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Sample records for dictate sudden distributional

  1. Law enforcement duties and sudden cardiac death among police officers in United States: case distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Vasileia; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Sato, Sho; Dahabreh, Issa J; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-11-18

    To assess the association between risk of sudden cardiac death and stressful law enforcement duties compared with routine/non-emergency duties. Case distribution study (case series with survey information on referent exposures). United States law enforcement. Summaries of deaths of over 4500 US police officers provided by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and the Officer Down Memorial Page from 1984 to 2010. Observed and expected sudden cardiac death counts and relative risks for sudden cardiac death events during specific strenuous duties versus routine/non-emergency activities. Independent estimates of the proportion of time that police officers spend across various law enforcement duties obtained from surveys of police chiefs and front line officers. Impact of varying exposure assessments, covariates, and missing cases in sensitivity and stability analyses. 441 sudden cardiac deaths were observed during the study period. Sudden cardiac death was associated with restraints/altercations (25%, n=108), physical training (20%, n=88), pursuits of suspects (12%, n=53), medical/rescue operations (8%, n=34), routine duties (23%, n=101), and other activities (11%, n=57). Compared with routine/non-emergency activities, the risk of sudden cardiac death was 34-69 times higher during restraints/altercations, 32-51 times higher during pursuits, 20-23 times higher during physical training, and 6-9 times higher during medical/rescue operations. Results were robust to all sensitivity and stability analyses. Stressful law enforcement duties are associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death that is markedly higher than the risk during routine/non-emergency duties. Restraints/altercations and pursuits are associated with the greatest risk. Our findings have public health implications and suggest that primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts are needed among law enforcement officers. © Varvarigou et al 2014.

  2. Collapsar γ-ray bursts: how the luminosity function dictates the duration distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2017-12-01

    Jets in long-duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs) have to drill through the collapsing star in order to break out of it and produce the γ-ray signal while the central engine is still active. If the breakout time is shorter for more powerful engines, then the jet-collapsar interaction acts as a filter of less luminous jets. We show that the observed broken power-law GRB luminosity function is a natural outcome of this process. For a theoretically motivated breakout time that scales with jet luminosity as L-χ with χ ∼ 1/3-1/2, we show that the shape of the γ-ray duration distribution can be uniquely determined by the GRB luminosity function and matches the observed one. This analysis has also interesting implications about the supernova-central engine connection. We show that not only successful jets can deposit sufficient energy in the stellar envelope to power the GRB-associated supernovae, but also failed jets may operate in all Type Ib/c supernovae.

  3. Decree 234/003. Is derogate decree 317/987, from the date of entry into force the safe exercise regulation of the packing activities and the distribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) that will dictate the URSEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This decree allows the entry into force the safe exercise regulation of the packing activities and the distribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) that will dictate the URSEA (The regulatory unit of energy and water service)

  4. Machine Dictation and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Evelyn; And Others

    This instructional package contains both an instructor's manual and a student's manual for a course in machine dictation and transcription. The instructor's manual contains an overview with tips on teaching the course, letters for dictation, and a key to the letters. The student's manual contains an overview of the course and of the skills needed…

  5. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration in dogs: breed distribution of 495 canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Amanda R; van der Woerdt, Alexandra; Gaarder, James E; Sapienza, John S; Hernandez-Merino, Elena; Abrams, Kenneth; Church, Melanie L; La Croix, Noelle

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breed, age, gender, and weight distribution of dogs affected with sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD) and to investigate whether SARD is more common in small breed dogs. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with SARD confirmed by an electroretinogram were reviewed. Breed, age, gender, and weight were recorded when available. The same data were obtained for dogs with SARD described in the veterinary literature. Three hundred and two dogs were included from the ophthalmology practices and 193 dogs from the veterinary literature. Sixty breeds were present in the study. Mixed-breed dogs were the most common at 108 dogs (21.8%), followed by the Dachshund (68, 13.7%), Chinese Pug (44, 8.9%), Miniature Schnauzer (39, 7.9%), Maltese (23, 4.6%), Cocker Spaniel (22, 4.4%), Bichon Frise (18, 3.6%), Beagle (16, 3.2%), Brittany (15, 3.0%), and Pomeranian (10, 2.0%). Fifty other breeds were represented by 1-9 dogs each. The median age was 9 years (range = 10 months-16 years). The weight was known for 197 dogs. About 60.9% of dogs were less than 25 pounds, 31.5% were between 25 and 50 pounds, and 7.6% were greater than 50 pounds. Gender was recorded in 393 dogs: 217 female dogs and 176 male dogs. As previously reported, SARD is most common in middle-aged to older dogs. Smaller dogs of less than 25 pounds appear overrepresented, while large/giant breed dogs of greater than 50 pounds are infrequently diagnosed. In this study, there was no statistical significance between female and male dogs. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. A Survey of Great Dictators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerner, C. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of 14 business managers possessing outstanding dictating skills reveals that preparation is the key to efficient dictation, dictation is not confined to brief letters or memos, the ability to dictate over the phone and to machines is important, and you cannot dictate if you cannot write. (FL)

  7. Moral distance in dictator games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aguiar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experimental investigation using a dictator game in which individuals must make a moral decision --- to give or not to give an amount of money to poor people in the Third World. A questionnaire in which the subjects are asked about the reasons for their decision shows that, at least in this case, moral motivations carry a heavy weight in the decision: the majority of dictators give the money for reasons of a consequentialist nature. Based on the results presented here and of other analogous experiments, we conclude that dicator behavior can be understood in terms of moral distance rather than social distance and that it systematically deviates from the egoism assumption in economic models and game theory. %extit{JEL}: A13, C72, C91

  8. Dictator games: A meta study

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, more than a hundred dictator game experiments have been published. This meta study summarizes the evidence. Exploiting the fact that most experiments had to fix parameters they did not intend to test, in multiple regression the meta study is able to assess the effect of single manipulations, controlling for a host of alternative explanatory factors. The resulting rich dataset also provides a testbed for comparing alternative specifications of the statistical model for ...

  9. Sudden transition and sudden change from open spin environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; Xu, Jing-Bo; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of sudden transition or sudden change phenomenon for appropriate initial states under dephasing. As illustrative examples, we study the behaviors of quantum correlation dynamics of two noninteracting qubits in independent and common open spin environments, respectively. For the independent environments case, we find that the quantum correlation dynamics is closely related to the Loschmidt echo and the dynamics exhibits a sudden transition from classical to quantum correlation decay. It is also shown that the sudden change phenomenon may occur for the common environment case and stationary quantum discord is found at the high temperature region of the environment. Finally, we investigate the quantum criticality of the open spin environment by exploring the probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo and the scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord, respectively. - Highlights: • Sudden transition or sudden change from open spin baths are studied. • Quantum discord is related to the Loschmidt echo in independent open spin baths. • Steady quantum discord is found in a common open spin bath. • The probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo is analyzed. • The scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord is displayed

  10. Goal-based dictator game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  11. Social Preferences and Cognitive Reflection: Evidence from Dictator Game Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benedetto Ponti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides experimental evidence on the relationship between social preferences and cognitive abilities, which we measure using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT. We elicit social preferences by way of 24 dictatorial situations, in which the Dictator’s choice sets include i standard Dictator games, where increasing the Dictator’s payoff yields a loss for the Recipient, ii efficient Dicator games, where increasing the Dictator’s payoff also increases that the Recipient’s; as well as other situations in which iii either the Dictator’s or iv the Recipient’s monetary payoff is held constant. We partition our subject pool in three groups: reflective (scoring 2 or more in the CRT, impulsive (opting twice or more for the intuitive but wrong answers in the CRT and the remainder. We find that impulsive Dictators show a marked inequity aversion attitude, especially in standard Dictator Games. By contrast, reflective Dictators show lower distributional concerns, except for the situations in which the Dictators’ payoff is held constant. In this case, reflective Dictators give significantly more.

  12. Lattice topology dictates photon statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakci, H Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2017-08-21

    Propagation of coherent light through a disordered network is accompanied by randomization and possible conversion into thermal light. Here, we show that network topology plays a decisive role in determining the statistics of the emerging field if the underlying lattice is endowed with chiral symmetry. In such lattices, eigenmode pairs come in skew-symmetric pairs with oppositely signed eigenvalues. By examining one-dimensional arrays of randomly coupled waveguides arranged on linear and ring topologies, we are led to a remarkable prediction: the field circularity and the photon statistics in ring lattices are dictated by its parity while the same quantities are insensitive to the parity of a linear lattice. For a ring lattice, adding or subtracting a single lattice site can switch the photon statistics from super-thermal to sub-thermal, or vice versa. This behavior is understood by examining the real and imaginary fields on a lattice exhibiting chiral symmetry, which form two strands that interleave along the lattice sites. These strands can be fully braided around an even-sited ring lattice thereby producing super-thermal photon statistics, while an odd-sited lattice is incommensurate with such an arrangement and the statistics become sub-thermal.

  13. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  14. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cornea (the clear layer in front of the iris and pupil), then the lens, and then the ... sudden start of symptoms may instead be sudden recognition. For example, a person with long-standing reduced ...

  15. Polar-night O3, NO2 and NO3 distributions during sudden stratospheric warmings in 2003–2008 as seen by GOMOS/Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kyrölä

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSW are large-scale transient events, which have a profound effect on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric circulation in winter. During the SSW events the temperature in stratosphere increases by several tens of Kelvins and zonal winds decelerate or reverse in direction. Changes in temperature and dynamics significantly affect the chemical composition of the middle atmosphere. In this paper, the response of the middle-atmosphere trace gases during several sudden stratospheric warmings in 2003–2008 is investigated using measurements from the GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument on board the Envisat satellite. We have analyzed spatial and temporal changes of NO2 and NO3 in the stratosphere, and of ozone in the whole middle atmosphere. To facilitate our analyses, we have used the temperature profiles data from the MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board the Aura satellite, as well as simulations by the FinROSE chemistry-transport model and the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry model (SIC. NO3 observations in the polar winter stratosphere during SSWs are reported for the first time. Changes in chemical composition are found not to be restricted to the stratosphere, but to extend to mesosphere and lower thermosphere. They often exhibit a complicated structure, because the distribution of trace gases is affected by changes in both chemistry and dynamics. The tertiary ozone maximum in the mesosphere often disappears with the onset of SSW, probably because of strong mixing processes. The strong horizontal mixing with outside-vortex air is well observed also in NO2 data, especially in cases of enhanced NO2 inside the polar vortex before SSW. Almost in all of the considered events, ozone near the secondary maximum decreases with onset of SSW. In both experimental data and FinROSE modelling, ozone changes are positively correlated with temperature changes in the lower stratosphere

  16. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  17. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  18. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  19. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...

  20. The sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Hou, Jin-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Si-Yuan

    2018-03-28

    The interaction of quantum system and its environment brings out abundant quantum phenomenons. The sudden death of quantum resources, including entanglement, quantum discord and coherence, have been studied from the perspective of quantum breaking channels (QBC). QBC of quantum resources reveal the common features of quantum resources. The definition of QBC implies the relationship between quantum resources. However, sudden death of quantum resources can also appear under some other quantum channels. We consider the dynamics of Bell-diagonal states under a stochastic dephasing noise along the z-direction, and the sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord are investigated. Next we explain this phenomenon from the geometric structure of quantum discord. According to the above results, the states with sudden death and sudden birth can be filtered in three-parameter space. Then we provide two necessary conditions to judge which kind of noise channels can make Bell-diagonal states sudden death and sudden birth. Moreover, the relation between quantum discord and coherence indicates that the sudden death and sudden birth of quantum discord implies the sudden death and sudden birth of coherence in an optimal basis.

  1. Give and Take in Dictator Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that participants in the dictator game are less willing to give money to the other participant when their choice set also includes the option to take money. We examine whether this effect is due to the choice set providing a signal about entitlements in a setting where...... entitlements initially may be considered unclear. We find that the share of positive transfers depends on the choice set even when there is no uncertainty about entitlements, and that this choice-set effect is robust across a heterogenous group of participants recruited from the general adult population...

  2. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  3. Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to describe the use of pharmacotherapy in a nationwide cohort of young patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Background Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of SCD and sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). It remains unclear how...... pharmacotherapy may contribute to the overall burden of SCD in the general population. Methods This was a nationwide study that included all deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 in people age 1 to 35 years and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all SCDs through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. Pharmacotherapy prescribed within 90 days before SCD was identified in the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results We identified 1,363 SCDs; median age was 38 years (interquartile range: 29 to 45 years), and 72% (n = 975) were men...

  4. Analytical results for the time-dependent current density distribution of expanding ultracold gases after a sudden change of the confining potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaza, R.; Bencheikh, K.

    2017-12-01

    Using the so-called operator product expansion to lowest order, we extend the work in Campbell et al (2015 Phys. Rev. Lett 114 125302) by deriving a simple analytical expression for the long-time asymptotic one-body reduced density matrix during free expansion for a one-dimensional system of bosons with large atom number interacting through a repulsive delta potential initially confined by a potential well. This density matrix allows direct access to the momentum distribution and also to the mass current density. For initially confining power-law potentials we give explicit expressions, in the limits of very weak and very strong interaction, for the current density distributions during the free expansion. In the second part of the work we consider the expansion of ultracold gas from a confining harmonic trap to another harmonic trap with a different frequency. For the case of a quantum impenetrable gas of bosons (a Tonks-Girardeau gas) with a given atom number, we present an exact analytical expression for the mass current distribution (mass transport) after release from one harmonic trap to another harmonic trap. It is shown that, for a harmonically quenched Tonks-Girardeau gas, the current distribution is a suitable collective observable and under the weak quench regime, it exhibits oscillations at the same frequencies as those recently predicted for the peak momentum distribution in the breathing mode. The analysis is extended to other possible quenched systems.

  5. [Sudden death from hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundo, A; Aragona, M; Gualniera, P; Aragona, F

    1995-12-01

    The sudden death by hypoglycemia is an aspect of the forensic pathology frequently neglected. Authors initially described the pathogenesis of different hypoglycemia forms, distinguishing the primary ones due to hyperinsulinism and the secondary ones due to functional insufficiency of other organs (hypophysis, thyroid, adrenal gland, liver); after that Authors described three cases of sudden death induced hypoglycemia by hyperinsulinism: two were unweaned with nesidioblastosis and one adolescent. In any form of hypoglycemia the central nervous system damage is present with evident neuronal degenerative-necrotic phenomena, widespread edema with microhemorrhage, swollen and dissociation of myelin sheath, glial cells hyperplasia. Death caused by primary hypoglycemia is histopathologically different from the secondary one because of the maintenance of hepatic glycogen content in the former, that increase in striated muscles, including the heart, in spite of the constant secretion of catecholamine from the adrenal medulla. Glycogen is depleted in secondary hypoglycemia. In the primary form, behind the adrenal medulla hyperfunction, the increased functional activity of the adrenal cortex is moderate, contrasting with the seriousness of the syndrome, due prevalently to inhibit the gluconeogenesis response conditioned by the persistence of stored glycogen in the liver, heart and striated muscles. The rare anoxic processes coming with resynthesis of hepatic glycogen have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. The primary hypoglycemic death, especially in unweaned, is frequently promoted by other processes inducing hypoxia (fetal asphyxia outcome, pneumonia, etc.) or worsening the hypoglycemia (hypothyroidism, etc.). The secondary hypoglycemias are characterized by the normality of exocrine pancreas and by organic alterations that cause glycogen depletion from the liver.

  6. Hypokalemia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....

  7. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  8. Effects of Two Listening Strategies for Melodic Dictation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine effects of two listening strategies on melodic dictation scores. Fifty-four undergraduate music majors completed short tonal melodic dictations in a within-subjects design with three conditions: (a) no specified strategy in the instructions, (b) required listening before writing, and (c) required writing…

  9. Effects of a Preparatory Singing Pattern on Melodic Dictation Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of a preparatory contextual singing pattern on melodic dictation test scores. Forty-nine undergraduate music education majors took melodic dictations under three conditions. After hearing an orienting chord sequence, they (1) sang a preparatory solfége pattern in the key, meter, and tempo of the…

  10. All-or-Nothing Dictator Games : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.

    2006-01-01

    The dictator game has become well known for its results violating predictions based on ‘rational choice’ models of human behavior with orthodox assumptions on self-interest (Colin F. Camerer, 2003). Prosocial allocations in dictator games seem to suggest that there is some altruism in ‘human

  11. Sudden death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-15

    Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise testing middle aged/senior athletes engaged in leisure sports activity is likely to be effective in patients with significant coronary risk factors, while it is not useful in low-risk subgroups. The availability of automated external defibrillator on the athletic field provides a "back-up" preventive strategy for unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest, mostly occurring in patients with coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.

  13. The Neural Basis of Social Influence in a Dictator Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans tend to reduce inequitable distributions. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that inequitable decisions are related to brain regions that associated with negative emotion and signaling conflict. In the highly complex human social environment, our opinions and behaviors can be affected by social information. In current study, we used a modified dictator game to investigate the effect of social influence on making an equitable decision. We found that the choices of participants in present task was influenced by the choices of peers. However, participants’ decisions were influenced by equitable rather than inequitable group choices. fMRI results showed that brain regions that related to norm violation and social conflict were related to the inequitable social influence. The neural responses in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, rostral cingulate zone, and insula predicted subsequent conforming behavior in individuals. Additionally, psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that the interconnectivity between the dorsal striatum and insula was elevated in advantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. We found decreased functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and insula, supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the disadvantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. This suggests that a disadvantageous inequity influence may decrease the functional connectivity among brain regions that are related to reward processes. Thus, the neural mechanisms underlying social influence in an equitable decision may be similar to those implicated in social norms and reward processing.

  14. The Neural Basis of Social Influence in a Dictator Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhiying; Zheng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Humans tend to reduce inequitable distributions. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that inequitable decisions are related to brain regions that associated with negative emotion and signaling conflict. In the highly complex human social environment, our opinions and behaviors can be affected by social information. In current study, we used a modified dictator game to investigate the effect of social influence on making an equitable decision. We found that the choices of participants in present task was influenced by the choices of peers. However, participants' decisions were influenced by equitable rather than inequitable group choices. fMRI results showed that brain regions that related to norm violation and social conflict were related to the inequitable social influence. The neural responses in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, rostral cingulate zone, and insula predicted subsequent conforming behavior in individuals. Additionally, psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that the interconnectivity between the dorsal striatum and insula was elevated in advantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. We found decreased functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and insula, supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the disadvantageous inequity influence versus no-social influence conditions. This suggests that a disadvantageous inequity influence may decrease the functional connectivity among brain regions that are related to reward processes. Thus, the neural mechanisms underlying social influence in an equitable decision may be similar to those implicated in social norms and reward processing.

  15. Self-Serving Dictators and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, D.; Sadrieh, A.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    A new line of theoretical and empirical literature emphasizes the pivotal role of fair institutions for growth.We present a model, a laboratory experiment, and a simple cross-country regression supporting this view.We model an economy with an unequal distribution of property rights, in which

  16. Responses of two températe evergreen Nothofagus species to sudden and gradual waterlogging: relationships with distribution patterns Respuestas de dos especies siempreverdes de Nothofagus al anegamiento gradual y repentino: relaciones con patrones de distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRIDA PIPER

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of gradual waterlogging on trees have been little studied. The températe evergreens Nothofagus nítida and N. dombeyi are differentially distributed on soil moisture gradients, only the former being common on poorly-drained sites. We compared the relative height growth rate (RGR H and foliage loss of seedlings subjected experimentally to normal drainage (soil at field capacity, sudden waterlogging and gradual waterlogging for two months to determine which waterlogging regime more accurately predicts interspecific differences in tolerance, as evident from natural distributions. RGR H was similar between species but differed between treatments (normal watering > gradual waterlogging = sudden waterlogging. Sudden waterlogging caused massive foliage loss in the two species, but gradual waterlogging caused much greater foliage loss in N. dombeyi than in N. nítida, indicating some degree of acclimation by the latter species. Linear regressions indicated that RGR H was negatively affected by foliage loss in both species, without differences between them. Since no difference in RGR H was found between species in the waterlogging treatments, but yet in foliage loss, other mechanisms may be in volved in the short term growth reduction of N. nítida. Effects of waterlogging on long-term performance in the field were evaluated by reciprocal transplants between a poorly-drained site naturally occupied by N. nítida, and a well drained site naturally occupied by N. dombeyi. After two growing seasons, N. dombeyi had significantly lower specific leaf área (SLA and RGR H, at the poorly drained site than at its original site. At the poorly drained site N. nítida achieved 100 % survival, compared with 73.5 % in N. dombeyi. Reduced growth and survival of N. dombeyi associated with the negative effects on carbón gain of extensive foliage loss and reduced SLA may thus exelude it from the wetter sites. We conclude that tolerance may be better

  17. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  18. Modeling Inequity Aversion in a Dictator Game with Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodriguez-Lara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We expand upon the previous models of inequity aversion of Fehr and Schmidt [1], and Frohlich et al. [2], which assume that dictators get disutility if the final allocation of surplus deviates from the equal split (egalitarian principle or from the subjects' production (libertarian principle. In our model, dictators may also account for the way in which the surplus was generated. More precisely, our model incorporates the idea of liberal egalitarian ethics into the analysis, making it possible for dictators to divide the surplus according to the accountability principle, which states that subjects should only be rewarded for factors under their control. This fairness ideal does not hold subjects responsible for factors beyond their control in the production of the surplus, an idea that is absent in the models of inequity aversion cited above (JEL Codes: D3, D6, D63.

  19. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  20. [Psychological stress and sudden death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalberi, Carlo; Ricci, Renato; Santini, Massimo

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies provide relevant evidence that psychological stress significantly influences the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death. Psychological stress expresses a situation of imbalance, derived from a real or perceived disparity between environmental demands and the individual's ability to cope with these demands. A situation of psychological stress may include different components: personality factors and character traits, anxiety and depression, social isolation and acute or chronic adverse life events. In particular, it has been documented that a sudden extremely hard event, such as an earthquake or a war strike, can significantly increase the incidence of sudden death. Nevertheless, each one of these factors, if not present, can balance a partially unfavorable situation; this overview suggests a multifactorial situation where almost all elements are present and in which the relative influence of each one varies according to the individual examined. Sudden death occurs when a transient disruption (such as acute myocardial ischemia, platelet activation or neuroendocrine variations), occurring in a patient with a diseased myocardium (such as one with a post-necrotic scar or hypertrophy), triggers a malignant arrhythmia. Psychological stress acts at both levels: by means of a "chronic" action it contributes to create the myocardial background, while by means of an acute action it can create the transient trigger precipitating sudden death. In the chronic action two possible mechanisms can be detected: the first is a direct interaction, which contributes to cause a hypertension status or to exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis consequent to endothelial dysfunction; the second one acts through adverse health behaviors, such as a poor diet, alcohol consumption or smoking. In case of acute psychological stress, the mechanisms involved are mainly the ability to trigger myocardial ischemia, to promote arrhythmogenesis, to stimulate platelet function, and to increase

  1. Teaching Melodic Dictation in Advanced Placement Music Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.; Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study approaches to teaching melodic dictation skills used by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers were examined. Twelve high school teachers from four states were interviewed. Four themes emerged from the interview transcripts: cognitive frameworks, processing strategies, rhythm, and course design. Participants generally…

  2. The bystander effect in an N-person dictator game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panchanathan, K.; Frankenhuis, W.E.; Silk, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Dozens of studies show that bystanders are less likely to help victims as bystander number increases. However, these studies model one particular situation, in which victims need only one helper. Using a multi-player dictator game, we study a different but common situation, in which a recipient’s

  3. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  4. The values of ex-ante and ex-post communication in dictator games

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Langenbach

    2014-01-01

    In the dictator game, the recipient's opportunity to send a message to the dictator increases giving. This paperreports two experimentswhich study how the timing of messages affects dictators' decisions (experiment 1) and which value recipients attach to communication opportunities (experiment 2). The first experiment shows that the effect of communication on dictator giving is equally strong when the recipient can send a message before or after the dictator has decided. However, recipients i...

  5. What Behaviors are Disapproved? Experimental Evidence from Five Dictator Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vorsatz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature on social norms has often stressed that social disapproval is crucial to foster compliance with norms and promote fair and cooperative behavior. With this in mind, we explore the disapproval of allocation decisions using experimental data from five dictator games with a feedback stage. Our data suggests that subjects are heterogeneous in their disapproval patterns, distinguishing two main groups: (1 Subjects who only disapprove choices that harm them, and (2 subjects who disapprove socially inefficient choices.

  6. Dictator Perpetuus: Julius Caesar--did he have seizures? If so, what was the etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R

    2004-10-01

    The "Dictator Perpetuus" of the Roman Empire, the great Julius Caesar, was not the one for whom the well-known cesarean operation was named; instead, this term is derived from a Latin word meaning "to cut." Caesar likely had epilepsy on the basis of four attacks that were probably complex partial seizures: (1) while listening to an oration by Cicero, (2) in the Senate while being offered the Emperor's Crown, and in military campaigns, (3) near Thapsus (North Africa) and (4) Corduba (Spain). Also, it is possible that he had absence attacks as a child and as a teenager. His son, Caesarion, by Queen Cleopatra, likely had seizures as a child, but the evidence is only suggestive. His great-great-great grandnephews Caligula and Britannicus also had seizures. The etiology of these seizures in this Julio-Claudian family was most likely through inheritance, with the possibility of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in his great grandfather and also his father. Our best evidence comes from the ancient sources of Suetonius, Plutarch, Pliny, and Appianus.

  7. Dynamic stability under sudden loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simitses, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of dynamic stability of elastic structures subjected to sudden (step) loads is discussed. The various criteria and related methodologies for estimating critical conditions are presented with the emphasis on their similarities and differences. These are demonstrated by employing a simple mechanical model. Several structural configurations are analyzed, for demonstration purposes, with the intention of comparing critical dynamic loads to critical static loads. These configurations include shallow arches and shallow spherical caps, two bar frames, and imperfect cylindrical shells of metallic as well as laminated composite construction. In the demonstration examples, the effect of static pre loading on the dynamic critical load is presented

  8. Adapting a Computerized Medical Dictation System to Prepare Academic Papers in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Yadiel; Prabhakar, Anand M; Uppot, Raul N

    2017-09-14

    Everyday radiologists use dictation software to compose clinical reports of imaging findings. The dictation software is tailored for medical use and to the speech pattern of each radiologist. Over the past 10 years we have used dictation software to compose academic manuscripts, correspondence letters, and texts of educational exhibits. The advantages of using voice dictation is faster composition of manuscripts. However, use of such software requires preparation. The purpose of this article is to review the steps of adapting a clinical dictation software for dictating academic manuscripts and detail the advantages and limitations of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron correlation effects in the presence of non-symmetry dictated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We numerically study the effect of non-symmetry dictated nodes (NSDN) on electron ... the absence of NSDN, attractive interaction between electrons give such an ... and the violation of parity effect, we first explain what are symmetry dictated.

  10. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiang; Zhi Qijun; Zhang Xiaoping; Ren Zhongzhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qutrit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth. (authors)

  11. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion

  12. The sudden success of prose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars Boje

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a new model for understanding the sudden success of prose in four literatures: Greek, Latin, French and Old Norse. Through comparison and quantitative observations, and by focusing on the success of prose rather than its invention, it is shown that in all four cases two...... reading aloud) has been underplayed in previous scholarship mostly focused on authorial choices and invention. For two of the literatures (Greek, French) the fast dynamics of the rise of prose has already been identified and discussed, but for the two others (Latin, Old Norse), the observation is new....... It is also suggested that the exactly contemporary rise of French and Old Norse prose (c. 1200-1230) most probably is connected. The four literatures are each shown in chronological charts so as to visualize the timeline and the relation between poetic and prosaic works. The article furthermore reflects...

  13. Graphene Edges Dictate the Morphology of Nanoparticles during Catalytic Channeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzocchero, Filippo; Vanin, Marco; Kling, Jens

    2014-01-01

    We perform in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments of silver nanoparticles channeling on mono-, bi-, and few-layer graphene and discover that the interactions in the one-dimensional particle–graphene contact line are sufficiently strong so as to dictate the three-dimensional sh......We perform in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments of silver nanoparticles channeling on mono-, bi-, and few-layer graphene and discover that the interactions in the one-dimensional particle–graphene contact line are sufficiently strong so as to dictate the three......-dimensional shape of the nanoparticles. We find a characteristic faceted shape in particles channeling along graphene ⟨100⟩ directions that is lost during turning and thus represents a dynamic equilibrium state of the graphene–particle system. We propose a model for the mechanism of zigzag edge formation...... and an explanation of the rate-limiting step for this process, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and obtain a good agreement between the DFT-predicted and experimentally obtained activation energies of 0.39 and 0.56 eV, respectively. Understanding the origin of the channels' orientation...

  14. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  15. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the dysplastic changes in musculo-valve structures of the heart, arrhythmias and conduction disorders, associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death. The diagnostic criteria for sudden cardiac death, the events of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, prevention of life-threatening conditions in children are provided.

  16. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence, terminology, classification of sudden cardiac death. A description of congenital structural heart diseases associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death is given. The issues of etiology and pathogenesis of life-threatening conditions are described in detail.

  17. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  18. Statistical inferences for bearings life using sudden death test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morariu Cristin-Olimpiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a calculus method for reliability indicators estimation and a complete statistical inferences for three parameters Weibull distribution of bearings life. Using experimental values regarding the durability of bearings tested on stands by the sudden death tests involves a series of particularities of the estimation using maximum likelihood method and statistical inference accomplishment. The paper detailing these features and also provides an example calculation.

  19. Sudden bilateral hearing loss after organophosphate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Dundar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden bilateral hearing loss are seen rarely and the toxic substance exposure constitutes a small part of etiology. A Fifty-eight-year-old woman admitted to our clinic with sudden bilateral hearing loss shortly after chlorpyrifos-ethyl exposure. Otolaryngologic examination findings were normal. The patient had 40 dB sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL on the right ear and 48 dB SNHL on the left ear. Additional diagnostic tests were normal. The conventional treatment for sudden hearing loss was performed. On the second week following organophosphate (OP exposure the patient's hearing loss almost completely resolved. OP's are heavily used in agriculture and should be taken into consideration as an etiologic factor in sudden hearing loss. Keywords: Organophosphates, Hearing loss, Sudden

  20. Pervasive orbital eccentricities dictate the habitability of extrasolar earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Ryosuke; Rasio, Frederic; Takeda, Genya

    2010-09-01

    The long-term habitability of Earth-like planets requires low orbital eccentricities. A secular perturbation from a distant stellar companion is a very important mechanism in exciting planetary eccentricities, as many of the extrasolar planetary systems are associated with stellar companions. Although the orbital evolution of an Earth-like planet in a stellar binary system is well understood, the effect of a binary perturbation on a more realistic system containing additional gas-giant planets has been very little studied. Here, we provide analytic criteria confirmed by a large ensemble of numerical integrations that identify the initial orbital parameters leading to eccentric orbits. We show that an extrasolar earth is likely to experience a broad range of orbital evolution dictated by the location of a gas-giant planet, which necessitates more focused studies on the effect of eccentricity on the potential for life.

  1. Supravalvular aortic stenosis with sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.

  2. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  3. Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIMH NIMHD NINDS NINR NLM CC CIT CSR FIC NCATS NCCIH OD About NIH Who We ... with sudden deafness should discuss the risks and benefits of both treatments with their doctor.” Related Links ...

  4. Sudden unexpected death caused by stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Risgaard, Bjarke; Zachariasardóttir, Sára

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in young individuals globally. Data on the burden of sudden death by stroke are sparse in the young. Aims The aim of this study was to report mortality rates, cause of death, stroke subtype, and symptoms in children and young adults who suffered....... There was a male predominance (56%) and the median age was 33 years. The incidence of sudden death by stroke in individuals aged 1-49 years was 0.19 deaths per 100,000 person-years. Stroke was hemorrhagic in 94% of cases, whereof subarachnoid hemorrhage was the cause of death in 63% of cases. Seventeen (33%) cases...... contacted the healthcare system because of neurological symptoms, whereof one was suspected of having a stroke (6%). Conclusions Sudden death by stroke in children and young adults occurs primarily due to hemorrhagic stroke. We report a high frequency of neurological symptoms prior to sudden death by stroke...

  5. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun, Dass; Neha, Goel; Surinder K, Singhal; Ravi, Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes.   Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, se...

  6. Sudden Hearing Loss after Rabies Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sudden hearing loss developing after immunisation is a very rare situation. Rabies is a viral disease characterised by encephalitis and death. Treatment involves active and passive immunisation. Neurologic complications including Guillain-Barre syndrome or facial paralysis are reported in the literature as a side effect after rabies immunisation. Case Report: Sudden hearing loss was detected in an 11 year-old male patient who had taken the medication for rabies immunisatio...

  7. Sudden Hearing Loss after Rabies Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sudden hearing loss developing after immunisation is a very rare situation. Rabies is a viral disease characterised by encephalitis and death. Treatment involves active and passive immunisation. Neurologic complications including Guillain-Barre syndrome or facial paralysis are reported in the literature as a side effect after rabies immunisation. Case Report: Sudden hearing loss was detected in an 11 year-old male patient who had taken the medication for rabies immunisat...

  8. Sport and sudden death in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Makarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on contemporary views of the prevalence, causes, circumstances of sudden cardiac death, and its prevention measures in children and adolescents during sports activity. It notes a difficulty in defining the epidemiology of the above condition because the data are primarily based upon mass media news coverage. The incidence of sudden cardiac death is approximately 1 per 100,000 young athletes; more than 90% boys die. The sports, during which sudden cardiac death often occurs, include (both American and European football, basketball, and hockey. Sudden cardiac death due to cоmmоtio cordis (life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias resulting from a blow with a blunt instrument to the area of the heart during the vulnerable phase of the cardiac cycle is considered separately. Children who die suddenly during sports are frequently detected to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or myocarditis; but no changes are found in more than 50% of cases at autopsy, which is suggestive of primary arrhythmogenic death. The basis for prevention is the early detection of diseases that can cause sudden death during sports, regular examination, knowledge of ECG characteristics in athletes, and first aid techniques, including the use of automated external defibrillators.

  9. Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents (excluding Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in the young is rare. About 25% of cases occur during sports. Most young people with sudden cardiac death (SCD have underlying heart disease, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery anomalies being commonest in most series. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and long QT syndrome are the most common primary arrhythmic causes of SCD. It is estimated that early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and widespread availability of automatic external defibrillators could prevent about a quarter of pediatric sudden deaths.

  10. Investigation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in sudden hearing loss,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Oguzhan Kum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Several theories attempt to explain the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of inflammation and atherothrombosis in sudden hearing loss patients through the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume. METHODS: Study design - retrospective cross-sectional historical cohort. This study was conducted on two groups: one with 59 individuals diagnosed with sudden hearing loss, and other with 59 healthy individuals with the same characteristics of gender and age distribution, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume levels were measured in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss as well as in the control group, and it was verified whether these results interfered for a better or worse prognosis with treatment of sudden deafness. RESULTS: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio levels are much higher in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss compared to the control group. Similarly, mean levels of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are higher in non-recovered versus recovered patients (p = 0.001. However, we could not find a correlation with mean platelet volume levels (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a quick and reliable indicator regarding diagnosis and prognosis of sudden hearing loss; on the other hand, mean platelet volume may be considered a less important indicator in this aspect.

  11. Family income affects children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Chen

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG. A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children's prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children's altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed.

  12. Regulatory hotspots in the malaria parasite genome dictate transcriptional variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Gonzales

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites remain elusive. The presence of a well-characterized gene expression cascade shared by different Plasmodium falciparum strains could imply that transcriptional regulation and its natural variation do not contribute significantly to the evolution of parasite drug resistance. To clarify the role of transcriptional variation as a source of stain-specific diversity in the most deadly malaria species and to find genetic loci that dictate variations in gene expression, we examined genome-wide expression level polymorphisms (ELPs in a genetic cross between phenotypically distinct parasite clones. Significant variation in gene expression is observed through direct co-hybridizations of RNA from different P. falciparum clones. Nearly 18% of genes were regulated by a significant expression quantitative trait locus. The genetic determinants of most of these ELPs resided in hotspots that are physically distant from their targets. The most prominent regulatory locus, influencing 269 transcripts, coincided with a Chromosome 5 amplification event carrying the drug resistance gene, pfmdr1, and 13 other genes. Drug selection pressure in the Dd2 parental clone lineage led not only to a copy number change in the pfmdr1 gene but also to an increased copy number of putative neighboring regulatory factors that, in turn, broadly influence the transcriptional network. Previously unrecognized transcriptional variation, controlled by polymorphic regulatory genes and possibly master regulators within large copy number variants, contributes to sweeping phenotypic evolution in drug-resistant malaria parasites.

  13. Hypothesis: solid tumours behave as systemic metabolic dictators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Ming; Chang, Wei-Chun; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge regarding mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human beings centres around the accumulation of genetic instability, amplified cellular signalling, disturbed cellular energy metabolism and microenvironmental regulation governed by complicated cell-cell interactions. In this article, we provide an alternative view of cancer biology. We propose that cancer behaves as a systemic dictator that interacts with tissues throughout the body to control their metabolism and eventually homeostasis. The mechanism of development of this endocrine organ-like tumour (EOLT) tissue might be the driving force for cancer progression. Here, we review the literature that led to the development of this hypothesis. The EOLT phenotype can be defined as a tumour that alters systemic homeostasis. The literature indicates that the EOLT phenotype is present throughout cancer progression. The feedback mechanism that governs the interaction between tumours and various organs is unknown. We believe that investigating the mechanism of EOLT development may advance the current knowledge of regulation within the tumour macroenvironment and consequently lead to new diagnostic methods and therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. A peptide extension dictates IgM assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalic, Dzana; Weber, Benedikt; Giannone, Chiara; Anelli, Tiziana; Müller, Roger; Fagioli, Claudio; Felkl, Manuel; John, Christine; Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Becker, Christian F W; Sitia, Roberto; Buchner, Johannes

    2017-10-10

    Professional secretory cells can produce large amounts of high-quality complex molecules, including IgM antibodies. Owing to their multivalency, polymeric IgM antibodies provide an efficient first-line of defense against pathogens. To decipher the mechanisms of IgM assembly, we investigated its biosynthesis in living cells and faithfully reconstituted the underlying processes in vitro. We find that a conserved peptide extension at the C-terminal end of the IgM heavy (Ig-μ) chains, termed the tailpiece, is necessary and sufficient to establish the correct geometry. Alanine scanning revealed that hydrophobic amino acids in the first half of the tailpiece contain essential information for generating the correct topology. Assembly is triggered by the formation of a disulfide bond linking two tailpieces. This induces conformational changes in the tailpiece and the adjacent domain, which drive further polymerization. Thus, the biogenesis of large and topologically challenging IgM complexes is dictated by a local conformational switch in a peptide extension.

  15. Prevention of sudden cardiac death in young athletes: controversies and conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in young athletes are predicated on the assumption that: (1) these events reflect pre-existing, clinically silent heart disease, and (2) means for detecting these abnormalities on the pre-participation evaluation are both feasible and accurate. Recent controversy has surrounded both of these presumptions. Some evidence suggests that the myocardial hypertrophy accompanying sports training itself might serve as a substrate for fatal arrhythmias. As well, vigorous debate has arisen over the optimal content of the pre-participation evaluation, particularly regarding the inclusion of routine screening electrocardiograms. As the rarity of these fatal events does not lend itself to an experimental approach, such disagreements are not easily resolved. Consequently, it is expected that decisions regarding approaches to prevention of sudden death in athletes will be dictated largely by region-specific financial, political, and cultural factors. This chapter examines the aetiologies of sudden cardiac death in young athletes as well as the controversies surrounding the prevention of these tragedies. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Consistency and Stability of Italian Children's Spelling in Dictation versus Composition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate consistency in spelling skills across 2 different tasks of written production (dictation vs. composition) and stability of performance across 4 different grades. We assessed 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders' spelling performance through 4 tasks: 2 dictation tasks (passage and sentences) and 2 composition…

  17. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  18. Alloy Microstructure Dictates Corrosion Modes in THA Modular Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourzal, Robin; Hall, Deborah J; Ehrich, Jonas; McCarthy, Stephanie M; Mathew, Mathew T; Jacobs, Joshua J; Urban, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) triggered by corrosion products from modular taper junctions are a known cause of premature THA failure. CoCrMo devices are of particular concern because cobalt ions and chromium-orthophosphates were shown to be linked to ALTRs, even in metal-on-polyethylene THAs. The most common categories of CoCrMo alloy are cast and wrought alloy, which exhibit fundamental microstructural differences in terms of grain size and hard phases. The impact of implant alloy microstructure on the occurring modes of corrosion and subsequent metal ion release is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (1) the microstructure of cast CoCrMo alloy varies broadly between manufacturers and can dictate specific corrosion modes; and whether (2) the microstructure of wrought CoCrMo alloy is more consistent between manufacturers and has low implications on the alloy's corrosion behavior. The alloy microstructure of four femoral-stem and three femoral-head designs from four manufacturers was metallographically and electrochemically characterized. Three stem designs were made from cast alloy; all three head designs and one stem design were made from wrought alloy. Alloy samples were sectioned from retrieved components and then polished and etched to visualize grain structure and hard phases such as carbides (eg, M 23 C 6 ) or intermetallic phases (eg, σ phase). Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) tests were conducted to determine the corrosion potential (E corr ), corrosion current density (I corr ), and pitting potential (E pit ) for each alloy. Four devices were tested within each group, and each measurement was repeated three times to ensure repeatable results. Differences in PDP metrics between manufacturers and between alloys with different hard phase contents were compared using one-way analysis of variance and independent-sample t-tests. Microstructural features such as twin boundaries and slip bands as well as corrosion

  19. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG, (2) developed field-of-play-specific protocols for the recognition, response, resuscitation and removal of a football player having sudden cardiac arrest and (3) introduced and distributed the FIFA medical emergency bag which has already resulted in the successful resuscitation of a football player who had a sudden cardiac arrest on the field-of-play. Recently FIFA, in association with the Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine in Saarbrücken, Germany, established a worldwide Sudden Death Registry with a view to documenting fatal events on the football field-of-play. These activities by F-MARC are testimony to FIFA's continued commitment to minimising sudden cardiac arrest while playing football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

  1. Cardiac channelopathies and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...

  2. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  3. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  4. Sudden Oak Death - Eastern (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke; Steve Oak; Bruce Moltzan

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenon known as Sudden Oak Death was first reported in 1995 in central coastal California. Since then, tens of thousands of tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), and California black oaks (Quercus kelloggii) have been killed by a newly identified fungus, Phytophthora ramorum. On these hosts, the fungus causes a bleeding canker on...

  5. Sudden (reversible) sensorineural hearing loss in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, R

    2011-03-01

    Sudden hearing loss directly associated with pregnancy or birth is a little known and rare occurrence. The temporary, unilateral, low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in this case was reported after the birth of the patient\\'s first child, and again during the third trimester of her second pregnancy.

  6. Systemic Steroid Application Caused Sudden Death of a Patient with Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Ogino-Nishimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man, who was diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL, showed severe hypertension 10 hours after prednisolone administration. Subsequently, the patient suddenly died due to pulmonary edema. The autopsy indicated a pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland, and the cause of death was determined to be a pheochromocytoma crisis induced by systemic administration of prednisolone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life-threatening condition and can result from the use of corticosteroids. Physicians should consider the risk of a pheochromocytoma crisis due to systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  7. Improving the Dictation in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Using Computer Based Interventions: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Tehranidoost

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of computer games and computer-assisted type instruction on dictation scores of elementary school children with attention deficit – hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method: In this single-blind clinical trial, 37 elementary school children with ADHD, selected by convenience sampling and divided into group I (n=17 and group II (n=20, underwent eight one-hour sessions (3 sessions per week of intervention by computer games versus computer-assisted type instruction, respectively. 12 school dictation scores were considered: 4 scores preintervention, 4 scores during interventions, and 4 scores post-intervention. Dictation test was taken during each session. Data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA. Results: Two groups were matched for age, gender, school grade, medication, IQ, parent’s and teacher’s Conners’ scale scores, having computer at home, history of working with computer, and mean dictation scores. There was no significant difference in dictation scores before and after interventions and also between the study groups. The improvement in school dictation scores had no significant correlation with age, gender, Ritalin use, owning a computer at home and past history of computer work, baseline dictation scores, Ritalin dose, educational status, IQ, and the total score of parent’s and teacher’s Conners’ rating scale. Conclusion: Absence of significant improvement in dictation scores in study groups may be due to the confounding effect of other variables with known impact on dictation scores. Further studies in this field should also assess the change of attention and memory.

  8. Written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying: Different tasks, different pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Roux, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of cross-task comparisons of handwritten latencies in written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying. In three separate sessions, adults had to write down a list of concrete nouns from their corresponding pictures (written naming), from their spoken (spelling to dictation) and from their visual presentation (immediate copying). Linear mixed models without random slopes were performed on the latencies in order to study and compare within-task fixed effects. By-participants random slopes were then included to investigate individual differences within and across tasks. Overall, the findings suggest that written naming, spelling to dictation, and copying all involve a lexical pathway, but that written naming relies on this pathway more than the other two tasks do. Only spelling to dictation strongly involves a nonlexical pathway. Finally, the analyses performed at the level of participants indicate that, depending on the type of task, the slower participants are more or less influenced by certain psycholinguistic variables.

  9. A feeling of flow: exploring junior scientists' experiences with dictation of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanager, Lene; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-08-10

    Science involves publishing results, but many scientists do not master this. We introduced dictation as a method of producing a manuscript draft, participating in writing teams and attending a writing retreat to junior scientists in our department. This study aimed to explore the scientists' experiences with this process. Four focus group interviews were conducted and comprised all participating scientists (n = 14). Each transcript was transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two interviewers. The coding structure was discussed until consensus and from this the emergent themes were identified. Participants were 7 PhD students, 5 scholarship students and 2 clinical research nurses. Three main themes were identified: 'Preparing and then letting go' indicated that dictating worked best when properly prepared. 'The big dictation machine' described benefits of writing teams when junior scientists got feedback on both content and structure of their papers. 'Barriers to and drivers for participation' described flow-like states that participants experienced during the dictation. Motivation and a high level of preparation were pivotal to be able to dictate a full article in one day. The descriptions of flow-like states seemed analogous to the theoretical model of flow which is interesting, as flow is usually deemed a state reserved to skilled experts. Our findings suggest that other academic groups might benefit from using the concept including dictation of manuscripts to encourage participants' confidence in their writing skills.

  10. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Dass

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes.   Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, serial audiometric findings and course of disease were studied.   Results: Subjects presenting late (in older age, having associated vertigo, hypertension and diabetes had a significantly lower rate of recovery.   Conclusion:  Only 60–65% of patients experiencing SSNHL recover within a period of 1 month; this rate is further affected by presence of multiple prognostic indicators.

  11. Sudden viscous dissipation in compressing plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Compression of a turbulent plasma or fluid can cause amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the turnover and viscous dissipation times of the turbulent eddies. The consideration of compressing turbulent flows in inviscid fluids has been motivated by the suggestion that amplification of turbulent kinetic energy occurred on experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science Z-Pinch. We demonstrate a sudden viscous dissipation mechanism whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, which further increases the temperature, feeding back to further enhance the dissipation. Application of this mechanism in compression experiments may be advantageous, if the plasma can be kept comparatively cold during much of the compression, reducing radiation and conduction losses, until the plasma suddenly becomes hot. This work was supported by DOE through contract 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836) and by the DTRA.

  12. Classification of sudden and arrhythmic death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L; Elming, H

    1997-01-01

    was nearly abolished by the implantable defibrillator, indicating that arrhythmic death by this classification is meaningful, at least in the population studied. For future investigations, a call is made for committees to present data in a way that allows the reader to examine the quality of the data used......Since all death is (eventually) sudden and associated with cardiac arrhythmias, the concept of sudden death is only meaningful if it is unexpected, while arrhythmic death is only meaningful if life could have continued had the arrhythmia been prevented or treated. Current classifications of death...... or autopsy) are available in only a few percent of cases. A main problem in using classifications is the lack of validation data. This situation has, with the MADIT trial, changed in the case of the Thaler and Hinkle classification of arrhythmic death. The MADIT trial demonstrated that arrhythmic death...

  13. Cerebral Paragonimiasis Presenting with Sudden Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Deirdre E; Cowell, Annie; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W; Morhaime, Jacquelyn; Reed, Sharon L

    2016-12-07

    A 58-year-old Korean-born woman with a history of seizures and psychiatric issues was found dead at home. Autopsy was notable for large, calcified nodules that had nearly replaced her right temporal lobe. Histologic examination revealed the presence of Paragonimus eggs. This case demonstrates a rare manifestation of an aberrantly migrated lung fluke that resulted in epilepsy and sudden death years after the initial infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Sudden hearing loss after an explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Mohamad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old man presented with a sudden onset of bilateral hearing loss after a home-made firework exploded near the right side of his scalp. The hearing loss was associated with tinnitus. Examination revealed an area of skin loss on the right pinna. There was mild bleeding from the right pinna and scalp at the mastoid region, which spontaneously resolved. An otoscopic examination is shown in Figure 1.

  15. Sudden behavior change in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B

    2013-11-01

    A 5-year-old, spayed female, domestic short-haired cat had a 10-day history of sudden behavioral changes followed by seizures. Blood parameters were in the reference ranges, and radiographs failed to detect a mass lesion in the brain. Euthanasia was followed by rabies testing, which was negative. Gross lesions were absent. Histologic changes were present only in the brain and consisted of foci of hippocampal pyramidal cell loss, mild gliosis, pallor of the associated neuropil, and neovascularization.

  16. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrigan, M.T., E-mail: martinarrigan@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Killeen, R.P. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Dodd, J.D. [Department of Radiology, St Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-03-15

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  17. Primordial spectra from sudden turning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2013-12-01

    Effects of heavy fields on primordial spectra of curvature perturbations are discussed in inflationary models with a sudden turning trajectory. When heavy fields are excited after the sudden turn and oscillate around the bottom of the potential, the following two effects are generically induced: deformation of the inflationary background spacetime and conversion interactions between adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations, both of which can affect the primordial density perturbations. In this paper, we calculate primordial spectra in inflationary models with sudden turning potentials taking into account both of the two effects appropriately. We find that there are some non-trivial correlations between the two effects in the power spectrum and, as a consequence, the primordial scalar power spectrum has a peak around the scale exiting the horizon at the turn. Though both effects can induce parametric resonance amplifications, they are shown to be canceled out for the case with the canonical kinetic terms. The peak feature and the scale dependence of bispectra are also discussed.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging in sudden deafness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Hugo Valter Lisboa; Barros, Flavia Alencar; Penido, Norma de Oliveira; Souza, Ana Claudia Valerio de; Yamaoka, Wellington Yugo; Yamashita, Helio

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of sudden deafness can remain undetermined despite extensive investigation. This study addresses the value of magnetic resonance imaging in the analysis of sudden deafness patients.Study Design: transversal cohort.Material And Method: In a prospective study, 49 patients attended at otolaryngology emergency room of Federal University of Sao Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina, from April 2001 to May 2003, were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging.Results: Magnetic Resonance abnormalities were seen in 23 (46.9%) patients and revealed two tumors suggestive of meningioma, three vestibular schwannomas, thirteen microangiopathic changes of the brain and five (21.7%) pathological conditions of the labyrinth.Conclusion: Sudden deafness should be approached as a symptom common to different diseases. The presence of cerebellopontine angle tumors in 10.2% of our cases, among other treatable causes, justifies the recommendation of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance use, not only to study the auditory peripheral pathway, but to study the whole auditory pathway including the brain. (author)

  19. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arrigan, M T

    2012-02-01

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  20. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrigan, M.T.; Killeen, R.P.; Dodd, J.D.; Torreggiani, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  1. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-09-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation dose distributions due to sudden ejection of cobalt device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose during accident in a nuclear reactor is of great concern from the viewpoint of safety. One of important accident must be analyzed and may be occurred in open pool type reactor is the rejection of cobalt device. The study is evaluating the dose rate levels resulting from upset withdrawal of co device especially the radiation dose received by the operator in the control room. Study of indirect radiation exposure to the environment due to skyshine effect is also taken into consideration in order to evaluate the radiation dose levels around the reactor during the ejection trip. Microshield, SHLDUTIL, and MCSky codes were used in this study to calculate the radiation dose profiles during cobalt device ejection trip inside and outside the reactor building. - Highlights: • This study aims to calculate the dose rate profiles after cobalt device ejection from open-pool-type reactor core. • MicroShield code was used to evaluate the dose rates inside the reactor control room. • McSKY code was used to evaluate the dose rates outside the reactor building. • The calculated dose rates for workers are higher than the permissible limits after 18 s from device ejection.

  3. Outlining and dictating scientific manuscripts is a useful method for health researchers: A focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Young researchers may experience difficulties when writing scientific articles for publication in biomedical journals. Various methods may facilitate the writing process including outlining the paper before the actual writing and using dictation instead of writing the first draft. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences and difficulties for young, experienced researchers when writing articles using a detailed outline and dictation of the first draft. We used qualitative focus group interviews and the study was reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guideline. Participants were sampled from a group of researchers participating in a writing retreat/course. The interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and transcribed. The text was analyzed according to content analysis and coded and condensed into themes and subthemes. Groups of participants were added until data saturation was reached. A total of 14 researchers participated (9 women and 5 men). Their clinical experience was median (range) of 6 (1-11) years since graduation from medical school. Two themes arose during the analyses of the data: "Process guidance with the outline as the map" and "arrival at dictation." The outline was used in the preparation phase leading up to the day of dictation and was used in collaboration with co-authors and supervisors. The participants found it to be a useful tool for preparing the manuscript and dictating their initial first full draft. Experienced young researchers found beneficial effects of using a structured outline to prepare for dictation of scientific articles. The outline was a tool that would develop in close collaboration with co-authors and mentors. With dictation, a full first draft of a manuscript can be produced in a few hours. Participants positively evaluated this structured and reproducible way of producing scientific articles.

  4. GDH-Dependent Glutamate Oxidation in the Brain Dictates Peripheral Energy Substrate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karaca, Melis; Frigerio, Francesca; Migrenne, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    in a central energy-deprivation state with increased ADP/ATP ratios and phospho-AMPK in the hypothalamus. This induced changes in the autonomous nervous system balance, with increased sympathetic activity promoting hepatic glucose production and mobilization of substrates reshaping peripheral energy stores...... glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. Here, we investigated the significance of glutamate as energy substrate for the brain. Upon glutamate exposure, astrocytes generated ATP in a GDH-dependent way. The observed lack of glutamate oxidation in brain-specific GDH null CnsGlud1(-/-) mice resulted...

  5. Symptoms Before Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation......%), palpitations (n = 2, 1%), presyncope/syncope (n = 23, 17%), and aborted SCD (n = 2, 1%). In addition, seizures (n = 25, 18%) were prevalent. In 61 (45%) SADS cases, no previous medical history were recorded. CONCLUSION: In this unselected, nationwide study of 136 young SADS patients, 35% had experienced...

  6. Partner Selection and the Division of Surplus: Evidence from Ultimatum and Dictator Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyodorshi Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study ultimatum and dictator environments with one-way, unenforceable pre-play communication from the proposer to the recipient, semantically framed as a promise. After observing this promise regarding how much the proposer will offer if selected, in our treatment conditions, recipients choose whether or not to select a particular proposer. We find that offers can increase in the ultimatum game both with non-competitive selection with a single potential proposer, and more so with competition, where the recipient chooses one of two potential proposers, as compared to the no selection baseline. Furthermore, the offer is rejected with higher probability if the promisemade by the selected proposer is higher than the eventual offer. Our dictator environment does not give the power to reject offers, thus selection power carries no benefits in the dictator game. Finally, independent of the game institution or proposer selection mechanism, promises provide credible signals for offers.

  7. Otolaryngological aspects of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Cinamon, Udi; Castellanos, Paul F; Cohen, Marta C

    2012-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of an apparently otherwise healthy infant, typically during sleep, and with no obvious case after a thorough post-mortem and scene death examination. To address the problem from the otolaryngologist's perspective, describe relevant pathologies, discuss controversies and suggest preventive measures in high-risk populations. A MEDLINE search and hand search were conducted to identify reports published between 1969 and 2011 in the English language on the pathophysiology of SIDS related to the head and neck organs. Search terms included SIDS (MeSH term), SIDS and pathophysiology (text words), and SIDS and autopsy (text words). A growing number of reports suggested head and neck organs involvement in SIDS autopsies. Laryngeal, oropharyngeal, maxillofacial, otologic, cervical vascular abnormalities and infectious etiologies, were recognized and discussed. Otolaryngologists should be aware of relevant pathologies, as some are treatable, if identified early enough in infancy. A proactive risk-management approach is warranted in infants presenting with certain abnormalities reviewed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  9. Initial conditions and entanglement sudden death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Eberly, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We report results bearing on the behavior of non-local decoherence and its potential for being managed or even controlled. The decoherence process known as entanglement sudden death (ESD) can drive prepared entanglement to zero at the same time that local coherences and fidelity remain non-zero. For a generic ESD-susceptible Bell superposition state, we provide rules restricting the occurrence and timing of ESD, amounting to management tools over a continuous variation of initial conditions. These depend on only three parameters: initial purity, entanglement and excitation. Knowledge or control of initial phases is not needed. -- Highlights: ► We study the possibility of managing disentanglement through initial conditions. ► The initial parameters are the amount of entanglement, excitation, and purity. ► Entanglement sudden death (ESD) free and ESD susceptible phases are identified. ► ESD onset time is also presented in the ESD susceptible phase. ► Our results may guide experiments to prepare ESD free or delayed ESD states.

  10. Cardiovascular causes of maternal sudden death. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome is leading cause in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krexi, Dimitra; Sheppard, Mary N

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the causes of sudden cardiac death during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and patients' characteristics. There are few studies in the literature. Eighty cases of sudden unexpected death due to cardiac causes in relation to pregnancy and postpartum period in a database of 4678 patients were found and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The mean age was 30±7 years with a range from 16 to 43 years. About 30% were 35 years old or older; 50% of deaths occurred during pregnancy and 50% during the postpartum period. About 59.18% were obese or overweight where body mass index data were available. The leading causes of death were sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) (53.75%) and cardiomyopathies (13.80%). Other causes include dissection of aorta or its branches (8.75%), congenital heart disease (2.50%) and valvular disease (3.75%). This study highlights sudden cardiac death in pregnancy or in the postpartum period, which is mainly due to SADS with underlying channelopathies and cardiomyopathy. We wish to raise awareness of these frequently under-recognised entities in maternal deaths and the need of cardiological screening of the family as a result of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 4. Assessment Typologies Used Within the Discipline Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Dictation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duţică Luminiţa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is a distinct stage within the teaching process, aiming to measure the level of the knowledge, skills and competences acquired within a given time frame. The discipline Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Dictation involves a synthesis between the theoretical and the practical side of the matter, and, as a result, it uses specific assessment tools for each side. Modern assessment methods involve personalized systems based on the diversification of types of docimological tests, quizzes, practical tests, etc. In this study we will present a series of personal contributions referring to the contents specific to the discipline Theory, Solfeggio, Musical Dictation taught at university.

  12. Residual entanglement and sudden death: A direct connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.G.G. de; Peixoto de Faria, J.G.; Nemes, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the results of [V. Coffman, et al., Phys. Rev. A 61 (2000) 052306] derived for general tripartite states in a dynamical context. We study a class of physically motivated tripartite systems. We show that whenever entanglement sudden death occurs in one of the partitions residual entanglement will appear. For fourpartite systems however, the appearance of residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death of entanglement. We can only say that if sudden death of entanglement occurs in some partition there will certainly be residual entanglement. -- Highlights: ► For tripartite systems we show there exists residual entanglement if sudden death occurs. ► For fourpartite systems, the residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death. ► If sudden death of entanglement occurs there will certainly be residual entanglement.

  13. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman-Smith I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued

  14. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella Brugada, Georgia; Brugada Terradellas, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano Larrea, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, a...

  15. Good news is bad news: Leverage cycles and sudden stops

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Ozge; Chahrour, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    We show that a model with imperfectly forecastable changes in future productivity and an occasionally binding collateral constraint can match a set of stylized facts about “sudden stop” events. “Good” news about future productivity raises leverage during times of expansion, increasing the probability that the constraint binds, and a sudden stop occurs, in future periods. The economy exhibits a boom period in the run-up to the sudden stop, with output, consumption, and investment all above tre...

  16. Sudden cardiac death in adults: causes, incidence and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    Many nurses will be familiar with the unexpected death of an adult patient following a sudden, life-threatening cardiac event. It is a situation that demands sensitive nursing care and skilled interventions to provide a foundation for recovery and promote healthy bereavement. This article examines the causes and incidence of sudden cardiac death in adults. Possible reactions of those who are suddenly bereaved are described and immediate care interventions aimed at dealing with the grief process are discussed. The article concludes by identifying ways in which the incidence of sudden cardiac death may be reduced.

  17. Distillability Sudden Birth of Entanglement for Qutrit-Qutrit Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiang; Ali Mazhar

    2014-01-01

    We report the sudden appearance of distillability between two statistically independent reservoirs modelled as qutrit-qutrit systems. This feature of bipartite quantum systems is different from the previously observed phenomenon of entanglement sudden birth. It is found that the states of reservoirs first become bound entangled, thus exhibiting entanglement sudden birth, consequently followed by the sudden birth of distillability, and it is shown that whenever distillability is lost abruptly from principal system, it also necessarily appears abruptly among reservoirs' degrees of freedom. This surprising observation reflects yet another peculiarity of dynamical aspects of quantum entanglement

  18. Sudden cardiac death in the young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Michael; Atkins, Dianne L; Triedman, John K

    2016-01-01

    Although the occurrence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young person is a rare event, it is traumatic and often widely publicized. In recent years, SCD in this population has been increasingly seen as a public health and safety issue. This review presents current knowledge relevant to the epidemiology of SCD and to strategies for prevention, resuscitation and identification of those at greatest risk. Areas of active research and controversy include the development of best practices in screening, risk stratification approaches and post-mortem evaluation, and identification of modifiable barriers to providing better outcomes after resuscitation of young SCD victims. Institution of a national registry of SCD in the young will provide data that will help to answer these questions. PMID:26951821

  19. Melodic Dictation Instruction: A Survey of Advanced Placement Music Theory Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.; Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on relevant literature and recent qualitative findings, the purpose of this survey research was to identify pedagogical approaches to melodic dictation employed by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers across the United States. The researcher-designed survey questions focused on pitch and rhythm skills, instructional resources,…

  20. Written Spelling to Dictation: Sound-To-Spelling Regularity Affects Both Writing Latencies and Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Marie; Bonin, Patrick; Barry, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of sound-to-spelling regularity on written spelling latencies and writing durations in a dictation task in which participants had to write each target word 3 times in succession. The authors found that irregular words (i.e., those containing low-probability phoneme-to-grapheme mappings) were slower both to…

  1. Locus of Word Frequency Effects in Spelling to Dictation: Still at the Orthographic Level!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological…

  2. The Effect of the Tuning System and Instrument Variables on Modal Dictation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbatir, Rasim Erol; Çeliktas, Hatice; Engür, Doruk

    2018-01-01

    Ear training and musical literacy (ETML) education is one of the main dimensions of the bachelor degree program of music teacher education departments, which provides professional music education. In ETML education, hearing, sight-reading and dictation studies for Turkish music makams have an important place. In this study, it was aimed to…

  3. Locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Still at the orthographic level!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological neighborhood density were orally presented to adults who had to write them down. Following the additive factors logic (Sternberg, 1969, 2001), if word frequency in spelling to dictation influences a processing level, that is, the orthographic output level, different from that influenced by phonological neighborhood density, that is, spoken word recognition, the impact of the 2 factors should be additive. In contrast, their influence should be overadditive if they act at the same processing level in spelling to dictation, namely the spoken word recognition level. We found that both factors had a reliable influence on the spelling latencies but did not interact. This finding is in line with an orthographic output locus hypothesis of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Developing Students' Listening Metacognitive Strategies Using Online Videotext Self-Dictation-Generation Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2014-01-01

    The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG) learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote…

  5. The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry

  6. The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.; Zanden, van J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry

  7. Measuring Altruistic Behavior in Surveys: The All-or-Nothing Dictator Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Bekkers

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study of altruistic behaviour is presented using a modification of the dictator game in a large random sample survey in the netherlands (n=1,964. In line with laboratory experiments, only 5.7% donated money. In line with other survey research on giving, generosity increased with age, education, income, trust, and prosocial value orientation.

  8. The effect of $1, $5 and $10 stakes in an online dictator game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Mace, Ruth; Lamba, Shakti

    2013-01-01

    The decision rules underpinning human cooperative behaviour are often investigated under laboratory conditions using monetary incentives. A major concern with this approach is that stake size may bias subjects' decisions. This concern is particularly acute in online studies, where stakes are often far lower than those used in laboratory or field settings. We address this concern by conducting a Dictator Game using Amazon Mechanical Turk. In this two-player game, one player (the dictator) determines the division of an endowment between himself and the other player. We recruited subjects from India and the USA to play an online Dictator Game. Dictators received endowments of $1, $5 or $10. We collected two batches of data over two consecutive years. We found that players from India were less generous when playing with a $10 stake. By contrast, the effect of stake size among players from the USA was very small. This study indicates that the effects of stake size on decision making in economic games may vary across populations.

  9. The effect of $1, $5 and $10 stakes in an online dictator game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola J Raihani

    Full Text Available The decision rules underpinning human cooperative behaviour are often investigated under laboratory conditions using monetary incentives. A major concern with this approach is that stake size may bias subjects' decisions. This concern is particularly acute in online studies, where stakes are often far lower than those used in laboratory or field settings. We address this concern by conducting a Dictator Game using Amazon Mechanical Turk. In this two-player game, one player (the dictator determines the division of an endowment between himself and the other player. We recruited subjects from India and the USA to play an online Dictator Game. Dictators received endowments of $1, $5 or $10. We collected two batches of data over two consecutive years. We found that players from India were less generous when playing with a $10 stake. By contrast, the effect of stake size among players from the USA was very small. This study indicates that the effects of stake size on decision making in economic games may vary across populations.

  10. 18 Dictation as a Veritable Tool for Language Proficiency on Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Dictation is a valuable language teaching and learning device that has been used for centuries ... English language among the second learners of English language in a ... through effective study English by developing the language curriculum and ... language teachers need to be abreast with different methods of language.

  11. English-to-Japanese Translation vs. Dictation vs. Post-editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Aizawa, Akiko; Yamada, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    of text production. This paper introduces and evaluates a corpus of more than 55 hours of English-to-Japanese user activity data that were collected within the ENJA15 project, in which translators were observed while writing and speaking translations (translation dictation) and during machine translation...

  12. Allowing for Reflection Time does not Change Behavior in Dictator and Cheating Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Gneezy, Uri; Kajackaite, Agne

    2018-01-01

    Reaction time, usually measured in seconds, has been shown to be correlated with decisions in experimental games. In this paper, we study how allowing for a full day of “reflection time” alters behavior. We compare behavior in dictator and cheating games when participants make immediate choices...

  13. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krüger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective: The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods: Female participants (N=74 were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS. Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results: During treatment, only one participant (3% experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome.

  14. Sudden birth versus sudden death of entanglement for the extended Werner-like state in a dissipative environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan-Jia, Shan; Tao, Chen; Ji-Bing, Liu; Wei-Wen, Cheng; Tang-Kun, Liu; Yan-Xia, Huang; Hong, Li

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviour of entanglement in terms of concurrence in a bipartite system subjected to an external magnetic field under the action of dissipative environments in the extended Werner-like initial state. The interesting phenomenon of entanglement sudden death as well as sudden birth appears during the evolution process. We analyse in detail the effect of the purity of the initial entangled state of two qubits via Heisenberg XY interaction on the apparition time of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth. Furthermore, the conditions on the conversion of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth can be generalized when the initial entangled state is not pure. In particular, a critical purity of the initial mixed entangled state exists, above which entanglement sudden birth vanishes while entanglement sudden death appears. It is also noticed that stable entanglement, which is independent of different initial states of the qubits (pure or mixed state), occurs even in the presence of decoherence. These results arising from the combination of the extended Werner-like initial state and dissipative environments suggest an approach to control and enhance the entanglement even after purity induced sudden birth, death and revival. (general)

  15. SUDDEN NATURAL DEATHS IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES- AN AUTOPSY BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sreedevi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Death occurring in apparently healthy individual in a case of natural death may arise suspicion of foul play. In these circumstances these cases may be subjected to medicolegal autopsy. The disease condition may be unknown to the individual and the relatives. This study was done to review the exact cause of death in sudden unexpected deaths, and enabling or assisting the legal authorities in detection of crime, to prove or disprove the foul play. Body mass index is the most frequently used indicator of body fatness. An attempt is made to find out whether there is any significant relationship between BMI and the risk for sudden cardiac death. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data of 50 cases of sudden unexpected death brought for medicolegal autopsy at govt. T.D. medical college Alappuzha in the year 2010 were studied and information were collected from the postmortem records. Data was entered in the proforma. The histopathological examination findings of relevant cases were studied. Analysis was done using MS EXCEL and Chi-square test was used as the test of significance in the comparison between two categorical variables. RESULTS In 50 cases, male predominance was observed and 88% were males in which 50% of males died of atherosclerotic occlusive coronary artery disease and among females 33% died of myocardial infarction. While considering the systemic distribution of cause of death, the cardiovascular system was found to be most commonly affected, 33 cases (66% followed by respiratory system 7 cases (14%. In 4 (8% cases gastrointestinal system was affected. In Two cases (4% central nervous system was affected and others were generalized infection, which constituted 2 cases. Out of 33 cases observed in cardiovascular system the commonest cause being the atherosclerotic occlusive coronary artery diseases involving 27 cases (81.81% in which the predominant involvement was seen in left anterior descending artery 21 cases (77.77% followed by right

  16. Antipsychotics and the risk of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straus, S.M.J.M.; Bleumink, G.S.; Dieleman, J.P.; van der Lei, J.; 't Jong, G.W.; Kingma, J. Herre; Sturkenboom, M.C J M; Stricker, B.H C

    2004-01-01

    Background Antipsychotics have been associated with prolongation of the corrected QT interval and sudden cardiac death. Only a few epidemiological studies have investigated this association. We performed a case-control study to investigate the association between use of antipsychotics and sudden

  17. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  18. Limitations of the Dual-Process-Theory regarding the Writing of Words and Non-Words to Dictation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Trumpp, Christian; Lange, Klaus W.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the lexical and phonological systems are involved in writing to dictation. In an experiment concerned with the writing of words and non-words to dictation, the handwriting of female students was registered using a digitising tablet. The data contradict the assumption that the phonological system represents an alexical…

  19. Two dimensional numerical model for steam--water flow in a sudden contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.; Choi, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A computational model developed for two-dimensional dispersed two-phase flows is applied to steam--water flow in a sudden contraction. The calculational scheme utilizes the cellular approach in which each cell is regarded as a control volume and the droplets are regarded as sources of mass, momentum and energy to the conveying (steam) phase. The predictions show how droplets channel in the entry region and affect the velocity and pressure distributions along the duct

  20. Mobile phone usage does not affect sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, D; Migirov, L; Madgar, O; Nakache, G; Wolf, M; Shapira, Y

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies found that mobile phone users had a significantly greater risk of having elevated thresholds in speech frequencies. This study investigated the correlation between the laterality of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, handedness and the preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study included all patients who presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss to the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery in our tertiary referral medical centre between 2014 and 2016. Patients were asked to indicate their dominant hand and preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study comprised 160 patients. No correlation was found between the dominant hand or preferred ear for mobile phone use and the side of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. There was no correlation between the side of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (preferable or non-preferable for mobile phone use) and audiometric characteristics. No correlation was found between the laterality of ears used for mobile phone and sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  1. Structural imaging biomarkers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandschneider, Britta; Koepp, Matthias; Scott, Catherine; Micallef, Caroline; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria; Harper, Ronald M; Sander, Josemir W; Vos, Sjoerd B; Duncan, John S; Lhatoo, Samden; Diehl, Beate

    2015-10-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is a major cause of premature death in people with epilepsy. We aimed to assess whether structural changes potentially attributable to sudden death pathogenesis were present on magnetic resonance imaging in people who subsequently died of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. In a retrospective, voxel-based analysis of T1 volume scans, we compared grey matter volumes in 12 cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (two definite, 10 probable; eight males), acquired 2 years [median, interquartile range (IQR) 2.8] before death [median (IQR) age at scanning 33.5 (22) years], with 34 people at high risk [age 30.5 (12); 19 males], 19 at low risk [age 30 (7.5); 12 males] of sudden death, and 15 healthy controls [age 37 (16); seven males]. At-risk subjects were defined based on risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy identified in a recent combined risk factor analysis. We identified increased grey matter volume in the right anterior hippocampus/amygdala and parahippocampus in sudden death cases and people at high risk, when compared to those at low risk and controls. Compared to controls, posterior thalamic grey matter volume, an area mediating oxygen regulation, was reduced in cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and subjects at high risk. The extent of reduction correlated with disease duration in all subjects with epilepsy. Increased amygdalo-hippocampal grey matter volume with right-sided changes is consistent with histo-pathological findings reported in sudden infant death syndrome. We speculate that the right-sided predominance reflects asymmetric central influences on autonomic outflow, contributing to cardiac arrhythmia. Pulvinar damage may impair hypoxia regulation. The imaging findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and people at high risk may be useful as a biomarker for risk-stratification in future studies. The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of

  2. Sudden Death Following Exercise; a Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural and unexpected death that happens within less than one hour of first symptom occurrence is called sudden death. Cardiovascular diseases are the main known reason of sudden death and more than 75% of sudden deaths in athletes are assigned to it. Here we reported the autopsy results of all cases with sudden death following exercise that were referred to forensic center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this cross sectional study all subjects who were registered to forensic medicine center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014, as a case of sudden death following exercise were evaluated. Demographic data and medical history as well as autopsy and toxicology findings were retrospectively gathered using profiles of the deceased. Results were reported using descriptive analysis. Results: 14 cases were registered as sudden death following exercise in forensic medicine profiles during the study period. Exploring the files of the mentioned deceased, revealed five non-compatible cases in this regard. Finally, 9 eligible cases were enrolled (88.9% male. The mean age of the deceased was 28.66 ± 10.86 years (range: 7 – 40. Toxicological tests were available for 7 cases, one of which was positive for tramadol. Sudden death following football was reported most frequently (44.4%. Only 3 (33.3% cases had herald signs such as chest pain, syncope, or loss of consciousness. 1 case (11.11% had a positive history of sudden death in relatives. Conclusion: Although most sudden death victims are asymptomatic until the event, all those who suffer from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue and irregular heart rate during physical activities, should be screened regarding common probable causes of sudden death.

  3. Hearing Recovey in Patients Suffering Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Eslami

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The study included 80 patients treated for sudden deafness over the last 5-7 years. Case history, laboratory findings, pure-tone audiogram and electronystagmography (ENG findings were noted. If any abnormalities had been recorded in ENG studies, the studies were redone. ORL status was redefined and audiograms were obtained in all patients. When becoming ill, the 80 patients had not differed from the normal population in common cardiovascular risk factors. None of them had had signs of viral infection (paired serum samples had been taken at 2-week intervals; routine examinations had been done for common viral antigens. As many as 31 of the 80 patients with acute hearing loss had had abnormalities such as spontaneous nystagmus (PN, hypoexcitability (HE and directional preponderance (DP in the bithermal caloric tests (+44 degrees C, + 30 degrees C of their ENG studies. Twenty of the 31 patients still had abnormal ENG studies after 5-7 years. Only 1 subject had positional nystagmus, and none had subjective vertigo. Patients with an abnormal ENG study showed a poor recovery of the speech reception threshold, whereas those with a normal ENG study showed slightly significant (p less than 0.05 recovery.

  4. When Ignorance is Bliss - Information Asymmetries Enhance Prosocial Behavior in Dictator Games

    OpenAIRE

    Evguenia Winschel; Philipp Zahn

    2014-01-01

    In most laboratory experiments concerning prosocial behavior subjects are fully informed how their decision influences the payoff of other players. Outside the laboratory, however, individuals typically have to decide without such detailed knowledge. To assess the effect of information asymmetries on prosocial behavior, we conduct a laboratory experiment with a simple non-strategic interaction. A dictator has only limited knowledge about the benefits his prosocial action generates for a recip...

  5. The locus of word frequency effects in skilled spelling-to-dictation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Shi Min; Liow, Susan J Rickard

    2014-01-01

    In spelling-to-dictation tasks, skilled spellers consistently initiate spelling of high-frequency words faster than that of low-frequency words. Tainturier and Rapp's model of spelling shows three possible loci for this frequency effect: spoken word recognition, orthographic retrieval, and response execution of the first letter. Thus far, researchers have attributed the effect solely to orthographic retrieval without considering spoken word recognition or response execution. To investigate word frequency effects at each of these three loci, Experiment 1 involved a delayed spelling-to-dictation task and Experiment 2 involved a delayed/uncertain task. In Experiment 1, no frequency effect was found in the 1200-ms delayed condition, suggesting that response execution is not affected by word frequency. In Experiment 2, no frequency effect was found in the delayed/uncertain task that reflects the orthographic retrieval, whereas a frequency effect was found in the comparison immediate/uncertain task that reflects both spoken word recognition and orthographic retrieval. The results of this two-part study suggest that frequency effects in spoken word recognition play a substantial role in skilled spelling-to-dictation. Discrepancies between these findings and previous research, and the limitations of the present study, are discussed.

  6. Specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated style in indonesian speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista, C. B.; Satriawan, C. H.; Lestari, D. P.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    The performance of an automatic speech recognition system is affected by differences in speech style between the data the model is originally trained upon and incoming speech to be recognized. In this paper, the usage of GMM-HMM acoustic models for specific speech styles is investigated. We develop two systems for the experiments; the first employs a speech style classifier to predict the speech style of incoming speech, either spontaneous or dictated, then decodes this speech using an acoustic model specifically trained for that speech style. The second system uses both acoustic models to recognise incoming speech and decides upon a final result by calculating a confidence score of decoding. Results show that training specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated speech styles confers a slight recognition advantage as compared to a baseline model trained on a mixture of spontaneous and dictated training data. In addition, the speech style classifier approach of the first system produced slightly more accurate results than the confidence scoring employed in the second system.

  7. Alcohol, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupari, M; Koskinen, P

    1998-01-01

    Studies in experimental animals have shown varying and apparently opposite effects of alcohol on cardiac rhythm and conduction. Given acutely to non-alcoholic animals, ethanol may even have anti-arrhythmic properties whereas chronic administration clearly increases the animals' susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic heavy alcohol use has been incriminated in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias in humans. The evidence has come from clinical observations, retrospective case-control studies, controlled studies of consecutive admissions for arrhythmias, and prospective epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, electrophysiological studies have shown that acute alcohol administration facilitates the induction of tachyarrhythmias in selected heavy drinkers. The role of alcohol appears particularly conspicuous in idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Occasionally, ventricular tachyarrhythmias have also been provoked by alcohol intake. Several lines of evidence suggest that heavy drinking increases the risk of sudden cardiac death with fatal arrhythmia as the most likely mechanism. According to epidemiological studies this effect appears most prominent in middle-aged men and is only partly explained by confounding traits such as smoking and social class. The basic arrhythmogenic effects of alcohol are still insufficiently delineated. Subclinical heart muscle injury from chronic heavy use may be instrumental in producing patchy delays in conduction. The hyperadrenergic state of drinking and withdrawal may also contribute, as may electrolyte abnormalities, impaired vagal heart rate control, repolarization abnormalities with prolonged QT intervals and worsening of myocardial ischaemia or sleep apnoea. Most of what we know about alcohol and arrhythmias relates to heavy drinking. The effect of social drinking on clinical arrhythmias in non-alcoholic cardiac patients needs to be addressed further.

  8. Social phobia with sudden onset--post-panic social phobia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Overlap between social phobia (SP) and panic disorder (PD) has been observed in epidemiological, family, and challenge studies. One possible explanation is that some cases of SP develop as a consequence of a panic attack in a social situation. By definition, these cases of SP have sudden onset...... recruited as part of an etiological study. Patients with SP with sudden onset did, as hypothesized, differ from patients with SP without sudden onset with regard to age of onset and extraversion, but not with regard to symptoms. They did not differ markedly from patients with comorbid SP and PD. The concept...

  9. Numerical Investigation of magnetohydrodynamic flow through Sudden expansion pipes in Liquid Metal Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jingchao; He, Qingyun; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; Ye, Minyou

    2016-11-01

    In fusion liquid metal blanket, sudden expansions and sudden contractions are very common geometries. Changing of the cross-section causes 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, which will affect the flow pattern, current distribution and pressure drop. In this paper the numerical code based on OpenFOAM platform developed by University of Science and Technology of China was used to investigate and optimize the sudden expansion pipe. The code has been validated by the recommended benchmark cases including Shercliff, Hunt, ALEX experiments (rectangular duct and round pipe) and KIT experiment cases. The obtained numerical results agreed well with those of all the benchmark cases. Previous and valuable analytical and experimental works have been done by L. Buhler, et. el. Based on these works, in the present paper, further investigation of different expansion lengths between the upstream pipe and downstream pipe at high Hartmann number and Reynolds number were conducted. Besides, different expansion ratios with a specific expansion length were conducted. The numerical results showed that with the increasing of expansion length, the 3D MHD effects gradually weakened. Especially, the 3D pressure drop decreases with the increasing of expansion length. Whereas, the expansion ratio factor shows no obvious influences on the total MHD pressure drop but greatly influence the local pressure distribution. These numerical simulations can be used to evaluate the MHD flow inside the expansion and contraction pipes.

  10. The epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogen Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, DeCock & Man in't Veld), causal agent of Sudden Oak Death (SOD) of oaks (Quercus spp.) and tanoaks (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus...

  11. Immunization safety review: vaccinations and sudden unexpected death in infancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Immunization Safety Review Committee; Stratton, Kathleen R

    2003-01-01

    ...), and neonatal death (infant death, whether sudden or not, during the first 4 weeks of life). Based on this review, the committee concluded that the evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between some vaccines and SIDS...

  12. Geomagnetic response to sudden expansions of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tohru; Nagano, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The geomagnetic response to five successive sudden expansions of the magnetosphere was examined by the use of magnetic data observed on the ground and by satellites. At the geosynchronous orbit between 0800 and 1100 LT the magnetic field component parallel to Earth's rotation axis decreased successively. The amplitude and the fall time of each decrease were 20-30 nT and 2.5-3.5 min, respectively. The decrease was propagated about 10 min later to the distance of about 31 R E from Earth in the antisunward direction, indicating propagation speed of about 300 km/s. The H component of ground magnetograms from low-latitude stations showed decreases with waveform similar to that at the geosynchronous orbit, but each decrease at the dayside equator was greatly enhanced and preceded by a short small positive impulse. Each of the corresponding geomagnetic variations at high latitude stations consisted of two successive sharp pulses of opposite sense with 2-3 min duration. The dominant component and the sense of these high-latitude pulses were highly dependent upon local time and latitude. The distribution of equivalent ionospheric current arrows for each high-latitude pulse showed clear twin vortices centered at 70-76 degree geomagnetic latitude in the dayside and was approximately symmetric with respect to the noon meridian. The current direction of the vortices was reversed from the first pulse to the second. it suggests successive appearance of a dawn-to-dusk and then a dusk-to-dawn electric field, both of which were transmitted from the magnetosphere to the polar ionosphere. The effect of ionospheric currents due to these polar electric fields was superposed on the simple magnetic decrease produced by an expansion of the whole magnetosphere and produced the complex waveform distribution on the ground

  13. CAUSES OF SUDDEN NATURAL DEATH: A MEDICO-LEGAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    89 No. 10 October 2012 ... The age range of the cases was 19-105 years with a mean age ... majority of cases (39.3%), the cause of death was related to the cardio-vascular ... Six hundred and twenty six cases of sudden natural .... (39/60) and a mean age of 54.2±15years. ..... D. A population-based autopsy study of sudden,.

  14. Gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Ahmed, Saba; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Hussain, Syed Ather; Fatima, Huda; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal conditions are a less common cause of sudden unexpected death when compared to other conditions such as cardiovascular conditions, but they are equally important. Various congenital and acquired gastrointestinal conditions that have resulted in sudden unexpected death are discussed. The possible lethal mechanisms behind each condition, along with any associated risk factors or secondary diseases, have been described. Through this article, we aim to highlight the need for physicians to prevent death in such conditions by ensuring that subclinical cases are diagnosed correctly before it is too late and by providing timely and efficacious treatment to the patient concerned. In addition, this review would certainly benefit the forensic pathologist while dealing with cases of sudden unexpected death due to gastrointestinal causes. This article is a review of the major gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death. In addition, related fatal cases encountered occasionally in forensic autopsy practice are also included. There are several unusual and rare causes of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that may lead to sudden unexpected death to cover all the entities in detail. Nevertheless, this article is a general guide to the topic of gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death.

  15. Declining risk of sudden death in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Petrie, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorti......BACKGROUND The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta...... cardioverter-defibrillator at the time of trial enrollment were excluded. Weighted multivariable regression was used to examine trends in rates of sudden death over time. Adjusted hazard ratios for sudden death in each trial group were calculated with the use of Cox regression models. The cumulative incidence...... rates of sudden death were assessed at different time points after randomization and according to the length of time between the diagnosis of heart failure and randomization. RESULTS Sudden death was reported in 3583 patients. Such patients were older and were more often male, with an ischemic cause...

  16. Social evaluation-induced amylase elevation and economic decision-making in the dictator game in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki; Ikeda, Koki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2007-10-01

    Little is known regarding the relationship between social evaluation-induced neuroendocrine responses and generosity in game-theoretic situations. Previous studies demonstrated that reputation formation plays a pivotal role in prosocial behavior. This study aimed to examine the relationships between a social evaluation-induced salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response and generosity in the dictator game. The relationship is potentially important in neuroeconomics of altruism and game theory. We assessed sAA and allocated money in the dictator game in male students with and without social evaluation. RESULTS Social evaluation-responders allocated significantly more money than controls; while there was no significant correlation between social evaluation-induced sAA elevation and the allocated money. Social evaluation significantly increases generosity in the dictator game, and individual differences in trait characteristics such as altruism and reward sensitivity may be important determinants of generosity in the dictator game task.

  17. The neural basis for writing from dictation in the temporoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Réhault, Emilie; Planton, Samuel; Draper, Louisa; Démonet, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Cortical electrical stimulation mapping was used to study neural substrates of the function of writing in the temporoparietal cortex. We identified the sites involved in oral language (sentence reading and naming) and writing from dictation, in order to spare these areas during removal of brain tumours in 30 patients (23 in the left, and 7 in the right hemisphere). Electrostimulation of the cortex impaired writing ability in 62 restricted cortical areas (.25 cm2). These were found in left temporoparietal lobes and were mostly located along the superior temporal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 22 and 42). Stimulation of right temporoparietal lobes in right-handed patients produced no writing impairments. However there was a high variability of location between individuals. Stimulation resulted in combined symptoms (affecting oral language and writing) in fourteen patients, whereas in eight other patients, stimulation-induced pure agraphia symptoms with no oral language disturbance in twelve of the identified areas. Each detected area affected writing in a different way. We detected the various different stages of the auditory-to-motor pathway of writing from dictation: either through comprehension of the dictated sentences (word deafness areas), lexico-semantic retrieval, or phonologic processing. In group analysis, barycentres of all different types of writing interferences reveal a hierarchical functional organization along the superior temporal gyrus from initial word recognition to lexico-semantic and phonologic processes along the ventral and the dorsal comprehension pathways, supporting the previously described auditory-to-motor process. The left posterior Sylvian region supports different aspects of writing function that are extremely specialized and localized, sometimes being segregated in a way that could account for the occurrence of pure agraphia that has long-been described in cases of damage to this region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Symmetry-dictated trucation: Solutions of the spherical shell model for heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of dynamical symmetry are used to simplify the spherical shell model. The resulting symmetry-dictated truncation leads to dynamical symmetry solutions that are often in quantitative agreement with a variety of observables. Numerical calculations, including terms that break the dynamical symmetries, are shown that correspond to shell model calculations for heavy deformed nuclei. The effective residual interaction is simple, well-behaved, and can be determined from basic observables. With this approach, we intend to apply the shell model in systematic fashion to all nuclei. The implications for nuclear structure far from stability and for nuclear masses and other quantities of interest in astrophysics are discussed

  19. Modification of sudden onset auditory ERP by involuntary attention to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oray, Serkan; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dawson, Michael E

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the cross-modal nature of the exogenous attention system, we studied how involuntary attention in the visual modality affects ERPs elicited by sudden onset of events in the auditory modality. Relatively loud auditory white noise bursts were presented to subjects with random and long inter-trial intervals. The noise bursts were either presented alone, or paired with a visual stimulus with a visual to auditory onset asynchrony of 120 ms. In a third condition, the visual stimuli were shown alone. All three conditions, auditory alone, visual alone, and paired visual/auditory, were randomly inter-mixed and presented with equal probabilities. Subjects were instructed to fixate on a point in front of them without task instructions concerning either the auditory or visual stimuli. ERPs were recorded from 28 scalp sites throughout every experimental session. Compared to ERPs in the auditory alone condition, pairing the auditory noise bursts with the visual stimulus reduced the amplitude of the auditory N100 component at Cz by 40% and the auditory P200/P300 component at Cz by 25%. No significant topographical change was observed in the scalp distributions of the N100 and P200/P300. Our results suggest that involuntary attention to visual stimuli suppresses early sensory (N100) as well as late cognitive (P200/P300) processing of sudden auditory events. The activation of the exogenous attention system by sudden auditory onset can be modified by involuntary visual attention in a cross-model, passive prepulse inhibition paradigm.

  20. From Windfall Sharing to Property Ownership: Prosocial Personality Traits in Giving and Taking Dictator Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dictator game is a well-known task measuring prosocial preferences, in which one person divides a fixed amount of windfall money with a recipient. A key factor in real-world transfers of wealth is the concept of property ownership and consequently the related acts of giving and taking. Using a variation of the traditional dictator game (N = 256, we examined whether individual differences under different game frames corresponded with prosocial personality traits from the Big Five (politeness, compassion and HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience (honesty-humility, agreeableness models. In the Big Five model, the effects of prosocial personality traits were generally stronger and more consistent for taking than for giving, in line with a “do-no-harm” explanation, whereby prosocial individuals felt less entitled to and less willing to infringe on the endowments of others. In contrast, HEXACO honesty-humility predicted allocations across both frames, consistent with its broad association with fair-mindedness, and providing further evidence of its role in allocations of wealth more generally. These findings highlight the utility of integrating personality psychology with behavioral economics, in which the discriminant validity across prosocial traits can shed light on the distinct motivations underpinning social decisions.

  1. Proportion offered in the Dictator and Ultimatum Games decreases with amount and social distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Christopher; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Behavior in both the Dictator Game and the Ultimatum Game is of special interest because proposers often violate the predictions of normative economic theory: On average, offers in both games are higher than what would be considered income-maximizing. In the present study, the initial amount provided to the proposer and the social distance between the proposer and the respondent were both varied across a wide range, and the effects of these manipulations on offers in the Dictator Game and the Ultimatum Game were examined in a broad sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Although the amount offered was consistently higher in the Ultimatum Game, the proportion of the amount offered decreased as the size of the initial amount increased in both games. Moreover, the proportion offered also decreased as a function of the social distance between the proposer and the responder. The present results extend our knowledge of the determinants of proposers' behavior in two-person economic games and emphasize the importance of social distance and the amount of money at stake as factors that affect people's economic decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attentional strategic control over nonlexical and lexical processing in written spelling to dictation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Collay, Sandra; Fayol, Michel; Méot, Alain

    2005-01-01

    We conducted four experiments to investigate whether adults can exert attentional strategic control over nonlexical and lexical processing in written spelling to dictation. In Experiment 1, regular and irregular words were produced either in a nonword context (regular and irregular nonwords) or in a word context (high-frequency regular and irregular words), whereas in Experiment 2, the same set of words was produced either in a regular nonword or in an irregular low-frequency word context. Experiment 3 was a replication of Experiment 2 but with increased manipulation of the context. In Experiment 4, participants had to produce either under time pressure or in response to standard written spelling instructions. Regularity effects were found in all the experiments, but their size was not reliably affected by manipulations intended to increase or decrease reliance on nonlexical processing. More particularly, the results from Experiment 4 show that adults can speed up the initialization of their writing responses to a substantial degree without altering regularity effects on either latencies or spelling errors. Our findings suggest that, although adults are able to generate an internal deadline criterion of when to initialize the writing responses, nonlexical processing is a mandatory process that is not subject to attentional strategic control in written spelling to dictation.

  3. Kosovo, the beginning and end of the adventure of a dictator in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhavit Sadrijaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When desires are not based in reality, the result is the only one that can be expected from such desires. In such games winning is actually called losing. That also happened with the consuming desires of the late dictator in Europe, Milošević. The permanent Yugoslav president Tito, was known for his philosophy: “We decline what is not ours; ours we will relinquish not”. Although it was not like that, this philosophy had its success. It kept the morale of strength and the existence of a state of over 30 nations who lived in it and who remained steadfast and unbeaten throughout the Cold War. With Tito's death his country died too, altogether with the philosophy. The fact that it really was just philosophy was shown several years later, when in the absence of a successor to Tito, but also through new anticommunist movements in the world, the state collapsed becoming involved in war and chaos that was manifested by bloody tragedies of very large dimensions. Of course all this tragedy was preceded by Serbian chauvinist passions and desires which were planned for a century in all forms, and which were implemented by a dictator who also will remain in history as such, Slobodan Milošević and his clique. This executioner chose Kosovo as the most appropriate level for its establishment in the peaks of power and certainly had not imagined then that was also his end.

  4. Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Participation in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Cameron H; Allan, Katherine S; Connelly, Kim A; Cunningham, Kris; Morrison, Laurie J; Dorian, Paul

    2017-11-16

    The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes. In this retrospective study, we used the Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database (which contains records of every cardiac arrest attended by paramedics in the network region) to identify all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred from 2009 through 2014 in persons 12 to 45 years of age during participation in a sport. Cases were adjudicated as sudden cardiac arrest (i.e., having a cardiac cause) or as an event resulting from a noncardiac cause, on the basis of records from multiple sources, including ambulance call reports, autopsy reports, in-hospital data, and records of direct interviews with patients or family members. Over the course of 18.5 million person-years of observation, 74 sudden cardiac arrests occurred during participation in a sport; of these, 16 occurred during competitive sports and 58 occurred during noncompetitive sports. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during competitive sports was 0.76 cases per 100,000 athlete-years, with 43.8% of the athletes surviving until they were discharged from the hospital. Among the competitive athletes, two deaths were attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and none to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three cases of sudden cardiac arrest that occurred during participation in competitive sports were determined to have been potentially identifiable if the athletes had undergone preparticipation screening. In our study involving persons who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of sudden cardiac

  5. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads

    2015-01-01

    was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through.......3-2.3; OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.4; and OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5-7.4, respectively). The most common cause of SNCD was pulmonary disease (n = 115 [40%]). CONCLUSION: Sudden death among individuals aged caused by noncardiac diseases in 28% of cases. Risk factors were female sex, age, and the absence......BACKGROUND: On the performance of an autopsy, sudden deaths may be divided into 2 classifications: (1) sudden cardiac deaths and (2) sudden noncardiac deaths (SNCDs). Families of SNCD victims should not be followed up as a means of searching for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study...

  6. Major life events as potential triggers of sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, April F; Lumley, Thomas; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara; Strogatz, David S; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Siscovick, David S

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the risk of sudden cardiac arrest in association with the recent loss of, or separation from, a family member or friend. Our case-crossover study included 490 apparently healthy married residents of King County, Washington, who suffered sudden cardiac arrest between 1988 and 2005. We compared exposure to spouse-reported family/friend events occurring ≤ 1 month before sudden cardiac arrest with events occurring in the previous 5 months. We evaluated potential effect modification by habitual vigorous physical activity. Recent family/friend events were associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.4). ORs for cases with and without habitual vigorous physical activity were 1.1 (0.6-2.2) and 2.0 (1.2-3.1), respectively (interaction P = 0.02). These results suggest family/friend events may trigger sudden cardiac arrest and raise the hypothesis that habitual vigorous physical activity may lower susceptibility to these potential triggers.

  7. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  8. Sudden Death: An Uncommon Occurrence in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Joery P; Wilbers, Joyce; Aerts, Marjolein B; Leijten, Quinten H; van Dijk, Jan G; Esselink, Rianne A; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2016-01-01

    We present a 75-year-old woman with dementia and parkinsonism who developed severe orthostatic hypotension and eventually died. Autopsy revealed extensive Lewy body formation in the midbrain, limbic system, intermediate spinal cord, and medulla oblongata. Furthermore, a vast amount of Lewy bodies was seen in the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia which likely explained the severe autonomic failure. We speculate that this autonomic failure caused sudden death through dysregulation of respiration or heart rhythm, reminiscent of sudden death in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Clinicians should be aware of this complication in patients presenting with parkinsonism and autonomic dysfunction, and that sudden death may occur in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as it does in MSA.

  9. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Sondergaard, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe......Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause...... calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac...

  10. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Several drugs increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to investigate in detail the toxicological findings of all young SCD throughout Denmark. Methods and results: Deaths in persons aged 1-49 years were included over a 10-year period. Death...... certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved and read to identify cases of sudden death and establish cause of death. All medico-legal autopsied SCD were included and toxicological reports collected. Positive toxicology was defined as the presence of any substance (licit and/or illicit). All toxicological...... findings had previously been evaluated not to have caused the death (i.e. lethal concentrations were excluded). We identified 620 medico-legal autopsied cases of SCD, of which 77% (n = 477) were toxicologically investigated post-mortem, and 57% (n = 270) had a positive toxicology profile. Sudden cardiac...

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR CAUSES OF SUDDEN DEATH- AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Thankappan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Present study “Cardiovascular Causes of Sudden Death- An Autopsy Study” was a cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, during the time period from June 1 st 2013 to June 1 st 2014. The objective of the study was to find out the cardiovascular causes of sudden deaths and to correlate the postmortem findings with the histopathological examination. 57 cases brought for postmortem examination with history suggestive of sudden natural death were taken into the study and those cases observed to have a cardiovascular cause of sudden death during autopsy were further examined and their heart specimens were subjected to histopathological examination. Then, the sociodemographic factors, postmortem findings and histopathological findings were correlated and analysed. MATERIALS AND METHODS 57 cases brought for autopsy at Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam from 01.06.2013 to 31.05.2014 were autopsied and subjected to histopathological examination of the heart. The socio-demographic data were collected; they were analyzed and correlated with the postmortem and histopathological findings. RESULTS Out of the 57 subjects who were taken into the study, maximum number of Sudden natural deaths were in the 36-50 year age group (42.2%, 33.3% in the 51-65 year age group and 14% of cases were in the 66-80 year age group. CONCLUSION Histopathological examination of the samples showed myocardial infarction in 33.3% of cases; chronic ischaemic heart disease in 56.1% of cases and myocarditis in 19.3% of cases. The major cardiovascular cause of sudden death was ascertained as Coronary artery disease.

  12. Current state of the problem sudden infant death at home

    OpenAIRE

    Berlay Margarita Vasilievna; Kopylov Anatoliy Vasilievich; Karpov Sergey Mikhailovich

    2017-01-01

    The “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome” stands for unexpected nonviolent death of apparently healthy chest age child when there is no history or pathomorphological features which can be adequate explanations for death reasons. In Russian Federation, the death rate from this syndrome in the range of 0,06 to 2,8 per 1000 live births. In Stavropol region, average figures are equal to 0,36 per 1000 live births in the period of 2005–2014. Rates of incidence sudden infant death syndrome are similar to t...

  13. Sudden entanglement death, and ways to avoid it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, J.H.; Ting Yu

    2005-01-01

    We report that non-communicating but entangled qubit pairs are almost universally liable to sudden entanglement death. In the presence of minor and purely local environmental noises their mixed-state entanglement may abruptly become zero long before the noises are able to destroy the local qubit coherence. Despite the inability of unitary transformations to alter entanglement, for example of Werner states, unitary transformations have been found to delay or defeat the sudden death event. These results upset the conventional understanding that entanglement lifetime can be estimated from qubit lifetime. This is not even approximately or qualitatively true. (author)

  14. The Impact of Morphological Awareness on Word Reading and Dictation in Chinese Early Adolescent Readers With and Without Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalindi, Sylvia Chanda; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the role of morphological awareness in understanding Chinese word reading and dictation among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers in Hong Kong as well as the cognitive-linguistic profile of early adolescent readers with dyslexia. Fifty-four readers with dyslexia in Grades 5 and 6 were compared with 54 chronological age-matched (CA) typical readers on the following measures of cognitive-linguistic and literacy skills: morphological awareness, phonological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, vocabulary knowledge, verbal short-term memory (STM), Chinese word reading, and dictation (or spelling). The results indicated that early adolescent readers with dyslexia performed less well than the typical readers on all cognitive-linguistic and literacy measures except the phonological measures. Both groups' scores showed substantial correlations between morphological awareness and Chinese word reading and dictation. Visual-orthographic knowledge and rapid naming were also associated with dictation in early adolescent readers with and without dyslexia, respectively. Moderated multiple regression analyses further revealed that morphological awareness and rapid naming explained unique variance in word reading and dictation for the readers with dyslexia and typical readers separately after controlling readers' age and group effect. These results highlight the potential importance of morphological awareness and rapid naming in Chinese word reading and writing in Chinese early adolescents' literacy development and impairment.

  15. What dictates which ion, I- or Br-, mediates the growth of cubic Pd nanocrystals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Hong; Wu, Ya-Jiao; Xue, Huan-Huan; Zhou, Lin-Nan; Geng, Wen-Chao; Yi, Hai-Bo; Li, Yong-Jun

    2018-04-25

    Cubic Pd nanocrystals (CPNCs) as one of typical nanostructures are generally fabricated using I- or Br- as capping ions. However, which ion, I- or Br-, exclusively mediates the growth of CPNCs in a given reaction system is not well understood. Herein, regardless of I- or Br- as the capping ion, we successfully achieved CPNCs in the same reaction system simply by adjusting the pH. Based on the Finke-Watzky kinetic model, an increase in pH accelerates the overall reduction rate of Pd2+, and the formation of CPNCs only occurs over the range of specific solution reduction rate constants (k1). This kinetically illuminates that the reduction rate of Pd2+ is the physicochemical parameter that determines which ion, I- or Br-, dictates the growth of CPNCs. Also, density functional theory (DFT) calculations further elucidate the dependence of the reduction rate of Pd2+ on pH and the configuration of the activated Pd2+ complex.

  16. How cancer cells dictate their microenvironment: present roles of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2017-02-01

    Intercellular communication plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression through secretory molecules, including growth factors and cytokines. Recent advances have revealed that small membrane vesicles, termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), served as a regulatory agent in the intercellular communication of cancer. EVs enable the transfer of functional molecules, including proteins, mRNA and microRNAs (miRNAs), into recipient cells. Cancer cells utilize EVs to dictate the unique phenotype of surrounding cells, thereby promoting cancer progression. Against such "education" by cancer cells, non-tumoral cells suppress cancer initiation and progression via EVs. Therefore, researchers consider EVs to be important cues to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology. Understanding the functions of EVs in cancer progression is an important aspect of cancer biology that has not been previously elucidated. In this review, we summarize experimental data that indicate the pivotal roles of EVs in cancer progression.

  17. Cell Origin Dictates Programming of Resident versus Recruited Macrophages during Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, Kara J; Barthel, Lea; Mohning, Michael P; Thomas, Stacey M; McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Danhorn, Thomas; Leach, Sonia M; Fingerlin, Tasha E; O'Connor, Brian P; Reisz, Julie A; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Bratton, Donna L; Jakubzick, Claudia V; Janssen, William J

    2017-09-01

    Two populations of alveolar macrophages (AMs) coexist in the inflamed lung: resident AMs that arise during embryogenesis, and recruited AMs that originate postnatally from circulating monocytes. The objective of this study was to determine whether origin or environment dictates the transcriptional, metabolic, and functional programming of these two ontologically distinct populations over the time course of acute inflammation. RNA sequencing demonstrated marked transcriptional differences between resident and recruited AMs affecting three main areas: proliferation, inflammatory signaling, and metabolism. Functional assays and metabolomic studies confirmed these differences and demonstrated that resident AMs proliferate locally and are governed by increased tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acid metabolism. Conversely, recruited AMs produce inflammatory cytokines in association with increased glycolytic and arginine metabolism. Collectively, the data show that even though they coexist in the same environment, inflammatory macrophage subsets have distinct immunometabolic programs and perform specialized functions during inflammation that are associated with their cellular origin.

  18. The RNA polymerase dictates ORF1 requirement and timing of LINE and SINE retrotransposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily N Kroutter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile elements comprise close to one half of the mass of the human genome. Only LINE-1 (L1, an autonomous non-Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposon, and its non-autonomous partners-such as the retropseudogenes, SVA, and the SINE, Alu-are currently active human retroelements. Experimental evidence shows that Alu retrotransposition depends on L1 ORF2 protein, which has led to the presumption that LINEs and SINEs share the same basic insertional mechanism. Our data demonstrate clear differences in the time required to generate insertions between marked Alu and L1 elements. In our tissue culture system, the process of L1 insertion requires close to 48 hours. In contrast to the RNA pol II-driven L1, we find that pol III transcribed elements (Alu, the rodent SINE B2, and the 7SL, U6 and hY sequences can generate inserts within 24 hours or less. Our analyses demonstrate that the observed retrotransposition timing does not dictate insertion rate and is independent of the type of reporter cassette utilized. The additional time requirement by L1 cannot be directly attributed to differences in transcription, transcript length, splicing processes, ORF2 protein production, or the ability of functional ORF2p to reach the nucleus. However, the insertion rate of a marked Alu transcript drastically drops when driven by an RNA pol II promoter (CMV and the retrotransposition timing parallels that of L1. Furthermore, the "pol II Alu transcript" behaves like the processed pseudogenes in our retrotransposition assay, requiring supplementation with L1 ORF1p in addition to ORF2p. We postulate that the observed differences in retrotransposition kinetics of these elements are dictated by the type of RNA polymerase generating the transcript. We present a model that highlights the critical differences of LINE and SINE transcripts that likely define their retrotransposition timing.

  19. Local measurement and numerical calculation on turbulent two-phase flow in a vertical pipe with sudden expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Koichi; Yoshida, Kenji; Okawa, Tomio; Kataoka, Isao

    2004-01-01

    Experiment and numerical calculation were carried out for upward, turbulent bubbly two-phase flow in a vertical pipe with an axisymmetric sudden expansion, which is one of the typical multi-dimensional channel geometries. The void fraction, the liquid velocity and turbulent intensity along the flow direction below and the above the sudden expansion point were measured for various turbulent flow conditions by using a point-electrode resistivity probe and a hot-film anemometry probe. They showed quite complicated behaviors depending upon flow rates of gas and liquid phases and bubble size. In particular, the geometry of sudden expansion affected on the bubble behaviors in multi-dimensional two-phase flow, such as the bubble-stagnation, the bubble-deformation, the enhancement and suppression effects due to the two-phase turbulence etc. Through the measurements, fundamental parameters of the two-phase flow were clarified for the sudden expansion channel. Moreover, a three-dimensional one-way bubble tracking simulation of a single bubble behavior in turbulent flow field along the downstream of the sudden expansion was also demonstrated where equation of motion of bubble was solved by assuming appropriate constitutive models and turbulence model. Based on the trajectories of large number of bubbles, the void fraction distribution was predicted in this calculation. It concretely revealed that the lift force and the two-phase turbulence model were the most important parameters in determining the multi-dimensional void fraction distribution and the calculation should be considered by using the measured experimental data. (author)

  20. Writing to dictation and handwriting performance among Chinese children with dyslexia: relationships with orthographic knowledge and perceptual-motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Lai, Alice; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Chan, Alan H L; Lo, Amy G W

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between writing to dictation, handwriting, orthographic, and perceptual-motor skills among Chinese children with dyslexia. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 45 third graders with dyslexia were assessed. Results of stepwise multiple regression models showed that Chinese character naming was the only predictor associated with word dictation (β=.32); handwriting speed was related to deficits in rapid automatic naming (β=-.36) and saccadic efficiency (β=-.29), and visual-motor integration predicted both of the number of characters exceeded grid (β=-.41) and variability of character size (β=-.38). The findings provided support to a multi-stage working memory model of writing for explaining the possible underlying mechanism of writing to dictation and handwriting difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sudden oak death disease progression in oaks and tanoaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; N. Maggi Kelly; Richard B. Standiford

    2006-01-01

    In March 2000, we established twenty disease progression plots in Marin County to monitor the progress of sudden oak death symptoms in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. kelloggii), and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) (McPherson and others 2005). Plots were located to encompass a...

  2. Sudden death amongst people practicing competitive sports (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wrzesiński

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is and unexpected cardiac arrest that may occur both during exercise and also an hour after its completion. It most often occurs in young sportsmen under 35 years of age and is usually associated with improperly performed physical activity proceeded by lack of specialized medical examination and research. Natural and cardiac causes are two basic phenomena that lead to cardiac death. As confirmed by Framingham Heart Study, conducted in the eighties of the twentieth century on the population of Americans, natural causes accounted for 13% while cardiac causes accounted for 88% off all. The statistics of the largest centers of sport medicine are presented as follows: Germany – 1 death per 200,000 people practicing sports (total while United States of America – 1 death per 80,000 people per year. The problem of of sudden deaths is and important topic worthy of a broader and more specific analysis. It should be noted that physical exertion is not is not a direct cause of sudden deaths. Currently the most research concerns professional athletes who have extensive support and knowledge about the exercise they perform. The main problem concerning subject of sudden deaths are not diagnosed hearth defects. Additional topic of interest is rarity of medical tests performed by amateur athletes and athletes at the lower levels of competition. Such athletes do not  have as extensive knowledge as their experienced idols, which may bring tragic consequences.

  3. About a cocaine-associated sudden death casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, P; Teatino, A; La Marca, A; Barbaro, A

    2004-12-02

    A man 24-year-old died suddenly while he was doing shopping. It was supposed that the death was caused by ictus or by cardiac pathology. During the autopsy, some biological samples were taken (hair, urine, blood and lachrymal liquid) for the toxicological analysis and also the heart, some fragments from the liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys for the histo-pathological analysis.

  4. Vasculopathic Cranial Ocular Motor Neuropathy Following Sudden Emotional Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Purvin, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We describe three patients who experienced onset of a microvascular ocular motor nerve palsy in the setting of sudden emotional stress. Such emotional states are accompanied by a marked increase in sympathetic tone in some individuals. Mechanisms by which these autonomic changes might produce an ischemic cranial nerve palsy include intra-cranial vasoconstriction and transient systemic hypotension due to alterations in cardiac function.

  5. Circumvention of suddenly appearing obstacles in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly

  6. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, M.I.; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, W.; Szatmári, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. Case presentation: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  7. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  8. Picture quiz: a case of sudden severe chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Mustafa Abu; Sullivan, P; Stivaros, Stavros M

    2007-01-01

    An 18-year-old male with no previous medical history presented to hospital with sudden onset of acute epigastric pain radiating to the anterior chest wall and both shoulders. There was no history of recent trauma and he had not been vomiting.

  9. Relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and 'sudden cardiac death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, C.E.; Sundbom, L.; Lundholm, L.

    1989-01-01

    Coronary arteriosclerosis in mini-pigs was produced by combination of hypercholesterolemia and twofold X irradiation of the cardiac region. 15-21 weeks following irradiation 40% of the adult animals and 58% of the juvenils died of 'sudden cardiac death'. The mortality rate decreased significantly after application of the calcium-channel blocking agent nifedipine

  10. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I. [Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Messina (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  11. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I.

    1999-01-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  12. Sudden oak death effects on the dynamics of dead wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; Jo& atilde; o Filipe A.N.; Margaret R. Metz; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Sudden oak death has impacted forests notable for high-fire risk and contiguous host communities in California and Oregon coastal forest ecosystems. The disease continues to emerge in stands and landscapes with a large biomass of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook.&Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H.Oh), and we show that woody debris also...

  13. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, Cristina; Burke, Margaret; Fornes, Paul; Gallagher, Patrick J.; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; Sheppard, Mary; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard

    2010-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed, and the accurate diagnosis of

  14. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, C.; Burke, M.; Fornes, P.; Gallagher, P. J.; de Gouveia, R. H.; Sheppard, M.; Thiene, G.; van der Wal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed and the accurate diagnosis of

  15. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, Cristina; Burke, Margaret; Fornes, Paul; Gallagher, Patrick J.; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; Sheppard, Mary; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard

    2008-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed, and the accurate diagnosis of

  16. Solar flare effects and storm sudden commencement even in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-05-08

    Variations in the three components of geomagnetic field were observed at the twenty-two geomagnetic Euro-African Observatories during the solar flare that occurred on the 6 May, 1998 at 0080UT and storm sudden commencement that took place on May 8, 1998 at 15.00 UT. The geomagnetic field on 6 May, 1998 was ...

  17. Temporal epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson; Everett M. Hansen; Alan Kanaskie

    2015-01-01

    An effort to eradicate Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death, has been underway since its discovery in Oregon forests. Using an information-theoretical approach, we sought to model yearly variation in the size of newly infested areas and dispersal distance. Maximum dispersal distances were best modeled by spring and winter...

  18. Collaboratively managing sudden oak death using tangible geospatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Francesco Tonini; Douglas Shoemaker; Richard C. Cobb; Brendan A. Harmon; Vaclav Petras; Anna Petrasova; Helena Mitasova

    2017-01-01

    Failure to build consensus amongst stakeholders has been a primary obstacle barring progress in developing and implementing strategies to manage sudden oak death (SOD). Consensus as to the goals of in situ management of SOD has rarely been reached, because stakeholders’ visions of success vary widely and often compete with each other...

  19. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)--standardised investigations and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajanowski, Thomas; Vege, Ashild; Byard, Roger W

    2007-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) still accounts for considerable numbers of unexpected infant deaths in many countries. While numerous theories have been advanced to explain these events, it is increasingly clear that this group of infant deaths results from the complex interaction of a variet...

  20. Sudden cardiac death and acute pathology of coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dantzig, J. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of sudden cardiac death still is a matter of controversy, particularly with respect to the state of the coronary arteries. A recent study has shown a high incidence of acute lesions and suggests a causal relationship. The present study has been designed to verify whether or not acute

  1. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Cristina; Aguilera, Beatriz; Banner, Jytte

    2017-01-01

    diagnosis of the causes of SCD is now of particular importance. Pathologists are responsible for determining the precise cause and mechanism of sudden death but there is still considerable variation in the way in which they approach this increasingly complex task. The Association for European Cardiovascular...

  2. Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Bill Smith

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...

  3. Equatorial storm sudden commencements and interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison is made of the signatures of interplanetary (IP) shocks in the B and theta plots of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data of satellites Explorer 33, 34 and 35 and in the H magnetograms at ground observatories within the equatorial electrojet belt, Huancayo, Addis Ababa and Trivandrum associated with major storm sudden commencements during 1967-70. The IP shocks showing sudden increase of the scalar value of IMF, i.e. B without any change of the latitude theta or with the southward turning of theta, were followed by a purely positive sudden increase of H, at any of the magnetic observatories, either on the dayside or the nightside of the earth. The IP shocks identified by a sudden increase of B and with the northward turning of the latitude theta (positive ΔBsub(z)) were associated with purely positive sudden commencement (SC) at the observatories in the nightside, but at the equatorial observatories in the dayside of the earth the signature of the shock was a SC in H with a preliminary negative impulse followed by the main positive excursion (SC-+). It is suggested that the SCs in H at low latitudes are composed of two effects, viz. (i) one due to hydromagnetic pressure on the magnetosphere by the solar plasma and (ii) the other due to the induced electric field associated with the solar wind velocity, V and the Z-component of the IP magnetic field (E = - V x Bsub(z)). The effect of magnetosphere electric field is faster than the effect due to the compression of the magnetosphere by the impinging solar plasma. The negative impulse of SC-+ at low latitude is seen at stations close to the dip equator and only during daytime due to the existence of high ionospheric conductivities in the equatorial electrojet region. (author)

  4. A computer case definition for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Stein, C Michael; Hall, Kathi; Ray, Wayne A

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate studies of medications and sudden cardiac death, we developed and validated a computer case definition for these deaths. The study of community dwelling Tennessee Medicaid enrollees 30-74 years of age utilized a linked database with Medicaid inpatient/outpatient files, state death certificate files, and a state 'all-payers' hospital discharge file. The computerized case definition was developed from a retrospective cohort study of sudden cardiac deaths occurring between 1990 and 1993. Medical records for 926 potential cases had been adjudicated for this study to determine if they met the clinical definition for sudden cardiac death occurring in the community and were likely to be due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The computerized case definition included deaths with (1) no evidence of a terminal hospital admission/nursing home stay in any of the data sources; (2) an underlying cause of death code consistent with sudden cardiac death; and (3) no terminal procedures inconsistent with unresuscitated cardiac arrest. This definition was validated in an independent sample of 174 adjudicated deaths occurring between 1994 and 2005. The positive predictive value of the computer case definition was 86.0% in the development sample and 86.8% in the validation sample. The positive predictive value did not vary materially for deaths coded according to the ICO-9 (1994-1998, positive predictive value = 85.1%) or ICD-10 (1999-2005, 87.4%) systems. A computerized Medicaid database, linked with death certificate files and a state hospital discharge database, can be used for a computer case definition of sudden cardiac death. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The most common cause of sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact of exercise on cardiovascular health is well known. Athletes, who are constantly physically active, are considered to be the healthiest members of our society. That is why their sudden death, during the training or competition, attracts the attention of the general public. Rarely, tragic events of sudden cardiac death (SCD are the reason for questioning if by many positive there are also negative impact of physical exercise. The first case of SCD is recorded as far back as the year 490 BC, when the Greek soldier Pheidippides died after he conveyed news of the great victory of the Greeks over the Persians. Risk of SCD is recognized in the middle of the twentieth century. In our region, discussion about this issue began after the World Basketball Championship, which was held in Ljubljana in 1970, because of the sudden death of the national team member Trajko Rajkovic. One of the important goals of modern sports medicine is to reduce the risk of SCD in athletes to 'inevitable rarity'. Definition of SCD is considered to be any unexpected death due to sudden cardiac arrest. Pedo (Pedoe has divided all causes of SCD in the sport into three categories: Commotio cordis (agitation of the heart, which results from blunt impact to the athletes chest with consequent fatal disorder of heart rhythm; SCD of athletes under the age of 35 because of structural, congenital and inflammatory heart disease, which includes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as the most important cause of sudden cardiac death, congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, myocarditis and other; SCD of athletes older than 35 years which is most common due coronary artery disease - atherosclerosis (the dominant risk in the marathon and half-marathon. .

  6. To bend or not to bend – are heteroatom interactions within conjugated molecules effective in dictating conformation and planarity?

    KAUST Repository

    Conboy, Gary; Spencer, Howard J.; Angioni, Enrico; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L.; Findlay, Neil J.; Coles, Simon J.; Wilson, Claire; Pitak, Mateusz B.; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Skabara, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the roles of heteroatoms (mainly nitrogen, the halogens and the chalcogens) in dictating the conformation of linear conjugated molecules and polymers through non-covalent intramolecular interactions. Whilst hydrogen bonding is a competitive and sometimes more influential interaction, we provide unambiguous evidence that heteroatoms are able to determine the conformation of such materials with reasonable predictability.

  7. Anonymity versus privacy in the dictator game: revealing donor decisions to recipients does not substantially impact donor behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Winking

    Full Text Available Anonymity is often offered in economic experiments in order to eliminate observer effects and induce behavior that would be exhibited under private circumstances. However, anonymity differs from privacy in that interactants are only unaware of each others' identities, while having full knowledge of each others' actions. Such situations are rare outside the laboratory and anonymity might not meet the requirements of some participants to psychologically engage as if their actions were private. In order to explore the impact of a lack of privacy on prosocial behaviors, I expand on a study reported in Dana et al. (2006 in which recipients were left unaware of the Dictator Game and given donations as "bonuses" to their show-up fees for other tasks. In the current study, I explore whether differences between a private Dictator Game (sensu Dana et al. (2006 and a standard anonymous one are due to a desire by dictators to avoid shame or to pursue prestige. Participants of a Dictator Game were randomly assigned to one of four categories-one in which the recipient knew of (1 any donation by an anonymous donor (including zero donations, (2 nothing at all, (3 only zero donations, and (4 and only non-zero donations. The results suggest that a lack of privacy increases the shame that selfish-acting participants experience, but that removing such a cost has only minimal effects on actual behavior.

  8. Children's Sharing Behavior in Mini-Dictator Games: The Role of In-Group Favoritism and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi; Leslie, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the motivational and social-cognitive foundations (i.e., inequality aversion, in-group bias, and theory of mind) that underlie the development of sharing behavior among 3- to 9-year-old Chinese children (N = 122). Each child played two mini-dictator games against an in-group member (friend) and an out-group member…

  9. A positive effect of flowers rather than eye images in a large-scale, cross-cultural dictator game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-09-07

    People often consider how their behaviour will be viewed by others, and may cooperate to avoid gaining a bad reputation. Sensitivity to reputation may be elicited by subtle social cues of being watched: previous studies have shown that people behave more cooperatively when they see images of eyes rather than control images. Here, we tested whether eye images enhance cooperation in a dictator game, using the online labour market Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). In contrast to our predictions and the results of most previous studies, dictators gave away more money when they saw images of flowers rather than eye images. Donations in response to eye images were not significantly different to donations under control treatments. Dictator donations varied significantly across cultures but there was no systematic variation in responses to different image types across cultures. Unlike most previous studies, players interacting via AMT may feel truly anonymous when making decisions and, as such, may not respond to subtle social cues of being watched. Nevertheless, dictators gave away similar amounts as in previous studies, so anonymity did not erase helpfulness. We suggest that eye images might only promote cooperative behaviour in relatively public settings and that people may ignore these cues when they know their behaviour is truly anonymous.

  10. Effects of Dictation, Speech to Text, and Handwriting on the Written Composition of Elementary School English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcon, Nina; Klein, Perry D.; Dombroski, Jill D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both dictation and speech-to-text (STT) software can increase the quality of writing for native English speakers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of these modalities on the written composition and cognitive load of elementary school English language learners (ELLs). In a within-subjects…

  11. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budry, L.; Balsalobre, A.; Gauthier, Y.; Khetchoumian, K.; L'Honore, A.; Vallette-Kasic, S.; Brue, T; Figarella-Branger, D.; Meij, B.P.; Drouin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Genes Dev. 2012 Oct 15;26(20):2299-310. doi: 10.1101/gad.200436.112. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. Budry L, Balsalobre A, Gauthier Y, Khetchoumian K, L'honoré A, Vallette S, Brue T, Figarella-Branger D, Meij B,

  12. To bend or not to bend – are heteroatom interactions within conjugated molecules effective in dictating conformation and planarity?

    KAUST Repository

    Conboy, Gary

    2016-04-26

    We consider the roles of heteroatoms (mainly nitrogen, the halogens and the chalcogens) in dictating the conformation of linear conjugated molecules and polymers through non-covalent intramolecular interactions. Whilst hydrogen bonding is a competitive and sometimes more influential interaction, we provide unambiguous evidence that heteroatoms are able to determine the conformation of such materials with reasonable predictability.

  13. Effects of Dicto-Comp and Dictation on the Writing Skill of Female Adult Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Rahil; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    This study was an attempt to clarify and remind L2 learners/teachers of 2 kinds of writing: dicto-comp and dictation. We explored the effect of controlled writing on the accuracy of the writing of adult Iranian EFL learners. Prior to the study, the homogeneity of 30 adult EFL learners was checked through an OPT test. Thirty participants were…

  14. On the effects of a sudden change in the albedo of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Acquisition by the upper atmosphere of some 10 14 gm of cometary dust would have major implications on the Earth's climate. Pluvial activity would increase dramatically as temperature differences between sea and land widened. Global distribution of precipitation would be controlled by the density of the dust in the atmosphere; for a partially reflective blanket, a fraction of solar energy would still reach ground level creating new climate zones. The totally undecomposed state of the interiors of Siberian Mammoths and the curious distribution, often uphill, of erratic boulders point to unbelievably sudden and severe conditions at the onset and possibly end of a glacial period. It is suggested that a reflective blanket of particles could produce such conditions. (Auth.)

  15. Average features of cosmic ray variation associated with sudden commencement of magnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Masami; Suda, Tomoshige.

    1980-01-01

    In order to obtain average features of cosmic ray variation associated with a passage of shock front in space, superposed epoch analysis of cosmic ray intensity with respect to the time of occurrence of sudden commencement (SC) of magnetic storm during solar cycle 20, 1964 - 1975, is carried out for hundreds of SC. When SC's are distributed evenly over the day, the onset in cosmic ray decrease is seen clearly within one hour of SC, followed by a sharp decrease in the intensity, but without any precursory fluctuation. The magnitude distribution and the rigidity spectrum for maximum depression show the features of Forbush decrease (FD). Superposed epoch analysis is also applied to solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field data, and their relation to cosmic ray variation is studied. Effects of the superposition of the isotropic and anisotropic variations on the time profile of cosmic ray intensity observed at a station are discussed. (author)

  16. Clusters of sudden unexplained death associated with the mushroom, Trogia venenata, in rural Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Shi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the late 1970's, time-space clusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD in northwest Yunnan, China have alarmed the public and health authorities. From 2006-2009, we initiated enhanced surveillance for SUD to identify a cause, and we warned villagers to avoid eating unfamiliar mushrooms. METHODS: We established surveillance for SUD, defined as follows: sudden onset of serious, unexplained physical impairment followed by death in <24 hours. A mild case was onset of any illness in a member of the family or close socially related group of a SUD victim within 1 week of a SUD. We interviewed witnesses of SUD and mild case-persons to identify exposures to potentially toxic substances. We tested blood from mild cases, villagers, and for standard biochemical, enzyme, and electrolyte markers of disease. RESULTS: We identified 33 SUD, a 73% decline from 2002-2005, distributed among 21 villages of 11 counties. We found a previously undescribed mushroom, Trogia venenata, was eaten by 5 of 7 families with SUD clusters compared to 0 of 31 other control-families from the same villages. In T. venenata-exposed persons SUD was characterized by sudden loss of consciousness during normal activities. This mushroom grew nearby 75% of 61 villages that had time-space SUD clusters from 1975 to 2009 compared to 17% of 18 villages with only single SUD (p<0.001, Fisher's exact test. DISCUSSION: Epidemiologic data has implicated T. venenata as a probable cause of clusters of SUD in northwestern Yunnan Province. Warnings to villagers about eating this mushroom should continue.

  17. Dual emission behavior of phenyleneethynylene gold(I) complexes dictated by intersystem crossing: a theoretical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanxin; He, Hongqing; Zhang, Jinglai

    2015-02-25

    In commonly studied gold(I) complexes with oligo (o-, p-, or m-phenyleneethynylene) (PE) ligands, an intriguing photophysical behavior is dual emission composed of fluorescence from S1 and phosphorescence from T1 which is dictated by effective intersystem crossing (ISC) process. In order to explore the salient photodynamics of such oligo-PE gold(I) complexes effectively, we have deliberately chosen three model complexes, namely, Ph-C≡C-Au(PMe3) (1a') and Ph-C≡C-(1,m)C6H4-C≡C-Au(PMe3) (m=4, 2a'; m=3, 3a') in place of the real system. Firstly, electronic structure methods based on DFT and TD-DFT are utilized to perform optimization calculations for the ground- and lowest-lying excited states, respectively. Next, basic photophysical properties including absorption and emission spectra are investigated by TD-DFT under the optimized geometries. Besides, on the basis of the electronic spectra herein, we succeed in searching for surface intersections as the minima on the seam of singlet-triplet surface crossings (SCs) at the CASSCF level of theory. By integration of the results available, the process of delayed fluorescence of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) and phosphorescence was displayed in detail with SCs playing the lead in monitoring the ISC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinct Functional Domains of Ubc9 Dictate Cell Survival and Resistance to Genotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waardenburg, Robert C. A. M.; Duda, David M.; Lancaster, Cynthia S.; Schulman, Brenda A.; Bjornsti, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    Covalent modification with SUMO alters protein function, intracellular localization, or protein-protein interactions. Target recognition is determined, in part, by the SUMO E2 enzyme, Ubc9, while Siz/Pias E3 ligases may facilitate select interactions by acting as substrate adaptors. A yeast conditional Ubc9P123L mutant was viable at 36°C yet exhibited enhanced sensitivity to DNA damage. To define functional domains in Ubc9 that dictate cellular responses to genotoxic stress versus those necessary for cell viability, a 1.75-Å structure of yeast Ubc9 that demonstrated considerable conservation of backbone architecture with human Ubc9 was solved. Nevertheless, differences in side chain geometry/charge guided the design of human/yeast chimeras, where swapping domains implicated in (i) binding residues within substrates that flank canonical SUMOylation sites, (ii) interactions with the RanBP2 E3 ligase, and (iii) binding of the heterodimeric E1 and SUMO had distinct effects on cell growth and resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Our findings establish a functional interaction between N-terminal and substrate-binding domains of Ubc9 and distinguish the activities of E3 ligases Siz1 and Siz2 in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic stress. PMID:16782883

  19. Colon cancer stem cells dictate tumor growth and resist cell death by production of interleukin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, Matilde; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Di Stefano, Anna B; Cammareri, Patrizia; Vermeulen, Louis; Iovino, Flora; Tripodo, Claudio; Russo, Antonio; Gulotta, Gaspare; Medema, Jan Paul; Stassi, Giorgio

    2007-10-11

    A novel paradigm in tumor biology suggests that cancer growth is driven by stem-like cells within a tumor. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of such cells from colon carcinomas using the stem cell marker CD133 that accounts around 2% of the cells in human colon cancer. The CD133(+) cells grow in vitro as undifferentiated tumor spheroids, and they are both necessary and sufficient to initiate tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Xenografts resemble the original human tumor maintaining the rare subpopulation of tumorigenic CD133(+) cells. Further analysis revealed that the CD133(+) cells produce and utilize IL-4 to protect themselves from apoptosis. Consistently, treatment with IL-4Ralpha antagonist or anti-IL-4 neutralizing antibody strongly enhances the antitumor efficacy of standard chemotherapeutic drugs through selective sensitization of CD133(+) cells. Our data suggest that colon tumor growth is dictated by stem-like cells that are treatment resistant due to the autocrine production of IL-4.

  20. The interplay between sharing behavior and beliefs about others in children during dictator games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-García, Hernando; González-Gadea, María Luz; Di Tella, Rafael; Ibáñez, Agustín; Sigman, Mariano

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies in adults demonstrated that beliefs and sharing decisions in social scenarios are closely related. However, to date, little is known about the development of this relationship in children. By using a modified dictator game, we assessed sharing behavior and beliefs about others in children between 3 and 12 years old. We performed four studies (N = 376) aimed to assess whether decisions were related to beliefs (Studies 1 and 2) and whether information about the recipient's forced sharing behavior would shape decisions and beliefs (Studies 3 and 4). Results of Studies 1 and 2 showed that beliefs about others' generosity were related to children's sharing behavior. In Studies 3 and 4, we found that only children older than 9 years shared more pieces of candy when they knew that the recipient would be forced to share (cooperative context) than when they knew that the recipient would be forced not to share (noncooperative context). Besides, children older than 6 years did not modify their beliefs about others' generosity according to these social contexts. These results suggest that normative or preconceived beliefs about the functioning of the social world may guide social behavior in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Theory of Mind and General Intelligence in Dictator and Ultimatum Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Lang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing social sensitivity (i.e., the ability of a person to perceive, understand, and respect the feelings and viewpoints of others, has been shown to facilitate selfish behavior. This is not only true for exogenous changes in social sensitivity, but also for social sensitivity influenced by someone’s social cognition. In this analysis, we examined one measure of social cognition, namely a person’s Theory of Mind (ToM, to examine differences in decision-making in standard non-strategic and strategic environments (dictator and ultimatum games. We found that participants with higher ToM gave a greater share in the non-strategic environment. In the ultimatum game, however, ToM showed no correlation with the offers of the ultimators. Instead, we found that general intelligence scores—measured by the Wonderlic test—shared a negative, albeit weak, correlation with the amount offered in the ultimatum game. Thus, we find that lower social cognition is an important explanatory variable for selfish behavior in a non-strategic environment, while general intelligence shares some correlation in a strategic environment. Similar to the change in social sensitivity created by a specific game design, social sensitivity influenced by individual personality traits can influence behavior in non-strategic environments.

  2. Social dilemma cooperation (unlike Dictator Game giving) is intuitive for men as well as women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G

    2017-11-01

    Does intuition favor prosociality, or does prosocial behavior require deliberative self-control? The Social Heuristics Hypothesis (SHH) stipulates that intuition favors typically advantageous behavior - but which behavior is typically advantageous depends on both the individual and the context. For example, non-zero-sum cooperation (e.g. in social dilemmas like the Prisoner's Dilemma) typically pays off because of the opportunity for reciprocity. Conversely, reciprocity does not promote zero-sum cash transfers (e.g. in the Dictator Game, DG). Instead, DG giving can be long-run advantageous because of reputation concerns: social norms often require such behavior of women but not men. Thus, the SHH predicts that intuition will favor social dilemma cooperation regardless of gender, but only favor DG giving among women. Here I present meta-analytic evidence in support of this prediction. In 31 studies examining social dilemma cooperation (N=13,447), I find that promoting intuition increases cooperation to a similar extent for both men and women. This stands in contrast to the results from 22 DG studies (analyzed in Rand et al., 2016) where intuition promotes giving among women but not men. Furthermore, I show using meta-regression that the interaction between gender and intuition is significantly larger in the DG compared to the cooperation games. Thus, I find clear evidence that the role of intuition and deliberation varies across both setting and individual as predicted by the SHH.

  3. Developing students' listening metacognitive strategies using online videotext self-dictation-generation learning activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote metacognitive listening development. Two theories were used to guide the online video-SDG learning activity: a student question-generation method and a metacognitive listening training model in a second language (L2. The study investigated how college students in the online video-SDG activity enhanced the use of listening strategies by developing metacognitive listening skills. With emphasis on the metacognitive instructional process, students could promote their listening comprehension of advertisement videos (AVs. Forty-eight students were recruited to participate in the study. Through data collected from the online learning platform, questionnaires, a focus-group interview, and pre- and post- achievement tests, the results revealed that the online video-SDG learning activity could effectively engage students in reflecting upon their perceptions of specific problems countered, listening strategy usages, and strategic knowledge exploited in the metacognitive instructional process. The importance of employing cost-effective online video-SGD learning activities is worthy of consideration in developing students’ metacognitive listening knowledge for enhancing EFL listening strategy instruction.

  4. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome in western Canada: 93 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Marina L; Lucyshyn, Danica; Bauer, Bianca S; Grahn, Bruce H; Sandmeyer, Lynne S

    2017-11-01

    This study reviewed clinical data from dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in western Canada. Medical records from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 2002 to 2016 showed that 93 cases of SARDS were diagnosed based on presentation for sudden blindness and a bilaterally extinguished electroretinogram. The most common pure breeds were the miniature schnauzer, dachshund, and pug. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 years and males and females were equally affected. Most of the dogs were presented with normal non-chromatic, but abnormal chromatic pupillary light reflexes. The incidence of retinal degeneration as detected via ophthalmoscopy increased over time after SARDS diagnosis. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight gain, elevated liver enzyme values, isosthenuria, and proteinuria were common clinical and laboratory findings. Chromatic pupillary light reflex testing may be more valuable than non-chromatic pupillary light testing in detecting pupil response abnormalities in dogs with SARDS, although electroretinography remains the definitive diagnostic test.

  5. Cryotherapy does not affect peroneal reaction following sudden inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christine L; Hart, Joseph M; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Cross, Kevin M; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2007-11-01

    If ankle joint cryotherapy impairs the ability of the ankle musculature to counteract potentially injurious forces, the ankle is left vulnerable to injury. To compare peroneal reaction to sudden inversion following ankle joint cryotherapy. Repeated measures design with independent variables, treatment (cryotherapy and control), and time (baseline, immediately post treatment, 15 minutes post treatment, and 30 minutes post treatment). University research laboratory. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers. An ice bag was secured to the lateral ankle joint for 20 minutes. The onset and average root mean square amplitude of EMG activity in the peroneal muscles was calculated following the release of a trap door mechanism causing inversion. There was no statistically significant change from baseline for peroneal reaction time or average peroneal muscle activity at any post treatment time. Cryotherapy does not affect peroneal muscle reaction following sudden inversion perturbation.

  6. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths linked with trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Broi, Ugo; Colatutto, Antonio; Sala, Pierguido; Desinan, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Sudden deaths attributed to sniffing trichloroethylene are caused by the abuse of this solvent which produces pleasant inebriating effects with rapid dissipation. In the event of repeated cycles of inhalation, a dangerous and uncontrolled systemic accumulation of trichloroethylene may occur, followed by central nervous system depression, coma and lethal cardiorespiratory arrest. Sometimes death occurs outside the hospital environment, without medical intervention or witnesses and without specific necroscopic signs. Medico legal investigations into sudden sniffing deaths associated with trichloroethylene demand careful analysis of the death scene and related circumstances, a detailed understanding of the deceased's medical history and background of substance abuse and an accurate evaluation of all autopsy and laboratory data, with close cooperation between the judiciary, coroners and toxicologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome in western Canada: 93 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Marina L.; Lucyshyn, Danica; Bauer, Bianca S.; Grahn, Bruce H.; Sandmeyer, Lynne S.

    2017-01-01

    This study reviewed clinical data from dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in western Canada. Medical records from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 2002 to 2016 showed that 93 cases of SARDS were diagnosed based on presentation for sudden blindness and a bilaterally extinguished electroretinogram. The most common pure breeds were the miniature schnauzer, dachshund, and pug. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 years and males and females were equally affected. Most of the dogs were presented with normal non-chromatic, but abnormal chromatic pupillary light reflexes. The incidence of retinal degeneration as detected via ophthalmoscopy increased over time after SARDS diagnosis. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight gain, elevated liver enzyme values, isosthenuria, and proteinuria were common clinical and laboratory findings. Chromatic pupillary light reflex testing may be more valuable than non-chromatic pupillary light testing in detecting pupil response abnormalities in dogs with SARDS, although electroretinography remains the definitive diagnostic test. PMID:29089658

  8. Familial Atrial Septal Defect and Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina Gade; Johansen, Morten Munk; Bjerre, Jesper Vandborg

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second most common congenital heart defect (CHD) and is observed in families as an autosomal dominant trait as well as in nonfamilial CHD. Mutations in the NKX2-5 gene, located on chromosome 5, are associated with ASD, often combined with conduction...... disturbances, cardiomyopathies, complex CHD, and sudden cardiac death as well. Here, we show that NKX2-5 mutations primarily occur in ASD patients with conduction disturbances and heritable ASD. Furthermore, these families are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. RESULTS: We screened 39 probands...... with familial CHD for mutations in NKX2-5 and discovered a novel mutation in one family (2.5%) with ASD and atrioventricular block. A review of the literature revealed 59 different NKX2-5 mutations in 202 patients. Mutations were significantly more common in familial cases compared to nonfamilial cases (P = 7...

  9. Sudden infant death syndrome: an unrecognized killer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu IK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna Kingsley Ndu Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant <1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. SIDS contributes to infant mortality and resulted in ~15,000 deaths globally in 2013. Most of the risk factors of SIDS are common in developing countries; yet, there has been little interest in SIDS by researchers in Africa. This review looks at the extent of the attention given to SIDS in a developing country like Nigeria, and factors responsible for the scarce data concerning this significant cause of mortality. Keywords: SIDS, mortality, Nigeria

  10. Sickle cell trait and sudden death--bringing it home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    Sickle cell trait continues to be the leading cause of sudden death for young African Americans in military basic training and civilian organized sports. The syndrome may have caused the death of up to 10 college football players since 1974 and, as recently as 2000, was suspected as the cause of death of three U.S. Army recruits. The penal military-style boot camps in the United States and the recent death of two teenagers with sickle cell trait merits renewed vigor in the education of athletic instructors, the military and the public about conditions associated with sudden death in individuals with sickle cell trait. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17393956

  11. A vortex dynamics perspective on stratospheric sudden warmings

    OpenAIRE

    Matthewman, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    A vortex dynamics approach is used to study the underlying mechanisms leading to polar vortex breakdown during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs). Observational data are used in chapter 2 to construct climatologies of the Arctic polar vortex structure during vortex-splitting and vortex-displacement SSWs occurring between 1958 and 2002. During vortex-splitting SSWs, polar vortex breakdown is shown to be typically independent of height (barotropic), whereas breakdown during vor...

  12. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.G.; Bowman, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities P/sub n/1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=such thatub f/-n/sub i/ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison

  13. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Judith Grobe; Bowman, Joel M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities Pn1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=‖nf-ni‖ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison.

  14. Electromagnetic mode conversion: understanding waves that suddenly change their nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D B; Berry, L A; Bonoli, P T; Carter, M D; Choi, M; D'Azevedo, E; D'Ippolito, D A; Gorelenkov, N; Harvey, R W; Jaeger, E F; Myra, J R; Okuda, H; Phillips, C K; Smithe, D N; Wright, J C

    2005-01-01

    In a magnetized plasma, such as in fusion devices or the Earth's magnetosphere, several different kinds of waves can simultaneously exist, having very different physical properties. Under the right conditions one wave can quite suddenly convert to another type. Depending on the case, this can be either a great benefit or a problem for the use of waves to heat and control fusion plasmas. Understanding and accurately modeling such behavior is a major computational challenge

  15. Research on a Sudden Explosion and its Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Maosheng; Ma, Hui; Ni, Qingwei

    2017-12-01

    A sudden blast was chosen as the studied topic. Also, one computer based virtual experimentation was used to estimate the dimensional impact of initial pollutant plume from blasts. Self-made method using Mathcad code was used to generate the output for the period of the first tenth of a second (1deci-second) to 1minute (60s) of the blast at the point source. It also depicted long-range air pollution travel within the first 1 to 10 minutes. In the case study, it assumed an average directional diffusivity of 1720 m2s-1 which is about 25 per cent of the average generated speed of common explosives. The newly developed model revealed a plume cloud impact of 6.8×107µgm-3 in the first 1millisecond (0.01s) which decayed suddenly to a value of 1.7×107µgm-3 in the first 1decisecond (0.1s). The impact concentration at the point source by the end of the first second (1.0s) was 3.2×105µgm-3 which implied a 99.5% sudden decay when compared to 0.01s concentration value at the emission point source. Computerized experiments observed that air pollutants release from explosives/blasts were dispersed into the atmosphere in the first few seconds by forceful injection instead of by gradual dispersion as is the case with normal air pollutants plume releases.

  16. Sudden unexpected death due to Graves' disease during physical altercation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dengming; Yuan, Xiaogang; Yang, Tiantong; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Xiang; Burke, Allen; Fowler, David; Li, Ling

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who suddenly collapsed after having a physical altercation with her husband. Despite immediate resuscitation, she died on arrival at the hospital. The victim's parents requested an autopsy because they believed that their daughter was killed by her husband. Postmortem examination revealed that the victim had a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland and cardiomegaly with left ventricular hypertrophy. There was no evidence of significant trauma on the body. Further postmortem thyroid function tests and review of her medical history indicated that her death was due to Graves' disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmia from Graves' disease induced by physical and emotional stress associated with the criminal activity of another person. The autopsy findings are described. In addition, the literature is reviewed and the significance of postmortem evaluation of thyroid hormones in the cases of sudden death is discussed. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. [Idiopathic sudden deafness: a report of 96 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabanou, F; Bera, G; Vincent, C

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the management of idiopathic sudden deafness indicating the usefulness of biological assessments and the pronostic factors of hearing recovery. This is a retrospective study of 96 patients with idiopathic sudden deafness referred to a tertiary centre between 2005 and 2009 treated with corticosteroids intravenously at a daily dose of 1 mg/kg. Mean tonal thresholds were assessed (PTA = [500 Hz + 1000 Hz + 2000 Hz + 4000 Hz]/4). Each audiogram was classified as five classes according to its frequency profile. The hearing recovery is significant between D0-D5 and D5-M1 for the frequencies 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz. For 4 kHz, the recovery is significant between 0 and J5. There is no statistically significant correlation between the presence of associated signs (tinnitus, vertigo) and hearing recovery. Hearing recovery according to the five types of audiograms has the same evolution in the follow-up time but with audiograms type E (cophosis or subcophosis) often associated with an hyporeactivity at the videonystagmography. The presence of cardiovascular disease is a predictor of poor hearing recovery. The usefullness of systematic extensive blood tests is low. In sudden deafness, the maximum hearing recovery takes place in the month following the onset of symptoms. The predictors of poor hearing recovery are an initial mean threshold > 70 dB, the existence of an associated cardiovascular disease.

  18. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar

    2017-01-29

    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). This review focuses on cardiac channelopathies, which are characterized by lethal arrhythmias in the structurally normal heart, incomplete penetrance, and variable expressivity. Arrhythmias in these diseases result from pathogenic variants in genes encoding cardiac ion channels or associated proteins. Due to a lack of gross structural changes in the heart, channelopathies are often considered as potential causes of death in otherwise unexplained forensic autopsies. The asymptomatic nature of channelopathies is cause for concern in family members who may be carrying genetic risk factors, making the identification of these genetic factors of significant clinical importance.

  19. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting...... and referral bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide setting all deaths in children aged 1-18 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. To chart causes of death and incidence rates, death certificates and autopsy reports were collected and read. By additional use of the extensive healthcare registries...... in Denmark, we were also able to investigate prior disease and symptoms. During the 7-year study period there was an average of 1.11 million persons aged 1-18 years. There were a total of 1504 deaths (214 deaths per year) from 7.78 million person-years. A total of 114 (7.5%) were sudden and unexpected...

  20. Transient thermal stresses in circular cylinder under intermittently sudden heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Y.; Saito, K.; Takeuti, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal stresses associated with the transient temperature distribution arising in a circular cylinder under intermittently changing sudden heat generation over a finite band and with heat loss to a surrounding medium on the remainder of the cylinder surface are exactly analysed. For the first time the temperature field in a circular cylinder under sudden heat generation over a finite band of the cylinder surface is determined by combined use of Fourier cosine, Laplace transforms in axial position and time, respectively. Secondly it is assumed that the temperature fields in a circular cylinder subjected to heat generation Qsub(i) (i=0, 1, 2, ...) independently over a finite band are given by T 0 (r,z,t), T 1 (r,z,t), T 2 (r,z,t),... respectively. Tsub(i)(r,z,t) indicates the temperature field before the i-th heat generation Qsub(i). The thermal stresses associated with the temperature field described above are analysed by using the Hoyle stress functions. Numerical calculations are carried out for the extensive case of the ratio of the heat-generating length to the diameter of cylinder. It is found that the time in which the maximum stresses occur on the cylinder surface does not depend on the heat-generating length-to-diameter ratio

  1. Self-assembly of cationic multidomain peptide hydrogels: supramolecular nanostructure and rheological properties dictate antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linhai; Xu, Dawei; Sellati, Timothy J.; Dong, He

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would also protect the hydrogel itself from being adversely affected by microbial attachment to its surface. We have previously demonstrated the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of supramolecular assemblies of cationic multi-domain peptides (MDPs) in solution. Here, we extend the 1-D soluble supramolecular assembly to 3-D hydrogels to investigate the effect of the supramolecular nanostructure and its rheological properties on the antimicrobial activity of self-assembled hydrogels. Among designed MDPs, the bactericidal activity of peptide hydrogels was found to follow an opposite trend to that in solution. Improved antimicrobial activity of self-assembled peptide hydrogels is dictated by the combined effect of supramolecular surface chemistry and storage modulus of the bulk materials, rather than the ability of individual peptides/peptide assemblies to penetrate bacterial cell membrane as observed in solution. The structure-property-activity relationship developed through this study will provide important guidelines for designing biocompatible peptide hydrogels with built-in antimicrobial activity for various biomedical applications.Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would

  2. HIF-2α dictates the susceptibility of pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL by regulating survivin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, Nanae; Takenaga, Keizo; Akimoto, Miho; Harada, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells develop resistance to therapy by adapting to hypoxic microenvironments, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play crucial roles in this process. We investigated the roles of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in cancer cell death induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) using human pancreatic cancer cell lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, increased susceptibility of two pancreatic cancer cell lines, Panc-1 and AsPC-1, to TRAIL in vitro under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL was also observed in vivo. This in vitro increased TRAIL sensitivity was observed in other three pancreatic cancer cell lines. An array assay of apoptosis-related proteins showed that knockdown of HIF-2α decreased survivin expression. Additionally, survivin promoter activity was decreased in HIF-2α knockdown Panc-1 cells and HIF-2α bound to the hypoxia-responsive element in the survivin promoter region. Conversely, forced expression of the survivin gene in HIF-2α shRNA-expressing Panc-1 cells increased resistance to TRAIL. In a xenograft mouse model, the survivin suppressant YM155 sensitized Panc-1 cells to TRAIL. Collectively, our results indicate that HIF-2α dictates the susceptibility of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, Panc-1 and AsPC-1, to TRAIL by regulating survivin expression transcriptionally, and that survivin could be a promising target to augment the therapeutic efficacy of death receptor-targeting anti-cancer therapy. PMID:28476028

  3. Speech Recognition for Medical Dictation: Overview in Quebec and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Fisette, Jean-François; Déry, Véronique

    2018-04-03

    Speech recognition is increasingly used in medical reporting. The aim of this article is to identify in the literature the strengths and weaknesses of this technology, as well as barriers to and facilitators of its implementation. A systematic review of systematic reviews was performed using PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library and the Center for Reviews and Dissemination through August 2017. The gray literature has also been consulted. The quality of systematic reviews has been assessed with the AMSTAR checklist. The main inclusion criterion was use of speech recognition for medical reporting (front-end or back-end). A survey has also been conducted in Quebec, Canada, to identify the dissemination of this technology in this province, as well as the factors leading to the success or failure of its implementation. Five systematic reviews were identified. These reviews indicated a high level of heterogeneity across studies. The quality of the studies reported was generally poor. Speech recognition is not as accurate as human transcription, but it can dramatically reduce turnaround times for reporting. In front-end use, medical doctors need to spend more time on dictation and correction than required with human transcription. With speech recognition, major errors occur up to three times more frequently. In back-end use, a potential increase in productivity of transcriptionists was noted. In conclusion, speech recognition offers several advantages for medical reporting. However, these advantages are countered by an increased burden on medical doctors and by risks of additional errors in medical reports. It is also hard to identify for which medical specialties and which clinical activities the use of speech recognition will be the most beneficial.

  4. Transcription factor assisted loading and enhancer dynamics dictate the hepatic fasting response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Baek, Songjoon; Presman, Diego M.; Paakinaho, Ville; Swinstead, Erin E.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    Fasting elicits transcriptional programs in hepatocytes leading to glucose and ketone production. This transcriptional program is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs). To understand how this complex network regulates the metabolic response to fasting, we aimed at isolating the enhancers and TFs dictating it. Measuring chromatin accessibility revealed that fasting massively reorganizes liver chromatin, exposing numerous fasting-induced enhancers. By utilizing computational methods in combination with dissecting enhancer features and TF cistromes, we implicated four key TFs regulating the fasting response: glucocorticoid receptor (GR), cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB). These TFs regulate fuel production by two distinctly operating modules, each controlling a separate metabolic pathway. The gluconeogenic module operates through assisted loading, whereby GR doubles the number of sites occupied by CREB1 as well as enhances CREB1 binding intensity and increases accessibility of CREB1 binding sites. Importantly, this GR-assisted CREB1 binding was enhancer-selective and did not affect all CREB1-bound enhancers. Single-molecule tracking revealed that GR increases the number and DNA residence time of a portion of chromatin-bound CREB1 molecules. These events collectively result in rapid synergistic gene expression and higher hepatic glucose production. Conversely, the ketogenic module operates via a GR-induced TF cascade, whereby PPARA levels are increased following GR activation, facilitating gradual enhancer maturation next to PPARA target genes and delayed ketogenic gene expression. Our findings reveal a complex network of enhancers and TFs that dynamically cooperate to restore homeostasis upon fasting. PMID:28031249

  5. Role of plasma membrane surface charges in dictating the feasibility of membrane-nanoparticle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Receptor-ligand (R-L) binding mediated interactions between the plasma membrane (PM) and a nanoparticle (NP) require the ligand-functionalized NPs to come to a distance of separation (DOS) of at least dRL (length of the R-L complex) from the receptor-bearing membranes. In this letter, we establish that the membrane surface charges and the surrounding ionic environment dictate whether or not the attainment of such a critical DOS is possible. The negatively charged membrane invariably induces a negative electrostatic potential at the NP surface, repelling the NP from the membrane. This is countered by the attractive influences of the thermal fluctuations and van der Waals (vdw) interactions that drive the NP close to the membrane. For a NP approaching the membrane from a distance, the ratio of the repulsive (electrostatic) and attractive (thermal and vdW) effects balances at a critical NP-membrane DOS of dg,c. For a given set of parameters, there can be two possible values of dg,c, namely, dg,c,1 and dg,c,2 with dg,c,1 ≫ dg,c,2. We establish that any R-L mediated NP-membrane interaction is possible only if dRL > dg,c,1. Therefore, our study proposes a design criterion for engineering ligands for a NP that will ensure the appropriate length of the R-L complex in order to ensure the successful membrane-NP interaction in the presence of a given electrostatic environment. Finally, we discuss the manner in which our theory can help designing ligand-grafted NPs for targeted drug delivery, design biomimetics NPs, and also explain various experimental results.

  6. Cellular Microenvironment Dictates Androgen Production by Murine Fetal Leydig Cells in Primary Culture1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Colleen M.; Muszynski, Jessica L.; Strotman, Lindsay N.; Lewis, Samantha R.; O'Connell, Rachel L.; Beebe, David J.; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jorgensen, Joan S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the fact that fetal Leydig cells are recognized as the primary source of androgens in male embryos, the mechanisms by which steroidogenesis occurs within the developing testis remain unclear. A genetic approach was used to visualize and isolate fetal Leydig cells from remaining cells within developing mouse testes. Cyp11a1-Cre mice were bred to mT/mG dual reporter mice to target membrane-tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) within steroidogenic cells, whereas other cells expressed membrane-tagged tandem-dimer tomato red. Fetal Leydig cell identity was validated using double-labeled immunohistochemistry against GFP and the steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-HSD, and cells were successfully isolated as indicated by qPCR results from sorted cell populations. Because fetal Leydig cells must collaborate with neighboring cells to synthesize testosterone, we hypothesized that the fetal Leydig cell microenvironment defined their capacity for androgen production. Microfluidic culture devices were used to measure androstenedione and testosterone production of fetal Leydig cells that were cultured in cell-cell contact within a mixed population, were isolated but remained in medium contact via compartmentalized co-culture with other testicular cells, or were isolated and cultured alone. Results showed that fetal Leydig cells maintained their identity and steroidogenic activity for 3–5 days in primary culture. Microenvironment dictated proficiency of testosterone production. As expected, fetal Leydig cells produced androstenedione but not testosterone when cultured in isolation. More testosterone accumulated in medium from mixed cultures than from compartmentalized co-cultures initially; however, co-cultures maintained testosterone synthesis for a longer time. These data suggest that a combination of cell-cell contact and soluble factors constitute the ideal microenvironment for fetal Leydig cell activity in primary culture. PMID:25143354

  7. How sudden is a compelling desire to void? An observational cystometric study on the suddenness of this sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate whether a compelling desire to void (CDV) is always perceived suddenly, or whether it can result from the gradual build-up of bladder-filling sensations. The pattern of filling sensations was evaluated during standard cystometric bladder filling in 75 patients who complained of urgency and showed detrusor overactivity during cystometry. Cystometric filling ended when a CDV was reported. The 'warning volume' is defined as the difference in volume between the first perception of filling and the volume at CDV. Different patterns of bladder-filling sensations were reported. A CDV occurred suddenly, without a preceding sensation in 13% of the patients, whereas 66% reported at least two normal preceding filling sensations before a CDV. The bladder volume at the CDV was significantly smaller in patients that reported no or just one preceding sensation compared with those that reported the normal pattern of two or three sensations (P perception was reported was not different regardless of whether it was described as a first sensation of filling, a first desire or a CDV (P = 0.42). The warning volumes were not different between patients with one or no standardized filling sensations (P = 0.7), but they were significantly smaller than in patients with two or three filling sensations (P = 0.85). A CDV can occur suddenly if normal filling sensation is disturbed, but also gradually if normal filling sensation is preserved. In cases of disturbed filling sensation, the volume at CDV and the warning volume are significantly lower.

  8. A Comparison of the Incremental Difference between the Beginning and Ending Heart Rate When Shorthand Writers Are Informed and Not Informed of Speeds of Dictation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Patsy A.

    1980-01-01

    Forty female students were used to compare the incremental difference in heart rate of shorthand writers when they were informed and not informed of shorthand speeds prior to dictation. It was concluded that students' performances were enhanced by receiving instructions as to speed of dictation prior to the take. (Author/CT)

  9. Sudden gains in group cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A; Smith-Janik, Shannan B

    2008-11-01

    The current study investigates sudden gains (rapid symptom reduction) in group cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder. Sudden gains occurring after session 2 of treatment predicted overall symptom reduction at treatment termination and some changes in cognitive biases. Meanwhile, sudden gains occurring immediately following session 1 were not associated with symptom reduction or cognitive change. Together, this research points to the importance of examining sudden gains across the entire span of treatment, as well as the potential role of sudden gains in recovery from panic disorder.

  10. Extended sudden approximation model for high-energy nucleon removal reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstoiu, F.; Sauvan, E.; Orr, N.A. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Institut des Sciences de la Matiere et du Rayonnement, IN2P3-CNRS ISMRA, 14 (France); Carstoiu, F. [IFIN-HH, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Bonaccorso, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)

    2004-04-01

    A model based on the sudden approximation has been developed to describe high energy single nucleon removal reactions. Within this approach, which takes as its starting point the formalism of Hansen, the nucleon-removal cross section and the full 3-dimensional momentum distributions of the core fragments including absorption, diffraction, Coulomb and nuclear-Coulomb interference amplitudes, have been calculated. The Coulomb breakup has been treated to all orders for the dipole interaction. The model has been compared to experimental data for a range of light, neutron-rich psd-shell nuclei. Good agreement was found for both the inclusive cross sections and momentum distributions. In the case of {sup 17}C, comparison is also made with the results of calculations using the transfer-to-the-continuum model. The calculated 3-dimensional momentum distributions exhibit longitudinal and transverse momentum components that are strongly coupled by the reaction for s-wave states, whilst no such effect is apparent for d-waves. Incomplete detection of transverse momenta arising from limited experimental acceptances thus leads to a narrowing of the longitudinal distributions for nuclei with significant s-wave valence neutron configurations, as confirmed by the data. Asymmetries in the longitudinal momentum distributions attributed to diffractive dissociation are also explored. (authors)

  11. Extended sudden approximation model for high-energy nucleon removal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstoiu, F.; Sauvan, E.; Orr, N.A.; Carstoiu, F.; Bonaccorso, A.

    2004-04-01

    A model based on the sudden approximation has been developed to describe high energy single nucleon removal reactions. Within this approach, which takes as its starting point the formalism of Hansen, the nucleon-removal cross section and the full 3-dimensional momentum distributions of the core fragments including absorption, diffraction, Coulomb and nuclear-Coulomb interference amplitudes, have been calculated. The Coulomb breakup has been treated to all orders for the dipole interaction. The model has been compared to experimental data for a range of light, neutron-rich psd-shell nuclei. Good agreement was found for both the inclusive cross sections and momentum distributions. In the case of 17 C, comparison is also made with the results of calculations using the transfer-to-the-continuum model. The calculated 3-dimensional momentum distributions exhibit longitudinal and transverse momentum components that are strongly coupled by the reaction for s-wave states, whilst no such effect is apparent for d-waves. Incomplete detection of transverse momenta arising from limited experimental acceptances thus leads to a narrowing of the longitudinal distributions for nuclei with significant s-wave valence neutron configurations, as confirmed by the data. Asymmetries in the longitudinal momentum distributions attributed to diffractive dissociation are also explored. (authors)

  12. A Comparison of Distribution Free and Non-Distribution Free Factor Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Nicola L.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers recognize that factor analysis can be conducted on both correlation matrices and variance-covariance matrices. Although most researchers extract factors from non-distribution free or parametric methods, researchers can also extract factors from distribution free or non-parametric methods. The nature of the data dictates the method…

  13. Clinical Simulation and Workflow by use of two Clinical Information Systems, the Electronic Health Record and Digital Dictation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Jensen, Iben; Koldby, Sven

    2013-01-01

    digital dictation and the EHR (electronic health record) were simulated in realistic and controlled clinical environments. Useful information dealing with workflow and patient safety were obtained. The clinical simulation demonstrated that the EHR locks during use of the integration of digital dictation......Clinical information systems do not always support clinician workflows. An increasing number of unintended clinical inci-dents might be related to implementation of clinical infor-mation systems and to a new registration praxis of unin-tended clinical incidents. Evidence of performing clinical...... simulations before implementation of new clinical information systems provides the basis for use of this method. The intention has been to evaluate patient safety issues, functionality, workflow, and usefulness of a new solution before implementation in the hospitals. Use of a solution which integrates...

  14. The effect of amount and tangibility of endowment and certainty of recipients on selfishness in a modified dictator game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Chuan; Lin, Li-Yun; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Wang, Yau-De

    2014-06-01

    Taiwanese college students (N = 101) participated in the study to examine the effects of the amount of an endowment, the tangibility of an endowment, and the certainty of the recipient on selfishness in a modified dictator game. Results showed that dictators were more selfish when allocating tangible (money) than less tangible (honor credits) endowments. Selfishness was higher when large amounts of money were involved. The certainty of the recipient was manipulated by whether the recipient was chosen and announced before or after the decision. Unexpectedly, participants were more self-interested in the certain-recipient condition than in the uncertain-recipient condition. In the honor condition, the amount of an endowment and the certainty of the recipient did not affect participants' allocations.

  15. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  16. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge in several disciplines is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. A number of mathematical models of these phenomena have multiple equilibria separated by saddle-node bifurcations. We study this behaviour in its normal form as fast–slow ordinary differential equations. In our model, a system consists of multiple subsystems, such as countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem. Each subsystem is described by a scalar quantity, such as economic output or population, that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantity (e.g. trade couples economic output; diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves the locations of their bifurcations. The model demonstrates two ways in which sudden changes can propagate: they can cascade (one causing the next), or they can hop over subsystems. The latter is absent from classic models of cascades. For an application, we study the Arab Spring protests. After connecting the model to sociological theories that have bistability, we use socioeconomic data to estimate relative proximities to tipping points and Facebook data to estimate couplings among countries. We find that although protests tend to spread locally, they also seem to ‘hop' over countries, like in the stylized model; this result highlights a new class of temporal motifs in longitudinal network datasets. PMID:26559684

  17. Sarcomeric gene mutations in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Maria; Allegue, Catarina; Santori, Montserrat; Gil, Rocio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Haas, Cordula; Bartsch, Christine; Poster, Simone; Madea, Burkhard; Campuzano, Oscar; Brugada, Ramon; Carracedo, Angel

    2012-06-10

    In developed countries, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) represents the most prevalent cause of death in children between 1 month and 1 year of age. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion, a negative autopsy which requires the absence of structural organ disease. Although investigators have confirmed that a significant percentage of SIDS cases are actually channelopathies, no data have been made available as to whether other sudden cardiac death-associated diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), could be responsible for some cases of SIDS. The presence of a genetic mutation in the sarcomeric protein usually affects the force of contraction of the myocyte, whose weakness is compensated with progressive hypertrophy and disarray. However, it is unclear whether in the most incipient forms, that is, first years of life, the lack of these phenotypes still confers a risk of arrhythmogenesis. The main goal of the present study is to wonder whether genetic defects in the sarcomeric proteins, previously associated with HCM, could be responsible for SIDS. We have analysed 286 SIDS cases for the most common genes implicated in HCM in adults. A total of 680 mutations localised in 16 genes were analysed by semi-automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF-MS) using the Sequenom MassARRAY(®) System. Ten subjects with completely normal hearts showed mutated alleles at nine of the genetic variants analysed, and one additional novel mutation was detected by conventional sequencing. Therefore, a genetic mutation associated with HCM may cause sudden cardiac death in the absence of an identifiable phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coronary atherosclerosis in sudden cardiac death: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Considering the variations in racial, dietary and lifestyle patterns in our population, it is essential to study the biology of coronary atherosclerosis in our patients. Vulnerable plaques have a large number of foam cells, extracellular lipid, thin fibrous caps and clusters of inflammatory cells and are more prone to rupture. These plaques are nourished by the microvessels arising from the vasa vasorum of the blood vessels and by lumen-derived microvessels through the fibrous cap. This autopsy study was designed to analyse the coronary arterial tree in cases of sudden cardiac death, classify coronary atherosclerotic plaques and to assess the factors contributing to vulnerability of the plaques including inflammation, calcification and microvascular density. Materials and Methods: Seven cases of sudden cardiac death were included in the study. The hearts were perfusion-fixed and the coronary arteries along with their main branches were dissected and studied. The location of the plaques, type of plaques, presence of inflammation and calcification were assessed. The cap thickness and microvessel density per 1000um 2 were assessed. The statistical significance was estimated. Results and Conclusions: Extensive high-grade coronary atherosclerotic disease was seen in all sudden cardiac death cases. Majority of the plaques were vulnerable. High-grade inflammation was seen in most of the vulnerable and ruptured plaques. All the ruptured plaques were uncalcified indicating that calcification probably stabilizes the plaques and protects against rupture. Increased microvessel density was noted in ruptured plaques compared to vulnerable plaques. However, it was not statistically significant.

  19. Regulatory T cell suppressive potency dictates the balance between bacterial proliferation and clearance during persistent Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner M Johanns

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of persistent infection is dictated by the balance between opposing immune activation and suppression signals. Herein, virulent Salmonella was used to explore the role and potential importance of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells in dictating the natural progression of persistent bacterial infection. Two distinct phases of persistent Salmonella infection are identified. In the first 3-4 weeks after infection, progressively increasing bacterial burden was associated with delayed effector T cell activation. Reciprocally, at later time points after infection, reductions in bacterial burden were associated with robust effector T cell activation. Using Foxp3(GFP reporter mice for ex vivo isolation of regulatory T cells, we demonstrate that the dichotomy in infection tempo between early and late time points is directly paralleled by drastic changes in Foxp3(+ Treg suppressive potency. In complementary experiments using Foxp3(DTR mice, the significance of these shifts in Treg suppressive potency on infection outcome was verified by enumerating the relative impacts of regulatory T cell ablation on bacterial burden and effector T cell activation at early and late time points during persistent Salmonella infection. Moreover, Treg expression of CTLA-4 directly paralleled changes in suppressive potency, and the relative effects of Treg ablation could be largely recapitulated by CTLA-4 in vivo blockade. Together, these results demonstrate that dynamic regulation of Treg suppressive potency dictates the course of persistent bacterial infection.

  20. PHOX2B polyalanine repeat length is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and unclassified sudden infant death in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liebrechts-Akkerman (Germaine); F. Liu (Fan); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); A.H.A.G. Ooms (Ariadne ); K. van Duijn (Kate); M. Vermeulen (Mark); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); A.C. Engelberts (Adele); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractUnclassified sudden infant death (USID) is the sudden and unexpected death of an infant that remains unexplained after thorough case investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. When the infant is below 1

  1. The Role of Respiratory Infection in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mage David T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is not likely to be explained by a currently measureable presence in all cases and absence in controls, as otherwise it would have been solved already. Indeed, any proposed physiological model for SIDS causation must explain the constant mathematical and statistical properties of SIDS age and gender. We have shown previously that SIDS are characterized by a common 4-parameter lognormal age distribution sparing neonatal infants, by a nominal 50% male excess, and by a higher rate in winter than summer. We test now whether SIDS is closely related to a fulminating prodromal Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI by a common increasing rate with the infants increasing Live Birth Order (LBO, all remaining the same, independent of the change in preferred sleeping positions of the infants, prone or supine.

  2. Summer sudden Na number density enhancements measured with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present summer Na-densities and atmospheric temperatures measured 80 to 110 km above the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR. The Weber Na Lidar is part of ALOMAR, located at 69° N in Norway, 150 km north of the Arctic Circle. The sun does not set here during the summer months, and measurements require a narrowband Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Filter (FADOF.

    We discuss an observed sudden enhancement in the Na number density around 22:00 UT on 1 to 2 June 2006. We compare this observation with previous summer measurements and find a frequent appearance of Na number density enhancements near local midnight. We describe the time of appearance, the altitude distribution, the duration and the strength of these enhancements and compare them to winter observations. We investigate possible formation mechanisms and, as others before, we find a strong link between these Na number density enhancements and sporadic E layers.

  3. Summer sudden Na number density enhancements measured with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present summer Na-densities and atmospheric temperatures measured 80 to 110 km above the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR. The Weber Na Lidar is part of ALOMAR, located at 69° N in Norway, 150 km north of the Arctic Circle. The sun does not set here during the summer months, and measurements require a narrowband Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Filter (FADOF. We discuss an observed sudden enhancement in the Na number density around 22:00 UT on 1 to 2 June 2006. We compare this observation with previous summer measurements and find a frequent appearance of Na number density enhancements near local midnight. We describe the time of appearance, the altitude distribution, the duration and the strength of these enhancements and compare them to winter observations. We investigate possible formation mechanisms and, as others before, we find a strong link between these Na number density enhancements and sporadic E layers.

  4. The analysis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is defined in literature similarly as a sudden and unexpected death of an infant occurring during sleep and, at the same time, causes of which cannot be explained based on anamnesis, circumstances of death or comprehensive post-mortem examinations. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is considered to be the most frequent cause of death among infants in the developed countries. Incidence of SIDS in the whole world ranges from about 0.1 to 6.0/1,000 live births. As much as 90% concerns deaths in the first year of life of a child, whereas 70% stands for deaths for which the cause remains unknown. In SIDS, about 90% of cases concern children under 1 year old and, in particular, at the age of between 2 and 4 months. The aim: The aim of the study was to present the most significant aspects of SIDS as well as description and analysis of risk factors for occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome based on statistical data. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the study, the secondary data analysis and desk research technique have been applied. The analysis is based on statistical data from the time period 2009-2014 released by the Central Statistical Office of Poland. Results: In 2009-2014, the highest number of deaths of infants and new-borns was reported in 2009 with the number being as high as 2,327. In the following years, the number of deaths of new-borns and infants systematically decreased. In 2010 it was 2,057 and in 2011 – 1,836, in 2012 – 1,791, in 2013 – 1,684, and in 2014 – 1,583. The highest number of deaths of boys was reported in 2009 – 1,298, while the number of deaths of girls in that year, although it was the highest in the analysed period, was lower – 1,029. Conclusions: cases of death were more frequent among boys rather than girls. The highest number of deaths was reported among infants under the age of one month and the number decreased with an increasing infants’ age. More

  5. Nonlinear dynamics, fractals, cardiac physiology and sudden death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose a diametrically opposite viewpoint to the generally accepted tendency of equating healthy function with order and disease with chaos. With regard to the question of sudden cardiac death and chaos, it is suggested that certain features of dynamical chaos related to fractal structure and fractal dynamics may be important organizing principles in normal physiology and that certain pathologies, including ventricular fibrillation, represent a class of 'pathological periodicities'. Some laboratory work bearing on the relation of nonlinear analysis to physiological and pathophysiological data is briefly reviewed, with tentative theories and models described in reference to the mechanism of ventricular fibrillation.

  6. Evolution of IPv6 Internet topology with unusual sudden changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Zhao, Hai; Kathleen, M. Carley; Su, Zhan; Li, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The evolution of Internet topology is not always smooth but sometimes with unusual sudden changes. Consequently, identifying patterns of unusual topology evolution is critical for Internet topology modeling and simulation. We analyze IPv6 Internet topology evolution in IP-level graph to demonstrate how it changes in uncommon ways to restructure the Internet. After evaluating the changes of average degree, average path length, and some other metrics over time, we find that in the case of a large-scale growing the Internet becomes more robust; whereas in a top—bottom connection enhancement the Internet maintains its efficiency with links largely decreased.

  7. Two angle dependent reactive infinite order sudden approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinek, J.; Kouri, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The reactive infinite order sudden approximation is redeveloped in a manner in which the initial and final arrangement internal angles γ/sub lambda/ amd γ/sub ν/ enter as independent quantities. The analysis follows parallel to that due to Khare, Kouri, and Baer except that matching of the wave function from different arrangements is done in a manner such that no single γ/sub ν/ angle is associated with a particular γ/sub lambda/ angle. As a consequence, the matching surface parameter B/sub lambdanu/ does not occur

  8. Spinal epidermoid cyst with sudden onset of paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshi Anusheel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidermoid cysts, whether congenital or iatrogenic, are relatively uncommon in the spinal cord. When they occur, the typical location is in the subdural, extramedullary space of the lumbo-sacral region. We describe an unusual presentation in a 3-year-old male child which mimicked astrocytoma clinicoradiologically. The child developed sudden onset of inability in walking and weakness of both lower limbs after a fall. There was a dramatic reversal of symptoms after surgery. Histopathology revealed an epidermoid cyst of the spine. On the first follow-up visit at 3 months, the child was asymptomatic.

  9. Evolution of IPv6 Internet topology with unusual sudden changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Jun; Su Zhan; Li Hui; Zhao Hai; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of Internet topology is not always smooth but sometimes with unusual sudden changes. Consequently, identifying patterns of unusual topology evolution is critical for Internet topology modeling and simulation. We analyze IPv6 Internet topology evolution in IP-level graph to demonstrate how it changes in uncommon ways to restructure the Internet. After evaluating the changes of average degree, average path length, and some other metrics over time, we find that in the case of a large-scale growing the Internet becomes more robust; whereas in a top—bottom connection enhancement the Internet maintains its efficiency with links largely decreased

  10. [Hypertensive crisis and sudden change of vision in young patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Fernández, M S; Martín-Castillejos, C; Armario, P

    2016-01-01

    The sudden change in vision is a medical emergency that must be evaluated immediately to rule out important institutions as systemic vasculitis or ischemic stroke. Its association with hypertensive crisis makes it necessary to rule out accelerated-malignant hypertension, which is accompanied by other retinal disorders (exudates and hemorrhages) and adrenal involvement. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is another entity to consider, as is it not uncommon in the young (12.7% in a series of 848 cases). Its association with hypertension has been described in 32% of cases. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Sudden Relaminarization and Lifetimes in Forced Isotropic Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkmann, Moritz F; Morozov, Alexander

    2015-09-25

    We demonstrate an unexpected connection between isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence forced at large scales at moderate Reynolds numbers and observe sudden transitions from a chaotic dynamics to a spatially simple flow, analogous to the laminar state in wall bounded shear flows. We find that the survival probabilities of turbulence are exponential and the typical lifetimes increase superexponentially with the Reynolds number. Our results suggest that both isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows qualitatively share the same phase-space dynamics.

  12. Sudden death of a child due to respiratory diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Rajanikanta; Behera, Chittaranjan; Arava, Sudheer Kumar; Kundu, Naveen

    2016-06-01

    A four-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with respiratory distress. Death occurred despite attempted resuscitation. The illness was not clinically diagnosed. Her father revealed that she had a fever and sore throat for the last four days and was not immunised for diphtheria. Characteristic gross and microscopic pathology of respiratory diphtheria and microbiological findings were observed. The cause of death was acute respiratory failure consequent upon upper airway obstruction from diphtheria. Forensic pathologists should remember that the diphtheria cases can cause sudden death especially in developing countries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Unusual causes of sudden anuria in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abutaleb, N.; Hamza, A.; Younis, S.; Adem, M.; Obaideen, A.; Zakaria, M.; El-Jubab, A.

    2007-01-01

    Sudden unexplained anuria in renal transplant patients could well be secondary to occult internal hemorrhage rather than the usual vascular thrombotic or obstructive event, even in the completely stable patient. Urgent intervention in such bleeding states can save patient's life and graft function. Graft survival is very exceptional in graft artery or vein thrombosis. Contrary to hemorrhagic events, life is usually not threatened by thrombotic events involving the renal graft vasculature. We present here three unfortunate cases that shared the problem of unexpected anuria due to a hemorrhagic event in apparently stable renal transplant patients. (author)

  14. Causes and prevention of sudden cardiac death in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Patricia; Albert, Christine M

    2013-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of mortality in elderly individuals owing to a high prevalence of coronary heart disease, systolic dysfunction, and congestive heart failure (CHF). Although the incidence of SCD increases with age, the proportion of cardiac deaths that are sudden decreases owing to high numbers of other cardiac causes of death in elderly individuals. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy has been demonstrated to improve survival and prevent SCD in selected patients with systolic dysfunction and CHF. However, ICD therapy in elderly patients might not be effective because of a greater rate of pulseless electrical activity underlying SCD and other competing nonarrhythmic causes of death in this population. Although under-represented in randomized trials of ICD use, elderly patients comprise a substantial proportion of the population that qualifies for and receives an ICD for primary prevention under current guidelines. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), which has been demonstrated to reduce mortality in selected populations with heart failure, is also more commonly used in this group of patients than in younger individuals. In this Review, we examine the causes of SCD in elderly individuals, and discuss the existing evidence for effectiveness of ICD therapy and CRT in this growing population.

  15. Exact scattering solutions in an energy sudden (ES) representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, B.; Eno, L.; Rabitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, we lay down the theoretical foundations for computing exact scattering wave functions in a reference frame which moves in unison with the system internal coordinates. In this frame the (internal) coordinates appear to be fixed and its adoption leads very naturally (in zeroth order) to the energy sudden (ES) approximation [and the related infinite order sudden (IOS) method]. For this reason we call the new representation for describing the exact dynamics of a many channel scattering problem, the ES representation. Exact scattering solutions are derived in both time dependent and time independent frameworks for the representation and many interesting results in these frames are established. It is shown, e.g., that in a time dependent frame the usual Schroedinger propagator factorizes into internal Hamiltonian, ES, and energy correcting propagators. We also show that in a time independent frame the full Green's functions can be similarly factorized. Another important feature of the new representation is that it forms a firm foundation for seeking corrections to the ES approximation. Thus, for example, the singularity which arises in conventional perturbative expansions of the full Green's functions (with the ES Green's function as the zeroth order solution) is avoided in the ES representation. Finally, a number of both time independent and time dependent ES correction schemes are suggested

  16. Sudden visual loss after cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vitis, Luigi A; Marchese, Alessandro; Giuffrè, Chiara; Carnevali, Adriano; Querques, Lea; Tomasso, Livia; Baldin, Giovanni; Maestranzi, Gisella; Lattanzio, Rosangela; Querques, Giuseppe; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-03-10

    To report a case of sudden decrease in visual acuity possibly due to a cardiogenic embolism in a patient who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation. A 62-year-old man with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a left bundle branch block was referred to our department because of a sudden decrease in visual acuity. Nine days earlier, he had undergone cardiac transapical implantation of a CRT device, which was followed, 2 days later, by an inflammatory reaction. The patient underwent several general and ophthalmologic examinations, including multimodal imaging. At presentation, right eye (RE) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was counting fingers and RE pupil was hyporeactive. Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhagic dots suggestive of Roth spots. Fluorescein angiography showed delay in vascular perfusion during early stage, late hyperfluorescence of the macula and optic disk, and peripheral perivascular leakage. The first visual field test showed complete loss of vision RE and a normal left eye. Due to suspected giant cell arteritis, temporal artery biopsy was performed. Thirty minutes after the procedure, an ischemic stroke with right hemisyndrome and aphasia occurred. The RE BCVA worsened to hands motion. Four months later, RE BCVA did not improve, despite improvement in fluorescein angiography inflammatory sign. We report a possible cardiogenic embolism secondary to undiagnosed infective endocarditis causing monocular visual loss after CRT device implantation. It remains unclear how the embolus caused severe functional damage without altering the retinal anatomical structure.

  17. Transformation priming helps to disambiguate sudden changes of sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Braun, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    Retinal input is riddled with abrupt transients due to self-motion, changes in illumination, object-motion, etc. Our visual system must correctly interpret each of these changes to keep visual perception consistent and sensitive. This poses an enormous challenge, as many transients are highly ambiguous in that they are consistent with many alternative physical transformations. Here we investigated inter-trial effects in three situations with sudden and ambiguous transients, each presenting two alternative appearances (rotation-reversing structure-from-motion, polarity-reversing shape-from-shading, and streaming-bouncing object collisions). In every situation, we observed priming of transformations as the outcome perceived in earlier trials tended to repeat in subsequent trials and this repetition was contingent on perceptual experience. The observed priming was specific to transformations and did not originate in priming of perceptual states preceding a transient. Moreover, transformation priming was independent of attention and specific to low level stimulus attributes. In summary, we show how "transformation priors" and experience-driven updating of such priors helps to disambiguate sudden changes of sensory inputs. We discuss how dynamic transformation priors can be instantiated as "transition energies" in an "energy landscape" model of the visual perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phenotype-driven molecular autopsy for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, F; Corbett, M; O'Sullivan, D; Tennant, S; Hailey, H; Grieve, J H K; Broadhurst, P; Rankin, R; Dean, J C S

    2017-01-01

    A phenotype-driven approach to molecular autopsy based in a multidisciplinary team comprising clinical and laboratory genetics, forensic medicine and cardiology is described. Over a 13 year period, molecular autopsy was undertaken in 96 sudden cardiac death cases. A total of 46 cases aged 1-40 years had normal hearts and suspected arrhythmic death. Seven (15%) had likely pathogenic variants in ion channelopathy genes [KCNQ1 (1), KCNH2 (4), SCN5A (1), RyR2(1)]. Fifty cases aged between 2 and 67 had a cardiomyopathy. Twenty-five had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), 10 dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 15 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Likely pathogenic variants were found in three ARVC cases (12%) in PKP2, DSC2 or DSP, two DCM cases (20%) in MYH7, and four HCM cases (27%) in MYBPC3 (3) or MYH7 (1). Uptake of cascade screening in relatives was higher when a molecular diagnosis was made at autopsy. In three families, variants previously published as pathogenic were detected, but clinical investigation revealed no abnormalities in carrier relatives. With a conservative approach to defining pathogenicity of sequence variants incorporating family phenotype information and population genomic data, a molecular diagnosis was made in 15% of sudden arrhythmic deaths and 18% of cardiomyopathy deaths. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sudden cardiac death with triple pathologies: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Razuin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in young adults may be associated with rare cardiomyopathies such as left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC and arrhythmogenic right ventricular (ARVC cardiomyopathies. LVNC is characterised by hypertrabeculations and deep recesses of the left ventricle. ARVC presents with thin myocardium as a result of extensive fibro-fatty infiltrations. In both conditions, death may be due to arrhythmia, thromboembolic events or heart failure. We report a case of a 21-year old athletic young man who collapsed at the futsal court right after the game. He was resuscitated but expired at the hospital after a brief admission. A week earlier, he had a similar episode of syncope and revived through cardio-pulmonary resuscitation at the site. Post mortem examination showed extensive acute myocardial infarction (AMI involving the papillary muscles and the left ventricular wall. Features of LVNC were also observed. On top of that, the right ventricle showed patchy thin myocardium as the wall was largely comprised of fat. Histology examination confirmed the presence of AMI and massive fibro-fatty infiltrations of the right ventricle. This unfortunate young man had co-existing cardiomyopathies which is rare indeed. As he succumbed to AMI, this mechanism of death is also uncommonly associated with neither LVNC nor ARVC. In conclusion, young and physically active individuals may not be spared of sudden cardiac death. Mild and non-specific symptoms should not be taken lightly as it may be the subtle signs of cardiomyopathies.

  20. Brugada Syndrome: Are we doing enough to prevent sudden death?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksh, Jahangir A.; Al-Hersi, Ahmad S.; Al-Nozha, Mansour M.

    2007-01-01

    Burgada syndrome (BS) is an inherited arrythmogenic disease characterized by typical ECG changes in the form of an SR pattern in VI to V2, and ST segment elevation in VI to V3 and prolongation of the QT interval in right precordial leads. This syndrome carries an increased risk of sudden death due to arrhythmias. This disease was first described in 1992 by Joseph Brugada et al and was named Brugada syndrome by Yan and Antzelvich in 1996. By 2003 more than 600 patients had been reported by Brugada et al and hundreds by others. A genetic aspect to BS is now recognized and been linked to the alpha subunit of the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A. Over five dozen mutations in SCN5A have been identified. Accentuation of the right ventricular notch under pathophysiological conditions leads to exaggeration of the J-wave or J-point elevation and a saddle-shaped configuration of the repolarisation waves. Diagnosis is essentially by electrocardiogram either by spontaneous changes or by provocation by sodium channel blockers drugs, e.g., procainamide, flecainide. The role of electrophysiological studies in induction of arrhythmia in asymptomatic individuals by electron beam computed tomography and signal-averaged electrocardiogram is not settled. Unfortunately, an effective drug is not available is not available at present, but quinidine has a place in treatment. New promising drugs are emerging like cilostazol and tedisamil. At present, implantation of an ICD is the only effective means of preventing sudden death. (author)

  1. The Spectrum of Epidemiology Underlying Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15–20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who suffer a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly due to inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. Over the past three decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of CHD deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to CHD and/or ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition prior to death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low risk and known high-risk populations will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies. PMID:26044246

  2. The Impact of Sudden Gains in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kacie A.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Monson, Candice M.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated sudden gains, i.e., rapid and stable improvements, in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms that may occur in cognitive–behavioral therapy. Twenty-nine of 72 participants (39.2%) experienced a sudden gain during treatment. Mixed model ANOVAs analyzed sudden gains impact on clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity, patient-rated PTSD symptom severity, and patient-rated depressive symptom severity. Sudden gains in PTSD symptomology were associated with greater reductions in PTSD symptom severity for the avoidance/numbing and hyperarousal symptom clusters at posttreatment. By 6-month follow-up, the sudden gains group had maintained those reductions in symptoms, but the nonsudden gains group had achieved equal reductions in symptom severity. Participants experiencing sudden gains on PTSD measures had lower depression severity at posttreatment and follow-up. PMID:19637322

  3. Profile of sudden death in an adult population (1999-2008).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Downes, M R

    2010-06-01

    Sudden death is the sudden and unexpected death of an individual within 24 hours of symptom onset. The vast majority of these cases are found, at autopsy, to be due to underlying ischaemic cardiac disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adult post mortems performed at Beaumont Hospital over a decade (1999-2008). Our aim was to identify all sudden death cases (natural and accidental) and subclassify them according to age profile and organ system involved. We identified 1230 sudden death cases in the review period with 775 (63%) deaths attributable to ischaemic heart disease. The rate of sudden death remained constant over the decade with 663 (54%) deaths occurring in the first five years. Our negative autopsy rate was 2.8% corresponding to 35 cases. This is the first Irish study to retrospectively review all adult sudden deaths within a defined catchment area and analyse them as outlined above.

  4. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss as a first symptom of infective endocarditis: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroni, M; Prappa, E; Kokkevi, I

    2018-04-01

    Septic emboli are an unusual cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, for which few reports exist in the literature. This paper presents two cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, initially considered as idiopathic, but which were caused by septic emboli. Hearing loss in these cases was bilateral, sequential and total. The first patient had mild fever one week prior to their presentation with sudden sensorineural hearing loss; the other patient had no additional symptoms at presentation. These patients were later diagnosed with infective endocarditis, at two and seven months following the sudden sensorineural hearing loss respectively, showing that septic emboli had been the cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Septic emboli should be considered as a possible cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in cases of total hearing loss. This form of hearing loss should prompt the otolaryngologist to further investigate for infective endocarditis.

  5. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy: A Retrospective Autopsy Study of 112 Epileptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen Melez, İpek; Arslan, Murat Nihat; Melez, Deniz Oğuzhan; Şanli, Ahmet Necati; Koç, Sermet

    2017-09-01

    Sudden unexpected deaths comprise the most important and worthy investigation case profiles in both neurology and forensic medicine. Epilepsy, which is one of the neuropathological causes of sudden unexpected deaths, is an important disorder having mysterious aspects. The aim of this study is to make common the points of view between neurology and forensic medicine experts and to discuss the features of the findings together with the related clinical hypotheses, leading to the differential diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) by presenting autopsy findings and available medical data of patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. In Istanbul, the cases of 20334 autopsied patients who were referred to The Ministry of Justice Council of Forensic Medicine between 2007 and 2011 were identified from the complete forensic autopsy data of the city and were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy were included. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed through the parameters of demographical data, physical properties, incident features, macroscopic-microscopic autopsy findings, and cause of death initially for all cases and then separately for SUDEP cases. Among the 20334 patients, 112 were determined to have a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. A possible macroscopic and/or microscopic epileptic focus was present in 23 (20.5%) of these 112 cases. The cause of death was determined to be SUDEP in 40 (35.7%) cases, while it could not be determined in 28 (25%) cases. Among patients whose death cause was considered as SUDEP, the male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1, while the mean age was 31.5±13.9 years in males and 29.6±12.9 years in females. The presence of hypertrophy and myocardial scar tissue findings in the microscopic examination were significantly more frequent among patients determined to have died from cardiovascular diseases compared to patients in the SUDEP group (p=0.001 for each finding

  6. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, TB; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Lundemose, JB

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome...... or unknown risk factors for thrombosis as possible etiological factors for sudden infant death syndrome. It is likely that we must continuously employ the exclusion principle on possible etiological causes in genetic material from a large group of victims of sudden infant death syndrome if the phenomenon...

  7. Entanglement dynamics following a sudden quench: An exact solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Gupta, Kumar S.; Srivastava, Shashi C. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an exact and fully analytical treatment of the entanglement dynamics for an isolated system of N coupled oscillators following a sudden quench of the system parameters. The system is analyzed using the solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger's equation, which are obtained by solving the corresponding nonlinear Ermakov equations. The entanglement entropies exhibit a multi-oscillatory behaviour, where the number of dynamically generated time scales increases with N. The harmonic chains exhibit entanglement revival and for larger values of N (> 10), we find near-critical logarithmic scaling for the entanglement entropy, which is modulated by a time-dependent factor. The N = 2 case is equivalent to the two-site Bose-Hubbard model in the tunneling regime, which is amenable to empirical realization in cold-atom systems.

  8. Sudden flux change studies in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.; Makulski, A.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet Program at Fermilab many magnets have been tested which utilize multi strand Rutherford type cable made of state-of-the art Nb 3 Sn strands. During these magnet tests we observed sudden flux changes by monitoring coil voltages and the magnetic field close to the magnets. These flux changes might be linked to magnet instabilities. The voltage spike signals were correlated with quench antenna signals, a strong indication that these are magnet phenomena. With a new high resolution voltage spike detection system, we were able to observe the detailed structure of the spikes. Two fundamentally different signal shapes were distinguished, most likely generated by different mechanisms

  9. Sudden Cardiac Death During Sports Activities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kumar; Bougouin, Wulfran; Sharifzadehgan, Ardalan; Waldmann, Victor; Karam, Nicole; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and overall mortality. Participation in sports is an important determinant of cardiovascular health and fitness. Regular sports activity is associated with a smaller risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, there is a small risk of sports-related SCD. Sports-related SCD accounts for approximately 5% of total SCD. SCD among athletes comprises only a fraction of all sports-related SCD. Sport-related SCD has a male predominance and an average age of affliction of 45 to 50 years. Survival is better than for other SCD. This review summarizes links between sports and SCD and discusses current knowledge and controversies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use...... with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS...... is associated with an increased observed risk of SCA. The most increased risk was observed in patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile, and in those who received SABA and, possibly, those who received AC at the time of SCA....

  11. Surprises in the suddenly-expanded infinite well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslangul, Claude

    2008-01-01

    I study the time evolution of a particle prepared in the ground state of an infinite well after the latter is suddenly expanded. It turns out that the probability density |Ψ(x, t)| 2 shows up quite a surprising behaviour: for definite times, plateaux appear for which |Ψ(x, t)| 2 is constant on finite intervals for x. Elements of theoretical explanation are given by analysing the singular component of the second derivative ∂ xx Ψ(x, t). Analytical closed expressions are obtained for some specific times, which easily allow us to show that, at these times, the density organizes itself into regular patterns provided the size of the box is large enough; more, above some critical size depending on the specific time, the density patterns are independent of the expansion parameter. It is seen how the density at these times simply results from a construction game with definite rules acting on the pieces of the initial density

  12. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Risgaard, Bjarke; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among the young (SCDY). The aim of this study was to characterize symptoms before SCDY due to HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through review of all death certificates, we identified all SCDs in Danes aged 1-35 years...... in 2000-2009. Nationwide we included all deaths (n = 8756) and identified 431 autopsied SCDYs. All available records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved. To compare symptoms, we included a control groups consisting of traffic accident victims (n = 74). In the 10-year study period, 431...... autopsied SCDY cases were reviewed and 38 cases (9%) were included, of which 22 (58%) had morphologic findings diagnostic of HCM and 16 (42%) had findings suggestive, but not diagnostic, of HCM ('possible HCM'). Cardiac symptoms >1 h prior to death were reported in 21 (55%) of cases, and 16 (42%) sought...

  13. Sudden cardiac death and coronary disease in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasardóttir, Sára; Risgaard, Bjarke; Ågesen, Frederik Nybye

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease (CAD-SCD) is the most frequent cause of SCD in persons ..., CAD-SCD victims aged 36-49years had more severe atherosclerosis in all coronary arteries, more multi-vessel disease (29% vs. 15%, p=0.049) and less commonly (38% vs. 54%, p=0.039) acute coronary occlusion than victims ... to death. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study found several differences in the pathologic lesions of the heart in victims aged 18-35 and 36-49years, which might be associated with different disease progression leading to death in these age groups. We also report a high frequency of cardiac symptoms prior...

  14. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; de Albuquerque, Marly; Machado, Hélio R; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2010-04-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death. Information concerning risk factors for SUDEP is conflicting, but high seizure frequency is a potential risk factor. Additionally, potential pathomechanisms for SUDEP are unknown, but it is very probable that cardiac arrhythmias during and between seizures or transmission of epileptic activity to the heart via the autonomic nervous system potentially play a role. In parallel, several studies have shown a link between hormones and epilepsy. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of thyroid hormones and epilepsy is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, we propose in this paper that SUDEP, at least in some cases, could be related with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen [Department of Energy Processes, SINTEF Energy Research, 7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  16. Environmental risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami

    2016-12-01

    While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p Japan. Smoking cessation programs should be further implemented for parents to decrease risks of SIDS in Japan. What is Known: • The prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, however, this decline has plateaued recently. What is New: • Most infants were laid sleeping in the supine position (96.7 %) and were fed breast milk or a mix of expressed milk and formula (92.7 %), and 2.1 % of mothers smoked at the one-month medical checkup. • Maternal smoking prevalence significantly increased from the one-month medical checkup to one year later, and smoking mothers were more likely to feed infants by formula rather than breast milk. • Independent risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits included younger maternal age, maternal smoking habits at one month, and paternal smoking habits one year later.

  17. Mitral valve prolapse and sudden cardiac arrest in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kumar; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Teodorescu, Carmen; Reinier, Kyndaron; Nichols, Gregory A; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S

    2016-02-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is relatively common in the general population with recently reported prevalence of 1% and familial clustering (Framingham Heart Study). However, its association with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to characterize the frequency and clinical profile of patients with MVP who suffer SCA in the community. Patients with SCA cases were prospectively identified in the population-based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (population ~1 million). The presence of MVP was identified from echocardiograms recorded prior but unrelated to the SCA event. The detailed clinical profile of patients with SCA and MVP was compared with that of SCA patients without MVP to identify potential differences. A total of 729 SCA patients were evaluated over a 12-year period (mean age 69.5 ± 14.8 years; 64.6% men). MVP was observed in 17 (2.3%) prior to the SCA event (95% confidence interval 1.2%-3.4%). Mitral regurgitation was present in 14 SCA patients with MVP (82.3%) and was moderate or severe in 10 (58.8%). Compared with SCA patients without MVP, SCA patients with MVP were younger (mean age 60.9 ± 16.4 years vs 69.7 ± 14.7 years; P = .02), with fewer risk factors (diabetes 5.9% vs 46.4%; P = .001; hypertension 41.2% vs 78.9%; P = .001) or known coronary disease (29.4% vs 65.6%; P MVP was observed in a small proportion (2.3%) of SCA patients in the general population, suggesting a low risk overall. Since SCA patients with MVP were characterized by younger age and relatively low cardiovascular comorbidity, a focus on imaging for valve structure/insufficiency as well as genetics could aid future risk stratification approaches. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics of sudden arrhythmic death in a diverse, urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Moffatt, Ellen; Hart, Amy P; Ursell, Philip; Tseng, Zian H

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a major public health problem; however, its true burden remains unknown with widely variable estimates of its incidence. We aimed to examine the contemporary epidemiology and autopsy characteristics of SCD in an ethnically diverse community. Three physicians reviewed all deaths of individuals aged ≥20 years reported to the San Francisco medical examiner in 2007 for presentations fitting World Health Organization (WHO) SCD criteria-within 1 hour of symptom onset (witnessed) or within 24 hours of being observed alive and symptom free (unwitnessed). After comprehensive review of medical examiner investigation, WHO SCDs were classified as sudden arrhythmic death (SAD) or nonarrhythmic death. Coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiac mass were evaluated in all SADs undergoing autopsy and compared with demographically similar accidental trauma control deaths. We identified 252 WHO SCDs; 145 were SADs. Men had a 2.2-fold higher SAD rate (P < .0005). Blacks had a 3.15-fold higher SAD rate compared with whites (P = .003). Significant CAD was present in 38.9% of SADs and associated with higher SAD risk compared with control deaths (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.97, P = .026). Mean cardiac mass was linearly associated with risk for SAD in cases without significant CAD (OR 2.06 per 100 g, 95% CI 1.43-2.98, P < .0005). In a diverse, urban population, SAD incidence varied substantially by gender and race. Significant CAD accounted for far fewer SADs than previous studies but remained associated with a 2.6-fold higher risk as compared with control deaths. These findings may reflect the evolving contemporary epidemiology of SCD. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sudden cardiac arrest in people with epilepsy in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Robert J.; Blom, Marieke T.; Wassenaar, Merel; Bardai, Abdennasser; Leijten, Frans S.; de Haan, Gerrit-Jan; Sander, Josemir W.; Thijs, Roland D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether characteristics of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) differed between people with epilepsy and those without and which individuals with epilepsy were at highest risk. Methods: We ascertained 18 people with active epilepsy identified in a community-based registry of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) with ECG-confirmed VT/VF (cases). We compared them with 470 individuals with VT/VF without epilepsy (VT/VF controls) and 54 individuals with epilepsy without VT/VF (epilepsy controls). Data on comorbidity, epilepsy severity, and medication use were collected and entered into (conditional) logistic regression models to identify determinants of VT/VF in epilepsy. Results: In most cases, there was an obvious (10/18) or presumed cardiovascular cause (5/18) in view of preexisting heart disease. In 2 of the 3 remaining events, near–sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) was established after successful resuscitation. Cases had a higher prevalence of congenital/inherited heart disease (17% vs 1%, p = 0.002), and experienced VT/VF at younger age (57 vs 64 years, p = 0.023) than VT/VF controls. VT/VF in cases occurred more frequently at/near home (89% vs 58%, p = 0.009), and was less frequently witnessed (72% vs 89%, p = 0.048) than in VT/VF controls. Cases more frequently had clinically relevant heart disease (50% vs 15%, p = 0.005) and intellectual disability (28% vs 1%, p epilepsy controls. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease rather than epilepsy characteristics is the main determinant of VT/VF in people with epilepsy in the community. SCA and SUDEP are partially overlapping disease entities. PMID:26092917

  20. Influence of Lumbar Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Adaptations during Sudden External Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Lardon, Arnaud; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When the spine is subjected to perturbations, neuromuscular responses such as reflex muscle contractions contribute to the overall balance control and spinal stabilization mechanisms. These responses are influenced by muscle fatigue, which has been shown to trigger changes in muscle recruitment patterns. Neuromuscular adaptations, e.g., attenuation of reflex activation and/or postural oscillations following repeated unexpected external perturbations, have also been described. However, the characterization of these adaptations still remains unclear. Using high-density electromyography (EMG) may help understand how the nervous system chooses to deal with an unknown perturbation in different physiological and/or mechanical perturbation environments. Aim: To characterize trunk neuromuscular adaptations following repeated sudden external perturbations after a back muscle fatigue task using high-density EMG. Methods: Twenty-five healthy participants experienced a series of 15 sudden external perturbations before and after back muscle fatigue. Erector spinae muscle activity was recorded using high-density EMG. Trunk kinematics during perturbation trials were collected using a 3-D motion analysis system. A two-way repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to assess: (1) the adaptation effect across trials; (2) the fatigue effect; and (3) the interaction effect (fatigue × adaptation) for the baseline activity, the reflex latency, the reflex peak and trunk kinematic variables (flexion angle, velocity and time to peak velocity). Muscle activity spatial distribution before and following the fatigue task was also compared using t-tests for dependent samples. Results: An attenuation of muscle reflex peak was observed across perturbation trials before the fatigue task, but not after. The spatial distribution of muscle activity was significantly higher before the fatigue task compared to post-fatigue trials. Baseline activity showed a trend to higher values after muscle

  1. Influence of lumbar muscle fatigue on trunk adaptations during sudden external perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Abboud

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWhen the spine is subjected to perturbations, neuromuscular responses such as reflex muscle contractions contribute to the overall balance control and spinal stabilization mechanisms. These responses are influenced by muscle fatigue, which has been shown to trigger changes in muscle recruitment patterns. Neuromuscular adaptations, e.g. attenuation of reflex activation and/or postural oscillations following repeated unexpected external perturbations, have also been described. However, the characterization of these adaptations still remains unclear. Using high-density electromyography (EMG may help understand how the nervous system chooses to deal with an unknown perturbation in different physiological and/or mechanical perturbation environments. AimTo characterize trunk neuromuscular adaptations following repeated sudden external perturbations after a back muscle fatigue task using high-density EMG.MethodsTwenty-five healthy participants experienced a series of 15 sudden external perturbations before and after back muscle fatigue. Erector spinae muscle activity was recorded using high-density EMG. Trunk kinematics during perturbation trials were collected using a 3-D motion analysis system. A two-way repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to assess 1 the adaptation effect across trials, 2 the fatigue effect, and 3 the interaction effect (fatigue x adaptation for the baseline activity, the reflex latency, the reflex peak and trunk kinematic variables (flexion angle, velocity and time to peak velocity. Muscle activity spatial distribution before and following the fatigue task was also compared using t-tests for dependent samples. ResultsAn attenuation of muscle reflex peak was observed across perturbation trials before the fatigue task, but not after. The spatial distribution of muscle activity was significantly higher before the fatigue task compared to post-fatigue trials. Baseline activity showed a trend to higher values after muscle

  2. Deterring nuclear-armed Third World dictators: a targeting strategy for the emerging threat.

    OpenAIRE

    Gellene, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The continuing efforts of several developing nations to acquire nuclear weapons indicates that the United States may be required to implement a deterrence policy aimed at authoritarian regimes in the Third World. Therefore. U. S. decision-makers must re-evaluate the conceptual foundations of American deterrence policy. This research suggests a solution to the problem of deterring nuclear-capable Third World nations from using...

  3. The Pay-What-You-Want game: What can be learned from the experimental evidence on Dictator and Trust Games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiff Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Pay-What-You-Want game which represents the interaction between a buyer and a seller in a Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW situation. The PWYW game embeds the dictator game and the trust game as subgames. This allows us to use previous experimental studies with the dictator and the trust game to identify three factors that can influence the success of PWYW pricing in business practice: (i social context, (ii social information, and (iii deservingness. Only few cases of PWYW pricing for a longer period of time have been documented. By addressing repeated games, we isolate two additional factors which are likely to contribute to successful implementations of PWYW as a long term pricing strategy. These are (iv communication and (v the reduction of goal conflicts. The central contribution of this study is an attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory experiments and the research on PWYW pricing, which relies largely on evidence from the field. By reviewing the relevant experiments, this study identifies factors crucial for the success of PWYW pricing and provides guidance to developing long-term applications of PWYW pricing.

  4. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  6. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  7. Innovation and dedication underpin management of sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum) in California and Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Frankel

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of Forest Phytophthoras serves as part of the proceedings from the Sixth Sudden Oak Death Science Symposium held June 21 -23, 2016 at Fort Mason Center in San Francisco, CA, USA. The symposium marked almost 16 years to the day that David Rizzo (UC Davis) and Matteo Garbelotto (UC Berkeley) identified the cause of sudden oak death to be a previously...

  8. Adaptation to sudden unexpected loading of the low back - the effects of repeated trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, J.H.; Fallentin, N.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in reactions to sudden unexpected loading of the low back. The study utilized a set-up where a horizontal force of 58 N pointing forward suddenly was applied to the upper part of the subject's trunk. EMG activity from the erector...

  9. A 23-year review of sudden natural death autopsies in the Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Death occurring suddenly especially when the victim was active and recently fit, call for attention and thorough investigation to rule out secret homicide. Aim: To study the pattern of sudden natural death in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methodology: The coroner's autopsy reports and hospital autopsy ...

  10. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M.; Papatheodorou, Efstathios; Ware, James S.; Papadakis, Michael; Tadros, Rafik; Cole, Della; Skinner, Jonathan R.; Crawford, Jackie; Love, Donald R.; Pua, Chee J.; Soh, Bee Y.; Bhalshankar, Jaydutt D.; Govind, Risha; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo G.; van der Werf, Christian; Wijeyeratne, Yanushi D.; Mellor, Greg; Till, Jan; Cohen, Marta C.; Tome-Esteban, Maria; Sharma, Sanjay; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Cook, Stuart A.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Sheppard, Mary N.; Behr, Elijah R.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy) in cases of SADS and

  11. Tympanotomy and sealing of the round window for treatment of sudden deafness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Friis, Søren; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of explorative tympanotomy and sealing of the round window in patients diagnosed with sudden deafness.......The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of explorative tympanotomy and sealing of the round window in patients diagnosed with sudden deafness....

  12. Sudden Oak Death, Phytophthora ramorum: A Persistent Threat to Oaks and Other Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Frankel; K.M. Palmieri

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and management of sudden oak death and “sudden larch death” in the urban and wildland forests of California, Oregon, and the UK. The causal pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was discovered in all three locations over a decade ago; however, efforts to contain and eliminate infestations have been unsuccessful. These less...

  13. Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum: a summary of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Kliejunas

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum, both first recognized about a decade ago, have been the subject of hundreds of scientific and popular press articles. This document presents a comprehensive, concise summary of sudden oak death and P. ramorum research findings and management activities. Topics covered include...

  14. Survival and sudden cardiac death after septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Kvistholm; Havndrup, Ole; Hassager, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Reports of long-term survival and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) are sparse.......Reports of long-term survival and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) are sparse....

  15. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke; Holst, Anders G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  16. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy...

  17. Population-based studies of antithyroid drugs and sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Noord (Charlotte); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT • Thyroid hormone free T4 is associated with QTc-interval prolongation, which is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. • The association between hyperthyroidism and ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death has been reported in several

  18. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo S. S.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Neven, Lisa G.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs. PMID:27415625

  19. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Banner, Jytte

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia....... The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital...

  20. Sudden unexpected death from natural diseases: Fifteen years' experience with 484 cases in Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Ji-Gang; Gao, Peng; Li, Xia; Brewer, Rubell

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and subclassify sudden natural death (sudden death from natural diseases) cases in Seychelles. A total of 484 sudden natural death cases with autopsy at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Victoria Hospital, Seychelles between 1997 through 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 363 cases (75%) were male and 121 (25%) were female. The most frequent sudden deaths were attributed to cardiovascular diseases (78.5%), and then followed by infectious diseases (9.9%), and gastrointestinal diseases (9.1%). This is the largest population-based study on sudden natural deaths in Seychelles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. The molecular autopsy: an indispensable step following sudden cardiac death in the young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczek, Nicole J.; Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Annually thousands of sudden deaths involving young individuals (autopsy. In fact, epidemiological studies have estimated that over half of sudden deaths involving previously healthy young individuals have no morphological abnormalities identifiable at autopsy. Cardiac channelopathies associated with structurally normal hearts such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and Brugada syndrome (BrS), leave no evidence to be found at autopsy, leaving investigators to only speculate that a lethal arrhythmia might lie at the heart of a sudden unexplained death (SUD). In cases of autopsy-negative SUD, continued investigation, through the use of a cardiological and genetic evaluation of first- or second-degree relatives and/or a molecular autopsy, may pinpoint the underlying mechanism attributing to the sudden death and allow for the identification of living family members with the pathogenic substrate that renders them vulnerable to an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden death. PMID:22993115

  2. Genetic testing to predict sudden cardiac death: current perspectives and future goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia G. Priori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that monogenic traits may predispose young and otherwise healthy individuals to die suddenly. Diseases such as Long QT Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome and Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy are well known causes of arrhythmic death in young individuals. For several years the concept of “genetic predisposition” to sudden cardiac death has been limited to these uncommon diseases. In the last few years clinical data have supported the view that risk of dying suddenly may cluster in families, supporting the hypothesis of a genetic component for sudden cardiac death. In this review I will try to provide an overview of current knowledge about genetics of sudden death. I will approach this topic by discussing first where we stand in the use of genetics for risk stratification and therapy selection in monogenic diseases and I will then move to discuss the contribution of genetics to patient profiling in acquired cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Sudden death in young persons with uncontrolled asthma--a nationwide cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullach, Anders Juul; Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic disease among young adults, and several studies have reported increased mortality rates in patients with asthma. However, no study has described sudden unexpected death in a nationwide setting in patients with uncontrolled asthma. We defined uncontrolled...... in preventing sudden unexpected deaths. We therefore aimed to describe clinical characteristics, symptoms, causes of death, and contact with the healthcare system prior to sudden unexpected death in young persons with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: Through the review of death certificates, we found 625 sudden...... individuals who suffered from uncontrolled asthma. This corresponds to an incidence rate of 0.32 per 100,000 person-years. The cause of death in 31 cases (63%) was sudden cardiac death, and in 13 cases (27%), it was a fatal asthma attack. Symptoms (chest pain, dyspnea, seizures, general malaise, syncope...

  4. Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, Sabine M J M; Kors, Jan A; De Bruin, Marie L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in the general population. BACKGROUND: In developed countries, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Prolongation...... of the QTc interval has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, but in most population-based studies no consistent association was found between QTc prolongation and total or cardiovascular mortality. Only very few of these studies specifically addressed sudden cardiac death. METHODS: This study......). The association between a prolonged QTc interval and sudden cardiac death was estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 6.7 years (standard deviation, 2.3 years) 125 patients died of sudden cardiac death. An abnormally prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms in men...

  5. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data...... of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods....... Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...

  6. Haloperidol and sudden cardiac death in dementia: autopsy findings in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifteni, Petru; Grudnikoff, Eugene; Koppel, Jeremy; Kremen, Neil; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; Manu, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Treatment with haloperidol has been shown, in studies using death certificates and prescription files, to be associated with an excess of sudden cardiac deaths, and regulatory warnings highlight this risk in patients with dementia. We used autopsy findings to determine whether the rate of sudden cardiac death is greater in cases of unexpected deaths of patients with dementia treated with haloperidol. From 1989 through 2013, 1219 patients with a primary diagnosis of dementia with behavioral disturbance were admitted to a psychiatric hospital, and 65 (5.3%) died suddenly. Sixty-five patients (5.3%) died unexpectedly. Complete post-mortem examinations after the sudden death were performed in 55 (84.6%) patients. Twenty-seven of the autopsied cases (49.1%) had been treated with haloperidol orally (2.2 mg ± 2.1 mg/day), the only antipsychotic used in this cohort. Univariable comparisons and multivariable regression analyses compared the groups of patients with or without sudden cardiac death. The leading causes of death were sudden cardiac death (32.7%), myocardial infarction (25.5% of patients), pneumonia (23.6%), and stroke (10.9%). Patients with sudden cardiac death and those with anatomically established cause of death were similar regarding the use of haloperidol (p = 0.5). Sudden cardiac death patients were more likely to suffer from Alzheimer's dementia (p = 0.027) and to have a past history of heart disease (p = 0.0094), and less likely to have been treated with a mood stabilizer (p = 0.024), but none of these variables were independent predictors of sudden cardiac death. Autopsy data suggest that oral haloperidol is not associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death in psychiatric inpatients with dementia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Sudden death in the first 2 years of life following immunization in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Kim, Jong-Hee; Son, Hyun Jin; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Duk-hyoung

    2012-12-01

    Because the peak age for incidence of sudden deaths in infancy temporally coincides with the age of infant primary immunization, some have raised the question as to whether immunization is a risk factor for sudden death in infancy. Recent occurrence of two sudden deaths in infants in Korea has renewed concerns about the causal association between immunization and sudden deaths in infants. We carried out a retrospective review of data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Events Following Immunization Surveillance System and Vaccine Compensation programs. From 1994 to 2011, a total of 45 cases of sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life following immunization were reported in Korea. The causes of death were classified as follows: infectious diseases (n= 13); accidental injuries (n= 7); congenital abnormalities (n= 2); and malignancy (n= 1). Of 20 sudden deaths in infancy, nine deaths met Brighton Collaboration case definition level I and II, and therefore were classified as possible sudden infant death syndrome cases. Hepatitis B vaccine (n= 13) was the most frequent vaccine with temporal association with sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life. Few sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life following immunization have been reported, despite the use of universal immunization in Korea. The majority of deaths in infancy did not meet case definition for sudden infant death syndrome. Encouraging investigators to perform thorough investigation, including postmortem autopsy and death scene examination, may promote data comparability and provide guidance on decision-making in the vaccine-safety monitoring and response system in Korea. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Electrocardiographic features of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyou, Janice Y; Friedman, Daniel; Cerrone, Marina; Slater, William; Guo, Yu; Taupin, Daniel; O'Rourke, Sean; Priori, Silvia G; Devinsky, Orrin

    2016-07-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of epilepsy-related mortality. We hypothesized that electrocardiography (ECG) features may distinguish SUDEP cases from living subjects with epilepsy. Using a matched case-control design, we compared ECG studies of 12 consecutive cases of SUDEP over 10 years and 22 epilepsy controls matched for age, sex, epilepsy type (focal, generalized, or unknown/mixed type), concomitant antiepileptic, and psychotropic drug classes. Conduction intervals and prevalence of abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis (QRS ≥110 msec), abnormal ventricular conduction pattern (QRS <110 msec, morphology of incomplete right or left bundle branch block or intraventricular conduction delay), early repolarization, and features of inherited cardiac channelopathies were assessed. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis and pattern distinguished SUDEP cases from matched controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis was present in two cases and no controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction pattern was more common in cases than controls (58% vs. 18%, p = 0.04). Early repolarization was similarly prevalent in cases and controls, but the overall prevalence exceeded that of published community-based cohorts. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Remittances as aid following major sudden-onset natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Catherine; Gibson, Glenn; King, Haleigh; Lefler, Ashley A; Ntoubandi, Faustin

    2018-01-01

    There is a general assumption, based on macroeconomic studies, that remittances will rise following major sudden-onset natural disasters. This is confirmed by a few assessments involving country-specific research, and usually short-term data. This study, questioning conventional wisdom, reviewed and graphed annual and quarterly remittance flows using International Monetary Fund and World Bank data from 2000-14 for 12 countries that confronted 18 major natural disasters. It found that, regardless of event type, annual remittances rose steadily from 2000-14 except for after the 2008-09 financial crisis. Post disaster, there was a quarterly increase in the majority of cases (confirming previous research) but there was seldom an annual increase in the year of the disaster greater than the average annual increase in 2000-14. It appears that remittance senders rush to provide assistance after a natural disaster, but since their own financial situation has not changed, the immediate increase is compensated by a later decrease. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  10. Cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Livolsi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities in SIDS victims. The cardiac level of expression of muscarinic receptors, as well as acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Left ventricular samples and blood samples were obtained from autopsies of SIDS and children deceased from non cardiac causes. Binding experiments performed with [(3H]NMS, a selective muscarinic ligand, in cardiac membrane preparations showed that the density of cardiac muscarinic receptors was increased as shown by a more than doubled B(max value in SIDS (n = 9 SIDS versus 8 controls. On average, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was also significantly increased (n = 9 SIDS versus 11 controls. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, it has been shown for the first time that cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression is associated with SIDS. The increase of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity appears as a possible regulatory mechanism.

  11. Sudden improvement of insulin sensitivity related to an endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A; Schönauer, M; Busse, M

    2007-12-01

    Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes. A reciprocal relationship exists between diabetes and chronic periodontitis. This report describes the effects of an acute focal dental inflammation and subsequent endodontic treatment on the required insulin dosage of a 70-year-old man who had moderately controlled diabetes. Following an exacerbation of a combined endodontic-periodontic (endo-perio) lesion of tooth #3, the patient noticed a sudden increase in his insulin demand. After 3 weeks, the required dosage was approximately 100% greater. In association with hyperglycemic incidents, he reported a prickling sensation in this tooth. The radiograph showed circular bone loss around the tooth. Just 1 day after the root-canal preparation, the insulin need decreased to approximately 50% of that required prior to treatment. Subsequently, an incision and systemic antibiotics were necessary because of the formation of a periodontal abscess. The insulin demand remained low despite this complication. Forty days after endodontic treatment, the insulin dosage was at a level comparable to that taken 4 weeks before the root-canal preparation. This clinical case revealed a highly relevant correlation between insulin resistance and a local dental inflammation. To avoid an increase in insulin resistance, it seems important to attend to radically non-vital teeth as well as any other dental inflammation in diabetic patients.

  12. Preferences of Patients for Discussing Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sūna Normunds

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have increased mortality rates, which is partially attributed to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy syndrome (SUDEP. Poor seizure control appears to be the strongest SUDEP risk factor. Management of epilepsy and adherence to therapy is critical to seizure control. The belief by caregivers of negative influence caused by being informed about the syndrome is the main reason SUDEP is not disclosed. There are no clear recommendations when to disclose the risk of SUDEP and how much information should be provided. We addressed the preferences of Latvian epilepsy patients for discussing SUDEP as well as awareness of the syndrome. Our study involved 55 epilepsy patients. We found that, as in other studies, our patients were relatively well informed about SUDEP. We found that a considerable proportion of patients preferred to receive information about SUDEP from a general practitioner. We note the belief of patients that the disclosure of SUDEP would either improve or have no effect on the quality of life. We were able to identify groups of patients with a self-reported belief of more frequent expected anxiety and poor adherence to medical treatment. Our data improves the understanding of preferences of patient for discussing the negative aspects of epilepsy.

  13. Phrenic nerves and diaphragms in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, J; Weber, U; Schröder, J M; Lemke, R; Althoff, H

    1998-01-30

    Disturbances of the respiratory system may be an important factor in the cascade of events leading to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Even though the diaphragm is the major respiratory muscle in infants, little is known about alterations of this muscle and of the phrenic nerve in SIDS. In the present study, diaphragms and phrenic nerves of 24 SIDS infants and seven controls were analyzed. Morphometric analysis revealed only slightly larger cross sectional areas of phrenic nerve axons but no increase in myelin sheath thickness in SIDS cases. However, in one SIDS case, myelinated nerve fibre density was severely reduced. Using electron microscopy, several nerve fibres of SIDS infants showed focal accumulations of neurofilaments. Muscle fibre diameters in SIDS diaphragms were significantly larger compared to controls (P fibre ruptures and contracture bands were found. These prominent nonspecific ultrastructural alterations should advise caution in the interpretation of morphometric data. Thus, in some cases exemplified by one case of the present series, decreased density of phrenic nerve myelinated axons might contribute to SIDS. Still, the present results indicate that development of phrenic nerves and diaphragms is not delayed in most SIDS infants.

  14. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): a time lag factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G M

    1991-02-01

    A time lag factor of about five days has been identified in an increased incidence of SIDS in relation to a cold day. Sudden exposure to chilling appeared to trigger skeletal muscle weakness and renal failure about five days later in a man found to have only 25% of normal carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity in biopsied skeletal muscle. White Muscle Disease is a muscular dystrophy in young ruminants which appears about five days after turnout to pasture in the weaned ruminant raised on a diet deficient in vitamin E and selenium (VESD). Pasture has high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid (high PUFA diet) which are modified by developing rumen bacteria. Corbucci investigated the effects of circulatory shock (cardiogenic) on skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity in humans. Cytochrome oxidase activity fell markedly and, in particular, the capacity to oxidase palmitoyl carnitine was greatly reduced. He considered a consequence of this disorder was sequestration of carnitine as acyl carnitine which could not be recycled. Unusual acyl carnitines have been identified in six out of 13 SIDS victims in a USA group. In Finland, researchers identified a rise in SIDS incidence (mostly found in the prone position) after great and rapid temperature changes. Foster found a relationship between 1984 SIDS incidence and the incidence of goitre in World War I troops.

  15. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids in ICF reactors. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Hoover, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate because increased surface area will enhance the cooling and condensation of coolant ablated by the fusion x rays. Relaxation from the suddenly (neutron) heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The resulting expansion in a diverging geometry will hydrodynamically force the liquid to fragment, with vapor then forming from the new surfaces to fill the cavities. An energy minimization model is used to determine the fragment size that produces the least amount of non-fragment-center-of-mass energy; i.e., the sum of the surface and dilational kinetic energies. This model predicts fragmentation dependence on original system size and amount of isochoric heating as well as liquid density, Grueneisen parameter, surface tension, and sound speed. A two dimensional molecular dynamics code was developed to test the model at a microscopic scale for the Lennard-Jones fluid with its two adjustable constants chosen to represent lithium

  16. The initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidli, J.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1994-01-01

    Series of experiments were conducted with refrigerants-114, -12, propane and butane to investigate the initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquids due to the catastrophic failure of the vessel containing them. The experiments were initiated by shattering spherical flasks of 100 to 2000 ml containing the liquefied, pressurized gases. The variable parameters were the initial superheat, the filling level, the height of the flask above ground, and the relative humidity of the surrounding air. It was found that the initial flashing process is not determined by homogeneous nucleation, but rather by surface instabilities which lead to an evaporation wave traveling from the initial surface towards the center of the released mass. Cloud shape and expansion velocity could be determined from high speed recordings covering the initial stage of the release during which gravity has no influence. When the internal energy was sufficient, it was observed that the expanding droplet/vapor cloud initially propagated spherically with a constant expansion velocity, until Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities appeared at its surface. Information about the pool which can be formed on the ground, the pressure decay within the flask, the droplet size, and the cloud temperature was collected. The experimental findings for the expansion velocity, as well as for the pool fraction, were the base for a nondimensional analysis leading to correlations which describe the initial phase of such releases and can be used to define the ''source term'' for turbulent dispersion models. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

  17. Risk factors for sudden cardiac death among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ping-Yi; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Jhong, Jia-Rong; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from excessive premature mortality, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is receiving growing attention as a potential cause. The present study investigated the incidence of SCD and its risk factors in a large schizophrenia cohort. We enrolled a consecutive series of 8264 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in northern Taiwan from January 1, 1985 through December 31, 2008. By linking with national mortality database, 64 cases of SCD were identified. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for SCD was estimated. The cases were matched with controls randomly selected using risk-set sampling in a 1:2 ratio. A standardized chart review process was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the prescribed drugs for each study subject. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of SCD at the index admission and the latest admission. The SMR for SCD was 4.5. For the clinical profiles at the index admission, physical disease (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]=2.91, Prisk of SCD. Regarding the latest admission, electrocardiographic abnormalities (aRR=5.46, Prisk for SCD. Consistently, aggressive behaviors (aRR=3.26, Prisk as well. Apart from cardiovascular profiles and antipsychotics, physical aggression is a crucial risk factor that deserves ongoing work for clarifying the mechanisms mediating SCD in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transport across the cell-membrane dictates nanoparticle fate and toxicity: a new paradigm in nanotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Daniela; Sabella, Stefania; Muscetti, Ornella; Belli, Valentina; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Fusco, Sabato; de Luca, Elisa; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Netti, Paolo A.

    2014-08-01

    The toxicity of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been fully ascertained, but the mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity remain still largely unclear. Here we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of MNPs is strictly reliant on the pathway of cellular internalization. In particular, if otherwise toxic gold, silver, and iron oxide NPs are forced through the cell membrane bypassing any form of active mechanism (e.g., endocytosis), no significant cytotoxic effect is registered. Pneumatically driven NPs across the cell membrane show a different distribution within the cytosol compared to NPs entering the cell by active endocytosis. Specifically, they exhibit free random Brownian motions within the cytosol and do not accumulate in lysosomes. Results suggest that intracellular accumulation of metallic nanoparticles into endo-lysosomal compartments is the leading cause of nanotoxicity, due to consequent nanoparticle degradation and in situ release of metal ions.The toxicity of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been fully ascertained, but the mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity remain still largely unclear. Here we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of MNPs is strictly reliant on the pathway of cellular internalization. In particular, if otherwise toxic gold, silver, and iron oxide NPs are forced through the cell membrane bypassing any form of active mechanism (e.g., endocytosis), no significant cytotoxic effect is registered. Pneumatically driven NPs across the cell membrane show a different distribution within the cytosol compared to NPs entering the cell by active endocytosis. Specifically, they exhibit free random Brownian motions within the cytosol and do not accumulate in lysosomes. Results suggest that intracellular accumulation of metallic nanoparticles into endo-lysosomal compartments is the leading cause of nanotoxicity, due to consequent nanoparticle degradation and in situ release of metal ions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI

  19. Beyond Precipitation: Physiographic Gradients Dictate the Relative Importance of Environmental Drivers on Savanna Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Bescós, Miguel A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Kaplan, David A.; Southworth, Jane; Zhu, Likai; Waylen, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude and spatial distribution of the key environmental factors driving vegetation change in southern African savanna, and how they vary across physiographic gradients. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA), a multivariate times series dimension reduction technique to ten years of monthly remote sensing data (MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and a suite of environmental covariates: precipitation, mean and maximum temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity, fire and potential evapotranspiration. Monthly NDVI was described by cyclic seasonal variation with distinct spatiotemporal patterns in different physiographic regions. Results support existing work emphasizing the importance of precipitation, soil moisture and fire on NDVI, but also reveal overlooked effects of temperature and evapotranspiration, particularly in regions with higher mean annual precipitation. Critically, spatial distributions of the weights of environmental covariates point to a transition in the importance of precipitation and soil moisture (strongest in grass-dominated regions with precipitation950 mm). Conclusions/Significance We quantified the combined spatiotemporal effects of an available suite of environmental drivers on NDVI across a large and diverse savanna region. The analysis supports known drivers of savanna vegetation but also uncovers important roles of temperature and evapotranspiration. Results highlight the utility of applying the DFA approach to remote sensing products for regional analyses of landscape change in the context of global environmental change. With the dramatic increase in global change research, this methodology augurs well for

  20. Sudden f/sub min/ enhancements and sudden cosmic noise absorptions associated with solar X-ray flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-01-01

    Sudden fsub(min) enhancements (SFsub(m)E's) and sudden cosmic noise absorptions (SCNA's) associated with increments of X-ray fluxes during solar flares are studied on the basis of X-ray flux data measured by SOLRAD 9 and 10 satellites. Some statistical analyses on SFsub(m)E's observed at five observatories in Japan, corresponding to increased X-ray fluxes in the 1-8 A band are made for 50 solar flare events during the period January 1972 to December 1973, and value of fsub(min) is expressed as functions of cos x(x; solar zenith angle) and 1-8 A band X-ray flux. Similar study is also made for SCNA's observed by 30 MHz riometer at Hiraiso for 15 great solar flare events during the same period, together with 27.6 MHz riometer data reported by Schwentek (1973) and 18 MHz data published by Deshpande and Mitra (1972b). It is found that fsub(min) value (MHz) and SCNA value (L, dB) of a radio wave with frequency f(MHz) are related to X-ray flux (F/sub 0/, erg cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) in the 1-8 A band and to cos x, by following approximate expressions, fsub(min)(MHz)=10F/sub 0/sup(1/4) cossup(1/2) x, and L(dB)=4.37x10/sup 3/f/sup -2/F/sub 0/sup(1/2) cos x, respectively. Blackout seems to occur for F/sub 0/ values causing fsub(min)'s greater than about 5 MHz. It is shown that these expressions can be derived from a brief theoretical calculation of radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere. Also it is suggested that threshold X-ray fluxes in the 1-8 A band which may produce a minimum SFsub(m)E (2 MHz), blackout and minimum SCNA (0.27-0.36 dB for 30 MHz noise) are 1.6x10/sup -3/, 6.2x10/sup -2/ and (3-8) x 10/sup -3/ erg cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/, respectively, for cos x=1.

  1. The oxytocin receptor (OXTR contributes to prosocial fund allocations in the dictator game and the social value orientations task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Israel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic games observe social decision making in the laboratory that involves real money payoffs. Previously we have shown that allocation of funds in the Dictator Game (DG, a paradigm that illustrates costly altruistic behavior, is partially determined by promoter-region repeat region variants in the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor gene (AVPR1a. In the current investigation, the gene encoding the related oxytocin receptor (OXTR was tested for association with the DG and a related paradigm, the Social Values Orientation (SVO task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Association (101 male and 102 female students using a robust-family based test between 15 single tagging SNPs (htSNPs across the OXTR was demonstrated with both the DG and SVO. Three htSNPs across the gene region showed significant association with both of the two games. The most significant association was observed with rs1042778 (p = 0.001. Haplotype analysis also showed significant associations for both DG and SVO. Following permutation test adjustment, significance was observed for 2-5 locus haplotypes (p<0.05. A second sample of 98 female subjects was subsequently and independently recruited to play the dictator game and was genotyped for the three significant SNPs found in the first sample. The rs1042778 SNP was shown to be significant for the second sample as well (p = 0.004, Fisher's exact test. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration that genetic polymorphisms for the OXTR are associated with human prosocial decision making converges with a large body of animal research showing that oxytocin is an important social hormone across vertebrates including Homo sapiens. Individual differences in prosocial behavior have been shown by twin studies to have a substantial genetic basis and the current investigation demonstrates that common variants in the oxytocin receptor gene, an important element of mammalian social circuitry, underlie such individual differences.

  2. Intracellular dynamics of the Hsp90 co-chaperone p23 is dictated by Hsp90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Didier

    2006-01-01

    p23 is a component of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone machine. It binds and stabilizes the ATP-bound dimeric form of Hsp90. Since Hsp90 binds protein substrates in the ATP conformation, p23 has been proposed to stabilize Hsp90-substrate complexes. In addition, p23 can also function as a molecular chaperone by itself and even possesses an unrelated enzymatic activity. Whether it fulfills the latter functions in cells while bound to Hsp90 remains unknown and is difficult to extrapolate from cell-free biochemical experiments. Using the 'fluorescence recovery after photobleaching' (FRAP) technology, I have examined the dynamics of human p23, expressed as a fusion protein with the green fluorescent protein (GFP), in living human HeLa cells. GFP-p23 is distributed throughout the cell, and its mobility is identical in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. When the Hsp90 interaction is disrupted either with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin or by introduction of point mutations into p23, the mobility of p23 is greatly accelerated. Under these conditions, its intracellular movement may be diffusion-controlled. In contrast, when wild-type p23 is able to bind Hsp90, a more complex FRAP behavior is observed, suggesting that it is quantitatively bound in Hsp90 complexes undergoing a multitude of other interactions

  3. Nucleation by rRNA Dictates the Precision of Nucleolus Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahati, Hanieh; Pelham-Webb, Bobbie; Blythe, Shelby; Wieschaus, Eric

    2016-02-08

    Membrane-less organelles are intracellular compartments specialized to carry out specific cellular functions. There is growing evidence supporting the possibility that such organelles form as a new phase, separating from cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. However, a main challenge to such phase separation models is that the initial assembly, or nucleation, of the new phase is typically a highly stochastic process and does not allow for the spatiotemporal precision observed in biological systems. Here, we investigate the initial assembly of the nucleolus, a membrane-less organelle involved in different cellular functions including ribosomal biogenesis. We demonstrate that the nucleolus formation is precisely timed in D. melanogaster embryos and follows the transcription of rRNA. We provide evidence that transcription of rRNA is necessary for overcoming the highly stochastic nucleation step in the formation of the nucleolus, through a seeding mechanism. In the absence of rDNA, the nucleolar proteins studied are able to form high-concentration assemblies. However, unlike the nucleolus, these assemblies are highly variable in number, location, and time at which they form. In addition, quantitative study of the changes in the nucleoplasmic concentration and distribution of these nucleolar proteins in the wild-type embryos is consistent with the role of rRNA in seeding the nucleolus formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nucleotide pools dictate the identity and frequency of ribonucleotide incorporation in mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Berglund

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated the presence of ribonucleotides in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and in the present study we use a genome-wide approach to precisely map the location of these. We find that ribonucleotides are distributed evenly between the heavy- and light-strand of mtDNA. The relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides reflect that DNA polymerase γ discriminates the four ribonucleotides differentially during DNA synthesis. The observed pattern is also dependent on the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP pools and disease-causing mutations that change these pools alter both the absolute and relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides. Our analyses strongly suggest that DNA polymerase γ-dependent incorporation is the main source of ribonucleotides in mtDNA and argues against the existence of a mitochondrial ribonucleotide excision repair pathway in human cells. Furthermore, we clearly demonstrate that when dNTP pools are limiting, ribonucleotides serve as a source of building blocks to maintain DNA replication. Increased levels of embedded ribonucleotides in patient cells with disturbed nucleotide pools may contribute to a pathogenic mechanism that affects mtDNA stability and impair new rounds of mtDNA replication.

  5. Nucleotide pools dictate the identity and frequency of ribonucleotide incorporation in mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Anna-Karin; Navarrete, Clara; Engqvist, Martin K M; Hoberg, Emily; Szilagyi, Zsolt; Taylor, Robert W; Gustafsson, Claes M; Falkenberg, Maria; Clausen, Anders R

    2017-02-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the presence of ribonucleotides in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in the present study we use a genome-wide approach to precisely map the location of these. We find that ribonucleotides are distributed evenly between the heavy- and light-strand of mtDNA. The relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides reflect that DNA polymerase γ discriminates the four ribonucleotides differentially during DNA synthesis. The observed pattern is also dependent on the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools and disease-causing mutations that change these pools alter both the absolute and relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides. Our analyses strongly suggest that DNA polymerase γ-dependent incorporation is the main source of ribonucleotides in mtDNA and argues against the existence of a mitochondrial ribonucleotide excision repair pathway in human cells. Furthermore, we clearly demonstrate that when dNTP pools are limiting, ribonucleotides serve as a source of building blocks to maintain DNA replication. Increased levels of embedded ribonucleotides in patient cells with disturbed nucleotide pools may contribute to a pathogenic mechanism that affects mtDNA stability and impair new rounds of mtDNA replication.

  6. Preventing tomorrow's sudden cardiac death today: part I: Current data on risk stratification for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sanders, Gillian D; Bigger, J Thomas; Buxton, Alfred E; Califf, Robert M; Carlson, Mark; Curtis, Anne; Curtis, Jeptha; Fain, Eric; Gersh, Bernard J; Gold, Michael R; Haghighi-Mood, Ali; Hammill, Stephen C; Healey, Jeff; Hlatky, Mark; Hohnloser, Stefan; Kim, Raymond J; Lee, Kerry; Mark, Daniel; Mianulli, Marcus; Mitchell, Brent; Prystowsky, Eric N; Smith, Joseph; Steinhaus, David; Zareba, Wojciech

    2007-06-01

    Accurate and timely prediction of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a necessary prerequisite for effective prevention and therapy. Although the largest number of SCD events occurs in patients without overt heart disease, there are currently no tests that are of proven predictive value in this population. Efforts in risk stratification for SCD have focused primarily on predicting SCD in patients with known structural heart disease. Despite the ubiquity of tests that have been purported to predict SCD vulnerability in such patients, there is little consensus on which test, in addition to the left ventricular ejection fraction, should be used to determine which patients will benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. On July 20 and 21, 2006, a group of experts representing clinical cardiology, cardiac electrophysiology, biostatistics, economics, and health policy were joined by representatives of the US Food and Drug administration, Centers for Medicare Services, Agency for Health Research and Quality, the Heart Rhythm Society, and the device and pharmaceutical industry for a round table meeting to review current data on strategies of risk stratification for SCD, to explore methods to translate these strategies into practice and policy, and to identify areas that need to be addressed by future research studies. The meeting was organized by the Duke Center for the Prevention of SCD at the Duke Clinical Research Institute and was funded by industry participants. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions that occurred at that meeting.

  7. Sudden gains in Cognitive Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for adult depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Lotte H J M; DeRubeis, Robert J; Arntz, Arnoud; Peeters, Frenk P M L; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2016-02-01

    We examined the rates, baseline predictors and clinical impact of sudden gains in a randomized comparison of individual Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for adult depression. 117 depressed outpatients received 16-20 sessions of either CT or IPT. Session-by-session symptom severity was assessed using the BDI-II. Sudden gains were examined using the original criteria as defined by Tang and DeRubeis (1999b). Furthermore, we examined whether the duration of the between-session interval at which sudden gains were recorded affected the results. There were significantly more patients with sudden gains in CT (42.2%) as compared to IPT (24.5%). The difference appeared to be driven by the criterion representing the stability of the gain. No between-group differences were found with regard to the magnitude, timing and predictors of the gains. Those with sudden gains were less depressed at post-treatment and follow-up. After controlling for the duration of the between-session interval, the difference in rates between the two conditions became a non-significant trend. Other sudden gains characteristics were similar to those observed when allowing for longer intervals as well. The current study indicates differences in occurrence of sudden gains in two treatment modalities that overall showed similar results, which might reflect different mechanisms of change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards Better Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Neuronal Respiratory Network in Sudden Perinatal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat Mehboob

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc. However, extensive studies across the world are required to establish the role of these factors in a different subset of populations. Previous studies confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis that neuropathology of the brainstem is one of the main cause of sudden perinatal death. This study is an effort to summarize the neuropathological evaluation of the brainstems and their association to sudden perinatal death. Brainstem nuclei in vulnerable infants undergo certain changes that may alter the sleep arousal cycle, cardiorespiratory control, and ultimately culminate in death. This review focuses on the roles of different brainstem nuclei, their pathologies, and the established facts in this regard in terms of it’s link to such deaths. This study will also help to understand the role of brainstem nuclei in controlling the cardiorespiratory cycles in sudden perinatal death and may provide a better understanding to resolve the mystery of these deaths in future. It is also found that a global initiative to deal with perinatal death is required to facilitate the diagnosis and prevention in developed and as well as developing countries.

  9. Sequence charge decoration dictates coil-globule transition in intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Taylor; Ghosh, Kingshuk

    2018-03-28

    We present an analytical theory to compute conformations of heteropolymers-applicable to describe disordered proteins-as a function of temperature and charge sequence. The theory describes coil-globule transition for a given protein sequence when temperature is varied and has been benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo simulation (using CAMPARI) of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In addition, the model quantitatively shows how subtle alterations of charge placement in the primary sequence-while maintaining the same charge composition-can lead to significant changes in conformation, even as drastic as a coil (swelled above a purely random coil) to globule (collapsed below a random coil) and vice versa. The theory provides insights on how to control (enhance or suppress) these changes by tuning the temperature (or solution condition) and charge decoration. As an application, we predict the distribution of conformations (at room temperature) of all naturally occurring IDPs in the DisProt database and notice significant size variation even among IDPs with a similar composition of positive and negative charges. Based on this, we provide a new diagram-of-states delineating the sequence-conformation relation for proteins in the DisProt database. Next, we study the effect of post-translational modification, e.g., phosphorylation, on IDP conformations. Modifications as little as two-site phosphorylation can significantly alter the size of an IDP with everything else being constant (temperature, salt concentration, etc.). However, not all possible modification sites have the same effect on protein conformations; there are certain "hot spots" that can cause maximal change in conformation. The location of these "hot spots" in the parent sequence can readily be identified by using a sequence charge decoration metric originally introduced by Sawle and Ghosh. The ability of our model to predict conformations (both expanded and collapsed states) of IDPs at a high

  10. Sequence charge decoration dictates coil-globule transition in intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Taylor; Ghosh, Kingshuk

    2018-03-01

    We present an analytical theory to compute conformations of heteropolymers—applicable to describe disordered proteins—as a function of temperature and charge sequence. The theory describes coil-globule transition for a given protein sequence when temperature is varied and has been benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo simulation (using CAMPARI) of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In addition, the model quantitatively shows how subtle alterations of charge placement in the primary sequence—while maintaining the same charge composition—can lead to significant changes in conformation, even as drastic as a coil (swelled above a purely random coil) to globule (collapsed below a random coil) and vice versa. The theory provides insights on how to control (enhance or suppress) these changes by tuning the temperature (or solution condition) and charge decoration. As an application, we predict the distribution of conformations (at room temperature) of all naturally occurring IDPs in the DisProt database and notice significant size variation even among IDPs with a similar composition of positive and negative charges. Based on this, we provide a new diagram-of-states delineating the sequence-conformation relation for proteins in the DisProt database. Next, we study the effect of post-translational modification, e.g., phosphorylation, on IDP conformations. Modifications as little as two-site phosphorylation can significantly alter the size of an IDP with everything else being constant (temperature, salt concentration, etc.). However, not all possible modification sites have the same effect on protein conformations; there are certain "hot spots" that can cause maximal change in conformation. The location of these "hot spots" in the parent sequence can readily be identified by using a sequence charge decoration metric originally introduced by Sawle and Ghosh. The ability of our model to predict conformations (both expanded and collapsed states) of IDPs at

  11. QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death risk in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Salma I; Ackerman, Michael J; Shamoun, Fadi E; Geske, Jeffrey B; Ommen, Steve R; Love, William T; Cha, Stephen S; Bos, Johan M; Lester, Steven J

    2018-03-07

    Risk assessment for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains complex. The goal of this study was to assess electrocardiogram (ECG)-derived risk factors on SCD in a large HCM population Methods: Retrospective review of adults with HCM evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from 1 December 2002 to 31 December 2012 was performed. Data inclusive of ECG and 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitor were assessed. SCD events were documented by ventricular fibrillation (VF) noted on implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or appropriate VT or VF-terminating ICD shock. Overall, 1615 patients (mean age 53.7 ± 15.2 years; 943 males, 58.4%) were assessed, with mean follow-up 2.46 years and 110 SCD events. Via logistic regression (n = 820), the odds of SCD increased with increasing number of conventional risk factors. With one risk factor the OR was 4.88 (p  450 to this logistic regression model had OR 1.722 (p = .04, CI 1.01-2.937) to predict SCD. QTc ≥ 450 was a significant predictor for death (HR 1.88, p = .021, CI 1.10-3.20). There was no correlation between sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, first degree AV block, atrial fibrillation, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, premature atrial complexes, premature ventricular complexes, supraventricular tachycardia, PR interval, QRS interval and SCD. Prolonged QTc was a risk factor for SCD and death even when controlling for typical risk factors.

  12. Sudden Death Phenomenon While Bathing in Japan - Mortality Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Shimbo, Takuro; Ikaga, Toshiharu; Hori, Shingo

    2017-07-25

    Bath-related sudden cardiac arrest frequently occurs in Japan, but the mortality data have not been sufficiently reported.Methods and Results:This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Tokyo Metropolis, Saga Prefecture and Yamagata Prefecture between October 2012 and March 2013 (i.e., in winter). We investigated the data for all occurrences in these areas for which the emergency medical system needed to be activated because of an accident or acute illness related to bathing. Emergency personnel enrolled the event when activation of the emergency medical system was related to bathing. Of the 4,599 registered bath-related events, 1,527 (33%) were identified as bath-related cardiac arrest events. Crude mortality (no. deaths per 100,000) during the observational period was 10.0 in Tokyo, 11.6 in Yamagata and 8.5 in Saga. According to the mortality data for age and sex, the estimated number of bath-related deaths nationwide was 13,369 in winter, for the 6 months from October (95% CI: 10,862-16,887). Most cardiac arrest events occurred in tubs filled with water with the face submerged in the water. This suggests that drowning plays a crucial role in the etiology of such phenomena. The estimated nationwide number of deaths was 13,369 (95% CI: 10,862-16,887) in winter, for the 6 months from October. Crude mortality during the winter season was 10.0 in Tokyo, 11.6 in Yamagata and 8.5 in Saga.

  13. Vertigo with sudden hearing loss: audio-vestibular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogson, Jacob M; Taylor, Rachael L; Young, Allison S; McGarvie, Leigh A; Flanagan, Sean; Halmagyi, G Michael; Welgampola, Miriam S

    2016-10-01

    Acute vertigo with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a rare clinical emergency. Here, we report the audio-vestibular test profiles of 27 subjects who presented with these symptoms. The vestibular test battery consisted of a three-dimensional video head impulse test (vHIT) of semicircular canal function and recording ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP, cVEMP) to test otolith dysfunction. Unlike vestibular neuritis, where the horizontal and anterior canals with utricular function are more frequently impaired, 74 % of subjects with vertigo and SSNHL demonstrated impairment of the posterior canal gain (0.45 ± 0.20). Only 41 % showed impairment of the horizontal canal gains (0.78 ± 0.27) and 30 % of the anterior canal gains (0.79 ± 0.26), while 38 % of oVEMPs [asymmetry ratio (AR) = 41.0 ± 41.3 %] and 33 % of cVEMPs (AR = 47.3 ± 41.2 %) were significantly asymmetrical. Twenty-three subjects were diagnosed with labyrinthitis/labyrinthine infarction in the absence of evidence for an underlying pathology. Four subjects had a definitive diagnosis [Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, vestibular schwannoma, anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarction, and traction injury]. Ischemia involving the common-cochlear or vestibulo-cochlear branches of the labyrinthine artery could be the simplest explanation for vertigo with SSNHL. Audio-vestibular tests did not provide easy separation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic causes of vertigo with SSNHL.

  14. Sudden infant death syndrome and the genetics of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eFerrante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies report signs of slight infection prior to death in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. Based on this, a hypothesis of an altered immunological homeostasis has been postulated. The cytokines are important cellular mediators that are crucial for infant health by regulating cell activity during the inflammatory process. The pro-inflammatory cytokines favor inflammation; the most important of these are IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α and IFN-γ. These cytokines are controlled by the anti-inflammatory cytokines. This is accomplished by reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and thus counteracts their biological effect. The major anti-inflammatory cytokines are interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, and IL-13. The last decade there has been focus on genetic studies within genes that are important for the immune system, for SIDS with a special interest of the genes encoding the cytokines. This is because the cytokine genes are considered to be the genes most likely to explain the vulnerability to infection, and several studies have investigated these genes in an attempt to uncover associations between SIDS and different genetic variants. So far the genes encoding IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α are the most investigated within SIDS research, and several studies indicates associations between specific variants of these genes and SIDS. Taken together this may indicate that in at least a subset of SIDS predisposing genetic variants of the immune genes are involved. However, the immune system and the cytokine network are complex, and more studies are needed in order to better understand the interplay between different genetic variations and how this may contribute to an unfavorable immunological response.

  15. Sudden unexpected death in infancy: place and time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, J F T; Thompson, A J; Ingram, P J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many babies who die of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) in Northern Ireland are found dead in bed--i.e. co-sleeping--with an adult. In order to assess its frequency autopsy reports between April 1996 and August 2001 were reviewed and linked to temporal factors. The day and month of death, and the place where the baby was found were compared to a reference population of infant deaths between one week of age and the second birthday. Although the rate of SUDI was lower than the UK average, 43 cases of SUDI were identified, and two additional deaths with virtually identical autopsy findings that were attributed to asphyxia caused by suffocation due to overlaying. Thirty-two of the 45 (71%) were less than four months of age. In 30 of the 45 cases (67%) the history stated that the baby was bed sharing with others; 19 died sleeping in an adult bed, and 11 on a sofa or armchair. In 16 of the 30 (53%) there were at least two other people sharing the sleeping surface, and in one case, three. SUDI was twice as frequent at weekends (found dead Saturday-Monday mornings) compared to weekdays (psharing a place of sleep per se may not increase the risk of death, our findings may be linked to factors such as habitual smoking, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs as reported in case-control studies. In advising parents on safer childcare practices, health professionals must be knowledgeable of current research and when, for example, giving advice on co-sleeping this needs to be person-specific cognisant of the risks within a household. New and better means of targeting such information needs to be researched if those with higher risk life-styles are to be positively influenced.

  16. Clinical Study on 136 Children with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Li; Yang, Feng-Bo; Lan, Lan; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zi-Fang; Rosenhall, Ulf; Yu, Lan; Hellstrom, Sten; Xue, Xi-Jun; Duan, Mao-Li; Wang, Qiu-Ju

    2016-04-20

    The prevalence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children (CSSNHL) is consistently increasing. However, the pathology and prognosis of CSSNHL are still poorly understood. This retrospective study evaluated clinical characteristics and possible associated factors of CSSNHL. One hundred and thirty-six CSSNHL patients treated in Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Institute of Otolaryngology at Chinese PLA General Hospital between July 2008 and August 2015 were included in this study. These patients were analyzed for clinical characteristics, audiological characteristics, laboratory examinations, and prognostic factors. Among the 136 patients (151 ears), 121 patients (121 ears, 80.1%) were diagnosed with unilaterally CSSNHL, and 15 patients (30 ears, 19.9%) with bilateral CSSNHL. The complete recovery rate of CSSNHL was 9.3%, and the overall recovery rate was 37.7%. We found that initial degree of hearing loss, onset of treatment, tinnitus, the ascending type audiogram, gender, side of hearing loss, the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) had prognostic significance. Age, ear fullness, and vertigo had no significant correlation with recovery. Furthermore, the relevant blood tests showed 30.8% of the children had abnormal white blood cell (WBC) counts, 22.1% had elevated homocysteine levels, 65.8% had high alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 33.8% had high IgE antibody levels, and 86.1% had positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibodies. CSSNHL commonly occurs unilaterally and results in severe hearing loss. Initial severe hearing loss and bilateral hearing loss are negative prognostic factors for hearing recovery, while positive prognostic factors include tinnitus, gender, the ascending type audiogram, early treatment, identifiable ABR waves, and DPOAEs. Age, vertigo, and ear fullness are not correlated with the recovery. Some serologic indicators, including the level of WBC, platelet

  17. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children: Etiology, management, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitaro, Jacob; Bechor-Fellner, Avital; Gavriel, Haim; Marom, Tal; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is uncommon, and the current guidelines for its management refer to adults. Our objective was to review cases of SSNHL in children and examine their etiologies, management, and outcome. We performed a retrospective chart review of all children under the age of 18 years treated for SSNHL between January 2003 and September 2014. Data recorded included age, gender, symptoms, onset of hearing loss, audiometric results, diagnostic studies, treatment, and outcome. Nineteen children were included. Mean age was 14 years (range 7-18 years). Male: female ratio was 9:10. Degree of hearing loss varied from mild to profound across the tested frequencies. Most common accompanying symptom was tinnitus. Serologic tests demonstrated recent Epstein-Barr virus infection in one patient and previous cytomegalovirus infection in six patients. Imaging studies included computed tomography scan (n=3) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (n=12). All imaging studies did not demonstrate any pathology. Treatment included systemic steroids in 19 (100%) children and intratympanic steroids in eight (42%). Hearing completely improved in three (16%) children, partially improved in nine (47%), and there was no improvement in six (32%). One child was lost to follow-up. Viral infection was a common finding in children with SSNHL and no pathological changes were demonstrated on imaging studies. In most patients (63%), hearing improvement was observed. Intratympanic steroid injection can benefit these children. Further studies are required to investigate the etiologies and establish guidelines for the management of SSNHL in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal and obstetrical predictors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Isabel; Dahdouh, Elias M; Kugler, Perlyne; Mimran, Gracia; Balayla, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    Public Health initiatives, such as the "Safe to Sleep" campaign, have traditionally targeted infants' risk factors for the prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, controversy remains regarding maternal and obstetrical risk factors for SIDS. In our study, we sought out to determine both modifiable and non-modifiable obstetrical and maternal risk factors associated with SIDS. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States for the year 2010. The impact of several obstetrical and maternal risk factors on the risk of overall infant mortality and SIDS was estimated using unconditional regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 4,007,105 deliveries and 24,174 infant deaths during the first year of life, of which 1991 (8.2%) were due to SIDS. Prominent risk factors for SIDS included (OR [95% CI]): black race, 1.89 [1.68-2.13]; maternal smoking, 3.56 [3.18-3.99]; maternal chronic hypertension, 1.73 [1.21-2.48]; gestational hypertension, 1.51 [1.23-1.87]; premature birth <37 weeks, 2.16 [1.82-2.55]; IUGR, 2.46 [2.14-2.82]; and being a twin, 1.81 [1.43-2.29], p < 0.0001. Relative to a cohort of infants who died of other causes, risk factors with a predilection for SIDS were maternal smoking, 2.48 [2.16-2.83] and being a twin, 1.52 [1.21-1.91], p < 0.0001. Conclusions for practice: While certain socio-demographic and gestational characteristics are important risk factors, maternal smoking remains the strongest prenatal modifiable risk factor for SIDS. We recommend the continuation of Public Health initiatives that promote safe infant sleeping practices and smoking cessation during and after pregnancy.

  19. Brugada Syndrome in a Patient with Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: Sudden Death Risk Amplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Jason; Malhotra, Divyanshu; Goud, Aditya; Dahagam, Chanukya; Everett, George

    2017-04-19

    The vast majority of sudden cardiac arrests occur in patients with structural heart disease and in approximately 10% of the cases, it can occur in those with structurally normal hearts. Brugada syndrome is an autosomal dominant sodium channelopathy that has been implicated in sudden deaths. Given their low prevalence, our knowledge about Brugada syndrome is still evolving. Apart from schizophrenia, there have been no reports of associated medical conditions. We recently encountered a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who was also found to have Brugada syndrome. Both these conditions share some common clinical presentations including a propensity for sudden death.

  20. [Three good reasons to perform a postmortem examination in all cases of juvenile sudden death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Amati, Giulia; di Gioia, Cira R T; Silenzi, Paola F; Gallo, Pietro

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this review is to underline the reasons why a post-mortem examination has to be performed in all cases of juvenile sudden death. Sudden death in children and young adults can be caused by potentially heritable cardiovascular disorders and fatal outcome is often the first symptom in apparently healthy subjects. In these cases, a careful autopsy, performed according to a standardized protocol, becomes the sole diagnostic tool to guide clinical and molecular genetic family screening and to adopt the proper therapeutic and preventive strategies. Thus, a post-mortem examination is a fundamental part of a multidisciplinary approach to the issue of juvenile sudden death.

  1. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Losses in Axisymmetric Sudden Expansion with a Chamfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the pressure losses through axisymmetric sudden expansions with a chamfer are analyzed by means of numerical simulation, with an emphasis on the effect of the Reynolds number. In this study, we investigate numerically the turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansions having a slight chamfer on the edge. With the aim of investigating the impact of Reynolds number on the expansion losses in a time-averaged sense, an extensive set of simulations is carried out. On the basis of numerical results, we also propose a general correlation to estimate the local loss coefficient in sudden expansions with a chamfer.

  2. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Losses in Axisymmetric Sudden Expansion with a Chamfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin; Kim, Keung Koo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the pressure losses through axisymmetric sudden expansions with a chamfer are analyzed by means of numerical simulation, with an emphasis on the effect of the Reynolds number. In this study, we investigate numerically the turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansions having a slight chamfer on the edge. With the aim of investigating the impact of Reynolds number on the expansion losses in a time-averaged sense, an extensive set of simulations is carried out. On the basis of numerical results, we also propose a general correlation to estimate the local loss coefficient in sudden expansions with a chamfer

  3. Pengaruh Rasio Step pada Sudden Enlargement Channel terhadap Heat Flux Kondensasi di Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hari Praswanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant parameter in air conditioning problems is air humidity. A porous media can be used as a heat exchanger component in order to increase the heat transfer performance which is significantly depends on the heat flux values inside of them. To determine the heat flux value, a following test section was modeled in this research. A vapor passed through a channel whereas a particular porous media made of active carbon acted as its heat exchanger media. However, the sudden enlargement at the inlet of channel could affect the homogeneity of temperature distributions and also caused some several turbulencies. The research method is vapor flowed over the porous media for 60 minute with temperature of 300oC.The vapor velocity is varied from 1 m/s to 3 m/s and the step ratio also varied between 0 until 1.66. From the experiment shows the bigger step ratio and vapor velocity results the bigger heat flux and air humidity after passed through the low porous media. Heat transfer was occured in porous media including convection heat transfer with the value of Gr/Re2 smaller than 1.

  4. Portfolio management under sudden changes in volatility and heterogeneous investment horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Viviana; Lucey, Brian M.

    2007-03-01

    We analyze the implications for portfolio management of accounting for conditional heteroskedasticity and sudden changes in volatility, based on a sample of weekly data of the Dow Jones Country Titans, the CBT-municipal bond, spot and futures prices of commodities for the period 1992-2005. To that end, we first proceed to utilize the ICSS algorithm to detect long-term volatility shifts, and incorporate that information into PGARCH models fitted to the returns series. At the next stage, we simulate returns series and compute a wavelet-based value at risk, which takes into consideration the investor's time horizon. We repeat the same procedure for artificial data generated from semi-parametric estimates of the distribution functions of returns, which account for fat tails. Our estimation results show that neglecting GARCH effects and volatility shifts may lead to an overestimation of financial risk at different time horizons. In addition, we conclude that investors benefit from holding commodities as their low or even negative correlation with stock and bond indices contribute to portfolio diversification.

  5. A social activity and physical contact-based routing algorithm in mobile opportunistic networks for emergency response to sudden disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Lin, Yaguang; Zhang, Shanshan; Cai, Zhipeng

    2017-05-01

    Sudden disasters such as earthquake, flood and hurricane necessitate the employment of communication networks to carry out emergency response activities. Routing has a significant impact on the functionality, performance and flexibility of communication networks. In this article, the routing problem is studied considering the delivery ratio of messages, the overhead ratio of messages and the average delay of messages in mobile opportunistic networks (MONs) for enterprise-level emergency response communications in sudden disaster scenarios. Unlike the traditional routing methods for MONS, this article presents a new two-stage spreading and forwarding dynamic routing algorithm based on the proposed social activity degree and physical contact factor for mobile customers. A new modelling method for describing a dynamic evolving process of the topology structure of a MON is first proposed. Then a multi-copy spreading strategy based on the social activity degree of nodes and a single-copy forwarding strategy based on the physical contact factor between nodes are designed. Compared with the most relevant routing algorithms such as Epidemic, Prophet, Labelled-sim, Dlife-comm and Distribute-sim, the proposed routing algorithm can significantly increase the delivery ratio of messages, and decrease the overhead ratio and average delay of messages.

  6. Pc 4-5 pulsations in the electric field at geostationary orbit (GEOS 2) triggered by sudden storm commencements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, H.; Schmidt, R.

    1989-01-01

    A frequently observed feature in the electric field data on board GEOS 2 is the sudden occurrence of large-amplitude Pc 4-5 waves lasting from a few tens of minutes up to a few hours. For the events the authors have chosen it was found that the large-amplitude events (≥ 2 mV/m) are often accompanied by magnetic field data containing the signature of a compression of the magnetosphere. The occurrence of the compression coincides with the recording of an ssc (sudden storm commencement) on ground. The dc electric field measurements suggest that the Ex B/B 2 drift rapidly and temporarily rotates into a tailward plasma drift at 6.6 R E . The transient disturbances of the magnetopause also changed the widely scattered frequency distribution of the nearly always present fluctuations in the Pc 4-5 range into a narrow-band distribution, with frequently large amplitudes, after the occurrence of the ssc. The frequency distribution reveals a weak dependence on the local time such that the frequencies are close to 4 mHz near noon and abut 3 mHz near dawn and dusk. The rotational sense of polarization is left-handed between 0200 and 1200 LT and right-handed between 1400 and 2200 LT; a transition region exists between 1200 and 1400 LT. The authors argue that the transverse waves are the fundamental modes of the field line resonances while the compressional modes might be the fundamental modes and the second harmonics of the cavity resonances or the plasmasphere modes

  7. When transcriptome meets metabolome : Fast cellular responses of yeast to sudden relief of glucose limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, J.J.; Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Knijnenburg, T.A.; Ras, C.; Ten Pierick, A.; Akmering, M.J.; Van Winden, W.A.; Kresnowati, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Within the first 5 min after a sudden relief from glucose limitation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibited fast changes of intracellular metabolite levels and a major transcriptional reprogramming. Integration of transcriptome and metabolome data revealed tight relationships between the changes at

  8. Recent advances in understanding and prevention of sudden cardiac death [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Vandenberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been tremendous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, it remains the number one cause of death. About half of heart-related deaths occur suddenly, and in about half of these cases the person was unaware that they had underlying heart disease. Genetic heart disease accounts for only approximately 2% of sudden cardiac deaths, but as it typically occurs in younger people it has been a particular focus of activity in our quest to not only understand the underlying mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmogenesis but also develop better strategies for earlier detection and prevention. In this brief review, we will highlight trends in the recent literature focused on sudden cardiac death in genetic heart diseases and how these studies are contributing to a broader understanding of sudden death in the community.

  9. Acute otitis media associated bilateral sudden hearing loss: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Gutteridge, I; Elliott, D; Cronin, M

    2017-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a rare otological condition with potential for dire outcomes including permanent hearing loss. Although the majority of cases are deemed idiopathic, bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss represents a rare subset typically related to systemic conditions, with higher morbidity and mortality. A controversial association with acute otitis media has been reported, with few bilateral cases published in the literature. A very rare case of bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss associated with acute otitis media is described, with a review of the literature. The limited evidence available suggests that acute otitis media with tinnitus and/or bacterial pathology may have an increased risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, which is consistent with the case described. Although there is no sufficiently powered published evidence to provide definitive treatment guidelines, the literature reviewed suggests that early myringotomy and antibiotics may greatly improve treatment outcomes.

  10. Decomposition and N cycling changes in redwood forests caused by sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; David M. Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum is an emergent pathogen in redwood forests which causes the disease sudden oak death. Although the disease does not kill coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), extensive and rapid mortality of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) has removed this...

  11. Sudden unexplained death in childhood. An audit of the quality of Autopsy reporting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2013-03-01

    Cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) in Ireland in children aged >1year and <5 years were examined in order to assess the quality of autopsy reporting. All SUDC cases are notified to and documented by the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR) in Ireland along with all cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) referring to sudden infant deaths less than one year of age. The database of the NSIDR in Ireland was interrogated and cases of SIDS and SUDC were compared over a fifteen-year period (1995-2009). SIDS cases whose autopsies were conducted in the same hospital in the same year as the index SUDC case were used for comparison. The autopsy report for each case was examined and modified Rushton(MR) scores 1\\r\

  12. Sudden death in patients with myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Scott D; Zelenkofske, Steve; McMurray, John J V

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of sudden death from cardiac causes is increased among survivors of acute myocardial infarction with reduced left ventricular systolic function. We assessed the risk and time course of sudden death in high-risk patients after myocardial infarction. METHODS: We studied 14......,609 patients with left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both after myocardial infarction to assess the incidence and timing of sudden unexpected death or cardiac arrest with resuscitation in relation to the left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS: Of 14,609 patients, 1067 (7 percent) had an event...... percent confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.18 percent) after 2 years. Patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30 percent or less were at highest risk in this early period (rate, 2.3 percent per month; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 2.8 percent). Nineteen percent of all sudden deaths...

  13. AN AUDIT OF THE SUDDEN-INFANT-DEATH-SYNDROME PREVENTION PROGRAM IN THE AUCKLAND REGION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obdeijn, M. C.; Tonkin, S.; Mitchell, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Aim. An audit of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention programme in the Auckland region. Methods. 107 health professionals working in antenatal classes, postnatal wards, domiciliary midwifery and the Plunket Society were interviewed. Results. Maternal smoking and infant sleeping

  14. The initial phase of sudden releases of superheated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidli, J.

    1994-04-01

    The catastrophic failure of a pressure vessel containing a liquefied substance, leading to an instantaneous release of its whole contents is considered as one of the major technological hazards. Due to the rapid depressurization caused by vessel failure, the fluid becomes superheated and unstable. Part of the fluid will evaporate using its internal energy and the two-phase mixture forming will be accelerated. This flashing process can be very violent, as experiments and incidents actually happened have shown. In the past, a number of dispersion models were developed to predict the history of an instantaneous release. In most of these models the source term is considered to be a gas volume at rest and not a rapidly expanding aerosol, as could be observed. Furthermore, it is usually assumed that all of the remaining fluid is entrained into the expanding cloud and nothing is deposited on the ground to form a pool. This work concentrates on the initial phase of the sudden release of superheated liquids with the aim to gain a better understanding of the flashing process and of the physical mechanisms involved, leading to a reliable prediction of the source term. Therefore, more than 400 experiments with propane, butane, refrigerant 12 and 114 were conducted. The experiments were initiated by shattering spherical glass flasks of different sizes. The main parameters varied were the liquid superheat and the filling level of the vessel. Using high-speed video and movie recordings and very fast responding measurement devices, it was possible to study the initial phase of such releases during which gravity plays no role. For sufficiently large released internal energy, the initial evolution of the release was always spherical with a constant radial expansion velocity during he first milliseconds until instabilities appeared at the surface of the droplet/vapor cloud that was formed. For all the experimental conditions, the fraction of the initial liquid falling on the ground

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Primary Relatives of Sudden Cardiac Death Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension as risk factors in relatives of sudden death victims. The sample for both studies will be the same. 5 Chapter II The...provided most of the research information on SCD. Pathology of Sudden Cardiac Death There appear to be several different pathologic scenarios which render a...had severe two or three vessel disease. By comparison, 100 age matched controls who died of other causes, had a combined 27% incidence of two and

  16. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelin...

  17. Constraint-induced sound therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss – behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hidehiko Okamoto; Munehisa Fukushima; Henning Teismann; Lothar Lagemann; Tadashi Kitahara; Hidenori Inohara; Ryusuke Kakigi; Christo Pantev

    2014-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by acute, idiopathic hearing deterioration. We report here the development and evaluation of “constraint-induced sound therapy”, which is based on a well-established neuro-rehabilitation approach, and which is characterized by the plugging of the intact ear (“constraint”) and the simultaneous, extensive stimulation of the affected ear with music. The sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients who received the constraint-induced sound therapy ...

  18. Epilepsy and risk of death and sudden unexpected death in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature death from all causes and likely also from sudden unexplained death (SUD). Many patients with epilepsy have significant comorbidity, and it is unclear how much of the increased risk can be explained by epilepsy itself. We aimed to chart...... the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and estimate the risk of death from all causes and SUD conferred by epilepsy independently....

  19. An Experimental Study on Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Characteristics of Suddenly Expanded Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Song, Sub Lee; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this experiment, test section has been designed to simulate sudden flow path change due to deformation of cladding. It was tended to simulate cladding deformation that has discontinuous diameter change so coolant flow path changes suddenly. Experiments are in progress. Experiments on test section that simulate deformed flow path which contains sudden contraction and sudden expansion part have been done. Location of CHF has been varied by different condition of experiment. CHF at the outlet of test section fits well into the Macbeth's correlation and data of reference experiment, which was held on plain test section that had same diameter with inlet diameter of deformed test section. CHF at sudden expansion part was in churn flow regime and CHF was very low compared to expectation. It is discussed that liquid film separation from wall or bubble accumulation by backflow might be the reason of this result. For future work, experiments for two additional blockage ratio conditions will be carried out. Also, discussion and model development for deformed channel with sudden expand flow path will be held on.

  20. Relationship between sudden natural death and abdominal fat evaluated on postmortem CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaichi, Y; Sakane, H; Higashibori, H; Honda, Y; Tatsugami, F; Baba, Y; Iida, M; Awai, K

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the association between sudden natural death and abdominal fat using postmortem computed tomography (CT) scans. Postmortem CT images at the umbilical level of 241 subjects were used to measure abdominal areas of subcutaneous- and visceral fat, the rate of visceral fat and the waist circumference. Of the study subjects, 174 died of sudden natural death (130 men and 44 women), and 67 died of different causes (46 men and 21 women). All were between 40 and 75 years of age. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent abdominal parameters associated with sudden natural death. By univariate analysis, the areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat were significantly larger in sudden natural death than who died of different causes (subcutaneous fat, odds ratio [OR] = 1.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.000-1.007, p  = 0.03; visceral fat, OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.003-1.013, p  fat was an independent factor associated with the risk of sudden natural death (OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.002-1.015, p  = 0.02). Postmortem CT revealed that sudden natural death was related to abdominal fat deposits.

  1. The Impact of Using Student-Dictated Oral Review Stories on Science Vocabulary, Content Knowledge, and Non-Fiction Writing Skills of First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishoff, Sandra Wells

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The…

  2. Assessing the Performance of Automatic Speech Recognition Systems When Used by Native and Non-Native Speakers of Three Major Languages in Dictation Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Julián; Kirkedal, Andreas Søeborg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a two-part experiment aiming to assess and compare the performance of two types of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems on two different computational platforms when used to augment dictation workflows. The experiment was performed with a sample of speakers...

  3. The effects of automatic spelling correction software on understanding and comprehension in compensated dyslexia: improved recall following dictation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Lucy; Leonavičiūtė, Erika; Humby, Trevor

    2014-08-01

    Dyslexia is associated with difficulties in language-specific skills such as spelling, writing and reading; the difficulty in acquiring literacy skills is not a result of low intelligence or the absence of learning opportunity, but these issues will persist throughout life and could affect long-term education. Writing is a complex process involving many different functions, integrated by the working memory system; people with dyslexia have a working memory deficit, which means that concentration on writing quality may be detrimental to understanding. We confirm impaired working memory in a sample of university students with (compensated) dyslexia, and using a within-subject design with three test conditions, we show that these participants demonstrated better understanding of a piece of text if they had used automatic spelling correction software during a dictation/transcription task. We hypothesize that the use of the autocorrecting software reduced demand on working memory, by allowing word writing to be more automatic, thus enabling better processing and understanding of the content of the transcriptions and improved recall. Long-term and regular use of autocorrecting assistive software should be beneficial for people with and without dyslexia and may improve confidence, written work, academic achievement and self-esteem, which are all affected in dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Altered but Not Silenced: How Shostakovich Retained His Voice as an Artist despite the Demands of a Dictator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope R. Strayer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Can music that is regulated and restrained by a dictator still be inspired? This question reveals ideology concerning how music should be created and valued. Does outside control restrict artistic integrity and autonomy? Not all composers have been free to write whatever their soul demands. People in authority have held power and control over artistic processes. Dmitri Shostakovich was a Russian composer whose work was subjected to the tastes of a tyrannical ruler and Communist party. Though Shostakovich did not compose in an environment that fostered musical exploration, his work should not be mourned but celebrated. Shostakovich was not a victim, but a victor of his music by the way he composed in the midst of the threat of denouncement. Though Shostakovich wrote music to follow the demands of others, the music was still his by the very fact that he created it; he brought it into existence and highlighted it with nuances of his being and personality as he produced each work. This research examines three critical pieces of Shostakovich’s canon to ascertain whether controlled art subjected to the whims, preferences, and objectives of others can still be inspired. Though a composer might be told what to say, it is he who chooses how to word a phrase. Shostakovich’s output, particularly the first symphony, his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, and fifth symphony exemplify that restrained and restricted music does not necessitate a sacrifice in artistic integrity; it can be inspired, celebrated, and worthy of study.

  5. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis of outcome- and process-based social preferences and beliefs in Dictator Games and sequential Prisoner's Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ozan; Weesie, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, using a within-subjects design, we estimate the utility weights that subjects attach to the outcome of their interaction partners in four decision situations: (1) binary Dictator Games (DG), second player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) after the first player (2) cooperated and (3) defected, and (4) first player's role in the sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. We find that the average weights in these four decision situations have the following order: (1)>(2)>(4)>(3). Moreover, the average weight is positive in (1) but negative in (2), (3), and (4). Our findings indicate the existence of strong negative and small positive reciprocity for the average subject, but there is also high interpersonal variation in the weights in these four nodes. We conclude that the PD frame makes subjects more competitive than the DG frame. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, we simultaneously analyze beliefs of subjects about others' utility weights in the same four decision situations. We compare several alternative theoretical models on beliefs, e.g., rational beliefs (Bayesian-Nash equilibrium) and a consensus model. Our results on beliefs strongly support the consensus effect and refute rational beliefs: there is a strong relationship between own preferences and beliefs and this relationship is relatively stable across the four decision situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Contributes to Prosocial Fund Allocations in the Dictator Game and the Social Value Orientations Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Lerer, Elad; Shalev, Idan; Uzefovsky, Florina; Riebold, Mathias; Laiba, Efrat; Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Maril, Anat; Bornstein, Gary; Knafo, Ariel; Ebstein, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Economic games observe social decision making in the laboratory that involves real money payoffs. Previously we have shown that allocation of funds in the Dictator Game (DG), a paradigm that illustrates costly altruistic behavior, is partially determined by promoter-region repeat region variants in the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor gene (AVPR1a). In the current investigation, the gene encoding the related oxytocin receptor (OXTR) was tested for association with the DG and a related paradigm, the Social Values Orientation (SVO) task. Methodology/Principal Findings Association (101 male and 102 female students) using a robust-family based test between 15 single tagging SNPs (htSNPs) across the OXTR was demonstrated with both the DG and SVO. Three htSNPs across the gene region showed significant association with both of the two games. The most significant association was observed with rs1042778 (p = 0.001). Haplotype analysis also showed significant associations for both DG and SVO. Following permutation test adjustment, significance was observed for 2–5 locus haplotypes (pprosocial decision making converges with a large body of animal research showing that oxytocin is an important social hormone across vertebrates including Homo sapiens. Individual differences in prosocial behavior have been shown by twin studies to have a substantial genetic basis and the current investigation demonstrates that common variants in the oxytocin receptor gene, an important element of mammalian social circuitry, underlie such individual differences. PMID:19461999

  7. Development of a speech-based dialogue system for report dictation and machine control in the endoscopic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, B; Gergely, J; Toth, G; Pronai, L; Zagoni, T; Papik, K; Tulassay, Z

    2000-01-01

    Reporting and machine control based on speech technology can enhance work efficiency in the gastrointestinal endoscopy laboratory. The status and activation of endoscopy laboratory equipment were described as a multivariate parameter and function system. Speech recognition, text evaluation and action definition engines were installed. Special programs were developed for the grammatical analysis of command sentences, and a rule-based expert system for the definition of machine answers. A speech backup engine provides feedback to the user. Techniques were applied based on the "Hidden Markov" model of discrete word, user-independent speech recognition and on phoneme-based speech synthesis. Speech samples were collected from three male low-tone investigators. The dictation module and machine control modules were incorporated in a personal computer (PC) simulation program. Altogether 100 unidentified patient records were analyzed. The sentences were grouped according to keywords, which indicate the main topics of a gastrointestinal endoscopy report. They were: "endoscope", "esophagus", "cardia", "fundus", "corpus", "antrum", "pylorus", "bulbus", and "postbulbar section", in addition to the major pathological findings: "erosion", "ulceration", and "malignancy". "Biopsy" and "diagnosis" were also included. We implemented wireless speech communication control commands for equipment including an endoscopy unit, video, monitor, printer, and PC. The recognition rate was 95%. Speech technology may soon become an integrated part of our daily routine in the endoscopy laboratory. A central speech and laboratory computer could be the most efficient alternative to having separate speech recognition units in all items of equipment.

  8. The centrifugal sudden distorted wave method for chemical reactions: Application to Cl+HCl → ClH+Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaee, B.; Connor, J.N.L.; Schatz, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a method for calculating cross sections for atom plus diatom reactive collisions based on the centrifugal sudden distorted wave (CSDW) approximation. This method is nearly exact at low energies where reactive cross sections are small. Representative CPU times are given for applications of CSDW method to the Cl + HCl → ClH + Cl reaction using CDC 7600, Cyber 176, Cyber 205, Cray XMP and Cray 2 computers. Calculations show that the product HCl molecule is highly rotationally excited, (receiving 40-50% of the available energy) and that the shape of the product rotational distribution is nearly independent of reagent rotational state. The authors also calculated product differential cross sections and find them to be backward peaked at low energies

  9. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death: A nationwide cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads; Jabbari, Reza; Glinge, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Haunsø, Stig; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2015-05-01

    On the performance of an autopsy, sudden deaths may be divided into 2 classifications: (1) sudden cardiac deaths and (2) sudden noncardiac deaths (SNCDs). Families of SNCD victims should not be followed up as a means of searching for cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify both clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with SNCD. We identified 1039 autopsied cases of sudden death, of which 286 (28%) were classified as SNCD. The median age in the SNCD death population was 32 years. Increasing age was inversely associated with SNCD (odds ratio [OR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.98). Female sex, in-hospital location, and the absence of cardiac comorbidities were positively associated with SNCD (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3; OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.4; and OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5-7.4, respectively). The most common cause of SNCD was pulmonary disease (n = 115 [40%]). Sudden death among individuals aged caused by noncardiac diseases in 28% of cases. Risk factors were female sex, age, and the absence of cardiac comorbidities. These data may guide future strategies for the follow-up of family members of nonautopsied sudden death victims, improve risk stratification, and influence public health strategies. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic review of the incidence of sudden cardiac death in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Melissa H; Fonarow, Gregg C; Peterson, Eric D; Curtis, Anne B; Hernandez, Adrian F; Sanders, Gillian D; Thomas, Kevin L; Hayes, David L; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2011-02-15

    The need for consistent and current data describing the true incidence of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and/or sudden cardiac death (SCD) was highlighted during the most recent Sudden Cardiac Arrest Thought Leadership Alliance's (SCATLA) Think Tank meeting of national experts with broad representation of key stakeholders, including thought leaders and representatives from the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and the Heart Rhythm Society. As such, to evaluate the true magnitude of this public health problem, we performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE using the MeSH headings, "death, sudden" OR the terms "sudden cardiac death" OR "sudden cardiac arrest" OR "cardiac arrest" OR "cardiac death" OR "sudden death" OR "arrhythmic death." Study selection criteria included peer-reviewed publications of primary data used to estimate SCD incidence in the U.S. We used Web of Science's Cited Reference Search to evaluate the impact of each primary estimate on the medical literature by determining the number of times each "primary source" has been cited. The estimated U.S. annual incidence of SCD varied widely from 180,000 to >450,000 among 6 included studies. These different estimates were in part due to different data sources (with data age ranging from 1980 to 2007), definitions of SCD, case ascertainment criteria, methods of estimation/extrapolation, and sources of case ascertainment. The true incidence of SCA and/or SCD in the U.S. remains unclear, with a wide range in the available estimates that are badly dated. As reliable estimates of SCD incidence are important for improving risk stratification and prevention, future efforts are clearly needed to establish uniform definitions of SCA and SCD and then to prospectively and precisely capture cases of SCA and SCD in the overall U.S. population. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sudden cardiac death in athletes and its preventive strategies: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Halabchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in sport, although rare, but is a tragic event, attracting the media and public attention. Sport and exercise may act as a trigger for sudden cardiac death. Risk of sudden death in young athletes with cardiovascular disease is 2.5 times more frequent than non-athlete individuals. More than 90% of cases of sudden death occur during or immediately after training or competition. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in any population, including athletes, is related to multiple factors such as gender, age, race, nationality, diagnostic screening methods and preventive measures for sudden cardiac death. Otherwise, incidence rate of sudden cardiac death is linked to the used definition and method of diagnosis. Different cardiovascular disorders may result in death of young athletes and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary anomalies, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and aortic rupture are among the most common causes. Marfan syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy, viral myocarditis, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome, congenital long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and commotio cordis are reported as other etiologies. In older athletes (more than 35 years, ischemic coronary heart disease is responsible for majority of the cases similar to the general population. Because the outcome of sudden cardiac arrest in sports is very poor except in few cases, proper national strategies are needed to diminish the burden of sudden death in young athletes. It seems that there are two main strategies to achieve this goal: A Primary prevention with use of purposeful pre-participation evaluation programs. This evaluation should focuss on the proper history and physical examination. Nevertheless, there is significant debate between American and European countries regarding the use of paraclinical investigations (especially ECG. American heart association does not recommend ECG as an essential part of evaluation. In contrast, European

  12. Cardiomyopathies as a Cause of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD in Egypt: Recognition and Preventive Strategies Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Fnon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the epidemiological characteristics and pathological features of different types of cardiomyopathies in Egypt, highlighting the role of the forensic pathologist in identifying cases of cardiomyopathies and initiating for their families a possible genetic study aiming at prevention of sudden death. All cases with sudden cardiac death (SCD due to cardiomyopathies during the period from the beginning of January 2010 until the end of December 2014 (5 years were included in this study. All hearts underwent detailed gross and histological examination. Circumstances of death, medical history, and post-mortem pathological findings were thoroughly  investigated. Out of 535 cases of sudden cardiac death, there were 22 cases (4.1% diagnosed as having cardiomyopathies; sudden death was their first presentation. Eighteen cases (81.8% were male, with the 4th decade (11 cases, 50% being the most affected age; severe physical activity and exertion were evident in death circumstances of 14 cases (63.6%; pathological evaluation revealed that hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was the most frequent type, being diagnosed in 10 cases (45%. Cardiomyopathies are an infrequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Most deaths are in children and adults, so cases are of high social impact that demands multidisciplinary research and resources. In all cases of SCD, forensic autopsy should be done. Forensic study is the key to identifying an affected family and the starting point regarding assessing them.

  13. Catatonia Secondary to Sudden Clozapine Withdrawal: A Case with Three Repeated Episodes and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bilbily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search identified 9 previously published cases that were considered as possible cases of catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal. Two of these 9 cases did not provide enough information to make a diagnosis of catatonia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5. The Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR Causality Scale was modified to assess ADRs secondary to drug withdrawal. From the 7 published cases which met DSM-5 catatonia criteria, using the modified scale, we established that 3 were definitive and 4 were probable cases of catatonia secondary to clozapine withdrawal. A new definitive case is described with three catatonic episodes which (1 occurred after sudden discontinuation of clozapine in the context of decades of follow-up, (2 had ≥3 of 12 DSM-5 catatonic symptoms and serum creatinine kinase elevation, and (3 required medical hospitalization and intravenous fluids. Clozapine may be a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor agonist; sudden clozapine withdrawal may explain a sudden decrease in GABA activity that may contribute to the development of catatonic symptoms in vulnerable patients. Based on the limited information from these cases, the pharmacological treatment for catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal can include benzodiazepines and/or restarting clozapine.

  14. Is there an association between depression and cardiovascular mortality or sudden death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboni, Paolo; Favaron, Elisa; Paparella, Nelly; Sciammarella, Massimo; Pedaci, Mario

    2008-04-01

    The results of many studies and recent meta-analyses strongly suggest that depression is a risk factor for total and cardiovascular mortality, both in the general population and in patients with known heart disease. By contrast, the association between depression and sudden death or cardiac arrest has received little attention. This issue has been investigated in three recent studies; two were carried out in the general population and showed depression to be a independent risk factor for sudden death. The other study was carried out in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI); the adjusted relative risk (RR) of sudden death was significantly increased in depressed patients but, after adjustment for dyspnea/fatigue (a common symptom for heart disease and depression), the RR was no longer statistically significant. However, when the cognitive-affective depressive symptoms were examined separately from the somatic ones (dyspnea/fatigue, etc.), there was a clear trend for an association between cognitive-affective symptoms and sudden death. Because a risk factor can be defined as 'independent' only in a multivariate analysis in which variables are dichotomized, the presence of common symptoms between heart disease and depression represents a very difficult problem. However, taken together, the results of studies carried out in the general population and in patients with AMI strongly suggest that depression is a significant risk factor for sudden death.

  15. Sudden death caused by 1,1-difluoroethane inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhenggang; Avella, Joseph; Wetli, Charles V

    2004-05-01

    A 20-year-old man was found dead on the floor next to a computer, with a nearly full can of "CRC Duster" dust remover located next to the deceased on the floor, and an empty can of the same product on the computer desk. Toxicologic evaluation using either gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) method identified the active ingredient 1,1-difluoroethane (Freon 152a) in all tissues analyzed. Tissue distribution studies revealed highest concentration in central blood, lung, and liver. It is believed that the 1,1-difluoroethane inhalation was the cause of death.

  16. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  17. Numerical simulation of the transport phenomena due to sudden heating in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, S.Y.; Zheng, G.Y.; Wang, B.X.; Yang, R.G.; Xia, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    Such process as wet porous media suddenly heated by hot fluids frequently occurs in nature and in industrial applications. The three-variable simulation model was developed to predict violent transport phenomena due to sudden heating in porous media. Two sets of independent variables were applied to different regions in porous media in the simulation. For the wet zone, temperature, wet saturation and air pressure were used as the independent variables. For the dry zone, the independent variables were temperature, vapor pressure and air pressure. The model simulated two complicated transport processes in wet unsaturated porous media which is suddenly heated by melting metal or boiling water. The effect of the gas pressure is also investigated on the overall transport phenomena.

  18. Approximations of time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanics: adiabatic versus sudden processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnichuk, S V; Dijk, W van; Nogami, Y

    2005-01-01

    By means of a one-dimensional model of a particle in an infinite square-well potential with one wall moving at a constant speed, we examine aspects of time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanics such as adiabatic and sudden processes. The particle is assumed to be initially in the ground state of the potential with its initial width. The time dependence of the wavefunction of the particle in the well is generally more complicated when the potential well is compressed than when it is expanded. We are particularly interested in the case in which the potential well is suddenly compressed. The so-called sudden approximation is not applicable in this case. We also study the energy of the particle in the changing well as a function of time for expansion and contraction as well as for expansion followed by contraction and vice versa

  19. Alternative research funding to improve clinical outcomes: model of prediction and prevention of sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerburg, Robert J; Ullmann, Steven G

    2015-04-01

    Although identification and management of cardiovascular risk markers have provided important population risk insights and public health benefits, individual risk prediction remains challenging. Using sudden cardiac death risk as a base case, the complex epidemiology of sudden cardiac death risk and the substantial new funding required to study individual risk are explored. Complex epidemiology derives from the multiple subgroups having different denominators and risk profiles, while funding limitations emerge from saturation of conventional sources of research funding without foreseeable opportunities for increases. A resolution to this problem would have to emerge from new sources of funding targeted to individual risk prediction. In this analysis, we explore the possibility of a research funding strategy that would offer business incentives to the insurance industries, while providing support for unresolved research goals. The model is developed for the case of sudden cardiac death risk, but the concept is applicable to other areas of the medical enterprise. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Sudden Cardiac Arrest due to Brugada Syndrome: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Soleimanirad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brugada Syndrome is a rare cause of sudden cardiac arrest and has a unique ECG pattern. In fact, with ST-segment elevation down sloping in the right precordial leads (v1-v3, RBBB pattern in lateral leads and J-point elevation is revealed. We must notice and avoid trigger factors of this syndrome during general anesthesia. Patient is a 39 old man who attended to emergency department with sudden cardiac arrest and resuscitate. He was transferred to ICU for management of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Complementary studies concluded the diagnosis of Brugada syndrome. We must consider Brugada syndrome within patients with family history of sudden cardiac arrest. Moreover, we must avoid trigger factors of this syndrome such as fever, bradicardia and electrolyte abnormality (specialy Na, Ca abnormalities during general anesthesia and if they appear, we should treat them.

  1. How far is it to a sudden future singularity of pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaPbrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz; Hendry, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the constraints coming from current observations of type Ia supernovae on cosmological models which allow sudden future singularities of pressure (with the scale factor and the energy density regular). We show that such a sudden singularity may happen in the very near future (e.g. within 10x10 6 years) and its prediction at the present moment of cosmic evolution cannot be distinguished, with current observational data, from the prediction given by the standard quintessence scenario of future evolution. Fortunately, sudden future singularities are characterized by a momentary peak of infinite tidal forces only; there is no geodesic incompleteness, which means that the evolution of the universe may eventually be continued throughout until another 'more serious' singularity such as a big crunch or big rip

  2. Anti-HERG activity and the risk of drug-induced arrhythmias and sudden death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, M L; Pettersson, M; Meyboom, R H B

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Drug-induced QTc-prolongation, resulting from inhibition of HERG potassium channels may lead to serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. We studied the quantitative anti-HERG activity of pro-arrhythmic drugs as a risk factor for this outcome in day-to-day practice. METHODS...... defined as reports of cardiac arrest, sudden death, torsade de pointes, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia (n = 5591), and compared with non-cases regarding the anti-HERG activity, defined as the effective therapeutic plasma concentration (ETCPunbound) divided by the HERG IC50 value......, of suspected drugs. We identified a significant association of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.89-1.98) between the anti-HERG activity of drugs, measured as log10 (ETCPunbound/IC50), and reporting of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death to the WHO-UMC database. CONCLUSION: Anti-HERG activity is associated...

  3. Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included....... Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10......% of all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during...

  4. Screening and risk evaluation for sudden cardiac death in ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proclemer, Alessandro; Lewalter, Thorsten; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this EHRA survey was to examine the current clinical practice of screening and risk evaluation for sudden cardiac death in ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy with a focus on selection of candidates for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy, timing of ICD...... implantation, and use of non-invasive and invasive diagnostic tests across Europe. A systematic screening programme for sudden cardiac death existed in 19 out of 31 centres (61.3%). Implantation of ICDs according to the inclusion criteria of MADIT-II and SCD-HeFT trials was reported in 30 and 29% of centres......, respectively, followed by MADIT-CRT (18%), COMPANION (16%), and combined MADIT and MUSTT (7%) indications. In patients with severe renal impairment, ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden death was always avoided in 8 centres (33.3%), was not used only if creatinine level was >2.5 mg/dL in 10...

  5. Sudden headache, third nerve palsy and visual deficit: thinking outside the subarachnoid haemorrhage box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Lambert, John

    2013-11-01

    A 75-year-old lady presented with sudden severe headache and vomiting. Examination was normal, and CT and lumbar puncture not convincing for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Shortly thereafter, she developed painless diplopia. Examination confirmed right third cranial nerve palsy plus homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia. Urgent cerebral MRI with angiography was requested to assess for a possible posterior communicating artery aneurysm, but revealed an unsuspected pituitary mass. Pituitary adenoma with pituitary apoplexy was diagnosed. Pituitary apopolexy is a syndrome comprising sudden headache, meningism, visual and/or oculomotor deficits, with an intrasellar mass. It is commonly due to haemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary adenoma. Treatment includes prompt steroid administration, and potentially surgical decompression. While subarachnoid haemorrhage is an important, well-recognised cause of sudden severe headache, other aetiologies, including pituitary apoplexy, should be considered and sought.

  6. Left Ventricular Aneurysm: Sudden Unexpected Deaths in a 29-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srettabunjong, Supawon

    2018-05-01

    Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) is an abnormal dilated heart structure, either congenital or acquired. LVA is a rare cardiac condition with no symptoms in most cases, thus occasionally diagnosed during investigations of other diseases. Its association with certain cardiac complications and sudden cardiac deaths has been reported. However, its role as a cause of sudden unexpected death is rare. The author reported a sudden cardiac death in a 29-year-old man with LVA. Without a significant coronary artery disease and known etiologies of LVA, such an abnormal heart structure in the present case was considered congenital LVA. As no other possible mechanisms of death could be identified other than LVA with its associated pathologic lesions, mural thrombi, and dilated cardiomegaly, his death was attributable to fatal cardiac arrhythmia (most commonly ventricular tachycardia) secondary to LVA. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Stratification of the Risk of Sudden Death in Nonischemic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Pimentel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant therapeutic advancements, heart failure remains a highly prevalent clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In 30%-40% patients, the etiology of heart failure is nonischemic. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD is capable of preventing sudden death and decreasing total mortality in patients with nonischemic heart failure. However, a significant number of patients receiving ICD do not receive any kind of therapy during follow-up. Moreover, considering the situation in Brazil and several other countries, ICD cannot be implanted in all patients with nonischemic heart failure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify patients at an increased risk of sudden death because these would benefit more than patients at a lower risk, despite the presence of heart failure in both risk groups. In this study, the authors review the primary available methods for the stratification of the risk of sudden death in patients with nonischemic heart failure.

  8. Ependymal alterations in sudden intrauterine unexplained death and sudden infant death syndrome: possible primary consequence of prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matturri Luigi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ependyma, the lining providing a protective barrier and filtration system separating brain parenchyma from cerebrospinal fluid, is still inadequately understood in humans. In this study we aimed to define, by morphological and immunohistochemical methods, the sequence of developmental steps of the human ependyma in the brainstem (ventricular ependyma and thoracic spinal cord (central canal ependyma of a large sample of fetal and infant death victims, aged from 17 gestational weeks to 8 postnatal months. Additionally, we investigated a possible link between alterations of this structure, sudden unexplained fetal and infant death and maternal smoking. Results Our results demonstrate that in early fetal life the human ependyma shows a pseudostratified cytoarchitecture including many tanycytes and ciliated cells together with numerous apoptotic and reactive astrocytes in the subependymal layer. The ependyma is fully differentiated, with a monolayer of uniform cells, after 32 to 34 gestational weeks. We observed a wide spectrum of ependymal pathological changes in sudden death victims, such as desquamation, clusters of ependymal cells in the subventricular zone, radial glial cells, and the unusual presence of neurons within and over the ependymal lining. These alterations were significantly related to maternal smoking in pregnancy. Conclusions We conclude that in smoking mothers, nicotine and its derivatives easily reach the cerebrospinal fluid in the fetus, immediately causing ependymal damage. Consequently, we suggest that the ependyma should be examined in-depth first in victims of sudden fetal or infant death with mothers who smoke.

  9. Definition of Sudden Infant Death and Sudden Intrauterine Unexpected Death Syndromes (SIDS and SIUDS with Regard to the Anatomo-Pathological Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ottaviani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700–2,000. Yet despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS, has a six-eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS-SIUDS complex is The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa. Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists will become necessary.

  10. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Ichinose, Nobuyasu

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss. Forty consecutive patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (20 males and 20 females; age range 11-82 years), 40 age-matched control subjects, and 5 patients with Meniere's disease were examined using the same imaging protocol on a 1.5-T MR system. Pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence (3D SPGR; TR/TE=23/10 ms, no. of excitations=1, flip angle=30 ) images were obtained using a voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm 3 . Contrast enhancement in the area of the endolymphatic sac was assessed by two radiologists, and the frequency of contrast enhancement was compared between the three study groups. Enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 30 of the 40 patients with sudden hearing loss (75%). Twenty of these 30 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, and 1 patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. Only 1 of the 5 patients with Meniere's disease showed enhancement. Nine of the 40 control subjects (22.5%) showed enhancement (bilateral enhancement in 5 subjects, unilateral in 4). The frequency of enhancement in patients with sudden hearing loss was significantly higher than that in control subjects (P<0.0001) or patients with Meniere's disease (P<0.05). The frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac is significantly increased in patients with sudden hearing loss, but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between this finding and the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. (orig.)

  11. Experimental investigation on hydrodynamic phenomena associated with a sudden gas expansion in a narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semeraro, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    corrugation The latter is influenced by the behavior of the liquid structures dispersed in gas matrix and the interface length is mainly proportional to the number of liquid structures. The distribution of the volume fraction suggests a model of channel flow consisting of three regions: the regular profile of peaks, the spike region and the structures tails. We also investigated the sensibility to surface tension performing tests where water was replaced by a solution of water and ethanol (lower surface tension). The results confirm that with a lower surface tension, the fluids configuration is more unstable. The interface corrugations are more pronounced and more secondary structures are produced, leading to a higher increment of the interface area. Hence, when analyzing the DAC scenario (with vapor/liquid sodium), using the hydrodynamic correlations obtained for the adiabatic air/water case would maximize the re-condensation effects. In conclusion this work could represent an experimental database to characterize the two-phase flow in sudden vapor expansion phenomena. On this purpose we provided suggestions and correlations to characterize the flow inside the channel. These observations and correlations could be fruitfully exploited to construct an interface area transport model to integrate in the previous computational models, in order to achieve a better description of the interface between vapor and liquid sodium, as expected in the DAC scenario. (author) [fr

  12. Genetic mutation in Korean patients of sudden cardiac arrest as a surrogating marker of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myoung Kyun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Park, Seung-Jung; Huh, June; Kim, June Soo; On, Young Keun

    2013-07-01

    Mutation or common intronic variants in cardiac ion channel genes have been suggested to be associated with sudden cardiac death caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. This study aimed to find mutations in cardiac ion channel genes of Korean sudden cardiac arrest patients with structurally normal heart and to verify association between common genetic variation in cardiac ion channel and sudden cardiac arrest by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans. Study participants were Korean survivors of sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. All coding exons of the SCN5A, KCNQ1, and KCNH2 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Fifteen survivors of sudden cardiac arrest were included. Three male patients had mutations in SCN5A gene and none in KCNQ1 and KCNH2 genes. Intronic variant (rs2283222) in KCNQ1 gene showed significant association with sudden cardiac arrest (OR 4.05). Four male sudden cardiac arrest survivors had intronic variant (rs11720524) in SCN5A gene. None of female survivors of sudden cardiac arrest had SCN5A gene mutations despite similar frequencies of intronic variants between males and females in 55 normal controls. Common intronic variant in KCNQ1 gene is associated with sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans.

  13. Nonischemic Left Ventricular Scar as a Substrate of Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death in Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Rigato, Ilaria; De Lazzari, Manuel; Susana, Angela; Niero, Alice; Pilichou, Kalliopi; Migliore, Federico; Rizzo, Stefania; Giorgi, Benedetta; De Conti, Giorgio; Sarto, Patrizio; Serratosa, Luis; Patrizi, Giampiero; De Maria, Elia; Pelliccia, Antonio; Basso, Cristina; Schiavon, Maurizio; Bauce, Barbara; Iliceto, Sabino; Thiene, Gaetano; Corrado, Domenico

    2016-07-01

    The clinical profile and arrhythmic outcome of competitive athletes with isolated nonischemic left ventricular (LV) scar as evidenced by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance remain to be elucidated. We compared 35 athletes (80% men, age: 14-48 years) with ventricular arrhythmias and isolated LV subepicardial/midmyocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (group A) with 38 athletes with ventricular arrhythmias and no LGE (group B) and 40 healthy control athletes (group C). A stria LGE pattern with subepicardial/midmyocardial distribution, mostly involving the lateral LV wall, was found in 27 (77%) of group A versus 0 controls (group C; P<0.001), whereas a spotty pattern of LGE localized at the junction of the right ventricle to the septum was respectively observed in 11 (31%) versus 10 (25%; P=0.52). All athletes with stria pattern showed ventricular arrhythmias with a predominant right bundle branch block morphology, 13 of 27 (48%) showed ECG repolarization abnormalities, and 5 of 27 (19%) showed echocardiographic hypokinesis of the lateral LV wall. The majority of athletes with no or spotty LGE pattern had ventricular arrhythmias with a predominant left bundle branch block morphology and no ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities. During a follow-up of 38±25 months, 6 of 27 (22%) athletes with stria pattern experienced malignant arrhythmic events such as appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock (n=4), sustained ventricular tachycardia (n=1), or sudden death (n=1), compared with none of athletes with no or LGE spotty pattern and controls. Isolated nonischemic LV LGE with a stria pattern may be associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death in the athlete. Because of its subepicardial/midmyocardial location, LV scar is often not detected by echocardiography. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Sudden Cardiac Death of a Body Packer Due to Cocaine Cardiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathi Pramanik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case of sudden cardiac death due to the effects of cocaine concealed in the body of a male drug smuggler in his 40s, a so-called body packer. A total of 57 body packets filled with cocaine powder were discovered in his body cavities. The detailed autopsy examination, including histopathology and toxicology findings, is discussed with the aim of describing the mechanism of cocaine intoxication in the body packer and an analysis of cocaine-induced cardiotoxicity and sudden death.

  15. Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Adults With Previous Hospital-Based Psychiatric Inpatient and Outpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Waagstein, Kristine; Winkel, Bo Gregers

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Psychiatric patients have premature mortality compared to the general population. The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in psychiatric patients is unknown in a nationwide setting. The aim of this study was to compare nationwide SCD incidence rates in young individuals with and......Introduction: Psychiatric patients have premature mortality compared to the general population. The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in psychiatric patients is unknown in a nationwide setting. The aim of this study was to compare nationwide SCD incidence rates in young individuals...

  16. [Sudden death in Versailles: A review of a cardiovascular treatrise by Dionis (1710)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P

    2018-02-01

    In 1710, the surgeon Pierre Dionis publishes a Dissertation on sudden death. Echoing and expanding the work of his Roman colleague Jean Marie Lancisi, he describes and analyzes dozens of cases of sudden death observed by him. A large number of cases was followed by autopsies allowing clinicopathological confrontation. Are proposed causes of death (pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic stroke, arterial rupture, etc.), pathophysiological mechanisms based on the ancient theory of humors, and preventive actions to avoid these unexpected deaths. In this article, we oppose these old data to those of current literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Excess sudden cardiac deaths after short-term clarithromycin administration in the CLARICOR trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Per; Hilden, J; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To elucidate potential mechanisms for the clarithromycin-induced excess mortality observed in the CLARICOR trial during 2.6 year follow-up of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Methods: Cox analyses using out-of-hospital death as a proxy for sudden death compared to in-hospital...... CV death in patients not on statins at trial entry (HR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.69–4.05, p administration was significantly associated with increased risk of sudden CV death in stable...

  18. Takayasu Arteritis of the Coronary Arteries Presenting as Sudden Death in a White Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavaty, Leigh; Diaz, Francisco; Sung, LokMan

    2015-09-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease that expresses chronic, large vessel inflammation. The etiology remains unclear and its presentation depends on the affected arteries. With coronary artery involvement, manifestations range from chest pain and shortness of breath to sudden death. We report a case of a 15-year-old white girl who presented with syncope immediately before passing. On autopsy, all 3 major coronary arteries grossly contained multiple proximal lesions that were consistent with Takayasu arteritis, microscopically. Takayasu arteritis solely affecting multiple coronary arteries is exceedingly rare. This report discusses the significance of coronary involvement in Takayasu arteritis at autopsy and sudden death.

  19. On a fine structure of a primary impulse of a magnetic storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A fine structure of a primary reverse impulse of a sudden commencement (SSC*) of a magnetic storm is analyzed. 200 cases of SSC* recorded in 1965-79 have been chosen for the investigation. It is shown that the preliminary impulse of the sudden copmencement of magnetic storms has a fine structure in the form of the train of damped oscillations in Pc2-3 range of < or approximately 2 min durations. The excitation of oscillations is related with the propagation of the fast magnetoacoustic wave which is generated during interaction of the interplanetary shock wave with the earth magnetosphere

  20. Frequency and analysis of non-clinical errors made in radiology reports using the National Integrated Medical Imaging System voice recognition dictation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyer, R E; Liddy, S; Torreggiani, W C; Buckley, O

    2016-11-01

    Voice recognition (VR) dictation of radiology reports has become the mainstay of reporting in many institutions worldwide. Despite benefit, such software is not without limitations, and transcription errors have been widely reported. Evaluate the frequency and nature of non-clinical transcription error using VR dictation software. Retrospective audit of 378 finalised radiology reports. Errors were counted and categorised by significance, error type and sub-type. Data regarding imaging modality, report length and dictation time was collected. 67 (17.72 %) reports contained ≥1 errors, with 7 (1.85 %) containing 'significant' and 9 (2.38 %) containing 'very significant' errors. A total of 90 errors were identified from the 378 reports analysed, with 74 (82.22 %) classified as 'insignificant', 7 (7.78 %) as 'significant', 9 (10 %) as 'very significant'. 68 (75.56 %) errors were 'spelling and grammar', 20 (22.22 %) 'missense' and 2 (2.22 %) 'nonsense'. 'Punctuation' error was most common sub-type, accounting for 27 errors (30 %). Complex imaging modalities had higher error rates per report and sentence. Computed tomography contained 0.040 errors per sentence compared to plain film with 0.030. Longer reports had a higher error rate, with reports >25 sentences containing an average of 1.23 errors per report compared to 0-5 sentences containing 0.09. These findings highlight the limitations of VR dictation software. While most error was deemed insignificant, there were occurrences of error with potential to alter report interpretation and patient management. Longer reports and reports on more complex imaging had higher error rates and this should be taken into account by the reporting radiologist.

  1. How much is our fairness worth? The effect of raising stakes on offers by Proposers and minimum acceptable offers in Dictator and Ultimatum Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Novakova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether people respond differently to low and high stakes in Dictator and Ultimatum Games. We assumed that if we raised the stakes high enough, we would observe more self-orientated behavior because fairness would become too costly, in spite of a possible risk of a higher punishment. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by a sample of 524 university students of biology. A mixed linear model was used to test the relation between the amount at stake (CZK 20, 200, 2,000, 20,000 and 200,000, i.e., approximately $1-$10,000 and the shares, as well as the subjects' gender and the design of the study (single vs. multiple games for different amounts. RESULTS: We have discovered a significant relationship between the amount at stake and the minimum acceptable offer in the Ultimatum Game and the proposed shares in both Ultimatum and Dictator Games (p = 0.001, p<0.001, p = 0.0034. The difference between playing a single game or more games with several amounts at stake did not influence the relation between the stakes and the offered and minimum acceptable shares. Women proved significantly more generous than men in their offers in the Dictator Game (p = 0.007. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that people's behavior in the Dictator and Ultimatum Games depends on the amount at stake. The players tended to lower their relative proposed shares, as well as their relative minimum acceptable offers. We propose that the Responders' sense of equity and fair play depends on the stakes because of the costs of maintaining fairness. However, our results also suggest that the price of fairness is very high and that it is very difficult, probably even impossible, to buy the transition of Homo sociologicus into Homo economicus.

  2. Assessing the initial adaptability and impact of a mobile dictation and reporting system in the radiology department of an academic hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Raja L.; Dave, Jaydev K.

    2017-03-01

    Mobile Radiologist 360, rolled out as part of the voice dictation system upgrade from Nuance Powerscribe 5.0 to PS360 allows an attending radiologist to edit and sign-off a report assigned by a trainee or that has been started by the radiologist on a workstation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adoptability and impact of this application. Report turnaround time data was extracted from the RIS (GE-Centricity RIS-IC) for 60 days before- (period-1) and 60 days after- (period-2) the application implementation and then, for 60 days after end of period-2 (period-3). Adoptability of the application was evaluated using two metrics; first, the number of attending radiologists who signed-off reports using the application in periods 2 and 3, and second, the proportion of reports signed-off by the top five users of the mobile application using the application. Impact of the application was evaluated by comparing the time from initial dictation to final sign-off (time_PF) for the top five users of the mobile application to the time_PF by other five radiologists who did not use the application. 41% radiologists used the mobile application at least once during the study period; the proportion of cases signed-off using the mobile application ranged from 1% to 20%. ANOVA revealed no statistically significant effect of the mobile application system on time_PF (p=0.842). In conclusion, there was low initial adoptability and no impact of the mobile dictation and reporting system in reducing the time from initial dictation to final sign-off on a radiology report.

  3. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    astogeny in S. pistillata is a regulated process expressed through programmed events and not directly related to simple energy trade-off principles or to environmental conditions, and that branch polarity and apical dominance do not dictate colony astogeny. Therefore, plasticity and astogenic disparities encompass a diversity of genetic (fixed and flexible induced responses.

  4. Distributed Decision Making and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rantzer, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Decision Making and Control is a mathematical treatment of relevant problems in distributed control, decision and multiagent systems, The research reported was prompted by the recent rapid development in large-scale networked and embedded systems and communications. One of the main reasons for the growing complexity in such systems is the dynamics introduced by computation and communication delays. Reliability, predictability, and efficient utilization of processing power and network resources are central issues and the new theory and design methods presented here are needed to analyze and optimize the complex interactions that arise between controllers, plants and networks. The text also helps to meet requirements arising from industrial practice for a more systematic approach to the design of distributed control structures and corresponding information interfaces Theory for coordination of many different control units is closely related to economics and game theory network uses being dictated by...

  5. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  6. Sudden oak death: disease trends in Marin county plots after one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Storer; Nina Maggi Kelly; Richard B. Standiford

    2002-01-01

    Sudden oak death has emerged as a major threat to the oak forests of California. In oaks and tanoak, this disease complex consists of a previously unreported fungus-like pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, insects (bark and ambrosia beetles), and a secondary fungus, Hypoxylon thouarsianum. Species monitored in this study were coast...

  7. SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH AND THE USE OF IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER-DEFIBRILLATORS IN PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SILKA, MJ; KRON, J; DUNNIGAN, A; DICK, M; BINKBOELKENS, M; ERICKSON, CC; JEDEIKIN, R; WETZEL, GT; VANHARE, GF; CAMPBELL, R; WALSH, E; SAUL, JP; SCHAFFER, MS; KARPAWICH, P; VOGEL, RL; BENSON, DW; DEAL, B; SCAGLIOTTI, D; STERBA, R; HORDOF, AJ; KRONGRAD, E; KANTER, RJ; EPSTEIN, M; COHEN, M; BEDER, S; HAMILTON, R; FOURNIER, A; HUBBARD, J; CHRISTIANSEN, JL; JENNINGS, J; VILLAFANE, J; PORTER, CBJ; CASE, C; GILLETTE, PC; BELAND, M; KUGLER, JD; OCONNOR, BK; ALLENDER, H; HERNDON, SP; SMITH, RT; BURTON, D; KURER, CC; BYRUM, C; GUAM, WE; FRIEDMAN, R; PERRY, JC; SCOTT, W; MEHTA, AV; PICKHOFF, AS; FISH, F; YEAGER, S; KAWABORI, [No Value; TRIPPLE, M; ROSENFELD, LE

    Background. During the past decade. the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has emerged as the primary therapeutic option for survivors of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Investigation of the clinical efficacy of these devices has primarily assessed outcome in adults with coronary artery

  8. Damage Detection on Sudden Stiffness Reduction Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden stiffness reduction in a structure may cause the signal discontinuity in the acceleration responses close to the damage location at the damage time instant. To this end, the damage detection on sudden stiffness reduction of building structures has been actively investigated in this study. The signal discontinuity of the structural acceleration responses of an example building is extracted based on the discrete wavelet transform. It is proved that the variation of the first level detail coefficients of the wavelet transform at damage instant is linearly proportional to the magnitude of the stiffness reduction. A new damage index is proposed and implemented to detect the damage time instant, location, and severity of a structure due to a sudden change of structural stiffness. Numerical simulation using a five-story shear building under different types of excitation is carried out to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed damage index for the building at different damage levels. The sensitivity of the damage index to the intensity and frequency range of measurement noise is also investigated. The made observations demonstrate that the proposed damage index can accurately identify the sudden damage events if the noise intensity is limited.

  9. Relationships between sudden weather changes in summer and mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986–2005

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2010), s. 539-551 ISSN 0020-7128 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mortality * Sudden change * Air temperature * Air pressure * Atmospheric front * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.805, year: 2010

  10. Phytophthora ramorum and sudden oak death in California: III. preliminary studies in pathogen genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo Garbelotto; David M. Rizzo; Katie Hayden; Monica Meija-Chang; Jennifer M. Davidson; Steven Tjosvold

    2002-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) has been shown to be caused by a new species of Phytophthora, P. ramorum. A basic understanding of the genetics of P. ramorum is critical to any management strategy. We have initiated a number of studies to examine species concepts, population biology and mating behavior of the pathogen....

  11. Susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel, a key foliar host of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Anacker; Nathan E. Rank; Daniel Hüberli; Matteo Garbelotto; Sarah Gordon; Rich Whitkus; Tami Harnik; Matthew Meshriy; Lori Miles; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by the water mold Phytophthora ramorum, is a plant disease responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of oak and tanoak trees. Some foliar hosts play a major role in the epidemiology of this disease. Upon infection by P. ramorum, these foliar hosts express non-fatal leaf lesions from which large...

  12. Sudden cardiac death in multiple sclerosis caused by active demyelination of the medulla oblongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Kusters, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is not uncommon in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is related to the involvement of the vegetative areas of cardiac innervations in the medulla oblongata. It has been suggested that this may contribute to the occurrence of sudden death in MS. In this case report, we

  13. Sports and Marfan Syndrome: Awareness and Early Diagnosis Can Prevent Sudden Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Mubadda A.; Alpert, Bruce S.

    2001-01-01

    Physicians who work with athletes play an important role in preventing sudden death related to physical activity in people who have Marfan syndrome. Flagging those who have the physical stigmata and listening for certain cardiac auscultation sounds are early diagnostic keys that can help prevent deaths. People with Marfan syndrome should be…

  14. Role of atrial fibrillation and atrioventricular conduction (including Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome) in sudden death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der; Herbschleb, J.N.; Hauer, R.N.W.; Robles de Medina, E.O.

    A short refractory period of the accessory pathway is considered a major threat for sudden death in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrial fibrillation. RR interval and QRS signal analysis together with signal analysis of a bipolar high right atrial electrogram were obtained in six

  15. Burden of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1 to 49 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    : All deaths in persons aged 1 to 49 years were included in 2007 to 2009. Death certificates were reviewed by 2 physicians. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries were read. Sudden unexpected death cases were identified and autopsy reports were collected...

  16. Sudden Cardiac arrest Risk profile in a group of amateur level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... males and females in this group of university basketball players showed varying signs of SCA risk, with the overall risk being reasonably low, albeit abnormalities were highlighted in some and Marfanoid characteristics were clearly evident in others. Key words: Sudden cardiac arrest; Basketball players, Marfan syndrome; ...

  17. Sudden gains in Cognitive Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for adult depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; DeRubeis, R.J.; Arntz, A.; Peeters, F.P.M.L.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the rates, baseline predictors and clinical impact of sudden gains in a randomized comparison of individual Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for adult depression. METHOD: 117 depressed outpatients received 16-20 sessions of either CT or IPT.

  18. Sudden gains in Cognitive Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for adult depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.; DeRubeis, R.J.; Arntz, A.; Peeters, F.P.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined the rates, baseline predictors and clinical impact of sudden gains in a randomized comparison of individual Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for adult depression. Method: 117 depressed outpatients received 16-20 sessions of either CT or IPT.

  19. Non-potassium sparing diuretics and sudden cardiac death in hypertensive patients : a pharmacoepidemiologic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Hoes (Arno)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis focus on the possible relationship between the use of non-potassium sparing diuretics and the occurrence of sudden cardiac death in hypertensive patients. To study this potential adverse drug reaction several methods were applied, including

  20. Sudden Oak Death in redwood forests: vegetation dynamics in the wake of tanoak decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Ramage; Kevin O’Hara

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of inquiry have concluded that tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) will continue to experience drastic population declines and may even disappear entirely from redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests as a result of the exotic disease sudden oak death (SOD) (Maloney and others 2005, McPherson and others 2005,...

  1. Assessing Methods to Protect Susceptible Oak and Tanoak Stands from Sudden Oak Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Landowners and managers have been seeking ways to protect susceptible oak (Quercus) species and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) from sudden oak death (SOD) caused by Phytophthora ramorum. Because disease epidemiology differs between tanoaks and susceptible oaks, we are testing different control strategies...

  2. Evaluation of HIV protease inhibitor use and the risk of sudden death or nonhemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, S W; Kamara, D A; Reiss, P

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have arisen about possible effects of protease inhibitors (PIs) on cardiac conductivity. We found no significant association between current or recent PI exposure and sudden death or nonhemorrhagic stroke (adjusted rate ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, .95-1.57), whereas cumulative...

  3. Contribution of inherited heart disease to sudden cardiac death in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Nynke; Tan, Hanno L.; Clur, Sally-Ann; Alders, Mariel; van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In children aged 1 to 18 years, the causes of sudden cardiac death may remain unresolved when autopsy results are negative. Because inherited cardiac diseases are likely, cardiologic and genetic investigations of relatives may still yield the diagnosis in these cases. Moreover, these

  4. Sudden Gains in Cognitive Therapy and Interpersonal Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Christiane; Aderka, Idan M.; Schreiber, Franziska; Stangier, Ulrich; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the effects of sudden gains on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial including individual cognitive therapy (CT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Method: Participants were 67 individuals with SAD who received 16 treatment sessions. Symptom severity at each session…

  5. Managing redwood ecosystems using Sudden Oak Death as a silvicultural tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick D. Euphrat

    2015-01-01

    In response to the wave of sudden oak death (SOD), caused by Phytophthora ramorum, sweeping the redwood forest ecosystems of California's North Coast, the role of foresters and other ecosystem managers is being tested. On Bear Flat Tree Farm, near Healdsburg, California, Forest, Soil & Water, Inc. (FSW) has conducted a multi-year,...

  6. Experiences, considerations and emotions relating to cardiogenetic evaluation in relatives of young sudden cardiac death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Christian; Onderwater, Astrid T.; van Langen, Irene M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Relatives of young sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims are at increased risk of carrying a potentially fatal inherited cardiac disease. Hence, it is recommended to perform an autopsy on the victim and to refer his or her relatives to a cardiogenetics clinic for a full evaluation to identify those at

  7. Evidence of the dynamic response of housing values to a sudden oak death infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey E. Englin; Janice. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the non-indigenous forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causes substantial mortality in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other oak species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. Quasi-experimental hedonic models examine the effect of SOD on property...

  8. Forecasting the future of coast live oak forests in the face of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letty B. Brown; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the potential short- and long-term impacts of sudden oak death (SOD) on forest structure and composition. This study began in 2002 to evaluate the effects of SOD on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) - California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) forests over a gradient of Phytophthora ramorum...

  9. Genetic epidemiology of the Sudden Oak Death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Mascheretti; P.J.P. Croucher; M. Kozanitas; L. Baker; M. Garbelotto

    2009-01-01

    A total of 669 isolates of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for Sudden Oak Death, were collected from 34 Californian forests and from the ornamental plant-trade. Seven microsatellite markers revealed 82 multilocus genotypes (MGs) of which only three were abundant (>10%). Iteratively collapsing based upon minimum ΦST, yielded five meta-samples and five...

  10. Circumstances and causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in sudden death survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreede-Swagemakers, J. J.; Gorgels, A. P.; Dubois-Arbouw, W. I.; Dalstra, J.; Daemen, M. J.; van Ree, J. W.; Stijns, R. E.; Wellens, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    To study the circumstances and medical profile of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) patients in whom resuscitation was attempted by the ambulance service, and to identify causes of SCA in survivors and factors that influence resuscitation success rate. During a five year period (1991-95)

  11. Dummy (pacifier) use and sudden infant death syndrome: Potential advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, R.S.C.; Moon, R.Y; L'Hoir, M.P.; Blair, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    The large decline in deaths due to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the last 20 years in many countries is largely due to risk-reduction advice resulting from observational studies that examined the relationship between infant care practices and SIDS. Most of this advice remains largely

  12. Six years of aerial and ground monitoring surveys for sudden oak death in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Bell; Jeff Mai; Zachary Heath; Erik Haunreiter; Lisa M. Fischer

    2008-01-01

    Aerial surveys have been conducted since 2001 to map recent hardwood mortality and consequently target ground visits for detection of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (SOD). Each year the aerial and ground surveys monitored much of California?s forests at risk for SOD resulting in new maps of hardwood mortality,...

  13. Thyroid gland and cerebella lesions: New risk factors for sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Cavalheiro, Esper A; de Albuquerque, Marly; de Albuquerque, Juliana; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; Arida, Ricardo M

    2011-02-01

    People with schizophrenia show a two to threefold increased risk to die prematurely than those without schizophrenia. Patients' life style, suicide, premature development of cardiovascular disease, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and sudden cardiac death are well-known causes of the excess mortality. The exact pathophysiological cause of sudden death in schizophrenia is unknown, but it is likely that cardiac arrhythmia and respiratory abnormalities play potential role. Some antipsychotics may be associated with cardiovascular adverse events (e.g., QT interval prolongation) and lesions in specific brain regions, such as cerebella may be associated with respiratory abnormalities, suggesting that metabolic and brain dysfunction could lead to sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of these findings and schizophrenia is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cerebella progressive atrophy has been observed in patients with schizophrenia, we propose in this paper that subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cerebella volume loss could be considered as new risk factor for sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laryngeal dystonia gravidarum: sudden onset of adductor spasmodic dysphonia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankola, Ashish; Sulica, Lucian; Murry, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the presence or absence of known factors related to onset of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) in a population with sudden onset during or after pregnancy. Retrospective review. A review of 350 patient records identified five patients with sudden onset of ADSD related to pregnancy. An age-matched group with sudden onset of ADSD not related to pregnancy served as controls. All subjects completed a 20-question survey of risk factors relevant to ADSD. The average age of onset in both groups was 31 years. Three had onset of ADSD in the postpartum period, the other two during pregnancy. Significantly increased avocational voice use was found in the pregnant group compared to the control group. There was a significant difference in the two groups regarding cumulative risk factors traditionally associated with ADSD. Sudden onset of ADSD can occur in pregnancy in women with clinical profiles that differ from traditional ADSD patients. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Leptomeningeal neurons are a common finding in infants and are increased in sudden infant death syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, Christian H.; Gross, Oliver; Nolte, Kay W.; Vennemann, Mechtild; Bajanowski, Thomas; Brinkmann, Bernd

    Developmental abnormalities of the brain, in particular, the brainstem potentially affecting centers for breathing, circulation and sleep regulation, are thought to be involved in the etiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In order to investigate whether leptomeningeal neurons could serve

  16. Mapping global potential risk of mango sudden decline disease caused by fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), sometimes referred to as mango wilt, is an important disease of mango caused by one of the most significant fungal species causing disease in woody plants, Ceratocystis fimbriata. This species is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Steb...

  17. Mapping sudden oak death risk nationally using host, climate, and pathways data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; William D. Smith

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, a team of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS) scientists developed a preliminary risk map to serve as the foundation for an efficient, cost effective sample design for the national sudden oak death detection survey. At the time, a need to initiate rapid detection in the face of limited information on Phytophthora ramorum...

  18. Fire behavioral changes as a result of sudden oak death in coastal California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Vlachovic; C. Lee; H. Scanlon; J.M. Varner; R. Glebocki; B.D. Graham; D.M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Field observations and anecdotal evidence suggest that sudden oak death (SOD), a disease caused by the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, may alter fuel loading in affected forests. Though it is reasonable to assume that a disease resulting in leaf blight, dead branches, and tree mortality would increase forest fuels, little work has been done to...

  19. Differences in investigations of sudden unexpected deaths in young people in a nationwide setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inherited disease may be causative in many young sudden unexpected death cases. Autopsy is essential in the counselling of the bereaved, as the family of the victim may be at risk too. In a nationwide setting operating under the same set of laws, we hypothesized that regional differen...

  20. Air-water flow in a vertical pipe with sudden changes of superficial water velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst-Michael Prasser; Eckhard Krepper; Thomas Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: For further model development and the validation of CFD codes for two-phase flow applications experiments were carried out with a sudden change of the superficial velocity of water. The tests were performed in a vertical pipe of 51.2 mm diameter. The gas was injected through 19 capillaries of 0.8 mm inner diameter equally distributed over the cross section of the pipe. Measurements were taken by two wire-mesh sensors (24 x 24 points, 2500 Hz) mounted in a short distance (16 mm) behind each other. This sensor assembly was placed 3030 mm downstream of the gas injection. The change of the superficial water velocity was produced by a butterfly valve, the flap of which was perforated. In this way, a rapid closure of the valve caused a jump-like reduction of the liquid flow rate. The valve was located upstream of the gas injection. In a second series of tests a jump-like increase of the water flow rate was studied. Time sequences of the gas fraction profile were calculated from the wire-mesh sensor data over sampling periods of 0.2 s per profile. To increase the statistical reliability of the data, the transient was repeated several times and the data superposed (ensemble averaging). Gas velocity distributions were determined by correlation of the signals with the measurements of the second sensor. The tests enable the observation of the restructuring process of bubbly flow between two steady state conditions. The process is subdivided into three main stages: (1) the undisturbed flow before the velocity jump, (2) the passage of the bubbly flow formed under initial conditions, but travelling with the new velocity and (3) the bubbly flow generated under the new boundary conditions. Transient behaviour between these stages is reflected by the measured data. Special attention was paid to stage 2, where the radial gas fraction profiles change shape due to the excitation of the force balance acting on the bubbles. The experimental results for

  1. Sudden versus gradual pressure wean from Nasal CPAP in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, S; Macomber, M; Bhutada, A; Rastogi, D; Rastogi, S

    2017-06-01

    In preterm infants, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is widely used for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. However, the strategies for successfully weaning infants off NCPAP are still not well defined and there remains considerable variation between the methods. The objective of this study is to determine whether gradual weaning of NCPAP pressure is more successful than sudden weaning off NCPAP to room air. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit on 70 preterm neonates who were born between 26 and 32 weeks gestation and required NCPAP for at least 48 h. When infants were stable on NCPAP at 0.21 FiO 2 and 5 cm H 2 O positive end expiratory pressure, neonates were randomized to the gradual wean group (reduction in pressure by 1 cm every 8 h until 3 cm H 2 0 was reached) or to sudden wean group (one time NCPAP removal to room air). The primary outcome was a success at the first trial to wean to room air. Secondary outcomes were a number of trials, and weight and postmenstrual age (PMA) at the time of successful wean. Total number of days on NCPAP and length of stay (LOS) in the hospital were also compared between the groups. Of the 70 infants included in the study, 35 were randomized to sudden group and 33 infants to gradual group (2 excluded for protocol deviation). In sudden and gradual groups, 14 and 22 infants, respectively, were weaned successfully in the first attempt (P=0.03). The infants were successfully weaned at 32.7±1.7 weeks versus 33.1±2.4 weeks (P=0.39) PMA and at a weight of 1651±290 g versus 1589±398 g (P=0.46) in the sudden and gradual groups, respectively. The total number of days on NCPAP was 27±19 days versus 32±24 days (P=0.38) and LOS was 63±25 days versus 63±22 days (P=0.99) in the sudden and gradual groups, respectively. Gradual weaning method was more successful as compared to sudden weaning method in the initial trial off NCPAP. There was no

  2. Nationwide survey of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro; Ihira, Masaru; Hashimoto, Shuji; Taniguchi, Koki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2014-08-01

    Rotavirus can cause severe complications such as encephalopathy/encephalitis and sudden unexpected death. The incidence of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis or sudden unexpected death remains unknown. To clarify the clinical features of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, we conducted a nationwide survey in Japan. A two-part questionnaire was designed to determine the number of the cases and the clinical features of severe cases of rotavirus infection, including encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, between 2009 and 2011. Of the 1365 questionnaires sent to hospitals, 963 (70.5%) were returned and eligible for analysis. We determined 58 cases of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and 7 cases of sudden unexpected death. These patients were diagnosed with rotavirus infection by immunochromatography. Although 36/58 (62.1%) encephalitis/encephalopathy patients had no sequelae, 15/58 (25.9%) patients had neurological sequelae, and 7/58 (12.1%) patients had fatal outcomes. Pleocytosis was observed in 9/40 (22.5%) patients and cerebrospinal fluid protein levels were elevated in only 4/40 (10%) patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pHdeath were 44.0 and 4.9 cases in Japan, respectively. Elevated LDH (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pH<7.15) were related to a poor prognosis of the encephalitis/encephalopathy. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sudden death in paediatrics as a traumatic experience for critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lígia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Pinto, Cândida

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that nurses working in critical care units and in particular, paediatric units, are at risk of developing symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (STS). However, little attention has been given to this phenomenon when associated with situations of sudden death in paediatrics. This study aimed to examine the impact of sudden death in paediatrics on nurses working in paediatrics critical care units and to explore nurses' experiences of this event. This study used a mixed-methods design. The Impact of Event Scale - Revised was used for investigating the presence of STS symptoms. In addition, an interview was conducted with six nurses. Fifty-seven percent of nurses responded to the surveys and six nurses were interviewed. The results showed that the sudden death of children and adolescents is an event that elicits symptoms of STS in nurses. The quantitative assessment, revealed that 19·4% presented total scores indicating high impact. The participants interviewed described experiences of subjective distress, such as intrusive thoughts, avoidance and hyperarousal. Other factors were also reported as influencing the experience of the sudden death of a child/adolescent, namely, the child's age, the cause of death and the family's reaction to the loss. According to the participants, the emotional impact was also determined by parenthood, previous training and professional experience. Sudden death in paediatric critical care units is one of the most difficult situations in nursing practice and elicits STS symptoms, which may severely impact the physical and psychological health of nurses and ultimately affect the quality of the provided care. This study emphasizes the need for promoting better conditions for professional practice, namely, with regard to emotional support, as well as training programmes for skills development in the area of management of traumatic situations and of communication with clients. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care

  4. Sudden aortic death-proposal for a comprehensive diagnostic approach in forensic and in clinical pathology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hans H.; Dedouit, Fabrice; Chappex, Nina; van der Wal, Allard C.; Michaud, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds Aortic rupture or dissection as immediate cause of sudden death is encountered in forensic and clinical autopsy practice. Despite a common denominator of 'sudden aortic death' (SAD), we expect that in both settings the diagnostic workup, being either primarily legal or primarily disease

  5. New relationships among the sudden oak death pathogen, bark and ambrosia beetles, and fungi colonizing coast live oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Erbilgin; Brice A. McPherson; Pierluigi Bonello; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) has had devastating effects on several oak species in many California coastal forests. Phytophthora ramorum has been identified as the primary causal agent of sudden oak death. While the pathogen may be capable of killing mature trees, it is likely that in nature opportunistic organisms play significant roles in the decline and...

  6. Metabolic Syndrome Increases the Risk of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Taiwan: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao

    2015-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss has been reported to be associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether metabolic syndrome increases the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Taiwan. A case-control study. Tertiary university hospital. We retrospectively investigated 181 cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and 181 controls from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, in southern Taiwan from 2010 to 2012, comparing their clinical variables. We analyzed the relationship between metabolic syndrome and sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III with Asian modifications. The demographic and clinical characteristics, audiometry results, and outcome were reviewed. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had a 3.54-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00-6.43, P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. With increases in the number of metabolic syndrome components, the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss increased (P for trend Vertigo was associated with a poor outcome (P = .02; 95% CI = 1.13~5.13, adjusted odds ratio = 2.39). The hearing loss pattern may influence the outcome of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (P Vertigo and total hearing loss were indicators of a poor outcome in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  7. Congenital and hereditary causes of sudden cardiac death in young adults: diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Garg, Anubhav; Patel, Smita; Melville, David M; Kazerooni, Ella A; Mueller, Gisela C

    2013-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is defined as death from unexpected circulatory arrest-usually a result of cardiac arrhythmia-that occurs within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms. Proper and timely identification of individuals at risk for sudden cardiac death and the diagnosis of its predisposing conditions are vital. A careful history and physical examination, in addition to electrocardiography and cardiac imaging, are essential to identify conditions associated with sudden cardiac death. Among young adults (18-35 years), sudden cardiac death most commonly results from a previously undiagnosed congenital or hereditary condition, such as coronary artery anomalies and inherited cardiomyopathies (eg, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy [ARVC], dilated cardiomyopathy, and noncompaction cardiomyopathy). Overall, the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in young adults are, in descending order of frequency, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery anomalies with an interarterial or intramural course, and ARVC. Often, sudden cardiac death is precipitated by ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and may be prevented with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Risk stratification to determine the need for an ICD is challenging and involves imaging, particularly echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Coronary artery anomalies, a diverse group of congenital disorders with a variable manifestation, may be depicted at coronary computed tomographic angiography or MR angiography. A thorough understanding of clinical risk stratification, imaging features, and complementary diagnostic tools for the evaluation of cardiac disorders that may lead to sudden cardiac death is essential to effectively use imaging to guide diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Determinants of occurrence and survival after sudden cardiac arrest-A European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Empana, Jean-Philippe; Blom, Marieke T; Bӧttiger, Bernd W

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The ESCAPE-NET project ("European Sudden Cardiac Arrest network- towards Prevention, Education and New Effective Treatments") aims to study: (1) risk factors and mechanisms for the occurrence of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the population, and (2) risk factors and treatment strategies...... for survival after SCA on a European scale. METHODS: This is an Horizon2020 funded program of the European Union, performed by a European public-private consortium of 16 partners across 10 EU countries. There are 11 deep-phenotyped SCA cohorts for the study of risk factors and treatment strategies for survival...... ongoing efforts on SCA outside Europe and within Europe including the EuReCa project....

  9. Prevention of sudden cardiac death in athletes, sportspersons and marathoners in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Vora

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD in athletes is significantly lower than the general population. However, when SCD occurs in an athlete during sporting event or training, it sends shockwaves in the society and raises questions about cardiovascular effects of sports and exercise. This document reviews the causes and mechanism of SCD in sports and exercise in young and older athletes. In the Indian context, we suggest a ‘pre-participation screening’ of young and older athletes and consider a ‘supervised, graded exercise regime’ for the uninitiated, older sports participant. Finally, the document proposes medical infrastructure required to successfully revive a victim of sudden cardiac arrest during a sporting event.

  10. Research on sudden environmental pollution public service platform construction based on WebGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, T. P.; Gao, D. Y.; Zhong, X. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to actualize the social sharing and service of the emergency-response information for sudden pollution accidents, the public can share the risk source information service, dangerous goods control technology service and so on, The SQL Server and ArcSDE software are used to establish a spatial database to restore all kinds of information including risk sources, hazardous chemicals and handling methods in case of accidents. Combined with Chinese atmospheric environmental assessment standards, the SCREEN3 atmospheric dispersion model and one-dimensional liquid diffusion model are established to realize the query of related information and the display of the diffusion effect under B/S structure. Based on the WebGIS technology, C#.Net language is used to develop the sudden environmental pollution public service platform. As a result, the public service platform can make risk assessments and provide the best emergency processing services.

  11. On the Question of the Diagnosis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Nisevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is one of the leading causes of postneonatal mortality of infants in most developed countries. This paper presents data on terminology and on the study of SIDS in developed countries, and also examines problems of SIDS diagnostic inRussia in comparison with the results of own researches, analyzes risk factors, which are universal as for SIDS, and also for perinatal and infant death in general. The large variability of SIDS diagnosis in Russia suggests that this diagnosis often does not comply with international standard: post-mortem examination of community-acquired sudden death cases is often carried out by a forensic expert, but not by a children's pathologist, and they do not use virological and microbiological methods of investigation. In some cases, there is no infant's record or case record from children's polyclinic.

  12. Sudden rotation reactive scattering: Theory and application to 3-D H+H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.M.; Lee, K.T.

    1980-01-01

    An approximate quantum mechanical theory of reactive scattering is presented and applied to the H+H 2 reaction in three dimensions. Centrifugal sudden and rotational sudden approximations are made in each arrangement channel, however, vibrational states are treated in a fully coupled manner. Matching of arrangement channel wave functions is done where the arrangement channel centrifugal potentials are equal. This matching is particularly appropriate for collinearly favored reactions. Integral and differential cross sections are calculated for the H+H 2 reaction for H 2 in the ground and first excited vibrational states. These calculations employ the Porter--Karplus potential energy surface mainly to allow for comparisons with previous accurate and approximate quantal and quasiclassical calculations

  13. [Analyses of clinical features and efficacy of sudden deafness with vertigo and dizziness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Han, Demin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Yongxin; Gong, Shusheng; Chen, Xiuwu; Meng, Xixi; Tang, Junxiang; Xiang, Jie; Jiang, Xuejun; Yang, Ning; Tian, Ying; Hui, Lian; Feng, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics and the effect of drug treatment for sudden hearing loss with vertigo or dizziness. In a prospective, randomized, single blinded randomized multicenter clinical study, patients with sudden deafness, ranging in age from 18 to 65 years old, with a duration less than 2 weeks, and with no any medical treatments were collected. In accordance with the hearing curve, those patients were divided into four types, i.e., low and intermediate frequency descent type; high frequency descent type; fall flat type; and total deafness type. Each type was treated by four different treatment options, according to the unified design of the random table, and randomly selected one of the options for treatment. The efficacy of the patients with sudden deafness with vertigo and dizziness was analyzed statistically after the follow-up for 4 weeks. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. In August 2007 to October 2011, 33 hospitals in the country included 1 024 patients with sudden deafness in line with the inclusion criteria, of whom 296 (28.91%) were accompanied by vertigo/dizziness symptoms, 126 were males and 170 were females, with an average age of (41.2 ± 13.5) years old. types of the different audiometric curves of sudden deafness, the occurrence of complete deafness with vertigo/dizziness was the highest (44.93%), followed by flat down type (25.87%), high frequency descent type (21.28%) and low intermediate frequency descent type (18.54%). After the standard treatment, the vertigo and dizziness symptoms of the sudden deafness patients could disappear, and the hearing in each group was obviously improved. The hearing curative effect on patients accompanied by vertigo/dizziness of low frequency and intermediate frequency descent type was the best, and the total efficiency can reach up to 94.74%, with the cure rate of 68.42%; followed by flat type, in which the total effective rate was 80.76%, with the recovery rate of 22.12%; and

  14. Labyrinthine enhancement of Gd-MR in patients with sudden hearing loss and vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.; Mark, A.S.; Chapman, J.C.; Nelson-Drake, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the past, no definitive diagnostic study was available to assess causes of sudden-onset hearing loss and vertigo. Our observations have led to an interesting new finding: labyrinthine enhancement on Gd-enhanced MR imaging in four patients with sudden unilateral hearing loss and/or vertigo. MR findings were correlated with audiologic and vestibular studies. All patients were studied with T2-weighted axial images through the whole brain and with Gd-DTPA-enhanced, 3-mm, axial, T1-weighted images through the temporal bone. No labyrinthine enhancement was seen in 20 control patients referred for other clinical problems. Gd-MR imaging might be able to distinguish patients with retrocochlear lesions from those in whom the abnormal process is in the labyrinth or is intraaxial

  15. Sudden shrinkage of free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap 15 years after maxilla reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Mochizuki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male displayed sudden shrinkage of a left free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, which had been grafted to his left maxilla 15 years previously. No post-reconstructive irradiation had been performed, and no late occlusion of the vascular anastomosis, local infection, recurrence of the maxillary cancer, or body weight loss was observed. However, the shrinkage amounted to approximately 50%. This is considerably more than previously reported cases of shrinkage of various free flaps, which ranged between 10% and 25%. The resultant depression was successfully augmented with a right free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. The residual fat volume of the previously grafted shrunken flap was revealed to be compatible with that of the newly harvested contralateral perforator flap. Thus, the volume of the previously grafted flap may reflect the status of the intact contralateral donor site, although the mechanism of sudden flap shrinkage is unclear.

  16. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification: a rare cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Susana; Lopes, José Manuel; Oliveira, José Bessa; Santos, Agostinho

    2010-07-27

    Unexpected child death investigation is a difficult area of forensic practice in view of the wide range of possible genetic, congenital, and acquired natural and nonnatural causes. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomic recessive disease usually diagnosed postmortem. Inactivating mutations of the ENPP1 gene were described in 80% of the cases with IIAC. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl submitted to a forensic autopsy due to sudden death and possible medical negligence/parents child abuse. Major alterations found (intimal proliferation and deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite around the internal elastic lamina and media of arteries; acute myocardial infarct, stenotic and calcified coronary artery; perivascular and interstitial myocardial fibrosis; and subendocardial fibroelastosis) were diagnostic of IIAC. We reviewed IIAC cases published in the English literature and highlight the importance of adequate autopsy evaluation in cases of sudden child death.

  17. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mimicking Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Daralammouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic disease of the heart. We report a rare case of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy mimicking an acute anterior myocardial infarction associated with sudden cardiac death. The patient presented with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction and significant elevation of cardiac enzymes. Cardiac catheterization showed some atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, without significant stenosis. Echocardiography showed left ventricular hypertrophy with a left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; the pressure gradient at rest was 20 mmHg and became severe with the Valsalva maneuver (100 mmHg. There was no family history of sudden cardiac death. Six days later, the patient suffered a syncope on his way to magnetic resonance imaging. He was successfully resuscitated by ventricular fibrillation.

  18. Sudden disruption of the cross-tail current in the magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z. W.

    2008-01-01

    A Hall magnetohydrodynamic simulation is used to study current dynamic processes with realistic magnetotail geometry. The simulation results indicate that sudden disruption of cross-tail current at the near Earth region inside 15R E is triggered by fast magnetic reconnection with the reconnection rate ∼0.15. The cross-tail current density exhibits an impulsive intensification in the late growth phase. The magnitude of the current increases more than one order within a few minutes. After the reconnection onset, the cross-tail current is suddenly disrupted in a few Alfven times, which is in good agreement with that from the satellite observations. Associated with the current disruption, the tail-like geometry becomes a dipolarlike structure with an impulsive enhancement of the magnetic field B z . Large increases of the electric field and Earthward bulk flow in this simulation are observed immediately after the reconnection onset

  19. Gender differences in sudden cardiac death in the young-a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Bjune, Thea

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young has been described with no distinction between genders. SCD occurs more often in men (SCDm) than women (SCDw), but this disparity is not understood and has not been investigated systematically in a nationwide setting. Our objective......=0.02) and died less often in a public place (16 vs. 26%, p=0.01). Age at death, ratios of autopsies and sudden unexplained deaths, and comorbidities, did not differ. Causes of SCD were largely comparable between genders. The incidence rate of SCDw was half of that of SCDm (1.8 vs. 3.6 per 100...... was to report gender differences in SCD in the young in a nationwide (Denmark) setting. Methods: All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years nationwide in Denmark between 2000 and 2009 were included. Death certificates and autopsy reports were obtained. The extensive health care registries in Denmark were used...

  20. Rationale and design of the Pan-African Sudden Cardiac Death survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonny, Aimé; Ngantcha, Marcus; Amougou, Sylvie Ndongo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The estimated rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Western countries ranges from 300,000 to 400,000 annually, which represents 0.36 to 1.28 per 1 000 inhabitants in Europe and the United States. The burden of SCD in Africa is unknown. Our aim is to assess the epidemiology of SCD...... of districts of interest will be checked for past medical history, circumstances of death, and autopsy report (if possible). We will also analyse the employment of resuscitation attempts during the time frame of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in various patient populations throughout African countries. CONCLUSION...... in Africa. METHODS: The Pan-Africa SCD study is a prospective, multicentre, community-based registry monitoring all cases of cardiac arrest occurring in victims over 15 years old. We will use the definition of SCD as 'witnessed natural death occurring within one hour of the onset of symptoms...

  1. Sudden fetal death due to dualism of the sino-atrial node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Roncati, Luca; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Taddei, Fabrizio; Piscioli, Francesco; Ottaviani, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    First, we report a sudden fetal death at 33(+3)weeks due to sino-atrial node dualism. The female stillborn was delivered by induced labor. The postmortem examination of the cardiac conduction system revealed a dualism of the sino-atrial node, associated with fragmentation of the atrio-ventricular node and His bundle. These abnormalities of the cardiac conduction system represent the morphological substrate for the development of malignant arrhythmias. In particular, the dualism of the sino-atrial node can cause the dissociation of the longitudinal nodal impulse into two distinct ways of different pulse generation, resulting in supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. This observation suggests new avenues of research on the pathogenesis of the sudden unexpected fetal death. Moreover, our findings confirm the need for an accurate postmortem examination, including serial sectioning of the cardiac conduction system, in every case of unexplained fetal death, following standardized autoptic protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived Stigma of Sudden Bereavement as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempt: Analysis of British Cross-Sectional Survey Data on 3387 Young Bereaved Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pitman, Alexandra; Rantell, Khadija; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Osborn, David

    2017-01-01

    The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high v...

  3. A cause of Sudden Cardiac Deaths on Autopsy Findings; a Four-Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dinesh; Sood, Divya; Pathak, P; Dongre, Sudhir D

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been steadily increasing all over the world. While knowing the cause of SCD is one of the favorites of the physicians involved with these cases, it is very difficult and challenging task for the forensic physician. The present report is a prospective study regarding cause of SCDs on autopsy examination in four-year period, Bangalore, India. The present prospective study is based on autopsy observations, carried out for four-year period from 2008 to 2011, and analyzed for cause of SCDs. The cases were chosen as per the definition of sudden death and autopsied. The material was divided into natural and unnatural groups. Finally, on histopathology, gross examination, hospital details, circumstantial, and police reports the cause of death was inferred. A total of 2449 autopsy was conducted of which 204 cases were due to SCD. The highest SCDs were reported in 50-60 years age group (62.24%; n-127), followed closely by the age group 60-69 (28.43%; n-58). Male to female ratio was around 10:1. The maximum number of deaths (n=78) was within few hours (6 hours) after the onset of signs and symptoms. In 24 (11.8%) cases major narrowing was noted in both the main coronaries, in 87 (42.6%) cases in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and in 18 (51.5%) cases in the right coronary artery (RCA). The major cardiac pathology resulting in sudden death was coronary artery disease (n-116; 56.86%) and myocardial infarction (n-104; 50.9%). most of the SCDs occurred in the place of residence (n-80; 39.2%) followed closely by death in hospital (n-49; 24.01%). Coronary occlusion was the major contributory cause of sudden death with cardiac origin and the highest number of deaths were reported in the age 50-59 years with male to female ratio of 10:1.

  4. Early response of pressurized hot water in a pipe to a sudden break. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Kan, C.Y.; Lienhard, J.H.

    1981-06-01

    Experimental and analytic studies that explain the details of early pressure variations during rapid depressurization in water-cooled reactors are presented as a means of assessing sudden break consequences in a coolant pipe. The report includes (1) a description of the experiment, (2) an analysis of the new bubble growth law for thermally controlled growth of vapor bubbles in an exponentially-varying pressure field, and (3) a review of previous studies and additional observations of blowdown behavior

  5. Incidence and causes of sudden death in U.S. college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Barry J; Haas, Tammy S; Murphy, Caleb J; Ahluwalia, Aneesha; Rutten-Ramos, Stephanie

    2014-04-29

    The goal of this study was to reliably define the incidence and causes of sudden death in college student-athletes. The frequency with which cardiovascular-related sudden death occurs in competitive athletes importantly influences considerations for pre-participation screening strategies. We assessed databases (including autopsy reports) from both the U.S. National Registry of Sudden Death in Athletes and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (2002 to 2011). Over the 10-year study period, 182 sudden deaths occurred (age 20 ± 1.7 years; 85% male; 64% white), 52 resulting from suicide (n = 31) or drug abuse (n = 21) and 64 probably or likely attributable to cardiovascular causes (6/year). Of these 64 athletes, 47 had a confirmed post-mortem diagnosis; the most common were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 21 and congenital coronary anomalies in 8. The 4,052,369 athlete participations (in 30 sports over 10 years) incurred mortality risks as follows: suicide and drugs combined, 1.3/100,000 athlete participation-years (5 deaths/year); and documented cardiovascular disease, 1.2/100,000 athlete participation-years (4 deaths/year). Notably, cardiovascular deaths were 5-fold more common in African-American athletes than in white athletes (3.8 vs. 0.7/100,000 athlete participation-years; p death due to cardiovascular disease is relatively low, with mortality rates similar to suicide and drug abuse, but less than expected in the general population, although highest in African-American athletes. A substantial minority of confirmed cardiovascular deaths would not likely have been reliably detected by pre-participation screening with 12-lead electrocardiograms. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Miscarriage, Stillbirth, Preterm Delivery, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Beth A.; Sokol, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with many other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research suggests that alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. This research has some inherent difficulties, such as the collection of accurate information about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and controlling for comorbid exposure...

  7. Noninvasive risk stratification for sudden death in asymptomatic patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, John; DeBiasi, Ralph M; Coplan, Neil L; Suri, Ranji; Keller, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) as the first clinical manifestation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a well-documented, although rare occurrence. The incidence of SCD in patients with WPW ranges from 0% to 0.39% annually. Controversy exists regarding risk stratification for patients with preexcitation on surface electrocardiogram (ECG), particularly in those who are asymptomatic. This article focuses on the role of risk stratification using exercise and pharmacologic testing in patients with WPW pattern on ECG.

  8. Critical properties of Sudden Quench Dynamics in the anisotropic XY Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hongli; Liu, Zhao; Fan, Heng; Chen, Shu

    2010-01-01

    We study the zero temperature quantum dynamical critical behavior of the anisotropic XY chain under a sudden quench in a transverse field. We demonstrate theoretically that both quench magnetic susceptibility and two-particle quench correlation can be used to describe the dynamical quantum phase transition (QPT) properties. Either the quench magnetic susceptibility or the derivative of correlation functions as a function of initial magnetic field $a$ exhibits a divergence at the critical poin...

  9. Tripartite states' Bell-nonlocality sudden death in an environmental spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Benqiong; Shao Bin; Zou Jian

    2010-01-01

    The tripartite nonlocality is investigated by the extent of violation of the Bell inequality in a three-qubit system coupled to an environmental Ising spin chain. In the weak-coupling region, we show that the tripartite Bell-inequality violations can be fully destroyed in a finite time under decoherence induced by the coupling with the spin environment. In addition, how the environment affects the Bell-nonlocality sudden death is demonstrated.

  10. Pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death in psychiatric patients: Two cases reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolism occurs usually by running a thrombus from the deep veins of the legs rarely periprostatic or periuteric veins. Virchow's triad of necessary conditions for the occurrence of thrombosis involves disruption of blood flow, disruption of blood chemistry and damage to the vessel wall. Venous thrombosis is often associated with the implementation of antipsychotic therapy. Case report. We reported two cases of sudden death of psychiatric patients who were in both cases fixed during hospitalization. The first case was a 26-year-old woman treated a year with the diagnose of postpartum reactive psychosis. She was hospitalized because of mental state worsening with a dominant depressed mood, visual and auditory hallucinations. Her therapy was determined by diazepam, clozapine, haloperidol and lamotrigine. Suddenly, the patient died on the fifth day of hospitalization. The autopsy showed massive thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery branches. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of therapeutic doses of antipsychotics. The second case was a-45-yearold men, a long-time alcoholic. On admission, the diagnosis of delirium tremens was established, and diazepam and haloperidol were administered. On the fifth day of hospitalization, he suddenly died. The autopsy showed thromboembolism of the branch of the pulmonary artery. Toxicological analysis established the presence of nordiazepam in urine (0.06 mg/L. Both patients were fixed during hospitalization. Conclusion. Both presented psychiatric patients were younger than 50 years, were not overweight, did not have changes of the venous blood vessels. Nowadays, when the issue of medical responsibility often arises in these and similar cases of sudden death in patients treated in psychiatric clinics, the questions on medical malpractice could be expected.

  11. 47. A cardiac center experience with Brugada syndrome who survived sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Suliman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is a heritable arrhythmia syndrome that is characterized by an electrocardiographic pattern consisting of coved-type ST-segment elevation (2 mm followed by a negative T wave in the right precordial leads, V1 through V3 (often referred to as type 1 Brugada electrocardiographic pattern, here we describe 3 cases of Brugada who survived sudden cardiac death (SCD cardiac center experience with survived Brugada syndrome patients – case series. First Case: The Father 45 years old male, presented in 2005 after involvement in unprovoked motor vehicle accident, the patient was the driver who lost consciousness and rushed to the hospital. On arrival to our ER and putting the patient on the bed, the ER doctor observed a brief episode of VF on the monitor. The patient was taken to the catheterization Lab , his coronaries were normal. The diagnosis of Brugada was established and the patient received a defibrillator. At That Time all family members were screened and were negative. Second Case: The Son of the first patient 5 years later his 23 years old male rushed to our ER after he lost consciousness, he was passenger in the car of his friend. Third Case: The pilot A military pilot aged a male 35 years old was in very good health when he lost consciousness and brought to the hospital after resuscitation in 2005. He had full invasive cardiac evaluation, subsequently he received a defibrillator in the same admission period, till 2015 he is doing fine. Brugada syndrome is associated with high tendency for sudden cardiac death. In our three cases the first clinical presentation was survived sudden cardiac death (SCD and all three male patients survived. We did not encounter a female patient who survived sudden cardiac death.

  12. Sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation attributed to anabolic steroid use in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfeld, Jana; Deal, Barbara J; Crawford, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote the growth of skeletal muscles and have many recognised cardiovascular effects. We report the clinical presentation and pathological findings of an adolescent male whose sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation was attributed to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The age of our patient reflects the usage of anabolic androgenic steroids among younger athletes and highlights the need for increased awareness among practitioners.

  13. Financial Fragility, Exchange-Rate Regimes, and Sudden Stops in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yao Grace Wang; Paula Hernandez-Verme; Raymond A. K. Cox Author E-mail:

    2012-01-01

    We model a typical Asian economy in crisis using a dynamic general equilibrium technique and establishing exchange rates from nontrivial fiatcurrency demands. Sudden stops/bank panics are possible and are essential for evaluating the merits of alternative exchange-rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indeterminacy of a continuum of equilibria. Social welfare and the scope of equilibria are also associated with the underlying policy regime and the built-in Sequent...

  14. Multiple Reserve Requirements, Exchange Rates, Sudden Stops and Equilibrium Dynamics in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme; Wen-Yao Wang

    2009-01-01

    We model a typical Asian-crisis-economy using dynamic general equilibrium tech-niques. Exchange rates obtain from nontrivial fiat-currencies demands. Sudden stops/bank-panics are possible, and key for evaluating the merits of alternative ex-change rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indetermi-nacy of the continuum of equilibria. The scope for existence and indeterminacy of equilibria and dynamic properties are associated with the underlying policy regime. Bindin...

  15. Application of linear and non-linear low-Re k-ε models in two-dimensional predictions of convective heat transfer in passages with sudden contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisee, M.; Hejazi, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons between heat transfer predictions and measurements for developing turbulent flow through straight rectangular channels with sudden contractions at the mid-channel section. The present numerical results were obtained using a two-dimensional finite-volume code which solves the governing equations in a vertical plane located at the lateral mid-point of the channel. The pressure field is obtained with the well-known SIMPLE algorithm. The hybrid scheme was employed for the discretization of convection in all transport equations. For modeling of the turbulence, a zonal low-Reynolds number k-ε model and the linear and non-linear low-Reynolds number k-ε models with the 'Yap' and 'NYP' length-scale correction terms have been employed. The main objective of present study is to examine the ability of the above turbulence models in the prediction of convective heat transfer in channels with sudden contraction at a mid-channel section. The results of this study show that a sudden contraction creates a relatively small recirculation bubble immediately downstream of the channel contraction. This separation bubble influences the distribution of local heat transfer coefficient and increases the heat transfer levels by a factor of three. Computational results indicate that all the turbulence models employed produce similar flow fields. The zonal k-ε model produces the wrong Nusselt number distribution by underpredicting heat transfer levels in the recirculation bubble and overpredicting them in the developing region. The linear low-Re k-ε model, on the other hand, returns the correct Nusselt number distribution in the recirculation region, although it somewhat overpredicts heat transfer levels in the developing region downstream of the separation bubble. The replacement of the 'Yap' term with the 'NYP' term in the linear low-Re k-ε model results in a more accurate local Nusselt number distribution. Moreover, the application of the non-linear k

  16. Sudden post-traumatic sciatica caused by a thoracic spinal meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariniello, Giuseppe; Malacario, Francesca; Dones, Flavia; Severino, Rocco; Ugga, Lorenzo; Russo, Camilla; Elefante, Andrea; Maiuri, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Spinal meningiomas usually present with slowly progressive symptoms of cord and root compression, while a sudden clinical onset is very rare. A 35-year-old previously symptom-free woman presented sudden right sciatica and weakness of her right leg following a fall with impact to her left foot. A neurological examination showed paresis of the right quadriceps, tibial and sural muscles, increased bilateral knee and ankle reflexes and positive Babinski sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of a spinal T11 meningioma in the left postero-lateral compartment of the spinal canal; at this level, the spinal cord was displaced to the contralateral side with the conus in the normal position. At surgery, a meningioma with dural attachment of the left postero-lateral dural surface was removed. The intervention resulted in rapid remission of both pain and neurological deficits. Spinal meningiomas may exceptionally present with sudden pain and neurological deficits as result of tumour bleeding or post-traumatic injury of the already compressed nervous structures, both in normal patients and in those with conus displacement or tethered cord. In this case, the traumatic impact of the left foot was transmitted to the spine, resulting in stretching of the already compressed cord and of the contralateral lombosacral roots. This case suggests that low thoracic cord compression should be suspected in patients with post-traumatic radicular leg pain with normal lumbar spine MRI. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Sudden death related to advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Lundholm, L.; Wingren, G.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced coronary atherosclerosis was produced in 30 mini-pigs by a combination of a hypercholesterolaemic diet and X-irradiation to the precordial region. Within 11-25 weeks after the irradiation, 13 of the 30 animals died a sudden death probably caused by coronary atherosclerosis. The contents of free and ester-bound cholesterol in the right coronary artery were significantly higher in the animals which died spontaneously than in surviving animals. In an untreated group of 12 animals 7 died whereas in a group treated with β-pyridylcarbinol only 1 out of 5 died. In the coronary arteries, the contents of both free and ester-bound cholesterol were significantly lower in the β-pyridylcarbinol-treated animals. In a sulfinpyrazontreated group 3 out of 8, and in a metoprolol-treated group 2 out of 5 animals died. None of these drugs reduced the accumulation of cholesterol in the coronary arteries. The rate of sudden death was 26 +- 6% (P<0.05) lower in the combined group of treated animals than in the untreated ones. By regular ECG recordings, signs which could predict the fatal outcome of the experiment were looked for. Although depressed ST segments were present before death in a few animals, this was not a regular phenomenon. It is concluded that advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs often leads to sudden death and that this animal model seems suitable for testing the potential therapeutic effects of drugs. (author)

  18. Discordance in investigator-reported and adjudicated sudden death in TIOSPIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Wise

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and consistent determination of cause of death is challenging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. TIOSPIR (N=17 135 compared the safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat 5/2.5 µg with HandiHaler 18 µg in COPD patients. All-cause mortality was a primary end-point. A mortality adjudication committee (MAC assessed all deaths. We aimed to investigate causes of discordance in investigator-reported and MAC-adjudicated causes of death and their impact on results, especially cardiac and sudden death. The MAC provided independent, blinded assessment of investigator-reported deaths (n=1302 and assigned underlying cause of death. Discordance between causes of death was assessed descriptively (shift tables. There was agreement between investigator-reported and MAC-adjudicated deaths in 69.4% of cases at the system organ class level. Differences were mainly observed for cardiac deaths (16.4% investigator, 5.1% MAC and deaths assigned to general disorders including sudden death (17.4% investigator, 24.6% MAC. Reasons for discrepancies included investigator attribution to the immediate (e.g. myocardial infarction (MI over the underlying cause of death (e.g. COPD and insufficient information for a definitive cause. Cause-specific mortality varies in COPD, depending on the method of assignment. Sudden death, witnessed and unwitnessed, is common in COPD and often attributed to MI without supporting evidence.

  19. Closing the gap: connecting sudden representational change to the subjective Aha! experience in insightful problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Amory H; Williams, Joshua; Wiley, Jennifer

    2018-01-18

    Two hallmarks of insightful problem solving are thought to be suddenness in the emergence of solution due to changes in problem representation, and the subjective Aha! Although a number of studies have explored the Aha! experience, few studies have attempted to measure representational change. Following the lead of Durso et al. (Psychol Sci 5(2):94-97, 1994) and Cushen and Wiley (Conscious Cognit 21(3):1166-1175, 2012), in this study, participants made importance-to-solution ratings throughout their solution attempts as a way to assess representational change. Participants viewed a set of magic trick videos with the task of finding out how each trick worked, and rated six action verbs for each trick (including one that implied the correct solution) multiple times during solution. They were also asked to indicate the extent to which they experienced an Aha! moment. Patterns of ratings that showed a sudden change towards a correct solution led to stronger Aha! experiences than patterns that showed a more incremental change towards a correct solution, or a change towards incorrect solutions. The results show a connection between sudden changes in problem representations (leading to correct solutions) and the subjective appraisal of solutions as an Aha! This offers the first empirical support for a close relationship between two theoretical constructs that have traditionally been assumed to be related to insightful problem solving.

  20. Effect of edaravone on acute brainstem-cerebellar infarction with vertigo and sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuta; Yabe, Takao; Okada, Kazunari; Nakamura, Yuka

    2014-06-01

    We report 2 cases with acute brainstem and brainstem-cerebellar infarction showed improvement of their signs and symptoms after administration of edaravone. Case 1, a 74-year-old woman who experienced sudden vertigo, also had dysarthria and left hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an abnormal region in the right ventrolateral medulla oblongata. The patient's vertigo and hemiplegia improved completely after treatment. Case 2, a 50-year-old man who experienced sudden vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), developed dysarthria after admission. MRI revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed dissection of the basilar artery and occlusion of the right anterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient's vertigo and hearing remarkably improved. We have described 2 patients whose early symptoms were vertigo and sudden SNHL, but who were later shown to have ischemic lesions of the central nervous system. Edaravone is neuroprotective drug with free radical-scavenging actions. Free radicals in the ear are responsible for ischemic damage. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, may be useful in the treatment of vertigo and SNHL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.