ackground: Dictyocaulus viviparus is a parasitic nematode causing bronchitis in cattle worldwide. In general, infections do not cause high mortality, but the morbidity can be high with concomitant loss of production. Parasitic nematode infections are treated in general with anthelmintic drugs, but r
Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L. (Regional Centre, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Rawalpora, Kashmir (India))
In the lungworm-endemic areas of Kashmir, 6-10 week old lambs of Karnah and Kashmir Merino breeds were vaccinated with two doses of 50 kR gamma-irradiated larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria, given a month apart. Assessed on the basis of reduced prevalence and significantly lower faecal larval output over an eight-month observation period, vaccinated lambs showed a high degree of resistance to naturally acquired D. filaria infection. The results also show that vaccination against D. filaria provided some degree of protection against infection with other lungworm species.
Round, M C
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (Cobbold 1884) infects the respiratory tract of horses, donkeys, mules, hinnies and zebra. A review of the literature has been given by Round (1972). In the western hemisphere it is popularly believed that donkeys are the natural host and that horses become infected by association with infected donkeys. There is scant documentary evidence for this and, in the Soviet Union, patent infections may reach 70 per cent without mention of donkey association (Koulikov 1935, Borovkova 1948, Akramovskii 1952a). Poynter (1963) considered the infection to be rare in the United Kingdom although cases had been reported by Fletcher (1960) and Holmes (1960). The lack of precise data on this parasite has led to the assumption that it behaves like D filaria and D viviparaus of ruminants. Studies made in the United Kingdom have shown that there are some important differences (Round, 1972).
Mangiola, Stefano; Young, Neil D; Sternberg, Paul W; Strube, Christina; Korhonen, Pasi K; Mitreva, Makedonka; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Hofmann, Andreas; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B
Parasitic nematodes cause diseases of major economic importance in animals. Key representatives are species of Dictyocaulus (=lungworms), which cause bronchitis (=dictyocaulosis, commonly known as "husk") and have a major adverse impact on the health of livestock. In spite of their economic importance, very little is known about the immunomolecular biology of these parasites. Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the adult transcriptome of Dictyocaulus filaria of small ruminants and compared it with that of Dictyocaulus viviparus of bovids. We then identified a subset of highly transcribed molecules inferred to be linked to host-parasite interactions, including cathepsin B peptidases, fatty-acid and/or retinol-binding proteins, β-galactoside-binding galectins, secreted protein 6 precursors, macrophage migration inhibitory factors, glutathione peroxidases, a transthyretin-like protein and a type 2-like cystatin. We then studied homologues of D. filaria type 2-like cystatin encoded in D. viviparus and 24 other nematodes representing seven distinct taxonomic orders, with a particular focus on their proposed role in immunomodulation and/or metabolism. Taken together, the present study provides new insights into nematode-host interactions. The findings lay the foundation for future experimental studies and could have implications for designing new interventions against lungworms and other parasitic nematodes. The future characterisation of the genomes of Dictyocaulus spp. should underpin these endeavours.
V. M. Molina
Full Text Available Se describe un caso de posible resistencia al fenbendazol en una ternera Jersey infestada por Dictyocaulus viviparus. En el municipio de Entrerríos (Antioquia, Colombia, una hembra de la raza Jersey de 6 meses de edad, presentó un serio cuadro de bronconeumonía, el cual no mejoró con la aplicación de fenbendazol y enrofloxacina como terapia de mantenimiento. En la necropsia, se observó un número elevado de parásitos vivos compatibles con Dictyocaulus viviparus, determinando una bronquitis verminosa. Este nematodo, el cual se trata rutinariamente con fenbendazol en las fincas lecheras colombianas, ha demostrado ser resistente frente algunos bencimidazoles; finalmente, se señalan las posibles causas de esta resistencia de Dictyocaulus viviparus en la ternera Jersey.
Dank, M.; Holzhauer, M.; Veldhuis, A.; Frankena, K.
The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were
Kuchbaev, A E; Bastarbekova, G M
The results of analysis of phospholipids (PL) and fatty acid content in the blood of sheep infected with the nematodes Dictyocaulus filaria are displayed. A significant increase of lysophosphatidylcholine and arachidonic acid as well as a decrease of docozagexaenic acid in PL of infected sheep have been recorded. That points out to structural and functional disorders of cellular membranes during the infection. These disorder could be used as a metabolic criterion to estimate the relationships within the host-parasite system examined.
Nibret Moges; Basaznew Bogale; Mersha Chanie
Cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011 to determine lungworm species and their prevalence in sheep and evaluate the effect of risk factors in Wogera district, northern Ethiopia. Faecal samples were randomly taken from 390 heads of sheep for examination of first stage larvae (L1) of lungworms using a modified Baerman technique. The overall prevalence of lungworm infection was in sheep 67.69% (264 of 390). The lungworm species found were Dictyocaulus filaria (D. fil...
Gasser Robin B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dictyocaulus species are strongylid nematodes of major veterinary significance in ruminants, such as cattle and cervids, and cause serious bronchitis or pneumonia (dictyocaulosis or “husk”. There has been ongoing controversy surrounding the validity of some Dictyocaulus species and their host specificity. Here, we sequenced and characterized the mitochondrial (mt genomes of Dictyocaulus viviparus (from Bos taurus with Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti from red deer (Cervus elaphus, used mt datasets to assess the genetic relationship between these and related parasites, and predicted markers for future population genetic or molecular epidemiological studies. Methods The mt genomes were amplified from single adult males of D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti (from red deer by long-PCR, sequenced using 454-technology and annotated using bioinformatic tools. Amino acid sequences inferred from individual genes of each of the two mt genomes were compared, concatenated and subjected to phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference (BI, also employing data for other strongylids for comparative purposes. Results The circular mt genomes were 13,310 bp (D. viviparus and 13,296 bp (Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti in size, and each contained 12 protein-encoding, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, consistent with other strongylid nematodes sequenced to date. Sliding window analysis identified genes with high or low levels of nucleotide diversity between the mt genomes. At the predicted mt proteomic level, there was an overall sequence difference of 34.5% between D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti, and amino acid sequence variation within each species was usually much lower than differences between species. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 mt proteins showed that both D. viviparus and Dictyocaulus sp. cf. eckerti were closely related, and grouped to the exclusion of
Fernandez, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Nansen, P.
A series of experiments was carried out to examine the effects of two different isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce the number of free-living larvae of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus. A laboratory dose-titration assay showed that isolates CI3 and ...
Waller K Persson
Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3 once daily for 2 consecutive days, II 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals.
McNulty, Samantha N; Strübe, Christina; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Tyagi, Rahul; Choi, Young-Jun; Wang, Qi; Hallsworth Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka
The bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus (order Strongylida), is an important parasite of livestock that causes substantial economic and production losses worldwide. Here we report the draft genome, variome, and developmental transcriptome of D. viviparus. The genome (161 Mb) is smaller than those of related bursate nematodes and encodes fewer proteins (14,171 total). In the first genome-wide assessment of genomic variation in any parasitic nematode, we found a high degree of sequence variability in proteins predicted to be involved host-parasite interactions. Next, we used extensive RNA sequence data to track gene transcription across the life cycle of D. viviparus, and identified genes that might be important in nematode development and parasitism. Finally, we predicted genes that could be vital in host-parasite interactions, genes that could serve as drug targets, and putative RNAi effectors with a view to developing functional genomic tools. This extensive, well-curated dataset should provide a basis for developing new anthelmintics, vaccines, and improved diagnostic tests and serve as a platform for future investigations of drug resistance and epidemiology of the bovine lungworm and related nematodes.
Dank, M; Holzhauer, M; Veldhuis, A; Frankena, K
The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were performed. Two hundred BTM positive (BTM+) and 200 BTM negative (BTM-) herds were selected based on their BTM test result of November 2013, obtained from a list of farms that participated in the Dutch GD Animal Health voluntary monitoring program for controlling nematode infections. The relationship between D. viviparus BTM status and 3 production parameters (milk production, milk fat %, and milk protein %) in summer (June to August 2013) and autumn (September and October 2013) was investigated using generalized linear mixed models. Production data were available for 126 BTM- herds and 109 BTM+ herds. Results showed that a positive D. viviparus status was associated with decreased milk production (June: -1.01, July: -1.19, August: -1.68, September and October: -1.33kg/cow per d). Milk fat percentage was 0.14% and 0.08% lower during summer and autumn, respectively, in BTM+ herds. No significant association was demonstrated between a positive BTM test result and milk protein percentage. Because a strong correlation was present between the BTM status for D. viviparus and that for Ostertagia ostertagi, these losses cannot be attributed to one of the two parasites. However, it is clear that these parasite infections have a considerable effect on production.
Dhar, D.N. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Srinagar. Regional Centre)
Additional areas of the country were surveyed for lungworm infections in sheep and goats. More sheep than goats and more sheep of the private breeders in comparison to Government flocks were found infected. Infection with Dictyocaulus filaria and un-identified species of Varestrongylus and Protostrongylus were reported from sheep and goats and Muellerius spp, only from sheep. About 0.36 million lambs have been successfully immunized against D. filaria in the endemic areas with the radiation-attenuated vaccine produced at the Srinagar laboratory. It has been shown that lambs infected with D. filaria at the time of vaccination develop a poor protection following vaccination in comparison to lambs free from the infection. This has posed a problem in the field of stimulating a satisfactory protection in lambs found infected with D. filaria at the time of vaccination. In consequence, very young lambs, aged 6-10 week have been effectively protected against D. filaria by vaccination under field conditions. Goats are more succeptible hosts to D. filaria than sheep. Laboratory studies have shown that young kids, like lambs, can be effectively immunized against D. filaria by double vaccination with 50 Krad gamma irradiated larvae.
Bhat, T.K.; Dhar, D.N.; Bansal, G.C.; Sharma, R.L. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Srinagar (India). Regional Centre)
Primary infections with normal third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg caused significant decrease in the levels of haemoglobin, blood glucose, serum total proteins, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and increase in levels of total globulins and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in lambs. Almost similar changes in the above blood constituents excepting for haemoglobin, blood glucose and LDH activity were noticed in lambs immunised with two doses of gamma irradiation larvae and subsequently challenged with normal larvae of D. filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg. In both the infected groups, serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, malate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were, however, not affected.
Kırcalı Sevimli, F; Kozan, E; Doğan, N
The efficacy of eprinomectin on Dictyocaulus filaria and Cystocaulus ocreatus in naturally infected sheep was evaluated in the present study. In total, 30 infected sheep were randomly divided into two groups: treated (n = 15) and untreated (n = 15). A single pour-on dose of eprinomectin (0.5 mg/kg) was administered to the treated group. No medication was used in the untreated group. Faecal larval counts were performed on pre-treatment (day 0) and post-treatment (days 7, 14, 21 and 42) days. Eprinomectin was found to be 100% effective against D. filaria on day 7 post-treatment when compared with the untreated group and it maintained this effect on days 14, 21 and 42. However, the decrease in faecal larval count of C. ocreatus was found to be 86, 86 and 91%, on days 14, 21 and 42, respectively.
Hidalgo-Argüello, M R; Díez-Baños, N; Rojo-Vázquez, F A
Two separate trials (I and II) with 34 and 32 Churra ewes, respectively, and distributed into two groups, have been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of two different formulations of moxidectin at a dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight (b.w.) against natural infection by Dictyocaulus filaria in sheep. Trial I was designed to evaluate a 1% moxidectin injectable formulation, whereas in trial II a 0.2% moxidectin oral drench formulation was used. The efficacy was measured on the basis of the reduction of the faecal larval counts and of adult worm recoveries at slaughter. In each trial, a group of animals was treated on day 0 with moxidectin 1% injectable or moxidectin 0.2% oral drench and the other group acted as untreated control. When the faecal larval counts was compared within the treated groups, the efficacy was over 95% until day +13, and 100% at the remainder of the sampling dates after the application of injectable moxidectin, whereas in trial II, the larvae per gram (lpg) of faeces increased until the first sampling time post treatment (p.t.), day +6, and zero counts were recorded for all animals by the following days. On the basis of adult worm recoveries at necropsy, the efficacy of the treatment was 100% in both trials, however, adult worms were detected at slaughter for all control sheep. These results indicate that moxidectin 1% injectable and moxidectin 0.2% oral drench, administered at 0.2mg/kg b.w., were 100% effective against D. filaria infection in sheep. No adverse reactions to the treatments were observed in the animals.
王彦; 岳城; 库拉别克; 赵建国
Yildiz, Kader; Cavuşoğlu, Kültiğin
In this study, D. filaria causing parasitic bronchopneumonia in sheep was observed using a scanning electron microscope. This parasite belongs to the Trichostrongyloidea super family. The oral opening of D. filaria was observed to be small and circular in shape. Lips were not evident. Any difference between anterior ends of male and female parasites was not observed in present study. In the female parasite, the anus was seen as a fissure in shape. The post anal papilla was seen near the posterior end of the female. Spicula and cloacae of male parasites were observed.
Kinkorová, J; Prokopic, J
The study was aimed at expanding the primary anthelmintic screening to cover a model of the group of pulmonary nematodes; in this particular case to introduce the lungworm, D. viviparus, in laboratory animals. A method of primary screening for the fourth and fifth larval states of D. viviparus in guinea-pigs was worked out after the selection of a suitable laboratory host. In the primary screening, three well-known anthelmintics of the benzimidazol series, including fenbendazole, mebendazole and levamisol, were tested by the method of controlled test. The anthelmintics were administered at the recommended doses of 7.5 and 10.0 mg per kg of live weight for two days in succession. The effectiveness of the control of the 4th and 5th larval states of D. viviparus was 93.4% in fenbendazole, 89.0% in mebendazole, and 89.9% in levamisol. It is confirmed by the results of the trials that guinea-pigs can be used for the testing model of the lungworm, D. viviparus, in anthelmintic screening.
孙斌; 王秀娟; 郑炜; 王雪东
库拉别克; 努丽拉; 王彦; 岳城
Full Text Available 8 X15386 |X15386.1 Dictyostelium discoideum H6 gene mRNA. 228 6e-60 2 EV853155 |EV853155.1 D.viviparus_35_F07.ab1 Dictyocaulus... viviparus HannoverDv2000 cDNA Dictyocaulus viviparus cDNA, mRNA sequence. 82 2e-18 2 EV85...2655 |EV852655.1 D.viviparus_32_D07.ab1 Dictyocaulus viviparus HannoverDv2000 cDNA Dictyocaulus... ELONGATION FACTOR 2 ;, mRNA sequence. 66 6e-18 4 EV854166 |EV854166.1 D.viviparus_54_E01.ab1 Dictyocaulus... viviparus HannoverDv2000 cDNA Dictyocaulus viviparus cDNA, mRNA sequence. 76 9e-17
Full Text Available consi... 37 1.9 AY542516_1( AY542516 |pid:none) Dictyocaulus viviparus isolate L3i... 36 3.3 AY542515_1( AY5...42515 |pid:none) Dictyocaulus viviparus isolate L3i... 36 3.3 protein update 2009. 7.10 PSORT psg: 0.52 gvh:
Full Text Available 52294 |pid:none) Dictyocaulus viviparus elongation ... 254 2e-66 BC071619_1( BC071619 |pid:none) Homo sapien...520 ) RecName: Full=Elongation factor 1-alpha; Short... 254 2e-66 EU152294_1( EU1
Full Text Available .. 84 1e-15 AJ419177_1( AJ419177 |pid:none) Ostertagia ostertagi partial mRNA ... 84 2e-15 EU152294_1( EU152294 |pid:none) Dictyocaul...us viviparus elongation ... 83 3e-15 (Q2HJN9) RecName: Full=Elongation factor 1-alp
...): Trichostrongylus axei; Large mouth Stomach Worms (adults): Habronema muscae; Bots (oral and gastric stages...)); Stomach Bots (Gastrophilus spp. (oral and gastric stages)); Lungworms (Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (adult and... (adults only)); lungworms (D. filaria); and all larval stages of the nasal bot Oestrus ovis....
Düwel, D; Kirsch, R
Helminth-free bulls were injected artificially with Ostertagia ostertagi (120 000 L3), Cooperia oncophora (240000 L3), Haemonchus spec. (1 000 L3) and/or Dictyocaulus viviparus (60 L3/kg) orally or intraruminally. The animals were treated with fenbendazole during the prepatent period or after having reached maturity. The effect of 5 mg fenbendazole/kg p.o. on 3-d, 10-d- and adult stages of Ostertagia ostertagi, Haemonchus spec. and Cooperia oncophora ranges between less than 94% and 100%. Particularly noticeable was the effect on 10-d-old Ostertagia ostertagi with less than 94%. 5 mg/kg fenbendazole orally removed nearly 100% of 6-d-, 13-d-, and adult stages of Dictyocaulus viviparus. Fenbendazole may be administered as a drench or as medicated feed. The safety of the compound permits the administration of excessively high doses without clinical signs.
Full Text Available 1 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=NIT1... 32 2.0 sp|Q24702|DVA1_DICVI DVA-1 polyprotein OS=Dictyocaulus... 119 VYLVMGAIEKEGYTLYCTVLFFSPQGQFLGKHRKLMPTSLERC 161 >sp|Q24702|DVA1_DICVI DVA-1 polyprotein OS=Dictyocaul...us viviparus GN=DVA-1 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 1557 Score = 30.4 bits (67), Expect = 7.7
Full Text Available The faeces of 82 donkeys irrespective of sex and age were collected and examined for any parasitic ova. The faecal sample of68 donkeys were infected with: Strongylus sp. (54.87%, Parascaris sp. (29.26%, Strongyloides sp. (24.39%, Trichonema sp. (15.85%,Oxyuris sp. (8.53%, Gastrodiscus sp. (8.53%, Entamoeba sp. (8.53%, Dictyocaulus sp. (3.65%, and Triodontophorus sp. (2.43%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 224-224
Corba, J; Reisz, T; Krupicer, I; Pacenovský, J; Breza, M
The effectiveness of the new anthelmintic fenbendazole (Panacur) produced by Hoechst, W. Germany, was tested in cattle naturally invaded by gastro-intestinal and pulmonary nematodes. The single dose of 5.7 mg per kg or 7.5 mg per kg body weight administered either in the form of a 10% suspension or in pellets containing 1.5% of the active substance gave 100% intenseffectiveness and 100% extenseffectiveness in the control of Dictyocaulus viviparus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Ostertagia spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Cooperia spp. The animals tolerated the administration of both drug forms without showing any undesirable symptoms.
滕云艳; 周爱彬; 刘长顺; 丁润峰
@@ 鹿的丝状肺虫病是由于网尾科①ictyocaulidae)网尾属(Dictyocaulus)的丝状网尾线虫[Dityocaulus filaria (Rudolphi,1890)]寄生于鹿的气管及支气管内,引起的以支气管炎和肺炎为主要特征的一种寄生虫病.本病在吉林省东辽河与西辽河流域养鹿场(户)的梅花鹿群中,多有流行.
О. О. Boyko
Full Text Available In Dnipropetrovsk sity (Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk region in carnivorous animals 10 species of parasites (helminths and coccidia were found: Uncinaria sp., Ancylostoma sp., Dictyocaulus immitis (Nematoda, Strongylata, Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda, Rhabditata, Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurata, Toxocara canis (Nematoda, Ascaridata, Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichurata, Dipylidium caninum (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata, Cystoisospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii (Sporozoa, Coccidia. In soil S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp. weredominanted. In most carnivorous animals registered in L. Globa park and T. Shevchenko park the S. stercoralisand Uncinaria sp., Cystoisosporasp. and T. gondii were found.
Hassan Borji; Mohammad Azizzadeh; Mansour Ebrahimi; Mohammad Asadpour
Objective: To determine the prevalence, identify the species involved and assess possible risk factors of lungworm infection in small ruminant slaughtered in abattoir of Mashhad in the northeast of Iran from October 2010 -August 2011. Methods: Faecal and post mortem examination were conducted on 350 and 2 500 animals, respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of lungworm infection was 10.85% and 3.80% in coproscopic and post mortem examination respectively, and this difference was found to be significant. Higher prevalence of lungworm infection was recorded in post mortem examination in sheep (4.1%) than in goats (0.5%) (P< 0.05). The proportion of infection with Dictyocaulus filaria, Protostrongylus rufescens and mixed infection were 3.7%, 0.1%and 0.2%in sheep while in goats, the infection was reported with Dictyocaulus filaria (0.5%) only. The seasonal dynamics of lungworm infection showed that prevalence was highest in winter (7.8%) with a remarkable decline during the dry time (summer) (0.8%) which the difference was significant (P<0.001). The animals of less than one year old showed greater infection in post mortem examination than older animals significantly (P<0.001). Also, the infection rate between male and female animals showed significant difference (P<0.05) with prevalence rate of 4.6%and 2.0%, respectively. Conclusions:Due to its impact on production, emphasis should be given for the control and prevention of lungworm infection in this area.
Full Text Available Wolbachia are common endosymbionts of terrestrial arthropods, and are also found in nematodes: the animal-parasitic filaria, and the plant-parasite Radopholus similis. Lateral transfer of Wolbachia DNA to the host genome is common. We generated a draft genome sequence for the strongyloidean nematode parasite Dictyocaulus viviparus, the cattle lungworm. In the assembly, we identified nearly 1 Mb of sequence with similarity to Wolbachia. The fragments were unlikely to derive from a live Wolbachia infection: most were short, and the genes were disabled through inactivating mutations. Many fragments were co-assembled with definitively nematode-derived sequence. We found limited evidence of expression of the Wolbachia-derived genes. The D. viviparus Wolbachia genes were most similar to filarial strains and strains from the host-promiscuous clade F. We conclude that D. viviparus was infected by Wolbachia in the past, and that clade F-like symbionts may have been the source of filarial Wolbachia infections.
Lekeux, P; Hajer, R; Boon, J H; Verstegen, M W; Breukink, H J
Pulmonary function values were measured in five Friesian calves of five months of age during the patent phase of an experimental moderate lungworm infection and were compared with the pulmonary function values recorded in four control animals. All the nine calves were free of any previous challenge with Dictyocaulus viviparus and were submitted to the same standardized conditions of body conformation, housing, feeding and procedures for pulmonary function testing. A significant increase of respiratory rate, minute ventilation, total pulmonary resistance and power of breathing and a significant decrease of tidal volume, dynamic lung compliance and PaO2 were observed in the infested animals. The absolute intrapleural pressure values were also significantly more negative. The conclusions of the statistical analysis were almost identical when predicted instead of measured pulmonary function values were used in the control group. The clinical, functional and pathological findings in the infested animals were all consistent with the picture of a lower airway obstructive disease. PMID:3160451
Orjales, I.; Mezo, M.; Miranda, M.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major helminth infections affecting organic dairy cattle in northern Spain. Milk and faecal samples were obtained from 443 milking cows. Ostertagia ostertargi and Fasciola hepatica exposure was assessed by detection of specific antibodies...... in milk samples and F. hepatica infection was diagnosed by the detection of coproantigens in faecal samples. Dictyocaulus viviparus and Calicophoron daubneyi infections were diagnosed by conventional coprological techniques. The prevalence of infections caused by F. hepatica was considerable low...... into account the administration of effective anthelmintics and the number of lactations. Treatment of cows with fasciolicides decreased the risk of F. hepatica infection in multiparous cows, whereas treatment with oxiclozanide or albendazol did not decrease the risk of C. daubneyi infection or O. ostertargi...
Kelly, J D; Whitlock, H V; Hogarth-Scott, R S; Mears, F A
Fenbendazole (methyl-5-(phenylthio)-2-benzimidazole carbamate) at dose rates of 5 mg/kg and above was 100 per cent effective in eliminating a naturally acquired Dictyocaulus filaria infection in sheep. The drug was 100 per cent effective in eliminating concurrent infections of adult Trichostrongylus axei, Haemonchus contortus, Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia circumcincta, Ostertagia ostertagii, Cooperia oncophora, Cooperia mcmasterii, Nematodirus spathiger, Neumatodirus filcollis, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Chabertia ovina. Fenbendazole was 93 per cent and 97 per cent effective at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg respectively in removing infection with adult T colubriformis, and post-treatment worm-egg production was completely suppressed in surviving female worms. No adverse side-effects were observed in treated sheep at either of the two dose rates used.
Epe, C; Ising-Volmer, S; Stoye, M
The results of the coproscopical examinations in horses, dogs, cats and hedgehogs between 1984 and 1991 are presented. In 9192 samples from horses 55.5% stages of strongylids, 4.0% of Parascaris equorum, 2.2% of anoplocephalids, 1.6% Strongyloides westeri, 0.7% of Oxyuris equi, 0.6% of Eimeria leuckarti, 0.2% of Fasciola hepatica and 0.04% of Dictyocaulus arnfieldi were found. In 48.0% of the 46 samples from donkeys eggs from strongylids were detected, in 17.4% larvae from Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, in 2.2% eggs from Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum and oocysts from Eimeria leuckarti, respectively. In 3329 samples of dogs 6.9% developmental stages of Toxocara canis, 6.0% of Giardia spp., 4.2% of Isospora spp., 3.0% of Sarcocystis spp., 2.5% each of ancylostomids and Trichuris vulpis, 1.1% of Toxascaris leonina and 1.1% of Dipylidium canium, up to 1.0% of taeniids, 0.6% of each Mesocestoides spp. and Metastrongylidae, 0.3% of Strongyloides stercoralis and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. and Hammondia heydorni were detected. In 9.5% of the 1147 samples of cats eggs from Toxocara mystax were found, in 4.7% eggs of taeniids, in 4.6% cysts of Isospora spp., in 2.4% of Giardia spp., in 1.4% eggs of Dipylidium caninum, in 1.0% of Capillaria spp. and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, in 0.6% development stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in 0.5% of ancylostomids and in 0.3% of Sarcocystis spp. and Opisthorchis felineus. In 1175 samples of hedgehogs 48.8% eggs of Capillaria spp., 35.9% of Crenosoma striatum, 17.9% oocysts of Isospora spp., 2.3% eggs of Brachylaemus erinacei were found.
Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte
Full Text Available The histopathology of pneumonitic lesions in natural lungworm infection has not been previously described in reindeer. In the present study, light microscopical studies of dictyocaulotic lung tissues were performed on 12 slaughtered reindeer specimens obtained from the eastern part of Finnish Lapland in order to reveal the histopathological lesions characteristic of spontaneous Dictyocaulus eckerti infection. The lungs of 8 healthy reindeer carrying no lung worms were investigated to elucidate normal microscopic structure. Parasites in different stages of development and their eggs were detected not only in inflamed sections of small airways, but also wandered freely in the alveolar lumina. The eggs were rich in carbohydrates for reserve energy and were surrounded by a superficial layer of acidic mucins. The pleural serosa over acutely inflamed areas was swollen and in chronically altered sections, fibrotic thickenings of pleural and subpleural tissues were evident. The lung tissues were either condensed by an inflammatory exudate rich in migrating cells or emphysematically altered. Mucus secretions were abnormally profuse and apparently less acidic in histochemical compositon. Interstitial tissues were also inflamed and contained separated foreign body and eosinophilic granulomes. Furthermore, a vasculitis with endothelial vacuolations and muscular hypertrophy was noticeable in some tissue sections.
Silva Marcia Cristina da
Full Text Available Uma doença respiratória com morbidade de 7,1% e letalidade de 13,3% foi diagnosticada em terneiros de corte de 5 a 7 meses de idade na região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Clinicamente, os bovinos apresentavam anorexia, perda de peso, tosse, taquipnéia, dispnéia, respiração abdominal e secreção nasal serosa. Lesões de necropsia observadas em dois terneiros incluíam acentuado edema pulmonar, enfisema e atelectasia pulmonares associados a nematódeos filiformes intra-bronquiais, com 8 a 10 cm de comprimento, morfologicamente compatíveis com Dictyocaulus viviparus. Histologicamente havia broncopneumonia fibrinosupurativa, peribronquite e peribronquiolite linfo-histioplasmocitária, hiperplasia do epitélio brônquico, bronquiolite obliterante e hiperplasia de pneumócitos tipo II. No interior dos brônquios e bronquíolos, observaram-se muitos exemplares adultos de D. viviparus. Nos alvéolos, ovos e larvas cercados por numerosos eosinófilos e poucas células gigantes multinucleadas também foram encontrados.
Foster, Neil; Elsheikha, Hany M
Despite the increasing knowledge of the immunobiology and epidemiology of parasitic helminths of the gastrointestinal system and the cardiorespiratory system, complications arising from infections of animals and humans with these parasites are a major clinical and economic problem. This has been attributed to the high incidence of these parasites, the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant parasite strains and the lack of effective vaccines. Efforts to develop and produce vaccines against virtually all helminths (with the exception of Dictyocaulus viviparus and some cestode species) have been hindered by the complexity of the host-parasite relationship, and incomplete understanding of the molecular and immune regulatory pathways associated with the development of protective immunity against helminths. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and characterisation of effector mechanisms and molecules that govern the host-parasite interactions in these two body systems. Such knowledge provided clues on how appropriate and protective responses are elicited against helminths and, thus, may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we review advances in the immune response to selected helminths of animal health significance, and subsequent vaccine potential. The topics addressed are important for understanding how helminths interact with host immune defences and also are relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases caused by helminths.
Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F
The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control.
Kassai, T; Takáts, C; Fok, E; Redl, P
The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. A single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body wt removed 97.6% of the adult Fasciola hepatica and 63.2%-83.8% of the Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Luxabendazole at 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 mg/kg proved 100% effective in removing adult worms of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus as well as tissue-associated larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of the abomasal mucosa. The drug showed an intensity effect of 79.7%-87.6% against Strongyloides papillosus. Luxabendazole removed all Dictyocaulus filaria and reduced the fecal excretion of larvae of protostrongylid species (Protostrongylus rufescens, Neostrongylus linearis, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris) by 97.8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug.
Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different groups of mammals housed at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh. A total of 45 fecal samples of different animals (11 carnivores, 26 herbivores and 8 primates were examined from April to September 2011 for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 60% (27/45 of which 35.6% (16/45 were helminth infections and 24% (11/45 were protozoic infections. The identified parasites included protozoa (Balantidium coli and Coccidia sp., nematodes (Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Strongyloides sp., Dictyocaulus sp., Trichuris sp. and stomach worm, cestodes (Spirometra sp. and Moniezia benedeni and trematodes (Fasciola sp.. At least one parasite was identified in the fecal samples of all animals except of the samples from bear, python, water buck and olive baboon. Mixed infections were observed in Rhesus monkey (Trichuris sp. and Balantidium coli, in deer (Strongyloides sp. and Coccidia sp. and in lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp.. Helminth infections were more common than protozoic infections in carnivores and herbivores, whereas in primates, protozoic infections were more common than helminth infections. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found in zoo animals in this study emphasizes the importance of controlling these parasitic infections in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals and of the humans working with these animals.
Sundquist, B; Bech-Nielsen, S; Zakrisson, G
A study was conducted to determine if the purification of Parafilaria bovicola antigens can increase the specificity of serodiagnosis of parafilariasis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antigens released from adult worms of P. bovicola were separated by chromatofocusing on a polybuffer exchanger of the pH range 7.3-4.0 Polypeptide analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the presence of four major polypeptides with MWs of 41, 36, 24 and 20 kDa. Additional biochemical characterization identified the 24- and 20-kDa polypeptides as hydrophobic glycoproteins. The chromatofocusing purification procedures were also applied for separation of a whole-worm extract. Again, the 41- and 36-kDa antigens were identified in separate peak fractions. Using ELISA, it was shown that the 41- and 35-kDa antigens were recognized by bovine antibodies specific for P. bovicola, but not by other sera collected from cattle infected by Onchocerca gutturosa, Onchocerca lienalis, Ostertagia ostertagi and Dictyocaulus viviparus. The serological evaluation strongly suggests that the 41- and 36-kDa antigens are P. bovicola specific.
宋军科; 于三科; 袁超
陕西省永寿县某羊场共有羊471只,其中布尔山羊92只,无角道赛特118只,莎能奶山羊96只,同羊40只,小尾寒羊50只,道赛特羔羊75只.通过对羊群进行粪便检查、剖检等方法,共发现寄生虫13种.其中,内寄生虫有12种,包括矛形双腔吸虫(Dicrocoelium dendriticum)卵及成虫,毛首线虫(Trichuris)卵,细颈线虫(Nematodirus)卵,捻转血矛线虫(Haemonchus contortus)卵及成虫,奥斯特线虫(Osteragia)卵,毛圆线虫(Trichostrongylus)卵,食道口线虫(Oesophagostomum)卵,羊仰口线虫(Bunostomum trigonocephalum)卵,夏伯特线虫(Chabertia ovina)卵,丝状网尾线虫(Dictyocaulus filaria)成虫及一期幼虫,艾美耳球虫(Eimeria)卵囊,细颈囊尾蚴(Cysticercus tenuicollis),外寄生虫1种为血蜱(Heamaphysalis).其中线虫、球虫感染率高,感染强度大.
Full Text Available As a result of heavy rains from spring of 2010 became to appear, after two months of animals maintaining in high humidity conditions, some health problems. Were been examined by clinical point of view 280 sheep from four herds of Timiş district particular breeders from Transilvanian Merinos and Ţurcană breeds, 2-5 years aged. In the same time were been taken samples from foot lesions of affected sheep and were been examined from morphopathological point of view the 29 sheep bodies slaughtered by necessity. After all examinations was been observed that 197 sheep (70.35%, more than half from examined animals had foot lesions and respiratory clinic signs caused by exceeded rains from last months. From the necessity slaughtered sheep bodies were been isolated larvae from Dictyocaulus filaria, Oestrus ovis and adults of Psoroptes ovis, parasites who had found optimum conditions of development and to produce infections in rainy springs, with water and mud remained long time on pastures. From foot samples was been isolated in Microbiology laboratory Fusobacterium necrophorum, a bacteria responsible of interdigitally dermatitis in sheep. All these problems caused by heavy rains had as results important economic damages through milk and wool decreased productions and high costs with antiinfectious and antiparasitical treatments.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.
Full Text Available The study was been performed to emphasizing the dynamics of immunological parameters in healthy and parasitically infested youth sheep from different private herds from Timiş district. The researches were been made on20 youth sheep 10-11 months aged from Ţurcana breed divided in two groups: first group (M comprised 10 healthy sheep periodic treated with antiparasitic drugs and the second group (E contained 10 sheep who never received any antiparasitic drugs. All animals are clinical healthy, but those of E group are more skinny and have long and bristled fleece. From both groups were been taken blood samples in the view of evaluation the dynamics of unspecific immune response, represented by some parameters, like seric properdine, seric lysozime, phagocytic index and leucogramme. The obtained results confirm that immune system in infected animals always tried to counteract the noxious action of parasitic agents through increased values of studied parameters. A coproscopic examination of both studied groups identified first instar larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria and Trichostrongylus spp. in E group.
Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.
Тихая, Н.; Понамарев, Н.
Изучено распространение и сезонная динами-ка зараженности овец Dictyocaulus filaria в Алтай-ском крае. Установлены сроки заражения ягнят D. filaria. Зараженность ягнят достигает в августе 51,5 %, молодняка 1-2-х лет 24,1 % и взрослых овец 15,8 %.
Downey, N E; O'Shea, J
Under experimental conditions, fenbendazole given at doses of 0.4 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight suppressed calves' faecal output of Ostertagia and Cooperia species eggs and Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae. Both dose levels were given in the form of small daily drenches and the higher level showed greater efficacy. In a grazing experiment, medication with fenbendazole at 1.0 mg/kg/day administered intermittently to calves using an automatic dose dispenser almost completely suppressed the output of trichostrongylid eggs. As a result, infection on the pasture and in the calves remained at a low level throughout the grazing season. By contrast, control pasture and control calves showed rather heavy infection from mid-August onwards with significantly lower weight gains and widespread signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. At post mortem examination of representative calves from each group in November, the medicated animals had 99 per cent less Ostertagia species, whether adults or larvae arrested at the early fourth stage, and 95 per cent less Cooperia species compared with controls. Medication in the drinking water suppressed the faecal output of D viviparus larvae for most of the grazing season by comparison with the controls but the medicated calves became infected with this parasite towards the end of the season. Until this problem is overcome, precautions against parasitic bronchitis are advised when this system of medication is adopted.
Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D
Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.
Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Sikasunge, C S
The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 (July-December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise.
Epe, C; Coati, N; Schnieder, T
The results of coproscopical examinations in horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002 are presented. In 4399 samples from horses 37.4% stages of strongylids, 1.4% anoplocephalids, 1.3% Strongyloides westeri, 0.9% Parascaris equorum, 0.04% Oxyuris equi, 0.04% Eimeria sp. and 0.04% Fasciola hepatica were found. In 998 samples of cattle 22.1% stages of strongylids, 11.2% of Eimeria spp., 3.5% of cryptosporidium, 2.9% of Moniezia spp., 1.3% of Trichuris spp., 0.7% of Dictyocaulus sp., 0.6% of Fasciola hepatica, 0.6% of Strongyloides sp., 0.5% of Nematodirus spp. and 0.4% of Capillaria sp. could be detected. In 524 samples of sheep 60.7% eggs of strongylids, 43.1% oozysts of Eimeria spp., 11.1% stages of Nematodirus spp., 9.5% of Moniezia spp., 7.8% of Trichuris spp., 6.7% of Strongyloides sp., 1.7% of Fasciola hepatica, 1% of Capillaria spp., 0.4% of protostrongylidae, 0.2% of Skrjabinema sp. and 0.2% of Dictyocaulus sp. were found. 33.9% of the 118 samples of goats that were examined were positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp., 30.5% for eggs of strongylids, 6.8% for Nematodirus spp., 4.2% for Trichuris spp., 3.4% for Moniezia spp., 0.8 for protostrongylids and 0.8% for Strongyloides sp. 5.7% of 1427 samples of pigs contained stages of strongylids, 1.5% of Ascaris suum, 0.4% of Isospora, 0.3% of Eimeria spp., 0.3% of Trichuris sp., 0.1% of Giardia sp., 0.1% of cryptosproidium as well as 0.1% of metastrongylids. In 1281 of the samples of dogs 2.3% Giardia sp., 2.3% Isospora sp., 2.2% Toxocara canis, 1.4% ancylostomids, 0.8% taeniids, 0.6% larvae of Crenosoma sp., 0.2% Capillaria sp, 0.2% Trichuris vulpis and 0.2% Hammondia-like oocysts were found. In 441 samples of cats 10.7% stages of Isospora sp., 3.9% eggs of Toxocara cati, 1.6% of ancylostomids, 1.4% of taeniids, 1.1% of Giardia sp., 0.7% of Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 0.7% of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, 0.5% of Toxascaris leonina and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. were found
K. Krzysiak Michał
Full Text Available The study presents the analysis of the findings of 234 post-mortem examinations on free-ranging and captive European bison selectively culled or having fallen between 2008 and 2013 in Białowieża Primeval Forest. Pneumonia, emphysema, nephritis, bodily traumas, and intestinal lesions were observed in 106 (45.3%, 77 (32.9%, 82 (35.0%, 68 (29.1%, and 56 (23.9% animals respectively and were the most common pathological changes. Almost half of all males (66 out of 140; 47.1% tested showed some pathological changes of prepuce and penis, described as posthitis or balanoposthitis. Infection with liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus was observed macroscopically in 114 (48.7% and 80 (32.9% bison respectively. F. hepatica prevalence was associated with the emergence of other liver changes such as hepatitis and cirrhosis (P < 0.001. Similarly, the prevalence of D. viviparus coincided with pneumonia (P = 0.001, changes in the upper respiratory tract (P = 0.04, and emphysema (P < 0.001. Hepatitis, infection with F. hepatica, and pathological lesions in the male and female reproductive tracts were associated with the animals’ age. Mechanical injuries, caused by other bison or less commonly by traffic accidents, were the most common cause of death of bison below six months of age. Most pathological changes were significantly more frequent in the selectively culled animals in comparison with the ones having fallen, which confirms the desirability of elimination as a tool to improve the health and welfare of the bison population and limit the number of reservoirs of invasive and possibly infectious diseases.
Davidson, Rebecca K; Ličina, Tina; Gorini, Lucrezia; Milner, Jos M
Many health surveillance programs for wild cervids do not include routine parasite screening despite evidence that gastrointestinal parasites can affect wildlife population dynamics by influencing host fecundity and survival. Slaughter weights of moose in some regions of Norway have been decreasing over recent decades but any role of parasites has not yet been considered. We investigated parasite faunal diversity of moose in Hedmark, SE Norway, by faecal analysis and identification of adult abomasal and caecal nematodes during the autumn hunting season. We related parasite prevalence and abundance to estimates of body condition, gender and age. We identified 11 parasite groups. Moose had high abomasal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burdens and all individuals were infected. Ostertagia antipini and Spiculopteragia alcis were the most prevalent abomasal GINs identified. O. leptospicularis and Telodorsagia circumcincta were also identified in the abomasa while a range of other GIN and Moniezia sp. eggs, and coccidia, Dictyocaulus sp. and Protostrongylid larvae were found in faeces. Female moose had higher mean abomasal nematode counts than males, particularly among adults. However, adult males had higher faecal egg counts than adult females which may reflect reduction in faecal volume with concentration of eggs among males during the rut. We found no strong evidence for the development of acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes with age, although there was a higher Protostrongylid and Moniezia infection prevalence in younger animals. High burdens of several parasites were associated with poor body condition in terms of slaughter weight relative to skeletal size but unrelated to visually evaluated fat reserves. Given findings from earlier experimental studies, our results imply sub-clinical effects of GI parasite infection on host condition. Managers should be aware that autumn faecal egg counts and field assessments of fat reserves may not be reliable indicators of
Lone, Bashir A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Hidayatullah; Bandh, Suhaib A; Khan, Abida
One year crossectional survey was carried out to determine and describe the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasite infections in hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in Dachigam National Park of Kashmir through faecal examinations. Out of 153 faecal samples examined, 82 (53.59 %) were found infected with GIT helminthes. In present study seven helminth species were found, including five nematode [Haemonchus contortus (55.39 %), Trichuris ovis (39.75 %), Dictyocaulus viviparus (28.4.00 %), Oesophogostomum circumcincta (13.7 %) and Chabertia ovina (4.02 %)] one trematode [Fasciola hepatica (17.3 %)] and one cestode species [Moneizia expansa (6.05 %)]. Based on the severity of infection 81.7 % of hangul positive samples were severely infected (epg > 1,500), 8.3 % heavily infected (epg = 1,100-1,500), 3.8 % moderately infected (epg = 800-1,000) and 7.2 % mildly infected (epg = 500). Season, sex and age were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT helminths in hangul in the present study. The maximum helminth infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P = 0.003). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P > 0.05). Prevalence was higher in males than females (P > 0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT helminth of hangul which is the pioneering study on this animal in the valley and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT helminthiasis of hangul in the Dachigam national park.
Full Text Available In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910 BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.
贾路; 徐慧; 王彦
绵羊丝状网尾线虫(Dictyocaulus filaria)即肺丝虫是引起绵羊肺线虫病的主要病原,我国主要分布在西北地区,新疆是高发区,对畜牧业经济的发展有着重大的影响.2004年4月至2005年4月,对新疆乌鲁木齐地区的绵羊丝状网尾线虫流行病学做了较为详细的研究.通过12个月连续调查发现,在检查的643只绵羊中丝状网尾线虫的感染率为37.38%,感染强度(每10 g粪便)为1～300条,较1975年～1988年新疆统计的丝状网尾线虫的感染率和感染强度均有所下降.此次调查发现,从12月份至来年的3月份绵羊丝状网尾线虫的感染率和感染强度均比较高.对此以及一些相关的问题进行了讨论分析并提出了有效的防治措施.
Bloemhoff, Yris; Danaher, Martin; Andrew Forbes; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Power, Clare; Sayers, Ríona
Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia ostertagi (nematode parasites), and Fasciola hepatica (trematode parasite) result in productivity losses on dairy farms and impact on animal health through clinical and sub-clinical disease. Parasite control in livestock systems is largely based on the use of chemoprophylactic agents (anthelmintics), grazing management, or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to document current parasite control measures employed by Irish dairy farmers in a predominantly pasture-based livestock system. A questionnaire survey of 312 geographically representative farmers was completed in 2009 with a follow up survey completed in 2011. Statistical analysis highlighted significant differences in chemoprophylactic usage between 2009 and 2011. In particular, an increase in the use of albendazole for both trematode (19% in 2009 to 36% in 2011) and nematode (30% in 2009 to 58% in 2011) control was observed. This was most likely due to flukicide restrictions introduced in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 for dairy animals. Logistic regression highlighted regional differences in chemoprophylactic use. Farmers in southern parts of Ireland, an area with good quality soil, less rainfall, and a higher density of dairy farms than other regions, were approximately half as likely to dose for F. hepatica and were more likely (OR>2.0) to use albendazole for both nematode and fluke control. Approximately 30% of respondents who used a chemoprophylactic treatment for nematodes, used a product which was 'unsuitable for purpose' (e.g. ivermectin for the treatment of F. hepatica), highlighting the need for increased awareness, continuing research, and regionally targeted education tools regarding optimal parasite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983 as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females, as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly corresponding to 200 meg ivermectin per kg body weight, subcutaneous injection. Remaining 25 calves (14 males + 11 females served as untreated controls. The entire group of calves was then returned to the herd for free grazing during winter. During the winter 3 treated calves were found dead, all three of them had been suffering from keratoconjunctivitis. If any of the control animals had succumbed during the same time is not known. On April 21st, 1983 (approx. 150 days post treatment 44 calves (24 treated + 20 controls were weighed. 5 treated and 5 controls were randomly selected for slaughter. Carcasses and organs were thoroughly examined from a parasitological and, as far as lungs were concerned, pathological point of view. The efficacy of the treatment was 100(M> or nearly 100% against Oedemagena tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and nematode eggs in faeces. The efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes was, probably due to date of treatment, somewhat difficult to judge (Tab 1. A statistical analysis of the weight changes, relative to initial weights, (Tab. 2 supports the statements — that all animals had lost weight — that treated males had lost significantly less of their body weights than control males — That weight change of treated females did not differ significantly from that of control females — that the average weight loss of the entire treated group was significantly less than that of the
冯平; 于三科; 屈雷; 马飞; 王峰
对榆林市的1 200只山羊寄生虫的感染情况进行了调查,通过粪便检查发现该地区山羊蠕虫感染率为81.67%,其中线虫感染率为59.33%,吸虫感染率为33.08%,绦虫感染率27.33%.共检出16种蠕虫卵或幼虫,其中线虫10种,即夏伯特线虫(Chabertia sp.)、毛圆线虫(Trichostrongylus sp.)、捻转血矛线虫(Hemonchus contortus)、细颈线虫(Nematodirus sp.)、丝状网尾线虫(Dictyocaulus filaria)幼虫、羊仰口线虫(Bunostomum trigonocephalum)、食道口线虫(Oesophagostomum spp.)、美丽筒线虫(Gongylonema pulchrum)、羊毛首线虫(Trichocephala ovis)、普通奥斯特线虫(Ostertagia circumcincta).绦虫3种,即莫尼茨绦虫(Moniezia sp.)、盖氏曲子宫绦虫(Helictrometa giardi)、中点无卵黄腺绦虫(Avitelina centripunctata).吸虫3种,即肝片形吸虫(Fasciola hepatica)、矛形双腔吸虫(Dicrocoelium lanceatum)、东毕吸虫(Orientobilharzia spp.).球虫感染率为37.83%,共发现5种卵囊,分别是:阿撒他艾美耳球虫(Eimeria ahsata)、阿氏艾美耳球虫(E.arloingi)、浮氏艾美耳球虫(E.faurei)、颗粒艾美耳球虫(E.granulose)、错乱艾美耳球虫(E.intricata).
Full Text Available Strategic application of moxidectin pour-on (Cydectin(R was evaluated in Uganda for its effect on pasture larval counts and gastrointestinal nematode faecal egg counts in village cattle kept under tethering (semi-intensive grazing management. The strategic deworming schedule involved treating cattle twice at an interval of 2 months, at the end of the 1st wet season and during the 2nd wet season. Two groups of 30 cattle, each consisting of a treated and a control group, were examined for nematode infections every 4 weeks from June 1999 to January 2000. The treated group had significantly lower mean faecal egg counts than the untreated groups (t-value = 2.47, P < 0.05. Generally, the pasture larval counts on treated farms were lower than on untreated ones, but not significantly so (t-value = 2.22, P = 0.068. Pasture larval counts with different nematode species on treated farms were lower than on untreated ones, but the differences were not significant for Haemonchus spp. (t-value=1.68, P=0.145, Oesophagostomum spp. (t-value= 1.87, P=0.111, Trichostrongylus spp. (t-value=1.93, P=0.102, Dictyocaulus spp. (t-value= -0.74, P=0.485 and Cooperia spp. (t-value=-1.00, P=0.356. Treated farms did , however, have significantly lower pasture larval counts of Bunostomum spp. (t-value=4.64, P<0.05. This study has revealed that the application ofmoxidectin pour-on on cattle has an effect on faecal egg count and pasture contamination under the tethering grazing system. Moxidectin pour-on and the strategic deworming schedule evaluated here could be used for the control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle by small-scale farmers who practise tethering or semi-intensive grazing management in Uganda and other tropical countries, especially where there is a bimodal rainfall pattern.
ВАРЛАМОВА А.И.; ЛИМОВА Ю.В.; САДОВ К.М.; САДОВА А.К.; БЕЛОВА Е.Е.; РАДИОНОВ А.В.; ХАЛИКОВ С.С.; ЧИСТЯЧЕНКО Ю.С.; ДУШКИН А.В.; СКИРА В.Н.; АРХИПОВ И.А.
Реферат Цель исследования изучение антигельминтной эффективности супрамолекулярного комплекса фенбендазола против разных видов нематод у овец. Материалы и методы. Опыты проводили на молодняке овец, спонтанно инвазированном желудочно-кишечными стронгилятами (48 гол.), Dictyocaulus filaria (42 гол.), Strongyloides papillosus (21 гол.) и Trichocephalus ovis (24 гол.). При каждом гельминтозе овцам разных групп задавали однократно перорально супрамолекулярный комплекс фенбендазола в дозе 3,0; 2,0 ...
Estudio anual de la eliminación de huevos y ooquistes de parásitos gastrointestinales y larvas de nemátodos pulmonares en ovinos de una estancia en Magallanes, Chile Annual study of the of egg and oocyst outputs of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworm larvae in a sheep station of Magallanes, Chile
Full Text Available Con el fin de recabar antecedentes epidemiológicos sobre las endoparasitosis del ovino en Magallanes, XIIª Región de Chile, se trabajó en la estancia "Entre Vientos", comuna de Río Verde, durante un año (septiembre de 1999 a agosto del 2000. A partir de animales de 3 categorías de edad mantenidos bajo un sistema de explotación extensiva, compuestos por 9.800 corderos (nacidos durante la primavera de 1999, 1.800 borregas (1 año de edad y 13.500 ovejas (2 o más años de edad, se determinaron las tendencias de eliminación de huevos, ooquistes y larvas de parásitos gastrointestinales y pulmonares. Cada 14 días se obtuvo materia fecal desde el recto de 25 animales pertenecientes a cada grupo de edad, muestreados al azar, para realizar recuentos de huevos y diferenciación de larvas de nemátodos gastrointestinales, recuentos de huevos de cestodos, determinación de animales positivos a ooquistes de protozoos intestinales y detección de larvas de nemátodos pulmonares. Los corderos presentaron las mayores eliminaciones de huevos de nemátodos gastrointestinales durante el verano, con predominancia de los géneros Nematodirus y Ostertagia. En borregas y ovejas, las mayores eliminaciones de Ostertagia y Trichostrongylus se produjeron en primavera, coincidiendo con el alza de la temperatura ambiental. La categoría más contaminante fue la de las ovejas en primavera, mientras que los corderos lo fueron en el verano. Durante la primavera, la mayor parte de los animales eliminó ooquistes de Eimeria spp., pero fueron los corderos los mayores contaminantes. La mayor oviposición de huevos de Moniezia expansa se registró en corderos y borregas, durante el verano y primavera respectivamente. Larvas de Dictyocaulus filaria se detectaron principalmente en corderos durante el otoño e invierno. No se diagnosticaron casos de parasitosis clínicas durante los meses del estudio, lo que se puede explicar dado el sistema de crianza extensivo y al
Martin, Richard J; Robertson, Alan P
There are a number of reasons why the development of novel anthelmintics is very necessary. In domestic animals, parasites cause serious loss of production and are a welfare concern. The control of these parasites requires changes in management practices to reduce the spread of infection and the use of therapeutic agents to treat affected animals. The development of vaccines against parasites is desirable but their development so far has been very limited. One notable exception is the vaccination of calves against infection by Dictyocaulus viviparous (lungworm) which has proved to be very effective. In domestic animals, the total market for anti-parasitic agents (both ecto- and endo-parasites) is in excess of a billion U.S. dollars. In humans there are serious problems ofmorbidity and mortality associated with parasite infections. 1.6 billion People throughout the world are infected with ascariasis (Fig. 1A) and/or hookworm. Approximately one-third of the world's population is suffering from the effects of intestinal nematode parasites, causing low growth-rates in infants, ill-thrift, diarrhea and in 2% of cases, loss of life. Despite the huge number of affected individuals, the market for anti-parasitic drugs for humans is not big enough to foster the development of anthelmintics because most infestations that occur are in undeveloped countries that lack the ability to pay for the development of these drugs. The major economic motivator then, is for the development of animal anthelmintics. In both domestic animals and now in humans, there is now a level of resistance to the available anthelmintic compounds. The resistance is either: constitutive, where a given species of parasite has never been sensitive to the compound; or acquired, where the resistance has developed through Darwinian selection fostered by the continued exposure to the anti-parasitic drugs. The continued use of all anthelmintics has and will, continue to increase the level of resistance. Cure
Little, Peter R; Hodge, Andrew; Maeder, Steven J; Wirtherle, Nicole C; Nicholas, David R; Cox, George G; Conder, George A
and respiratory nematode parasites of sheep, as follows: ≥ 98.9% efficacy against Haemonchus contortus (adult and L4); Teladorsagia circumcincta (adult, L4 and hypobiotic L4); Teladorsagia trifurcata (L4); Trichostrongylus axei (adult and L4); Trichostrongylus colubriformis (adult and L4); Trichostrongylus falculatus (adult); Trichostrongylus rugatus (adult); Trichostrongylus vitrinus (adult and L4); Cooperia curticei (adult and L4); Cooperia oncophora (adult and L4); Nematodirus spathiger (adult); Nematodirus battus (adult); Nematodirus spp. (hypobiotic L4); Strongyloides papillosus (adult); Strongyloides spp. (L4); Chabertia ovina (adult); Oesophagostomum venulosum (adult); Dictyocaulus filaria (adult); and Protostrongylus rufescens (adult); ≥ 97.0% efficacy against Trichuris ovis (adult); and ≥ 95.9% efficacy against T. trifurcata (adult). Derquantel-abamectin is a highly effective combination anthelmintic, which will provide an important new tool for controlling helminths of sheep when used in conjunction with sustainable drenching practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.