Chizari, Ata; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we realize the concept of analog computing using an array of engineered gradient dielectric meta-reflect-array. The proposed configuration consists of individual subwavelength silicon nanobricks in combination with fused silica spacer and silver ground plane realizing a reflection beam with full phase coverage $2\\pi$ degrees as well as amplitude range $0$ to $1$. Spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances, such high-index dielectric metasurfaces can locally and independently manipulate the amplitude and phase of the incident electromagnetic wave. This practically feasible structure overcomes substantial limitations imposed by plasmonic metasurfaces such as absorption losses and low polarization conversion efficiency in the visible range. Using such CMOS-compatible and easily integrable platforms promises highly efficient ultrathin planar wave-based computing systems which circumvent the drawbacks of conventional bulky lens-based signal processors. Based on these key properti...

  14. Generalized spatial Talbot effect based on all-dielectric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2017-02-01

    The Talbot effect is among the most fundamental wave propagation effect universal across the frequency spectrum and has been used extensively in both spatial and temporal domain for wide variety of applications. In this work, a generalized spatial Talbot effect is presented based on all-dielectric Huygens' metasurface, which when combined with the conventional Fractional Talbot effect, enables the scaling of aperture periodicities by any arbitrary real number. This is achieved by allowing and engineering the phase discontinuity distributions in space on the aperture using phase engineered all-dielectric reflectionless metasurfaces, in conjunction with free-space propagation. Specific implementations using Huygens' metasurfaces are proposed and their operation to achieve such non-integer scalings of the input aperture period is demonstrated using numerical results based on Fourier propagation method.

  15. Bulk magnetic terahertz metamaterials based on dielectric microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindler, M; Kadlec, C; Dominec, F; Kužel, P; Elissalde, C; Kassas, A; Lesseur, J; Bernard, D; Mounaix, P; Němec, H

    2016-08-08

    Rigid metamaterials were prepared by embedding TiO2 microspheres into polyethylene. These structures exhibit a series of Mie resonances where the lowest-frequency one is associated with a strong dispersion in the effective magnetic permeability. Using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy, we experimentally demonstrated the magnetic nature of the observed resonance. The presented approach shows a way for low-cost massive fabrication of mechanically stable terahertz metamaterials based on dielectric microresonators.

  16. Droplets actuating chip based on electrowetting-on-dielectric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jiangang; YUE Ruifeng; ZENG Xuefeng; LIU Litian

    2007-01-01

    A droplet-based actuating chip by using the method of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD)was developed to manipulate the microfluidics.Here,the actuation mechanism of the sandwiched-configuration EWOD chips was carefully studied,and the movement of droplets was numerically analyzed by using the computational fluidic software,CFD-ACE+.The fabrication of the chip,including a heavily phosphorus-doped poly-silicon micro-electrode array and a thermally grown SiO2 dielectric layer,was exploited to improve the chip stability and decrease the actuation voltage.In experiments,the transportation of a deionized droplet of about 0.5 μL is successfully achieved in air by applying the low voltage of 45 V.

  17. Nanoresonator based dielectric surfaces for light manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Pisano, E.; Gerini, G.; Lancellotti, V.; Galdi, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, increasing interest has grown on the synthesis of light-weight, miniaturized surfaces for light manipulation based on metamaterials. These surfaces can be easily integrated in photonic systems and they can be used as high numerical aperture lenses, light-deflection surfaces and

  18. Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasera, Alessandro; Scotognella, Francesco; Valligatla, Sreeramulu; Varas, Stefano; Jasieniak, Jacek; Criante, Luigino; Lukowiak, Anna; Ristic, Davor; Gonçalves, Rogeria Rocha; Taccheo, Stefano; Ivanda, Mile; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Martucci, Alessandro; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a reliable RF sputtering techniques allowing to fabricate glass-based one dimensional microcavities, with high quality factor. This property is strongly related to the modification of the density of states due to the confinement of the gain medium in a photonic band gap structure. In this short review we present some of the more recent results obtained by our team exploiting these 1D microcavities. In particular we present: (1) Er3+ luminescence enhancement of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition; (2) broad band filters based on disordered 1-D photonic structures; (3) threshold defect-mode lasing action in a hybrid structure.

  19. Wireless power transfer based on dielectric resonators with colossal permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhao; Belov, Pavel; Kapitanova, Polina

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system based on dielectric disk resonators made of colossal permittivity (ɛ = 1000) and low loss (tan δ = 2.5 × 10-4) microwave ceramic is experimentally investigated. The system operates at the magnetic dipole mode excited in the resonators providing maximal power transfer efficiency of 90% at the frequency 232 MHz. By applying an impedance matching technique, the efficiency of 50% is achieved within the separation between the resonators d = 16 cm (3.8 radii of the resonator). The separation, misalignment and rotation dependencies of wireless power transfer efficiency are experimentally studied.

  20. Norbornylene-based polymer systems for dielectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M [Albuquerque, NM; Wheeler, David R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-17

    A capacitor having at least one electrode pair being separated by a dielectric component, with the dielectric component being made of a polymer such as a norbornylene-containing polymer with a dielectric constant greater than 3 and a dissipation factor less than 0.1 where the capacitor has an operating temperature greater than 100.degree. C. and less than 170.degree. C.

  1. Three-dimensional Dielectric Photonic Crystal Structures for Laser-driven Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Benjamin M.; /Tech-X, Boulder /SLAC

    2007-12-14

    We present the design and simulation of a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide for linear laser-driven acceleration in vacuum. The structure confines a synchronous speed-of-light accelerating mode in both transverse dimensions. We report the properties of this mode, including sustainable gradient and optical-to-beam efficiency. We present a novel method for confining a particle beam using optical fields as focusing elements. This technique, combined with careful structure design, is shown to have a large dynamic aperture and minimal emittance growth, even over millions of optical wavelengths.

  2. Diamond field emitter array cathodes and possibilities for employing additive manufacturing for dielectric laser accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andrews, Heather Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Herman, Matthew Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hubbard, Kevin Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    These are slides for a presentation at Stanford University. The outline is as follows: Motivation: customers for compact accelerators, LANL's technologies for laser acceleration, DFEA cathodes, and additive manufacturing of micron-size structures. Among the stated conclusions are the following: preliminary study identified DFEA cathodes as promising sources for DLAs--high beam current and small emittance; additive manufacturing with Nanoscribe Professional GT can produce structures with the right scale features for a DLA operating at micron wavelengths (fabrication tolerances need to be studied, DLAs require new materials). Future plans include DLA experiment with a beam produced by the DFEA cathode with field emission, demonstration of photoemission from DFEAs, and new structures to print and test.

  3. PC Based Instrument for the Measurement of Dielectric Constant of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ramana C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A PC based instrument for the measurement of dielectric constant in liquids has been developed. It is based on the technique that utilizes frequency measurement for determination of capacitance using the personal computer as a tool. The change in frequency of XR–2206 function generator, when the liquid forms the dielectric medium of the dielectric cell, is measured with a personal computer. The programmable interval timer 8254 available in the DIOT card is used to measure the frequency, which in turn determines the capacitance of the cell and dielectric constant. The necessary software is developed in C language. The instrument system covers a wide range of dielectric constant for various liquids. The system is reasonably successful in measuring dielectric constant with an accuracy of ± 0.5 %. The paper deals with the hardware and software details.

  4. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, R. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirk, H. G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratkis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alexahin, Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bross, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gollwitzer, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mokhov, N. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Palmer, M. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Snopok, P. [IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Bogacz, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roberts, T. J. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Delahaye, J. -P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  5. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations were first discovered by experiments looking at neutrinos coming from extra-terrestrial sources, namely the sun and the atmosphere, but we will be depending on earth-based sources to take many of the next steps in this field. This article describes what has been learned so far from accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, and then describe very generally what the next accelerator-based steps are. In section 2 the article discusses how one uses an accelerator to make a neutrino beam, in particular, one made from decays in flight of charged pions. There are several different neutrino detection methods currently in use, or under development. In section 3 these are presented, with a description of the general concept, an example of such a detector, and then a brief discussion of the outstanding issues associated with this detection technique. Finally, section 4 describes how the measurements of oscillation probabilities are made. This includes a description of the near detector technique and how it can be used to make the most precise measurements of neutrino oscillations.

  6. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Coupled Dielectric Pillars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ding-Shan; HAO Ran; ZHOU Zhi-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on coupled dielectric pillars. It is composed of single-row pillar coupled waveguide modulating arms and three-row pillar waveguide 3 dB couplers. The slow light property and transmission loss of the single-row pillar modulating arm are optimized by the plane wave expansion method. A short 3dB coupler is designed based on the modes transformation in three-row pillar waveguide. Finite difference time domain simulations prove the validity of this MZI and show that it has low insertion loss of<1.1 dB and high extinction ratio of>12 dB.

  7. Dielectric Properties of Lead Monoxide Filled Unsaturated Polyester Based Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Kumar, H. G. Harish; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the dielectric properties of the composites. The present study showed that the dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and ac conductivity (σac) of isopthalate based unsaturated polyester resin increases with the increase in wt% PbO filler in polymer matrix.

  8. Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion Conducting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Metamaterials or artificial negative index materials (NIMs) have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties. One exemplary negative dielectric constant material, which is an essential key for creating the NIMs, was developed by doping ions into a polymer, a protonated poly (benzimidazole) (PBI). The doped PBI showed a negative dielectric constant at megahertz (MHz) frequencies due to its reduced plasma frequency and an induction effect. The magnitude of the negative dielectric constant and the resonance frequency were tunable by doping concentration. The highly doped PBI showed larger absolute magnitude of negative dielectric constant at just above its resonance frequency than the less doped PBI.

  9. Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion Conducting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials or artificial negative index materials (NIMs) have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties. One exemplary negative dielectric constant material, which is an essential key for creating the NIMs, was developed by doping ions into a polymer, a protonated poly(benzimidazole) (PBI). The doped PBI showed a negative dielectric constant at megahertz (MHz) frequencies due to its reduced plasma frequency and an induction effect. The magnitude of the negative dielectric constant and the resonance frequency were tunable by doping concentration. The highly doped PBI showed larger absolute magnitude of negative dielectric constant at just above its resonance frequency than the less doped PBI.

  10. Bismuth pyrochlore-based thin films for dielectric energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Elizabeth K.

    The drive towards the miniaturization of electronic devices has created a need for dielectric materials with large energy storage densities. These materials, which are used in capacitors, are a critical component in many electrical systems. Here, the development of dielectric energy storage materials for pulsed power applications, which require materials with the ability to accumulate a large amount of energy and then deliver it to the system rapidly, is explored. The amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored by a material is a function of the induced polarization and the dielectric breakdown strength of the material. An ideal energy storage dielectric would possess a high relative permittivity, high dielectric breakdown strength, and low loss tangent under high applied electric fields. The bismuth pyrochlores are a compositionally tunable family of materials that meet these requirements. Thin films of cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate, bismuth zinc tantalate, and bismuth zinc niobate tantalate, were fabricated using a novel solution chemistry based upon the Pechini method. This solution preparation is advantageous because it avoids the use of teratogenic solvents, such as 2-methoxyethanol. Crystalline films fabricated using this solution chemistry had very small grains that were approximately 27 nm in lateral size and 35 nm through the film thickness. Impedance measurements found that the resistivity of the grain boundaries was two orders of magnitude higher than the resistivity of the grain interior. The presence of many resistive grain boundaries impeded conduction through the films, resulting in high breakdown strengths for these materials. In addition to high breakdown strengths, this family of materials exhibited moderate relative permittivities of between 55 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 5, for bismuth zinc tantalate and bismuth zinc niobate, respectively, and low loss tangents on the order of 0.0008 +/- 0.0001. Increases in the concentration of the tantalum

  11. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticles/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju

    2017-04-15

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on particle concentration and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  12. Microactuators based on ion implanted dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP) membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Philippe; Rosset, Samuel; Koster, Sander; Stauffer, Johann; Mikhailov, Serguei; Dadras, Massoud; de Rooij, Nico-F.; Shea, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    We report on the first successfully microfabricated and tested ion implanted dielectric electroactive polymer (DEAP) actuators. Dielectric EAP (DEAP) actuators combine exceptionally high energy-density with large amplitude displacements [S. Ashley, Artificial muscles, Sci. Am. 289 (2003) 52-59: R. P

  13. Accelerator Based Tools of Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seestrom, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project had to solve difficult challenges in physics and materials science. During the cold war a large nuclear stockpile was developed. In both cases, the approach was largely empirical. Today that stockpile must be certified without nuclear testing, a task that becomes more difficult as the stockpile ages. I will discuss the role of modern accelerator based experiments, such as x-ray radiography, proton radiography, neutron and nuclear physics experiments, in stockpile stewardship. These new tools provide data of exceptional sensitivity and are answering questions about the stockpile, improving our scientific understanding, and providing validation for the computer simulations that are relied upon to certify todays' stockpile.

  14. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency

  15. Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-06-07

    Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: (99m) Tc, (111)In and (131)I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational

  16. On the Modeling of Polar Component of Solvation Energy using Smooth Gaussian-Based Dielectric Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Chuan; Alexov, Emil

    2014-05-01

    Traditional implicit methods for modeling electrostatics in biomolecules use a two-dielectric approach: a biomolecule is assigned low dielectric constant while the water phase is considered as a high dielectric constant medium. However, such an approach treats the biomolecule-water interface as a sharp dielectric border between two homogeneous dielectric media and does not account for inhomogeneous dielectric properties of the macromolecule as well. Recently we reported a new development, a smooth Gaussian-based dielectric function which treats the entire system, the solute and the water phase, as inhomogeneous dielectric medium (J Chem Theory Comput. 2013 Apr 9; 9(4): 2126-2136.). Here we examine various aspects of the modeling of polar solvation energy in such inhomogeneous systems in terms of the solute-water boundary and the inhomogeneity of the solute in the absence of water surrounding. The smooth Gaussian-based dielectric function is implemented in the DelPhi finite-difference program, and therefore the sensitivity of the results with respect to the grid parameters is investigated, and it is shown that the calculated polar solvation energy is almost grid independent. Furthermore, the results are compared with the standard two-media model and it is demonstrated that on average, the standard method overestimates the magnitude of the polar solvation energy by a factor 2.5. Lastly, the possibility of the solute to have local dielectric constant larger than of a bulk water is investigated in a benchmarking test against experimentally determined set of pKa's and it is speculated that side chain rearrangements could result in local dielectric constant larger than 80.

  17. Cache-based memory copy hardware accelerator for multicore systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, F.; Wong, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new architecture of the cache-based memory copy hardware accelerator in a multicore system supporting message passing. The accelerator is able to accelerate memory data movements, in particular memory copies. We perform an analytical analysis based on open-queuing theory

  18. Current Progress of Hf (Zr)-Based High-k Gate Dielectric Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the continued downscaling of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor dimensions, high-dielectric constant (high-k) gate materials, as alternatives to SiO2, have been extensively investigated. Hf (Zr)-based high-k gate dielectric thin films have been regarded as the most promising candidates for high-k gate dielectric according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor due to their excellent physical properties and performance. This paper reviews the recent progress on Hf (Zr)-based high-k gate dielectrics based on PVD (physical vapor deposition) process. This article begins with a survey of various methods developed for generating Hf (Zr)-based high-k gate dielectrics, and then mainly focuses on microstructure, synthesis, characterization, formation mechanisms of interfacial layer, and optical properties of Hf (Zr)-based high-k gate dielectrics. Finally, this review concludes with personal perspectives towards future research on Hf (Zr)-based high-k gate dielectrics.

  19. First accelerator-based physics of 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the East Area received their first beams from the PS this week. Theirs is CERN's first accelerator-based physics since LS1 began last year.   For the East Area, the PS performs a so-called slow extraction, where beam is extracted during many revolution periods (the time it take for particles to go around the PS, ~2.1 μs). The yellow line shows the circulating beam current in the PS, decreasing slowly during the slow extraction, which lasts 350 ms. The green line is the measured proton intensity in the transfer line toward the East Area target. Although LHC physics is still far away, we can now confirm that the injectors are producing physics! In the East Area - the experimental area behind the PS - the T9 and T10 beam lines are providing beams for physics. These beam lines serve experiments such as AIDA - which looks at new detector solutions for future accelerators - and the ALICE Inner Tracking System - which tests components for the ALICE experiment. &qu...

  20. Analytical Dielectric Spectrum Formula Based on Representative Frequencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Kong; Ke-xiang Fu; Min-hua Shan; Xiang-yuan Li

    2009-01-01

    According to experimental data available for the complex refractive index of particular di-electrics, a dielectric spectrum formula is proposed by the least square fitting technique combined with selected natural frequencies. From the dielectric spectrum formula, the spec-tra of optical and dielectric constants can be obtained in the whole frequency region. Three dielectrics, water, ethanol, and toluene, are taken as examples. In the region where the ex-perimental data are available, the spectra of the optical constants calculated by the formula are in good agreement with the real refractive spectrum obtained by Kramers-Kronig (K-K) transform and the experimental imaginary refractive spectrum. In the region where no ex-perimental data are available, the extrapolation of our formula can make predictions. The merits of the present treatment are that we are able to get the uniform spectrum formula, without splitting into different frequency sections, and the analytical form of the dielectric spectra will be useful in the theoretical description of solvation dynamics.

  1. Effects of La Incorporation in Hf Based Dielectric on Leakage Conduction and Carrier Scattering Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung-Won; Lee, Dong Hwi; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Jeon, Yoon Seok; Tong, Duc-Tai; Bang, Hyun Joon; Jeong, Jae Kyoung; Choi, Rino

    2015-10-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with various doses of La-incorporated in Hafnium-based dielectrics were characterized to evaluate the effect of La on dielectric and device properties. It is found that the Poole-Frenkel emission model could explain our experimental leakage current conduction mechanism reasonably and barrier heights of localized Poole-Frenkel trap sites increase gradually with increasing La incorporation. Cryogenic measurement (from 100 K to 300 K) of MOSFETs reveals that, as the content of La incorporation in the dielectric increases, the more increase of maximum effective mobility has been found at low temperature. It is mainly attributed to the more reduction of phonon scattering due to higher content of La atoms at the interface of dielectric and channel. Though it is relatively small, the existence of La in dielectric reduces coulomb scattering rate as well.

  2. Improved ramped bunch train to increase the transformer ratio of a two-channel multimode dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Sotnikov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we show a possibility of applying the ramped drive bunch train (RBT technique to a two-channel coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA. For numerical research we study a 28 GHz structure with two nested alumina cylindrical shells having these diameters: outer shell, OD=28.1  mm, ID=27  mm; inner shell, OD=6.35  mm, ID=4.0  mm. The structure is to be excited by a train of four annular bunches having energy 14 MeV and axial rms length 1 mm; the total charge of bunches is 200 nC. In the case of equally charged drive bunches, spaced apart by the principal wakefield wavelength 10.67 mm, we obtained transformer ratio T=3.4. If the bunch charge is increasing as the ratio 1∶3∶5∶7 and the bunches are spaced by one and one-half wavelengths, we obtained T=3.8. We found that if the charge ratios are 1.0∶2.4∶3.5∶5.0 and the spaces between the bunches are 2.5, 2.5, and 4.5 wakefield periods, then T increases strongly, T∼20. The RBT also can be used successfully in a high gradient THz CDWA structure. A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the four drive bunches can move without appreciable distortion.

  3. Microwave dielectric properties of lanthanum based complex perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Masood A.; Samal, Saroj L. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Obulesu, K. Rama; Raju, K.C. James [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Ganguli, Ashok K., E-mail: ashok@chemistry.iitd.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Three new series of oxides with formula La{sub 2}BaTi{sub 2}M{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 9}, (M = Mg, Zn and Cd) have been synthesized by solid state method. • Such materials exhibit low loss and are used as resonators in wireless communication devices. • Detailed morphological studies and density measurements have confirmed the dielectric data. - Abstract: The present investigation discusses the synthesis and dielectric properties of three series of oxides of the formula La{sub 2}BaTi{sub 2}M{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 9} (where M = Mg, Zn and Cd). The reactions have been carried out via solid state method and all the compositions crystallize in the disordered cubic perovskite structure. Suitable substitution at both A and B sites lead to enhancement in the dielectric properties at high frequencies. The relative permittivity and loss tangent have been measured at X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz) and Ku-band (12.4–18 GHz) frequencies. The oxides show a dielectric constant of 20–30 while the dielectric loss is quite low in the order of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −4} (at 500 kHz) and 10{sup −2} at X and Ku-band. There is scope for further investigations in these systems to realize useful materials for microwave applications.

  4. Energy spread in plasma-based acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, A.; Trines, R.; Goloviznin, V.

    2000-01-01

    Electron acceleration in a one-dimensional plasma wave has been simulated, with emphasis on minimizing the energy spread of an accelerated electron bunch, while keeping the mean energy gain at a reasonable level. Bunch length, beam loading, and the injection phase are tuned to reach this goal. The s

  5. Advocating for Grade-Based Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbault, Keri M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents often struggle with the decision to accelerate their child and may worry about social and emotional issues, although research indicates positive effects on the social and emotional adjustment of carefully selected accelerants. As children's advocates, parents can work effectively with a school system to secure an appropriate academic…

  6. High-strain actuator materials based on dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelrine, R.; Kornbluh, R.; Kofod, G.

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are a new class of actuator materials that exhibit excellent performance. The principle of operation, as well as methods to fabricate and test these elastomers, is summarized here. The Figure is a sketch of an elastomer film (light gray) stretched on a frame (black) and patt......Dielectric elastomers are a new class of actuator materials that exhibit excellent performance. The principle of operation, as well as methods to fabricate and test these elastomers, is summarized here. The Figure is a sketch of an elastomer film (light gray) stretched on a frame (black...

  7. Controlled thermal expansion printed wiring boards based on liquid crystal polymer dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas E.; Blizard, Kent; Jayaraj, K.; Rubin, Leslie S.

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric materials based on innovative Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCP's) have been used to fabricate surface mount printed wiring boards (PWB's) with a coefficient of thermal expansion matched to leadless ceramic chip carriers. Proprietary and patented polymer processing technology has resulted in self reinforcing material with balanced in-plane mechanical properties. In addition, LCP's possess excellent electrical properties, including a low dielectric constant (less than 2.9) and very low moisture absorption (less than 0.02%). LCP-based multilayer boards processed with conventional drilling and plating processes show improved performance over other materials because they eliminate the surface flatness problems of glass or aramid reinforcements. Laser drilling of blind vias in the LCP dielectric provides a very high density for use in direct chip attach and area array packages. The material is ideally suited for MCM-L and PCMCIA applications fabricated with very thin dielectric layers of the liquid crystal polymer.

  8. Novel metamaterial based on the coupling effect of a dielectric trimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiahui; Chen, Wan, E-mail: dhtyyobdc@126.com; Lv, Bo; Wang, Zhefei

    2017-01-23

    Highlights: • Novel metamaterial based on the coupling effect of a dielectric trimer is proposed. • The phenomenon of vanishing mode is explained by the zero-sum effect. • Due to the vanishing mode, the bandwidth of the dielectric trimer has been expanded to 37%. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel periodic 2D all-dielectric metamaterial based on dielectric trimer is proposed. The electromagnetic responses are explained by the corrected equations of motion using coupled mode theory (CMT). An abnormal vanishment mode phenomenon is also discovered and explained using the zero-sum effect of magnetic dipole, by which the relative bandwidth of the metamaterial has been improved significantly compared with other structures. The presented design is easy for fabrication and can be applied in microwave region by scaling the dimensions of the cubes.

  9. Millimeter Waveband Dielectric Properties of Nanocomposite Materials Based on Opal Matrices with Particles of Spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Perov, D. V.; Pakhomov, Ya A.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Kuznetsov, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The dielectric properties of 3D nanocomposites based on opal matrices containing the particles of compounds with spinel structure have been studied. Microwave measurements have been carried out in the frequency range from 26 to 38 GHz. The frequency dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients are obtained. The values of the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric permittivity have been retrieved. The X-ray phase analysis of the nanocomposites is performed and their structures are studied.

  10. Quantitative statistical analysis of dielectric breakdown in zirconia-based self-assembled nanodielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitz, Ruth A; Ha, Young-geun; Marks, Tobin J; Lauhon, Lincoln J

    2012-05-22

    Uniformity of the dielectric breakdown voltage distribution for several thicknesses of a zirconia-based self-assembled nanodielectric was characterized using the Weibull distribution. Two regimes of breakdown behavior are observed: self-assembled multilayers >5 nm thick are well described by a single two-parameter Weibull distribution, with β ≈ 11. Multilayers ≤5 nm thick exhibit kinks on the Weibull plot of dielectric breakdown voltage, suggesting that multiple characteristic mechanisms for dielectric breakdown are present. Both the degree of uniformity and the effective dielectric breakdown field are observed to be greater for one layer than for two layers of Zr-SAND, suggesting that this multilayer is more promising for device applications.

  11. Performance of pentacene-based organic field effect transistors using different polymer gate dielectrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-lei; CHENG Xiao-man; ZHENG Hong; YIN Shou-gen

    2009-01-01

    Pentacene-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) are fabricated using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyimide (PI) as gate dielectrics, respectively. The fabricated OFETs exhibit reasonable device characteristics. The field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and on/off current radio are determined to be 3.214 × 10-2 cm2 / Vs, -28 V, and 1 × 103 respectively for OFETs with PMMA as gate dielectrics, and 7.306×10-3cm2 / Vs, -21 V, and 2 ×102 for OFETs with PI. Furthermore, the dielectric properties of gate insulator layer are tested and the dipole effect at the semiconductor/dielectrics interface is also analyzed by a model of energy level diagram.

  12. Polymer thin-film transistor based on a high dielectric constant gate insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Wen; Peng Jun-Biao; Yang Kai-Xia; Lan Lin-Feng; Niu Qiao-Li; Cao Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper full polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) based on Poly (acrylonitrile) (PAN) as the gate dielectric and poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as the semiconductor layer were investigated by using different channel width/length ratios. Relatively high dielectric constant of the polymer dielectric layer (6.27) can remarkably reduce the threshold voltage of the transistors to below-3 V. Hole field-effect mobility of MEH-PPV of the PTFTs was about 4.8 × 10-4 cm2/Vs, and on/off current ratio was larger than 102, which was comparable with that of transistors with widely used Poly (4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) or SiO2 as gate dielectrics.

  13. Energy Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenn Toft, Jakob; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based accelerators are very suitable to implement application-specific processors using uncommon operations or number systems. In this work, we design FPGA-based accelerators for two financial computations with different characteristics and we compare...

  14. An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun Gui; Ong, C K; Tyc, Tomás; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Transformation optics is a concept used in some metamaterials to guide light on a predetermined path. In this approach, the materials implement coordinate transformations on electromagnetic waves to create the illusion that the waves are propagating through a virtual space. Transforming space by appropriately designed materials makes devices possible that have been deemed impossible. In particular, transformation optics has led to the demonstration of invisibility cloaking for microwaves, surface plasmons and infrared light. Here, on the basis of transformation optics, we implement a microwave device that would normally require a dielectric singularity, an infinity in the refractive index. To fabricate such a device, we transmute a dielectric singularity in virtual space into a mere topological defect in a real metamaterial. In particular, we demonstrate an omnidirectional retroreflector, a device for faithfully reflecting images and for creating high visibility from all directions. Our method is robust, potentially broadband and could also be applied to visible light using similar techniques.

  15. 3D Metamaterial Based on a Regular Array of Resonant Dielectric Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vendik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3D regular lattice of bi-spherical dielectric resonant inclusions arranged in a cubic lattice as two sets of spheres made from the same dielectric material having different radii and embedded in a host dielectric material with lower dielectric permittivity was carefully investigated. The magnetic resonance corresponding to the first Mie resonance in the spherical particles is followed by forming a regular array of effective magnetic dipoles, and the structure of the identical spherical dielectric resonators can be designed as an isotropic μ-negative 3D-metamaterial. For the electric resonance it was found experimentally and by the simulation that the resonant response of the electric dipole was weakly pronounced and the μ-negative behavior was remarkably suppressed. To enhance the electric dipole contribution we considered another kind of the symmetry of the bi-spherical arrangement of the particles corresponding to the body-centered cubic symmetry instead of the symmetry of NaCl analog considered previously. Electromagnetic properties of a volumetric structure based on a regular lattice of identical cubic dielectric particles is also considered and analyzed as μ-negative metamaterial. The cubic particle based 3D-metamaterial is preferable for practical realization as compared with the spherical inclusions.

  16. Trapping of hydrogen in hafnium-based high kappa dielectric thin films for advanced CMOS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukirde, Vaishali

    In recent years, advanced high kappa gate dielectrics are under serious consideration to replace SiO2 and SiON in semiconductor industry. Hafnium-based dielectrics such as hafnium oxides, oxynitrides and Hf-based silicates/nitrided silicates are emerging as some of the most promising alternatives to SiO2/SiON gate dielectrics in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices. Extensive efforts have been taken to understand the effects of hydrogen impurities in semiconductors and its behavior such as incorporation, diffusion, trapping and release with the aim of controlling and using it to optimize the performance of electronic device structures. In this dissertation, a systematic study of hydrogen trapping and the role of carbon impurities in various alternate gate dielectric candidates, HfO2/Si, HfxSi1-xO2/Si, HfON/Si and HfON(C)/Si is presented. It has been shown that processing of high kappa dielectrics may lead to some crystallization issues. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) for measuring oxygen deficiencies, elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) for quantifying hydrogen and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for quantifying carbon, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for measuring degree of crystallinity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize these thin dielectric materials. ERDA data are used to characterize the evolution of hydrogen during annealing in hydrogen ambient in combination with preprocessing in oxygen and nitrogen.

  17. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, D. A.; Rameika, R.; Stanton, N.

    This paper attempts to summarize the neutrino oscillation section of the Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Beam Facilities. There were very lively discussions about the merits of the different oscillation channels, experiments, and facilities, but we believe a substantial consensus emerged. First, the next decade is one of great potential for discovery in neutrino physics, but it is also one of great peril. The possibility that neutrino oscillations explain the solar neutrino and atmospheric neutrino experiments, and the indirect evidence that Hot Dark Matter (HDM) in the form of light neutrinos might make up 30% of the mass of the universe, point to areas where accelerator-based experiments could play a crucial role in piecing together the puzzle. At the same time, the field faces a very uncertain future. The LSND experiment at LAMPF is the only funded neutrino oscillation experiment in the United States and it is threatened by the abrupt shutdown of LAMPF proposed for fiscal 1994. The future of neutrino physics at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS depends on the continuation of High Energy Physics (HEP) funding after the RHIC startup. Most proposed neutrino oscillation searches at Fermilab depend on the completion of the Main Injector project and on the construction of a new neutrino beamline, which is uncertain at this point. The proposed KAON facility at TRIUMF would provide a neutrino beam similar to that at the AGS but with a much increased intensity. The future of KAON is also uncertain. Despite the difficult obstacles present, there is a real possibility that we are on the verge of understanding the masses and mixings of the neutrinos. The physics importance of such a discovery cannot be overstated. The current experimental status and future possibilities are discussed.

  18. Microelectrode-based dielectric spectroscopy of glucose effect on erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, L; Beyer, C; Fröhlich, J; Talary, M; Renaud, P

    2012-06-01

    The dielectric response of biconcave erythrocytes exposed to D-glucose and L-glucose has been investigated using a double array of planar interdigitated microelectrodes on a glass microchip. Erythrocytes are analyzed under physiological conditions suspended in hypo-osmolar balanced solutions containing different glucose concentrations (0-20 mM). The glucose effect on the cellular dielectric properties is evaluated by analyzing the spectra using two different approaches, the equivalent circuit model and a modified model for ellipsoidal particles. The results show that at elevated glucose concentration (15 mM) the membrane capacitance increases by 36%, whereas the cytosol conductivity slightly decreases with a variation of about 15%. On the contrary, no variation has been registered with L-glucose, a biologically inactive enantiomer of D-glucose. The paper discusses the possible mechanism controlling the membrane dielectric response. As the external D-glucose increases, the number of activated glucose transporter in the erythrocyte membrane raises and the transition from sugar-free state to sugar-bounded state induces a change in the dipole moments and in the membrane capacitance.

  19. Electrophysical Systems Based On Charged Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vorogushin, M F

    2004-01-01

    The advancement of the charged particle accelerator engineering affects appreciably the modern tendencies of the scientific and technological progress in the world. In a number of advanced countries, this trend is one of the most dynamically progressing in the field of applied science and high-technology production. Such internationally known firms as VARIAN, SIEMENS, PHILIPS, ELECTA, IBA, HITACHI, etc., with an annual budget of milliards of dollars and growth rate of tens of percent may serve as an example. Although nowadays the projects of new large-scale accelerators for physical research are not implemented so quickly and frequently as desired, accelerating facilities are finding ever-widening application in various fields of human activities. The contribution made by Russian scientists into high-energy beams physics is generally known. High scientific and technical potential in this field, qualified personnel with a high creative potential, modern production and test facilities and state-of-the-art techn...

  20. Dielectric Properties of Carbon, Silicon and Germanium Based Polymers: A First Principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Liu, Chunsheng; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2012-02-01

    The field of high energy density capacitors would benefit from the discovery of new insulating polymers with high dielectric constant, low loss, large band gap and high breakdown strength. The current standards for capacitive energy storage applications are polypropylene and polyethylene which have large band gap and high breakdown strength, but a small dielectric constant. As an initial step aimed at the discovery of new polymers with better dielectric properties, we consider a class of chemically-modified polymers based on polyethylene. These polymers are composed of --XY2-- building blocks, with X = C, Si or Ge, and Y = H, F or Cl. We use density functional perturbation theory and exchange-correlation functionals that include van der Waals and/or nonlocal exchange interactions to accurately predict the structure, dielectric constant (electronic and ionic) and band gap of this class of polymers. The computed properties have been correlated to the underlying electronic structure and phonon modes, and tradeoffs between the band gap and dielectric constant are established. The time-consuming dielectric computations have been optimized using a new ``single-chain'' method to allow for future extensive explorations of the polymer chemical space via automated high-throughput computations.

  1. A New Accelerator-Based Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    Tandem electrostatic accelerators produce beams of positive ions which are used to penetrate atomic nuclei in a target, inducing nuclear reactions whose study elucidates varied properties of the nucleus. Uses of the system, which acts like a mass spectrometer, are discussed. These include radiocarbon dating measurements. (JN)

  2. A Qualitative Acceleration Model Based on Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester MARTINEZ-MARTIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the way to autonomous service robots, spatial reasoning plays a main role since it properly deals with problems involving uncertainty. In particular, we are interested in knowing people's pose to avoid collisions. With that aim, in this paper, we present a qualitative acceleration model for robotic applications including representation, reasoning and a practical application.

  3. Inverse grey-box model-based control of a dielectric elastomer actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Richard William; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2012-01-01

    An accurate physical-based electromechanical model of a commercially available tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator has been developed and validated. In this contribution, the use of the physical-based electromechanical model to formulate a model-based controller is examined. The choice...

  4. Dielectric breakdown strength of magnetic nanofluid based on insulation oil after impulse test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, M.; Rasoulifard, M. H.; Hosseini, H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the dielectric breakdown strength of magnetic nanofluids based on transformer mineral oil for use in power systems is reviewed. Nano oil samples are obtained from dispersion of the magnetic nanofluid within uninhibited transformer mineral oil NYTRO LIBRA as the base fluid. AC dielectric breakdown voltage measurement was carried out according to IEC 60156 standard and the lightning impulse breakdown voltage was obtained by using the sphere-sphere electrodes in an experimental setup for nano oil in volume concentration of 0.1-0.6%. Results indicate improved AC and lightning impulse breakdown voltage of nano oil compared to the base oil. AC test was performed again after applying impulse current and result showed that nano oil unlike the base oil retains its dielectric properties. Increase the dielectric strength of the nano oil is mainly due to dielectric and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles that act as free electrons snapper, and reduce the rate of free electrons in the ionization process.

  5. AFM based dielectric spectroscopy: extended frequency range through excitation of cantilever higher eigenmodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, Luis A; Kummali, Mohammed M; Schwartz, Gustavo A; Alegría, Ángel; Colmenero, Juan

    2014-11-01

    In the last years, a new AFM based dielectric spectroscopy approach has been developed for measuring the dielectric relaxation of materials at the nanoscale, the so called nanoDielectric Spectroscopy (nDS). In spite of the effort done so far, some experimental aspects of this technique remain still unclear. In particular, one of these aspects is the possibility of extending the experimental frequency range, to date limited at high frequencies by the resonance frequency of the AFM cantilever as a main factor. In order to overcome this limitation, the electrical excitation of cantilever higher eigenmodes for measuring the dielectric relaxation is here explored. Thus, in this work we present a detailed experimental analysis of the electrical excitation of the cantilever second eigenmode. Based on this analysis we show that the experimental frequency range of the AFM based dielectric spectroscopy can be extended by nearly two decades with a good signal-to-noise ratio. By using the combination of first and second cantilever eigenmodes we study dissipation processes on well known PVAc based polymeric samples. Both, relaxation spectra and images with molecular dynamics contrast were thus obtained over this broader frequency range.

  6. Acceleration sensing based on piezoresistive effect of carbon nanotube films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng-yan; SHEN Hui-juan; CAO Chun-lan; LIAO Ke-jun; HU Chen-guo

    2006-01-01

    Based on piezoresistive effect,the acceleration sensitivity of multi-walled canbon nanotube (MWNT) films was investigated.A three-point bending technique was presented to measure the piezoresistivity,which used a bending stress applied to the samples while making MWNT films wheeling with a rotational machine.The experimental results showed that the fractional increase in resistance increases linearly versus the increase of centripetal acceleration,and there is a linear relationship between the acceleration and the strain.These shed light on using carbon nanotube films as acceleration sensors for many potential applications.

  7. Beam-driven, Plasma-based Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Muggli, P

    2016-01-01

    We briefly give some of the characteristics of the beam-driven, plasma-based particle accelerator known as the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA). We also mention some of the major results that have been obtained since the birth of the concept. We focus on high-energy particle beams where possible.

  8. Beam-driven, Plasma-based Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Muggli, P.

    2016-01-01

    We briefly give some of the characteristics of the beam-driven, plasma-based particle accelerator known as the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA). We also mention some of the major results that have been obtained since the birth of the concept. We focus on high-energy particle beams where possible.

  9. Photon Acceleration Based On Laser-Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One dimensional electron density perturbation is derived by using the cold fluid equation, Possion's equation and the conti nuity equation. The perturbation is generated by a driving laser pulse propagating through a plasma. The upshifting of the frequency of a trailing pulse induced by density perturbation is studied by using optical metric. The results show that it is possible that the photon will gain energy from the wakefield when assuming photon's number to be conserved, i.e., the photon will be accelerated.

  10. Efficient polarization insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens' metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Katie E; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Liu, Sheng; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength-thin metasurfaces have shown great promises for the control of optical wavefronts, thus opening new pathways for the development of efficient flat optics. In particular, Huygens' metasurfaces based on all-dielectric resonant meta-atoms have already shown a huge potential for practical applications with their polarization insensitivity and high transmittance efficiency. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a polarization insensitive holographic Huygens' metasurface based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms capable of complex wavefront control at telecom wavelengths. Our metasurface produces a hologram image in the far-field with 82% transmittance efficiency and 40% imaging efficiency. Such efficient complex wavefront control shows that Huygens' metasurfaces based on resonant dielectric meta-atoms are a big step towards practical applications of metasurfaces in wavefront design related technologies, including computer-generated holograms, ultra-thin optics, security and data storage devices.

  11. Fluid electrodes for submersible robotics based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Caleb; Goldberg, Nathaniel; Cai, Shengqiang; Tolley, Michael T.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have gathered interest for soft robotics due to their low cost, light weight, large strain, low power consumption, and high energy density. However, developing reliable, compliant electrodes for DEAs remains an ongoing challenge due to issues with fabrication, uniformity of the conductive layer, and mechanical stiffening of the actuators caused by conductive materials with large Young's moduli. In this work, we present a method for preparing, patterning, and utilizing conductive fluid electrodes. Further, when we submerse the DEAs in a bath containing a conductive fluid connected to ground, the bath serves as a second electrode, obviating the need for depositing a conductive layer to serve as either of the electrodes required of most DEAs. When we apply a positive electrical potential to the conductive fluid in the actuator with respect to ground, the electric field across the dielectric membrane causes charge carriers in the solution to apply an electrostatic force on the membrane, which compresses the membrane and causes the actuator to deform. We have used this process to develop a tethered submersible robot that can swim in a tank of saltwater at a maximum measured speed of 9.2 mm/s. Since saltwater serves as the electrode, we overcome buoyancy issues that may be a challenge for pneumatically actuated soft robots and traditional, rigid robotics. This research opens the door to low-power underwater robots for search and rescue and environmental monitoring applications.

  12. Structural Characteristics & Dielectric Properties of Tantalum Oxide Doped Barium Titanate Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubayyat Mahbub

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the causal relationship between the dielectric properties and the structural characteristics of 0.5 & 1.0 mol% Ta2O5 doped BaTiO3 based ceramic materials were investigated under different sintering conditions. Dielectric properties and microstructure of BaTio3 ceramics were significantly influenced by the addition of a small amount of Ta2O5. Dielectric properties were investigated by measuring the dielectric constant (k as a function of temperature and frequency. Percent theoretical density (%TD above 90% was achieved for 0.5 and 1.0 mol% Ta2O5 doped BaTiO3. It was observed that the grain size decreased markedly above a doping concentration of 0·5 mol% Ta2O5. Although fine grain size down to 200-300nm was attained, grain sizes in the range of 1-1.8µm showed the most alluring properties. The fine-grain quality and high density of the Ta2O5 doped BaTiO3 ceramic resulted in tenfold increase of dielectric constant. Stable value of dielectric constant as high as 13000-14000 was found in the temperature range of  55 to 80°C, for 1.0 mol% Ta2O5 doped samples with corresponding shift of Curie point to ~82°C. Experiments divulged that incorporation of a proper content of Ta2O5 in BaTiO3 could control the grain growth, shift the Curie temperature and hence significantly improve the dielectric property of the BaTiO3 ceramics.

  13. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS & DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF TANTALUM OXIDE DOPED BARIUM TITANATE BASED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fakhrul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the causal relationship between the dielectric properties and the structural characteristics of 0.5 & 1.0 mole % Ta2O5 doped BaTiO3 based ceramic materials were investigated under different sintering conditions. Dielectric properties and microstructure of BaTio3 ceramics were significantly influenced by the addition of a small amount of Ta2O5. Dielectric properties were investigated by measuring the dielectric constant (k as a function of temperature and frequency. Percent theoretical density (%TD above 90 % was achieved for 0.5 and 1.0 mole %Ta2O5 doped BaTiO3. It was observed that the grain size decreased markedly above a doping concentration of 0.5 mole % Ta2O5. Although fine grain size down to 200 - 300 nm was attained, grain sizes in the range of 1-1.8µm showed the most alluring properties. The fine-grain quality and high density of the Ta2O5 doped BaTiO3 ceramic resulted in tenfold increase of dielectric constant. Stable value of dielectric constant as high as 13000 - 14000 was found in the temperature range of 55 to 80 °C, for 1.0 mole % Ta2O5 doped samples with corresponding shift of Curie point to ~82 °C. Experiments divulged that incorporation of a proper content of Ta2O5 in BaTiO3 could control the grain growth, shift the Curie temperature and hence significantly improve the dielectric property of the BaTiO3 ceramics.

  14. Study of relaxation and transport processes by means of AFM based dielectric spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccio, Luis A. [Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain and Departamento de Física de Materiales UPV/EHU, Fac. de Química, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Schwartz, Gustavo A. [Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain and Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Since its birth a few years ago, dielectric spectroscopy studies based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have gained a growing interest. Not only the frequency and temperature ranges have become broader since then but also the kind of processes that can be studied by means of this approach. In this work we analyze the most adequate experimental setup for the study of several dielectric processes with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers by using force mode AFM based dielectric spectroscopy. Proof of concept experiments were performed on PS/PVAc blends and PMMA homopolymer films, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 K. Charge transport processes were also studied by this approach. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of cantilever stray contribution, film thickness and relaxation strength. We found that the method sensitivity is strongly coupled with the film thickness and the relaxation strength, and that it is possible to control it by using an adequate experimental setup.

  15. FPGA Based Acceleration of Decimal Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate-Arrays (FPGAs) can efficiently implement application specific processors in nonconventional number systems, such as the decimal (Binary- Coded Decimal, or BCD) number system required for accounting accuracy in financial applications. The main purpose of this work is to show...... that applications requiring several decimal (BCD) operations can be accelerated by a processor implemented on a FPGA board connected to the computer by a standard bus. For the case of a telephone billing application, we demonstrate that even a basic implementation of the decimal processor on the FPGA, without...

  16. The Current State of Silicone-Based Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    driving voltages. In this review, the current state of sili- cone elastomers for DETs is summarised and critically discussed, including commercial elastomers, composites, polymer blends, grafted elastomers and complex network structures. For future developments in the field it is essential that all aspects...... class of transducer due to their inherent lightweight and potentially large strains. For the field to progress towards industrial implementation, a leap in material devel- opment is required, specifically targeting longer lifetime and higher energy densities to provide more efficient transduction at lower...... of the elastomer are taken into account, namely dielectric losses, life- time and the very often ignored polymer network integrity and stability....

  17. An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yun Gui; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    In the field of transformation optics, metamaterials mimic the effect of coordinate transformations on electromagnetic waves, creating the illusion that the waves are propagating through a virtual space. Transforming space by appropriately designed materials makes devices possible that have been deemed impossible. In particular, transformation optics has led to the demonstration of invisibility cloaking for microwaves, surface plasmons and infrared light. Here we report the achievement of another "impossible task". We implement, for microwaves, a device that would normally require a dielectric singularity, an infinity in the refractive index. We transmute a singularity in virtual space into a mere topological defect in a real metamaterial. In particular, we demonstrate an omnidirectional retroreflector, a device for faithfully reflecting images and for creating high visibility, from all directions. Our method is robust, potentially broadband and similar techniques could be applied for visible light.

  18. BUPT_PRIS at TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Abstract This paper describes the system in Vital Filtering and Streaming Slot Filling task of TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track. In the Vital ...can help update a knowledge base like Wikipedia. The KBA2014 includes three tasks: Vital Filtering(VF) task ,Streaming Slot Filling task and Accelerate...Create. The third task is new open track which is not evaluated. For the Vital Filtering task, given a fixed list of target entities from

  19. Neural network-based sensor signal accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    2000-10-16

    A strategy has been developed to computationally accelerate the response time of a generic electronic sensor. The strategy can be deployed as an algorithm in a control system or as a physical interface (on an embedded microcontroller) between a slower responding external sensor and a higher-speed control system. Optional code implementations are available to adjust algorithm performance when computational capability is limited. In one option, the actual sensor signal can be sampled at the slower rate with adaptive linear neural networks predicting the sensor's future output and interpolating intermediate synthetic output values. In another option, a synchronized collection of predictors sequentially controls the corresponding synthetic output voltage. Error is adaptively corrected in both options. The core strategy has been demonstrated with automotive oxygen sensor data. A prototype interface device is under construction. The response speed increase afforded by this strategy could greatly offset the cost of developing a replacement sensor with a faster physical response time.

  20. Dielectric nanoresonator based lossless optical perfect magnetic mirror with near-zero reflection phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Jiang, Zhi Hao; Ma, Ding; Yun, Seokho; Liu, Zhiwen; Werner, Douglas H.; Mayer, Theresa S.

    2016-04-01

    We report an all-dielectric lossless optical mirror for the realization of controllable reflection phase based on an array of isolated dielectric nanoresonators. This dielectric mirror is comprised of a cross-shaped amorphous silicon nanoresonator array that has been designed to achieve a 99.8% reflectivity and zero reflection phase at the wavelength of 0.99 μm. The measured results from the fabricated sample match the theoretical predictions with 99.5% reflectivity and near-zero degree reflection phase at 1 μm, which is very close to the targeted wavelength. This concept and approach pave the way for synthesizing lossless artificial reflecting electromagnetic boundaries with arbitrary phase response and hold great promise in applications ranging from nanocavities to nanowaveguides and nanoantennas.

  1. Isotropic negative permeability composite based on Mie resonance of the BST-MgO dielectric medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qian; KANG Lei; DU Bo; ZHAO HongJie; XIE Qin; LI Bo; ZHOU Ji; LI LongTu; MENG YongGang

    2008-01-01

    Isotropic negative permeability composite, composed of BST-MgO dielectric cubes with high permit-tivity dispersed in the Teflon substrate with low permittivity, was designed and fabricated based on Mie resonance and the effective medium theory. Measurements and simulations showed that the dielectric composite exhibited a strong sub-wavelength magnetic resonance at the first Mie resonance and possessed isotropic negative permeability, which resulted from the displacement current excited in the cubes. The dielectric particle was equivalent to a magnetic dipole at the magnetic resonance, which could be adjusted by the size and permitllvity of the particles. It may provide a convenient method to design isotropic metamaterials and invisible cloak at infrared and visible frequencies.

  2. Novel metamaterial based on the coupling effect of a dielectric trimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiahui; Chen, Wan; Lv, Bo; Wang, Zhefei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel periodic 2D all-dielectric metamaterial based on dielectric trimer is proposed. The electromagnetic responses are explained by the corrected equations of motion using coupled mode theory (CMT). An abnormal vanishment mode phenomenon is also discovered and explained using the zero-sum effect of magnetic dipole, by which the relative bandwidth of the metamaterial has been improved significantly compared with other structures. The presented design is easy for fabrication and can be applied in microwave region by scaling the dimensions of the cubes.

  3. An ultra-narrowband absorber with a dielectric-dielectric-metal structure based on guide-mode resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-narrowband absorber with a dielectric-dielectric-metal (DDM) tri-layer structure which is composed of a dielectric grating as the top layer, a dielectric spacer and a metal substrate. The simulation results show that, we can get an ultra-narrowband absorber with the absorption bandwidth less than 0.05 nm and the absorption rate more than 0.99 within an ultra-narrow angle for TE polarization (electric field is parallel to grating grooves). The results also show that the ultra-narrowband absorption for TE polarization is originated from guide-mode resonance and low power loss in the metal substrate. This ultra-narrowband absorber is a good candidate for application in coherent emission of light by thermal source.

  4. Structure and performance of dielectric films based on self-assembled nanocrystals with a high dielectric constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limin; Liu, Shuangyi; Van Tassell, Barry J; Liu, Xiaohua; Byro, Andrew; Zhang, Henan; Leland, Eli S; Akins, Daniel L; Steingart, Daniel A; Li, Jackie; O'Brien, Stephen

    2013-10-18

    Self-assembled films built from nanoparticles with a high dielectric constant are attractive as a foundation for new dielectric media with increased efficiency and range of operation, due to the ability to exploit nanofabrication techniques and emergent electrical properties originating from the nanoscale. However, because the building block is a discrete one-dimensional unit, it becomes a challenge to capture potential enhancements in dielectric performance in two or three dimensions, frequently due to surface effects or the presence of discontinuities. This is a recurring theme in nanoparticle film technology when applied to the realm of thin film semiconductor and device electronics. We present the use of chemically synthesized (Ba,Sr)TiO3 nanocrystals, and a novel deposition-polymerization technique, as a means to fabricate the dielectric layer. The effective dielectric constant of the film is tunable according to nanoparticle size, and effective film dielectric constants of up to 34 are enabled. Wide area and multilayer dielectrics of up to 8 cm(2) and 190 nF are reported, for which the building block is an 8 nm nanocrystal. We describe models for assessing dielectric performance, and distinct methods for improving the dielectric constant of a nanocrystal thin film. The approach relies on evaporatively driven assembly of perovskite nanocrystals with uniform size distributions in a tunable 7-30 nm size range, coupled with the use of low molecular weight monomer/polymer precursor chemistry that can infiltrate the porous nanocrystal thin film network post assembly. The intercrystal void space (low k dielectric volume fraction) is minimized, while simultaneously promoting intercrystal connectivity and maximizing volume fraction of the high k dielectric component. Furfuryl alcohol, which has good affinity to the surface of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 nanocrystals and miscibility with a range of solvents, is demonstrated to be ideal for the production of nanocomposites. The

  5. Tunable All-in-Fiber Waveplates Based on Negative Dielectric Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Weirich, Johannes;

    2008-01-01

    Tunable all-in-fiber waveplates based on negative dielectric liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers are presented. The birefringence can be tuned electrically and thermally to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the range 1520 nm-1580 nm....

  6. Utilizing self-assembled-monolayer-based gate dielectrics to fabricate molybdenum disulfide field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanago, Takamasa, E-mail: kawanago.t.ab@m.titech.ac.jp; Oda, Shunri [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center (QNERC), Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-01-25

    In this study, we apply self-assembled-monolayer (SAM)-based gate dielectrics to the fabrication of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) field-effect transistors. A simple fabrication process involving the selective formation of a SAM on metal oxides in conjunction with the dry transfer of MoS{sub 2} flakes was established. A subthreshold slope (SS) of 69 mV/dec and no hysteresis were demonstrated with the ultrathin SAM-based gate dielectrics accompanied by a low gate leakage current. The small SS and no hysteresis indicate the superior interfacial properties of the MoS{sub 2}/SAM structure. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a sharp and abrupt interface of the MoS{sub 2}/SAM structure. The SAM-based gate dielectrics are found to be applicable to the fabrication of low-voltage MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors and can also be extended to various layered semiconductor materials. This study opens up intriguing possibilities of SAM-based gate dielectrics in functional electronic devices.

  7. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  8. Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article

  9. Broad angle negative refraction in lossless all dielectric or semiconductor based asymmetric anisotropic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Ayed Al; Mahdy, M. R. C.; Saifur Rahman, Md

    2016-01-01

    In this article, it has been theoretically shown that broad angle negative refraction is possible with asymmetric anisotropic metamaterials (AAMs) constructed by only dielectrics or lossless semiconductors at the telecommunication and relative wavelength range. Though natural uniaxial materials can exhibit negative refraction, the maximum angle of negative refraction and critical incident angle lie in a very narrow range. This problem can be overcome by our proposed structure. In our structures, negative refraction originates from the highly asymmetric elliptical iso-frequency. This is artificially created by the rotated multilayer sub-wavelength dielectric or semiconductor stack, which acts as an effective AAM. This negative refraction is achieved without using any negative permittivity materials such as metals. As we are using simple dielectrics, fabrication of such structures would be less complex than that of the metal based metamaterials. By considering the time harmonic field incidence, negative refraction has been demonstrated for two dimensional bi-dielectric structures for TM polarization with realistic parameters. Our proposed ideas have been validated by the full wave simulations considering both the effective medium approach and realistic structure model. This device might find some important applications in photonics and optoelectronics.

  10. Dielectric Elastomer Generator with Improved Energy Density and Conversion Efficiency Based on Polyurethane Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guoling; Yang, Yu; Song, Feilong; Renard, Christophe; Dang, Zhi-Min; Shi, Chang-Yong; Wang, Dongrui

    2017-02-15

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs), which follow the physics of variable capacitors and harvest electric energy from mechanical work, have attracted intensive attention over the past decade. The lack of ideal dielectric elastomers, after nearly two decades of research, has become the bottleneck for DEGs' practical applications. Here, we fabricated a series of polyurethane-based ternary composites and estimated their potential as DEGs to harvest electric energy for the first time. Thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) with high relative permittivity (∼8) was chosen as the elastic matrix. Barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizers, which were selected to improve the permittivity and mechanical properties, respectively, were blended into the PU matrix. As compared to pristine PU, the resultant ternary composite films fabricated through a solution casting approach showed enhanced permittivity, remarkably reduced elastic modulus, and relatively good electrical breakdown strength, dielectric loss, and strain at break. Most importantly, the harvested energy density of PU was significantly enhanced when blended with BT and DBP. A composite film containing 25 phr of BT and 60 phr of DBP with the harvested energy density of 1.71 mJ/cm(3) was achieved, which is about 4 times greater than that of pure PU and 8 times greater than that of VHB adhesives. Remarkably improved conversion efficiency of mechano-electric energy was also obtained via cofilling BT and DBP into PU. The results shown in this work strongly suggest compositing is a very promising way to provide better dielectric elastomer candidates for forthcoming practical DEGs.

  11. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  12. LU factorization for accelerator-based systems

    KAUST Repository

    Agullo, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Multicore architectures enhanced with multiple GPUs are likely to become mainstream High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms in a near future. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an LU factorization using tile algorithm that can fully exploit the potential of such platforms in spite of their complexity. We use a methodology derived from previous work on Cholesky and QR factorizations. Our contributions essentially consist of providing new CPU/GPU hybrid LU kernels, studying the impact on performance of the looking variants as well as the storage layout in presence of pivoting, tuning the kernels for two different machines composed of multiple recent NVIDIA Tesla S1070 (four GPUs total) and Fermi-based S2050 GPUs (three GPUs total), respectively. The hybrid tile LU asymptotically achieves 1 Tflop/s in single precision on both hardwares. The performance in double precision arithmetic reaches 500 Gflop/s on the Fermi-based system, twice faster than the old GPU generation of Tesla S1070. We also discuss the impact of the number of tiles on the numerical stability. We show that the numerical results of the tile LU factorization will be accurate enough for most applications as long as the computations are performed in double precision arithmetic. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. A self-focusing, high transformer ratio, collinear plasma dielectric wakefield accelerator driven by a ramped bunch train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, Gennadij V.; Marshall, Thomas C.; Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2017-03-01

    New results of studies of wakefield excitation by a ramped bunch train in a collinear, single-channel dielectriclined THz-wakefield accelerator structure that is filled with a low-temperature plasma are presented. A novel ramped train of drive bunches, together with plasma filling part of the transport channel, makes possible substantial improvement of the transformer ratio of the multimode collinear device to 6:1 while the plasma could stabilize the transverse motion of the drive and witness bunches.

  14. FPGA based accelerators for financial applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the latest approaches and results from reconfigurable computing architectures employed in the finance domain. So-called field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have already shown to outperform standard CPU- and GPU-based computing architectures by far, saving up to 99% of energy depending on the compute tasks. Renowned authors from financial mathematics, computer architecture, and finance business introduce the readers into today’s challenges in finance IT, illustrate the most advanced approaches and use cases, and present currently known methodologies for integrating FPGAs in finance systems together with latest results. The complete algorithm-to-hardware flow is covered holistically, so this book serves as a hands-on guide for IT managers, researchers, and quants/programmers who think about integrating FPGAs into their current IT systems.

  15. Electrical and Mechanical Properties of the Dielectric Capacitor Film Based on Polyvinylidene Fluoride and Aromatic Polythiourea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Fu, Qiong; Li, Lili; Li, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    To obtain the flexible dielectric material suitable for mass produced supercapacitor, blend films based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and aromatic polythiourea (ArPTU) were prepared by solution casting. We found that the PVDF/ArPTU blend film is a good energy storage material for capacitors with high breakdown strength and low loss at high filed. The breakdown field of PVDF/ArPTU (90/10) film is more than 700 MV/m, and the maximum released energy density is up to 11 J/cm3 with discharging efficiency above 80%. We also proved that the mechanical property of blend films is much better than that of pure ArPTU film, and the toughness and softness are close to the level of PVDF film. The blend film based on PVDF and ArPTU is a flexible dielectric material in the manufacture of supercapacitor.

  16. Physical interpretation of a modified Lorentz dielectric function for metals based on the Lorentz-Dirac force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopidis, Konstantinos; Kalialakis, Christos

    2014-10-01

    It is proposed that a recently used ad hoc modified Lorentz dielectric function for metals can be physically interpreted via the Lorentz-Dirac force. The Lorentz-Dirac force considers the radiation reaction of electrons, an effect that is ignored in classical dispersion relationships. A suitable reduced order form of the Lorentz-Dirac force that does not suffer from pre-acceleration and runaway artifacts is employed in the derivation of the modified dispersion model. The frequency characteristics and the causality of the Lorentz-Dirac dielectric model are studied in detail. Furthermore, the superiority of the Lorentz-Dirac dielectric function as a means of improved fitting of experimental data is demonstrated for gold, silver, and silicon in the infrared and optical region.

  17. SCU at TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    SCU at TREC 2014 Knowledge Base Acceleration Track Hung Nguyen, Yi Fang Department of Computer Engineering Santa Clara University 500 El Camino ...University,Department of Computer Engineering,500 El Camino Real,Santa Clara,CA,95053 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  18. Experimental Demonstration of Energy Chirp Compensation by a Tunable Dielectric Based Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Antipov, S; Jing, C; Fedurin, M; Kanareykin, A; Swinson, C; Schoessow, P; Gai, W; Zholents, A

    2013-01-01

    A 60 MeV beam at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) was manipulated by a planar tunable de-chirper made out of two 10 cm long dielectric slabs with copper plated backs. While the gap was changed from 5.8 mm to 1 mm, the correlated energy chirp of the low charge electron bunch was reduced from approximately 330 keV/mm to zero. This result is in agreement with simulations. Calculations show that similar devices, properly scaled to account for the expected electron bunch charge and length, can be used to remove residual correlated energy spread at the end of the linacs used for free-electron lasers (FEL). Potentially, this technique could significantly simplify linac design and improve FEL performance.

  19. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  20. Lifetime prediction based on Gamma processes from accelerated degradation data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haowei; Xu Tingxue; Mi Qiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated degradation test is a useful approach to predict the product lifetime at the normal use stress level, especially for highly reliable products. Two kinds of the lifetime prediction based on Gamma processes were studied. One was to predict the lifetime of the population from accelerated degradation data, and the other was to predict the lifetime of an individual by taking the accelerated degradation data as prior information. For an extensive application, the Gamma process with a time transformation and random effects was considered. A novel contribution is that a deducing method for determining the relationships between the shape and scale parameters of Gamma processes and accelerated stresses was presented. When predicting the lifetime of an indi-vidual, Bayesian inference methods were adopted to improve the prediction accuracy, in which the conjugate prior distribution and the non-conjugate prior distribution of random parameters were studied. The conjugate prior distribution only considers the random effect of the scale parameter while the non-conjugate prior distribution considers the random effects of both the scale and shape parameter. The application and usefulness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the accelerated degradation data of carbon-film resistors.

  1. An overview of an accelerator-based neutron spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.S.

    1996-06-01

    An overview of the feasibility study of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source is presented. The machine delivers 1 MW of proton beam power to spallation targets where slow neutrons are produced. The slow neutrons can be used for isotope production, materials irradiation, and neutron scattering research. The neutron source facility is based on a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) and consists of a 400-MeV linac, a 30-Hz RCS that accelerates the 400-MeV beam to 2 GeV, and two neutron-generating target stations. The RCS accelerates an average proton beam current of 0.5 mA, corresponding to 1.04 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse. This intensity is about two times higher than that of existing machines. A key feature of this accelerator system design is that beam losses are minimized from injection to extraction, reducing activation to levels consistent with hands-on maintenance.

  2. Architecture exploration of FPGA based accelerators for bioinformatics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, B Sharat Chandra; Balakrishnan, M

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an evaluation methodology to design future FPGA fabrics incorporating hard embedded blocks (HEBs) to accelerate applications. This methodology will be useful for selection of blocks to be embedded into the fabric and for evaluating the performance gain that can be achieved by such an embedding. The authors illustrate the use of their methodology by studying the impact of HEBs on two important bioinformatics applications: protein docking and genome assembly. The book also explains how the respective HEBs are designed and how hardware implementation of the application is done using these HEBs. It shows that significant speedups can be achieved over pure software implementations by using such FPGA-based accelerators. The methodology presented in this book may also be used for designing HEBs for accelerating software implementations in other domains besides bioinformatics. This book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers alike.

  3. Feature-Based Analysis of Plasma-Based Particle Acceleration Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geddes, Cameron G. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cormier-Michel, Estelle [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Plasma-based particle accelerators can produce and sustain thousands of times stronger acceleration fields than conventional particle accelerators, providing a potential solution to the problem of the growing size and cost of conventional particle accelerators. To facilitate scientific knowledge discovery from the ever growing collections of accelerator simulation data generated by accelerator physicists to investigate next-generation plasma-based particle accelerator designs, we describe a novel approach for automatic detection and classification of particle beams and beam substructures due to temporal differences in the acceleration process, here called acceleration features. The automatic feature detection in combination with a novel visualization tool for fast, intuitive, query-based exploration of acceleration features enables an effective top-down data exploration process, starting from a high-level, feature-based view down to the level of individual particles. We describe the application of our analysis in practice to analyze simulations of single pulse and dual and triple colliding pulse accelerator designs, and to study the formation and evolution of particle beams, to compare substructures of a beam and to investigate transverse particle loss.

  4. Novel high dielectric constant hybrid elastomers based on glycerol-insilicone emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    distributed within PDMS in shape of discrete droplets thus acting as a high dielectric constant filler efficiently enhancing the dielectric constant of the composites. Low- and high-voltage dielectric spectroscopy measurements were conducted in order to verify applicability of the composites as dielectric...

  5. Poly(Butylene Terephthalate Based Composites Containing Alumina Whiskers: Influence of Filler Functionalization on Dielectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Russo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT is one of the most widely used semicrystalline thermoplastics polyester because of its superior thermal and mechanical properties, high dimensional stability and excellent processability. In this research PBT-based nanocomposites, including various amounts (up to 10 wt% of commercial alumina whiskers, have been prepared by using a Brabender internal chamber mixer and analysed in terms of morphological features and dielectric properties. Specific attention has been focused on the effect of the filler functionalization considering 3-glycidoxy propylmethoxysilane (GPS or 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS as coupling agents. Tests, performed on compounds filled with neat and functionalized alumina whiskers, show a clear dependence of relative dielectric permittivity εr, invariance of dissipation factor (tgδ, and a sensible increase of volume electrical resistivity (ρv with the filler’s content and are encouraging for a future introduction of such composites in many electrical applications.

  6. Dielectric Coating Thermal Stabilization During GaAs-Based Laser Fabrication for Improved Device Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael K.; Millsapp, Jamal E.; Turner, George W.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and yield of GaAs-based ridge waveguide devices fabricated at MIT Lincoln Laboratory were negatively impacted by the random lot-to-lot appearance of blisters in the front-side contact metal. The blisters signaled compromised adhesion between the front-side contact metal, underlying SiO2 dielectric coating, and semiconductor surface. A thermal-anneal procedure developed for the fabrication of GaAs slab coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) ridge waveguide devices stabilizes the SiO2 dielectric coating by means of outgassing and stress reduction. This process eliminates a primary source of adhesion loss, as well as blister generation, and thereby significantly improves device yield. Stoney's equation was used to analyze stress-induced bow in device wafers fabricated using this stabilization procedure. This analysis suggests that changes in wafer bow contribute to the incidence of metal blisters in SCOW devices.

  7. Robust nanogenerators based on graft copolymers via control of dielectrics for remarkable output power enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Cho, Hye Jin; Chun, Jinsung; Kim, Kyeong Nam; Kim, Seongsu; Ahn, Chang Won; Kim, Ill Won; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yang, Changduk; Baik, Jeong Min

    2017-01-01

    A robust nanogenerator based on poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA)–grafted polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) copolymers via dielectric constant control through an atom-transfer radical polymerization technique, which can markedly increase the output power, is demonstrated. The copolymer is mainly composed of α phases with enhanced dipole moments due to the π-bonding and polar characteristics of the ester functional groups in the PtBA, resulting in the increase of dielectric constant values by approximately twice, supported by Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements. This increase in the dielectric constant significantly increased the density of the charges that can be accumulated on the copolymer during physical contact. The nanogenerator generates output signals of 105 V and 25 μA/cm2, a 20-fold enhancement in output power, compared to pristine PVDF–based nanogenerator after tuning the surface potential using a poling method. The markedly enhanced output performance is quite stable and reliable in harsh mechanical environments due to the high flexibility of the films. On the basis of these results, a much faster charging characteristic is demonstrated in this study. PMID:28560339

  8. Structure-property investigations with dielectric study on phosphorylcholine-based polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Dan; Su, Fu; Xie, Yun; Ma, Zhenmao; Shen, Jian

    2012-07-01

    Polyurethane with zwitterionic phosphorylcholine on the main chain was synthesized and the structures were defined with FTIR and (1)HNMR. The mechanical (tensile strength, elastic modulus) and biological (platelet adhesion) evaluations of its blend films with polyurethane were of satisfactory results, which were in accordance with the requirements of the medical devices, showing their potential applications as anticoagulant biomaterials. The dielectric spectroscopy was recorded with solid films and with films in water. The dielectric dispersion of the solid films demonstrated the existence of condensed ionic structures, which lead to the rigidity enhancement of the soft segment of the phosphorylcholine-based polyurethane, so that its elastic modulus increased. The dielectric measurement with films in water, providing a measurement for the surface properties in the aqueous environment, offered a semiquantitative description of the interface dynamics of the material with a double-layer model, based on which a new hypothesis on the mechanism of blood or bio-compatibility was proposed that the hydrated surface of the satisfactory biomaterials can response to the outside electromagnetic stimuli with slight strength and prompt relaxation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ternary rare-earth based alternative gate-dielectrics for future integration in MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Juergen; Lopes, Joao Marcelo; Durgun Oezben, Eylem; Luptak, Roman; Lenk, Steffi; Zander, Willi; Roeckerath, Martin [IBN 1-IT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The dielectric SiO{sub 2} has been the key to the tremendous improvements in Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device performance over the past four decades. It has, however, reached its limit in terms of scaling since it exhibits a leakage current density higher than 1 A/cm{sup 2} and does not retain its intrinsic physical properties at thicknesses below 1.5 nm. In order to overcome these problems and keep Moore's law ongoing, the use of higher dielectric constant (k) gate oxides has been suggested. These high-k materials must satisfy numerous requirements such as the high k, low leakage currents, suitable band gap und offsets to silicon. Rare-earth based dielectrics are promising materials which fulfill these needs. We will review the properties of REScO{sub 3} (RE = La, Dy, Gd, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} thin films, grown with pulsed laser deposition, e-gun evaporation or molecular beam deposition, integrated in capacitors and transistors. A k > 20 for the REScO{sub 3} (RE = Dy, Gd) and around 30 for (RE = La, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} are obtained. Transistors prepared on SOI and sSOI show mobility values up to 380 cm{sup 2}/Vs on sSOI, which are comparable to such prepared with HfO{sub 2}.

  10. Atomic scale engineering of HfO{sub 2}-based dielectrics for future DRAM applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Piotr

    2011-02-14

    Modern dielectrics in combination with appropriate metal electrodes have a great potential to solve many difficulties associated with continuing miniaturization process in the microelectronic industry. One significant branch of microelectronics incorporates dynamic random access memory (DRAM) market. The DRAM devices scaled for over 35 years starting from 4 kb density to several Gb nowadays. The scaling process led to the dielectric material thickness reduction, resulting in higher leakage current density, and as a consequence higher power consumption. As a possible solution for this problem, alternative dielectric materials with improved electrical and material science parameters were intensively studied by many research groups. The higher dielectric constant allows the use of physically thicker layers with high capacitance but strongly reduced leakage current density. This work focused on deposition and characterization of thin insulating layers. The material engineering process was based on Si cleanroom compatible HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited on TiN metal electrodes. A combined materials science and dielectric characterization study showed that Ba-added HfO{sub 2} (BaHfO{sub 3}) films and Ti-added BaHfO{sub 3} (BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) layers are promising candidates for future generation of state-of-the-art DRAMs. In especial a strong increase of the dielectric permittivity k was achieved for thin films of cubic BaHfO{sub 3} (k{proportional_to}38) and BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (k{proportional_to}90) with respect to monoclinic HfO{sub 2} (k{proportional_to}19). Meanwhile the CET values scaled down to 1 nm for BaHfO{sub 3} and {proportional_to}0.8 nm for BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} with respect to HfO{sub 2} (CET=1.5 nm). The Hf{sup 4+} ions substitution in BaHfO{sub 3} by Ti{sup 4+} ions led to a significant decrease of thermal budget from 900 C for BaHfO{sub 3} to 700 C for BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. Future studies need to focus

  11. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  12. Significantly elevated dielectric permittivity of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites induced by high polarity polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yefeng; Gong, Honghong; Xie, Yunchuan; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2016-02-01

    To disclose the essential influence of polymer polarity on dielectric properties of polymer composites filled with semiconductive fillers, a series of Si-based semiconductor/polymer 2-2 composites in a series model was fabricated. The dielectric permittivity of composites is highly dependant on the polarity of polymer layers as well as the electron mobility in Si-based semiconductive sheets. The huge dielectric permittivity achieved in Si-based semiconductive sheets after being coated with high polarity polymer layers is inferred to originate from the strong induction of high polarity polymers. The increased mobility of the electrons in Si-based semiconductive sheets coated by high polarity polymer layers should be responsible for the significantly enhanced dielectric properties of composites. This could be facilely achieved by either increasing the polarity of polymer layers or reducing the percolative electric field of Si-based semiconductive sheets. The most promising 2-2 dielectric composite was found to be made of α-SiC with strong electron mobility and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with high polarity, and its highest permittivity was obtained as 372 at 100 Hz although the permittivity of α-SiC and PVA is 3-5 and 15, respectively. This work may help in the fabrication of high dielectric constant (high-k) composites by tailoring the induction effect of high polarity polymers to semiconductors.

  13. Studying tantalum-based high-κ dielectrics in terms of capacitance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska-Georgievska, L.

    2016-08-01

    The trend of rapid development of microelectronics towards nano-miniaturization dictates the inevitable introduction of dielectrics with high permittivity (high-κ dielectrics), as alternative material for replacing SiO2. Therefore, studying these materials in terms of their characteristics, especially in terms of reliability, is of great importance for proper design and manufacture of devices. In this paper, alteration of capacitance in different frequency regimes is used, in order to determine the overall behavior of the material. Samples investigated here are MOS structures containing nanoscale tantalum based dielectrics. Layers of pure Ta2O5, but also Hf and Ti doped tantalum pentoxide, i.e. Ta2O5:Hf and Ta2O5:Ti are studied here. All samples are considered as ultrathin oxide layers with thicknesses less than 15 nm, obtained by radio frequent sputtering on p-type silicon substrate. Measuring capacitive characteristics enables determination of several specific parameters of the structures. The obtained results for capacitance in accumulation, the thickness and time evolution of the interfacial SiO2 layer, values of flatband and threshold voltage, density of oxide charges, interfacial and border states, and reliability properties favor the possibilities for more intensive use of studied materials in new nanoelectronic technologies.

  14. Dielectric analysis based on spherical-shell model for cationic and anionic spherical polyelectrolyte brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Kongshuang

    2017-07-01

    We report here a dielectric study on cationic and anionic spherical polyelectrolyte brush (SPB) (consisting of a polystyrene (PS) core and poly (2-aminoethylmethacrylate hydrochloride (PAEMH) chains or poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) chains grafted onto the core) suspensions over a frequency range of 40 Hz-110 MHz. The relaxation behavior of the suspensions shows significant changes in the brush layer properties when changing the particle mass fraction or pH of the system. After eliminating the electrode polarization effect at a low frequency, two definite relaxations related to interfacial polarization, around 100 kHz and 10 MHz respectively, are observed. Based on a single layer spherical-shell model, we developed a curve-fitting procedure to analyze such dielectric spectra for soft particles, and then calculated the dielectric properties of the components of the SPBs (such as the permittivities and conductivities of the layer and solution phase), especially the layer thickness d s of the polyelectrolyte chain (PE) layer. We also found a larger confinement degree of counterions in the PAEMH brush due to the protonation of the amino group. Moreover, the repulsive force between the SPB particles is evaluated by using the d s combined with the relative theoretical formulas. We conclude that by raising (reducing) the acidity of the system, the stability of the PAEMH-SPB (PAA-SPB) suspension was improved. An increase in particle concentration can also improve the stability of these two dispersions.

  15. Strong field enhancement and light-matter interactions with all-dielectric metamaterials based on split bar resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfa; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Yuan, Xiaodong; Qin, Shiqiao

    2014-12-15

    Strong subwavelength field enhancement has often been assumed to be unique to plasmonic nanostructures. Here we propose a type of all-dielectric metamaterials based on split bar resonators. The nano gap at the centre of the resonant elements results in large local field enhancement and light localization in the surrounding medium, which can be employed for strong light-matter interactions. In a Fano-resonant dielectric metamaterial comprising pairs of asymmetric split silicon bars, the enhancement of electric field amplitude in the gap exceeds 120 while the averaged electromagnetic energy density is enhanced by more than 7000 times. An optical refractive index sensor with a potential sensitivity of 525 nm/RIU is designed based on the proposed metamaterials. The proposed concept can be applied to other types of dielectric nanostructures and may stimulate further research of dielectric metamaterials for applications ranging from nonlinear optics and sensing to the realization of new types of active lasing devices.

  16. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Félicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-11-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons in the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. We first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.

  17. The computer-based control system of the NAC accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdzik, G. F.; Bouckaert, R. F. A.; Cloete, I.; Dutoit, J. S.; Kohler, I. H.; Truter, J. N. J.; Visser, K.; Wikner, V. C. S. J.

    The National Accelerator Center (NAC) of the CSIR is building a two-stage accelerator which will provide charged-particle beams for use in medical and research applications. The control system for this accelerator is based on three mini-computers and a CAMAC interfacing network. Closed-loop control is being relegated to the various subsystems of the accelerators, and the computers and CAMAC network will be used in the first instance for data transfer, monitoring and servicing of the control consoles. The processing power of the computers will be utilized for automating start-up and beam-change procedures, for providing flexible and convenient information at the control consoles, for fault diagnosis and for beam-optimizing procedures. Tasks of a localized or dedicated nature are being off-loaded onto microcomputers, which are being used either in front-end devices or as slaves to the mini-computers. On the control consoles only a few instruments for setting and monitoring variables are being provided, but these instruments are universally-linkable to any appropriate machine variable.

  18. Diaphragm Based Fiber Bragg Grating Acceleration Sensor with Temperature Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianliang; Tan, Yuegang; Han, Xue; Zheng, Kai; Zhou, Zude

    2017-01-23

    A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing-based acceleration sensor has been proposed to simultaneously decouple and measure temperature and acceleration in real-time. This design applied a diaphragm structure and utilized the axial property of a tightly suspended optical fiber, enabling improvement in its sensitivity and resonant frequency and achieve a low cross-sensitivity. The theoretical vibrational model of the sensor has been built, and its design parameters and sensing properties have been analyzed through the numerical analysis. A decoupling method has been presented with consideration of the thermal expansion of the sensor structure to realize temperature compensation. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is 8.66 pm/°C within the range of 30-90 °C. The acceleration sensitivity is 20.189 pm/g with a linearity of 0.764% within the range of 5~65 m/s². The corresponding working bandwidth is 10~200 Hz and its resonant frequency is 600 Hz. This sensor possesses an excellent impact resistance for the cross direction, and the cross-axis sensitivity is below 3.31%. This implementation can avoid the FBG-pasting procedure and overcome its associated shortcomings. The performance of the proposed acceleration sensor can be easily adjusted by modifying their corresponding physical parameters to satisfy requirements from different vibration measurements.

  19. Diaphragm Based Fiber Bragg Grating Acceleration Sensor with Temperature Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensing-based acceleration sensor has been proposed to simultaneously decouple and measure temperature and acceleration in real-time. This design applied a diaphragm structure and utilized the axial property of a tightly suspended optical fiber, enabling improvement in its sensitivity and resonant frequency and achieve a low cross-sensitivity. The theoretical vibrational model of the sensor has been built, and its design parameters and sensing properties have been analyzed through the numerical analysis. A decoupling method has been presented with consideration of the thermal expansion of the sensor structure to realize temperature compensation. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is 8.66 pm/°C within the range of 30–90 °C. The acceleration sensitivity is 20.189 pm/g with a linearity of 0.764% within the range of 5~65 m/s2. The corresponding working bandwidth is 10~200 Hz and its resonant frequency is 600 Hz. This sensor possesses an excellent impact resistance for the cross direction, and the cross-axis sensitivity is below 3.31%. This implementation can avoid the FBG-pasting procedure and overcome its associated shortcomings. The performance of the proposed acceleration sensor can be easily adjusted by modifying their corresponding physical parameters to satisfy requirements from different vibration measurements.

  20. Lattices of dielectric resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Trubin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the  expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas  and lattices of d...

  1. Nanoscale Plasmonic Devices Based on Metal-Dielectric-Metal Stub Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some of the recent research activities on plasmonic devices based on metal-dielectric-metal (MDM stub resonators for manipulating light at the nanoscale. We first introduce slow-light subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on plasmonic analogues of periodically loaded transmission lines and electromagnetically induced transparency. In both cases, the structures consist of a MDM waveguide side-coupled to periodic arrays of MDM stub resonators. We then introduce absorption switches consisting of a MDM plasmonic waveguide side-coupled to a MDM stub resonator filled with an active material.

  2. Wireless power transfer based on magnetic quadrupole coupling in dielectric resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhao; Iorsh, Ivan; Kapitanova, Polina; Nenasheva, Elizaveta; Belov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate a magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system based on high refractive index dielectric resonators. We propose to operate at magnetic quadrupole mode of the resonators to enlarge the efficiency due to minimization of ohmic and radiation losses. Numerical estimation predicts the 80% efficiency of the wireless power transfer (WPT) system operating at quadrupole mode at 300 MHz. Moreover, the system operating at magnetic quadrupole mode is capable of transferring power with 70% efficiency when the receiver rotates 90°. We verify the simulated results by experimental investigation of the WPT system based on microwave ceramic resonators (ɛ = 80 and tanδ = 10-4).

  3. Accelerator physics in ERL based polarized electron ion collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yue [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    This talk will present the current accelerator physics challenges and solutions in designing ERL-based polarized electron-hadron colliders, and illustrate them with examples from eRHIC and LHeC designs. These challenges include multi-pass ERL design, highly HOM-damped SRF linacs, cost effective FFAG arcs, suppression of kink instability due to beam-beam effect, and control of ion accumulation and fast ion instabilities.

  4. Development of lowenergy accelerator-based production of medical isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Naomi; Barlow, Roger; Cywinski, Robert; Beasley, P.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present methods for production of new and existing isotopes for SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) and PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging using accelerator-based systems. Such isotopes are already widely used in medical diagnostics and research, and there is constant development of new drugs and isotopes. However the main production method for 99mTc, is currently in research reactors and is at risk due to scheduled and unscheduled shut downs. Therefore, a low c...

  5. Dielectric characterization of PCL-based thermoplastic materials for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Shea, Jacob D; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Van Veen, Barry D; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-03-01

    We propose the use of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based thermoplastic mesh as a tissue-immobilization interface for microwave imaging and microwave hyperthermia treatment. An investigation of the dielectric properties of two PCL-based thermoplastic materials in the frequency range of 0.5-3.5 GHz is presented. The frequency-dependent dielectric constant and effective conductivity of the PCL-based thermoplastics are characterized using measurements of microstrip transmission lines fabricated on substrates comprised of the thermoplastic meshes. We also examine the impact of the presence of a PCL-based thermoplastic mesh on microwave breast imaging. We use a numerical test bed comprised of a previously reported 3-D anatomically realistic breast phantom and a multi-frequency microwave inverse scattering algorithm. We demonstrate that the PCL-based thermoplastic material and the assumed biocompatible medium of vegetable oil are sufficiently well matched such that the PCL layer may be neglected by the imaging solution without sacrificing imaging quality. Our results suggest that PCL-based thermoplastics are promising materials as tissue immobilization structures for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  6. Study of Dielectric Breakdown Performance of Transformer Oil Based Magnetic Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Lv

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the transformer oil-based nanofluids (NFs has been raised expeditiously over the past decade. Although, there is discrepancy in the stated results and inadequate understanding of the mechanisms of improvement of dielectric nanofluids, these nanofluids have emerged as a potential substitute of mineral oils as insulating and heat removal fluids for high voltage equipment. The transformer oil (TO based magnetic fluids (ferrofluids may be regarded as the posterity insulation fluids as they propose inspiring unique prospectus to improve dielectric breakdown strength, as well as heat transfer efficiency, as compared to pure transformer oils. In this work, transformer oil-based magnetic nanofluids (MNFs are prepared by dispersal of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs into mineral oil as base oil, with various NPs loading from 5 to 80% w/v. The lightning impulse breakdown voltages (BDV measurement was conducted in accordance with IEC 60897 by using needle to sphere electrodes geometry. The test results showed that dispersion of magnetic NPs may improve the insulation strength of MO. With the increment of NPs concentrations, the positive lightning impulse (LI breakdown strength of TO is first raised, up to the highest value at 40% loading, and then tends to decrease at higher concentrations. The outcomes of negative LI breakdown showed that BDV of MNFs, with numerous loadings, were inferior to the breakdown strength of pure MO. The 40% concentration of nanoparticles (optimum concentration was selected, and positive and negative LI breakdown strength was also further studied at different sizes (10 nm, 20 nm, 30 nm and 40 nm of NPs and different electrode gap distances. Augmentation in the BDV of the ferrofluids (FFs is primarily because of dielectric and magnetic features of Fe3O4 nanoaprticles, which act as electron scavengers and decrease the rate of free electrons produced in the ionization process. Research challenges and technical difficulties

  7. Doping Effects of Rare Earth on Dielectric Properties of Fine-Grained BaTiO3-Based Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲霞; 郭炜; 吴霞宛; 王洪儒; 张志萍

    2003-01-01

    The doping effects of rare earth oxides Ho2O3 and Er2O3 on dielectric properties of BaTiO3-based ceramics were studied. After adding rare earth elements, grain growth in this system was inhibited and the grain size was reduce devidently which realized the fine-grained effect. In this system, the trivalent oxides Ho2O3 and Er2O3 were added to BaTiO3 ceramics. The rare earth oxides do not enter into inner lattice totally to replace A or B sites. Some of additives can improve dielectric strength by forming nonferroelectric phases, and the rest maintained at grain boundaries controls overgrowth of grains. The dielectric constant at room temperature is increased up to 3000 and the curve of TCC becomes flat. Meanwhile, the dielectric strength Eb becomes higher.

  8. Investigation of Dielectric Response Characteristics of Transformer Oil-Paper Insulation Dielectric Spectroscopy of Acceleratedly Thermal Aging%变压器油纸绝缘的介电响应特性研究一加速热老化的介电谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建林; 王世强; 彭华东; 董明; 张冠军; 冯玉昌; 于峥

    2012-01-01

    为了研究变压器油纸绝缘老化的介电响应特征量,本文对油纸绝缘试品进行了加速热老化,并在老化的不同阶段开展了相同试验温度下的极化、去极化电流(PDC)和频域谱(FDS)试验。在PDC试验数据的基础上,引入时域介电谱理论,提取其峰值和峰值时间常数作为老化特征量,研究了该特征量与绝缘老化的关系。结果表明,绝缘老化使PDC试验的极化及去极化电流曲线均明显上移,FDS试验的复电容实部和虚部曲线在低频段均向右上平移,时域介电谱曲线则向左上方平移,这是由于老化弓I起水分、有机酸等含量的增加以及对纤维素结构的破坏,提高了油纸绝缘间夹层介质界面极化的强度和响应速度而造成的。在本文的试验条件下,油纸绝缘的时域介电谱对其老化反应灵敏,可定量反映油纸绝缘老化程度的变化情况,其峰值和峰值时间常数可考虑用作表征油纸绝缘老化程度的特征量。%For achieving the characteristic parameters ot dielectric response pnenomena o~ transformer oil-paper insulation aging, the oil-impregnated pressboard samples were acceleratedly thermally aged. The dielectric response tests, including polarization and depolarization current (PDC) and frequency domain spectroscopy (FDS), were performed on the samples with different aging degree at the same temperature. The time-domain dielectric spectroscopy theory was introduced to investigate the aging characteristic parameters of dielectric response based on the PDC data. The results reveal that, with sample aging, its polarization and depolarization currents shift upwards to higher value, the real and imaginary capacitance and dissipation factor shift upwards and rightwards at lower frequencies, and the time-domain dielectric spectroscopy shifts upwards and leftwards. It is considered that aging process induces the increment of water and organic

  9. Energy Efficiency of Laser Driven, Structure Based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R

    2004-04-21

    The acceleration efficiency of a laser driven linear accelerator is analyzed. The laser power, loss factor and impedances determine the maximum charge that can be accelerated and the efficiency of that acceleration. The accelerator structure can be incorporated into a laser cavity. The equation for the resultant laser pulse is derived and analyzed. A specific example is presented, and the steady-state laser pulse shapes, acceleration efficiency, and average unloaded gradient are calculated.

  10. An optical wall shear stress sensor based on whispering gallery modes of dielectric microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Ulas Kemal

    In recent years, whispering gallery modes (WGM) of dielectric resonators have received significant attention. Based on this phenomenon, many applications have been proposed ranging from spectroscopy [1], micro-cavity laser technology [2] and optical communications (switching [3], filtering [4] and wavelength division and multiplexing [5]). WGM phenomenon have also been exploited in several sensor concepts such as protein adsorption [6,7], trace gas detection [8], impurity detection in liquids [9], structural health monitoring of composite materials [10], detection of electric fields [11], magnetic fields [12, 13] and temperature [14, 15] as well as mechanical sensing, such as pressure [16] and force [17,18]. A remarkable feature of the WGMs of dielectric microspheres is that they can exhibit extremely high quality factors (Q -factors). In literature, Q-factors as high as ˜10 10 have been reported [19]. In sensor applications, Q-factors determine the resolution of the sensor. Since WGMs of dielectric microspheres exhibit such high Q values, proposed WGM based sensors have extremely good sensing resolutions. In this dissertation, a WGM based wall shear stress sensor that is capable of measuring the shear stress directly is presented. The proposed sensor's feasibility is studied both analytically and experimentally. The experimental study included sensor development, fabrication, calibration, frequency response, dynamic range and proof of concept. The sensor showed that it has potential to measure the shear stress in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Finally, the sensor is tested in a real flow environment to provide the first direct shear stress measurement in a real flow.

  11. Treatment Planning for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María S.; González, Sara J.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Kreiner, Andrés J.

    2010-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme and metastatic melanoma are frequent brain tumors in adults and presently still incurable diseases. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising alternative for this kind of pathologies. Accelerators have been proposed for BNCT as a way to circumvent the problem of siting reactors in hospitals and for their relative simplicity and lower cost among other advantages. Considerable effort is going into the development of accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources in Argentina. Epithermal neutron beams will be produced through appropriate proton-induced nuclear reactions and optimized beam shaping assemblies. Using these sources, computational dose distributions were evaluated in a real patient with diagnosed glioblastoma treated with BNCT. The simulated irradiation was delivered in order to optimize dose to the tumors within the normal tissue constraints. Using Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations, dose distributions were generated for brain, skin and tumor. Also, the dosimetry was studied by computing cumulative dose-volume histograms for volumes of interest. The results suggest acceptable skin average dose and a significant dose delivered to tumor with low average whole brain dose for irradiation times less than 60 minutes, indicating a good performance of an accelerator-based BNCT treatment.

  12. Support Vector Machine Based on Adaptive Acceleration Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hasan Abdulameer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing face recognition methods utilize particle swarm optimizer (PSO and opposition based particle swarm optimizer (OPSO to optimize the parameters of SVM. However, the utilization of random values in the velocity calculation decreases the performance of these techniques; that is, during the velocity computation, we normally use random values for the acceleration coefficients and this creates randomness in the solution. To address this problem, an adaptive acceleration particle swarm optimization (AAPSO technique is proposed. To evaluate our proposed method, we employ both face and iris recognition based on AAPSO with SVM (AAPSO-SVM. In the face and iris recognition systems, performance is evaluated using two human face databases, YALE and CASIA, and the UBiris dataset. In this method, we initially perform feature extraction and then recognition on the extracted features. In the recognition process, the extracted features are used for SVM training and testing. During the training and testing, the SVM parameters are optimized with the AAPSO technique, and in AAPSO, the acceleration coefficients are computed using the particle fitness values. The parameters in SVM, which are optimized by AAPSO, perform efficiently for both face and iris recognition. A comparative analysis between our proposed AAPSO-SVM and the PSO-SVM technique is presented.

  13. CCD based beam loss monitor for ion accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, A.; Mustafin, E.; Ensinger, W.

    2014-04-01

    Beam loss monitoring is an important aspect of proper accelerator functioning. There is a variety of existing solutions, but each has its own disadvantages, e.g. unsuitable dynamic range or time resolution, high cost, or short lifetime. Therefore, new options are looked for. This paper shows a method of application of a charge-coupled device (CCD) video camera as a beam loss monitor (BLM) for ion beam accelerators. The system was tested with a 500 MeV/u N+7 ion beam interacting with an aluminum target. The algorithms of camera signal processing with LabView based code and beam loss measurement are explained. Limits of applicability of this monitor system are discussed.

  14. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...... efficiency. We also discuss the implementation aspects. Secondly, we explore the final state refinement acceleration by a combination with the conjugate gradient technique, where the key ingredient is an implicit corrector step. Finally, we test the feasibility of passive Hessian matrix accumulation from...

  15. Dielectric behavior of different nanofillers incorporated in PVC-PMMA based polymer electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, G.; Pradeepa, P.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Edwinraj, S.; Prabhu, M. Ramesh

    2016-05-01

    The Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer electrolytes were prepared by solvent casting technique. The prepared polymer electrolytes were subjected to conductivity studies by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the maximum ionic conductivity value was found to be 0.8011 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 303K for PVC (17.5wt%) - PMMA (7.5wt %) - LiClO4 (8wt %) - PC (67wt %) - BaTiO3 (8wt%) electrolyte system. The dielectric behavior of the samples also studied.

  16. Field-effect transistor with MTDS contacts and subgate dielectric based on Langmuir films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, V. S.; Matveeva, N. K.; Miagkov, I. V.; Novak, V. R.; Rakitin, V. V.

    1989-03-01

    Experimental results are reported on an MTDS (metal-tunnel-dielectric-semiconductor) FET with the following characteristics: the drain and source are MTDS contacts, with a monolayer Langmuir (ML) film playing the role of the tunnel dielectric; and the subgate dielectric is an ML film. The drain and source as well as the subgate dielectric are formed at low-temperature. The static output characteristics of an MTDP transistor are presented.

  17. Acceleration of association‐rule based markov decision processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. de G. García‐Hernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach for the estimation of Markov decision processes based on efficient association rulemining techniques such as Apriori. For the fastest solution of the resulting association‐rule based Markov decision process,several accelerating procedures such as asynchronous updates and prioritization using a static ordering have been applied. Anew criterion for state reordering in decreasing order of maximum reward is also compared with a modified topologicalreordering algorithm. Experimental results obtained on a finite state and action‐space stochastic shortest path problemdemonstrate the feasibility of the new approach.

  18. Improved Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Accelerated NMF

    OpenAIRE

    Mingdong Li; Siyu Lai; Juan Wang

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF)-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can ...

  19. Transparent field-effect transistors based on AlN-gate dielectric and IGZO-channel semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besleaga, C.; Stan, G.E.; Pintilie, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 405A Atomistilor, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and CEMOP-UNINOVA, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martins, R., E-mail: rm@uninova.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and CEMOP-UNINOVA, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • TFTs based on IGZO channel semiconductor and AlN gate dielectric were fabricated. • AlN films – a viable and cheap gate dielectric alternative for transparent TFTs. • Influence of gate dielectric layer thickness on TFTs electrical characteristics. • No degradation of AlN gate dielectric was observed during devices stress testing. - Abstract: The degradation of thin-film transistors (TFTs) caused by the self-heating effect constitutes a problem to be solved for the next generation of displays. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a viable alternative for gate dielectric of TFTs due to its good thermal conductivity, matching coefficient of thermal expansion to indium–gallium–zinc-oxide, and excellent stability at high temperatures. Here, AlN thin films of different thicknesses were fabricated by a low temperature reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering process, using a low cost, metallic Al target. Their electrical properties have been thoroughly assessed. Furthermore, the 200 nm and 500 nm thick AlN layers have been integrated as gate-dielectric in transparent TFTs with indium–gallium–zinc-oxide as channel semiconductor. Our study emphasizes the potential of AlN thin films for transparent electronics, whilst the functionality of the fabricated field-effect transistors is explored and discussed.

  20. Enhanced electromechanical performance of bio-based gelatin/glycerin dielectric elastomer by cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Nanying; Wang, Zhifei; Yao, Yang; Zhang, Liqun; Tian, Ming

    2015-10-05

    To meet the growing demand of environmental protection and resource saving, it is imperative to explore bio-based elastomers as next-generation dielectric elastomers (DEs). In this study, we used a bio-based gelatin/glycerin (GG) elastomer as the DE matrix because GG exhibits high dielectric constant (ɛr). Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), extracted from natural cellulose fibers, were used to improve the mechanical strength of GG elastomer. The results showed that CNCs with a large number of hydroxyl groups disrupted the hydrogen bonds between gelatin molecules and formed new stronger hydrogen bonds with gelatin molecules. A good interfacial adhesion between CNCs and GG was formed, and thus a good dispersion of CNCs in GG matrix was obtained, leading to the improved mechanical strength of GG. More interestingly, the ɛr of GG elastomer was obviously increased by adding 5 wt% of CNCs, ascribed to the increase in the polarizability of gelatin chains caused by the disruption of hydrogen bonds of gelatin. As a result, a 230% increase in the actuated strain at low electric field of GG was obtained by adding 5 wt% of CNCs. Since CNCs, gelatin and glycerol are all bio-based, this study offers a new method to prepare high performance DE for its application in biological and medical fields.

  1. Analog optical computing based on a dielectric meta-reflect array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizari, Ata; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A

    2016-08-01

    In this Letter, we realize the concept of analog computing using an engineered gradient dielectric meta-reflect-array. The proposed configuration consists of individual subwavelength silicon nanobricks, in combination with a fused silica spacer and silver ground plane, realizing a reflection beam with full phase coverage of 2π degrees, as well as an amplitude range of 0 to 1. Spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances, such high-index dielectric metasurfaces can locally and independently manipulate the amplitude and phase of the incident electromagnetic wave. This practically feasible structure overcomes substantial limitations imposed by plasmonic metasurfaces such as absorption losses and low polarization conversion efficiency in the visible range. Using such CMOS-compatible and easily integrable platforms promises highly efficient ultrathin planar wave-based computing systems that circumvent the drawbacks of conventional bulky lens-based signal processors. Based on these key properties and the general concept of spatial Fourier transformation, we design and realize broadband mathematical operators such as the differentiator and integrator in the telecommunication wavelengths.

  2. Accelerating Image Based Scientific Applications using Commodity Video Graphics Adapters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy P. Broussard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing power available in current video graphics cards is approaching super computer levels. State-of-the-art graphical processing units (GPU boast of computational performance in the range of 1.0-1.1 trillion floating point operations per second (1.0-1.1 Teraflops. Making this processing power accessible to the scientific community would benefit many fields of research. This research takes a relatively computationally expensive image-based iris segmentation algorithm and hosts it on a GPU using the High Level Shader Language which is part of DirectX 9.0. The selected segmentation algorithm uses basic image processing techniques such as image inversion, value squaring, thresholding, dilation, erosion and a computationally intensive local kurtosis (fourth central moment calculation. Strengths and limitations of the DirectX rendering pipeline are discussed. The primary source of the graphical processing power, the pixel or fragment shader, is discussed in detail. Impressive acceleration results were obtained. The iris segmentation algorithm was accelerated by a factor of 40 over the highly optimized C++ version hosted on the computer's central processing unit. Some parts of the algorithm ran at speeds that were over 100 times faster than their C++ counterpart. GPU programming details and HLSL code samples are presented as part of the acceleration discussion.

  3. Dielectric Relaxation of Lanthanide-Based Ternary Oxides: Physical and Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium-doped hafnium oxides (CexHf1−xO2 and lanthanum-doped zirconium oxides (LaxZr1−xO2 were investigated. The highest dielectric constants, k, were obtained from lightly doped oxides with an La content of x=0.09 and a Ce content of x=0.1, for which k-values of 33~40 were obtained. The dielectric relaxation appears to be related to the size of crystal grains formed during annealing, which was dependent on the doping level. The physical and mathematical models were used to analyze the relationship between k-values and frequencies. The variations in the k-values up to megahertz frequencies for both CexHf1−xO2 and LaxZr1−xO2 are simulated based on the Curie-von Schweidler (CS or Havriliak-Negami (HN relationships. Concerning the lightly doped CexHf1−xO2 and LaxZr1−xO2, the data extracted are best modeled by the HN law, while LaxZr1−xO2 with doping level from x=0.22 to 0.63 are best modelled based on the CS law.

  4. Molecular dynamics of the cryomilled base and hydrochloride ziprasidones by means of dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, K; Adrjanowicz, K; Wojnarowska, Z; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Zakowiecki, D; Mazgalski, J

    2011-07-01

    Cryomilling was applied to obtain amorphous forms of the base ziprasidone and its hydrochloride salt. Complete amorphization of both samples was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray measurements. As it turned out, cryogrinding is very effective way to obtain these drugs in the amorphous state, especially because melting of both ziprazidones accompanies significant chemical decomposition as revealed by ultra performance liquid chromatography examination. Consequently, the glassy state cannot be reached in conventional way, that is, by supercooling of melt. Broadband dielectric relaxation measurements were performed on both drugs to describe their molecular dynamics above as well as below their glass transition temperatures (T(g)). We found out that ziprasidone base and its hydrochloride salt differ in T(g) in the same way as it was previously reported for tramadol monohydrate and its hydrochloride. Moreover, our dielectric studies revealed that molecular mobility is not the main factor controlling kinetics of crystallization of both ziprasidones above their T(g) . Below the T(g) relaxation related to water as well as secondary relaxation process originating from the intermolecular interaction (Johari-Goldstein) were identified in the loss spectra of both materials. We have demonstrated that except of local mobility, water is the dominant factor moving both ziprasidones toward recrystallization process. Finally, we have also carried out solubility measurements to show that dissolution rate of the amorphous ziprasidones is much higher with respect to the crystalline samples.

  5. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...... the influence of spectral properties and dimensionality of the molecular system on the algorithm efficiency. We test two algorithms, the MinMax and Lanczos, for spectral estimation from an MD trajectory, and use this to derive a practical scheme of time step adaptation in MD relaxation algorithms to improve...

  6. Developing an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) based on electron accelerators and heavy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, H.; Ranjbar, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    An ADS based on electron accelerators has been developed specifically for energy generation and medical applications. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using FLUKA code to design a hybrid electron target and the core components. The composition, geometry of conversion targets and the coolant system have been optimized for electron beam energies of 20 to 100 MeV . Furthermore, the photon and photoneutron energy spectra, distribution and energy deposition for various incoming electron beam powers have been studied. Light-heavy water of various mixtures have been used as heat removal for the targets, as γ-n converters and as neutron moderators. We have shown that an electron LINAC, as a neutron production driver for ADSs, is capable of producing a neutron output of > 3.5 × 1014 (n/s/mA). Accordingly, the feasibility of an electron-based ADS employing the designed features is promising for energy generation and high intense neutron production which have various applications such as medical therapies.

  7. ZnO-based thin film transistors employing aluminum titanate gate dielectrics deposited by spray pyrolysis at ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouxenidis, Dimitrios; Mazzocco, Riccardo; Vourlias, Georgios; Livesley, Peter J; Krier, Anthony; Milne, William I; Kolosov, Oleg; Adamopoulos, George

    2015-04-08

    The replacement of SiO2 gate dielectrics with metal oxides of higher dielectric constant has led to the investigation of a wide range of materials with superior properties compared with SiO2. Despite their attractive properties, these high-k dielectrics are usually manufactured using costly vacuum-based techniques. To overcome this bottleneck, research has focused on the development of alternative deposition methods based on solution-processable metal oxides. Here we report the application of spray pyrolysis for the deposition and investigation of Al2x-1·TixOy dielectrics as a function of the [Ti(4+)]/[Ti(4+)+2·Al(3+)] ratio and their implementation in thin film transistors (TFTs) employing spray-coated ZnO as the active semiconducting channels. The films are studied by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, impedance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and field-effect measurements. Analyses reveal amorphous Al2x-1·TixOy dielectrics that exhibit a wide band gap (∼4.5 eV), low roughness (∼0.9 nm), high dielectric constant (k ∼ 13), Schottky pinning factor S of ∼0.44 and very low leakage currents (<5 nA/cm(2)). TFTs employing stoichiometric Al2O3·TiO2 gate dielectrics and ZnO semiconducting channels exhibit excellent electron transport characteristics with low operating voltages (∼10 V), negligible hysteresis, high on/off current modulation ratio of ∼10(6), subthreshold swing (SS) of ∼550 mV/dec and electron mobility of ∼10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  8. Analytical modeling of label free biosensor using charge plasma based gate underlap dielectric modulated MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Manash; Das, Rahul; Kundu, Atanu; Sarkar, Chandan K.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper charge plasma based dielectric modulated four gated MOSFET (CP-GUDM-MOSFET) has been proposed for the efficacy of label free electrical detection of the biomolecules. To achieve low thermal budgeting, charge-plasma concept is employed using appropriate metal work function electrodes. Extensive simulations have been done using the Sentaurus TCAD to validate the proposed architecture. An analytical modeling has also been done on surface potential and drain current to consolidate the feasibility of the structure. Significant improvements in the on current (ION) and threshold voltage have been observed in presence of the charged biomolecules. The performance of proposed structure is found to be sensitive to gate-oxide thickness variations. High sensitivity of the proposed CP-GUDM-MOSFET based biosensor with low thermal budgeting scheme; simple structure and its compatibility with the existing CMOS processes make it an exciting alternative to the conventional FET-based biosensors.

  9. Mid-infrared hyperbolic metamaterial based on graphene-dielectric multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, You-Chia; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.; Liu, Che-Hung; Liu, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Siyuan; Marder, Seth R.; Zhong, Zhaohui; Norris, Theodore B.

    2015-09-01

    Graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) enable new possibilities that are not attainable with conventional metal-based HMMs, such as tunability of optical properties and the ability to combine with graphene-based photodetection. A graphene HMM is made of alternating graphene-dielectric multilayers, whose properties can be understood with the effective-medium approximation (EMA). The initial experimental realization of this novel metamaterial has been demonstrated with a far-field measurement, and in this paper we investigate the light coupling from free space into a graphene HMM slab with a metallic grating using numerical simulations. We show that light can be efficiently coupled into the high-k guided modes in the HMM slab and be absorbed by the graphene layers, which can be applied to create ultrathin super absorbers.

  10. Proposed inductive voltage adder based accelerator concepts for the second axis of DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Johnson, D.L.; Boyes, J.D. [and others

    1997-06-01

    As participants in the Technology Options Study for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic HydroTest (DARHT) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratories, the authors have considered several accelerator concepts based on the Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) technology that is being used successfully at Sandia on the SABRE and HERMES-III facilities. The challenging accelerator design requirements for the IVA approach include: {ge}12-MeV beam energy; {approximately}60-ns electrical pulse width; {le}40-kA electron beam current; {approximately}1-mm diameter e-beam; four pulses on the same axis or as close as possible to that axis; and an architecture that fits within the existing building envelope. To satisfy these requirements the IVA concepts take a modular approach. The basic idea is built upon a conservative design for eight ferromagnetically isolated 2-MV cavities that are driven by two 3 to 4-{Omega} water dielectric pulse forming lines (PFLs) synchronized with laser triggered gas switches. The 100-{Omega} vacuum magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) would taper to a needle cathode that produces the electron beam(s). After considering many concepts the authors narrowed their study to the following options: (A) Four independent single pulse drivers powering four single pulse diodes; (B) Four series adders with interleaved cavities feeding a common MITL and diode; (C) Four stages of series PFLs, isolated from each other by triggered spark gap switches, with single-point feeds to a common adder, MITL, and diode; and (D) Isolated PFLs with multiple-feeds to a common adder using spark gap switches in combination with saturable magnetic cores to isolate the non-energized lines. The authors will discuss these options in greater detail identifying the challenges and risks associated with each.

  11. Electrostatic design and beam transport for a folded tandem electrostatic quadrupole accelerator facility for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatar Vento, V., E-mail: Vladimir.ThatarVento@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J.; Cartelli, D. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT), we discuss here the electrostatic design of the machine, including the accelerator tubes with electrostatic quadrupoles and the simulations for the transport and acceleration of a high intensity beam.

  12. Epoxy-based hydrogels investigated by high-frequency dielectric relaxation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakovský, Ivan; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Ryuta

    2013-11-14

    Using high-frequency dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, nanophase-separated structures of epoxy-based hydrogels were investigated as a function of water content at 25 °C. The dielectric spectra resulting from the hydrogels were reasonably decomposed into two Debye-type and two Cole-Cole-type relaxation modes. The fastest Debye-type mode, found at 8.3 ps, was attributed to the rotational relaxation process of free water molecules in the bulk state. The other Debye-type mode, at ca. 20-34 ps, originates from the exchange process of water molecules that are hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic epoxy network portions for free bulk ones. The first Cole-Cole-type mode observed, at ca. 20-370 ps, was assigned to the complicated dynamics for electric dipole moments of the hydrophilic groups in the epoxy networks (mainly monomeric oxyethylene units). The slowest major Cole-Cole-type mode, at 5-29 ns, was attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization process and confirmed the presence of the nanophase-separated structures as revealed by the previous small-angle neutron scattering experiments.

  13. Structural and Dielectric Properties of Ionic Liquid Doped Metal Organic Framework based Polymer Electrolyte Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rituraj; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are mesoporous materials that can be treated as potential hosts for trapping guest molecules in their pores. Ion conduction and phase behavior dynamics of Ionic Liquids (ILs) can be controlled by tunable interactions of MOFs with the ILs. MOFs incorporated with ionic liquid can be dispersed in the polymers to synthesize polymer electrolyte nanocomposites with high ionic conductivity, electrochemical and thermal stability for applications in energy storage and conversion devices such as rechargeable Li-ion batteries. In the present work we have synthesized Cu-based MOF [Cu3(l,3,5-benzene tricarboxylate)2(H2O)] incorporated with the ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide at different weight ratios of MOF and IL. The synthesized MOF-IL composites are dispersed in Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). Frequency dependent behavior of permittivity and dielectric loss of the nanocomposites depict the non-Debye dielectric relaxation mechanism. The room temperature Nyquist plots reveal decreasing bulk resistance upto 189 Ω with optimum ionic conductivity of 1.3×10-3S cm-1at maximum doping concentration of IL in the nanocomposite system.

  14. Leakage current induced by surfactant residues in self-assembly based ultralow-k dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtab, M.; Afanas'ev, V.; Stesmans, A.; De Gendt, S.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we studied low-field leakage currents in the self-assembly based spin-on low-k dielectrics (k = 2.2) as it may be affected by the degree of the organic template decomposition. The distinct role of the template residues could be examined due to the remarkably different rate of organosilica matrix cross-linking and template decomposition during the hard-bake process. We found that the incomplete decomposition of the sacrificial organic phase is responsible for increased low-field leakage current through the dielectric. The analysis of photocurrent spectra and the results of electron resonance spectroscopy suggest that the degradation of electrical performance can be attributed to the presence of defect states ˜5 eV below the insulator conduction band induced by the residues in the form of oxidized sp3-carbon chains. The lowest leakage current is attained in the template-free material obtained by introduction of additional broadband UV-assisted curing (λ > 200 nm).

  15. Hydrotherrnal synthesis, structure and property of nano-BaTiO3-based dielectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of Ba1-xSrxTi1-yZryO3 (0≤x≤0.5, 0≤y≤0.4) and Ba1-xZnxTi1-ySnyO3 (0≤x≤0.3, 0≤y≤0.3) solid solutions were synthesized by Iow-temperature/Iow-pressure hydrothermal method below 170℃, 0.8 MPa. XRD pattern and cell parameters-composition figures of these prepared powders demonstrated that they are completely miscible solid solutions based on BaTiO3. Furthermore, TEM showed that they have a shape of uniform, substantially spherical particles with an average particle size of 70 nm in diameter. The sintered ceramics of those powders doped by Sr2+ and Zr4+ or Zn2+ and Sn4+ have dielectric constant twelve times higher than and dielectric loss 1/6 those of pure BaTiO3 phase at room temperature.

  16. MOS Ge Diodes Based on High κ Gate Dielectrics Grown by MBE and ALD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Yu; Lee, W. C.; Lin, T. D.; Lee, C. S.; Chang, Y. C.; Lee, Y. J.; Huang, M. L.; Wu, Y. D.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2007-03-01

    Germanium-based CMOS technology is gaining importance due to its high carrier mobility. In this work high κ gate-dielectrics, Al2O3, HfO2, Y2O3 and Ga2O3(Gd2O3) grown by MBE and ALD were investigated as passivation layers on n type Ge(100). Thermal stability of the MOS diodes was examined after various anneals. Prior to dielectric depositions surface pretreatments were applied to reduce the unwanted GeOx interfacial layer, and to improve electrical properties. Frequency dispersion of C-V curves was reduced by using a 350^oC preclean process, compared to the sample without precleaning. The leakage current density of ALD grown HfO2 (6.8nm) is 4.6×10-6 A/cm^2 with κ of 10.5. The improved CV curve was attributed to less GeOx formed at substrate and oxide interface, as confirmed by XPS analysis. However, with higher cleaning temperature over 400^oC, the CV curves showed additional inversion capacitance, possibly due to minority carriers from defect states near the interface.

  17. Consistency analysis of accelerated degradation mechanism based on gray theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxia Chen; Hongxia Chen; Zhou Yang; Rui Kang; Yi Yang

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental premise of an accelerated testing is that the failure mechanism under elevated and normal stress levels should remain the same. Thus, verification of the consistency of failure mechanisms is essential during an accelerated testing. A new consistency analysis method based on the gray theory is pro-posed for complex products. First of al , existing consistency ana-lysis methods are reviewed with a focus on the comparison of the differences among them. Then, the proposed consistency ana-lysis method is introduced. Two effective gray prediction models, gray dynamic model and new information and equal dimensional (NIED) model, are adapted in the proposed method. The process to determine the dimension of NIED model is also discussed, and a decision rule is expanded. Based on that, the procedure of ap-plying the new consistent analysis method is developed. Final y, a case study of the consistency analysis of a reliability enhancement testing is conducted to demonstrate and validate the proposed method.

  18. High-k dielectrics based field plate edge termination engineering in 4H-SiC Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Bhawani; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Taube, William R.; Akhtar, J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper develops a deep insight into the behaviour of high-k dielectric-based field plate on Ni/4H-SiC Schottky diode. It tries to explain the mechanism by which high-k materials outperform silicon dioxide, when used under the field plate. Phenomena like modulation of field enhancement factor, reshaping of equipotential contours and expansion of depletion region while maintaining fixed depletion ratio (length/width = 2.3) helps to understand the electrical behaviour of high-k dielectric-based field plate. High-k materials relaxed the equipotential contours under the field plate edge which resulted in electric field reduction up to 88% and significant drop from 6.6 to 2.2 in field enhancement factor at device edges. The study considers the field plate of different dielectrics (SiO2, Si3N4, Al203, HfO2) and in each case, analytically explores the optimisation of field plate parameters (overlap length and dielectric thickness, dielectric constant). All the investigations have been done using numerical simulations on calibrated setup.

  19. Design of a Label-Free, Distributed Bragg Grating Resonator Based Dielectric Waveguide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kehl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a resonant, dielectric waveguide device based on distributed Bragg gratings for label-free biosensing applications. The refractive index sensitive optical transducer aims at improving the performance of planar waveguide grating sensor systems with limited Q-factor and dynamic range by combing the advantages of resonant cavities, such as a multitude of resonance peaks with high finesse, with the manageable complexity of waveguide grating couplers. The general sensor concept is introduced and supported by theoretical considerations as well as numerical simulations based on Coupled Mode Theory. In contrast to a single Bragg grating reflector, the presented Fabry-Pérot type distributed Bragg resonator exhibits an extended measurement range as well as relaxed fabrication tolerances. The resulting, relatively simple sensor structure can be fabricated with standard lithographic means and is independent of expensive light-sources and/or detectors, making an affordable but sensitive device, potentially suitable for point-of-care applications.

  20. Low voltage driven dielectric electro active polymer actuator with integrated piezoelectric transformer based driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    Today’s Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) actuators utilize high voltage (HV) in the range of kilo volts to fully stress the actuator. The requirement of HV is a drawback for the general use in the industry due to safety concerns and HV regulations. In order to avoid the HV interface to DEAP...... actuators, a low voltage solution is developed by integrating the driver electronic into a 110 mm tall cylindrical coreless Push InLastor actuator. To decrease the size of the driver, a piezoelectric transformer (PT) based solution is utilized. The PT is essentially an improved Rosen type PT...... with interleaved sections. Furthermore, the PT is optimized for an input voltage of 24 V with a gain high enough to achieve a DEAP voltage of 2.5 kV. The PT is simulated and verified through measurements on a working prototype. With the adapted hysteretic based control system; output voltage wave forms of both...

  1. Subpanel on accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Neutrinos are among nature`s fundamental constituents, and they are also the ones about which we know least. Their role in the universe is widespread, ranging from the radioactive decay of a single atom to the explosions of supernovae and the formation of ordinary matter. Neutrinos might exhibit a striking property that has not yet been observed. Like the back-and-forth swing of a pendulum, neutrinos can oscillate to-and-from among their three types (or flavors) if nature provides certain conditions. These conditions include neutrinos having mass and a property called {open_quotes}mixing.{close_quotes} The phenomenon is referred to as neutrino oscillations. The questions of the origin of neutrino mass and mixing among the neutrino flavors are unsolved problems for which the Standard Model of particle physics holds few clues. It is likely that the next critical step in answering these questions will result from the experimental observation of neutrino oscillations. The High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) Subpanel on Accelerator-Based Neutrino Oscillation Experiments was charged to review the status and discovery potential of ongoing and proposed accelerator experiments on neutrino oscillations, to evaluate the opportunities for the U.S. in this area of physics, and to recommend a cost-effective plan for pursuing this physics, as appropriate. The complete charge is provided in Appendix A. The Subpanel studied these issues over several months and reviewed all the relevant and available information on the subject. In particular, the Subpanel reviewed the two proposed neutrino oscillation programs at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The conclusions of this review are enumerated in detail in Chapter 7 of this report. The recommendations given in Chapter 7 are also reproduced in this summary.

  2. Luminosity Limitations in Linear Colliders Based on Plasma Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Valeri; Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Particle acceleration in plasma creates a possibility of exceptionally high accelerating gradients and appears as a very attractive option for future linear electron-positron and/or photon-photon colliders. These high accelerating gradients were already demonstrated in a number of experiments. However, a linear collider requires exceptionally high beam brightness which still needs to be demonstrated. In this article we discuss major phenomena which limit the beam brightness of accelerated beam and, consequently, the collider luminosity.

  3. PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as gate dielectric for ZnO based thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, M.D. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Quevedo-López, M.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Ramírez-Bon, R., E-mail: rrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we report a low temperature sol–gel deposition process of PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films, with variable dielectric properties depending on the composition of the precursor solution, for applications to gate dielectric layers in field-effect thin film transistors (FE-TFT). The hybrid layers were processed by a modified sol–gel route using as precursors Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Methyl methacrylate (MMA), and 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) as the coupling agent. Three types of hybrid films were processed with molar ratios of the precursors in the initial solution 1.0: 0.25, 0.50, 0.75: 1.0 for TEOS: TMSPM: MMA, respectively. The hybrid films were deposited by spin coating of the hybrid precursor solutions onto p-type Si (100) substrates and heat-treated at 90 °C for 24 h. The chemical bonding in the hybrid films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to confirm their hybrid nature. The refractive index of the hybrid films as a function of the TMSPM coupling agent concentration, were determined from a simultaneous analysis of optical reflectance and spectroscopic ellipsometry experimental data. The PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films were studied as dielectric films using metal-insulator-metal structures. Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) and current–voltage (I–V) electrical methods were used to extract the dielectric properties of the different hybrid layers. The three types of hybrid films were tested as gate dielectric layers in thin film transistors with structure ZnO/PMMA–SiO{sub 2}/p-Si with a common bottom gate and patterned Al source/drain contacts, with different channel lengths. We analyzed the output electrical responses of the ZnO-based TFTs to determine their performance parameters as a function of channel length and hybrid gate dielectric layer. - Highlights: • PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as dielectric material synthesized by sol–gel process at low temperature. • PMMA–SiO{sub 2

  4. EVA: GPS-based extended velocity and acceleration determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Dagoberto; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Juan-Zornoza, Jose Miguel; Sanz-Subirana, Jaume; Aragon-Angel, Angela

    2011-06-01

    In this work, a new GPS carrier phase-based velocity and acceleration determination method is presented that extends the effective range of previous techniques. The method is named `EVA', and may find applications in fields such as airborne gravimetry when rough terrain or water bodies make difficult or impractical to set up nearby GPS reference receivers. The EVA method is similar to methods such as Kennedy (Precise acceleration determination from carrier phase measurements. In: Proceedings of the 15th international technical meeting of the satellite division of the Institute of Navigation. ION GPS 2002, Portland pp 962-972, 2002b) since it uses L1 carrier phase observables for velocity and acceleration determination. However, it introduces a wide network of stations and it is independent of precise clock information because it estimates satellite clock drifts and drift rates `on-the-fly', requiring only orbit data of sufficient quality. Moreover, with EVA the solution rate is only limited by data rate, and not by the available precise satellite clocks data rate. The results obtained are more robust for long baselines than the results obtained with the reference Kennedy method. An advantage of being independent of precise clock information is that, beside IGS Final products, also the Rapid, Ultra-Rapid (observed) and Ultra-Rapid (predicted) products may be used. Moreover, the EVA technique may also use the undifferenced ionosphere-free carrier phase combination (LC), overcoming baseline limitations in cases where ionosphere gradients may be an issue and very low biases are required. During the development of this work, some problems were found in the velocity estimation process of the Kennedy method. The sources of the problems were identified, and an improved version of the Kennedy method was used for this research work. An experiment was performed using a light aircraft flying over the Pyrenees, showing that both EVA and the improved Kennedy methods are able to

  5. Resonant cavity light-emitting diodes based on dielectric passive cavity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Zschiedrich, L.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    A novel design for high brightness planar technology light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and LED on-wafer arrays on absorbing substrates is proposed. The design integrates features of passive dielectric cavity deposited on top of an oxide- semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the p-n junction with a light emitting region is introduced into the top semiconductor λ/4 DBR period. A multilayer dielectric structure containing a cavity layer and dielectric DBRs is further processed by etching into a micrometer-scale pattern. An oxide-confined aperture is further amended for current and light confinement. We study the impact of the placement of the active region into the maximum or minimum of the optical field intensity and study an impact of the active region positioning on light extraction efficiency. We also study an etching profile composed of symmetric rings in the etched passive cavity over the light emitting area. The bottom semiconductor is an AlGaAs-AlAs multilayer DBR selectively oxidized with the conversion of the AlAs layers into AlOx to increase the stopband width preventing the light from entering the semiconductor substrate. The approach allows to achieve very high light extraction efficiency in a narrow vertical angle keeping the reasonable thermal and current conductivity properties. As an example, a micro-LED structure has been modeled with AlGaAs-AlAs or AlGaAs-AlOx DBRs and an active region based on InGaAlP quantum well(s) emitting in the orange spectral range at 610 nm. A passive dielectric SiO2 cavity is confined by dielectric Ta2O5/SiO2 and AlGaAs-AlOx DBRs. Cylindrically-symmetric structures with multiple ring patterns are modeled. It is demonstrated that the extraction coefficient of light to the air can be increased from 1.3% up to above 90% in a narrow vertical angle (full width at half maximum (FWHM) below 20°). For very small oxide-confined apertures 100nm the narrowing of the FWHM for light extraction can be reduced down to 5

  6. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Röpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  7. Dielectric behaviour of emeraldine base polymer-ZnO nanocomposite film in the low to medium frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, M. L., E-mail: singla_min@yahoo.co.in; Sehrawat, Rajeev; Rana, Nidhi [Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR, New Delhi) (India); Singh, Kulvir [Thapar University (India)

    2011-05-15

    Emeraldine base (EB) polymer-ZnO nanoparticles composite films has been synthesized by solution casting technique on ITO-coated glass substrate and characterized by XRD, FTIR and TEM for their structure and morphology. Dielectric behaviour of these composite films has been investigated in the very low frequency region to medium frequency region (1 kHz-1 MHz). The dielectric constant of the composite with 30% nanoparticles is almost one-tenth of the pure EB. The dielectric value becomes constant in the frequency region greater than 400 kHz. The change in dielectric behaviour of the composite is explained on the basis of multilayered interface formed between the ZnO nanoparticles and emeraldine chains. Nanoparticles have high energy surface which is responsible for the decrease of free volume for the orientation of polymer chains consequently decrease in dielectric constant of the composite. TEM images shows about 10 nm ZnO particles embedded in the emeraldine matrix. From the XRD data it has been observed that the lattice parameters of ZnO have been modified due to the alignment of polymer chains along the basal planes of the nanoparticles. The shift of N=Q=N and N-B-N vibration bands to higher wave number in IR indicates that interaction between emeraldine chain and nanoparticles which provides stability to emeraldine matrix.

  8. Effect of aluminum addition on electrical properties, dielectric characteristics, and its stability of (Pr, Co, Cr, Y)-added zinc oxide-based varistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choon-W Nahm

    2010-06-01

    The electrical properties, dielectric characteristics, and its stability against d.c. accelerated aging stress of (Pr, Co, Cr, Y)-added zinc oxide-based varistors were investigated for different aluminum concentrations under a sintering temperature of 1280°C. As the aluminum concentration increased, the average grain size () increased in the range of 4.3–5.5 m and the sintered density increased in the range of 5.63–5.67 g/cm3. As the aluminum concentration increased, the breakdown field decreased in the range of 6327–710 V/cm and the maximum nonlinear coefficient (46.9) was obtained for 0.005 mol% in aluminum concentration, further additions impaired the nonlinear properties. As the aluminum concentration increased, the apparent dielectric constant increased in the range of 500.5–1327.4 and dissipation factor increased in the range of 0.00493–0.0724. The varistor added with 0.001 mol% Al exhibited the highest stability for – characteristics in which % 1\\ mA is +1.4% and % is –5.7%, under stress state of 0.95 1\\ mA/150° C/24 h.

  9. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  10. Effects of rare earth addition on sintering process and dielectric property of cordierite based glass-ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国华; 刘心宇

    2004-01-01

    The effects of rare earth oxide on the sintering and dielectric property of cordierite-based glass-ceramics with non-stoichiometric composition prepared by quenching of molten droplets were investigated. The results show that the addition of rare earth oxide can lower the sintering temperature of cordierite glass-ceramics, improve the densification process and obviously reduce sintering activation energy. It is found that the densification of cordieritebased glass-ceramics is a liquid phase sintering process. The dielectric constant of the sintered compacts enhances with the increase of the density. When the sintering temperature is identical, the rare earth addition is found to have a noticeable effect on the dielectric loss of glass-ceramics. The properties of the glass-ceramics containing rare earth oxide appear to be correct for low firing temperature substrates.

  11. Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.

  12. Feedforward deformation control of a dielectric elastomer actuator based on a nonlinear dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Gupta, Ujjaval; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Yang

    2015-07-01

    In the practical applications of actuators, the control of their deformation or driving force is a key issue. Most of recent studies on dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) focus on issues of mechanics, physics, and material science, whereas less importance is given to the control of these soft actuators. In this paper, we underline the importance of a nonlinear dynamic model as the basis for a feedforward deformation control approach of a rubber-based DEA. Experimental evidence shows the effectiveness of the feedforward controller. The present study confirms that a DEA's trajectory can be finely controlled with a solid nonlinear dynamic model despite the presence of material nonlinearities and electromechanical coupling. The effective control of DEAs may pave the way for extensive emerging applications to soft robots.

  13. Selective triggering of phase change in dielectrics by femtosecond pulse trains based on electron dynamics control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chuan-Cai; Jiang Lan; Leng Ni; Liu Peng-Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this study we experimentally reveal that the phase change mechanism can be selectively triggered by shaping femtosecond pulse trains based on electron dynamics control (EDC),including manipulation of excitations,ionizations,densities,and temperatures of electrons.By designing the pulse energy distribution to adjust the absorptions,excitations,ionizations,and recombinations of electrons,the dominant phase change mechanism experiences transition from nonthermal to thermal process.This phenomenon is observed in quadruple,triple,and double pulses per train ablation of fused silica separately.This opens up possibilities for controlling phase change mechanisms by EDC,which is of great significance in laser processing of dielectrics and fabrication of integrated nano-and micro-optical devices.

  14. Compact on-Chip Temperature Sensors Based on Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic Waveguide-Ring Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of a waveguide-ring resonator based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides as a temperature sensor is demonstrated in this paper and the influence of temperature change to the transmission through the waveguide-ring resonator system is comprehensively analyzed. The results show that the roundtrip phase change in the ring resonator due to the temperature change is the major reason for the transmission variation. The performance of the temperature sensor is also discussed and it is shown that for a waveguide-ring resonator with the resonator radius around 5 mm and waveguide-ring gap of 500 nm which gives a footprint around 140 µm2, the temperature sensitivity at the order of 10−2 K can be achieved with the input power of 100 mW within the measurement sensitivity limit of a practical optical detector.

  15. Experimental Study on LTCC Glass-Ceramic Based Dual Segment Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Gangwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The measured characteristics in C/X bands, including material properties of a dual segment cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA fabricated from glass-ceramic material based on B2O3–La2O3–MgO glass and La(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3 ceramic, are reported. The sintering characteristic of the ceramic in presence of glass is determined from contact angle measurement and DTA. The return loss and input impedance versus frequency characteristics and radiation patterns of CDRA at its resonant frequency of 6.31 GHz are studied. The measured results for resonant frequency and return loss bandwidth of the CDRA are also compared with corresponding theoretical ones.

  16. Improved image fusion method based on NSCT and accelerated NMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Lai, Siyu; Li, Mingdong

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF)-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can be generated faster in that the update rules for W and H are optimized and less iterations are needed. In addition, the Neighborhood Homogeneous Measurement (NHM) rule is performed on the high-frequency part to achieve the band-pass coefficients. Finally, the ultimate fused image is obtained by integrating all sub-images with the inverse NSCT. The simulated experiments prove that our method indeed promotes performance when compared to PCA, NSCT-based, NMF-based and weighted NMF-based algorithms.

  17. Improved Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Accelerated NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingdong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve algorithm efficiency and performance, a technique for image fusion based on the Non-subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT domain and an Accelerated Non-negative Matrix Factorization (ANMF-based algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the registered source images are decomposed in multi-scale and multi-direction using the NSCT method. Then, the ANMF algorithm is executed on low-frequency sub-images to get the low-pass coefficients. The low frequency fused image can be generated faster in that the update rules for W and H are optimized and less iterations are needed. In addition, the Neighborhood Homogeneous Measurement (NHM rule is performed on the high-frequency part to achieve the band-pass coefficients. Finally, the ultimate fused image is obtained by integrating all sub-images with the inverse NSCT. The simulated experiments prove that our method indeed promotes performance when compared to PCA, NSCT-based, NMF-based and weighted NMF-based algorithms.

  18. Abnormal Dielectric Response in an Optical Range Based on Electronic Transition in Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-Jian; XU Yuan-Da; ZHOU Ji

    2012-01-01

    A new scheme to realize an abnormal dielectric response at optical wavelength is developed on the basis of twolevel electronic transition of rare-earth ion doped crystals.Based on the semi-classical theory and the Judd-Ofelt theory,the electric dipole transition under a weak field is analyzed,and a general expression for the frequencydependent dielectric constant is obtained.As an example,the permittivity of (Erx Y1-x)3Al5O12 is calculated numerically in consideration of the transition between 4I15/2and 4F9/2.An optimized dielectric property with a negative real part and low absorption is achieved.This proposes a new mechanism for building extraordinary electromagnetic media at optical frequencies by using a quantum process.%A new scheme to realize an abnormal dielectric response at optical wavelength is developed on the basis of two-level electronic transition of rare-earth ion doped crystals. Based on the semi-classical theory and the Judd-Ofelt theory, the electric dipole transition under a weak Reid is analyzed, and a general expression for the frequency-dependent dielectric constant is obtained. As an example, the permittivity of (ErxY1-x)3A15O12 is calculated numerically in consideration of the transition between 4I15/2 and 4F9/2. An optimized dielectric property with a negative real part and low absorption is achieved. This proposes a new mechanism for building extraordinary electromagnetic media at optical frequencies by using a quantum process.

  19. Effect of polymer modification of SiO2 dielectric on the performance of copper phthalocyanine based organic thin film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, N.; Chauhan, A. K.; Sawant, Shilpa N.; Gupta, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    Effect of polystyrene (PS) modification of SiO2 dielectric on the performance of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based OFETs was studied. Field effect mobility of holes was found to increase by one order for polystyrene modified dielectric as compared to that on unmodified SiO2. This is attributed to well connected grains and increased crystallinity of CuPc film. Significantly reduced hysteresis was found in the devices with PS/SiO2 dielectric due to almost complete absence of hydroxyl groups at the dielectric/semiconductor interface and hence reduced trap sites.

  20. Connectivity-Based Segmentation for GPU-Accelerated Mesh Decompression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Yi Zhao; Min Tang; Ruo-Feng Tong

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm to partition large 3D meshes for GPU-accelerated decompression.Our formulation focuses on minimizing the replicated vertices between patches,and balancing the numbers of faces of patches for efficient parallel computing.First we generate a topology model of the original mesh and remove vertex positions.Then we assign the centers of patches using geodesic farthest point sampling and cluster the faces according to the geodesic distance to the centers.After the segmentation we swap boundary faces to fix jagged boundaries and store the boundary vertices for whole-mesh preservation.The decompression of each patch runs on a thread of GPU,and we evaluate its performance on various large benchmarks.In practice,the GPU-based decompression algorithm runs more than 48x faster on NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580 GPU compared with that on the CPU using single core.

  1. Acceleration of Directional Medain Filter Based Deinterlacing Algorithm (DMFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addanki Purna Ramesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel directional median filter based deinterlacing algorithm (DMFD. DMFD is a content adaptive spatial deinterlacing algorithm that finds the direction of the edge and applies the median filtering along the edge to interpolate the odd pixels from the 5 pixels from the upper and 5 pixels from the lower even lines of the field. The proposed algorithm gives a significance improvement of 3db for baboon standard test image that has high textured content compared to CADEM, DOI, and MELA and also gives improved average PSNR compared previous algorithms. The algorithm written and tested in C and ported onto Altera’s NIOS II embedded soft processor and configured in CYCLONE-II FPGA. The ISA of Nios-II processor has extended with two additional instructions for calculation of absolute difference and minimum of four numbers to accelerate the FPGA implementation of the algorithms by 3.2 times

  2. Experimental study on the dielectric properties of polyacrylate dielectric elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Junhua; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo

    2012-02-01

    The dielectric constant of elastomeric dielectric material is an essential physical parameter, whose value may affect the electromechanical deformation of a dielectric elastomer actuator. Since the dielectric constant is influenced by several external factors as reported before, and no certain value has been confirmed to our knowledge, in the present paper, on the basis of systematical comparison of recent past literature, we conducted extensive works on the measurement of dielectric properties of VHB films, involving five influencing factors: prestretch (both equal and unequal biaxial), electrical frequency, electrode material, stress relaxation time and temperature. Experimental results directly show that the dielectric response changes according to these factors, based on which we investigate the significance of each factor, especially the interaction of two external conditions on the dielectric constant of deformable dielectric, by presenting a physical picture of the mechanism of polarization.

  3. A Dual-Function All-in-Fiber Device Based on Negative Dielectric Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Weirich, Johannes;

    2008-01-01

    A dual-function all-in-fiber device based on negative dielectric liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers is presented. This device can work both as an electrically tunable waveplate in the range 1520nm-1580nm, and as a polarimeter at 1310nm....

  4. Artificial Dielectric Layer Based on PECVD Silicon Carbide for Terahertz Sensing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Syed, W.; Adam, A.; Neto, A.; Sarro, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The refractive index of a conventional dielectric layer can be enhanced using an Artificial Dielectric Layer (ADL). Here we present the fabrication of low temperature PECVD Silicon Carbide (SiC) membranes with very high refractive index (up to 5 at 1 THz) in the terahertz frequency range. The SiC de

  5. Fabry-Perot based metal-dielectric multilayered filters and metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lu, Kun-Han; Jheng, Ci-Yao; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-12-28

    The traditional three-layered metal-dielectric-metal Fabry-Perot filter is developed as a new metal-dielectric multilayered band-pass filter. Our design method allows metal and dielectric films to be alternatively arranged to achieve a narrow and high transmission peak and the peak height remains unchanged for any number of metal films arranged in the multilayer. Furthermore, the equivalent refractive index of a subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayer could be negative real at the passband of the filter and such metamaterial exhibits stronger figure of merit than a previous result. By choosing a material with high refractive index as the dielectric film, such metamaterial exhibits a pass band that depends weakly on the angle of incidence.

  6. Reliability study of Zr and Al incorporated Hf based high-k dielectric deposited by advanced processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyian, Md Nasir Uddin

    Hafnium-based high-kappa dielectric materials have been successfully used in the industry as a key replacement for SiO2 based gate dielectrics in order to continue CMOS device scaling to the 22-nm technology node. Further scaling according to the device roadmap requires the development of oxides with higher kappa values in order to scale the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) to 0.7 nm or below while achieving low defect densities. In addition, next generation devices need to meet challenges like improved channel mobility, reduced gate leakage current, good control on threshold voltage, lower interface state density, and good reliability. In order to overcome these challenges, improvements of the high-kappa film properties and deposition methods are highly desirable. In this dissertation, a detail study of Zr and Al incorporated HfO 2 based high-kappa dielectrics is conducted to investigate improvement in electrical characteristics and reliability. To meet scaling requirements of the gate dielectric to sub 0.7 nm, Zr is added to HfO2 to form Hf1-xZrxO2 with x=0, 0.31 and 0.8 where the dielectric film is deposited by using various intermediate processing conditions, like (i) DADA: intermediate thermal annealing in a cyclical deposition process; (ii) DSDS: similar cyclical process with exposure to SPA Ar plasma; and (iii) As-Dep: the dielectric deposited without any intermediate step. MOSCAPs are formed with TiN metal gate and the reliability of these devices is investigated by subjecting them to a constant voltage stress in the gate injection mode. Stress induced flat-band voltage shift (DeltaVFB), stress induced leakage current (SILC) and stress induced interface state degradation are observed. DSDS samples demonstrate the superior characteristics whereas the worst degradation is observed for DADA samples. Time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) shows that DSDS Hf1-xZrxO2 (x=0.8) has the superior characteristics with reduced oxygen vacancy, which is affiliated to

  7. FHAST: FPGA-Based Acceleration of Bowtie in Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Edward B; Villarreal, Jason; Lonardi, Stefano; Najjar, Walid A

    2015-01-01

    While the sequencing capability of modern instruments continues to increase exponentially, the computational problem of mapping short sequenced reads to a reference genome still constitutes a bottleneck in the analysis pipeline. A variety of mapping tools (e.g., Bowtie, BWA) is available for general-purpose computer architectures. These tools can take many hours or even days to deliver mapping results, depending on the number of input reads, the size of the reference genome and the number of allowed mismatches or insertion/deletions, making the mapping problem an ideal candidate for hardware acceleration. In this paper, we present FHAST (FPGA hardware accelerated sequence-matching tool), a drop-in replacement for Bowtie that uses a hardware design based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Our architecture masks memory latency by executing multiple concurrent hardware threads accessing memory simultaneously. FHAST is composed by multiple parallel engines to exploit the parallelism available to us on an FPGA. We have implemented and tested FHAST on the Convey HC-1 and later ported on the Convey HC-2ex, taking advantage of the large memory bandwidth available to these systems and the shared memory image between hardware and software. A preliminary version of FHAST running on the Convey HC-1 achieved up to 70x speedup compared to Bowtie (single-threaded). An improved version of FHAST running on the Convey HC-2ex FPGAs achieved up to 12x fold speed gain compared to Bowtie running eight threads on an eight-core conventional architecture, while maintaining almost identical mapping accuracy. FHAST is a drop-in replacement for Bowtie, so it can be incorporated in any analysis pipeline that uses Bowtie (e.g., TopHat).

  8. Hardware Accelerators Targeting a Novel Group Based Packet Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet classification is a ubiquitous and key building block for many critical network devices. However, it remains as one of the main bottlenecks faced when designing fast network devices. In this paper, we propose a novel Group Based Search packet classification Algorithm (GBSA that is scalable, fast, and efficient. GBSA consumes an average of 0.4 megabytes of memory for a 10 k rule set. The worst-case classification time per packet is 2 microseconds, and the preprocessing speed is 3 M rules/second based on an Xeon processor operating at 3.4 GHz. When compared with other state-of-the-art classification techniques, the results showed that GBSA outperforms the competition with respect to speed, memory usage, and processing time. Moreover, GBSA is amenable to implementation in hardware. Three different hardware implementations are also presented in this paper including an Application Specific Instruction Set Processor (ASIP implementation and two pure Register-Transfer Level (RTL implementations based on Impulse-C and Handel-C flows, respectively. Speedups achieved with these hardware accelerators ranged from 9x to 18x compared with a pure software implementation running on an Xeon processor.

  9. Polymer chain dynamics in epoxy based composites as investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K. Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy networks of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA were prepared using 3,3′- and 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone isomer crosslinkers. Secondary relaxations and the glass transitions of resultant networks were probed using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS. A sub-Tg γ relaxation peak for both networks shifts to higher frequencies (f with increasing temperature in Arrhenius fashion, both processes having the same activation energy and being assigned to phenyl ring flipping in DGEBA chains. A β relaxation is assigned to local motions of dipoles that were created during crosslinking reactions. 4,4′-based networks exhibited higher Tg relative to 3,3′-based networks as per dynamic mechanical as well as BDS analyses. The Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann–Hesse equation fitted well to relaxation time vs. temperature data and comparison of Vogel temperatures suggests lower free volume per mass for the 3,3′-based network. The Kramers–Krönig transformation was used to directly calculate dc-free ɛ″ vs. f data from experimental ɛ′ vs. f data. Distribution of relaxation times (DRT curves are bi-modal for the 3,3′-crosslinked resin suggesting large-scale microstructural heterogeneity as opposed to homogeneity for the 4,4′-based network whose DRT consists of a single peak.

  10. Future directions of accelerator-based NP and HEP facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, T.

    2011-07-24

    Progress in particle and nuclear physics has been closely connected to the progress in accelerator technologies - a connection that is highly beneficial to both fields. This paper presents a review of the present and future facilities and accelerator technologies that will push the frontiers of high-energy particle interactions and high intensity secondary particle beams.

  11. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  12. Development and acceleration of unstructured mesh-based cfd solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, V.; Karpenko, A.; Volkov, K.

    2017-06-01

    The study was undertaken as part of a larger effort to establish a common computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for simulation of internal and external flows and involves some basic validation studies. The governing equations are solved with ¦nite volume code on unstructured meshes. The computational procedure involves reconstruction of the solution in each control volume and extrapolation of the unknowns to find the flow variables on the faces of control volume, solution of Riemann problem for each face of the control volume, and evolution of the time step. The nonlinear CFD solver works in an explicit time-marching fashion, based on a three-step Runge-Kutta stepping procedure. Convergence to a steady state is accelerated by the use of geometric technique and by the application of Jacobi preconditioning for high-speed flows, with a separate low Mach number preconditioning method for use with low-speed flows. The CFD code is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs). Speedup of solution on GPUs with respect to solution on central processing units (CPU) is compared with the use of different meshes and different methods of distribution of input data into blocks. The results obtained provide promising perspective for designing a GPU-based software framework for applications in CFD.

  13. Dielectric relaxation and charged domain walls in (K,Na)NbO3-based ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, A. A.; Alikin, D. O.; Turygin, A. P.; Abramov, A. S.; Hreščak, J.; Walker, J.; Rojac, T.; Bencan, A.; Malic, B.; Kholkin, A. L.; Shur, V. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of domain walls on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials is a well known phenomenon. Commonly, such "extrinsic" contributions to dielectric permittivity are discussed in terms of domain wall displacements under external electric field. In this work, we report on a possible contribution of charged domain walls to low frequency (10-106 Hz) dielectric permittivity in K1-xNaxNbO3 ferroelectric ceramics. It is shown that the effective dielectric response increases with increasing domain wall density. The effect has been attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars relaxation. The obtained results may open up possibilities for domain wall engineering in various ferroelectric materials.

  14. Research on Acceleration Compensation Strategy of Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wei, Zhicheng

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the driving technology of electric vehicle is developing rapidly. There are many kinds of methods in driving performance control technology. The paper studies the acceleration performance of electric vehicle. Under the premise of energy management, an acceleration power compensation method by fuzzy control theory based on driver intention recognition is proposed, which can meet the driver’s subjective feelings better. It avoids the problem that the pedal opening and power output are single correspondence when the traditional vehicle accelerates. Through the simulation test, this method can significantly improve the performance of acceleration and output torque smoothly in non-emergency acceleration to ensure vehicle comfortable and stable.

  15. Roadmap for the international, accelerator-based neutrino programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, J. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. (China); de Gouvêa, A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Duchesneau, D. [CNRS/IN2P3. Univ. Paris (France). Observatoire de Paris. AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC); Geer, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gomes, R. [Federal University of Goias (Brazil); Kim, S. B. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kobayashi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Long, K. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Maltoni, M. [Autonomous Univ. of Madrid (Spain); Mezzetto, M. [Univ. of Padua (Italy); Mondal, N. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Shiozawa, M. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Sobczyk, J. [Univ. of Wroclaw (Poland); Tanaka, H. A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wascko, M. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Zeller, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-04-26

    In line with its terms of reference the ICFA Neutrino Panel has developed a roadmap for the international, accelerator-based neutrino programme. A "roadmap discussion document" was presented in May 2016 taking into account the peer-group-consultation described in the Panel's initial report. The "roadmap discussion document" was used to solicit feedback from the neutrino community---and more broadly, the particle- and astroparticle-physics communities---and the various stakeholders in the programme. The roadmap, the conclusions and recommendations presented in this document take into account the comments received following the publication of the roadmap discussion document. With its roadmap the Panel documents the approved objectives and milestones of the experiments that are presently in operation or under construction. Approval, construction and exploitation milestones are presented for experiments that are being considered for approval. The timetable proposed by the proponents is presented for experiments that are not yet being considered formally for approval. Based on this information, the evolution of the precision with which the critical parameters governinger the neutrino are known has been evaluated. Branch or decision points have been identified based on the anticipated evolution in precision. The branch or decision points have in turn been used to identify desirable timelines for the neutrino-nucleus cross section and hadro-production measurements that are required to maximise the integrated scientific output of the programme. The branch points have also been used to identify the timeline for the R&D required to take the programme beyond the horizon of the next generation of experiments. The theory and phenomenology programme, including nuclear theory, required to ensure that maximum benefit is derived from the experimental programme is also discussed.

  16. Dielectric response of capacitor structures based on PZT annealed at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenshchikov, Mikhail V.; Solnyshkin, Alexander V.; Pronin, Igor P.

    2016-12-01

    Dielectric response of thin-film capacitor structures of Pt/PZT/Pt deposited by the RF magnetron sputtering method and annealed at temperatures of 540-570 °C was investigated. It was found that dielectric properties of these structures depend on the synthesis temperature. Stability of a polarized state is considered on the basis of the analysis of hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The contribution of the domain mechanism in the dielectric response of the capacitor structure comprising a ferroelectric is discussed. Extreme dependences of electrophysical characteristics of PZT films on their synthesis temperature were observed. Correlation of dielectric properties with microstructure of these films is found out.

  17. Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C. B. [Radiation Science Department, Necsa, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-12-13

    A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >10{sup 11} n{center_dot}s{sup -1}. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

  18. Broadband dielectric characterization of aqueous saline solutions by an interferometer-based microwave microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sijia; Lin, Tianjun; Lasri, Tuami

    2016-06-01

    The complex dielectric permittivity of aqueous saline solutions has been determined in the frequency range [2-18 GHz] with a home-made near-field microwave microscope. The instrument is built on a vector network analyzer, a matching network, and an evanescent microwave probe. The interferometer-based matching network enables highly reproducible, sensitive, and accurate measurements on the entire frequency band of operation. NaCl solutions concentrations ranging from 0 to 160 mg/ml are investigated at 25 °C. A maximum measurement sensitivity for NaCl concentrations is found to be equal to 2.3 dB/(mg/ml) and 7.7°/(mg/ml) for magnitude and phase-shift, respectively. To translate the measurement data (S parameters) to the corresponding complex permittivities, an inversion procedure based on a simple calibration model is applied. The resulting complex permittivities are found to be in a very good agreement with those calculated by Cole-Cole model.

  19. Cerebellar-inspired algorithm for adaptive control of nonlinear dielectric elastomer-based artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Tareq; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Porrill, John

    2016-01-01

    Electroactive polymer actuators are important for soft robotics, but can be difficult to control because of compliance, creep and nonlinearities. Because biological control mechanisms have evolved to deal with such problems, we investigated whether a control scheme based on the cerebellum would be useful for controlling a nonlinear dielectric elastomer actuator, a class of artificial muscle. The cerebellum was represented by the adaptive filter model, and acted in parallel with a brainstem, an approximate inverse plant model. The recurrent connections between the two allowed for direct use of sensory error to adjust motor commands. Accurate tracking of a displacement command in the actuator's nonlinear range was achieved by either semi-linear basis functions in the cerebellar model or semi-linear functions in the brainstem corresponding to recruitment in biological muscle. In addition, allowing transfer of training between cerebellum and brainstem as has been observed in the vestibulo-ocular reflex prevented the steady increase in cerebellar output otherwise required to deal with creep. The extensibility and relative simplicity of the cerebellar-based adaptive-inverse control scheme suggests that it is a plausible candidate for controlling this type of actuator. Moreover, its performance highlights important features of biological control, particularly nonlinear basis functions, recruitment and transfer of training. PMID:27655667

  20. Optimization of dielectric matrix for ZnO nanowire based nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Santhosh; Parmar, Mitesh; Tao, Ran; Ardila, Gustavo; Mouis, Mireille

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the role of selection of suitable dielectric layer in nanogenerator (NG) structure and its influence on the output performance. The basic NG structure is a composite material integrating hydrothermally grown vertical piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) into a dielectric matrix. To accomplish this study, three materials - poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), silicon nitride (Si3N4) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are selected, processed and used as matrix dielectric in NGs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows the well-aligned NWs with a diameter of 200±50 nm and length of 3.5±0.3 μm. This was followed by dielectric material deposition as a matrix material. After fabricating NG devices, the output generated voltage under manual and automatic bending were recorded, observed and analyzed for the selection of the best dielectric material to obtain an optimum output. The maximum peak-to-peak open-circuit voltage output for PMMA, Si3N4 and Al2O3 under manual bending was recorded as approximately 880 mV, 1.2 V and 2.1 V respectively. These preliminary results confirm the predicted effect of using more rigid dielectrics as matrix material for the NGs. The generated voltage is increased by about 70% using Si3N4 or Al2O3, instead of a less rigid material as PMMA.

  1. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval through Combined Radar/Radiometer Ground Based Simulator with Special Reference to Dielectric Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K., ,, Dr.; O'Neill, Peggy, ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is an important element for weather and climate prediction, hydrological sciences, and applications. Hence, measurements of this hydrologic variable are required to improve our understanding of hydrological processes, ecosystem functions, and the linkages between the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles (Srivastava et al. 2013). The retrieval of soil moisture depends not only on parameterizations in the retrieval algorithm but also on the soil dielectric mixing models used (Behari 2005). Although a number of soil dielectric mixing models have been developed, testing these models for soil moisture retrieval has still not been fully explored, especially with SMAP-like simulators. The main objective of this work focuses on testing different dielectric models for soil moisture retrieval using the Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) ground-based L-band simulator developed jointly by NASA/GSFC and George Washington University (O'Neill et al., 2006). The ComRAD system was deployed during a field experiment in 2012 in order to provide long active/passive measurements of two crops under controlled conditions during an entire growing season. L-band passive data were acquired at a look angle of 40 degree from nadir at both horizontal & vertical polarization. Currently, there are many dielectric models available for soil moisture retrieval; however, four dielectric models (Mironov, Dobson, Wang & Schmugge and Hallikainen) were tested here and found to be promising for soil moisture retrieval (some with higher performances). All the above-mentioned dielectric models were integrated with Single Channel Algorithms using H (SCA-H) and V (SCA-V) polarizations for the soil moisture retrievals. All the ground-based observations were collected from test site-United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) OPE3, located a few miles away from NASA GSFC. Ground truth data were collected using a theta probe and in situ sensors which were then used for validation. Analysis

  2. Dielectric Properties of Polyether Sulfone/Bismaleimide Resin Composite Based on Nanolumina Modified by Super-Critical Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufei; Li, Zhichao; Teng, Chengjun; Li, Fangliang; Han, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Nano-alumina was chemically modified with super-critical ethanol enabling a surface active coating. Modified nano-alumina was incorporated in polymer blends based on thermoplastic polyether sulfone and thermosetting bismaleimide resin to produce novel nanocomposites designated as SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE. In the SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE nano-composites, the matrix was originally formed from 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane bismaleimide (MBMI) using the diluents of 3,3'-diallyl bisphenol A (BBA) and bisphenol-A diallyl ether (BBE), while polyether sulfone (PES) was used as toughening agent along with super-critically modified nano-alumina (SCE-Al2O3) as filler material. The content of SCE-Al2O3 was varied from 0 wt.% to 6 wt.%. The nano-composites were characterized for their morphological, spectroscopic and dielectric properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that ethanol molecules had adhered to the surface of the nano-Al2O3 in super-critical state. A reaction between MBMI and allyl compound occurred and SCE-Al2O3 was doped into the polymer matrix. Volume resistivity of the composite initially increased and then decreased. The modification due to SCE-Al2O3 could overcome the undesirable impact of PES by using a bare minimum level of SCE-Al2O3. The dielectric constant ( ɛ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as in the case of volume resistivity were initially increased and then decreased with the content of SCE-Al2O3 in the composite. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dielectric strength of SCE-Al2O3 (4 wt.%)/PES (5 wt.%)-MBAE nano-composite were 3.53 (100 Hz), 1.52 × 10-3 (100 Hz) and 15.66 kV/mm, respectively, which indicated that the dielectric properties of the composite fulfilled the basic requirements of electrical and insulating material. It was evident from the morphological analysis that the SCE-Al2O3 was evenly dispersed at the nanoscale; for example, the size of SCE-Al2O3 in SCE-Al2O3 (4 wt.%)/PES (5 wt.%)-MBAE measured less than 50 nm.

  3. Improved dielectric properties of nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-functionalized graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongrui; Bao, Yaru; Zha, Jun-Wei; Zhao, Jun; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua

    2012-11-01

    In this work, two series of nanocomposites of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) incorporated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-modified rGO (rGO-PVA) were fabricated using solution-cast method and their dielectric properties were carefully characterized. Infrared spectroscopy and atom force microscope analysis indicated that PVA chains were successfully grafted onto graphene through ester linkage. The PVA functionalization of graphene surface can not only prevent the agglomeration of original rGO but also enhance the interaction between PVDF and rGO-PVA. Strong hydrogen bonds and charge transfer effect between rGO-PVA and PVDF were determined by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The dielectric properties of rGO-PVA/PVDF and rGO/PVDF nanocomposites were investigated in a frequency range from 10² Hz to 10⁷ Hz. Both composite systems exhibited an insulator-to-conductor percolating transition as the increase of the filler content. The percolation thresholds were estimated to be 2.24 vol % for rGO-PVA/PVDF composites and 0.61 vol % for rGO/PVDF composites, respectively. Near the percolation threshold, the dielectric permittivity of the nanocomposites was significantly promoted, which can be well explained by interfacial polarization effect and microcapacitor model. Compared to rGO/PVDF composites, higher dielectric constant and lower loss factor were simultaneously achieved in rGO-PVA/PVDF nanocomposites at a frequency range lower than 1 × 10³ Hz. This work provides a potential design strategy based on graphene interface engineering, which would lead to higher-performance flexible dielectric materials.

  4. Dielectric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jason

    While plasmonics metasurfaces have seen much development over the past several years, they still face throughput limitations due to ohmic losses. On the other hand, dielectric resonators and associated metasurfaces can eliminate the issue of ohmic loss while still providing the freedom to engineer the optical properties of the composite. In this talk, I will present our recent efforts to harness this freedom using metasurfaces formed from silicon and fabricated using CMOS-compatible techniques. Operating in the telecommunications band, I will discuss how we have used this platform to realize a number of novel functionalities including wavefront control, near-perfect reflection, and high quality factor resonances. In many cases the optical performance of these silicon-based metasurfaces can surpass their plasmonic counterparts. Furthermore, for some cases the surfaces are more amenable to large-area fabrication techniques.

  5. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  6. Enhancement of spatial resolution of terahertz imaging systems based on terajet generation by dielectric cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Huy Nguyen Pham

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz (THz, 0.1–10 THz region has been attracting tremendous research interest owing to its potential in practical applications such as biomedical, material inspection, and nondestructive imaging. Those applications require enhancing the spatial resolution at a specific frequency of interest. A variety of resolution-enhancement techniques have been proposed, such as near-field scanning probes, surface plasmons, and aspheric lenses. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that a mesoscale dielectric cube can be exploited as a novel resolution enhancer by simply placing it at the focused imaging point of a continuous wave THz imaging system. The operating principle of this enhancer is based on the generation—by the dielectric cuboid—of the so-called terajet, a photonic jet in the THz region. A subwavelength hotspot is obtained by placing a Teflon cube, with a 1.46 refractive index, at the imaging point of the imaging system, regardless of the numerical aperture (NA. The generated terajet at 125 GHz is experimentally characterized, using our unique THz-wave visualization system. The full width at half maximum (FWHM of the hotspot obtained by placing the enhancer at the focal point of a mirror with a measured NA of 0.55 is approximately 0.55λ, which is even better than the FWHM obtained by a conventional focusing device with the ideal maximum numerical aperture (NA = 1 in air. Nondestructive subwavelength-resolution imaging demonstrations of a Suica integrated circuit card, which is used as a common fare card for trains in Japan, and an aluminum plate with 0.63λ trenches are presented. The amplitude and phase images obtained with the enhancer at 125 GHz can clearly resolve both the air-trenches on the aluminum plate and the card’s inner electronic circuitry, whereas the images obtained without the enhancer are blurred because of insufficient resolution. An increase of the image contrast by a factor of 4.4 was also obtained using

  7. Enhancement of spatial resolution of terahertz imaging systems based on terajet generation by dielectric cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Pham, Hai Huy; Hisatake, Shintaro; Minin, Oleg Vladilenovich; Nagatsuma, Tadao; Minin, Igor Vladilenovich

    2017-05-01

    The terahertz (THz, 0.1-10 THz) region has been attracting tremendous research interest owing to its potential in practical applications such as biomedical, material inspection, and nondestructive imaging. Those applications require enhancing the spatial resolution at a specific frequency of interest. A variety of resolution-enhancement techniques have been proposed, such as near-field scanning probes, surface plasmons, and aspheric lenses. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that a mesoscale dielectric cube can be exploited as a novel resolution enhancer by simply placing it at the focused imaging point of a continuous wave THz imaging system. The operating principle of this enhancer is based on the generation—by the dielectric cuboid—of the so-called terajet, a photonic jet in the THz region. A subwavelength hotspot is obtained by placing a Teflon cube, with a 1.46 refractive index, at the imaging point of the imaging system, regardless of the numerical aperture (NA). The generated terajet at 125 GHz is experimentally characterized, using our unique THz-wave visualization system. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the hotspot obtained by placing the enhancer at the focal point of a mirror with a measured NA of 0.55 is approximately 0.55λ, which is even better than the FWHM obtained by a conventional focusing device with the ideal maximum numerical aperture (NA = 1) in air. Nondestructive subwavelength-resolution imaging demonstrations of a Suica integrated circuit card, which is used as a common fare card for trains in Japan, and an aluminum plate with 0.63λ trenches are presented. The amplitude and phase images obtained with the enhancer at 125 GHz can clearly resolve both the air-trenches on the aluminum plate and the card's inner electronic circuitry, whereas the images obtained without the enhancer are blurred because of insufficient resolution. An increase of the image contrast by a factor of 4.4 was also obtained using the enhancer.

  8. Corrosion in low dielectric constant Si-O based thin films: Buffer concentration effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Organosilicate glass (OSG is often used as an interlayer dielectric (ILD in high performance integrated circuits. OSG is a brittle material and prone to stress-corrosion cracking reminiscent of that observed in bulk glasses. Of particular concern are chemical-mechanical planarization techniques and wet cleans involving solvents commonly encountered in microelectronics fabrication where the organosilicate film is exposed to aqueous environments. Previous work has focused on the effect of pH, surfactant, and peroxide concentration on the subcritical crack growth of these films. However, little or no attention has focused on the effect of the conjugate acid/base concentration in a buffer. Accordingly, this work examines the “strength” of the buffer solution in both acidic and basic environments. The concentration of the buffer components is varied keeping the ratio of acid/base and therefore pH constant. In addition, the pH was varied by altering the acid/base ratio to ascertain any additional effect of pH. Corrosion tests were conducted with double-cantilever beam fracture mechanics specimens and fracture paths were verified with ATR-FTIR. Shifts in the threshold fracture energy, the lowest energy required for bond rupture in the given environment, GTH, were found to shift to lower values as the concentration of the base in the buffer increased. This effect was found to be much larger than the effect of the hydroxide ion concentration in unbuffered solutions. The results are rationalized in terms of the salient chemical bond breaking process occurring at the crack tip and modeled in terms of the chemical potential of the reactive species.

  9. Corrosion in low dielectric constant Si-O based thin films: Buffer concentration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, F. W.; Lane, M. W., E-mail: mlane@ehc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia 24340 (United States); Gates, S. M. [IBM TJ Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Organosilicate glass (OSG) is often used as an interlayer dielectric (ILD) in high performance integrated circuits. OSG is a brittle material and prone to stress-corrosion cracking reminiscent of that observed in bulk glasses. Of particular concern are chemical-mechanical planarization techniques and wet cleans involving solvents commonly encountered in microelectronics fabrication where the organosilicate film is exposed to aqueous environments. Previous work has focused on the effect of pH, surfactant, and peroxide concentration on the subcritical crack growth of these films. However, little or no attention has focused on the effect of the conjugate acid/base concentration in a buffer. Accordingly, this work examines the “strength” of the buffer solution in both acidic and basic environments. The concentration of the buffer components is varied keeping the ratio of acid/base and therefore pH constant. In addition, the pH was varied by altering the acid/base ratio to ascertain any additional effect of pH. Corrosion tests were conducted with double-cantilever beam fracture mechanics specimens and fracture paths were verified with ATR-FTIR. Shifts in the threshold fracture energy, the lowest energy required for bond rupture in the given environment, G{sub TH}, were found to shift to lower values as the concentration of the base in the buffer increased. This effect was found to be much larger than the effect of the hydroxide ion concentration in unbuffered solutions. The results are rationalized in terms of the salient chemical bond breaking process occurring at the crack tip and modeled in terms of the chemical potential of the reactive species.

  10. Dielectrically-Loaded Cylindrical Resonator-Based Wireless Passive High-Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Xiong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature sensor presented in this paper is based on a microwave dielectric resonator, which uses alumina ceramic as a substrate to survive in harsh environments. The resonant frequency of the resonator is determined by the relative permittivity of the alumina ceramic, which monotonically changes with temperature. A rectangular aperture etched on the surface of the resonator works as both an incentive and a coupling device. A broadband slot antenna fed by a coplanar waveguide is utilized as an interrogation antenna to wirelessly detect the sensor signal using a radio-frequency backscattering technique. Theoretical analysis, software simulation, and experiments verified the feasibility of this temperature-sensing system. The sensor was tested in a metal-enclosed environment, which severely interferes with the extraction of the sensor signal. Therefore, frequency-domain compensation was introduced to filter the background noise and improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor signal. The extracted peak frequency was found to monotonically shift from 2.441 to 2.291 GHz when the temperature was varied from 27 to 800 °C, leading to an average absolute sensitivity of 0.19 MHz/°C.

  11. A biologically inspired artificial muscle based on fiber-reinforced and electropneumatic dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Chi; Luo, Meng; Chen, Xi; Li, Dichen; Chen, Hualing

    2017-08-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have great potential for use as artificial muscles because of the following characteristics: electrical activity, fast and large deformation under stimuli, and softness as natural muscles. Inspired by the traditional McKibben actuators, in this study, we developed a cylindrical soft fiber-reinforced and electropneumatic DE artificial muscle (DEAM) by mimicking the spindle shape of natural muscles. Based on continuum mechanics and variation principle, the inhomogeneous actuation of DEAMs was theoretically modeled and calculated. Prototypes of DEAMs were prepared to validate the design concept and theoretical model. The theoretical predictions are consistent with the experimental results; they successfully predicted the evolutions of the contours of DEAMs with voltage. A pneumatically supported high prestretch in the hoop direction was achieved by our DEAM prototype without buckling the soft fibers sandwiched by the DE films. Besides, a continuously tunable prestretch in the actuation direction was achieved by varying the supporting pressure. Using the theoretical model, the failure modes, maximum actuations, and critical voltages were analyzed; they were highly dependent on the structural parameters, i.e., the cylinder aspect ratio, prestretch level, and supporting pressure. The effects of structural parameters and supporting pressure on the actuation performance were also investigated to optimize the DEAMs.

  12. A low power miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge based atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya Deepak, G.; Joshi, N. K.; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prakash, Ram

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge plasma based atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been generated in a floating helix and floating end ring electrode configuration using argon and helium gases. This configuration is subjected to a range of supply frequencies (10-25 kHz) and supply voltages (2-6 kV) at a fixed rate of gas flow rate (i.e., 1 l/min). The electrical characterization of the plasma jet has been carried out using a high voltage probe and current transformer. The current-voltage characteristics have been analyzed, and the consumed power has been estimated at different applied combinations for optimum power consumption at maximum jet length. The obtained optimum power and jet length for argon and helium gases are 12 mW and 32 mm, and 7.7 mW and 42 mm, respectively. It is inferred that besides the electrode configurations, the discharge gas is also playing a significant role in the low power operation of the cold plasma jet at maximum jet length. The obtained results are interpreted on the basis of penning processes.

  13. Analysis on effect of low dielectric permittivity on indium-doped tin oxide based optically transparent terahertz patch antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampy, Anand Sreekantan; Darak, Mayur Sudesh; Dhamodharan, Sriram Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Indium-doped tin oxide based optically transparent rectangular patch antennas are designed to resonate at 750 GHz; one on the glass substrate and the other on the polyimide substrate. Characteristics of both the transparent antennas such as impedance bandwidth, radiation efficiency, directivity and gain are analyzed and compared. Polyimide substrate has a lower dielectric permittivity than the glass substrate. The effect of low dielectric permittivity substrate on the radiation characteristics of the terahertz transparent patch antenna is analyzed. The transparent antenna on polyimide substrate is shown to have gain greater than 3.97dB in 714-795 GHz. The proposed transparent antennas are designed and simulated by using finite element method based electromagnetic solver, Ansys-HFSS.

  14. A topology optimization method based on the level set method for the design of negative permeability dielectric metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otomori, Masaki; Yamada, Takayuki; Izui, Kazuhiro;

    2012-01-01

    are highly impractical from an engineering and manufacturing point of view. Therefore, a topology optimization method that can obtain clear optimized configurations is desirable. Here, a level set-based topology optimization method incorporating a fictitious interface energy is applied to a negative......This paper presents a level set-based topology optimization method for the design of negative permeability dielectric metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificial materials that display extraordinary physical properties that are unavailable with natural materials. The aim of the formulated...... optimization problem is to find optimized layouts of a dielectric material that achieve negative permeability. The presence of grayscale areas in the optimized configurations critically affects the performance of metamaterials, positively as well as negatively, but configurations that contain grayscale areas...

  15. Dielectric Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Final Report  29 May 2015 Dielectric Metamaterials SRI Project P21340 ONR Contract N00014-12-1-0722 Prepared by: Srini Krishnamurthy...2 2. Theory of Metamaterials ....................................................................................................... 2 2.1...accurately assess the impact of various forms of disorder on metamaterials (MMs) (both dielectric and metal inclusions); and (5) identify designs

  16. A physics-based potential and electric field model of a nanoscale rectangular high-K gate dielectric HEMT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Das B; Goswami R; Bhowmick B

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we have developed a physics-based model for surface potential, channel potential, electric field and drain current for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor with high-K gate dielectric using two-dimensional Poisson equation under full depletion approximation with the inclusion of effect of polarization charges. The accuracy of the model has been verified and is found to be in good agreement with the simulated results.

  17. New type high-index dielectric nanosensors based on the scattering intensity shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiahao; Liu, Pu; Lin, Zhaoyong; Yang, Guowei

    2016-03-01

    Sensing is regarded as one of the most important applications of noble metal-based nanoplasmonics. However, all previous designs have been based on the wavelength-shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance, in which the sensitivity is intrinsically limited by the low quality factors induced by metal losses, and meanwhile the large ohmic loss, high cost and inevitable toxicity and biofouling for detection in vivo greatly hinder their further applications in biosensors. Beyond noble metals, high-refractive index dielectric materials (HRDMs) like silicon with low-loss and strong magnetic response have drawn more attention. Here, for the first time, we proposed a HRDM nanosphere as a new nanosensor for biomolecule detection, and experimentally demonstrated a HRDM sensor working on the intensity-shift but not wavelength-shift of the scattering. The sensing mechanism based on the synergistic effect of the broadening electric mode shift of HRDMs and the Kerker's scattering intensity-shift is beneficial to achieve higher sensitivity. We validated the efficacy of our sensor to detect refractive index changes and trace amounts of streptavidin molecules, and the sensitivity can reach 27 times as high as the highest sensitivity reported to date for nanoplasmonic structures. These findings showed that monitoring the change of the scattering intensity of HRDM nanostructures is superior to monitoring the wavelength-shift of nanoplasmonic structures, as is widely used in nanoplasmonic sensors, for biosensing, meaning HRDM nanosensors could be an important tool in biomolecule detection.Sensing is regarded as one of the most important applications of noble metal-based nanoplasmonics. However, all previous designs have been based on the wavelength-shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance, in which the sensitivity is intrinsically limited by the low quality factors induced by metal losses, and meanwhile the large ohmic loss, high cost and inevitable toxicity and

  18. Studies of industrial emissions by accelerator-based techniques: A review of applications at CEDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Calcagnile L.; Quarta G.

    2012-01-01

    Different research activities are in progress at the Centre for Dating and Diagnostics (CEDAD), University of Salento, in the field of environmental monitoring by exploiting the potentialities given by the different experimental beam lines implemented on the 3 MV Tande-tron accelerator and dedicated to AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrome-try) radiocarbon dating and IB A (Ion Beam Analysis). An overview of these activities is presented by showing how accelerator-based analytical techniques can be ...

  19. Alkali (NaOH) Pretreatment of Switchgrass by Radio Frequency-based Dielectric Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Wang, Yifen; Wen, Zhiyou

    Radio-frequency (RF)-based dielectric heating was used in the alkali (NaOH) pre-treatment of switchgrass to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Due to the unique features of RF heating (i.e., volumetric heat transfer, deep heat penetration of the samples, etc.), switchgrass could be treated on a large scale, high solid content, and uniform temperature profile. At 20% solid content, RF-assisted alkali pretreatment (at 0.1 g NaOH/g biomass loading and 90°C) resulted in a higher xylose yield than the conventional heating pretreatment. The enzymatic hydrolysis of RF-treated solids led to a higher glucose yield than the corresponding value obtained from conventional heating treatment. When the solid content exceeded 25%, conventional heating could not handle this high-solid sample due to the loss of fluidity, poor mixing, and heating transfer of the samples. As a result, there was a significantly lower sugar yield, but the sugar yield of the RF-based pretreatment process was still maintained at high levels. Furthermore, the optimal particle size and alkali loading in the RF pretreatment was determined as 0.25-0.50 mm and 0.25 g NaOH/g biomass, respectively. At alkali loading of 0.20-0.25 g NaOH/g biomass, heating temperature of 90°C, and solid content of 20%, the glucose, xylose, and total sugar yield from the combined RF pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis were 25.3, 21.2, and 46.5 g/g biomass, respectively.

  20. Droplet creator based on electrowetting-on-dielectric for lab on a chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) is to directly control the wettability of liquids on the solid surface by applying the electric potential to the microelectrode array under the dielectric layer. The prototype of the EWOD droplet creator with the sandwiched structure is used: the droplet is sandwiched between the top and bottom plates; the bottom plate consists of silicon used as the substrate of the microelectrode array, nitride silicon film deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition as the dielectric layer and the fluorocarbon polymer film deposited by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition as the hydrophobic layer; and the top plate is the transparent electrode covered with the hydrophobic layer. To obtain the required minimum voltage, the process and the criterion of creating droplets are analyzed. At the voltage of 35 V the deionized water droplet surrounded in silicone oil is successfully created.

  1. Sensing Based on Fano-Type Resonance Response of All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Semouchkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new sensing approach utilizing Mie resonances in metamaterial arrays composed of dielectric resonators is proposed. These arrays were found to exhibit specific, extremely high-Q factor (up to 15,000 resonances at frequencies corresponding to the lower edge of the array second transmission band. The observed resonances possessed with features typical for Fano resonances (FRs, which were initially revealed in atomic processes and recently detected in macro-structures, where they resulted from interference between local resonances and a continuum of background waves. Our studies demonstrate that frequencies and strength of Fano-type resonances in all-dielectric arrays are defined by interaction between local Mie resonances and Fabry-Perot oscillations of Bloch eigenmodes that makes possible controlling the resonance responses by changing array arrangements. The opportunity for obtaining high-Q responses in compact arrays is investigated and promising designs for sensing the dielectric properties of analytes in the ambient are proposed.

  2. A bio-inspired hair- based acceleration sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, H.

    Crickets use so-called clavate hairs to sense (gravitational) acceleration to obtain information on their orientation. Inspired by this clavate hair system, a one-axis biomimetic accelerometer has been developed and fabricated using surface micromachining and SU- 8 lithography. Measu- rements show

  3. JMS-based SOA monitors CERN particle accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Seeley, Rich

    2007-01-01

    "Service-oriented architecture (SOA) may not exactly be nuclear physics, but at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) physics laboratory on the border of France and Switzerland, an SOA system is watching over giant particle accelerators." (1,5 page)

  4. Operation and Service Based on 5SDH-2 Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 5SDH-2 accelerator was imported from National Electrostatics Corporation of USA in 1996, which is mainly used to establish mono-energitic neutron reference field. The pulsed upgrading belonging to Key Laboratory project was finished including computer control system in 2006.

  5. Structure-Triggered High Quantum Yield Luminescence and Switchable Dielectric Properties in Manganese(II) Based Hybrid Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Xia; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Tang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Two new manganese(II) based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, C11H21Cl3MnN2 (1) and C11H22Cl4MnN2 (2), with prominent photoluminescence and dielectric properties were synthesized by solvent modulation. Compound 1 with novel trigonal bipyramidal geometry exhibits bright red luminescence with a lifetime of 2.47 ms and high quantum yield of 35.8 %. Compound 2 with tetrahedral geometry displays intense long-lived (1.54 ms) green light emission with higher quantum yield of 92.3 %, accompanied by reversible solid-state phase transition at 170 K and a distinct switchable dielectric property. The better performance of 2 results from the structure, including a discrete organic cation moiety and inorganic metal anion framework, which gives the cations large freedom of motion.

  6. Solution-based formation of high-quality gate dielectrics on epitaxial graphene by microwave-assisted annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Soo; Park, Goon-Ho; Fukidome, Hirokazu; Suemitsu, Tetsuya; Otsuji, Taiichi; Cho, Won-Ju; Suemitsu, Maki

    2017-06-01

    We propose a damage-free formation method for high-quality gate dielectrics on epitaxial graphene (EG), which involves solution-based Al2O3 coating combined with microwave-assisted annealing (MW-sol-Al2O3). This method substantially preserves the pristine properties of EG with minimized hole doping and strain induction. The MW-sol-Al2O3 showed a surface roughness of ˜0.237 nm and a dielectric constant of 7.5. A leakage current of 8.7 × 10-6 A/cm2, which is 3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of natural Al2O3 at the same electric field, was obtained. These excellent MW-sol-Al2O3 properties are ascribed to the effective elimination of hydroxyl- and carboxyl-related components from the film by microwave-assisted annealing.

  7. Interpenetrated polymer networks based on commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks with high dielectric permittivity and self-healing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliani, Elisa; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    ,1 Hz), and the commercial elastomers RT625 and LR3043/30 provide thebest viscoelastic properties to the systems, since they maintain low viscous losses upon addition of ionic network. The values ofthe breakdown strength in all cases remain higher than that of the reference pure PDMS network (ranging......The dielectric elastomers (DEs) technology can be used in many advanced applications, such as actuators, generators and sensors, showing advantageous and promising properties[1]. However, the main disadvantage is the high driving voltage required for the actuation process which limits...... the applicability. One method used to avoid this limitation is to increase the dielectric permittivity of the material in order to improve the actuation response at a given field. Recently, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on covalently cross-linked commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks...

  8. High carrier mobility of CoPc wires based field-effect transistors using bi-layer gate dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gedda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and anodized Al2O3 layers were used as bi-layer gate for the fabrication of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc wire base field-effect transistors (OFETs. CoPc wires were grown on SiO2 surfaces by organic vapor phase deposition method. These devices exhibit a field-effect carrier mobility (μEF value of 1.11 cm2/Vs. The high carrier mobility for CoPc molecules is attributed to the better capacitive coupling between the channel of CoPc wires and the gate through organic-inorganic dielectric layer. Our measurements also demonstrated the way to determine the thicknesses of the dielectric layers for a better process condition of OFETs.

  9. Effects of barium on the nonlinear electrical characteristics and dielectric properties of SnO2-based varistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chun-Ming; Wang Jin-Feng; Wang Chun-Lei; Chen Hong-Cun; Su Wen-Bin; Zang Guo-Zhong; Qi Peng; Zhao Ming-Lei; Ming Bao-Quan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of barium on electrical and dielectric properties of the SnO2·Co2Oa.Ta2O5 varistor system sintered at 1250℃ for 60min were investigated. It is found that barium significantly improves the nonlinear properties. The breakdown electrical field increases from 378.0 to 2834.5V/mm, relative dielectric constant (at 1kHz) falls from 1206 to 161 and the resistivity (at 1kHz) rises from 60.3 to 1146.5kΩ·cm with an increase of BaCO3 concentration from 0mol%to 1.00mol%. The sample with 1.00mol% barium has the best nonlinear electrical property and the highest nonlinear coefficient (α=29.2). A modified defect barrier model is introduced to illustrate the grain-boundary barrier formation of barium-doped SnO2-based varistors.

  10. The source of THz radiation based on dielectric waveguide excited by sequence of electron bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmark, A. M.; Kanareykin, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new method for excitation of THz Cherenkov radiation in a dielectric waveguide by relativistic electron bunches. A sequence of bunches generates monochromatic radiation. The frequency of radiation is defined by the distance between the bunches. The studies were carried by using the newly updated BBU-3000 code which permits taking into account a number of additional options: an external quadrupole focusing system, group velocity of the wakefield, and the dielectric material loss factor. In this paper, we present our algorithm for optimizing the number and sequential positions of bunches for generation of narrow band high power THz radiation.

  11. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Iraj; Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad; Khalafi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  12. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbari, Iraj, E-mail: i_jabbari@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-21

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  13. Study of all-angle negative refraction of light in metal-dielectric-metal multilayered structures based on generalized formulas of reflection and refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangwei; Liu, Jun; Xu, Weidong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, refraction behaviors of light in both metal single-layered film and metal-dielectric-metal multilayered films are investigated based on the generalized formulas of reflection and refraction. The obtained results, especially, dependence of power refractive index on incident angles for a light beam traveling through a metal-dielectric-metal multilayered structure, are well consistent with the experimental observations. Our work may offer a new angle of view to understand the all-angle negative refraction of light in metal-dielectric-metal multilayered structures, and provide a convenient approach to optimize the devised design and address the issue on making the perfect lens.

  14. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC_LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 1016-1017 cm-3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  15. A compact linear accelerator based on a scalable microelectromechanical-system RF-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A.; Ji, Q.; Feinberg, E.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Lal, A.; Vinayakumar, K. B.; Ardanuc, S.; Hammer, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    A new approach for a compact radio-frequency (RF) accelerator structure is presented. The new accelerator architecture is based on the Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) structure that was first developed in the 1980s. The MEQALAC utilized RF resonators producing the accelerating fields and providing for higher beam currents through parallel beamlets focused using arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQs). While the early work obtained ESQs with lateral dimensions on the order of a few centimeters, using a printed circuit board (PCB), we reduce the characteristic dimension to the millimeter regime, while massively scaling up the potential number of parallel beamlets. Using Microelectromechanical systems scalable fabrication approaches, we are working on further reducing the characteristic dimension to the sub-millimeter regime. The technology is based on RF-acceleration components and ESQs implemented in the PCB or silicon wafers where each beamlet passes through beam apertures in the wafer. The complete accelerator is then assembled by stacking these wafers. This approach has the potential for fast and inexpensive batch fabrication of the components and flexibility in system design for application specific beam energies and currents. For prototyping the accelerator architecture, the components have been fabricated using the PCB. In this paper, we present proof of concept results of the principal components using the PCB: RF acceleration and ESQ focusing. Ongoing developments on implementing components in silicon and scaling of the accelerator technology to high currents and beam energies are discussed.

  16. Magneto-dielectric properties of doped ferrite based nanosized ceramics over very high frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, indium doped nano sized nickel zinc cobalt based ferrite ceramics with composition Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2InxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.2 and 0.4 were synthesized by a co-precipitation technique. Powdered sample has been pre-sintered at 800 °C, pressed into toroids and finally sintered at 1000 °C. The single phase formation of the presintered powder has been confirmed by X ray diffraction (XRD. The average particle size of the presintered powder has been estimated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and found to be about ~60 nm for x = 0.2 and ~80 nm at x = 0.4. The electromagnetic characterization has been made using vector network analyzer. High value of permeability (17.3 and 15.2 for x = 0.2 and 0.4 respectively with low magnetic loss tangent of 10−1 order were obtained. Permittivity of 8.2 and 10, and dielectric loss tangent of the order of 10−2 were also achieved. With the measured electromagnetic parameters, miniaturization factor of 12.32 and normalized characteristic impedance close to unity (1.23 were obtained up to 100 MHz frequency. These fascinating parameters definitely propose Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2In0.4Fe1.6O4 ceramics as a substrate material for miniaturized antenna in very high frequency band. Possible reasons and mechanisms of electromagnetic properties for different concentrations of indium are discussed in the paper.

  17. Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.

  18. Static and dynamic characteristics of angular velocity and acceleration transducers based on optical tunneling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busurin, V. I.; Korobkov, V. V.; Htoo Lwin, Naing; Tuan, Phan Anh

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical and experimental analysis of quasi-linear conversion function of angular velocity and acceleration microoptoelectromechnical (MOEM) transducers based on optical tunneling effect (OTE) are conducted. Equivalent oscillating circuit is developed and dynamic characteristics of angular velocity and acceleration MOEM-transducers are investigated.

  19. Minimum time acceleration of aircraft turbofan engines by using an algorithm based on nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teren, F.

    1977-01-01

    Minimum time accelerations of aircraft turbofan engines are presented. The calculation of these accelerations was made by using a piecewise linear engine model, and an algorithm based on nonlinear programming. Use of this model and algorithm allows such trajectories to be readily calculated on a digital computer with a minimal expenditure of computer time.

  20. New dielectric mixture equation for porous materials based on depolarization factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.; Dirksen, C.; Kampers, F.W.H.; Feddes, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    A change in the relative proportions of the constituents of a porous material like soil will cause a change in its electrical permittivity. The measured permittivity reflects the impact of the permittivities of the individual material constituents. Numerous dielectric mixture equations are

  1. Local field enhancement on demand based on hybrid plasmonic-dielectric directional coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhem, Kholod; Avrutsky, Ivan

    2016-03-21

    The concept of local field enhancement using conductor-gap-dielectric-substrate (CGDS) waveguide structure is proposed. The dispersion equation is derived analytically and solved numerically. The solution of the dispersion equation reveals the anti-crossing behavior of coupled modes. the optimal gap layer thickness and the coupling length of the guided modes are obtained. The mechanism of the CGDS works as follows: Light waves are guided by conventional low-loss dielectric waveguides and, upon demand, they are transformed into highly confined plasmonic modes with strong local field enhancement, and get transformed back into low-loss dielectric modes. As an example, in a representative CGDS structure, the optimal plasmonic gap size is 17 nm, the local light intensity is found to be more than one order of magnitude stronger than the intensity of the dielectric mode at the film surface. The coupling length is only 2.1 μm at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. Such a local field confinement on demand is expected to facilitate efficient light-matter interaction in integrated photonic devices while minimizing losses typical for plasmonic structures.

  2. Nonlinear dielectric properties of planar structures based on ferroelectric betaine phosphite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Svinarev, F. B.; Yurko, E. I.

    2014-02-01

    Ferroelectric films of partly deuterated betaine phosphite are grown on NdGaO3(001) substrates with an interdigitated system of electrodes on their surfaces by evaporation at room temperature. These films have a high capacitance in the ferroelectric phase transition range. The dielectric nonlinearity of the grown structures is studied in small-signal and strong-signal response modes and in the intermediate region between these two modes by measuring the capacitance in a dc bias field, dielectric hysteresis loops, and the Fourier spectra of an output signal in the Sawyer-Tower circuit. In the phase transition range, the capacitance control ratio at a bias voltage U bias = 40 V is K ≅ 7. The dielectric nonlinearity of the structures in the paraelectric phase is described by the Landau theory of second-order phase transitions. The additional contribution to the nonlinearity in the ferroelectric phase is related to the motion of domain walls and manifests itself when the input signal amplitude is higher than U st ˜ 0.7-1.0 V. The relaxation times of domain walls are determined from an analysis of the frequency dependences of the dielectric hysteresis.

  3. Pulsed neutron source based on accelerator-subcritical-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Noda, Akira; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Hiromi; Shirai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research

    1997-03-01

    A new pulsed neutron source which consists of a 300MeV proton linac and a nuclear fuel subcritical assembly is proposed. The proton linac produces pulsed spallation neutrons, which are multipied by the subcritical assembly. A prototype proton linac that accelerates protons up to 7MeV has been developed and a high energy section of a DAW structure is studied with a power model. Halo formations in high intensity beam are also being studied. (author)

  4. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-05-03

    There has been significant interest in printing radio frequency passives, however the dissipation factor of printed dielectric materials has limited the quality factor achievable. Al2O3 is one of the best and widely implemented dielectrics for RF passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large area electronics. To-date, particle based Al2O3 inks have been explored as dielectrics, although several drawbacks including nozzle clogging and grain boundary formation in the films hinder progress. In this work, a particle free Al2O3 ink is developed and demonstrated in RF capacitors. Fluid and jetting properties are explored, along with control of ink spreading and coffee ring suppression. The liquid ink is heated to 400 °C decomposing to smooth Al2O3 films ~120 nm thick, with roughness of <2 nm. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors, show high capacitance density >450 pF/mm2, and quality factors of ~200. The devices have high break down voltages, >25 V, with extremely low leakage currents, <2×10−9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm. The capacitors compare well with similar Al2O3 devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

  5. Room temperature analysis of dielectric function of ZnO-based thin film on fused quartz substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Robi; Sutjahja, Inge M.; Winata, Toto; Rusydi, Andrivo; Darma, Yudi

    2015-09-01

    A set of sample consist of pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO film were grown on fused-quartz substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Here, we report room temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis (covering energy range of 0.5 to 6.3 eV) of pure ZnO film and Cu doped ZnO film at 8 in at. %. The thickness of pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO film using in this study is about 350 nm. To extract the dielectric function of ZnO thin film, multilayer modeling is performed which takes into account reflections at each interface through Fresnel coefficients. This method based on Drude-Lorentz models that connect with Kramers-Kronig relations. The best fitting of Ψ (amplitude ratio) and Δ (phase difference) taken by SE measurement are obtained reasonably well by mean the universal fitting of three different photon incident angles. The imaginary part of dielectric function (ɛ2) show the broad peak at around 3.3 eV assigned as combination of optical band energy edge with excitonic states. The exitonic states could not be observed clearly in this stage. The evolution of extracted dielectric function is observable by introducing 8% Cu as indicated by decreasing of excitonic intensity. This result indicates the screening of excitonic state. This study will bring us to have a good undestanding for the role of Cu impurities for ZnO thin films.

  6. Study on Ferroelectric and Dielectric Properties of La-Doped CaBi4Ti4O15-Based Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lanthanum doped bismuth layer structured ferroelectrics (BLSFs) Ca1-xLaxBi4(Ti0.9W0.1)4O15 (x=0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6) ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction(XRD) patterns showed that single phase was formed when x=0~0.6. The effects of La3+ doping on dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of Ca1-xLaxBi4(Ti0.9W0.1)4O15 ceramics were studied. Ca0.7La0.3Bi4(Ti0.9W0.1)4O15 ceramic had optimal properties, its dielectric constant was 166.85, dielectric loss was 0.0063, piezoelectric strain constant was 11 pc·N-1, remanent polarization was 18.1 μC·cm-2 and coercive field was 118 kV·cm-1. SEM micrographs showed that the grains of CaBi4Ti4O15-based ceramics were plate-like. The results of energy spectrum analysis (EDS) showed that La3+ incorporation could increase Bi/Ca ratio.

  7. Cherenkov radiation in a surface wave accelerator based on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhong; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady

    2016-10-01

    We report on our theoretical investigations of Cherenkov-type emission of surface phonon polaritons (SPPs) by relativistic electron bunches. The polaritons are confined by a planar waveguide comprised of two SiC slabs separated by an air gap. The SPPs are generated in the spectral range known as the reststrahlen band, where the dielectric permittivity of SiC is negative. Two surface modes of the radiation are analyzed: the longitudinal (accelerating) and the transverse (deflecting) ones. Both form Cherenkov cones that are different in the magnitude of the cone angle and the central frequency. However, both exhibits rapid spatial oscillations and beats behind the moving charge. Moreover, the longitudinal mode forms a reversed Cherenkov radiation cone due the negative group velocity for sufficiently small air gaps, but the transverse mode does not. The wakefield acceleration of electron beam inside the structure is also studied. Transverse instabilities and BBU effects can be suppressed by flat driver beam, meanwhile the longitudinal mode can support accelerating fields >1 GeV.

  8. Programming Heterogeneous Clusters with Accelerators Using Object-Based Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Kunzman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous clusters that include accelerators have become more common in the realm of high performance computing because of the high GFlop/s rates such clusters are capable of achieving. However, heterogeneous clusters are typically considered hard to program as they usually require programmers to interleave architecture-specific code within application code. We have extended the Charm++ programming model and runtime system to support heterogeneous clusters (with host cores that differ in their architecture that include accelerators. We are currently focusing on clusters that include commodity processors, Cell processors, and Larrabee devices. When our extensions are used to develop code, the resulting code is portable between various homogeneous and heterogeneous clusters that may or may not include accelerators. Using a simple example molecular dynamics (MD code, we demonstrate our programming model extensions and runtime system modifications on a heterogeneous cluster comprised of Xeon and Cell processors. Even though there is no architecture-specific code in the example MD program, it is able to successfully make use of three core types, each with a different ISA (Xeon, PPE, SPE, three SIMD instruction extensions (SSE, AltiVec/VMX and the SPE's SIMD instructions, and two memory models (cache hierarchies and scratchpad memories in a single execution. Our programming model extensions abstract away hardware complexities while our runtime system modifications automatically adjust application data to account for architectural differences between the various cores.

  9. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-08-22

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

  10. Dielectric loss determination using perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrawis, Madeleine Y.

    1991-01-01

    A dielectric filled cavity structure is currently being used to estimate the dielectric constant and loss factor over a wide range of frequencies of a dielectric material which fills the cavity structure [Saed, 1987]. A full field analysis is used to compute the effective complex permittivity of the sample material based on reflection coefficient measurements of the cavity structure and associated geometrical dimensions. The method has previously been used successfully to de...

  11. Sol-Gel Deposited Porogen Based Porous Low-k Thin Films for Interlayer Dielectric Application in ULSI Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh S. Mhaisagar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Porous SiO2 low-k thin films with low dielectric constant were successfully deposited by sol-gel spin-coating technique. The films were deposited by using Tertaethylorthosilicate (TEOS as a precursor solution and HF was used as an acid catalyst solution. The Tween80 with different volumetric concentrations i.e. 0.0 ml, 0.5 ml and 0.7 ml was used as a pore generator to lower the dielectric constant of the films by introducing the porosity in the films matrix. The thickness and refractive index (RI of low-k thin films have been measured by Ellipsometer. The refractive index and thickness of the films observed to be decreasing with increase in Tween80 concentration. The chemical bonding structures of films were analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectroscopy and the stretching, bending and rocking peaks appear at 1077 cm – 1, 967  cm – 1, 447  cm – 1 respectively confirm the formation of Si-O-Si network. The RIs of the films deposited at 0 ml, 0.5 ml and at 0.7 ml of Tween80 concentration are found to be 1.34, 1.26, and 1.20 respectively. Based on RI values of the films, the porosity percentage, density and dielectric constant have been calculated by standard formulation method. The increase in porosity percentage of films from 3 % to 55 % with increase in Tween80 concentration reveals that, the most of the hydroxyl group and porogen get evaporated and form more voids in the films. This increase in porosity percentage causes to lower the dielectric constant of films and was found to be 2.26 at the 0.7 ml of Tween80 concentration. Such porogen based low dialectic constant thin films can be suitable for interlayer dielectric (ILD applications in ULSI circuits.

  12. Acceleration of cell factories engineering using CRISPR-based technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta

    potentially be standardized in an automatable platform and, in the future be integrated with metabolic modeling tools. In particularly it describes the technologies developed in the three widely used organisms: E. coli, S. cerevisiae and CHO mammalian cells using the recent breakthrough CRISPR/ Cas9 system....... These include CRMAGE, a MAGE improved recombineering platform using CRISPR negative selection, CrEdit, a system for multi-loci marker-free simultaneous gene and pathway integrations and CRISPy a platform to accelerate genome editing in CHO cells....

  13. Electromagnetic Simulations of Helical-Based Ion Acceleration Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Scott D; Caporaso, George; Friedman, Alex; Poole, Brian R; Waldron, William

    2005-01-01

    Helix structures have been proposed* for accelerating low energy ion beams using MV/m fields in order to increase the coupling effeciency of the pulsed power system and to tailor the electromagnetic wave propagation speed with the particle beam speed as the beam gains energy. Calculations presented here show the electromagnetic field as it propagates along the helix structure, field stresses around the helix structure (for voltage breakdown determination), optimizations to the helix and driving pulsed power waveform, and simulations showing test particles interacting with the simulated time varying fields.

  14. Effects of TEA·HCl hardening accelerator on the workability of cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenhao; Ding, Zhaoyang; Chen, Yanwen

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the test is to research the influence rules of TEA·HCl on the workability of cement paste and concrete. Based on the features of the new hardening accelerator, an experimental analysis system were established through different dosages of hardening accelerator, and the feasibility of such accelerator to satisfy the need of practical engineering was verified. The results show that adding of the hardening accelerator can accelerate the cement hydration, and what’s more, when the dosage was 0.04%, the setting time was the shortest while the initial setting time and final setting time were 130 min and 180 min, respectively. The initial fluidity of cement paste of adding accelerator was roughly equivalent compared with that of blank. After 30 min, fluidity loss would decrease with the dosage increasing, but fluidity may increase. The application of the hardening accelerator can make the early workability of concrete enhance, especially the slump loss of 30 min can improve more significantly. The bleeding rate of concrete significantly decreases after adding TEA·HCl. The conclusion is that the new hardening accelerator can meet the need of the workability of cement-based materials in the optimum dosage range.

  15. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Timothy [Research Engineer; Motupally, Sathya [Research Engineer

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  16. Kinematics and Dynamics of Motion Control Based on Acceleration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Ohba, Yuzuru; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The first IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control was held in 1990 pointed out the importance of physical interpretation of motion control. The software servoing technology is now common in machine tools, robotics, and mechatronics. It has been intensively developed for the numerical control (NC) machines. Recently, motion control in unknown environment will be more and more important. Conventional motion control is not always suitable due to the lack of adaptive capability to the environment. A more sophisticated ability in motion control is necessary for compliant contact with environment. Acceleration control is the key technology of motion control in unknown environment. The acceleration control can make a motion system to be a zero control stiffness system without losing the robustness. Furthermore, a realization of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is necessary for future human assistance. A human assistant motion will require various control stiffness corresponding to the task. The review paper focuses on the modal coordinate system to integrate the various control stiffness in the virtual axes. A bilateral teleoperation is a good candidate to consider the future human assistant motion and integration of decentralized systems. Thus the paper reviews and discusses the bilateral teleoperation from the control stiffness and the modal control design points of view.

  17. A High Performance FPGA-Based Sorting Accelerator with a Data Compression Mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KOBAYASHI, Ryohei; KISE, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    ... performance machines like embedded systems. In this paper, we present an FPGA-based sorting accelerator combining Sorting Network and Merge Sorter Tree, which is customizable by means of tuning design parameters...

  18. Multiscale simulations of polyurea-based dielectrics for capacitive energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui; Ranjan, Vivek; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Bernholc, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    In high energy capacitors, bi-axially oriented polypropylene is the preferred the state-of-art low loss dielectric. However, its energy density only reaches 4 J/cm3 at 600 MV/m with 85% efficiency, while the recently synthesized polythiourea reaches 8 J/cm3 with 95% efficiency under the same conditions. Members of the aromatic polyurea family have also been reported to have similarly high energy densities. We have performed multiscale simulations to investigate several members of the polyurea/ polythiourea family, focusing on their structural and dielectric properties. Antiparallel packing of urea/thiourea units is found to be preferred energetically, but the energy surfaces are remarkably flat overall, with several distorted and disordered structures being energetically close. Nevertheless, microscopic geometries are found to be critical for the ionic response. Local disorder leads to larger permittivities, but also increased losses.

  19. Use of Dielectric Spectroscopy to Estimate the Condition of Cellulose-Based Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Dumitran

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the power transformersinsulation condition is a permanent concern forcarriers and distributors of electrical energy.Different methods for their monitoring and diagnosiswere developed in recent years. The aim of this workis to present the basis of the dielectric spectroscopymethod and the first results obtained in time-domainand in frequency domain that permit to estimate themoisture content in pressboard. At the end, thepossibility to use this method for off-line and on-linetransformer monitoring is analyzed.

  20. Electrowetting on dielectrics on lubricating fluid based slippery surfaces with negligible hysteresis

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Jitesh; Nagarajan, Arun Kumar; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2015-01-01

    Low voltage electrowetting on dielectrics on substrates with thin layer of lubricating fluid to reduce contact angle hysteresis is reported here. On smooth and homogeneous solid surfaces, it is extremely difficult to reduce contact angle hysteresis (contact angle difference between advancing and receding drop volume cycle) and the electrowetting hysteresis (contact angle difference between advancing and receding voltage cycle) below 10{\\deg}. On the other hand, electrowetting hysteresis on ro...

  1. Particle Accelerators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  2. Design of Power Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegner, Jonas Stenbæk; Sindholt, Joakim; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to accelerate financial derivative calculations is becoming very common. In this work, we implement an FPGA-based specific processor for European option pricing using Monte Carlo simulations, and we compare its performance and power dissipation...... to the execution on a CPU. The experimental results show that impressive results, in terms of speed-up and energy savings, can be obtained by using FPGA-based accelerators at expenses of a longer development time....

  3. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors -- the test mass to test mass interferometric link -- behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as non-gravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterised by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-...

  4. Dielectric Properties of Polypropylene-Based Nanocomposites with Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Gui, Haoguan; Hu, Yadong; Bahader, Ali; Ding, Yunsheng

    2014-07-01

    Nanocomposites were prepared from polypropylene (PP) and untreated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or MWCNTs surface-functionalized with ionic liquids (MIL), as fillers, and their dielectric properties were compared. The physical (cation-π/π-π) interaction between the ionic liquids and the MWCNTs was apparent from Raman spectroscopy and from thermogravimetric analysis. Morphology characterization revealed that ionic liquids improve the dispersibility of MWCNTs in the PP matrix. It is suggested that the substantial increase in the dielectric permittivity of the nanocomposites compared with that of the PP originates from a remarkable Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) effect at percolation threshold where mobile charge carriers are blocked at internal interfaces between the MIL and the PP matrix. The high polarity of ionic liquids may reinforce the MWS effect, and the nonconducting organic groups of the ionic liquids promote the low loss tangent and low conductivity of the MIL/PP nanocomposites. Compared with MWCNTs/PP nanocomposites, lower loss tangent and higher dielectric permittivity were observed for MIL/PP nanocomposites, making the material more attractive for application in electronics.

  5. Analysis of Interface Charge Densities for High-k Dielectric Materials based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, N. P.; Thakur, R. R.; Maity, Reshmi; Thapa, R. K.; Baishya, S.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the interface charge densities (Dit) are studied and analyzed for ultra thin dielectric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices using different high-k dielectric materials such as Al2O3, ZrO2 and HfO2. The Dit have been calculated by a new approach using conductance method and it indicates that by reducing the thickness of the oxide, the Dit increases and similar increase is also found by replacing SiO2 with high-k. For the same oxide thickness, SiO2 has the lowest Dit and found to be the order of 1011cm-2eV-1. Linear increase in Dit has been observed as the dielectric constant of the oxide increases. The Dit is found to be in good agreement with published fabrication results at p-type doping level of 1×1017cm-3. Numerical calculations and solutions are performed by MATLAB and device simulation is done by ATLAS.

  6. Influence of Radiation on the Dielectric Properties of XLPE Based Insulation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurman, Vladimír; Lelák, Jaroslav

    2010-07-01

    The paper discusses the possibilities of acquiring and processing the dielectric data in the range of very low frequency (VLF) and also design and construction of an impedance analyzer for measurements in this frequency range. The impedance measurements in the VLF range were used for investigation of the influence of radiation on the cross-linked polyethylene cable dielectric. An expressive β-type relaxation process was found in this type of cable. Most of the dielectric response parameters of the process depend significantly on the absorbed dose of radiation. The analysis of the process parameters showed that the most probable reason of the structural changes in cross-linked polyethylene was additional cross-linking. The results also proved that the impedance measurements in the VLF range could be effectively used in practice for estimation of the absorbed dose in the cross-linked polyethylene cables stressed by radiation.t data only. In order to identify or classify motion, data processing in real time is needed.

  7. Optical and dielectric properties of nanocomposites systems based on epoxy resins and reactive polyhedral oligosilsquioxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eed, H.; Hassouneh, O.; Ramadin, Y.; Zihlif, A.; Ragosta, G.; Elimat, Z. M.

    2013-01-01

    An epoxy network structure made of diglycidylether of bisphenol-A and diamino diphenylsulfone was modified by adding various amounts of an epoxy functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized in terms of optical and dielectric properties. The UV-absorption spectra were collected in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm. The optical data were analyzed in terms of absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The optical energy gap and other basic constants, such as energy tails, dielectric constants, refractive index and optical conductivity, were determined and showed a clear dependence on the POSS concentration. It was found that the optical energy gap for the neat epoxy resin is less than for nanocomposites, and it decreases with increase in the POSS content. The refractive index of nanocomposites was determined from the calculated values of absorption and reflectance. It was found that the refractive index and the dielectric constants increased with increase in the POSS concentration. The optical conductivity, which is a measure of the optical absorption, increased with the POSS content. Furthermore, it was found that the glass transition temperature and the optical energy gap correlate well with the POSS filler concentration.

  8. Repair mortars based on lime. Accelerated aging tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour under different accelerated aging tests (freeze/thaw and crystallization cycles of a new lime mortar with biocide properties destinated to monumental repair has been studied. New mortars (which have the biocide impregnated in a clay called sepiolite have a similar behaviour to lime mortars used as a reference. After the aging tests, the biocide properties of the mortars have been tried.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a distintos ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado (ciclos de hielo/deshielo y cristalización de sales de un nuevo mortero de cal con propiedades biocidas, destinado a la reparación monumental. Se ha comprobado que los nuevos morteros (que llevan incorporado el biocida impregnado en una arcilla denominada sepiolita tienen un comportamiento muy similar a los morteros de cal utilizados como referencia. Tras los ensayos de envejecimiento se ha visto que las propiedades biocidas de los morteros se mantienen.

  9. Characterization methods for an accelerator based fast-neutron facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, C.; Daniels, G. C.

    2012-02-01

    A fast neutron facility provides a number of complexities in both detection and shielding, the latter arising not only due to uncertainty in the behaviour of the scattered radiation (neutron and gamma-rays) from a fast neutron source, but also on shielding requirements that have to take into account internal and external factors, such as dose limitations, space availability for implementing bulky shielding and secondary interactions of the radiation with materials. This has possible influence on experimental measurements with a low signal to noise ratio. This paper reports on some of the investigations performed at a RFQ accelerator facility generating > 1011 neutrons per second with energies up to 14 MeV, which are used to perform fast neutron radiography studies. Areas highlighted are the neutron cross section libraries, where important data needs to be reviewed or updated.

  10. Phase Space Dynamics of Ionization Injection in Plasma Based Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X L; Li, F; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of beam phase space in ionization-induced injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The injection process causes special longitudinal and transverse phase mixing leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and eventual slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented that includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces. Formulas for the emittance in the low and high space charge regimes are presented. The theory is verified through PIC simulations and a good agreement is obtained. This work shows how ultra-low emittance beams can be produced using ionization-induced injection.

  11. Photon Acceleration of Laser-plasma Based on Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; XIE Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional electron density disturbance is studied by using the inelastic collision model of the relativity electron and photon group, the relativity theory, the momentum equation and the continuity equation, which is generated by a driving laser pulse and scattered laser pulse propagating through a tenuous plasma, and the electron density disturbance is closely associated with the incident laser and scattering laser. The electron plasma wave(EPW)is formed by the propagation of the electron density disturbance. Owing to the action of EPW, the increasing of the frequency of the photons in the incident laser pulses that there is a distance with the driving laser pulses is studied by using optical metric. The results show that it is possible that the photon will gain higher energy from the EPW when photon number is decreased and one-photon Compton scattering enters, the photon will be accelerated.

  12. European Strategy for Accelerator-Based Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Cervera, Anselmo; Donini, Andrea; Dracos, Marcos; Duchesneau, Dominique; Dufour, Fanny; Edgecock, Rob; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Gschwendtner, Edda; Kudenko, Yury; Long, Ken; Maalampi, Jukka; Mezzetto, Mauro; Pascoli, Silvia; Palladino, Vittorio; Rondio, Ewa; Rubbia, Andre; Rubbia, Carlo; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Thomas, Jenny; Wark, David; Wildner, Elena; Zito, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Massive neutrinos reveal physics beyond the Standard Model, which could have deep consequences for our understanding of the Universe. Their study should therefore receive the highest level of priority in the European Strategy. The discovery and study of leptonic CP violation and precision studies of the transitions between neutrino flavours require high intensity, high precision, long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments. The community of European neutrino physicists involved in oscillation experiments is strong enough to support a major neutrino long baseline project in Europe, and has an ambitious, competitive and coherent vision to propose. Following the 2006 European Strategy for Particle Physics (ESPP) recommendations, two complementary design studies have been carried out: LAGUNA/LBNO, focused on deep underground detector sites, and EUROnu, focused on high intensity neutrino facilities. LAGUNA LBNO recommends, as first step, a conventional neutrino beam CN2PY from a CERN SPS North Area Neutrino Fac...

  13. Uranium target for electron accelerator based neutron source for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Harmon, F.; Collens, T. J.; Kennedy, K.; Sabourov, A.; Harker, Y. D.; Nigg, D. W.; Jones, J. L.

    2001-07-01

    Calculations of the epithermal-neutron yield of photoneutrons from a uranium-beryllium converter using a 27 MeV electron linear accelerator have been investigated. In this concept, relativistic electron beams from a 30 MeV LINAC impinge upon a small uranium sphere surrounded by a cylindrical tank of circulating heavy water (D2O) nested in a beryllium cube. The photo-fission neutron spectrum from the uranium sphere is thermalized in deuterium and beryllium, filtered and moderated in special material (AlF3/Al/LiF), and directed to the patient. The results of these calculations demonstrate that photoneutron devices could offer a promising alternative to nuclear reactors for the production of epithermal neutrons for Neutron Capture Therapy. The predicted parameter for the epithermal flux is more than 108n.cm-2.mA-1.

  14. Dielectric Properties of Yttria Ceramics at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Chen; Zheng-Ping Gao; Jin-Ming Wang; Da-Hai Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Based on Clausius-Mosotti equation and Debye relaxation theory, the dielectric model of yttria ceramics was developed according to the dielectric loss mechanism. The dielectric properties of yttria ceramics were predicted at high temperature. The temperature dependence and frequency dependence of dielectric constant and dielectric loss were discussed, respectively.As the result, the data calculated by theoretical dielectric model are in agreement with experimental data.

  15. Casimir Effect for Dielectric Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Kupisewska method to the three-dimensional system and another derivation of the Casimir effect between two dielectric plates is presented based on the explicit quantization of the electromagnetic field in the presence of dielectrics, where the physical meaning of "evanescent mode" is discussed. The Lifshitz's formula is rederived perfect metallic plates will the evanescent modes become unimportant.

  16. A single dielectric nanolaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Yu; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2016-09-01

    To conquer Ohmic losses from metal and enhance pump absorption efficiency of a nanolaser based on surface plasmon polariton, we theoretically calculate the first magnetic and electric scattering coefficient of a dielectric sphere under a plane wave excitation with a dielectric constant of around 12. From this calculation, we could retrieve both negative effective permittivity and permeability of the sphere simultaneously at frequencies around 153 THz in the aids of Lewin's theory and the power distribution clearly demonstrate the expected negative Goos-Hänchen effect, which usually occurred in a negative refractive waveguide, thus creating two energy vortices to trap incident energy and then promoting the pump absorption efficiency. Meanwhile, a magnetic lasing mode at 167.3 THz is demonstrated and reveals a magnetic dipole resonance mode and a circulating energy flow within the dielectric sphere, providing a possible stopped light feedback mechanism to enable the all-dielectric nanolaser. More importantly, the corresponding mode volume is reduced to 0.01λ3 and a gain threshold of 5.1×103 is obtained. To validate our design of all-dielectric nanolaser, we employ finite-difference-time-domain simulation software to examine the behavior of the nanolaser. From simulation, we could obtain a pinned-down population inversion of 0.001 and a lasing peak at around 166.5 THz, which is very consistent with the prediction of Mie theory. Finally, according to Mie theory, we can regard the all-dielectric nanolaser as the excitation of material polariton and thus could make an analogue between lasing modes of the dielectric and metallic nanoparticles.

  17. Design of Accelerated Reliability Test for CNC Motorized Spindle Based on Vibration Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorized spindle is the key functional component of CNC machining centers which is a mechatronics system with long life and high reliability. The reliability test cycle of motorized spindle is too long and infeasible. This paper proposes a new accelerated test for reliability evaluation of motorized spindle. By field reliability test, authors collect and calculate the load data including rotational speed, cutting force and torque. Load spectrum distribution law is analyzed. And authors design a test platform to apply the load spectrum. A new method to define the fuzzy acceleration factor based on the vibration signal is proposed. Then the whole test plan of accelerated reliability test is done.

  18. Collider design issues based on proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, G., E-mail: guoxing.xia@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); Mete, O. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); Aimidula, A.; Welsch, C.P. [The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Chattopadhyay, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom); The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mandry, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Wing, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-11

    Recent simulations have shown that a high-energy proton bunch can excite strong plasma wakefields and accelerate a bunch of electrons to the energy frontier in a single stage of acceleration. It therefore paves the way towards a compact future collider design using the proton beams from existing high-energy proton machines, e.g. Tevatron or the LHC. This paper addresses some key issues in designing a compact electron–positron linear collider and an electron–proton collider based on the existing CERN accelerator infrastructure.

  19. Collider design issues based on proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, G; Aimidula, A; Welsch, C; Chattopadhyay, S; Mandry, S; Wing, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent simulations have shown that a high-energy proton bunch can excite strong plasma wakefields and accelerate a bunch of electrons to the energy frontier in a single stage of acceleration. It therefore paves the way towards a compact future collider design using the proton beams from existing high-energy proton machines, e.g. Tevatron or the LHC. This paper addresses some key issues in designing a compact electron-positron linear collider and an electron-proton collider based on existing CERN accelerator infrastructure.

  20. Accelerating patch-based directional wavelets with multicore parallel computing in compressed sensing MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyue; Qu, Xiaobo; Liu, Yunsong; Guo, Di; Lai, Zongying; Ye, Jing; Chen, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Compressed sensing MRI (CS-MRI) is a promising technology to accelerate magnetic resonance imaging. Both improving the image quality and reducing the computation time are important for this technology. Recently, a patch-based directional wavelet (PBDW) has been applied in CS-MRI to improve edge reconstruction. However, this method is time consuming since it involves extensive computations, including geometric direction estimation and numerous iterations of wavelet transform. To accelerate computations of PBDW, we propose a general parallelization of patch-based processing by taking the advantage of multicore processors. Additionally, two pertinent optimizations, excluding smooth patches and pre-arranged insertion sort, that make use of sparsity in MR images are also proposed. Simulation results demonstrate that the acceleration factor with the parallel architecture of PBDW approaches the number of central processing unit cores, and that pertinent optimizations are also effective to make further accelerations. The proposed approaches allow compressed sensing MRI reconstruction to be accomplished within several seconds.

  1. About the scheme of the infrared FEL system for the accelerator based on HF wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, V.S.; Dzergach, A.I. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Accelerators, based on localization of plasmoids in the HF wells (RF traps) of the axially-symmetric electromagnetic field E {sub omn} in an oversized (m,n>>1) resonant system, can give accelerating gradients {approximately}100 kV/{lambda}, e.g. 10 GV/m if {lambda}=10 {mu}m. One of possible variants of HF feeding for these accelerators is based on using the powerful infrared FEL System with 2 frequencies. The corresponding FEL`s may be similar to the Los Alamos compact Advanced FEL ({lambda}{sub 1,2}{approximately}10 pm, e-beam energy {approximately}15 MeV, e-beam current {approximately}100 A). Their power is defined mainly by the HF losses in the resonant system of the supposed accelerator.

  2. Particle-In-Cell Modeling of Plasma-Based Accelerators in Two and Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hemker, Roy G

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, a fully object-oriented, fully relativistic, multi-dimensional Particle-In-Cell code was developed and applied to answer key questions in plasma-based accelerator research. The simulations increase the understanding of the processes in laser plasma and beam-plasma interaction, allow for comparison with experiments, and motivate the development of theoretical models. The simulations support the idea that the injection of electrons in a plasma wave by using a transversely propagating laser pulse is possible. The beam parameters of the injected electrons found in the simulations compare reasonably with beams produced by conventional methods and therefore laser injection is an interesting concept for future plasma-based accelerators. Simulations of the optical guiding of a laser wakefield driver in a parabolic plasma channel support the idea that electrons can be accelerated over distances much longer than the Rayleigh length in a channel. Simulations of plasma wakefield acceleration in the ...

  3. Accelerator-based fusion with a low temperature target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. E.; Ordonez, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Neutron generators are in use in a number of scientific and commercial endeavors. They function by triggering fusion reactions between accelerated ions (usually deuterons) and a stationary cold target (e.g., containing tritium). This setup has the potential to generate energy. It has been shown that if the energy transfer between injected ions and target electrons is sufficiently small, net energy gain can be achieved. Three possible avenues are: (a) a hot target with high electron temperature, (b) a cold non-neutral target with an electron deficiency, or (c) a cold target with a high Fermi energy. A study of the third possibility is reported in light of recent research that points to a new phase of hydrogen, which is hypothesized to be related to metallic hydrogen. As such, the target is considered to be composed of nuclei and delocalized electrons. The electrons are treated as conduction electrons, with the average minimum excitation energy being approximately equal to 40% of the Fermi energy. The Fermi energy is directly related to the electron density. Preliminary results indicate that if the claimed electron densities in the new phase of hydrogen were achieved in a target, the energy transfer to electrons would be small enough to allow net energy gain.

  4. Room temperature analysis of dielectric function of ZnO-based thin film on fused quartz substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurniawan, Robi; Sutjahja, Inge M.; Winata, Toto [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Rusydi, Andrivo; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: yudi@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); NUSNNI-Nanocore, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2015-09-30

    A set of sample consist of pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO film were grown on fused-quartz substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Here, we report room temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis (covering energy range of 0.5 to 6.3 eV) of pure ZnO film and Cu doped ZnO film at 8 in at. %. The thickness of pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO film using in this study is about 350 nm. To extract the dielectric function of ZnO thin film, multilayer modeling is performed which takes into account reflections at each interface through Fresnel coefficients. This method based on Drude-Lorentz models that connect with Kramers-Kronig relations. The best fitting of Ψ (amplitude ratio) and Δ (phase difference) taken by SE measurement are obtained reasonably well by mean the universal fitting of three different photon incident angles. The imaginary part of dielectric function (ε{sub 2}) show the broad peak at around 3.3 eV assigned as combination of optical band energy edge with excitonic states. The exitonic states could not be observed clearly in this stage. The evolution of extracted dielectric function is observable by introducing 8% Cu as indicated by decreasing of excitonic intensity. This result indicates the screening of excitonic state. This study will bring us to have a good undestanding for the role of Cu impurities for ZnO thin films.

  5. Development of low dielectric constant alumina-based ceramics for microelectronic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shun Jackson [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The performance of high speed computers depends not only on IC chips, but also on the signal propagation speed between these chips. The signal propagation delay in a computer is determined by the dielectric constant of the substrate material to which the IC chips are attached. In this study, a ceramic substrate with a low dielectric constant (k ≈ 5.0) has been developed. When compared with the traditional alumina substrate (k ≈ 10.0), the new material corresponds to a 37% decrease in the signal propagation delay. Glass hollow spheres are used to introduce porosity (k = 1.0) to the alumina matrix in a controlled manner. A surface coating technique via heterogeneous nucleation in aqueous solution has been used to improve the high temperature stability of these spheres. After sintering at 1,400 C, isolated spherical pores are uniformly distributed in the almost fully dense alumina matrix; negligible amounts of matrix defects can be seen. All pores are isolated from each other. Detailed analyses of the chemical composition find that the sintered sample consists of α-alumina, mullite and residual glass. Mullite is the chemical reaction product of alumina and the glass spheres. Residual glass exists because current firing conditions do not complete the mullitization reaction. The dielectric constant of the sintered sample is measured and then compared with the predicted value using Maxwell`s model. Mechanical strength is evaluated by a four-point bending test. Although the flexural strength decreases exponentially with porosity, samples with 34% porosity (k ≈ 5.0) still maintain adequate mechanical strength for the proper operation of a microelectronic substrate.

  6. Switchable adhesion for wafer-handling based on dielectric elastomer stack transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotepaß, T.; Butz, J.; Förster-Zügel, F.; Schlaak, H. F.

    2016-04-01

    Vacuum grippers are often used for the handling of wafers and small devices. In order to evacuate the gripper, a gas flow is created that can harm the micro structures on the wafer. A promising alternative to vacuum grippers could be adhesive grippers with switchable adhesion. There have been some publications of gecko-inspired adhesive devices. Most of these former works consist of a structured surface which adheres to the object manipulated and an actuator for switching the adhesion. Until now different actuator principles have been investigated, like smart memory alloys and pneumatics. In this work for the first time dielectric elastomer stack transducers (DEST) are combined with a structured surface. DESTs are a promising new transducer technology with many applications in different industry sectors like medical devices, human-machine-interaction and soft robotics. Stacked dielectric elastomer transducers show thickness contraction originating from the electromechanical pressure of two compliant electrodes compressing an elastomeric dielectric when a voltage is applied. Since DESTs and the adhesive surfaces previously described are made of elastomers, it is self-evident to combine both systems in one device. The DESTs are fabricated by a spin coating process. If the flat surface of the spinning carrier is substituted for example by a perforated one, the structured elastomer surface and the DEST can be fabricated in one process. By electrical actuation the DEST contracts and laterally expands which causes the gecko-like cilia to adhere on the object to manipulate. This work describes the assembly and the experimental results of such a device using switchable adhesion. It is intended to be used for the handling of glass wafers.

  7. Self-standing elastomeric composites based on lithium ferrites and their dielectric behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soreto Teixeira, S.; Graça, M. P. F.; Costa, L. C. [I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Dionisio, M. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ilcíkova, M.; Mosnacek, J.; Spitalsky, Z. [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krupa, I. [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar)

    2014-12-14

    Lithium ferrite (LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8}) is an attractive material for technological applications due to its physical properties, which are significantly dependent on the preparation method and raw materials. In this work, LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} crystallites were obtained by controlled heat-treatment process at 1100 °C, of a homogeneous mixture of Li{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, prepared by wet ball-milling and using lithium and iron nitrates as raw materials. The main goal was the preparation of a flexible and self-standing tick composite film by embedding lithium ferrite particles in a polymeric matrix, taking advantage of the good mechanical properties of the polymer and of the electrical and dielectric properties of the ferrite. The selected polymer matrix was styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene copolymer. To prepare the composites, the lithium ferrite particles were chemically modified in order to functionalize their surface. To analyse the influence of the particles surface modification, different composites were made, with modified and unmodified particles. The structure of the obtained composites was studied by FTIR, XRD, TGA, and DSC techniques. The dielectric properties were analysed, in the frequency range between 10 Hz and 1 MHz and in function of temperature in the range between −73 °C and 127 °C. These properties were related with the structure and concentration of the particles in the matrix network. The composites with the modified particles present higher dielectric constant, maintaining values of loss tangent sufficiently low (<10{sup −2}) that can be considered interesting for technological applications.

  8. Treatment planning capability assessment of a beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, M.S., E-mail: herrera@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, S.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Burlon, A.A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 191, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Within the frame of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) a theoretical study was performed to assess the treatment planning capability of different configurations of an optimized beam shaping assembly for such a facility. In particular this study aims at evaluating treatment plans for a clinical case of Glioblastoma.

  9. Synthesis, structure and dielectric properties of a Cd coordination polymer based on homopiperazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiu-Zhong; Xing, Zheng; Cao, Yong-Nan; Ma, Shi-Bing; Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2017-02-01

    A (4,6)-connected three-dimensional network complex [Cd(hpip)Br2]n (1) [hpip = homopiperazine] was prepared from CdBr2·4H2O and hpip by hydrothermal reaction in water. The structure was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The asymmetric unit contains one hpip ligand, one Cd(II) cation and two Br- anions. Each Cd(II) cation is coordinated by two N atoms from the ligand and four Br- anions, showing a distorted octahedral geometry. Its dielectric constant was measured at different frequencies with temperature variations.

  10. Macro-circuit simulation and optimal design for ferroelectric liquid crystal based on dielectric properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mengyao; Pan Wei; Luo Bin; Zhang Weili; Zou Xihua; Xiong Yue

    2007-01-01

    A macro-circuit equivalent model for ferroelectric liquid crystal(FLC)is proposed.The model includes both effects of ferroelectric torque and dielectric torque and is utilized to simulate the switching response and memory behavior of a single FLC cell.Simulation results show that the delay time has a minimum while increasing the amplitude of drive voltage and the amplitude of bipolar pulses should be controlled within a certain range to realize the memory behavior.Also the switching angle is successfully enhanced to the reference value of 22.5°by adopting"AC stabilization"addressing method.

  11. Degradation patterns of silicone-based dielectric elastomers in electrical fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    . This shortcoming has been attempted optimized through different approaches during recent years. Material optimization with the sole purpose of increasing the dielectric permittivity may lead to the introduction of problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown due to high leakage currents of the thin...... elastomer film. Within this work, electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers are investigated. Results showed that different types of polymer backbone chemistries lead to differences in electrical breakdown patterns, which were revealed through SEM imaging...

  12. Dielectric nanostructures with high laser damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, C. Y.; Hong, L. Y.; Deng, J.; Khoo, E. H.; Liu, Z.; Wu, R. F.; Teng, J. H.

    2017-02-01

    Dielectric-based metamaterials are proposed to be the ideal candidates for low-loss, high-efficiency devices. However, to employ dielectric nanostructures for high-power applications, the dielectric material must have a high laser-induced damaged threshold (LIDT) value. In this work, we investigated the LIDT values of dielectric nanostructures for high-power fiber laser applications. Consequently, we found that the fabricated SiO2 nanostructured lens can withstand laser fluence exceeding 100 J/cm2.

  13. Accelerated Degradation Process Analysis Based on the Nonlinear Wiener Process with Covariates and Random Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that the drift parameter is dependent on the acceleration variables and the diffusion coefficient remains the same across the whole accelerated degradation test (ADT in most of the literature based on Wiener process. However, the diffusion coefficient variation would also become obvious in some applications with the stress increasing. Aiming at the phenomenon, the paper concludes that both the drift parameter and the diffusion parameter depend on stress variables based on the invariance principle of failure mechanism and Nelson assumption. Accordingly, constant stress accelerated degradation process (CSADP and step stress accelerated degradation process (SSADP with random effects are modeled. The unknown parameters in the established model are estimated based on the property of degradation and degradation increment, separately for CASDT and SSADT, by the maximum likelihood estimation approach with measurement error. In addition, the simulation steps of accelerated degradation data are provided and simulated step stress accelerated degradation data is designed to validate the proposed model compared to other models. Finally, a case study of CSADT is conducted to demonstrate the benefits of our model in the practical engineering.

  14. Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Chan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mori, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-10-21

    This is the final report on the DOE grant number DE-FG02-92ER40727 titled, “Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators.” During this grant period the UCLA program on Advanced Plasma Based Accelerators, headed by Professor C. Joshi has made many key scientific advances and trained a generation of students, many of whom have stayed in this research field and even started research programs of their own. In this final report however, we will focus on the last three years of the grant and report on the scientific progress made in each of the four tasks listed under this grant. Four tasks are focused on: Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Research at FACET, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, In House Research at UCLA’s Neptune and 20 TW Laser Laboratories, Laser-Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) in Self Guided Regime: Experiments at the Callisto Laser at LLNL, and Theory and Simulations. Major scientific results have been obtained in each of the four tasks described in this report. These have led to publications in the prestigious scientific journals, graduation and continued training of high quality Ph.D. level students and have kept the U.S. at the forefront of plasma-based accelerators research field.

  15. Substitute potting compound for Sylgard 93-119 based on Sylgard 184 and Q3-6527 dielectric gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, G.L.; Switzer, S.T.

    1978-06-01

    Development of a substitute potting compound developed by Pantex to replace the no longer available Dow Corning 93-119 is described. The specific approach taken in this development utilized Dow Corning Sylgard 184 as the basic starting material, altering its viscosity with Dow Corning Dielectric Gel Q3-6527 and then modifying the cure rate with Dow Corning Accelerator Q3-6559. Various tests were run to characterize both chemical and physical properties of the substitutes as well as the initial 93-119 and the starting raw materials. Summaries of the data peculiar to this substitute are presented here whereas a more detailed examination of the test methods and results for the overall project are presented in another report. The properties of two substitutes developed from the two extremes of viscosity to be expected for Sylgard 184 during production are presented. These substitutes are easily quick-frozen in the catalyzed state for production use upon thawing. They are however somewhat more difficult to deaerate and eventually cure to a harder state than the original DC 93-119.

  16. Accelerator tube construction and characterization for a tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartelli, D.; Thatar Vento, V. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castell, W. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Di Paolo, H. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Kesque, J.M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av Rivadavia 1917 (1033), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    The accelerator tubes are essential components of the accelerator. Their function is to transport and accelerate a very intense proton or deuteron beam through the machine, from the ion source to the neutron production target, without significant losses. In this contribution, we discuss materials selected for the tube construction, the procedures used for their assembly and the testing performed to meet the stringent requirements to which it is subjected.

  17. 3D printed broadband transformation optics based all-dielectric microwave lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianjia; Nawaz Burokur, Shah; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André

    2016-04-01

    Quasi-conformal transformation optics is applied to design electromagnetic devices for focusing and collimating applications at microwave frequencies. Two devices are studied and conceived by solving Laplace’s equation that describes the deformation of a medium in a space transformation. As validation examples, material parameters of two different lenses are derived from the analytical solutions of Laplace’s equation. The first lens is applied to produce an overall directive in-phase emission from an array of sources conformed on a cylindrical structure. The second lens allows deflecting a directive beam to an off-normal direction. Full-wave simulations are performed to verify the functionality of the calculated lenses. Prototypes presenting a graded refractive index are fabricated through three-dimensional polyjet printing using solely dielectric materials. Experimental measurements carried out show very good agreement with numerical simulations, thereby validating the proposed lenses. Such easily realizable designs open the way to low-cost all-dielectric microwave lenses for beam forming and collimation.

  18. Temperature-Insensitive Fibre-Optic Acceleration Sensor Based on Intensity-Referenced Fibre Bragg Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-Qun; DONG Bo; WANG Yong-Xin; Evan LALLY; WANG An-Bo

    2008-01-01

    A temperature-insensitive acceleration sensor using two fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs), based on reflection spectrum intensity modulation and optical power detection, is proposed and demonstrated. A cantilever beam is used to generate acceleration-induced axial strain along two sensing gratings, which are glued on the two opposite surfaces of the beam. Because the two gratings operate within the linear spectral range of a light source, formed by a thermally-tunable extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical filter, the intensity difference of the two reflections from the gratings is proportional to the acceleration applied. This eliminates the need for sophisticated wavelength interrogation of the gratings, and it also endows the sensor with immunity to temperature variation. Compared with a commercial micromachined accelerometer, the sensor is proven to be capable of accurately detecting acceleration.

  19. Cycle-Based Algorithm Used to Accelerate VHDL Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勋; 刘明业

    2000-01-01

    Cycle-based algorithm has very high performance for the simula-tion of synchronous design, but it is confined to synchronous design and it is not as accurate as event-driven algorithm. In this paper, a revised cycle-based algorithm is proposed and implemented in VHDL simulator. Event-driven simulation engine and cycle-based simulation engine have been imbedded in the same simulation environ-ment and can be used to asynchronous design and synchronous design respectively. Thus the simulation performance is improved without losing the flexibility and ac-curacy of event-driven algorithm.

  20. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  1. Lithium target for accelerator based BNCT neutron source: Influence by the proton irradiation on lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, R.; Imahori, Y.; Nakakmura, M.; Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Hamano, T.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Itami, J.; Abe, Y.; Fuse, M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is in the transition stage from nuclear reactor to accelerator based neutron source. Generation of low energy neutron can be achieved by 7Li (p, n) 7Be reaction using accelerator based neutron source. Development of small-scale and safe neutron source is within reach. The melting point of lithium that is used for the target is low, and durability is questioned for an extended use at a high current proton beam. In order to test its durability, we have irradiated lithium with proton beam at the same level as the actual current density, and found no deterioration after 3 hours of continuous irradiation. As a result, it is suggested that lithium target can withstand proton irradiation at high current, confirming suitability as accelerator based neutron source for BNCT.

  2. A novel reconstruction method based on changes in phase for subsurface large sloped dielectric target using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijun; Ouyang, Shan; Liao, Guisheng

    2016-11-01

    In ground-penetrating radar (GPR) subsurface target reconstruction, various techniques based on amplitude (or energy) information of echoes from metal target with small size can work well. However, for environmental and geological applications, the quantitative analysis of the target's geometric features, like location, shape and size, is exactly what we are concerned about. Amplitude-based reconstruction method faces challenges in these applications. A large sloped target under the surface may lead to abundant virtual image energy and cause position deviation. In addition, the echoes from the inner part of the penetrable dielectric target may be too weak to be detected. However, changes in phase may highlight the effects of echoes from the target on that from the surroundings, even if the effect is small due to the weak energy. In this paper, a novel method based on changes in phase is proposed to reconstruct subsurface large sloped dielectric target. To remove the virtual image, the main idea is based on the geometric relationship between the recorded signal plotted beneath the receiving antenna and the reflected signal emanated from the target position which is "ahead" or "behind" of the receiving antenna. Furthermore, the electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating through the penetrable target will change its velocity and result in advancing or lagging related to the geometric shape of the target. In this case, the weak echoes from the back surface of the target can be compensated according to the advancing or lagging. With the proposed method, the virtual image is eliminated and both front and back surface of the target are reconstructed. Results from the laboratory experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  3. Improved performances of polymer-based dielectric by using inorganic/organic core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhadjala, W.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.; Plano, B.; Ousten, Y.

    2012-10-01

    BaTiO3/hyperbranched polyester/methacrylate core-shell nanoparticles were studied by varying the shell thickness and the methacrylate ratio. We demonstrated that coalescence typically observed in traditional composites employing polymer matrices is significantly reduced. By modifying the shell thickness, the equivalent filler fraction was tuned from 7 wt. % to 41 wt. %. Obtained permittivities were compared with reported models for two-phase mixtures. The nonlinear behavior of the dielectric constant as a function of the equivalent filler fraction has been fitted with the Bruggeman equation. Methacrylate groups reduce by a decade the loss factor by improving nanoparticles adhesion. The permittivity reaching 85 at 1 kHz makes core-shell nanoparticles a promising material for embedded capacitors.

  4. A road to practical dielectric elastomer actuators based robotics and mechatronics: discrete actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Jean-Sébastien; Devita, Lauren M.; Dubowsky, Steven

    2007-04-01

    Fundamental studies of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) using viscoelastic materials such as VHB 4905/4910 from 3M showed significant advantages at high stretch rates. The film's viscous forces increase actuator life and the short power-on times minimize energy losses through current leakage. This paper presents a design paradigm that exploits these fundamental properties of DEAs called discrete actuation. Discrete actuation uses DEAs at high stretch rates to change the states of robotic or mechatronic systems in discrete steps. Each state of the system is stable and can be maintained without actuator power. Discrete actuation can be used in robotic and mechatronic applications such as manipulation and locomotion. The resolution of such systems increases with the number of discrete states, 10 to 100 being sufficient for many applications. An MRI-guided needle positioning device for cancer treatments and a space exploration robot using hopping for locomotion are presented as examples of this concept.

  5. Simulation-based study of negative capacitance double-gate junctionless transistors with ferroelectric gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunsheng; Liang, Renrong; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a kind of negative capacitance double-gate junctionless transistor (NC-DG-JLT) with ferroelectric (FE) gate dielectric and metal-ferroelectric-metal-insulator-semiconductor (MFMIS) structure is proposed. It is demonstrated that NC-DG-JLTs can lower off-state current, improve on-state drain current, and lower subthreshold swing at the same time compared with its conventional DG JLT counterpart using numerical simulation. The steep subthreshold swing (SS detail. The low off-state current and high on/off current ratio could be obtained even for ultra-small transistors by optimizing the device parameters. NC-DG-JLTs have a great potential for low power dissipation applications.

  6. Polarization-independent broadband absorber based on pyramidal metal-dielectric grating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun

    2016-12-01

    An infrared broadband polarization-independent metamaterial absorber is designed and investigated. It consists of a pyramidal metal-dielectric multilayered rectangle grating structure. The absorber exhibits near-unit absorption at multiple adjacent wavelengths overlapping with each other, which results in a high absorption over a wide wavelength range. The absorbance at normal incidence is higher than 90% in a wavelength range of 2321 nm-4631 nm, and the broadband absorption performance can be maintained over a large incident angle range. Furthermore, the mechanism of such broadband absorption are investigated by illustrating the electric field distributions for TE polarization and magnetic field distributions for TM polarization at the resonant wavelengths. It is believed that the conclusions can be applied for developing polarization-independent broadband absorber.

  7. Broadband Multifunctional Efficient Meta-Gratings Based on Dielectric Waveguide Phase Shifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Capasso, Federico

    2015-10-14

    Molding the wavefront of light is a basic principle of any optical design. In conventional optical components such as lenses and waveplates, the wavefront is controlled via propagation phases in a medium much thicker than the wavelength. Metasurfaces instead typically produce the required phase changes using subwavelength-sized resonators as phase shift elements patterned across a surface. This "flat optics" approach promises miniaturization and improved performance. Here we introduce metasurfaces which use dielectric ridge waveguides (DRWs) as phase shift elements in which the required phase accumulation is achieved via propagation over a subwavelength distance. By engineering the dispersive response of DRWs, we experimentally realize high resolving power meta-gratings with broadband (λ = 1.2-1.7 μm) and efficient routing (splitting and bending) into a single diffraction order, thus overcoming the limits of blazed gratings. In addition, we demonstrate polarization beam splitting capabilities with large suppression ratios.

  8. Voigt waves in homogenized particulate composites based on isotropic dielectric components

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Tom G

    2011-01-01

    Homogenized composite materials (HCMs) can support a singular form of optical propagation, known as Voigt wave propagation, while their component materials do not. This phenomenon was investigated for biaxial HCMs arising from nondissipative isotropic dielectric component materials. The biaxiality of these HCMs stems from the oriented spheroidal shapes of the particles which make up the component materials. An extended version of the Bruggeman homogenization formalism was used to investigate the influence of component particle orientation, shape and size, as well as volume fraction of the component materials, upon Voigt wave propagation. Our numerical studies revealed that the directions in which Voigt waves propagate is highly sensitive to the orientation of the component particles and to the volume fraction of the component materials, but less sensitive to the shape of the component particles and less sensitive still to the size of the component particles. Furthermore, whether or not such an HCM supports Vo...

  9. A sensitive gas chromatography detector based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ansgar T; Last, Torben; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2017-02-03

    In this work, we present a novel concept for a gas chromatography detector utilizing an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization which is initialized by a dielectric barrier discharge. In general, such a detector can be simple and low-cost, while achieving extremely good limits of detection. However, it is non-selective apart from the use of chemical dopants. Here, a demonstrator manufactured entirely from fused silica capillaries and printed circuit boards is shown. It has a size of 75×60×25mm(3) and utilizes only 2W of power in total. Unlike other known discharge detectors, which require high-purity helium, this detector can theoretically be operated using any gas able to form stable ion species. Here, purified air is used. With this setup, limits of detection in the low parts-per-billion range have been obtained for acetone.

  10. Tunable 1 × 2 plasmonic splitter of dielectric-loaded graphene waveguide based on multimode interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YueKe; Hong, XiaoRong; Sang, Tian; Yang, GuoFeng

    2016-12-01

    We study the multimode interference (MMI) effect in a dielectric-loaded graphene waveguide (DLGW) numerically by the finite element method. By conducting the dispersion relation of graphene plasmon (GP) modes, a 1 × 2 splitter of GPs is proposed. Structure parameters are designed on the basis of the self-imaging principle, and the calculation of electrical field distributions illustrates two-wavelength splitting. Owing to the tunable permittivity of graphene by bias voltages, the active control of wavelength routing is achieved. High extinction ratios can also be obtained, which proves good splitting performance. It is considered that our findings provide a smart way of designing a tunable plasmonic splitter in the infrared region.

  11. GPU Accelerated Likelihoods for Stereo-Based Articulated Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny

    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  12. GPU accelerated likelihoods for stereo-based articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  13. Self-Powered Acceleration Sensor Based on Liquid Metal Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Vibration Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Weili; Jin, Long; Chun, Fengjun; Pan, Hong; Gu, Bingni; Zhang, Haitao; Lv, Zekai; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-07-25

    An acceleration sensor is an essential component of the vibration measurement, while the passivity and sensitivity are the pivotal features for its application. Here, we report a self-powered and highly sensitive acceleration sensor based on a triboelectric nanogenerator composed of a liquid metal mercury droplet (LMMD) and nanofiber-networked polyvinylidene fluoride (nn-PVDF) film. Due to the ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio of nn-PVDF film and high surface tension, high mass density, high elastic as well as mechanical robustness of LMMD, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current reach up to 15.5 V and 300 nA at the acceleration of 60 m/s(2), respectively. The acceleration sensor has a wide detection range from 0 to 60 m/s(2) with a high sensitivity of 0.26 V·s/m(2). Also, the output voltage and current show a negligible decrease over 200,000 cycles, evidently presenting excellent stability. Moreover, a high-speed camera was employed to dynamically capture the motion state of the acceleration sensor for insight into the corresponding work mechanism. Finally, the acceleration sensor was demonstrated to measure the vibration of mechanical equipment and human motion in real time, which has potential applications in equipment vibration monitoring and troubleshooting.

  14. Development of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner, A.J., E-mail: kreiner@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castell, W. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Paolo, H. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (Argentina); Baldo, M. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bergueiro, J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. The machine currently being constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 0.6 MV. We report here on the progress achieved in a number of different areas.

  15. Generation of electron beams from a laser-based advanced accelerator at Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    CERN Document Server

    Elsied, Ahmed M M; Li, Song; Mirzaie, Mohammad; Sokollik, Thomas; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    At Shanghai Jiao Tong University, we have established a research laboratory for advanced acceleration research based on high-power lasers and plasma technologies. In a primary experiment based on the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, multi-hundred MeV electron beams having a reasonable quality are generated using 20-40 TW, 30 femtosecond laser pulses interacting independently with helium, neon, nitrogen and argon gas jet targets. The laser-plasma interaction conditions are optimized for stabilizing the electron beam generation from each type of gas. The electron beam pointing angle stability and divergence angle as well as the energy spectra from each gas jet are measured and compared.

  16. Proton-beam writing channel based on an electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, A. S.; Rebrov, V. A.; Kolin'ko, S. V.; Salivon, V. F.; Ponomarev, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We have described the structure of the proton-beam writing channel as a continuation of a nuclear scanning microprobe channel. The problem of the accuracy of positioning a probe by constructing a new high-frequency electrostatic scanning system has been solved. Special attention has been paid to designing the probe-forming system and its various configurations have been considered. The probe-forming system that best corresponds to the conditions of the lithographic process has been found based on solving the problem of optimizing proton beam formation. A system for controlling beam scanning using multifunctional module of integrated programmable logic systems has been developed.

  17. Low-operating-voltage polymer thin-film transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) with hafnium oxide as the gate dielectric

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, YR; Deng, LF; Yao, RH; Lai, PT

    2010-01-01

    The effects of hafnium oxide $(hbox{HfO}-{2})$ gate dielectric annealing treatment in oxygen $(hbox{O}-{2})$ and ammonia $(hbox{NH}-{3})$ ambient on the electrical performance of polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) are investigated. The PTFTs with $hbox{HfO}-{2}$ gate dielectric and also octadecyltrichlorosilane surface modification, prepared by spin-coating process, exhibit good performance, such as a small threshold voltage of $-$0.5 V and an operating volt...

  18. Compact and broadband directional coupling and demultiplexing in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhihong; García Ortíz, César Eduardo; Han, Zhanghua

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically, numerically, and experimentally demonstrate that a directional coupling function can be realized with a wide bandwidth (greater than 200 nm) in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect. The functional size of the structures...... is in the range of several micrometers, which is much shorter than traditional directional couplers consisting of two parallel dielectric or plasmonic metallic waveguides. In addition, 1 × 2 beam splitting and demultiplexing function was realized. Such devices with wide bandwidth and small size indicate potential...

  19. Accelerating mesh-based Monte Carlo method on modern CPU architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qianqian; Kaeli, David R

    2012-12-01

    In this report, we discuss the use of contemporary ray-tracing techniques to accelerate 3D mesh-based Monte Carlo photon transport simulations. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) based computation and branch-less design are exploited to accelerate ray-tetrahedron intersection tests and yield a 2-fold speed-up for ray-tracing calculations on a multi-core CPU. As part of this work, we have also studied SIMD-accelerated random number generators and math functions. The combination of these techniques achieved an overall improvement of 22% in simulation speed as compared to using a non-SIMD implementation. We applied this new method to analyze a complex numerical phantom and both the phantom data and the improved code are available as open-source software at http://mcx.sourceforge.net/mmc/.

  20. FPGA-based Accelerators for Parallel Data Sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyarov Valery

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to parallel data sort based on sorting networks. The proposed methods and circuits have the following characteristics: 1 using two-level parallel comparators in even-odd transition networks with feedback to a register keeping input/intermediate data; 2 parallel merging of many sorted sequences; 3 using even-odd transition networks built from other sorting networks; 4 rational reuse of comparators in different types of networks, namely even-odd transition and for discovering maximum/minimum values. The experiments in FPGA, which were done for up to 16×220 32-bit data items, demonstrate very good results (as fast as 3-5 ns per data item.

  1. In situ electron beam irradiated rapid growth of bismuth nanoparticles in bismuth-based glass dielectrics at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shiv Prakash; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR, India), Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division (India)

    2011-09-15

    In this study, in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi{sup 0} NPs) was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics under an electron beam (EB) irradiation at room temperature. The effects of EB irradiation were investigated in situ using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The EB irradiation for 2-8 min enhanced the construction of bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 4-9 nm. The average particle size was found to increase with the irradiation time. Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271 Degree-Sign C and this low melting temperature makes easy the progress of energy induced structural changes during in situ TEM observations. This is a very useful technique in nano-patterning for integrated optics and other applications.

  2. Wide-bandwidth Tm-based amplifier for laser acceleration driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Drew A.; Vetrovec, John; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on an investigation of novel 2 μm thulium (Tm)-based laser accelerator driver (LAD) offering efficient generation of high-energy pulses with high-peak power at high pulse repetition rate (PRF), high efficiency, and with near-diffraction-limited beam quality (BQ). Laser acceleration of electrons by ultrashortpulse laser-generated plasmas offers accelerators of much reduced size and cost compared to conventional accelerators of the same energy, thus replacing the traditional mammoth-size and costly accelerator research facilities with room-size systems1. A LAD operating at 2 μm wavelength offers ponderomotive forces four times that of 1 μm wavelength and six times that of a traditional 0.8 μm wavelength LAD. In addition, the Tm bandwidth of nearly 400 nm offers > 15% tunability and generation of ultrashort pulses down to 20% wall-plug efficiency. This work presents a preliminary analysis of Tm-based LAD configurations.

  3. Dielectric micro-resonator-based opto-mechanical systems for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amir Roushdy

    In recent years, whispering gallery mode (WGM), or morphology dependent optical resonances (MDR) of dielectric micro-resonators have attracted interest with proposed applications in a wide range of areas due to the high optical quality factors, Q, they can exhibit (reaching ~ 10. 9 for silica spheres). Micro-resonator WGMs have been used in applications that include those in spectroscopy, micro-cavity laser technology, optical communications (switching, filtering and multiplexing), sensors technologies and even chemical and biological sensing. The WGM of these dielectric micro-resonators are highly sensitive to morphological changes (such as the size, shape, or refractive index) of the resonance cavity and hence, can be tuned by causing a minute change in the physical condition of the surrounding. In this dissertation, we have been creating opto-mechanical systems, which at their most basic, are extraordinarily sensitive sensors. One of the ultimate goals of this dissertation is to develop sensors capable of detecting the extremely small electric field changes. To improve the performance of the sensors, we couple a polymer cantilever beam to a dielectric micro-resonator. The eventual use of such ultra sensitive electric filed sensors could include neural-machine interfaces for advanced prosthetics devices. The work presented here includes a basic analysis and experimental investigations of the electric field sensitivity and range of micro-resonators of several different materials and geometries followed by the electric field sensor design, testing, and characterization. Also, the effects of angular velocity on the WGM shifts of spherical micro-resonators are also investigated. The elastic deformation that is induced on a spinning resonator due to the centrifugal force may lead to a sufficient shift in the optical resonances and therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Furthermore, this principle could be used for the development of

  4. Compact and broadband directional coupling and demultiplexing in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhihong; García Ortíz, César Eduardo; Han, Zhanghua;

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically, numerically, and experimentally demonstrate that a directional coupling function can be realized with a wide bandwidth (greater than 200 nm) in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides based on the multimode interference effect. The functional size of the structure...

  5. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and

  6. Dielectric elastomer memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2011-04-01

    Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

  7. Efficient light-emitting diodes based on nanocrystalline perovskite in a dielectric polymer matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangru; Tan, Zhi-Kuang; Di, Dawei; Lai, May Ling; Jiang, Lang; Lim, Jonathan Hua-Wei; Friend, Richard H; Greenham, Neil C

    2015-04-08

    Electroluminescence in light-emitting devices relies on the encounter and radiative recombination of electrons and holes in the emissive layer. In organometal halide perovskite light-emitting diodes, poor film formation creates electrical shunting paths, where injected charge carriers bypass the perovskite emitter, leading to a loss in electroluminescence yield. Here, we report a solution-processing method to block electrical shunts and thereby enhance electroluminescence quantum efficiency in perovskite devices. In this method, a blend of perovskite and a polyimide precursor dielectric (PIP) is solution-deposited to form perovskite nanocrystals in a thin-film matrix of PIP. The PIP forms a pinhole-free charge-blocking layer, while still allowing the embedded perovskite crystals to form electrical contact with the electron- and hole-injection layers. This modified structure reduces nonradiative current losses and improves quantum efficiency by 2 orders of magnitude, giving an external quantum efficiency of 1.2%. This simple technique provides an alternative route to circumvent film formation problems in perovskite optoelectronics and offers the possibility of flexible and high-performance light-emitting displays.

  8. Conductivity and Dielectric Studies of Lithium Trifluoromethanesulfonate Doped Polyethylene Oxide-Graphene Oxide Blend Based Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Azli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of polymer blend consisting of polyethylene oxide (PEO and graphene oxide (GO as co-host polymer were prepared using solution cast method. The most amorphous PEO-GO blend was obtained using 90 wt.% of PEO and 10 wt.% of GO as recorded by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis proved the interaction between PEO, GO, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3, and ethylene sulfite (ES. Incorporation of 25 wt.% LiCF3SO3 into the PEO-GO blend increases the conductivity to 3.84±0.83×10-6 S cm−1. The conductivity starts to decrease when more than 25 wt.% salt is doped into the polymer blend. The addition of 1 wt.% ES into the polymer electrolyte has increased the conductivity to 1.73±0.05×10-5 S cm−1. Dielectric studies show that all the electrolytes obey non-Debye behavior.

  9. Broadband Single-Shot Electron Spectrometer for GeV-Class Laser Plasma Based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Wan, W.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Laser-plasma-based accelerators can provide electrons over a broad energy range and/or with large momentum spread. The electron beam energy distribution can be controlled via accurate control of laser and plasma properties, and beams with energies ranging from'0.5 to 1000 MeV have been observed. Measuring these energy distributions in a single shot requires the use of a diagnostic with large momentum acceptance and, ideally, sufficient resolution to accurately measure energy spread in the case of narrow energy spread. Such a broadband single-shot electron magnetic spectrometer for GeV-class laser-plasma-based accelerators has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A detailed description of the hardware and the design concept is presented, as well as a performance evaluation of the spectrometer. The spectrometer covered electron beam energies raging from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, and enabled the simultaneous measurement of the laser properties at the exit of the accelerator through the use of a sufficiently large pole gap. Based on measured field maps and 3rd-order transport analysis, a few percent-level resolution and determination of the absolute energy were achieved over the entire energy range. Laser-plasma-based accelerator experiments demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer as a diagnostic and its suitability for such a broadband electron source.

  10. A Study on the Storage Reliability of LSINS Based on Step-stress Accelerated Life Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the step-stress accelerated life test and the laser strap-down inertial navigation system, this paper studies the accelerated life model and the test method, provides the likelihood function, the likelihood equation and the two-order derivative when the stress level is k, evaluates the effectiveness of the method with the simulation test model established by MATLAB, applies the research findings in the storage reliability study of the XX laser strap-down inertial navigation system, and puts forward an effective evaluation method of the storage life of the inertial navigation system.

  11. [A new approach to accelerate DR image enhancement based on CUDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangbin, He; Heqin, Zhou; Fangyong, Li

    2010-01-01

    Multiscale pyramid image enhancement algorithm is an usual way to enhance the Digital Radiography (DR) images. However, the process of enhancement takes much of time because of the fine resolution of DR images. A new method of accelerating DR image enhancement based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is presented in this paper. This method completes a large amount of convolution operations in spatial domain involved in the multiscale pyramid image enhancement algorithm by using the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The experimental results show that the proposed method is very efficient for accelerating DR image enhancement.

  12. Accelerator-based techniques for the support of senior-level undergraduate physics laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Clark, J. C.; Isaacs-Smith, T.

    2001-07-01

    Approximately three years ago, Auburn University replaced its aging Dynamitron accelerator with a new 2MV tandem machine (Pelletron) manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). This new machine is maintained and operated for the University by Physics Department personnel, and the accelerator supports a wide variety of materials modification/analysis studies. Computer software is available that allows the NEC Pelletron to be operated from a remote location, and an Internet link has been established between the Accelerator Laboratory and the Upper-Level Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory in the Physics Department. Additional software supplied by Canberra Industries has also been used to create a second Internet link that allows live-time data acquisition in the Teaching Laboratory. Our senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students perform a number of experiments related to radiation detection and measurement as well as several standard accelerator-based experiments that have been added recently. These laboratory exercises will be described, and the procedures used to establish the Internet links between our Teaching Laboratory and the Accelerator Laboratory will be discussed.

  13. Applicability of point dipoles approximation to all-dielectric metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, S M; Lavrinenko, A V

    2015-01-01

    All-dielectric metamaterials consisting of high-dielectric inclusions in a low-dielectric matrix are considered as a low-loss alternative to resonant metal-based metamaterials. In this contribution we investigate the applicability of the point electric and magnetic dipoles approximation to dielectric meta-atoms on the example of a dielectric ring metamaterial. Despite the large electrical size of high-dielectric meta-atoms, the dipole approximation allows for accurate prediction of the metamaterials properties for the rings with diameters up to ~0.8 of the lattice constant. The results provide important guidelines for design and optimization of all-dielectric metamaterials.

  14. Design and realization of a high productivity cluster-based network application reconfigurable accelerator board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Yu; Li Jun; Sun Ninghui; Wang Jie; Liu Zhaohui

    2008-01-01

    Improving processor frequency to strengthen massive data processing capability will lead to incremental server marginal costs and bring about a series of problems such as power consumption, management complexity, etc. Based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA), TCP offload engine (TOE), zero-copy and other key technologies, this paper describes the design and realization of a reconfigurable accelerator board. In this board, TCP/IP protocol will be moved to high-speed reconfigurable accelerator board. The packets will be labeled according to the protocol and submitted to the upper data processing software after IP-quintuple filtering in hardware. Reconfigurable accelerator board obtains higher performance speed-up compared with ordinary NIC card.

  15. A Flight-Path Control of Aircraft Based on Required Acceleration Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitani, Naoharu

    This paper presents an automatic flight-path control of aircraft. In the control, a desired flight trajectory is first determined as a sequence of straight lines, arcs and spirals in the three-dimensional space. Commands and command rates of heading and flight-path (climb) angles are then obtained from the desired trajectory. A required acceleration vector of the aircraft is calculated based on the command rates and angle deviations. Desired roll, pitch and yaw rates are then obtained by acceleration controller and are fed to attitude control. The feedback control of acceleration employs conventional PID control technology, without using inverse dynamics of the aircraft, and the attitude control can employ any existing control technologies suitable for the aircraft to be controlled. These make the proposed control relatively simple and easy to implement. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the control.

  16. Vibration isolation analysis of clutches based on trouble shooting of vehicle accelerating noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Lai; Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Jing, Xingjian; Ahmed, Waizuddin

    2016-11-01

    Vehicle accelerating noise is a troublesome issue commonly existing in automobiles, leading to negative passenger experience. Considering real experimental results and practical issues, a nonlinear 3-degree of freedom (DOF) torsional model of the clutch system is developed for reducing abnormal noise during vehicle accelerating. In this model, the nonlinear characteristics of the multi-staged clutch damper and the gear backlash are carefully studied. This greatly facilitates the analysis of the vibration transmission characteristics of the clutch and helps understanding of the influence of each critical physical parameter on noise generation. To reduce the accelerating noise, an optimization method for the clutch dynamics is proposed, based on the parameter analysis results, and the effectiveness is validated both in simulations and experiments.

  17. Particle-in-cell simulations of tunneling ionization effects in plasma-based accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Bruhwiler, D L; Cary, J R; Esarey, E; Leemans, W; Giacone, R E

    2003-01-01

    Plasma-based accelerators can sustain accelerating gradients on the order of 100 GV/m. If the plasma is not fully ionized, fields of this magnitude will ionize neutral atoms via electron tunneling, which can completely change the dynamics of the plasma wake. Particle-in-cell simulations of a high-field plasma wakefield accelerator, using the OOPIC code, which includes field-induced tunneling ionization of neutral Li gas, show that the presence of even moderate neutral gas density significantly degrades the quality of the wakefield. The tunneling ionization model in OOPIC has been validated via a detailed comparison with experimental data from the l'OASIS laboratory. The properties of a wake generated directly from a neutral gas are studied, showing that one can recover the peak fields of the fully ionized plasma simulations, if the density of the electron drive bunch is increased such that the bunch rapidly ionized the gas.

  18. Optimal Trajectory Planning for Glass-Handing Robot Based on Execution Time Acceleration and Jerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a trajectory planning method based on execution time, acceleration, and jerk to ensure that a glass-handing robot runs smoothly at execution time. The minimised objective function consists of the weighted sum of the square of the integral of the execution time, the integral of the acceleration, and the integral of the jerk, all of which are obtained through the weighted coefficient method. A three-dimensional kinematics model of the glass-handing robot is then established and nonuniform fifth-order B-splines are used to interpolate its path points. The acceleration and jerk are expressed as functions of time through mathematical simulation. Simulation results show that the designed method for robot trajectory planning not only improves the working efficiency of the glass-handing robot but also ensures that it runs smoothly.

  19. Random and bias errors in simple regression-based calculations of sea-level acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howd, P.; Doran, K. J.; Sallenger, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the random and bias errors associated with three simple regression-based methods used to calculate the acceleration of sea-level elevation (SL). These methods are: (1) using ordinary least-squares regression (OLSR) to fit a single second-order (in time) equation to an entire elevation time series; (2) using a sliding regression window with OLRS 2nd order fits to provide time and window length dependent estimates; and (3) using a sliding regression window with OLSR 1st order fits to provide time and window length dependent estimates of sea level rate differences (SLRD). A Monte Carlo analysis using synthetic elevation time series with 9 different noise formulations (red, AR(1), and white noise at 3 variance levels) is used to examine the error structure associated with the three analysis methods. We show that, as expected, the single-fit method (1), while providing statistically unbiased estimates of the mean acceleration over an interval, by statistical design does not provide estimates of time-varying acceleration. This technique cannot be expected to detect recent changes in SL acceleration, such as those predicted by some climate models. The two sliding window techniques show similar qualitative results for the test time series, but differ dramatically in their statistical significance. Estimates of acceleration based on the 2nd order fits (2) are numerically smaller than the rate differences (3), and in the presence of near-equal residual noise, are more difficult to detect with statistical significance. We show, using the SLRD estimates from tide gauge data, how statistically significant changes in sea level accelerations can be detected at different temporal and spatial scales.

  20. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  1. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  2. Rapid learning-based video stereolization using graphic processing unit acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian; Jung, Cheolkon; Wang, Lei; Kim, Joongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Video stereolization has received much attention in recent years due to the lack of stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) contents. Although video stereolization can enrich stereoscopic 3-D contents, it is hard to achieve automatic two-dimensional-to-3-D conversion with less computational cost. We proposed rapid learning-based video stereolization using a graphic processing unit (GPU) acceleration. We first generated an initial depth map based on learning from examples. Then, we refined the depth map using saliency and cross-bilateral filtering to make object boundaries clear. Finally, we performed depth-image-based-rendering to generate stereoscopic 3-D views. To accelerate the computation of video stereolization, we provided a parallelizable hybrid GPU-central processing unit (CPU) solution to be suitable for running on GPU. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is nearly 180 times faster than CPU-based processing and achieves a good performance comparable to the-state-of-the-art ones.

  3. Quantum dots coupled to chip-based dielectric resonators via DNA origami mediated assembly (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitskovets, Anya; Gopinath, Ashwin; Rothemund, Paul; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-09-01

    Interfacing of single photon emitters, such as quantum dots, with photonic nanocavities enables study of fundamental quantum electrodynamic phenomena. In such experiments, the inability to precisely position quantum emitters at the nanoscale usually limits the ability to control spontaneous emission, despite sophisticated control of optical density of states by cavity design. Thus, effective light-matter interactions in photonic nanostructures strongly depend on deterministic positioning of quantum emitters. In this work by using directed self-assembly of DNA origami we demonstrate deterministic coupling of quantum dots with gallium phosphide (GaP) dielectric whispering gallery mode resonators design to enhance CdSe quantum dot emission at 600nm-650nm. GaP microdisk and microring resonators are dry-etched through 200nm layer of gallium phosphide on silicon dioxide/silicon substrates. Our simulations show that such GaP resonators may have quality factors up to 10^5, which ensures strong light-matter interaction. On the top surface of microresonators, we write binding sites in the shape of DNA origami using electron beam lithography, and use oxygen plasma exposure to chemically activate these binding sites. DNA origami self-assembly is accomplished by placing DNA origami - quantum dot complexes into these binding sites. This approach allows us to achieve deterministic placement of the quantum dots with a few nm precision in position relative to the resonator. We will report photoluminescence spectroscopy and lifetime measurements of quantum dot - resonator deterministic coupling to probe the cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rate. Overall, this approach offers precise control of emitter positioning in nanophotonic structures, which is a critical step for scalable quantum information processing.

  4. First Steps Toward Incorporating Image Based Diagnostics Into Particle Accelerator Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Edelen, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    At present, a variety of image-based diagnostics are used in particle accelerator systems. Often times, these are viewed by a human operator who then makes appropriate adjustments to the machine. Given recent advances in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image processing, it should be possible to use image diagnostics directly in control routines (NN-based or otherwise). This is especially appealing for non-intercepting diagnostics that could run continuously during beam operatio...

  5. The CUBLAS and CULA based GPU acceleration of adaptive finite element framework for bioluminescence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Fei; Yang, Xin; Qin, Chenghu; Han, Dong; Ma, Xibo; Liu, Kai; Tian, Jie

    2010-09-13

    In molecular imaging (MI), especially the optical molecular imaging, bioluminescence tomography (BLT) emerges as an effective imaging modality for small animal imaging. The finite element methods (FEMs), especially the adaptive finite element (AFE) framework, play an important role in BLT. The processing speed of the FEMs and the AFE framework still needs to be improved, although the multi-thread CPU technology and the multi CPU technology have already been applied. In this paper, we for the first time introduce a new kind of acceleration technology to accelerate the AFE framework for BLT, using the graphics processing unit (GPU). Besides the processing speed, the GPU technology can get a balance between the cost and performance. The CUBLAS and CULA are two main important and powerful libraries for programming on NVIDIA GPUs. With the help of CUBLAS and CULA, it is easy to code on NVIDIA GPU and there is no need to worry about the details about the hardware environment of a specific GPU. The numerical experiments are designed to show the necessity, effect and application of the proposed CUBLAS and CULA based GPU acceleration. From the results of the experiments, we can reach the conclusion that the proposed CUBLAS and CULA based GPU acceleration method can improve the processing speed of the AFE framework very much while getting a balance between cost and performance.

  6. Three cavities dielectric wall proton accelerator timing optimization simulation and design%三腔介质壁质子加速器时序优化模拟及设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 夏连胜; 王卫; 刘毅; 谌怡; 叶茂; 张篁; 邓建军

    2016-01-01

    The three cavities dielectric wall proton accelerator is systemically simulated by the self-developed 3D particle simulation software.On this basis,the transit time of protons in three cavities shall be calculated and the timing optimization de-sign between cavities shall be achieved.The impressed voltage peak value is 100 kV.The width at top is 1ns and it is 10 ns at half maximum.The thickness of insulation micro reactor is 2.0 cm.The proton initial energy is 40 keV.The tungsten mesh is added to accelerating electrode.The simulation results are the following:When the voltage lasts 6.5 ns,the H+ which goes into high insulation gradient material shall get a maximum 90.84% acceleration efficiency while passing the first cavity,and the corre-sponding transit time is 5.668 ns.When the voltage triggers in the second cavity 4.5 ns behinds the first cavity,the H+ shall get a maximum 94.77% acceleration efficiency while passing the third cavity,and the corresponding transit time is 3.545 ns.When the voltage triggers in the third cavity 3.0 ns behinds the second cavity,the H+ shall get a maximum 97.30% acceleration effi-ciency while passing the second cavity,and the corresponding transit time is 3.018 ns.The total time of the maximum energy H+transiting the three cavities is 12.231 ns.The acceleration efficiency of total H+ is 94.31%.When the proton beam center enters the first cavity and falls behind the pulse voltage trigger in 6.5 ns,with the delay time between first and second cavities,the sec-ond and third cavities are 4.5 ns and 3.0 ns respectively.The H+ of proton beams whose lengths are 2.5 ns and 4.0 ns shall be accelerated above 90% and 80% respectively.%采用自主研发的三维粒子模拟软件对三腔介质壁加速器进行系统仿真,在此基础上,计算三个腔质子的渡越时间并实现腔体间的时序优化设计.外加电压峰值100 kV,顶宽1 ns,半高宽10 ns,绝缘微堆厚度2.0 cm,质子初始束能40 keV,加速电极添加钨网,模

  7. Atomic layer chemical vapor deposition of ZrO2-based dielectric films: Nanostructure and nanochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S. K.; Wang, C.-G.; Tang, D.; Kim, M. J.; Carpenter, R. W.; Werkhoven, C.; Shero, E.

    2003-04-01

    A 4 nm layer of ZrOx (targeted x˜2) was deposited on an interfacial layer (IL) of native oxide (SiO, t˜1.2 nm) surface on 200 mm Si wafers by a manufacturable atomic layer chemical vapor deposition technique at 300 °C. Some as-deposited layers were subjected to a postdeposition, rapid thermal annealing at 700 °C for 5 min in flowing oxygen at atmospheric pressure. The experimental x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy results showed that a multiphase and heterogeneous structure evolved, which we call the Zr-O/IL/Si stack. The as-deposited Zr-O layer was amorphous ZrO2-rich Zr silicate containing about 15% by volume of embedded ZrO2 nanocrystals, which transformed to a glass nanoceramic (with over 90% by volume of predominantly tetragonal-ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) and monoclinic-ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) nanocrystals) upon annealing. The formation of disordered amorphous regions within some of the nanocrystals, as well as crystalline regions with defects, probably gave rise to lattice strains and deformations. The interfacial layer (IL) was partitioned into an upper SiO2-rich Zr silicate and the lower SiOx. The latter was substoichiometric and the average oxidation state increased from Si0.86+ in SiO0.43 (as-deposited) to Si1.32+ in SiO0.66 (annealed). This high oxygen deficiency in SiOx was indicative of the low mobility of oxidizing specie in the Zr-O layer. The stacks were characterized for their dielectric properties in the Pt/{Zr-O/IL}/Si metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) configuration. The measured equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was not consistent with the calculated EOT using a bilayer model of ZrO2 and SiO2, and the capacitance in accumulation (and therefore, EOT and kZr-O) was frequency dispersive, trends well documented in literature. This behavior is qualitatively explained in terms of the multilayer nanostructure and nanochemistry that

  8. Highly Sensitive, Flexible, and Wearable Pressure Sensor Based on a Giant Piezocapacitive Effect of Three-Dimensional Microporous Elastomeric Dielectric Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Donguk; Lee, Tae-Ik; Shim, Jongmin; Ryu, Seunghwa; Kim, Min Seong; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Taek-Soo; Park, Inkyu

    2016-07-06

    We report a flexible and wearable pressure sensor based on the giant piezocapacitive effect of a three-dimensional (3-D) microporous dielectric elastomer, which is capable of highly sensitive and stable pressure sensing over a large tactile pressure range. Due to the presence of micropores within the elastomeric dielectric layer, our piezocapacitive pressure sensor is highly deformable by even very small amounts of pressure, leading to a dramatic increase in its sensitivity. Moreover, the gradual closure of micropores under compression increases the effective dielectric constant, thereby further enhancing the sensitivity of the sensor. The 3-D microporous dielectric layer with serially stacked springs of elastomer bridges can cover a much wider pressure range than those of previously reported micro-/nanostructured sensing materials. We also investigate the applicability of our sensor to wearable pressure-sensing devices as an electronic pressure-sensing skin in robotic fingers as well as a bandage-type pressure-sensing device for pulse monitoring at the human wrist. Finally, we demonstrate a pressure sensor array pad for the recognition of spatially distributed pressure information on a plane. Our sensor, with its excellent pressure-sensing performance, marks the realization of a true tactile pressure sensor presenting highly sensitive responses to the entire tactile pressure range, from ultralow-force detection to high weights generated by human activity.

  9. HfxAlyO ternary dielectrics for InGaAs based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Igor; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2017-07-01

    The electrical properties of HfxAlyO compound dielectric films and the HfxAlyO/InGaAs interface are reported for various dielectric film compositions. Despite the same trimethylaluminum (TMA) pre-deposition treatment, dispersion in accumulation and capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis increased with hafnium content. Different kinds of border traps were identified as being responsible for the phenomena. After anneal, the density of states in the HfxAlyO/InGaAs interface varied quite weakly with dielectric film composition. The optimal composition for obtaining high inversion charge density in metal oxide semiconductor gate stacks is determined by a tradeoff between leakage and dielectric constant, with the optimum atomic cation ratio ([Hf]/[Al]) of ˜1.

  10. Earth's gravity field modelling based on satellite accelerations derived from onboard GPS phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Ditmar, P.; Zhao, Q.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.

    2017-09-01

    GPS data collected by satellite gravity missions can be used for extracting the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field. We propose a new data processing method which makes use of the `average acceleration' approach to gravity field modelling. In this method, satellite accelerations are directly derived from GPS carrier phase measurements with an epoch-differenced scheme. As a result, no ambiguity solutions are needed and the systematic errors that do not change much from epoch to epoch are largely eliminated. The GPS data collected by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission are used to demonstrate the added value of the proposed method. An analysis of the residual accelerations shows that accelerations derived in this way are more precise, with noise being reduced by about 20 and 5% at the cross-track component and the other two components, respectively, as compared to those based on kinematic orbits. The accelerations obtained in this way allow the recovery of the gravity field to a slightly higher maximum degree compared to the solution based on kinematic orbits. Furthermore, the gravity field solution has an overall better performance. Errors in spherical harmonic coefficients are smaller, especially at low degrees. The cumulative geoid height error is reduced by about 15 and 5% up to degree 50 and 150, respectively. An analysis in the spatial domain shows that large errors along the geomagnetic equator, which are caused by a high electron density coupled with large short-term variations, are substantially reduced. Finally, the new method allows for a better observation of mass transport signals. In particular, sufficiently realistic signatures of regional mass anomalies in North America and south-west Africa are obtained.

  11. Earth's gravity field modelling based on satellite accelerations derived from onboard GPS phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Ditmar, P.; Zhao, Q.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.

    2017-02-01

    GPS data collected by satellite gravity missions can be used for extracting the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field. We propose a new data processing method which makes use of the `average acceleration' approach to gravity field modelling. In this method, satellite accelerations are directly derived from GPS carrier phase measurements with an epoch-differenced scheme. As a result, no ambiguity solutions are needed and the systematic errors that do not change much from epoch to epoch are largely eliminated. The GPS data collected by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission are used to demonstrate the added value of the proposed method. An analysis of the residual accelerations shows that accelerations derived in this way are more precise, with noise being reduced by about 20 and 5% at the cross-track component and the other two components, respectively, as compared to those based on kinematic orbits. The accelerations obtained in this way allow the recovery of the gravity field to a slightly higher maximum degree compared to the solution based on kinematic orbits. Furthermore, the gravity field solution has an overall better performance. Errors in spherical harmonic coefficients are smaller, especially at low degrees. The cumulative geoid height error is reduced by about 15 and 5% up to degree 50 and 150, respectively. An analysis in the spatial domain shows that large errors along the geomagnetic equator, which are caused by a high electron density coupled with large short-term variations, are substantially reduced. Finally, the new method allows for a better observation of mass transport signals. In particular, sufficiently realistic signatures of regional mass anomalies in North America and south-west Africa are obtained.

  12. A simple device for dielectric spectroscopy of polymers with temperature regulation close to 300 K based on a Peltier junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihane, A.; Tourbot, R.; Ladieu, F.; L'Hôte, D.

    2012-04-01

    We present a simple thermostat device for performing dielectric spectroscopy measurements on polymers close to their glass transition temperature. By using a vacuum chamber containing a Peltier junction with its regulator, we show that a very simple setup yields a temperature accuracy which is good enough for accurate studies of polymer dielectric properties. This technique is also more cost effective than standard setups using cryogenic fluids.

  13. Efficient Thermal-Light Interconversions Based on Optical Topological Transition in the Metal-Dielectric Multilayered Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Xi; Guo, L Jay

    2016-04-20

    Metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials are proposed to work as wideband spectral-selective emitters/absorbers due to the topological change in isofrequency contour around the epsilon-near-zero point. By setting the transition at the border between the visible and IR ranges, the metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials become good absorbers/emitters for visible light and good reflectors for IR light, which are desirable for efficient thermal-light interconversions.

  14. GPU accelerated cell-based adaptive mesh refinement on unstructured quadrilateral grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xisheng; Wang, Luying; Ran, Wei; Qin, Fenghua

    2016-10-01

    A GPU accelerated inviscid flow solver is developed on an unstructured quadrilateral grid in the present work. For the first time, the cell-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is fully implemented on GPU for the unstructured quadrilateral grid, which greatly reduces the frequency of data exchange between GPU and CPU. Specifically, the AMR is processed with atomic operations to parallelize list operations, and null memory recycling is realized to improve the efficiency of memory utilization. It is found that results obtained by GPUs agree very well with the exact or experimental results in literature. An acceleration ratio of 4 is obtained between the parallel code running on the old GPU GT9800 and the serial code running on E3-1230 V2. With the optimization of configuring a larger L1 cache and adopting Shared Memory based atomic operations on the newer GPU C2050, an acceleration ratio of 20 is achieved. The parallelized cell-based AMR processes have achieved 2x speedup on GT9800 and 18x on Tesla C2050, which demonstrates that parallel running of the cell-based AMR method on GPU is feasible and efficient. Our results also indicate that the new development of GPU architecture benefits the fluid dynamics computing significantly.

  15. Structure-Based Drug Discovery Accelerated by Many-Core Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Wei; Brylinski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided design is one of the critical components of modern drug discovery. Drug development is routinely streamlined using computational approaches to improve hit identification and lead selection, enhance bioavailability, and reduce toxicity. A mounting body of genomic knowledge accumulated during the last decade or so presents great opportunities for pharmaceutical research. However, new challenges also arose because processing this large volume of data demands unprecedented computing resources. On the other hand, the state-of-the-art heterogeneous systems deliver petaflops of peak performance to accelerate scientific discovery. In this communication, we review modern parallel accelerator architectures, mainly focusing on Intel Xeon Phi many-core devices. Xeon Phi is a relatively new platform that features tens of computing cores with hundreds of threads offering massively parallel capabilities for a broad range of application. We also discuss common parallel programming frameworks targeted to this accelerator, including OpenMP, OpenCL, MPI and HPX. Recent advances in code development for many-core devices are described to demonstrate the advantages of heterogeneous implementations over the traditional, serial computing. Finally, we highlight selected algorithms, eFindSite, a ligand binding site predictor, a force field for bio-molecular simulations, and BUDE, a structure-based virtual screening engine, to demonstrate how modern drug discovery is accelerated by heterogeneous systems equipped with parallel computing devices.

  16. Shielding design and dose assessment for accelerator based neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W B; Yanch, J C

    1995-05-01

    Preparations are ongoing to test the viability and usefulness of an accelerator source of epithermal neutrons for ultimate use in a clinical environment. This feasibility study is to be conducted in a shielded room located on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus and will not involve patient irradiations. The accelerator production of neutrons is based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, and a maximum proton beam current of 4 mA at an energy of 2.5 MeV is anticipated. The resultant 3.58 x 10(12) neutrons s-1 have a maximum energy of 800 keV and will be substantially moderated. This paper describes the Monte Carlo methods used to estimate the neutron and photon dose rates in a variety of locations in the vicinity of the accelerator, as well as the shielding configuration required when the device is run at maximum current. Results indicate that the highest absorbed dose rate to which any individual will be exposed is 3 microSv h-1 (0.3 mrem h-1). The highest possible yearly dose is 0.2 microSv (2 x 10(-2) mrem) to the general public or 0.9 mSv (90 mrem) to a radiation worker in close proximity to the accelerator facility. The shielding necessary to achieve these dose levels is also discussed.

  17. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  18. Enhanced dielectric performance of three phase percolative composites based on thermoplastic-ceramic composites and surface modified carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Haoliang; Zhu, Benpeng; Wang, Ziyu; Wei, Jianhong; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Liu, Zhengyou; Lei, Qingquan

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase composites were prepared by embedding CaCu3Ti4O12(CCTO) nanoparticles and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) into polyimide (PI) matrix via in-situ polymerization. The dependences of electric and dielectric properties of the resultant composites on volume fractions of filler and frequency were investigated. The dielectric permittivity of PI/CCTO-surface modified MWNT (MWNT-S) composite reached as high as 252 at 100 Hz at 0.1 vol. % filler (MWNT-S), which is about 63 times higher than that of pure PI. Also the dielectric loss is only 0.02 at 100 Hz. The results are in good agreement with the percolation theory. It is shown that embedding high aspect ratio MWNT-S in PI/CCTO composites is an effective means to enhance the dielectric permittivity and reduce the percolation threshold. The dielectric properties of the composites will meet the practical requirements for the application in high dielectric constant capacitors and high energy density materials.

  19. Broadband local dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A route to extend the measurement bandwidth of local dielectric spectroscopy up to the MHz range has been devised. The method is based on a slow amplitude modulation at a frequency Ω of the excitation field oscillating at a frequency ω and the coherent detection of the modulated average electric force or force gradient at Ω. The cantilever mechanical response does not affect the measurement if Ω is well below its resonant frequency; therefore, limitations on the excitation field frequency are strongly reduced. Demonstration on a thin poly(vinyl acetate) film is provided, showing its structural relaxation spectrum on the local scale up to 45 °C higher than glass temperature, and nanoscale resolution dielectric relaxation imaging near conductive nanowires embedded in the polymer matrix was obtained up to 5 MHz frequency, with no physical reason to hinder further bandwidth extension.

  20. Particle-in-Cell Codes for plasma-based particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Basic principles of particle-in-cell (PIC ) codes with the main application for plasma-based acceleration are discussed. The ab initio full electromagnetic relativistic PIC codes provide the most reliable description of plasmas. Their properties are considered in detail. Representing the most fundamental model, the full PIC codes are computationally expensive. The plasma-based acceler- ation is a multi-scale problem with very disparate scales. The smallest scale is the laser or plasma wavelength (from one to hundred microns) and the largest scale is the acceleration distance (from a few centimeters to meters or even kilometers). The Lorentz-boost technique allows to reduce the scale disparity at the costs of complicating the simulations and causing unphysical numerical instabilities in the code. Another possibility is to use the quasi-static approxi- mation where the disparate scales are separated analytically.

  1. First Steps Toward Incorporating Image Based Diagnostics Into Particle Accelerator Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Edelen, J. P.

    2016-12-16

    At present, a variety of image-based diagnostics are used in particle accelerator systems. Often times, these are viewed by a human operator who then makes appropriate adjustments to the machine. Given recent advances in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image processing, it should be possible to use image diagnostics directly in control routines (NN-based or otherwise). This is especially appealing for non-intercepting diagnostics that could run continuously during beam operation. Here, we show results of a first step toward implementing such a controller: our trained CNN can predict multiple simulated downstream beam parameters at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility's low energy beamline using simulated virtual cathode laser images, gun phases, and solenoid strengths.

  2. Specific contributions of the Dutch progamme ``RAS`` towards accelerator-based transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Heil, J.A.; Koning, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management. (orig.).

  3. Beam-Based Error Identification and Correction Methods for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)692826; Tomas, Rogelio; Nilsson, Thomas

    2014-06-10

    Modern particle accelerators have tight tolerances on the acceptable deviation from their desired machine parameters. The control of the parameters is of crucial importance for safe machine operation and performance. This thesis focuses on beam-based methods and algorithms to identify and correct errors in particle accelerators. The optics measurements and corrections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which resulted in an unprecedented low β-beat for a hadron collider is described. The transverse coupling is another parameter which is of importance to control. Improvement in the reconstruction of the coupling from turn-by-turn data has resulted in a significant decrease of the measurement uncertainty. An automatic coupling correction method, which is based on the injected beam oscillations, has been successfully used in normal operation of the LHC. Furthermore, a new method to measure and correct chromatic coupling that was applied to the LHC, is described. It resulted in a decrease of the chromatic coupli...

  4. Acceleration-based joint stability parameters for total knee arthroplasty that correspond with patient-reported instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dustyn; Khan, Humera; Kim, Joo H; Slover, James; Walker, Peter S

    2013-10-01

    There is no universally accepted definition of human joint stability, particularly in nonperiodic general activities of daily living. Instability has proven to be a difficult parameter to define and quantify, since both spatial and temporal measures need to be considered to fully characterize joint stability. In this preliminary study, acceleration-based parameters were proposed to characterize the joint stability. Several time-statistical parameters of acceleration and jerk were defined as potential stability measures, since anomalous acceleration or jerk could be a symptom of poor control or stability. An inertial measurement unit attached at the level of the tibial tubercle of controls and patients following total knee arthroplasty was used to determine linear acceleration of the knee joint during several activities of daily living. The resulting accelerations and jerks were compared with patient-reported instability as determined through a standard questionnaire. Several parameters based on accelerations and jerks in the anterior/posterior direction during the step-up/step-down activity were significantly different between patients and controls and correlated with patient reports of instability in that activity. The range of the positive to negative peak acceleration and infinity norm of acceleration, in the anterior/posterior direction during the step-up/step-down activity, proved to be the best indicators of instability. As time derivatives of displacement, these acceleration-based parameters represent spatial and temporal information and are an important step forward in developing a definition and objective quantification of human joint stability that can complement the subjective patient report.

  5. Optimization of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononov, O.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Bokhovko, M.V.; Korobeynikov, V.V.; Soloviev, A.N.; Chu, W.T.

    2004-02-20

    A modeling investigation was performed to choose moderator material and size for creating optimal epithermal neutron beams for BNCT based on a proton accelerator and the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction as a neutrons source. An optimal configuration is suggested for the beam shaping assembly made from polytetrafluoroethylene and magnesium fluorine. Results of calculation were experimentally tested and are in good agreement with measurements.

  6. Prediction of Concrete Strength Using Microwave Based Accelerated Curing Parameters by Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasundaram, S; T.R. Neelakantan; R. Vinoth

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of compressive strength of concrete is very useful for economic constructions. The compressive strength can be estimated after 28 days of casting the specimen cubes or may be predictedbased on the quantum and quality of ingredients used in making the concrete. When the first one requires a 28-day time, the second one does have problem of accuracy. Hence, a hybrid model is proposed in which the concrete cube is cured using the microwave based accelerated curing procedure and the ear...

  7. Simultaneous Estimation of Geophysical Parameters with Microwave Radiometer Data based on Accelerated Simulated Annealing: SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Method for geophysical parameter estimations with microwave radiometer data based on Simulated Annealing: SA is proposed. Geophysical parameters which are estimated with microwave radiometer data are closely related each other. Therefore simultaneous estimation makes constraints in accordance with the relations. On the other hand, SA requires huge computer resources for convergence. In order to accelerate convergence process, oscillated decreasing function is proposed for cool down function. Experimental results show that remarkable improvements are observed for geophysical parameter estimations.

  8. Development of a photovoltaic module qualification test based on combined-environment accelerated stress data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, S. E.; Royal, E.; Anderson, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a qualification test to screen photovoltaic modules for utilization on marine aids to navigation. The test is based on a combined-environment of hot and cold saltwater immersion and air pressurization. The test has demonstrated a very high acceleration factor and excellent correlation of electrical failures with modules in a concurrent real-time marine exposure.

  9. Position and Velocity Estimation for Two-Inertia System with Nonlinear Stiffness Based on Acceleration Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Tae Nam; Seung-Joon Lee; Tae-Yong Kuc; Hyungjong Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the state estimation problem for flexible joint manipulators that involve nonlinear characteristics in their stiffness. The two key ideas of our design are that (a) an accelerometer is used in order that the estimation error dynamics do not depend on nonlinearities at the link part of the manipulators and (b) the model of the nonlinear stiffness is indeed a Lipschitz function. Based on the measured acceleration, we propose a nonlinear observer under the Lipschitz co...

  10. The average acceleration approach applied to gravity coefficients recovery based on GOCE orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qiang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The average acceleration approach was applied to recover a gravity field model Model_ACA from GOCE precise science orbits from September 2 to November 2, 2010, and furthermore a so called sequential least square adjustment was used. The model was compared with other gravity field models based on CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE. The result shows that the model is superior to gravity field based on CHAMP, and with higher accuracy than other international gravity field models based on only GOCE data before 80 degree. The degree geoid height of Model_ACA reaches 3 cm up to 90 degree and order.

  11. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  12. An Impulse-C Hardware Accelerator for Packet Classification Based on Fine/Coarse Grain Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current software-based packet classification algorithms exhibit relatively poor performance, prompting many researchers to concentrate on novel frameworks and architectures that employ both hardware and software components. The Packet Classification with Incremental Update (PCIU algorithm, Ahmed et al. (2010, is a novel and efficient packet classification algorithm with a unique incremental update capability that demonstrated excellent results and was shown to be scalable for many different tasks and clients. While a pure software implementation can generate powerful results on a server machine, an embedded solution may be more desirable for some applications and clients. Embedded, specialized hardware accelerator based solutions are typically much more efficient in speed, cost, and size than solutions that are implemented on general-purpose processor systems. This paper seeks to explore the design space of translating the PCIU algorithm into hardware by utilizing several optimization techniques, ranging from fine grain to coarse grain and parallel coarse grain approaches. The paper presents a detailed implementation of a hardware accelerator of the PCIU based on an Electronic System Level (ESL approach. Results obtained indicate that the hardware accelerator achieves on average 27x speedup over a state-of-the-art Xeon processor.

  13. The Acceleration/Deceleration Control Algorithm Based on Trapezoid-Curve Jerk in CNC Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Zhao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose the acceleration/deceleration control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk in CNC machining. In aviation and mould and die industry, it is much significant to achieve high accuracy CNC machining on complex profile parts. The unsmooth Acceleration/Deceleration (ab. Acc/Dec control in feed movement is one of the main reasons to bring about machine tools impact and vibration in practical machining. After analyzing the CNC machine tools dynamic model, an Acc/Dec control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk is put forward in order to avoid step change in jerk curve in the study; Moreover, the motion profile smooth control approach based on continuous jerk is developed in details to decrease machine tools impact according to various kinematics constraint conditions, such as the maximum acceleration, the maximum jerk, the machining program segment displacement, the instruction feedrate and so on; Finally, the developed Acc/Dec approach and the traditional linear Acc/Dec approach are compared in the CNC experimental table. The results reveal that the developed approach can achieve more smooth and flexible motion profile, which is helpful to minish machine tools impact and enhance parts machining surface quality.

  14. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2017-07-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  15. Cu-Induced Dielectric Breakdown of Porous Low-Dielectric-Constant Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Lung; Lee, Chih-Yen; Huang, Yao-Liang; Sun, Chung-Ren; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Chen, Giin-Shan; Fang, Jau-Shiung; Phan, Bach Thang

    2017-02-01

    Dielectric breakdown induced by Cu ion migration in porous low-k dielectric films has been investigated in alternating-polarity bias conditions using a metal-insulator-metal capacitor with Cu top metal electrode. The experimental results indicated that Cu ions migrated into the dielectric film under stress with positive polarity, leading to weaker dielectric strength and shorter time to failure (TTF). In the alternating-polarity test, the measured TTFs increased with decreasing stressing frequency, implying backward migration of Cu ions during reverse-bias stress. Additionally, compared with a direct-current stress condition, the measured TTFs were higher as the frequency was decreased to 10-2 Hz. The electric-field acceleration factor for porous low-k dielectric film breakdown in the alternating-polarity test was also found to increase. This Cu backward migration effect is effective when the stressing time under negative polarity is longer than 0.1 s.

  16. Dielectric thin-films by ion-beam sputtering deposition for III-V based infrared optoelectronic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jean

    The growing technological industry is demanding the development of powerful and smaller devices. Dielectric thin-films can play an important role to help push towards achieving these goals. However, their advantage of high-quality material and low material costs compared to bulk can only be achieved with consideration of the technique, conditions, and parameters. The sensitivity makes every step in the process extremely important, beginning from substrate preparation to the first initial layers of growth and ending with the testing/modeling of the devices. Further, not all applications want bulk-like properties, so the ability to adjust and fine tune the material characteristics opens up a wide range of opportunities with the advancements and can drive the power of the devices to an ultimate level. This work provides the motivation, theoretical basis, and experimental results for performance enhancement of optoelectronic devices through the use of high-quality dielectric thin-films by ion-beam sputtering deposition (IBSD). The advantages and disadvantages to this technique are demonstrated and compared to others. The optimization processes, relationships, and motivation of using seven different thin-film materials have been detailed and provided. Using IBSD, the performance improvements were demonstrated on infrared lasers and detectors. For lasers, a 170% increase in maximum output power was achieved using near-0% percent anti-reflection coatings (AR) and near-100% high-reflection (HR) coatings. Following, wide tunability was achieved by using the structures in an external cavity laser system, showing nearly a three-fold improvement in tuning range. Also, structurally robust lasers were achieved with a custom-tailored HR structure designed for damage resistance to high output power density operation, showing over 14W of peak output power for MOCVD lasers. For infrared photodetectors, over a 4 orders of magnitude decrease in current density and zero-bias resistance

  17. Petri Net Based Metabolic Network Parameters Fitting with GPU Acceleration%Petri Net Based Metabolic Network Parameters Fitting with GPU Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao, Jun; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi; Cao, Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    Classical Petri net has been applied into biological analysis, especially as a qualitative model for biochemical pathways analysis, but lack of the ability for quantitative kinetic simulations. In our study, we presented an integra- tion work of the qualitative model--Petri nets with the quantitative approach-ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for the modeling and analysis of metabolic networks. As an application of our study, the computational modeling of arachidonic acid (AA) biochemical network was provided. A Petri net was set up to present the constraint-based dynamic simulations on AA metabolic network combined with the validated ODEs model. Furthermore, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) was adopted to accelerate the calculation of kinetic parameters unavailable from experi- ments. Our results have indicated that the proposed simulation method was practicable and useful with GPU accel- eration, and provides new clues for the large-scale qualitative and quantitative models of biochemical networks.

  18. Formation and dielectric properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers studied by a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Petra A; Wunderlich, Bernhard K; Klitzing, Regine V; Bausch, Andreas R

    2007-03-27

    The formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is investigated using a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor which is sensitive to variations of the surface potential. The buildup of the PEMs at the silicon oxide surface of the device can be observed in real time as defined potential shifts. The influence of polymer charge density is studied using the strong polyanion poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS, combined with the statistical copolymer poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride-stat-N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide), P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA), at various degrees of charge (DC). The multilayer formation stops after a few deposition steps for a DC below 75%. We show that the threshold of surface charge compensation corresponds to the threshold of multilayer formation. However, no reversion of the preceding surface charge was observed. Screening of polyelectrolyte charges by mobile ions within the polymer film leads to a decrease of the potential shifts with the number of layers deposited. This decrease is much slower for PEMs consisting of P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA) and PSS as compared to PEMs consisting of poly(allylamine-hydrochloride), PAH, and PSS. From this, significant differences in the dielectric constants of the polyelectrolyte films and in the concentration of mobile ions within the films can be derived.

  19. Image-guided linear accelerator-based spinal radiosurgery for hemangioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selch, Michael T; Tenn, Steve; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Lee, Steve P; Gorgulho, Alessandra; De Salles, Antonio A F

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively review the efficacy and safety of image-guided linear accelerator-based radiosurgery for spinal hemangioblastomas. Between August 2004 and September 2010, nine patients with 20 hemangioblastomas underwent spinal radiosurgery. Five patients had von Hipple-Lindau disease. Four patients had multiple tumors. Ten tumors were located in the thoracic spine, eight in the cervical spine, and two in the lumbar spine. Tumor volume varied from 0.08 to 14.4 cc (median 0.72 cc). Maximum tumor dimension varied from 2.5 to 24 mm (median 10.5 mm). Radiosurgery was performed with a dedicated 6 MV linear accelerator equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator. Median peripheral tumor dose and prescription isodose were 12 Gy and 90%, respectively. Image guidance was performed by optical tracking of infrared reflectors, fusion of oblique radiographs with dynamically reconstructed digital radiographs, and automatic patient positioning. Follow-up varied from 14 to 86 months (median 51 months). Kaplan-Meier estimated 4-year overall and solid tumor local control rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. One tumor progressed 12 months after treatment and a new cyst developed 10 months after treatment in another tumor. There has been no clinical or imaging evidence for spinal cord injury. Results of this limited experience indicate linear accelerator-based radiosurgery is safe and effective for spinal cord hemangioblastomas. Longer follow-up is necessary to confirm the durability of tumor control, but these initial results imply linear accelerator-based radiosurgery may represent a therapeutic alternative to surgery for selected patients with spinal hemangioblastomas.

  20. Organic imager on readout backplane based on TFTs with cross-linkable dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowski, P.E.; Vicca, P.; Willegems, M.; Schols, S.; Cheyns, D.; Smout, S.; Ameys, M.; Myny, K.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Martin, E.; Kumar, A.; Steen, J.L. van der; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of imagers based on organic semiconductors both in the photodiode layer and in the readout backplane. The photodiode is based on evaporated ultrathin (<100 nm) stack of SubPc/C60, sensitive in the wavelength range between 300 and 650 nm. The readout circuit is a switch

  1. All-dielectric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  2. All-dielectric metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  3. Intense Combined Source of Neutrons and Photons for Interrogation Based on Compact Deuteron RF Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a short RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements [Taddeucci et al. (2007)], indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ∼1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full- system implementation.

  4. Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyagawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for three dimensional gait analysis using wearable sensors and quaternion calculations. Seven sensor units consisting of a tri-axial acceleration and gyro sensors, were fixed to the lower limbs. The acceleration and angular velocity data of each sensor unit were measured during level walking. The initial orientations of the sensor units were estimated using acceleration data during upright standing position and the angular displacements were estimated afterwards using angular velocity data during gait. Here, an algorithm based on quaternion calculation was implemented for orientation estimation of the sensor units. The orientations of the sensor units were converted to the orientations of the body segments by a rotation matrix obtained from a calibration trial. Body segment orientations were then used for constructing a three dimensional wire frame animation of the volunteers during the gait. Gait analysis was conducted on five volunteers, and results were compared with those from a camera-based motion analysis system. Comparisons were made for the joint trajectory in the horizontal and sagittal plane. The average RMSE and correlation coefficient (CC were 10.14 deg and 0.98, 7.88 deg and 0.97, 9.75 deg and 0.78 for the hip, knee and ankle flexion angles, respectively.

  5. Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Schoessow, P.; Gai, W.

    2007-04-01

    One approach to future high energy particle accelerators is based on the wakefield principle: a leading high-charge drive bunch is used to excite fields in an accelerating structure or plasma that in turn accelerates a trailing low-charge witness bunch. The transformer ratio R is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss of the drive bunch. In general, Rtransformer ratio limitation. We report here the first experimental study of the ramped bunch train (RBT) technique in a dielectric based accelerating structure. A single drive bunch was replaced by two bunches with charge ratio of 1∶2.5 and a separation of 10.5 wavelengths of the fundamental mode. An average measured transformer ratio enhancement by a factor of 1.31 over the single drive bunch case was obtained.

  6. High permittivity gate dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    "The book comprehensively covers all the current and the emerging areas of the physics and the technology of high permittivity gate dielectric materials, including, topics such as MOSFET basics and characteristics, hafnium-based gate dielectric materials, Hf-based gate dielectric processing, metal gate electrodes, flat-band and threshold voltage tuning, channel mobility, high-k gate stack degradation and reliability, lanthanide-based high-k gate stack materials, ternary hafnia and lanthania based high-k gate stack films, crystalline high-k oxides, high mobility substrates, and parameter extraction. Each chapter begins with the basics necessary for understanding the topic, followed by a comprehensive review of the literature, and ultimately graduating to the current status of the technology and our scientific understanding and the future prospects."

  7. A Java-based control system for the Orsay tandem accelerator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dominique Delbourg; Gérard Penillault; Tran Khan Tuong; Martial Decourt; Nicole Borome; Henri Harroch; Bertrand Lessellier; Bernard Waast; Jean Pierre Mouffron

    2002-12-01

    A new control system was designed for the tandem MP-9 at Orsay. Because of the existing devices located on high voltage platforms and the lack of space inside the accelerator, in-house electronic cards based on micro-controllers and an optical fieldbus were developed to collect data. VME processors under VxWorks, a real time operating system, manage the fieldbus, concentrate the accelerator information and transmit it to the supervisory software through the ethernet network. This software consists of a collection of Java virtual machines (JVM) running on several Unix work-stations and PCs under Windows. Some of the Java virtual machines manage apparatus, instruments, local display and connections to an object database and VME concentrators. Others manage general synoptics. JVMs communicate between themselves with RMI protocol and JRPC with VME concentrators. So the supervisory software can be spread over several control stations throughout the network.

  8. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P; Schroeder, C B; Shadwick, B A; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density.

  9. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shadwick, B. A.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density.

  10. Host-based data acquisition system to control pulsed facilities of the accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamriy, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    The report discusses development of the host-based system to carry out timed measurements and data acquisition for the control of pulsed facilities of the accelerator. We consider modes of timing and allocation of operations of channels and the system node. The time of any working cycle of the pulsed facilities, rate of a data flow and an amount of serviced channels are coordinated with operation characteristics of the system node. Estimations of the readout rate of the data and the waiting time demonstrate the system efficiency. The technique has been developed to provide checking of groups of pulse parameters and control the facilities of the linear accelerator of electrons LUE-200 of the neutron source IREN.

  11. Accelerating PS model-based dynamic cardiac MRI using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Xie, Guoxi; Shi, Caiyun; Su, Shi; Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Xin; Qiu, Bensheng

    2016-02-01

    High spatiotemporal resolution MRI is a challenging topic in dynamic MRI field. Partial separability (PS) model has been successfully applied to dynamic cardiac MRI by exploiting data redundancy. However, the model requires substantial preprocessing data to accurately estimate the model parameters before image reconstruction. Since compressed sensing (CS) is a potential technique to accelerate MRI by reducing the number of acquired data, the combination of PS and CS, named as Stepped-SparsePS, was introduced to accelerate the preprocessing data acquisition of PS in this work. The proposed Stepped-SparsePS method sequentially reconstructs a set of aliased dynamic images in each channel based on PS model and then the final dynamic images from the aliased images using CS. The results from numerical simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Stepped-SparsePS could significantly reduce data acquisition time while preserving high spatiotemporal resolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative elemental analysis of an industrial mineral talc, using accelerator-based analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy) and Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, A.O. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ajayi, E.O.B. [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    Accelerator-based technique of PIXE was employed for the determination of the elemental concentration of an industrial mineral, talc. Talc is a very versatile mineral in industries with several applications. Due to this, there is a need to know its constituents to ensure that the workers are not exposed to health risks. Besides, microscopic tests on some talc samples in Nigeria confirm that they fall within the BP British Pharmacopoeia standard for tablet formation. However, for these samples to become a local source of raw material for pharmaceutical grade talc, the precise elemental compositions should be established which is the focus of this work. Proton beam produced by the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. The results which show the concentration of different elements in the talc samples, their health implications and metabolic roles are presented and discussed.

  13. Accelerating 3D Elastic Wave Equations on Knights Landing based Intel Xeon Phi processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourouri, Mohammed; Birger Raknes, Espen

    2017-04-01

    In advanced imaging methods like reverse-time migration (RTM) and full waveform inversion (FWI) the elastic wave equation (EWE) is numerically solved many times to create the seismic image or the elastic parameter model update. Thus, it is essential to optimize the solution time for solving the EWE as this will have a major impact on the total computational cost in running RTM or FWI. From a computational point of view applications implementing EWEs are associated with two major challenges. The first challenge is the amount of memory-bound computations involved, while the second challenge is the execution of such computations over very large datasets. So far, multi-core processors have not been able to tackle these two challenges, which eventually led to the adoption of accelerators such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Compared to conventional CPUs, GPUs are densely populated with many floating-point units and fast memory, a type of architecture that has proven to map well to many scientific computations. Despite its architectural advantages, full-scale adoption of accelerators has yet to materialize. First, accelerators require a significant programming effort imposed by programming models such as CUDA or OpenCL. Second, accelerators come with a limited amount of memory, which also require explicit data transfers between the CPU and the accelerator over the slow PCI bus. The second generation of the Xeon Phi processor based on the Knights Landing (KNL) architecture, promises the computational capabilities of an accelerator but require the same programming effort as traditional multi-core processors. The high computational performance is realized through many integrated cores (number of cores and tiles and memory varies with the model) organized in tiles that are connected via a 2D mesh based interconnect. In contrary to accelerators, KNL is a self-hosted system, meaning explicit data transfers over the PCI bus are no longer required. However, like most

  14. Molecular dynamics-based virtual screening: accelerating the drug discovery process by high-performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hu; Wang, Yu; Li, Chanjuan; Chen, Nanhao; Xie, Yufang; Xu, Mengyan; He, Yingyan; Gu, Xinchun; Wu, Ruibo; Gu, Qiong; Zeng, Liang; Xu, Jun

    2013-10-28

    High-performance computing (HPC) has become a state strategic technology in a number of countries. One hypothesis is that HPC can accelerate biopharmaceutical innovation. Our experimental data demonstrate that HPC can significantly accelerate biopharmaceutical innovation by employing molecular dynamics-based virtual screening (MDVS). Without using HPC, MDVS for a 10K compound library with tens of nanoseconds of MD simulations requires years of computer time. In contrast, a state of the art HPC can be 600 times faster than an eight-core PC server is in screening a typical drug target (which contains about 40K atoms). Also, careful design of the GPU/CPU architecture can reduce the HPC costs. However, the communication cost of parallel computing is a bottleneck that acts as the main limit of further virtual screening improvements for drug innovations.

  15. Multipurpose applications of the accelerator-based neutron source[1pt] GENEPI2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, F.; Baylac, M.; Billebaud, A.; Boge, P.; Cabanel, T.; Labussière, E.; Méplan, O.; Rey, S.

    2016-11-01

    GENEPI2 (GEnérateur de NEutrons Pulsé Intense) is an accelerator-based neutron source operating at LPSC laboratory in Grenoble (France). The neutrons are produced at 2.5MeV or 14.2MeV trough fusion reactions. GENEPI2 specifications allow performing efficiently accelerated irradiation tests of integrated circuits. This facility can also be operated to test and calibrate different types of detectors. This paper will describe the facility and its performances. Then, measurements of the neutron production will be presented as well as different types of experiments and irradiations. Finally, we describe upgrades undertaken to increase the neutron flux and optimize the facility for multiple applications.

  16. Dielectric characterization of (1-x)PMN-xPT (x = 0.07 and 0.10) ceramics synthesized by an ethylene glycol-based soft chemical route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Hamel N; Bokov, Alexei A; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2011-09-01

    Materials based on relaxor ferroelectrics have become one of the most important families of functional materials being explored for such applications as sensors/actuators, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), non-volatile random access memories, and high-energy-density capacitors. Fabrication of high-quality relaxor-based ceramics remains, however, a challenging task. In this work, a new soft chemical synthetic method for the preparation of the complex perovskite-based relaxor ferroelectric solid solutions, (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) was developed using ethylene glycol as the solvent. Ceramics with compositions of x = 0.07 and 0.10 were prepared and it was found that a 10% stoichiometric excess of Pb(2+) was required to compensate for lead oxide volatility at the high temperatures used for sintering. The ceramics produced by this method show excellent dielectric properties at room temperature, such as a high dielectric constant (~20 000) and low loss over a large temperatures range (tan δ < 0.01 between 20 and 200°C). The temperature dependence of the dielectric constant exhibits typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior, fitting a quadratic law which describes the high-temperature slope of ε'(T) peak. The frequency dispersion of the temperature of maximum permittivity satisfies the Vogel-Fulcher law.

  17. Accelerated Evaluation of Automated Vehicles Safety in Lane-Change Scenarios Based on Importance Sampling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ding; Lam, Henry; Peng, Huei; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Pan, Christopher S

    2016-08-05

    Automated vehicles (AVs) must be thoroughly evaluated before their release and deployment. A widely used evaluation approach is the Naturalistic-Field Operational Test (N-FOT), which tests prototype vehicles directly on the public roads. Due to the low exposure to safety-critical scenarios, N-FOTs are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In this paper, we propose an accelerated evaluation approach for AVs. The results can be used to generate motions of the other primary vehicles to accelerate the verification of AVs in simulations and controlled experiments. Frontal collision due to unsafe cut-ins is the target crash type of this paper. Human-controlled vehicles making unsafe lane changes are modeled as the primary disturbance to AVs based on data collected by the University of Michigan Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program. The cut-in scenarios are generated based on skewed statistics of collected human driver behaviors, which generate risky testing scenarios while preserving the statistical information so that the safety benefits of AVs in nonaccelerated cases can be accurately estimated. The cross-entropy method is used to recursively search for the optimal skewing parameters. The frequencies of the occurrences of conflicts, crashes, and injuries are estimated for a modeled AV, and the achieved accelerated rate is around 2000 to 20 000. In other words, in the accelerated simulations, driving for 1000 miles will expose the AV with challenging scenarios that will take about 2 to 20 million miles of real-world driving to encounter. This technique thus has the potential to greatly reduce the development and validation time for AVs.

  18. Evolutionary search for new high-k dielectric materials: methodology and applications to hafnia-based oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingfeng; Oganov, Artem R; Lyakhov, Andriy O; Xie, Congwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Wei, Bingqing; Grigorenko, Ilya; Zhang, Litong; Cheng, Laifei

    2014-02-01

    High-k dielectric materials are important as gate oxides in microelectronics and as potential dielectrics for capacitors. In order to enable computational discovery of novel high-k dielectric materials, we propose a fitness model (energy storage density) that includes the dielectric constant, bandgap, and intrinsic breakdown field. This model, used as a fitness function in conjunction with first-principles calculations and the global optimization evolutionary algorithm USPEX, efficiently leads to practically important results. We found a number of high-fitness structures of SiO2 and HfO2, some of which correspond to known phases and some of which are new. The results allow us to propose characteristics (genes) common to high-fitness structures--these are the coordination polyhedra and their degree of distortion. Our variable-composition searches in the HfO2-SiO2 system uncovered several high-fitness states. This hybrid algorithm opens up a new avenue for discovering novel high-k dielectrics with both fixed and variable compositions, and will speed up the process of materials discovery.

  19. Ionic liquid accelerates the crystallization of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xinxin; Zhang, Jianling; Xiang, Junfeng; Cui, Jie; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhonghua; Li, Zhihong; Mo, Guang; Xu, Yuan; Song, Jinliang; Liu, Chengcheng; Tan, Xiuniang; Luo, Tian; Zhang, Bingxing; Han, Buxing

    2017-08-02

    The Zr-based metal-organic frameworks are generally prepared by solvothermal procedure. To overcome the slow kinetics of nucleation and crystallization of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks is of great interest and challenging. Here, we find that an ionic liquid as solvent can significantly accelerate the formation of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks at room temperature. For example, the reaction time is shortened to 0.5 h in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride for Zr-based metal-organic framework formation, while that in the conventional solvent N,N-dimethylformamide needs at least 120 h. The reaction mechanism was investigated in situ by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, spectroscopy synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption fine structure. This rapid, low-energy, and facile route produces Zr-based metal-organic framework nanoparticles with small particle size, missing-linker defects and large surface area, which can be used as heterogeneous catalysts for Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction.Crystallization kinetics of metal-organic frameworks in conventional organic solvents are usually very slow. Here, the authors show that an ionic liquid medium accelerates considerably the formation of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks that are active catalysts in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction.

  20. An OpenACC-Based Unified Programming Model for Multi-accelerator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungwon [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel SPMD programming model of OpenACC. Our model integrates the different granularities of parallelism from vector-level parallelism to node-level parallelism into a single, unified model based on OpenACC. It allows programmers to write programs for multiple accelerators using a uniform programming model whether they are in shared or distributed memory systems. We implement a prototype of our model and evaluate its performance with a GPU-based supercomputer using three benchmark applications.

  1. An OpenACC-Based Unified Programming Model for Multi-accelerator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungwon [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel SPMD programming model of OpenACC. Our model integrates the different granularities of parallelism from vector-level parallelism to node-level parallelism into a single, unified model based on OpenACC. It allows programmers to write programs for multiple accelerators using a uniform programming model whether they are in shared or distributed memory systems. We implement a prototype of our model and evaluate its performance with a GPU-based supercomputer using three benchmark applications.

  2. Acceleration of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using graphic processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Hee-Seung; Hong, Sung-In; Lee, Sung-Keun; Jo, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Soo; Lim, Hong-Gi; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2012-10-01

    Speed enhancement of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using a graphic processing unit is reported. Integral imaging based method enables exact hologram capture of real-existing three-dimensional objects under regular incoherent illumination. In our implementation, we apply parallel computation scheme using the graphic processing unit, accelerating the processing speed. Using enhanced speed of hologram capture, we also implement a pseudo real-time hologram capture and optical reconstruction system. The overall operation speed is measured to be 1 frame per second.

  3. Electrical characterization of graphene oxide and organic dielectric layers based on thin film transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karteri, İbrahim, E-mail: ibrahimkarteri@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science And Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş 4610 (Turkey); Karataş, Şükrü [Department of Physics, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş 4610 (Turkey); Yakuphanoğlu, Fahrettin [Department of Physics, Fırat University, Elazıg 2310 (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • We report the synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets and electrical characterization of graphene oxide based thin film transistor. • Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by using modified Hummers method. • We used insulator layers which are polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyvinyl phenol (PVP) for graphene oxide based thin flim transistor. - Abstract: We have studied the electrical characteristics of graphene oxide based thin flim transistor with the polymer insulators such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP). Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by using modified Hummers method. The structural properties of GO nanosheets were characterized with Ultraviolet Visible (UV–vis), FT-IR spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction (XRD). Graphene oxide based thin flim transistor (GO-TFT) was prepared by a spin-coating and thermal evaporation technique. The electrical characterization of GO-TFT was analyzed by output and transfer characteristics by using Keithley-4200 semiconductor characterization system (SCS). The graphene oxide based thin flim transistor devices show p-type semiconducting behavior. The mobility, threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing value and I{sub on}/I{sub off} of GO-TFT were found to be 0.105 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, −8.7 V, 4.03 V/decade and 10, respectively.

  4. A table-top x-ray FEL based on a laser wakefield accelerator-undulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, K.; Kawakubo, T.; Nakanishi, H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Ultrahigh-gradient electron acceleration has been confirmed owing to the laser wakefield acceleration mechanism driven by an intense short laser wakefield acceleration mechanism driven by an intense short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The laser wakefield acceleration makes it possible to build a compact electron linac capable of producing an ultra-short bunched electron beam. While the accelerator is attributed to longitudinal wakefields, transverse wakefields simultaneously generated by a short laser pulse can serve as a plasma undulator with a very short wavelength equal to a half of the plasma wavelength. We propose a new FEL concept for X-rays based on a laser wakefield accelerator-undulator system driven by intense short laser pulses delivered from table-top terawatt lasers. The system is composed of the accelerator stage and the undulator stage in a table-top size. A low energy electron beam is accelerated an bunched into microbunches due to laser wakefields in the accelerator stage. A micro-bunched beam travelling to the opposite direction of driving laser pulses produces coherent X-ray radiation in the undulator stage. A practical configuration and its analyses are presented.

  5. Low-voltage flexible organic electronics based on high-performance sol-gel titanium dioxide dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sujin; Park, Sungjun; Lee, Won-June; Son, Jongho; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Yoonhee; Noh, Do Young; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2015-04-15

    In this letter, we report that high-performance insulating films can be generated by judicious control over the microstructure of sol-gel-processed titanium dioxide (TiO2) films, typically known as wide-bandgap semiconductors. The resultant device made of 23 nm-thick TiO2 dielectric layer exhibits a low leakage current density of ∼1 × 10(-7) A cm(-2) at 2 V and a large areal capacitance of 560 nF cm(-2) with the corresponding dielectric constant of 27. Finally, low-voltage flexible organic thin-film transistors were successfully demonstrated by incorporating this versatile solution-processed oxide dielectric material into pentacene transistors on polyimide substrates.

  6. Structural and frequency dependencies of a.c. and dielectric characterizations of epitaxial InSb-based heterojunctions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ASHERY; A H ZAKI; M HUSSIEN MOURAD; A M AZAB; A A M FARAG

    2016-08-01

    In this work, heterojunction of InSb/InP was grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Surface morphology and crystalline structure of the heterojunction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The frequency and temperature dependences of a.c. conductivity and dielectric properties of the heterojunctions were investigated in the ranges of 100 kHz–5 MHz and 298–628 K, respectively. The a.c. conductivity and its frequency exponents were interpreted in terms of correlated barrier hopping model (CBH), as the dominant conduction mechanism for charge carrier transport. The calculated activation energy, from the Arrhenius plot, was found to decrease with increasing frequency. Experimental results of both dielectric constant $\\epsilon_1$ and dielectric loss $\\epsilon_2$ showed a remarkable dependence of both frequency and temperature.

  7. Efficient multiband absorber based on 1D periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystals with a reflective substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yanxia; He, Yingran; Hao, Yuying; Lin, Yinyue; Tian, Ximin; Xu, Ju; Ji, Ting; He, Sailing; Fang, Nicholas X

    2013-01-01

    We propose an efficient multiband absorber comprising a truncated one-dimensional periodic metal-dielectric photonic crystal and a reflective substrate. The reflective substrate is actually an optically thick metallic film. Such a planar device is easier to fabricate compared with the absorbers with complicated shapes. For a 4-unit cell device, all of the four absorption peaks can be optimized with efficiencies higher than 95%. Moreover, those absorption peaks are insensitive to both polarization and incident angle. The influences of the geometrical parameters along with the refractive index of the dielectric on the device performance are discussed as well. Furthermore, it is found that the number of absorption peaks within each photonic band exactly corresponds to the number of the unit cells because the truncated photonic crystal lattices have the function of selecting resonant modes. It is also displayed that the total absorption efficiency gradually increases when there are more metal-dielectric unit cell...

  8. Influence of temperature on the dielectric nonlinearity of BaTiO{sub 3}-based multi-layer ceramic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun, E-mail: seokhyun72.yoon@samsung.com; Kim, Mi-Yang [LCR Materials Group, Corporate R& D Institute, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon, Gyunggi-Do 443-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-13

    Temperature dependence of the dielectric nonlinearity was investigated for the BaTiO{sub 3} multilayer ceramic capacitor. The decrease in temperature caused a significant increase in the degree of dielectric nonlinearity. The Preisach analysis shows that such effect corresponds to a decrease in reversible and a significant increase in irreversible domain wall contribution to polarization. The magnitude of spontaneous polarization (P{sub S}) was increased with decreasing temperature. It can be associated with phase transition from pseudo-cubic to monoclinic and its resultant change in the polar direction, which was observed through transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrate that the increase in P{sub S} with the decrease in temperature inhibits domain wall motion in low driving field as it is anticipated to increase the degree of intergranular constraints during domain wall motion. But it results in a more steep increase in the dielectric constants beyond the threshold field where domain wall motion can occur.

  9. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics onFlexible Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelius Tetzner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor.

  10. Thermal, vibrational, and dielectric studies on PVP/LiBF4+ionic liquid [EMIM][BF4]-based polymer electrolyte films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, A. L.; Singh, R. K.; Chandra, S.

    2014-07-01

    Free-standing polymer electrolyte membranes based on poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP)/salt(LiBF4) having different amounts of ionic liquid (IL) [EMIM][BF4] were prepared and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopic techniques. The DSC results show a shift in Tm of PVP with salt/or IL content. TGA and DTGA (first derivative of TGA) results give evidence of the presence of uncomplexed PVP, PVP/salt, and PVP/IL complexes. Signatures of these entities are also present in the dielectric spectra. Complexation of PVP with salt and IL has been confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Electrical conductivity as a function of temperature has been studied for PVP/LiBF4/IL [EMIM][BF4]. Role of IL in changing phase transition, conductivity, and dielectric relaxation frequency has been discussed.

  11. Droplet-based label-free detection system based on guided-mode resonance and electrowetting-on-dielectric for concentration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Bin; Su, Lin-Yun; Fu, Ching-Shu; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Hsu, Wensyang

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a digital microfluidic system with an on-chip detection capability that is based on a guided-mode resonance filter (GMRF). Versatile droplet manipulation was achieved through the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technique. GMRF was fabricated through replica molding and soft lithography, and the EWOD chip was fabricated through a typical photolithography process. Droplets measuring 1.125 µL were used to demonstrate merging, mixing, and cutting, and to achieve twofold and Threefold dilutions, and were then transported to the GMRF region for concentration measurement. The bulk sensitivity of GMRF is approximately 90 nm RIU-1 [17494 nm/(g/L)], resulting in a minimum detectable concentration of 4.66 × 10-5 g/L for a sucrose solution.

  12. Fine-grained parallelism accelerating for RNA secondary structure prediction with pseudoknots based on FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Jin, Guoqing

    2014-06-01

    PKNOTS is a most famous benchmark program and has been widely used to predict RNA secondary structure including pseudoknots. It adopts the standard four-dimensional (4D) dynamic programming (DP) method and is the basis of many variants and improved algorithms. Unfortunately, the O(N(6)) computing requirements and complicated data dependency greatly limits the usefulness of PKNOTS package with the explosion in gene database size. In this paper, we present a fine-grained parallel PKNOTS package and prototype system for accelerating RNA folding application based on FPGA chip. We adopted a series of storage optimization strategies to resolve the "Memory Wall" problem. We aggressively exploit parallel computing strategies to improve computational efficiency. We also propose several methods that collectively reduce the storage requirements for FPGA on-chip memory. To the best of our knowledge, our design is the first FPGA implementation for accelerating 4D DP problem for RNA folding application including pseudoknots. The experimental results show a factor of more than 50x average speedup over the PKNOTS-1.08 software running on a PC platform with Intel Core2 Q9400 Quad CPU for input RNA sequences. However, the power consumption of our FPGA accelerator is only about 50% of the general-purpose micro-processors.

  13. Doppler Broadening Analysis of Steel Specimens Using Accelerator Based In Situ Pair Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarashvili, V.; Wells, D. P.; Roy, A. K.

    2009-03-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques can be utilized as a sensitive probe of defects in materials. Studying these microscopic defects is very important for a number of industries in order to predict material failure or structural integrity. We have been developing gamma-induced pair-production techniques to produce positrons in thick samples (˜4-40 g/cm2, or ˜0.5-5 cm in steel). These techniques are called 'Accelerator-based Gamma-induced Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy' (AG-PAS). We have begun testing the capabilities of this technique for imaging of defect densities in thick structural materials. As a first step, a linear accelerator (LINAC) was employed to produce photon beams by stopping 15 MeV electrons in a 1 mm thick tungsten converter. The accelerator is capable of operating with 30-60 ns pulse width, up to 200 mA peak current at 1 kHz repetition rate. The highly collimated bremsstrahlung beam impinged upon our steel tensile specimens, after traveling through a 1.2 m thick concrete wall. Annihilation radiation was detected by a well-shielded and collimated high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Conventional Doppler broadening spectrometry (DBS) was performed to determine S, W and T parameters for our samples.

  14. Control of Switching Characteristics of Silicon-based Semiconductor Diode Using High Energy Linear Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Harihara Krishnan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports control of switching characteristics of silicon-based semiconductor diode using electron beam produced using linear accelerator. Conventionally, p-n junction chips of diode are exposed to gamma rays from a radioactive source or electron beam from a microtron, depending upon the required level of correction. High energy linear accelerators featuring simultaneous exposure of multiple chips are recent advancements in radiation technology. The paper presents the results of the radiation process using a 10 MeV linear accelerator as applied in industrial manufacturing of a high voltage diode (2600 V. The achieved values of reverse recovery time were found to be within the design limits. The suitability of the new process was verified by constructing the trade-off curve between the switching and conduction parameters of the diode for the complete range using large number of experimental samples. The paper summarizes the advantages of the new process over the conventional methods specifically with reference to industrial requirements. The developed process has been successfully implemented in semiconductor manufacturing.

  15. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  16. Analysis of the Chirplet Transform-Based Algorithm for Radar Detection of Accelerated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galushko, V. G.; Vavriv, D. M.

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Efficiency analysis of an optimal algorithm of chirp signal processing based on the chirplet transform as applied to detection of radar targets in uniformly accelerated motion. Design/methodology/approach: Standard methods of the optimal filtration theory are used to investigate the ambiguity function of chirp signals. Findings: An analytical expression has been derived for the ambiguity function of chirp signals that is analyzed with respect to detection of radar targets moving at a constant acceleration. Sidelobe level and characteristic width of the ambiguity function with respect to the coordinates frequency and rate of its change have been estimated. The gain in the signal-to-noise ratio has been assessed that is provided by the algorithm under consideration as compared with application of the standard Fourier transform to detection of chirp signals against a “white” noise background. It is shown that already with a comparatively small (block diagram of implementation of the algorithm under consideration is suggested on the basis of a multichannel weighted Fourier transform. Recommendations as for selection of the detection algorithm parameters have been developed. Conclusions: The obtained results testify to efficiency of application of the algorithm under consideration to detection of radar targets moving at a constant acceleration. Nevertheless, it seems expedient to perform computer simulations of its operability with account for the noise impact along with trial measurements in real conditions.

  17. Influence of patterned TiO2/SiO2 dielectric multilayers for back and front mirror facets on GaN-based laser diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei-Hua; Hu Xiao-Dong; Dai Tao; Li Rui; Ye Xue-Min; Zhao Tai-Ping; Du Wei-Min; Yang Zhi-Jian; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ridge InGaN multi-quantum-well-structure(MQW)edge-emitting laser diodes(LDs)were grown on(0001)sapphire substrates by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition(MOCVD).The dielectric TiO2/SiO2 front and back facet coatings as cavity mirror facets of the LDs have been deposited with electron-beam evaporation method.The reflectivity of the designed front coating is about 50% and that of the back high reflective coating is as high as 99.9%.Under pulsed current injection at room temperature,the influences of the dielectric facets were discussed.The threshold current of the ridge GaN-based LDs was decreased after the deposition of the back high reflective dielectric mirrors and decreased again after the front facets were deposited.Above the threshold,the slope efficiency of the LDs with both reflective facets was larger than those with only back facets and without any reflective facets.It is important to design the reflectivity of the front facets for improving the performance of GaN-based LDs.

  18. Composites Based on Core-Shell Structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 and Polyarylene Ether Nitriles with Excellent Dielectric and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zejun; Zhong, Jiachun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2017-10-01

    Core-shell structured magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Fe3O4) coated with hyperbranched copper phthalocyanine (HBCuPc) (HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4) hybrids were prepared by the solvent-thermal method. The results indicated that the HBCuPc molecules were decorated on the surface of CNTs-Fe3O4 through coordination behavior of phthalocyanines, and the CNTs-Fe3O4 core was completely coaxial wrapped by a functional intermediate HBCuPc shell. Then, polymer-based composites with a relatively high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss were fabricated by using core-shell structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 hybrids as fillers and polyarylene ether nitriles (PEN) as the polymer matrix. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of composites showed that there is almost no agglomeration and internal delamination. In addition, the rheological analysis reveals that the core-shell structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 hybrids present better dispersion and stronger interface adhesion with the PEN matrix than CNTs-Fe3O4, thus resulting in significant improvement of the mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of polymer-based composites.

  19. Fast response and low power consumption 1×2 thermo-optic switch based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhipeng; Hu, Guohua; Yun, Binfeng; Zhang, Xiong; Cui, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a 1 × 2 thermo-optic (TO) switch based on the integration of the dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguides with the silicon nanowires. Liquid-curable fluorinated resin (LFR) made of perfluorinated polymer was adopted as the ridge, which has a TO coefficient twice more than that of polymethyl methacrylate, leading to a significant decrease in the power consumption. It was shown that the response time of the dielectric-loaded SPP waveguide could be improved through optimizing the dimensions of the LFR polymer ridge without loss of relative high figure of merit and large confinement factor. Performance characteristics of such a 1 × 2 TO switch operating at a telecom wavelength of 1550 nm was investigated theoretically from the analysis of both heat and optical fields. The results reveal that a switching power as low as 7 mW and an extremely short switching time (with rise time of 3 μs and fall time of 6.7 μs) could be achieved with the proposed dielectric-loaded SPP-based 1 × 2 TO switch. In addition, the crosstalk could be enhanced to at least 40 dB with the applied power of 7 mW at the wavelength of 1550 nm, and it could be retained to be above 20 dB in the wavelength spectrum of 1500-1600 nm during the on/off state.

  20. Influence of CaZrO3 on dielectric properties and microstructures of BaTiO3-based X8R ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The influences of CaZrO3 on the dielectric properties and microstructures of BaTiO3 (BT)-based ceramics have been investigated. The experiment results showed that the dielectric constant at room temperature increased with the addition of CaZrO3 in the range of 0―3.0 mol%, which could be explained by the growth of BT grains. XRD analysis revealed that the tetragonality declined as CaZrO3 concentration in-creased. XRD patterns of BT ceramics with different amounts of CaZrO3 doping were analyzed by a recently developed procedure-materials analysis using diffrac-tion (MAUD), which was based on the Rietveld method combined with Fourier analysis. The results depicted that the high temperature peak of tempera-ture-capacitance characteristics (TCC) was largely dependent on the micro-strain of samples. Furthermore, more CaZrO3 doping resulted in lower porosity and higher density. It was revealed that proper usage of CaZrO3 could improve the di-electric properties significantly, which was benefit to develop X8R multi-layer ce-ramic capacitors.