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Sample records for dicephalus parapagus conjoined

  1. Absence of the spleen(s) in conjoined twins: a diagnostic clue of laterality defects? Radiological study of historical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Keulen, N.; Jansen, T.; van Rijn, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    Laterality defects are quite common in thoracoileopagus and parapagus dicephalus but rare in other types of conjoined twins. To present the presumed laterality defects in cephalothoracoileopagus and prosopothoracoileopagus conjoined twins, based on the unilateral or bilateral absence or duplication

  2. Pathological findings in dicephalus dipus dibrachius: implications for mechanisms in two pairs of lateral conjoined twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, K; Imai, Y; Obayashi, C; Hayashi, Y; Hanioka, K; Itoh, H

    1993-06-01

    The anatomical and pathological features of two pairs of dicephalic conjoined twins (case 1 and 2) are described. Both twins showed duplicitas lateralis representing diprosopus dipus dibrachius. There were two complete heads on two necks, one thorax, one abdomen and externally normal two arms and two legs. Case 1 showed dicephalus with anencephaly, two vertebral columns and two spinal cords, which converged from the thoracic region distally. The esophagus, stomachs and partial small intestines were duplicated, which fused at yolk sac (with Meckel's diverticulum). The heart was incompletely fused. The lungs and trachea were doubled. Two spinal cords were fused from the thoracic region caudally and showed myelomeningocele and Arnold-Chiari malformation in case 2. Two larynxes and two thracheas connected with the incompletely fused three lobes of lungs. The conjoined lungs were hypoplastic. The heart was single, showing ventral septal defect, transposition of great arteries, two cuspid aortic valves and preductal aortic coarctation. The duplicated esophagi were conjoined in Y-shape and single stomach, duodenum, intestine and colon were found. There were pairs of kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters and single female genitalia in both cases. These findings indicate that the craniocaudal paleoaxes were separated in the cranial region and converted or fused under the thoracic region like a Y-shape. Further development defects and deformations might be important factors to form malformations in these case.

  3. [Terata catydidymus dicephalus: description of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, P L; Trombetta, G; Marcone, P; De Quarto, A; Memeo, L; Di Tondo, U

    1997-10-01

    Conjoined twinning is the result of an abnormal developmental process of "twinning" in which two similar weighted and sized twins are partially conjoined and show a total symmetry independently from the pattern of conjunction. They are classified in three groups: Terata Catydidymus, Terata Anadidyma and Terata Anacatadidyma. Among Terata Catydidymus the dicephalus subtype is a rare abnormality with a severe prognosis compared to other subtypes as: diprosopus, pyophagus and ischiopagus. We report the case of a fetus at the 15th weeks of pregnancy. The external examination revealed severe diffuse somatic malformations consisting of dicephalia with a double neck in conjunction to a single chest, a single abdomen, a double spine conjoined distally near the sacrum, buds of ribs in between the two spines with mid clavicular and scapular fusion following the major axis of the two bones. Arms and legs revealed no abnormalities. Central nervous system structures were normally developed and the two hemispheres seemed completely separated and independent one to the other. We believe that the case described is interesting being Terata Catydidymus a rare phenomenon, being the dicephalus subtype still lesser frequent and its occurrence in males quite exceptional.

  4. Dicephalus dipus tetrabrachius conjoined twins of Zaria: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-20

    Apr 20, 2012 ... Department of Radiology, 1Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesia,. Ahmadu Bello University .... ultrasound monitoring of high‑risk pregnancies in order to determine the nature of the ...

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of parapagus diprosopus dibrachius dipus twins with spina bifida in the first trimester using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Yin; Wu, Ching-Hua; Yeh, Guang-Perng; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che

    2015-12-01

    Here, we report a case of parapagus diprosopus twins with spina bifida diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. A 28-year-old Taiwanese woman, gravid 1, para 0, visited our hospital due to an abnormal fetal head shape discovered by 2D ultrasound at 11-weeks gestation. Parapagus diprosopus twins with spina bifida were diagnosed after ultrasound examination. The characteristics of parapagus diprosopus twins are more illustrative in 3D ultrasound than in 2D ultrasound. After counseling, termination of pregnancy was chosen by the couple. Although necropsy was declined, the gross appearance and radiograph of the abortus confirmed our diagnosis. With the help of 3D ultrasound, we made an early and definitive diagnosis of conjoined twins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Conjoined twins: morphogenesis of the heart and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Barness, Enid; Debich-Spicer, Diane; Opitz, John M

    2003-08-01

    Five cases of conjoined twins have been studied. These included three thoracopagus twins, one monocephalus diprosopus (prosop = face), and one dicephalus dipus dibrachus. The thoracopagus twins were conjoined only from the upper thorax to the umbilicus with a normal foregut. These three cases shared a single complex multiventricular heart, one with a four chambered heart with one atrium and one ventricle belonging to each twin with complex venous and arterial connection; two had a seven chambered heart with four atria and three ventricles. The mono-cephalus diprosopus twins had a single heart with tetralogy of Fallot. The dicephalus twins had two separate axial skeletons to the sacrum, two separate hearts were connected between the right atria with a shared inferior vena cava. Thoracopagus twinning is associated with complex cardiac malformations. The cardiac anlagen in cephalopagus or diprosopus are diverted and divided along with the entire rostral end of the embryonic disc and result in two relatively normal shared hearts. However, in thoracopagus twins the single heart is multiventricular and suggests very early union with fusion of the cardiac anlagen before significant differentiation. Cardiac morphogenesis in conjoined twins therefore appears to depend on the site of the conjoined fusion and the temporal and spatial influence that determines morphogenesis as well as abnormally oriented embryonic axes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Case Report Autopsy Findings on a Pair of Dicephalic Parapagus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    This raised the suspicion for the possibility of a twin pregnancy. In view of the .... extensive nature of shared organs, survival and quality of life for parapagus twins is a ... support and authorisation to use hospital facilities for this exercise.

  8. First trimester diagnosis of parapagus diprosopus dibrachius dipus twins with cranirachischisis totalis by three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülker, Kahraman; Akyer, Şahika P; Temur, İsmail; Tan, Temel; Karaca, Mehmet; Adıgüzel, Esat; Gül, Abdülaziz

    2012-02-01

    Parapagus (laterally fused), diprosopus (two faces), dibrachius (two upper extremities), dipus (two lower extremities) conjoined twinning is extremely rare. The coexistence of anencephaly with a contiguous spinal defect (craniorachischisis totalis) makes the present case one of the rarest of the published cases. In our case, it was difficult to make the final diagnosis by two-dimensional abdominal and vaginal ultrasound. Three-dimensional ultrasound was helpful for final diagnosis and post-abortal examination confirmed the prenatal ultrasound diagnosis. The heart, diaphragm, liver and perineum were all united. Fine dissection of the heart showed four vessels arising from the ventricles and a membranous type ventricular septal defect. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Radiological methods in the postmortal investigation of a dicephalus masculinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudacek, Z.; Slipka, J.; Kocova, J.

    1989-01-01

    With conventional radiography and with CT several malformations were detected in a dicephalus masculinus. The most important were: 2 spinal medullas in a common spinal canal (TH1 to L4), hydrocephalus of both lateral ventricles and of the third ventricle, prolaps of the left hepatic lobe into the left thoracic cavity, two aortic arcs, one large internal jugular vein, and twin bases of the vertebrae TH1 to L5. The dicephalus had not only a double head, but also cervices connected by a falx. (author)

  10. Diprosopus conjoined twins: radiologic, autoptic, and histologic study of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Armiento, Maria; Falleti, Jessica; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    Conjoined twins are a rare and intriguing nature's phenomena; diprosopus or craniofacial duplication is the rarest with a reported incidence of 1 case in 180,000-15 million births. We present a radiologic, autoptic, and histologic study of a 37-week-old male diprosopus twin in a dichorionic pregnancy of a 26-old-year woman. Diprosopus malformation is part of duplication involving face and cranium like janiceps and dicephalus. Our case also shows partial duplication of the stomach with ectopic pancreas. Most studies are required to understand the exact mechanism of this malformation.

  11. The epidemiology of conjoined twins in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Orioli, I M; Sánchez, O; Paz, J E

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three cases of symmetrical conjoined twins were registered by the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) in 1,714,952 births, which were observed during the 1967-1986 period in 95 maternity hospitals distributed in eleven Latin-American countries. This results in a birth prevalence rate of about 1/75,000 births. The secular and geographic distribution of this material do not depart from random in spite of one hospital with three cases, and two hospitals with two cases each, within a short time period. These 23 cases include one diprosopus, 3 dicephalus, one ischiopagus, 5 pygopagus, none dipygus, 3 syncephalus, none craniopagus, 9 thoracopagus, one omphalopagus, and one rachipagus. Sex distribution is even, with 12 male and 11 female cases.

  12. Imaging of conjoined twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Kiely, Edward M.; Spitz, Lewis [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The incidence of conjoined twins is estimated to be around 1 in 250,000 live births. There is a distinct female predominance. In this paper the imaging of conjoined twins both antenatally and postnatally is reviewed, in particular taking into consideration recent advances with multidetector CT. Accurate counselling of parents regarding the likely outcome of the pregnancy and the likelihood of successful separation is dependent on good prenatal imaging with ultrasound and MRI. Planning of postnatal surgical separation is aided by accurate preoperative imaging which, depending on the conjoined area, will encompass many imaging modalities, but often relies heavily on CT scanning. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of conjoined twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Kieran; Kiely, Edward M.; Spitz, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of conjoined twins is estimated to be around 1 in 250,000 live births. There is a distinct female predominance. In this paper the imaging of conjoined twins both antenatally and postnatally is reviewed, in particular taking into consideration recent advances with multidetector CT. Accurate counselling of parents regarding the likely outcome of the pregnancy and the likelihood of successful separation is dependent on good prenatal imaging with ultrasound and MRI. Planning of postnatal surgical separation is aided by accurate preoperative imaging which, depending on the conjoined area, will encompass many imaging modalities, but often relies heavily on CT scanning. (orig.)

  14. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of parapagus diprosopus dibrachius dipus twins with spina bifida in the first trimester using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yin Yang; Ching-Hua Wu; Guang-Perng Yeh; Charles Tsung-Che Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Here, we report a case of parapagus diprosopus twins with spina bifida diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. Case report: A 28-year-old Taiwanese woman, gravid 1, para 0, visited our hospital due to an abnormal fetal head shape discovered by 2D ultrasound at 11-weeks gestation. Parapagus diprosopus twins with spina bifida were diagnosed after ultrasound examination. The characteristics of parapagus diproso...

  16. Conjoined twins: implications for blastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, G A

    1993-01-01

    It is difficult to draw sweeping general conclusions about the blastogenesis of CT, principally because so few thoroughly studied cases are reported. It is to be hoped that methods such as painstaking gross or electronic dissection will increase the number of well-documented cases. Nevertheless, the following conclusions can be proposed: 1. Most CT can be classified into a few main anatomic types (or paradigms), and there are also rare transitional types that show gradation between the main types. 2. Most CT have two full notochordal axes (Fig. 5); the ventral organs induced along these axes may be severely disorientated, malformed, or aplastic in the process of being arranged within one body. Reported anatomic types of CT represent those notochordal arrangements that are compatible with reasonably complete embryogenesis. New ventro-lateral axes are formed in many types of CT because of space constriction in the ventral zones. The new structures represent areas of "mutual recognition and organization" rather than "fusion" (Fig. 17). 3. Orientations of the pairs of axes in the embryonic disc can be deduced from the resulting anatomy. Except for dicephalus, the axes are not side by side. Notochords are usually "end-on" or ventro-ventral in orientation (Fig. 5). 4. A single gastrulation event or only partial duplicated gastrulation event seems to occur in dicephalics, despite a full double notochord. 5. The anatomy of diprosopus requires further clarification, particularly in cases with complete crania rather than anencephaly-equivalent. Diprosopus CT offer the best opportunity to study the effects of true forking of the notochord, if this actually occurs. 6. In cephalothoracopagus, thoracopagus, and ischiopagus, remarkably complete new body forms are constructed at right angles to the notochordal axes. The extent of expression of viscera in these types depends on the degree of noncongruity of their ventro-ventral axes (Figs. 4, 11, 15b). 7. Some organs and tissues

  17. CT diagnosis of lumbosacral conjoined nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, P.; Martinelli, C.; Spina, V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the observations derived from CT evaluation of 19 cases of lumbosacral conjoined nerve roots; 11 of these have been confirmed by lumbar myelography and/or at surgery. They conclude that CT without intrathecal metrizamide allows the recognition in most cases the presence of conjoined nerve roots and to differentiate them from a herniated disk fragment; this is especially usefull avoid surgical damage of anomalous roots. (orig.)

  18. Early prenatal diagnosis of ischiopagus conjoined twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Ergenoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjoined twins are very rare and the incidence of them vary about 1/50,000 and 1/100,000. They are named according to the joint parts. Embryos are conjoined at the level of ischium in ischiopagus. A case of ischiopagus will be presented in this article. Case: A twenty-seven year old women who is 9-10 weeks pregnant with a history of 1 abortus applied to the Ege University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology for routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a twin pregnancy but the embryos were attached at the pelvic region. 3D Doppler sonography confirmed the diagnosis of ischiopagus tetrapus. The patient's decision of termination of pregnancy is concluded at Perinatology Council of the clinic. Conclusion: Ischiopagus conjoined twins are very rare. Early prenatal diagnosis will prevent the maternal complications during the termination of the pregnancy.

  19. Anaesthetic Management of Conjoined Twins′ Separation Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolli S Chalam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia for conjoined twins, either for separation surgery, or for MRI or other evaluation procedures is an enormous challenge to the paediatric anaesthesiologist. This is an extra challenging surgery because we the anaesthesiologists need to care for two patients at the same time instead of just one. Anaesthesia for conjoined twins ′separation surgery mainly centered on the following concerns: 1.Conjoined Twins′ physiology like crossed circulation. distribution of blood volume and organ sharing with their anaesthetic implications. 2.Long marathon surgery with massive fluid shifts and loss of blood & blood components and their rapid replenishment. 3.Meticulous planning for organized management of long hours of anaesthetic administration in two paediatric subjects simultaneously with multi surgical specialties involvement and their unique requirements.We report the anaesthetic and intensive care management of one pair of Pygopagus separation surgery and also the review of literature and world statistics.

  20. Conjoined twins: scientific cinema and Pavlovian physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Through the lens of a 1957 documentary film, "Neural and humoral factors in the regulation of bodily functions (research on conjoined twins)," produced by the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, this essay traces the entwined histories of Soviet physiology, studies of conjoined twins and scientific cinema. It examines the role of Ivan Pavlov and his students, including Leonid Voskresenkii, Dmitrii Fursikov and Petr Anokhin, in the development of "scientific film" as a particular cinematographic genre in Soviet Russia and explores numerous puzzles hidden behind the film's striking visuals. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of Conjoined Twins During Neonatal Period

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    Background/Purpose: Conjoined twins are rare and complex anomalies of the newborn. ... The short term postoperative follow up revealed uneventful course of 6 children resulting from ... sex and karyotype 3. ... revealed vertebral bodies, brain tissue occupying the ... continued for 8 hours during which the right and left.

  2. Autopsy Findings on a Pair of Dicephalic Parapagus Twins: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjoined twins are a rare occurrence that presents significant challenges to both parents and medical care givers with many theories being advanced to explain this occurrence.“Parapagus” is a fairly recent term, in which the twins lie side by side with ventro-lateral fusion and are extremely rare representing 0.5% of all ...

  3. Conjoined twins detected in the first trimester: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjoined twinning occurs in 1 in 100 sets of monozygotic twins, 1 in 50,000 gestations or 1 in 250,000 live births. With the advent of ultrasound technology, prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins is possible. This article provides a comprehensive review of conjoined twins detected in the first trimester including fetal gender, maternal age, parity, types of fusion, related ultrasound abnormalities, perinatal outcome and association with assisted reproduction.

  4. Management of Conjoined Twins During Neonatal Period | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: Conjoined twins are rare and complex anomalies of the newborn. It is reported in 1/50.000 to 1/100.000 live births. The aim of the study was to summarize the experiences gained during separation of 5 sets of conjoined twins with presentation of literature review. Materials & Methods: During the period ...

  5. Conjoined twins – role of imaging and recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Philip Mathew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjoined twins are identical twins with fused bodies, joined in utero. They are rare complications of monochorionic twinning. The purpose of this study is to describe the various types of conjoined twins, the role of imaging and recent advances aiding in their management. Material and methods: This was a twin institutional study involving 3 cases of conjoined twins diagnosed over a period of 6 years from 2010 to 2015. All the 3 cases were identified antenatally by ultrasound. Only one case was further evaluated by MRI. Results: Three cases of conjoined twins (cephalopagus, thoracopagus and omphalopagus were accurately diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. After detailed counseling of the parents and obtaining written consent, all the three cases of pregnancy were terminated. Delivery of the viable conjoined twins was achieved without any complications to the mothers, and all the three conjoined twins died after a few minutes. Conclusion: Ultrasound enables an early and accurate diagnosis of conjoined twins, which is vital for obstetric management. MRI is reserved for better tissue characterization. Termination of pregnancy when opted, should be done at an early stage as later stages are fraught with problems. Recent advances, such as 3D printing, may aid in surgical pre-planning, thereby enabling successful surgical separation of conjoined twins.

  6. Conjoined Twins: Philosophical Problems and Ethical Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian; Persson, Ingmar

    2016-02-01

    We examine the philosophical and ethical issues associated with conjoined twins and their surgical separation. In cases in which there is an extensive sharing of organs, but nevertheless two distinguishable functioning brains, there are a number of philosophical and ethical challenges. This is because such conjoined twins: 1. give rise to puzzles concerning our identity, about whether we are identical to something psychological or biological; 2. force us to decide whether what matters from an ethical point of view is the biological life of our organisms or the existence of our consciousness or mind; 3. raise questions concerning when, if ever, it is morally acceptable to sacrifice one of us to save another; 4. force us to reflect on the conditions for ownership of organs and the justification of removal of organs for transplantation which causes the death of the donor; 5. raise questions about who should take decisions about life-risking treatments when this cannot be decided by patients themselves. We examine and suggest answers to these questions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Conjoined twin piglets with duplicated cranial and caudal axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, C A; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1994-06-01

    Twins with doubling of the cranial and caudal poles, yet having a single thorax, are rare. One set of diprosopus, dipygus porcine conjoined twins was studied. In addition to the conjoining anomaly, these twins also exhibited ambiguous internal reproductive features. The twins had two snouts, three eyes, a single thorax, and were duplicated from the umbilicus caudally. Radiography indicated a single vertebral column in the cervical region. The vertebral columns were separate caudally from this point. There was a total of six limbs--one pair of forelimbs and two pairs of hindlimbs. Many medial structures failed to develop in these twins. Medial cranial nerves V-XII were absent or displaced although apparently normal laterally. The medial palates were present but shortened, whereas the medial mandibular rami had folded back on themselves rostrally to form a midline mass between the two chins. Each twin had only one lateral kidney and one lateral testis. Medial scrotal sacs were present but devoid of a testis. There was a midline, "uterine"-like structure which crossed between the twins. However, histological analysis of this structure revealed it to be dysplastic testicular tissue. The relationship between the abnormal reproductive features in these twins and the conjoining is unclear. The anatomy of these twins, in addition to the literature reviewed, illustrates the internal anatomical heterogeneity of grossly similar conjoined twins. A review of the literature also suggests that conjoined twinning may be more common in swine than was previously suspected.

  8. The ethics of separating conjoined twins: two arguments against.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallberg, Luke

    2018-02-01

    I argue that the separation of conjoined twins in infancy or early childhood is unethical (rare exceptions aside). Cases may be divided into three types: both twins suffer from lethal abnormalities, only one twin has a lethal abnormality, or neither twin does. In the first kind of case, there is no reason to separate, since both twins will die regardless of treatment. In the third kind of case, I argue that separation at an early age is unethical because the twins are likely to achieve an irreplaceably good quality of life-the goods of conjoinment-that separation takes away. Evaluation of this possibility requires maturation past early childhood. Regarding the second type, I point out that with conceivable but unrecorded exceptions, these cases will consistently involve sacrifice separation. I present an argument that sacrifice separation is unethical, but in some cases a moral dilemma may exist in which separation and refraining from separation are both unethical. Perhaps in such cases a decision can be made on non-moral grounds; however, the possibility of such a decision serves not to mitigate but to underscore the fact that the separation is unethical. My conclusion, which applies to all three types of cases, is that it is unethical to separate conjoined twins before their developing personalities give some reliable indication as to whether they desire separation and whether they will achieve those goods of conjoinment.

  9. CASE REPORT CASE R Conjoined twins with a horseshoe kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-03

    Dec 3, 2009 ... imaging revealed thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins with complex thoracic and abdominal structures, ... Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) was performed on a. General Electric 1.5 tesla MR ... MB BCh, FCRad (SA). Department of Radiology, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, University of the.

  10. Diecephalic thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report of conjoined twins discovered at 17 weeks gestation on routine trans-abdominal ultrasound in a 27 year old woman. The twins were joined at the chest and upper abdomen. They shared a heart, liver, sternum and diaphragm. The patient opted for termination of the pregnancy which was performed ...

  11. Incomplete dicephalous conjoined twins: prenatal US and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Diego; Ruata, Maria I.; Ruiz Lascano, Diogenes; Travella, Claudio; Tinti, Maria E.

    2002-01-01

    The authors report a case of incomplete dicephali conjoined twins, with prenatal diagnostic by ultrasound scan and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In this case the fetus presented two complete heads and necks, two parallel columns up to the coccyx, one single body, two complete arms and two complete legs. Thorax and abdominal organs were not double, however the heart had more than four cavities. This abnormality appears when the zygote division happens after the day 14 from fertilization and it is unable to cause the fission, resulting in an incomplete division. This kind of conjoined twins have practically no chance of surviving, due to the large number of shared organs. The prenatal diagnosis is important to separate these cases from those with a chance of living with surgical intervention. (author)

  12. Pygopagus Conjoined Twins: A Neurophysiologic Intraoperative Monitoring Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromeens, Barrett P; McKinney, Jennifer L; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Governale, Lance S; Brown, Judy L; Henry, Christina M; Levitt, Marc A; Wood, Richard J; Besner, Gail E; Islam, Monica P

    2017-03-01

    Conjoined twins occur in up to 1 in 50,000 live births with approximately 18% joined in a pygopagus configuration at the buttocks. Twins with this configuration display symptoms and carry surgical risks during separation related to the extent of their connection which can include anorectal, genitourinary, vertebral, and neural structures. Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring for these cases has been discussed in the literature with variable utility. The authors present a case of pygopagus twins with fused spinal cords and imperforate anus where the use of neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring significantly impacted surgical decision-making in division of these critical structures.

  13. Janiceps conjoined twins with extreme asymmetry: case report with complete autopsy and histopathologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Hannah A; McPherson, Elizabeth W; Murdoch, Geoffrey H; Ozolek, John A

    2009-01-01

    Conjoined twinning is a rare form of twinning, in which 2 bodies are attached, and is classified according to the anatomic place of attachment. An extremely rare form of conjoined twinning is janiceps conjoined twinning, in which 2 faces are attached but oriented in opposite directions. In this report, we present an unusual and difficult-to-classify case of conjoined male twins with partial duplication of craniofacial, upper oropharyngeal, and cardiac organs. We believe this to be one of the few reported cases of janiceps asymmetrus. We describe in detail the gross and microscopic pathology and offer some insights into the possible embryogenesis and distinction from the other rare form of conjoined twinning with facial duplication, diprosopus.

  14. Ischiopagus and diprosopus in India: two pairs of conjoined twins perceived as incarnations of Hindu deities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ditty, Benjamin; Bosmia, Anand N; Bosmia, Arpan N

    2015-02-01

    This article briefly reviews two specific types of conjoined twins, ischiopagus and diprosopus, and discusses recent cases of such twins born in India. Some members of the Hindu community worshiped these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities. In discussing this phenomenon, the authors aim to elucidate certain features of the faith tradition of Hinduism itself. The reception of these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities can be understood by examining two salient features of Hindu polytheism: the pictorial depiction of Hindu deities with multiple appendages and the concept of an incarnation, or avatar, of a Hindu deity.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of monocephalic bifacial tetraophthalmic diprosopus (conjoined twin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaifalah, I; Curtisova, V; Santavy, J

    2008-01-01

    A case of diprosopus twinning which is rare conjoined twinning is reported prenatally at 22 weeks' gestation. 2D ultrasound examinations showed duplication of the craniofacial structures with four hemispheres, two cerebella and two thalami. There were three orbits two external ears, two noses, fused adjacent maxilla and two oral cavities with two fused oral opening and two jaws. The woman did not consent to any further investigations and the pregnancy was terminated. The postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis in a male fetus with a crown-rump length of 155 mm, weighing 450 g. The body appeared normal except for a small poorly formed rudiment of a supernumerary digit next to the thumb of the right hand. The ultrasound examination and postmortem finding of this case is described with a short review of the literature. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins by magnetic resonance imaging: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland de; Medeiros, Cynthia Coelho de; Lins, Glaucia Virginia de Queiroz; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Lima, Marcelo Marques de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Conjoined twins have a rare prevalence and special curiosity among physicians and the general population. The reported frequency varies from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 pregnancies. Its early diagnosis becomes very important when we think about pregnancy management, method of delivery and neonatal care. We describe two cases of conjoined twins diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance during prenatal care with the aim to better studying the fetus anatomy. The first conjoined twins were cephalopagus sharing head, thorax and abdominal wall and with two pelvis and four arms and four legs. The second were thoracopagus, united by thorax and part of abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging contribution was not important to diagnose conjoined twins. However, it was useful to describe the shared organs, contributing to define fetal outcome. (author)

  17. Asymmetry and discordance for congenital anomalies in conjoined twins: a report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Navot, D; Menashi, M; Laufer, N; Chemke, J

    1980-10-01

    Six pairs of conjoined twins have been studied. The first case was a pair of 13-week-old omphalopagus fetuses. One was a holoacradius amorphus and the other had rachischisis and anencephaly. The second case was a pair of omphalopagus twins. One of the twins was macerated and corresponded to a developmental age of 13-14 weeks, while the other was developed to 28-30 weeks of gestation and exhibited urogenital and gastrointestinal defects not found in the smaller twin. In the third case, that of a thoracoomphalopagus, one had cleft lip and palate, pulmonic stenosis, and atresia of the ileocecal valve, while the other did not show these anomalies. In the fourth cae, also omphalopagus twins, one had a lumbosacral meningomyelocele and severe gastrointestinal and urogenital anomalies not found in the second twin. The fifth case was a pair of thoracoomphalopagus twins, sharing a common heart with asymmetrical anomalies. The sixth case was a diprosopus anencephalic conjoined twin. The first pairs of conjoined twins were discordant for several abnormalities in nonshared organs, in addition to having abnormalities of the conjoined organs. It seems that discordance in conjoined twins is not a rare finding. The factors that play a role in discordance of anomalies in conjoined twins are probably similar to the factors in monozygotic twins--i.e., environmental, genetic, and abnormal placental and/or fetal circulation.

  18. The Agreement between Conjoined Subjects and Predicate: Croatian Church Slavonic Corpus Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kovačević

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of grammatical categories in Slavonic and their overlap are particularly evident in the agreement between conjoined subjects and predicate. When they are accompanied by agreement conditions, such as word order and animacy in Slavic languages, different agreement patterns, dependent also on concrete context and speaker, are to be expected. In this paper the study of the agreement between conjoined subjects and predicate is based on an analysis of the medieval Glagolitic Croatian Church Slavonic corpus. Number, gender, and person are grammatical categories, i. e., features of conjoined noun phrases and predicate agreement. The analysis includes noun phrases conjoined by coordinating and some non-coordinating conjunctions as well as noun phrases conjoined by a gradational ‛not only [. . .] but also’ structure. Comitative and reciprocal noun phrases are included as well. The research in the given corpus shows that the conjoined noun phrases with predicate agreement can be syntactic (predicate showing agreement with one conjunct or semantic (predicate showing agreement with all conjuncts. Syntactic agreement appears as the so-called contact agreement (predicate showing agreement with the closest conjunct and as distant agreement (predicate showing agreement with the most distant conjunct. Semantic agreement is applied mostly in accordance with G. G. Corbett’s resolution rules for Slavic languages. However, the analysis shows that some resolution rules for number should be revised due to dual number. Although absent from the majority of contemporary Slavic languages, it is precisely in historical Slavic idioms that dual number reveals its identity, highlighted in agreement study as well.

  19. Monocephalus diprosopus, a rare form of conjoined twins, and associated congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Edda L; Correa-Rivas, María S; Colón-Castillo, Lillian E

    2002-09-01

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twins. A case of monocephalus diprosopus with anencephaly, cervicothoracolumbar rachischisis, and duplication of the respiratory tract and upper gastrointestinal tract is reported. The cardiovascular system remained single but the heart showed transposition of the great vessels. We present this case due to its rarity, and compare our pathologic findings with those already reported.

  20. Epidemiological and clinical analysis of a consecutive series of conjoined twins in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, María Luisa; Bermejo, Eva; Mendioroz, Jacobo; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Elvira; Blanco, Manuel; Egüés, Javier; Félix, Valentín; García, Angel; Huertas, Héctor; Nieto, Carmen; López, José Antonio; López, Santiago; Paisán, Luis; Rosa, Alejandro; Vázquez, María Socorro

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency and certain epidemiological characteristics of a consecutive series of conjoined twins born in Spain. We used data from the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations for the period April 1976 to 2006. Because the Spanish law permitting voluntary termination of pregnancies (TOP) when the fetus presented malformations was effective by the end of 1985, we analyzed the data in 4 periods, 2 before 1986 and 2 after. During the first period (1976-1979) only live births were recorded, whereas both still and live births were included in the other three (1980-1985, 1986-1995, and 1996-2006). In the present study, the cases were classified as symmetrical (16 pairs) and asymmetrical (1 pair) conjoined twins. Each pair of conjoined twins was considered as only one case for calculations, regardless of the type of union. Among a total of 2,281,604 consecutive births between 1980 and 2006, there were a total of 15 cases of symmetrical conjoined twins giving a frequency of 0.70 per 100,000 (1/152,107), whereas there was only 1 stillborn asymmetrical conjoined twin pair (0.04/100,000). Among the 13,418 consecutive stillborns surveyed, 6 cases of conjoined twins were identified (either symmetrical or asymmetrical) giving a frequency of 44.72 per 100,000, and 11 pairs were identified among the 2,425,583 total live births surveyed during the first period 1976 to 1979, a frequency of 0.45 per 100,000. Thus, the frequency among stillborn infants is 99.34 times higher than that observed among live births. However, the frequency for the total births (3 last periods) showed a decreasing trend from 1.47 per 100,000 birth in the first period (1980-1985) when TOP was illegal, to a value of 0.09 per 100,000 in the last period, more than 16-fold lower, probably because of the TOP of affected fetuses. Therefore, we consider that the frequencies observed in the period 1980 to 1985 are the basal values in our population. The most

  1. The separation of pygopagus conjoined twins with fused spinal cords and imperforate anus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett P. Cromeens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Each set of conjoined twins has specific anatomic features dictating unique challenges to separation. Overcoming these challenges requires creative solutions that necessitate interdisciplinary collaboration. We present a unique case of pygopagus conjoined twins with fused spinal cords, imperforate anus without fistula, and a single anal sphincter complex. Separation included the use of novel applications of 3D printing and neurophysiologic monitoring. The 3D print helped to clarify the complex anatomy and facilitate communication during planning sessions. The neurophysiologic monitoring helped to distinguish a plane of separation for the spinal cords as well as the shared anal sphincter. Implementing these technologies and thus successfully separating these twins safely required a multidisciplinary team that extended beyond clinical specialties.

  2. Imaging features suggestive of a conjoined nerve root on routine axial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gyeongi-do (Korea); Choi, Ja-Young; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Na Ra [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Ki-Jeong; Chung, Sang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Gyeongi-Do (Korea)

    2008-02-15

    The purpose of our study is to evaluate imaging features suggestive of a conjoined nerve root on routine axial MRI. Two radiologists and two surgeons retrospectively reviewed the MRI of three cases in which a conjoined nerve root was discovered during operation and found three suggestive signs on routine axial MR images: ''corner'' (asymmetric morphology of the anterolateral corner of the dural sac), ''fat crescent'' (intervening extradural fat between the asymmetric dura and the nerve root), and ''parallel'' signs (visualization of the entire parallel course of the nerve root at the disc level). Two radiologists prospectively found these signs during routine MRI interpretation sessions over a period of 6 months. If one or a combination of signs were noted on axial MR images, contiguous axial scans were additionally obtained. Three cases that were previously found during operations were also included. Prevalence and confidence scores for each sign were assessed on axial T1- and T2-weighted images. Twelve patients showed one or a combination of the three signs, 9 had contiguous axial MR scans. Five cases were confirmed by operation. The prevalence of the corner, fat crescent, and parallel signs were 12 out of 12 (100%), 6 out of 12 (50%), and 8 out of 12 (67.7%) on axial T1-weighted images. The overall diagnostic confidence was higher on T1- than on T2-weighted images (P < 0.05). On routine axial L-spine MRI, corner, fat crescent, and parallel signs are suggestive of and assist in the recognition of a conjoined nerve root. (orig.)

  3. Some peculiarities of conjoined hadroproduction of standard Higgs boson and heavy quark pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Egoryan, R.Sh.; Grigoryan, S.G.; Matinyan, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    A contribution to total cross section of conjoined hadroproduction of the H 0 -boson and the heavy quark pair Q and Q-bar (Q=c, b, t,...) from the H 0 -boson ''gluonic'' production diagrams (the so-called GGH-diagrams) is being discussed. A comparison is carried out between contributions to total cross sections from the GGH-diagrams and the H 0 -boson ''direct'' quark production diagrams (QH-diagrams). It is shown that with increasing M H the enhancement effect of the GGH contribution ''enters the game''

  4. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed.

  5. A simple microexplosion synthesis of graphene-based scroll-sheet conjoined nanomaterials for enhanced supercapacitor properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Yang; Zeng, Fanyan; Huang, Zhongyuan; Zhou, Haihui; Kuang, Yafei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Scrolled graphene are designed by a simple microexplosion technique using a mild ionic catalyst-Fe 3+ , and assembled scroll-sheet conjoined nanomaterials (SSCNs) with unscrolled parts for enhanced supercapacitor properties. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • SSCNs are prepared by a microexplosion technique using mild catalyst-Fe 3+ . • The scrolls are linked up with GS for forming SSCNs. • The introduction of scrolled structure enhances the capacitive performance of GS. • SSCNs are promising graphene-based supercapacitor materials. -- Abstract: Scrolled graphene are designed by a simple microexplosion technique using a mild ionic catalyst-Fe 3+ , and assembled into the scroll-sheet conjoined nanomaterials (SSCNs) with unscrolled parts for supercapacitor. The morphology and structure of SSCNs are characterized by transmission electron microscope, N 2 adsorption/desorption, Raman spectra and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that graphene (GS) are partly scrolled on the edge, with the scroll and sheet conjoined together. SSCN has a high specific capacitance of 224 F g −1 at 1.0 A g −1 , and still displays a specific capacitance of 181 F g −1 at 30.0 A g −1 , while the value is only 95 F g −1 for GS and 84 F g −1 for the composites of GS and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (GS/MWCNTs), suggesting that the introduction of scroll-sheet conjoined structure significantly enhances the capacitive performance of GS

  6. [The application of computer aided design and computer aided engineering technique in separation of Pygopagus conjoined twins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Sun, Tian-sheng; Li, Fang; Tang, Guo-lin

    2009-05-19

    To explore the effect of CAD and CAE related technique in separation of Pygopagus Conjoined Twins. CT images of Pygopagus conjoined twins were obtained and reconstructed in three-dimensional by Mimics software. 3D entity model of skin and spine of conjoined twins were made by fast plastic technique and equipment according to 3D data model. The circumference and area of fused and independent dural sac were measured by software of AutoCAD. The entity model is real reflection of skin and spine of Pygopagus. It was used in the procedures of discussion, sham operation, skin flap design and informed consent. In the measure of MRI, the circumference and area of fused dural sac was more than of independent dural sac, that is to say, the defect of dural sac can be repaired by direct suture. The intraoperative finding match with imaging measure results. The application of CAD and CAE in the procedure of preoperative plan have gave big help to successful separation of Pygopagus Conjoined Twins.

  7. [Craniorachischisis in conjoined "diprosopus" twins. Case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, D; Serville, F; Horovitz, J; Maugey, B; Weichhold, W

    1989-01-01

    The pathological features in a case of craniorachischisis with incomplete twinning (diprosopus) are reported. The female fetus was born to a 27-year-old gravida 6, para 3 healthy woman who underwent a medical abortion at 13 week's gestation because of an anencephaly revealed by ultrasound examination. The head showed two fused faces with two mouths, two noses, two lateral completely formed eyes and two medially fused eyes covered by cutaneous tissue. X-ray examination demonstrated the symmetrically doubled spinal column. The brain and the spinal cord were absent (craniorachischisis). The larynx and the oesophagus, the other viscera and the limbs were normal in number, location and morphology as for a female singleton. This case with others from the literature, illustrates the relationship between conjoined twinning, neural tube defects (more particularly anencephaly) and female zygote and constitutes a real entity.

  8. Pregnancy in a Previously Conjoined Thoracopagus Twin with a Crisscross Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam H. Rimawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Crisscross heart (CCH is a complex, rare, congenital, rotational, cardiac abnormality that accounts for <0.1% of congenital heart defects (CHD. CCH is characterized by the crossing of the inflow streams of the two ventricles due to an abnormal twisting of the heart. A case of maternal CCH has not been previously reported. Case. We report a case of a primigravida with a CCH, who was separated at birth from her thoracopagus conjoined twin. Pregnancy was managed by congenital cardiology, maternal-fetal medicine, anesthesiology, and obstetrics. She underwent a 39-week vaginal delivery without maternal or neonatal complication. Conclusion. A successful term pregnancy outcome was achieved in a patient with CCH using a multidisciplinary approach to address her cardiac condition.

  9. Freeform fabrication of tissue-simulating phantom for potential use of surgical planning in conjoined twins separation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuwei; Wang, Haili; Xue, Yue; Yuan, Li; Zhou, Ximing; Zhao, Zuhua; Dong, Erbao; Liu, Bin; Liu, Wendong; Cromeens, Barrett; Adler, Brent; Besner, Gail; Xu, Ronald X

    2017-09-08

    Preoperative assessment of tissue anatomy and accurate surgical planning is crucial in conjoined twin separation surgery. We developed a new method that combines three-dimensional (3D) printing, assembling, and casting to produce anatomic models of high fidelity for surgical planning. The related anatomic features of the conjoined twins were captured by computed tomography (CT), classified as five organ groups, and reconstructed as five computer models. Among these organ groups, the skeleton was produced by fused deposition modeling (FDM) using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. For the other four organ groups, shell molds were prepared by FDM and cast with silica gel to simulate soft tissues, with contrast enhancement pigments added to simulate different CT and visual contrasts. The produced models were assembled, positioned firmly within a 3D printed shell mold simulating the skin boundary, and cast with transparent silica gel. The produced phantom was subject to further CT scan in comparison with that of the patient data for fidelity evaluation. Further data analysis showed that the produced model reassembled the geometric features of the original CT data with an overall mean deviation of less than 2 mm, indicating the clinical potential to use this method for surgical planning in conjoined twin separation surgery.

  10. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots compromised by disk herniation: sagittal shoulder sign for the preoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hee Kyung; Ryu, Jeong Ah [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Choon-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangwon (Korea)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to determine the importance of the ''sagittal shoulder sign'' on magnetic resonance (MR) images for the diagnosis of conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots (CLNR) that are compromised by herniated disks. Magnetic resonance images of 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; age range, 25-71 years; average age, 48.7 years) with surgically proven CLNR, which was compromised by herniated disks, were retrospectively evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists. MR images were evaluated for the presence or absence of the sagittal shoulder sign - a vertical structure connecting two consecutive nerve roots and overlying disk on the sagittal MR images. The radiologists noted the type of accompanying disk herniation and bony spinal canal changes, as well as other characteristic MR features of CLNR, the common passage of two consecutive nerve roots through the neural foramen on axial MR images. The sagittal shoulder sign was identified with a mean frequency of 90.9% by the two observers (in 10 of 11 patients). The common passage of two consecutive nerve roots through the neural foramen on axial MR images was identified with a mean frequency of 59.1% (in 7 and 6 out of 11 patients, by observers 1 and 2, respectively). Good interobserver agreement for the sagittal shoulder sign was present (k = 0.621, p < 0.05). Observation of the sagittal shoulder sign may prove helpful for diagnosing CLNR in patients with disk herniation. In particular, this sign appears to be useful when there is no evidence of CLNR on axial MR images. (orig.)

  11. Hysteresis of Contact Angle of Sessile Droplets on Smooth Homogeneous Solid Substrates via Disjoining/Conjoining Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchin, I; Starov, V

    2015-05-19

    A theory of contact angle hysteresis of liquid droplets on smooth, homogeneous solid substrates is developed in terms of the shape of the disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm and quasi-equilibrium phenomena. It is shown that all contact angles, θ, in the range θr contact angle θ ≠ θe, correspond to the state of slow "microscopic" advancing or receding motion of the liquid if θe contact angle reaches the critical values θa or θr, correspondingly. The values of the static receding, θr, and static advancing, θa, contact angles in cylindrical capillaries were calculated earlier, based on the shape of disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm. It is shown now that (i) both advancing and receding contact angles of a droplet on a on smooth, homogeneous solid substrate can be calculated based on shape of disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm, and (ii) both advancing and receding contact angles depend on the drop volume and are not unique characteristics of the liquid-solid system. The latter is different from advancing/receding contact angles in thin capillaries. It is shown also that the receding contact angle is much closer to the equilibrium contact angle than the advancing contact angle. The latter conclusion is unexpected and is in a contradiction with the commonly accepted view that the advancing contact angle can be taken as the first approximation for the equilibrium contact angle. The dependency of hysteresis contact angles on the drop volume has a direct experimental confirmation.

  12. The Role of Conjoining (Tie) Channels in Lowland Floodplain Development and Lake Infilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Lepper, K.; Wilson, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    In simple models of lowland river systems, water and sediment enter the main stem via tributary and secondary channels and are only redistributed to the floodplain during overbank and crevasse splay events. Along numerous river systems across the globe, however, water and sediment are regularly exchanged between the river and off river water bodies via stable, narrow channels. These channels, known as tie channels on the Fly River in Papua New Guinea and batture channels along the lower Mississippi, are largely overlooked but important components of floodplain sediment dispersal where they exist. These channels become pathways of sediment dispersal to the floodplain system when elevated river stages force sediment-laden flows into the off-river water bodies. On the Fly River, it is estimated that about 50% of the sediment delivery to the floodplain is via these channels, and along low gradient tributary channels during flood driven flow reversals. During low flow, tie channels serve to drain the floodplain. With the outgoing flows, large amounts sediment can be carried and lost to the floodplain; floodplain lakes progressively infill with sediment as the mouth of these channels steadily prograde lakeward. These lake deposits not only become significant stratigraphic components of floodplains (traditionally referred to as clay plugs), but are important local sinks recording hundreds to thousands of years of river history. As with all sinks, the proper interpretation of these stratigraphic records requires understanding the processes by which sediment is delivered to the sink and how these processes alter the paleohydraulic and climatic signals of interest. We have conducted field investigations of conjoining channels in Papua New Guinea (the Fly and Strickland Rivers), Louisiana (Raccourci Old River ~ 65 km upriver of Baton Rouge) and Alaska (Birch Creek). These field investigations include extensive surveys of both cross and along channel morphological trends

  13. Birth Defects Associated with Perturbations in Pre-implantation, Gastrulation & Axis Extension: from Conjoined Twinning to Caudal Dysgenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vaquer, Anna; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Congenital malformations represent approximately 3 in 100 live births within the human population. Understanding their pathogenesis and ultimately formulating effective treatments is underpinned by knowledge of the events and factors that regulate normal embryonic development. Studies in model organisms, primarily in the mouse, the most prominent genetically tractable mammalian model, have equipped us with a rudimentary understanding of mammalian development from early lineage commitment to morphogenetic processes. In this way information provided by studies in the mouse can, in some cases, be used to draw parallels with other mammals, including human. Here we provide an overview of our current understanding of the general sequence of developmental events from early cell cleavages to gastrulation and axis extension occurring in human embryos. We will also review some of the rare birth defects occurring at these stages, in particular those resulting in conjoined twinning or caudal dysgenesis. PMID:24014416

  14. Thoracic heteropagus conjoined twins associated to an omphalocele: Report of a case and complete review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotti Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heteropagus twins are an extremely rare event with an incidence of 1–2 million live births that represents, sometimes, a real challenge for paediatric surgeons. The majority of cases have complete or partial duplication of the pelvis and/or lower extremities. Thoracic heteropagus conjoined twins is a rare condition in which a grossly defective foetus (the parasite is attached to the thorax of the main foetus (the autosite. We describe a case of a parasitic heteropagus attached at the chest wall with a rare presentation of giant exomphalos on the autosite. In this situation, the separation procedure was simple after a well-done anatomic study using X-ray, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance and echocardiogram are performed.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins by magnetic resonance imaging: report of two cases; Diagnostico pre-natal de gemeos unidos com uso da ressonancia nuclear magnetica: relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland de; Medeiros, Cynthia Coelho de; Lins, Glaucia Virginia de Queiroz [Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Noronha Neto, Carlos [Centro Integrado de Saude Amaury de Medeiros (CISAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Marcelo Marques de Souza [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: alexrolland@uol.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Conjoined twins have a rare prevalence and special curiosity among physicians and the general population. The reported frequency varies from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 pregnancies. Its early diagnosis becomes very important when we think about pregnancy management, method of delivery and neonatal care. We describe two cases of conjoined twins diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance during prenatal care with the aim to better studying the fetus anatomy. The first conjoined twins were cephalopagus sharing head, thorax and abdominal wall and with two pelvis and four arms and four legs. The second were thoracopagus, united by thorax and part of abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging contribution was not important to diagnose conjoined twins. However, it was useful to describe the shared organs, contributing to define fetal outcome. (author)

  16. Musical Interests and Talent: Twin Jazz Musicians and Twin Studies/Twin Research: Loss of a Preterm Multiple; Conjoined Twin Conception; Depression in Fathers of Twins; Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome/Twin News: High-Achieving Twins; Twin Children of a Tennis Star; Conjoined Twin Separation; Twin Delivery to a Giant Panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-12-01

    Findings from twin studies of musical interests and talent are reviewed as a backdrop to the lives and careers of twin jazz musicians, Peter and Will Anderson. The Anderson twins exemplify many aspects of twin research, namely their matched musical abilities, shared musical interests, and common career. This overview is followed by reviews of studies and case reports of bereavement in families who have lost a preterm multiple birth infant, the conception of conjoined twins following in vitro fertilization (IVF), depression in fathers of twins, and twin-to-twin transfusion incidence in monochorionic-diamniotic IVF twin pairs. Twins highlighted in the media include high-achieving identical female twins with nearly identical academic standing, tennis star Roger Federer's two sets of identical twin children, surgical separation of craniopagus conjoined twins, and the rare delivery of twins to a 23-year-old giant panda.

  17. Anaesthesia for conjoined twins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    draw~ver patient system consisting of a paediatric. "Ambu" bag and "Paedivalven drawing oxygen-en- riched air through a halothane vaporiser. Oxygen was supplied from an electric oxygen concentrator which can give 2 litres of 95% oxygen per minute. This apparatus has been described I. Mter 3 minutes the Sa02 of Twin ...

  18. Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies/Twin Research: Differentiating MZ Co-twins Via SNPs; Mistaken Infant Twin-Singleton Hospital Registration; Narcolepsy With Cataplexy; Hearing Loss and Language Learning/Media Mentions: Broadway Musical Recalls Conjoined Hilton Twins; High Fashion Pair; Twins Turn 102; Insights From a Conjoined Twin Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies are presented. The congress was held November 16-19, 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. This report is followed by summaries of research addressing the differentiation of MZ co-twins by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), an unusual error in infant twin-singleton hospital registration, twins with childhood-onset narcolepsy with cataplexy, and the parenting effects of hearing loss in one co-twin. Media interest in twins covers a new Broadway musical based on the conjoined twins Violet and Daisy Hilton, male twins becoming famous in fashion, twins who turned 102 and unique insights from a conjoined twin survivor. This article is dedicated to the memory of Elizabeth (Liz) Hamel, DZA twin who met her co-twin for the first time at age seventy-eight years. Liz and her co-twin, Ann Hunt, are listed in the 2015 Guinness Book of Records as the longest separated twins in the world.

  19. Gêmeos conjugados: experiência de um hospital terciário do sudeste do Brasil Conjoined twins: an experience of a tertiary hospital in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson Tadeu Berezowski

    2010-02-01

    a autorização para a interrupção da gestação obtida por via judicial.PURPOSE: to analyze the occurrence of conjoined twins at a tertiary perinatology reference university hospital over a period of 25 years (January 1982 to January 2007 and to describe the successful separation of one of the pairs. METHODS: we consulted retrospectively the database of the University Hospital of the Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the number of pairs of conjoined twins, their frequency, classification, gender, type of pregnancy resolution, attempted surgical separation, prenatal diagnosis and survival. RESULTS: we detected 14 pairs of conjoined twins (1/22,284 live births and 1/90 pairs of twin live births born during this period (six males, seven females and one of indeterminate sex. The prenatal diagnosis was performed in all twins and all births were accomplished by cesarean section. The separation was possible in only one pair, which survives in excellent health conditions after eight years. Of the remaining 13, ten died on the day of birth and three survived only a few months (less than one year. CONCLUSION: Although our study revealed an abnormally high number of conjoined twins, this is a rare phenomenon, with a poor perinatal prognosis depending on the organs shared by the twins and associated malformations, especially those related to the fetal heart. Due to the poor prognosis of these pairs and to the maternal reproductive impairment caused by the need to perform body cesareans, we suggest that, based on these numbers, early interruption of these pregnancies be legally granted, as in the case of other diseases incompatible with fetal survival outside the uterus. Thus, the confirmation of a diagnosis of conjoined twins and the resolution of pregnancy should be performed at a tertiary obstetric and perinatal care center, and an authorization for the interruption of pregnancy should be obtained by judicial means.

  20. Consistent left-right asymmetry cannot be established by late organizers in Xenopus unless the late organizer is a conjoined twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Levin, Michael

    2010-04-01

    How embryos consistently orient asymmetries of the left-right (LR) axis is an intriguing question, as no macroscopic environmental cues reliably distinguish left from right. Especially unclear are the events coordinating LR patterning with the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axes and midline determination in early embryos. In frog embryos, consistent physiological and molecular asymmetries manifest by the second cell cleavage; however, models based on extracellular fluid flow at the node predict correct de novo asymmetry orientation during neurulation. We addressed these issues in Xenopus embryos by manipulating the timing and location of dorsal organizer induction: the primary dorsal organizer was ablated by UV irradiation, and a new organizer was induced at various locations, either early, by mechanical rotation, or late, by injection of lithium chloride (at 32 cells) or of the transcription factor XSiamois (which functions after mid-blastula transition). These embryos were then analyzed for the position of three asymmetric organs. Whereas organizers rescued before cleavage properly oriented the LR axis 90% of the time, organizers induced in any position at any time after the 32-cell stage exhibited randomized laterality. Late organizers were unable to correctly orient the LR axis even when placed back in their endogenous location. Strikingly, conjoined twins produced by late induction of ectopic organizers did have normal asymmetry. These data reveal that although correct LR orientation must occur no later than early cleavage stages in singleton embryos, a novel instructive influence from an early organizer can impose normal asymmetry upon late organizers in the same cell field.

  1. Case Report Autopsy Findings on a Pair of Dicephalic Parapagus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    Defects of laterality, with absent spleen or situs inversus of the right twin's abdominal organs have been reported to accompany heart abnormalities (13). We report findings of a shared liver entirely within the thoracic cage, which had three lobes and two gall bladders. This is in accord with reports that the liver, pancreas, gall ...

  2. Conjoined (Siamese) Twins in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year-old Zambian multiparous mother gave birth to a set of twins with two heads ... (symmetric or mirror image) but one twin attached with an incomplete foetus is known as hetropagtrs. (asymmetrical). Thoracopagus twins (joined at the chest).

  3. A Possible Twin: The 1960s Twin Study Revisited/Twin Research: Twin-to-Twin Heart Transplantation; Distinguishing Monozygotic Twins; Twin Conceptions via Oocyte Donation; Factors Affecting Craniofacial Traits/In the Media: Triplet Delivery in the UK; Conjoined Twins and the Concept of Self; Colombian Twin Trainers; Skin Grafting to Save an Identical Co-Twin; Lack of Physical Flaws in Dolly the Cloned Sheep; Possible Conjoined Twins of Opposite-Sex; Passing of the Remaining Twin From the World's Longest Separated Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2018-04-01

    This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes. Some of these twin children were part of a controversial child development study that was hidden from them and their parents. Next, recent and current twin research on heart transplantation, distinguishing monozygotic co-twins, twin conceptions via oocyte donation and factors affecting craniofacial traits are summarized. The article concludes with highlights on twins in the media, specifically, a triplet delivery in the United Kingdom, self-concept and consciousness in conjoined twins, Colombian twin trainers, skin grafting to save an identical co-twin, lack of physical flaws in Dolly the cloned sheep, possible opposite-sex conjoined twins, and the passing of the remaining twin from the world's longest separated pair.

  4. Diagnóstico pré-natal de gêmeos unidos com uso da ressonância nuclear magnética: relato de dois casos Prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins by magnetic resonance imaging: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland de Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A gemelaridade imperfeita é entidade bastante rara e de grande interesse para fetólogos e obstetras em geral. Sua incidência estimada varia de 1:50.000 a 1:200.000 nascimentos. Seu diagnóstico precoce se faz necessário, tendo em vista sua importância para o prognóstico da gestação, correta determinação da via de parto e o planejamento pós-natal. Os dois casos relatados são de gêmeos unidos diagnosticados no pré-natal através da ultra-sonografia e ressonância nuclear magnética, para estudo do compartilhamento dos órgãos e melhor definição das relações anatômicas. O primeiro par gemelar foi cefalópago, ou seja, unidos pela cabeça, tórax e abdome, com duas pelves e oito membros. O segundo foi toracópago, ou seja, unidos pelo tórax e abdome superior. A ressonância magnética pouco contribuiu para o diagnóstico de gêmeos unidos. Entretanto, se mostrou de grande auxílio na descrição dos órgãos compartilhados entre os fetos, contribuindo na definição do prognóstico fetal.Conjoined twins have a rare prevalence and special curiosity among physicians and the general population. The reported frequency varies from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 pregnancies. Its early diagnosis becomes very important when we think about pregnancy management, method of delivery and neonatal care. We describe two cases of conjoined twins diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance during prenatal care with the aim to better studying the fetus anatomy. The first conjoined twins were cephalopagus sharing head, thorax and abdominal wall and with two pelvis and four arms and four legs. The second were thoracopagus, united by thorax and part of abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging contribution was not important to diagnose conjoined twins. However, it was useful to describe the shared organs, contributing to define fetal outcome.

  5. Craniofacial duplication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Pradeep; Deshpande, Mandar; Verma, Nitin; Mahendrakar, Vivek; Mahendrakar, Sandhya

    2013-09-01

    A craniofacial duplication or diprosopus is an unusual variant of conjoined twinning. The reported incidence is one in 180,000-15 million births and 35 cases have been reported till date. The phenotype is wide, with the partial duplication of a few facial structures to complete dicephalus. A complete duplication is associated with a high incidence of anomalies in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system and the respiratory system, whereas no major anomalies are found in the infants with a partial duplication. A term baby with the features of a craniofacial duplication has been described, with the proposed theories on embryogenesis and a brief review of the literature.

  6. Anaesthesia for the separation of conjoined twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Lalwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoraco-omphalopagus is one of the most common type of conjoint twins accounting for 74% cases of conjoint twins. We report the anaesthetic management for successful separation of thoraco-omphalopagus conjoint twins, both of them surviving till date. We highlight the responsibility of anaesthesia team in anaesthetising the two individual patients simultaneously, need of careful monitoring and anticipation of complications like massive blood loss, hypotension, hypokalemia, hypoxia and hypercabia. Detailed description of successful management is reported.

  7. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  8. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-07-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  9. Parasitic Rachipagus Conjoined Twins: Surgical Management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parasite upper limb. The parasite was successfully excised. Subsequent follow up of the child has revealed a boy who despite the weakness of his left lower limb is able ... of the limbs. The defect in dura in the lumbar region was also repaired. The limbs excised are shown in figures 5 and 6, with the post operative picture in.

  10. Art for twins: Yorùbá artists and their statues/twin research studies: twins' education and conceptions; diurnal preference; inherited eye diseases; ultrasound counseling when twins are conjoined/popular twin reports: twin sisters (the film); rare pregnancy; diet test; French twins reared apart and reunited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-06-01

    The Yorùbá of Nigeria are well known for their high twinning rate and the statues they create to commemorate deceased twins. An impressive collection of this artwork was displayed at the University of California's Fowler Museum in Los Angeles between October 13, 2013 and March 2, 2014. An overview of this exhibit is provided. Next, twin research on maternal education and conception, diurnal preference, inherited eye diseases, and ultrasound counseling for couples with conjoined twins are briefly summarized. This article concludes with a discussion of media-based items related to twins. The topics include an award-winning twin film, a rare pregnancy, a diet test, and the separation and chance reunion of monozygotic female twins.

  11. Oliver Sacks: Our Correspondence About Twins/Twin Research: Vanishing Twins Syndrome; Discordant Sex in MZ Twins; Pregnancy Outcomes in IVF and ICSI Conceived Twins/Print and Media: Superfetated Twins; Twins Discordant for Smoking; Twins in Fashion; Yale University Twin Hockey Players; Conjoined Twin-Visiting Professor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-08-01

    The late neurologist and author, Oliver Sacks, published an insightful 1986 review of Marjorie Wallace's book, The Silent Twins, in the New York Times. Taking exception to his assertion about Sir Francis Galton, I wrote a letter to the Times' editor. The letter was unpublished, but it brought a wonderful response from Sacks himself that is reproduced and examined. Next, brief reviews of twin research concerning the vanishing twin syndrome (VTS), discordant sex in a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair, and multiple pregnancy outcomes from assisted reproductive technology (ART) are presented. This section is followed by popular coverage of superfetated twins, smoking-discordant co-twins, twins in fashion, Yale University twin hockey players, and a visiting professor who was a conjoined twin.

  12. Diprosopus: a unique case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, June; Staffenberg, David A; Mulliken, John B; Shanske, Alan L

    2002-12-01

    We present a case of partial facial duplication in a male infant. The clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings for this patient are described, followed by a review of the literature. Craniofacial duplication is a rare form of conjoined twinning and presents in a wide spectrum, from dicephalus to diprosopus to partial facial duplication. Many of these cases can be diagnosed prenatally. Prenatal assessment of our patient revealed only agenesis of the corpus callosum. The pathogenesis is believed to involve duplication of the notochord. Where there are more severe associated anomalies, the prognosis is poor. Partial facial duplication, as in our case, is associated with fewer anomalies, and the prognosis is better. Symmetry and an excess of tissue, rather than deficiency, favor a positive result. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Anestesia para separação de gêmeos isquiópagos no período neonatal: relato de caso Anestesia para separación de gemelos isquiópagos en el período neonatal Anesthetic management for neonatal conjoined twins separation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo

    2002-07-01

    para la literatura existente, relatando los desafíos encontrados por nuestro equipo en el atendimiento a la cirurgia-anestesia de separación de gemelos isquiópagos. RELATO DO CASO: Pacientes gemelos, nacidos a término, de parto cesariano, pesando juntos 5.100 g, clasificados como isquiópagus tetrapus. Dos equipos anestésico-quirúrgicos estaban presentes, siendo el procedimiento anestésico esquematizado con aparato de anestesia, cardioscópio, capnógrafo, oxímetro de pulso, termómetro eléctrico, estetoscópio esofágico, todos en duplo. Se realizó inducción anestésica con halotano y fentanil, con los gemelos en posición lateral y con rotación de la cabeza en 45º para facilitar la intubación traqueal. Los recién-nacidos fueron mantenidos en ventilación controlada manualmente, utilizando el sistema de Rees-Baraka. La anestesia fue mantenida con halotano, oxígeno y fentanil. Durante el per-operatorio, fueron encontrados organismos abdominales duplos, con excepción del cólon, que era único. Las vejigas y los ísquios estaban ligados. Al final de la cirugía los dos niños se presentaban con señales vitales estables. Los gemelos permanecieron en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI Neonatal por cuatro semanas y recibieron alta en buen estado general. CONCLUSIONES: Se resalta la importancia del engranaje del equipo, del estudio retrospectivo multidisciplinar, de la monitorización adecuada y perfeccionada observación clínica; todos esos factores contribuyeron para la buena evolución y alta de los gemelos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The separation of conjoined twins has always raised considerable interest because of surgical and anesthetic complexity, pathology rarity and few survival chances. The goal of this description was to contribute to existing literature by reporting the challenges faced by our team during an anesthetic-surgical procedure for ischiopagus twins separation. CASE REPORT: Term conjoined twins, born from Cesarean section, weighing

  14. Conjoined twins with a horseshoe kidney | Modi | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Four decades of conjoined twins at Red Cross Children's Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anatomy and discordant anomalies, especially in the right- ... and functional description of normal and fused anatomy. ... Over a period of 42 years (1964- 2006), Red Cross Children's .... transfused ranged from 10% to 450% of the estimated blood ... Owing to cross-circulation, pharmacokinetics ... size of the right ventricle.

  16. Embryonic duplications in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, S M

    1975-02-01

    Twenty-seven embryonic duplications were examined during a 3-year investigation into the causes of perinatal lamb mortality. Twenty of the 27 were anomalous twins with 19 being conjoined (diplopagus 9 and heteropagus 10). The various duplications were: haloacardius acephalus 1, diprosopus 2, dicephalus 2, dipypus 3, diprosopus dipygus 1, syncephalus dipygus 1, pygopagus parasiticus 1, heteropagus dipygus 3, melodidymus 6, polyury 4, penile duplication 2, and bilateral otognathia 1. Four lambs were living and the time of death of the others was: parturient 8, and post-parturient 15. Average dry weight of the lambs was 3.35 kg (range 1.59 to 5.45 kg). Breed distribution was: Merino 77.8%, Crossbred 14.8%, Dorset Horn 3.7%, and Corriedale 3.7%. The caudal region was involved in 10 of the conjoined twins (52.6%), anterior region in 7 (36.9%), and both anterior and caudal regions in 2 (10.5%). Associated defects were present in 70.4% of the 27 lambs, the most common being atresia ani.

  17. Diprosopia/dicephalia in calves in northern Italy: clinical and aetio-pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasibetti, E; D'Angelo, A; Bellino, C; Gay, L; Gianella, P; Capucchio, M T

    2011-12-01

    Cephalic parapagia, a rare congenital anomaly caused by the fusion of two monozygotic embryos, is characterized by a single body and a spectrum of duplication of craniofacial structures. The authors describe the clinical and pathological aspects of the parapagus conjoined twin defect in nine calves referred to the Department of Animal Pathology, Turin, between 1999 and 2009. The majority of the calves (eight cases) presented two snouts that shared three or four eyes (diprosopia); one calf presented two separate skulls fused at the foramen magnum (dicephalia). Bilateral inferior brachygnathia was observed in four calves. Post-mortem examination of the skull revealed complete brain duplication with fusion at the caudal portion of the brainstem in all calves. Histological features of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem were normal; moderate disorganization of the cerebellar cortex was noted in two cases. Cardiac malformations were observed in three calves. No aetiologic cause was determined. This article underscores the importance of diprosopia in cattle species and suggests the need for more detailed investigations to better understand its pathogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Past/Future Conjoined: Note from the USA on the Present Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Elkes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It was a warm summer day in 1937. We had heard of The Peckham Experiment while on student rotation under Aleck Bourne, Chief of Obstetrics and Gynecology at St. Mary's Hospital, London. A man of deep human sympathy, and far ahead of his time, he had a clear vision of where medicine was going. A novel experiment in prospective health care was apparently proceeding in a working class London Borough. There was not much interest in our little group, except for one other student and myself. So on that warm summer day the two of us set out to see for ourselves. We arrived in the late afternoon. Nearly fifty years later, I still recall the first impression of the building—a feeling of access and transparency: glass walls, glass doors, story-high open spaces. The classrooms and playrooms abutted the gym, and the swimming pool. The kitchen, the cafeteria, the reading room, even the pathology labs were visible from the passage way. Only the interview rooms we shielded from view. Children of all ages were everywhere, playing in creches, nurseries, and playrooms. Some were with their parents, some with "sister" (nurse some solo, some in clusters doing their thing on ropes, or roller skates, or engaged in quiet study or games. On the terrrace-cafeteria, overlooking the pool, there were parents —mainly mothers, some of whom might be seen again in the evening joined by their husbands or friends. There was also a sprinkling of grandparents here and there. We noticed one other aspect: as the hours passed, more and more teenagers joined in. I remember thinking at the time how remarkable it was to have parents, children, teenagers, and even grandparents, all under one roof, and all clearly enjoying themselves. If there was "staff," it was hard to tell who was who.

  19. Explaining seemingly paradoxical consumer experiences: conjoining weekly road rage and church attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Li-Shiue; Woodside, Arch G; Martin, Drew

    2015-02-01

    The purposes of the current study are threefold: Provide evidence that an extreme paradoxical group exists-people frequently attending church and exhibiting road rage, profile this group, and frame possible explanations for the seemingly paradoxical behaviors. This study employs data from a national (USA) lifestyle survey conducted by Market Facts with 3,350 American respondents. The major questions asked about church participation and road-rage behavior ("giving a finger" and "flashing headlights"). Nomologically, relevant activities include 3 items for church goers and 3 items for road-rage givers. Additionally, 14 items profiled the lifestyles of the unique paradoxical behavior segment. Utilizing cross-tabulation tables, property space analyses identify the double extreme (XX) group (18 people) and other 6 groups with a significant chi-square test, confirming the extreme group exists. Analyses of variance test results show that comparing nomologically relevant activities among the seven groups is all statistically significant, indicating the nomological validity is met. Overall, the XX group tends to have more males, be younger, and have a higher proportion of people working in sales. The profile of lifestyle analyses shows the XX group members have both high ambitions and expectations, might be very frustrated individuals, and equip with the adventurous and masculine traits related to aggression. The XX behavior group's demographic and psychographic characteristics portray similar lifestyles that differ from other groups. Case-based analyses provide further contextual information of nuances to XX segment individuals. The limited energy theory, the Eagleman's theory of unconscious mind, and justification theory help to explain why people conjointly go to church and commit road rage. Addressing chronic paradoxical behaviors provides implications for social de-marketing to reduce aggressive anti-social behavior such as road rage. Frequent church attendance may help make people more sensitive to their wrongdoings and gradually revise the anti-social behavior.

  20. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing: Exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; van Herk, H.

    2009-01-01

    Research on international marketing constructs, such as consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects, typically focuses on consumers' initial evaluations of foreign products but ignores consumers' emerging cross-border exchange relationships with foreign service providers. The influence of

  1. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Meyer, A.S.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon

  2. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing : exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Herk, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Research on international marketing constructs, such as consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects, typically focuses on consumers' initial evaluations of foreign products but ignores consumers' emerging cross-border exchange relationships with foreign service providers. The influence of

  3. Illusory words: the roles of attention and of top-down constraints in conjoining letters to form words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treisman, A; Souther, J

    1986-02-01

    When attention is divided among four briefly exposed syllables, subjects mistakenly detect targets whose letters are present in the display but in the wrong combinations. These illusory conjunctions are somewhat more frequent when the target is a word and when the distractors are nonwords, but the effects of lexical status are small, and no longer reach significance in free report of the same displays. Search performance is further impaired if the nonwords are unpronounceable consonant strings rather than consonant-vowel-consonant strings, but the decrement is due to missed targets rather than to increased conjunction errors. The results are discussed in relation to feature-integration theory and to current models of word perception.

  4. Congenital anomalies in the teratological collection of Museum Vrolik in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. V: conjoined and acardiac twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Baljet, B.; Verbeeten, B. W.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Museum Vrolik collection of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, founded by Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), consists of more than 5,000 specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology,

  5. The Short Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and Its Conjoined Structure with the Common Five-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri J.

    2017-01-01

    Research is currently testing how the new maladaptive personality inventory for DSM (PID-5) and the well-established common Five-Factor Model (FFM) together can serve as an empirical and theoretical foundation for clinical psychology. The present study investigated the official short version of the PID-5 together with a common short version of…

  6. "DK Crush" Technique for a Tightly Stenosed Conjoined SVG Lesion in a Patient with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiogenic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ju; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Chang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Su, Chieh-Shou

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery bifurcation disease of saphenous venous graft (SVG) is extremely rare. SVG disease remains a challenging lesion to treat because of increased morbidity and mortality with repeated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), high rates of periprocedural complications, and in-stent restenosis or occlusion requiring repeat revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the first reported case of using the "DK crush" technique to treat an inverted Y-shaped SVG bifurcation disease in a patient with a prior CABG and new-onset acute coronary syndrome. Arising from our treatment, favorable immediate and mid-term angiographic and clinical outcomes were obtained. Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG); "DK crush" technique; Saphenous venous graft (SVG).

  7. Gravity Anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Evidence for an Alternative Magma Chamber on Kauai and a Conjoined Niihau-Kauai Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M.; Kim, S.; Appelgate, B.

    2008-12-01

    The shield stage evolution of the islands of Kauai and Niihau are poorly understood. Previous land-based gravity surveys provide only a coarse constraint on the observed gravitational field. Questions as to whether the island of Kauai was formed by a single or multiple shields and the developmental relationship between these neighboring islands are still debated. Our new land-based gravity survey of Kauai and ship-board gravity surveys around both islands identified large complete Bouguer gravitational anomalies under Kauai's Lihue Basin and offshore in the Kaulakahi Channel, a 30-km-long bathymetric ridge connecting the two islands. These gravitational highs are consistent in size and magnitude with those of other Hawaiian islands and imply local zones of high density crust, most likely attributed to magmatic intrusions; e.g. former magma chambers, or rift zones. The Lihue Basin anomaly observed is offset 20 km east from the geologically mapped caldera region. This offset implies either the unlikely case that the shield stage plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and caldera could have been inclined by up to 75 degrees from the vertical, or that the currently mapped caldera is a late feature, unrelated to shield volcanism. The location of the gravitational anomaly, in the Kaulakahi Channel, 20 km east of Niihau is consistent with geologic mapping, which indicates that Niihau is a remnant of an ancient shield volcano centered east of the island. The proximity of the Niihau gravitational anomaly 10 km from the western edge of Kauai supports the hypothesis that the two volcanoes were part of the same island.

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matthews, LS. Vol 96, No 9 (2006): Part 2 - Articles Four decades of conjoined twins at Red Cross Children's Hospital - lessons learned. Abstract PDF · Vol 96, No 9 (2006) - Articles Four decades of conjoined twins at Red Cross Children's Hospital-lessons learned. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals ...

  9. Mothers' Judgement Of The Representativeness Of Their Sons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    Intelligence Scale (Thorndike, Hagen, and Sattler 1986). Thal et al. (1999) also correlated parents' .... All participants were to have normal intelligence, language abilities, and hearing according to ..... cannot be attributed to multiple conjoining using and or and then, as sentences conjoined by these connecting devices were ...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in the repair of ruptured Achilles tendons. Morphological difference in healing process between conservative and surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Tetsuo; Tsuruta, Takao; Abe, Yasuyuki; Tani, Akifumi; Koga, Toshimitsu; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    We observed the healing process of ruptured Achilles tendons in a series using magnetic resonance imaging. In six cases, tendons were repaired percutaneously with limited skin incisions. Seven cases were treated conservatively using unique functional braces. MR imaging revealed two different modes of conjoining. In the conservatively treated group, tendons inclined to conjoin in a dumbbell shape. In the surgically treated group, they inclined to conjoin in a spindle shape. The diameters of the ruptured part are wider in the spindle shape compared to the dumbbell shape at all stages. These findings suggest that surgical treatment is favorable for acquiring earlier strength. (author)

  11. Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus): report of a case with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, S S; Hammouri, M F

    1995-01-01

    A case of craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is presented. Details on this rare form of conjoined twins are described, and the proposed theories of its embryogenesis are discussed with brief review of the pertinent literature.

  12. Obstetric significance of fetal craniofacial duplication. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, F A; Pinto, M M; Heller, C I; Norooz, H

    1985-01-01

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twins. Whenever fetal hydrocephalus is diagnosed, a careful search for other anomalies, such as diprosopus, is mandatory. The obstetric management depends upon the time of the diagnosis.

  13. A holy Quran ontology construction with semiautomatic population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The major contribution of this approach is to harness the benefits of learning methods, conjoined with statistical ... Keywords: Ontology; Holy Quran; named entity; machine learning ...

  14. Early unexpected diagnosis of fetal life-limiting malformation; antenatal palliative care and parental decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariona, Federico; Burnett, Marianne; Zoma, Melody; Blake, Janice; Khouri, Hanna

    2017-11-02

    Conjoined twins are an infrequent occurrence in obstetric practice. Live-conjoined twins on a late preterm triplet pregnancy is an even rarer event. The objective of this study is to emphasize the critical importance of perinatal palliative care and non-directive parental counseling, informed decision making and respect for autonomy following full disclosure of findings, fetal life-limiting diagnosis, treatment alternatives, maternal-fetal potential complications, and most likely perinatal outcomes. Early surprise prenatal diagnosis, comprehensive parental counseling, palliative care, and perinatal care of a set of conjoined twins and a singleton. Cesarean delivery of a set of conjoined twins and a singleton at 34 weeks' gestation. Immediate neonatal death of the conjoined twins, intact survival, and discharge of the singleton. Review of the database on previously reported similar cases. It is very important to utilize simple and direct language for parents to understand the grave prognosis to the pregnancy. Care alternatives in view of the maternal physical risks and psychological impact of carrying a high order abnormal multiple pregnancy, along with the possible side effects on the singleton.

  15. The Functions of Danish Causal Conjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Therkelsen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article I propose an analysis of the Danish causal conjunctions fordi, siden and for based on the framework of Danish Functional Grammar. As conjunctions they relate two clauses, and their semantics have in common that it indicates a causal relationship between the clauses. The causal conjunctions are different as far as their distribution is concerned; siden conjoins a subordinate clause and a main clause, for conjoins two main clauses, and fordi is able to do both. Methodologically I have based my analysis on these distributional properties comparing siden and fordi conjoining a subordinate and a main clause, and comparing for and fordi conjoining two main clauses, following the thesis that they would establish a causal relationship between different kinds of content. My main findings are that fordi establishes a causal relationship between the events referred to by the two clauses, and the whole utterance functions as a statement of this causal relationship. Siden presupposes such a general causal relationship between the two events and puts forward the causing event as a reason for assuming or wishing or ordering the caused event, siden thus establishes a causal relationship between an event and a speech act. For equally presupposes a general causal relationship between two events and it establishes a causal relationship between speech acts, and fordi conjoining two main clauses is able to do this too, but in this position it also maintains its event-relating ability, the interpretation depending on contextual factors.

  16. Accessory oral cavity associated with duplication of the tongue and the mandible in a newborn: a rare case of Diprosopus. Multi-row detector computed tomography diagnostic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Rosa; Colonna, Michele R; Mormina, Enricomaria; Stagno d'Alcontres, Ferdinando; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Blandino, Alfredo; Longo, Marcello; Granata, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial duplication is a very rare malformation. The phenotype comprises a wide spectrum, ranging from partial duplication of few facial structures to complete dicephalus. We report the case of a newborn with an accessory oral cavity associated to duplication of the tongue and the mandible diagnosed by multi-row detector Computed Tomography, few days after her birth. Our case of partial craniofacial duplication can be considered as Type II of Gorlin classification or as an intermediate form between Type I and Type II of Sun classification. Our experience demonstrates that CT scan, using appropriate reconstruction algorithms, permits a detailed evaluation of the different structures in an anatomical region. Multi-row CT scan is also the more accurate diagnostic procedure for the pre-surgical evaluation of craniofacial malformations. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences between the events preceding spina bifida and anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W H

    1981-02-01

    It is usually held that there is a time continuum in the formation of monoxygotic (MZ) twins which is indexed by their placentation, running from dichorionic to monochorionic diamniotic to monochorionic monoamniotic and conjoined pairs. There is good evidence that this continuum is characterised by a continuum of predisposition to anencephaly, slightly raised in dichorionic pairs but very high in some sorts of conjoined pairs. Although MZ twins, especially monoamniotic and conjoined pairs, are peculiarly liable to anencephaly, they are not particularly susceptible to spina bifida. Among twin pairs concordant for anencephaly or spina bifida, there are strikingly few concordant in the sense of one twin having anencephaly and the other spina bifida, in contrast with the numbers of pairs concordant for the same malformation. The prevalence of anencephaly in double monsters varies with the type of monster, being high in diprosopus. These findings may be explained by the timing of embryonic events.

  18. Focal points and principal solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepitka, Peter; Šimon Hilscher, Roman

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present a novel view on the principal (and antiprincipal) solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems, as well as on the focal points of their conjoined bases. We present a new and unified theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions at a finite point and at infinity, and apply it to obtain new representation of the multiplicities of right and left proper focal points of conjoined bases. We show that these multiplicities can be characterized by the abnormality of the system in a neighborhood of the given point and by the rank of the associated T-matrix from the theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions. We also derive some additional important results concerning the representation of T-matrices and associated normalized conjoined bases. The results in this paper are new even for completely controllable linear Hamiltonian systems. We also discuss other potential applications of our main results, in particular in the singular Sturmian theory.

  19. Analytical solutions for the profile of two-dimensional droplets with finite-length precursor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Carlos Alberto; Mac Intyre, J. R.; Gomba, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    By means of the lubrication approximation we obtain the full family of static bidimensional profiles of a liquid resting on a substrate under partial-wetting conditions imposed by a disjoining-conjoining pressure. We show that for a set of quite general disjoining-conjoining pressure potentials, the free surface can adopt only five nontrivial static patterns; in particular, we find solutions when the height goes to zero which describe satisfactorily the complete free surface for a finite amount of fluid deposited on a substrate. To test the extension of the applicability of our solutions, we compare them with those obtained when the lubrication approximations are not employed and under conditions where the lubrication hypothesis are not strictly valid, and also with axisymmetric solutions. For a given disjoining-conjoining potential, we report a new analytical solution that accounts for all the five possible solutions.

  20. Diprosopiasis in a lamb. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzullo, G; Germanà, A; De Vico, G; Germanà, G

    2003-02-01

    Conjoined twinning has been reported in most of the domestic animal species. Among them, sheep have the highest incidence of craniofacial defects. A live male crossbreed dystocic two-headed lamb was delivered from a 2-year-old Pinzerita sheep after first mating. After 40 h of life, the lamb spontaneously died. The most important gross findings involved the head, whereas the examination of different organ and tissue sections did not reveal remarkable histomorphological changes. The lamb was classified as a conjoined twinning and, on the basis of the facial duplication, as a diprosopus tetraophtalmus.

  1. Undiagnosed xiphopagus twins: a perinatal malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Dorairajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjoined twins are a very rare entity. It is associated with poor survival rate in the presence of vital organ sharing. The entity can be diagnosed as early as the first trimester. A conjoined twin diagnosed late in labor is a malady with high perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity. We present one such case of xiphopagus twins. The management of a case diagnosed late in labor can be very challenging. Such obstetric challenges can be avoided by a meticulous early scan with a high index of suspicion, especially in the absence of separating membrane while scanning multiple pregnancies.

  2. Generalized reciprocity principle for discrete symplectic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elyseeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies transformations for conjoined bases of symplectic difference systems $Y_{i+1}=\\mathcal S_{i}Y_{i}$ with the symplectic coefficient matrices $\\mathcal S_i.$ For an arbitrary symplectic transformation matrix $P_{i}$ we formulate most general sufficient conditions for $\\mathcal S_{i},\\, P_{i}$ which guarantee that $P_{i}$ preserves oscillatory properties of conjoined bases $Y_{i}.$ We present examples which show that our new results extend the applicability of the discrete transformation theory.

  3. Emergency separation of a xipho-omphalopagus twin in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Female conjoined twins (thoraco-omphalopagus were delivered by emergency caesarean section in a private nursing home. On examination, one of the twins was dead and was threatening the survival of the surviving twin (twin A. An emergency separation was performed to salvage the surviving twin.

  4. Diprosopus tetraophthalmus: CT as a complement to autopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, T; Stanek, J; Leach, J L

    2012-01-01

    Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twinning. This anomaly is characterised by craniofacial duplication to varying degrees and is associated with anomalies of the central nervous, cardiac, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. We present an infant characterised as diprosopus tetraophthalmus who underwent post-mortem CT, which served as a highly useful complement to autopsy.

  5. Diprosopus tetraophthalmus: CT as a complement to autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laor, T; Stanek, J; Leach, J L

    2012-01-01

    Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twinning. This anomaly is characterised by craniofacial duplication to varying degrees and is associated with anomalies of the central nervous, cardiac, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems. We present an infant characterised as diprosopus tetraophthalmus who underwent post-mortem CT, which served as a highly useful complement to autopsy.

  6. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults...

  7. Move Closer: Towards Design Patterns To Support Initiating Social Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb; Boer, Laurens

    2017-01-01

    be addressed. Each inspirational design pattern offers strategies to make social interaction more likely through enabling, encouraging or excusing people to move closer together. The patterns are "Feel For Fun", "Conjoining Self Images", "Eye To Eye", and "Nudge People Together". Articulating possible...... approaches for increasing conviviality may broaden the repertoire of developers concerned with social settings and collaboration....

  8. A Borderline Ovarian Tumour in a Patient with Classic Bladder Exstrophy; a Case Report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beauchamp, K

    2018-02-01

    A 37-year-old Romanian lady presented with a large pelvic mass, urosepsis and deteriorating renal function. She had undergone separation from her conjoined twin. Imaging revealed grossly abnormal anatomy and a suspicious pelvic mass. Examination was consistent with classic bladder exstrophy. Postoperative histology showed borderline ovarian tumour (BTO)

  9. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg. (Online)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    incomplete splitting of the embryonic axis and, with the exception of parasitic ... which a zygote completely separates, but stem cells find like-stem cells on the other ... Conjoined twinning is one of the most fascinating human malformations and ...

  10. Siameses: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de siameses ocurrido en un consultorio médico y diagnosticado precozmente mediante ultrasonografía. Se realiza una revisión de la entidad.A case of conjoined twins that occurred at a family physician office and was early diagnosed by ultrasonography is presented. A review of this entity is made.

  11. Sustainable Design Re-Examined: Integrated Approach to Knowledge Creation for Sustainable Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on a systematic approach to the instructional framework to incorporate three aspects of sustainable design. It also aims to provide an instruction model for sustainable design stressing a collective effort to advance knowledge creation as a community. It develops a framework conjoining the concept of integrated process in…

  12. Leaders' Experiences with High School-College Writing Center Collaborations: A Qualitative Multiple-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore academic leaders' experiences with the organizational elements of their own high school-college writing center collaborations. Conjoining theories framed this study: collaborative leadership theory, Kenneth Bruffee's notion of social constructionism and collaborative learning…

  13. The Role of School Counselors in Meeting Students' Mental Health Needs: Examining Issues of Professional Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKruyf, Lorraine; Auger, Richard W.; Trice-Black, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    The professional identity of school counselors has evolved over time. This article traces the historical context driving this evolution, and suggests it is time for the profession to conjoin the roles of educational leader and mental health professional. This proposal is prompted by heightened awareness of unmet student mental health needs,…

  14. Emergency separation of a xipho-omphalopagus twin in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergency separation of a xipho-omphalopagus twin in a developing country. RM Shukla, B Mukhopadhyay, KC Mandal, K Saha, D Roy, PP Mukherjee. Abstract. Female conjoined twins (thoraco-omphalopagus) were delivered by emergency caesarean section in a private nursing home. On examination, one of the twins ...

  15. The world in a box? Food security, edible insects, and "One World, One Health" collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists in the Netherlands are cultivating edible insects to address concerns of international food security. Committed to the One World, One Health (OWOH) movement, their research aims to create a safe and effective global solution to the conjoined problems of climate change and an increasing

  16. Impact of Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Following Exposure to the September 11 Attacks on Preschool Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…

  17. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    financial, emotional, personal and social costs fo families and twins themselves. It accounts for a. 10% of perinatal mortality (Dera et al., 2007; Gess. 2007 and Abasiattai et al., 2010). A number of unique complications develop i pregnancies. They include conjoined twinning, t twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), growth discor.

  18. Connecting Mathematics in Primary Science Inquiry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Winnie Wing-mui

    2013-01-01

    Science as inquiry and mathematics as problem solving are conjoined fraternal twins attached by their similarities but with distinct differences. Inquiry and problem solving are promoted in contemporary science and mathematics education reforms as a critical attribute of the nature of disciplines, teaching methods, and learning outcomes involving…

  19. East and Central African Journal of Surgery - Vol 7, No 1 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjoined (Siamese) twins in Zambia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L Munkonge ... Outcome of major trauma at Mulago Hospital in Uganda. Assessment using the TRISS methodology · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Is a Sociology of Special and Inclusive Education Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the expansion of education systems that now, following international declarations, are expected to offer an "Education for All" to children, young people and adults. Since in these declarations special education and inclusive education are conjoined, sociological questions can be asked as to what sort of social…

  1. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-03-08

    Mar 8, 2014 ... more live born females conjoined twin with a female to male ration of 3:1, however ... news reports that never made the medical literature,. Table 2. Table 1: Summary ..... twins: a medical and criminal law dilemma. J Law Med.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 823 ... ... Conjoined (Siamese) twins in Zambia, Abstract PDF. L Munkonge. Vol 19, No 1 (2014), Contiguous Lower Lumbar Fracture-dislocation plus Morel-Lavallee Lesion, Abstract PDF. NS Motsitsi. Vol 5, No 2 (2000), Controlling rotational deformity in ankle fractures: the Bridgend knee grip, Abstract PDF.

  3. “Getting the Left Right”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, Marianne E.; Zahavi, Dan; Hjaltason, Haukur

    2015-01-01

    We used a phenomenological approach to gain insight into the experiences of self, other, and world in patients with hemispatial neglect within the first month following stroke. Comprehensive descriptions of circumstances were conjoined with open-ended interviews of 12 participants. The neglect...

  4. Redistribution, Recognition and Representation: Working against Pedagogies of Indifference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Keddie, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian government-commissioned research study that documented classroom pedagogies in 24 Queensland schools. The research created the model of "productive pedagogies", which conjoined what Nancy Fraser calls a politics of redistribution, recognition and representation. In this model pedagogies are…

  5. Disability and Diversity in Canada: Problems and Opportunities in Creating Accessible and Inclusive Learning and Service Delivery Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanga, Zephania; Freeze, Rick; Duchesne, Hermann; Nyachoti, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A novel participatory workshop methodology was adopted in this qualitative study of the intersection of disability and diversity in the lives of individuals. Social service recipients, parents, educators, service providers, and policy makers in three Canadian cities were conjoined in daylong discussions designed to investigate if the realities of…

  6. Siamese twins with craniofacial duplication and bilateral cleft lip/palate in a ceramic representation of the Chimú culture (Peru): a comparative analysis with a current case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Hernandez-Amaris, Maria F; Porras-Hurtado, Gloria Liliana; Rodriguez, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Craniofacial duplication or diprosopus is a very rare malformation that is present in approximately 0.4% of conjoined twins. Here is presented a case of craniofacial duplication in association with bilateral cleft lip/palate in both heads found in a ceramic representation from the early Chimú culture from Peru. A comparative analysis is made with a current case of a 28-week-old fetus with similar characteristics. After reviewing the medical literature on conjoined twins, very few reports of facial cleft in both twins were found, with no reports at all of bilateral cleft lip/palate. This ceramic crock is considered one of the first representations suggestive of craniofacial duplication, and probably the first reporting it in association with facial cleft.

  7. [Extraordinary news of a curious apothecary. Monsters and wonders in the Florentine diary of Luca Landucci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    This article offers a new reading of the well-known diary kept by the Florentine apothecary Luca Landucci between 1450 and 1516, examining its accounts of prodigies and other "monstrous" occurrences from a modern scientific point of view. Particular consideration is given to descriptions of a variety of birth defects observed in various Italian cities at the time, providing explanations for each case based on the latest medical theories. A detailed analysis is provided for a case of cranioschisis recorded in Volterra in 1474, a case of Opitz syndrome occurring in Venice in 1489, the birth of conjoined twins in Padua in the same year, conjoined triplets born to a 60-year-old woman in Venice, the well-publicized account of the 1512 Ravenna monster and, finally, the thoraco-acephalus tetramelus adolescent that Landucci personally observed in Florence in 1513.

  8. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  9. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  10. A Monocephalus Diprosopus Fetus: Antenatal Sonographic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Kavak, Salih Burcin; Kavak, Ebru Celik; Coskun, Berna; Ilhan, Rasit; Orak, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Monocephalus Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twins. The etiology of this anomaly is stil obscure. We herein report a monocephalus diprosopus case that was diagnosed in week 19 of pregnancy was presented due to its rarity and the significance of its prenatal diagnosis. Recommended a pregnancy termination since it does not have a definitive treatment today, prenatal diagnosis made for such fetuses at an early stage bears importance in terms of lowering the severity of psychological t...

  11. Diprosopus: Systematic review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Tardivo, Agostina; Tomasoni, Fabián; Tejeiro, Verónica; Camacho, Inés; Vilas, Mariana; Liascovich, Rosa; Barbero, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Diprosopus is a subtype of symmetric conjoined twins with one head, facial duplication and a single trunk. Diprosopus is a very rare congenital anomaly. This is a systematic review of published cases and the presentation of two new cases born in Argentina. We estimated the prevalence of conjoined twins and diprosopus using data from the National Network of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC). The prevalence of conjoined twins in RENAC was 19 per 1,000,000 births (95% confidence interval, 12-29). Diprosopus prevalence was 2 per 1,000,000 births (95% confidence interval, 0.2-6.8). In the systematic review, we identified 31 diprosopus cases. The facial structures more frequently duplicated were nose and eyes. Most frequent associated anomalies were: anencephaly, duplication of cerebral hemispheres, craniorachischisis, oral clefts, spinal abnormalities, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, thoracic and/or abdominal visceral laterality anomalies. One of the RENAC cases and three cases from the literature had another discordant nonmalformed twin. The conjoined twins prevalence was similar to other studies. The prevalence of diprosopus was higher. The etiology is still unknown. The presence of visceral laterality anomalies may indicate the link between diprosopus and the alteration or duplication of the primitive node in the perigastrulation period (12-15 days postfertilization). Pregnancies of more than two embryos may be a risk factor for diprosopus. Given the low prevalence of this defect, it would be useful to perform studies involving several surveillance systems and international consortiums. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:993-1007, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ways of thinking: an essay on referential coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, H. H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Referential coordination occurs when a thinker is rational in treating her thoughts as being about the same thing. This is manifested primarily in the thinker’s dispositions to make inferences, paradigmatically the disposition to infer an existential generalisation conjoining two or more properties without recourse to an additional premise concerning an identity. It therefore presents an indispensable way for identity to figure in thought. This topic is often addressed in the form of discussi...

  13. Street art a jeho vliv na současnou českou malbu

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Street Art and Its Influence on Contemporary Czech Painting Street art as a concept refers to an artistic expression, which is, however, not defined by one homogenous technique or subject. The only attribute that conjoins the diverse forms and subjects of street art is a very specific urban area utilization. Although street art encompasses many diverse forms and techniques, the most prevalent ones are sticker art, street posters art, stencil graffiti, murals, traditional graffiti artwork, art...

  14. Indian monsoon cycles through the last twelve million years

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.

    the planets depict forward drag (backward pull) effect of conjoined planets on Earth’s speed due to synod phenomenon that increases/decreases the length of summer/winter depending on the season of conjunction event. Also shown are the Kuiper meteoritic belt... cycles by amplitude modulation shown as incomplete envelops of larger cycles at ~600-, 5000-, and 8000 years. Synod effect on Earth: The gravitational pull/push of the planets like Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and the Trans Neptune...

  15. Towards a science of integrated AI and Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Kanna; Saffiotti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The early promise of the impact of machine intelligence did not involve the partitioning of the nascent field of Artificial Intelligence. The founders of AI envisioned the notion of embedded intelligence as being conjoined between perception, reasoning and actuation. Yet over the years the fields of AI and Robotics drifted apart. Practitioners of AI focused on problems and algorithms abstracted from the real world. Roboticists, generally with a background in mechanical and electrical engineer...

  16. Factors influencing advertising effectiveness and purchase intention on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Mathisen, Alexander; Stangeby, Mats Fredrick

    2017-01-01

    Instagram has emerged as an important social media and advertising platform, but little or no research has been done to investigate how the users perceive various Instagram advertisement. The current research relies on two studies to determine which attributes in an ad users notice and favour. The first study is an exploratory study utilising qualitative cognitive mapping to address the key attributes for ad evaluation. The second study tests overall ad evaluation using conjoin...

  17. Imperfect twinning - evaluation by imaging methods; Gemelidade imperfeita - avaliacao pelos metodos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Arildo Correa; Julio, Hamilton [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Mazer, Sergio; Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Delle [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail: lineiurban@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    Conjoined twins are rare malformations and a challenge for both radiologists and pediatric surgeons. Antenatal evaluation is essential for the identification of anatomic fusions and other associated abnormalities, which will enable an adequate surgical planning and the assessment of fetal prognosis. The authors present the clinical and imaging findings of thoracopagus twins, joined by the anterior portion of the thorax, sharing the heart and the liver. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and confirmed with fetal magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  18. Fused primary first mandibular macromolar with a unique relation to its permanent successors: A rare tooth anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Dhindsa, Abhishek; Garg, Shalini; Damle, S. G.; Opal, Shireen; Singh, Tavleen

    2013-01-01

    Dental anomalies of number and forms may occur in the primary and permanent dentition. Various terms have been used to describe dental twinning anomalies: Germination, fusion, concrescence, double teeth, conjoined teeth, twinned teeth, geminifusion, and vicinifusion. Fused tooth is a developmental anomaly that is seen more frequently in the primary than the permanent dentition. Double tooth involving deciduous anterior teeth is found mostly in the mandible. Very few cases of nonsyndromic doub...

  19. Look right through: intention and accident in performer/audience training

    OpenAIRE

    Whalley, Joanne ‘Bob’; Miller, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This article was the first attempt to begin to explicitly foreground the place of bodies within our conjoined research / practice. Growing out of a gradual shift towards the training principle that might have value in a conceptual performance art practice (which begun with our contribution to the Choreodrome Lecture Series at The Place, August 2009), this article considers the interplay between bodies – the bodies of performers and the bodies of their audiences. Drawing upon the authors’ trai...

  20. Hysteresis of the Contact Angle of a Meniscus Inside a Capillary with Smooth, Homogeneous Solid Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchin, Igor V; Starov, Victor M

    2016-05-31

    A theory of contact angle hysteresis of a meniscus inside thin capillaries with smooth, homogeneous solid walls is developed in terms of surface forces (disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm) using a quasi-equilibrium approach. The disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm includes electrostatic, intermolecular, and structural components. The values of the static receding θr, advancing θa, and equilibrium θe contact angles in thin capillaries were calculated on the basis of the shape of the disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm. It was shown that both advancing and receding contact angles depend on the capillary radius. The suggested mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis has a direct experimental confirmation: the process of receding is accompanied by the formation of thick β-films on the capillary walls. The effect of the transition from partial to complete wetting in thin capillaries is predicted and analyzed. This effect takes place in very thin capillaries, when the receding contact angle decreases to zero.

  1. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K; Cunha, André Campos da; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family.

  2. Separation surgery for total vertical craniopagus twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Keith Y C

    2004-08-01

    A pair of conjoined twins aged 11 months underwent investigations, followed by surgical separation in Singapore General Hospital in April 2001. They were joined at the skull vertex and facing in opposite directions. Radiological investigations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scans were performed, leading to the diagnosis of total vertical craniopagus. There were two separate brains, with separate arterial circulations, but with a common superior sagittal sinus. Tissue expanders were inserted in the subgaleal space for 6 months of scalp expansion prior to surgery. Pre-operative planning involved the use of virtual reality equipment and life-sized polymer models of the conjoined skulls and brains. Surgical separation of the twins was achieved after approximately 100 h of operating time, using intraoperative image guidance, microsurgical techniques and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Reconstruction of the dura, calvarium and scalp was performed with artificial dura, absorbable plates and split skin grafts. Postoperative complications included focal cortical infarction, meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Despite these complications, the twins recovered satisfactorily and were discharged to their home country within 6 months. The 3-month outcome was minor disability in one twin and severe developmental delays in the other. Separation surgery is possible for complex cranially-conjoined twins but requires detailed planning and extensive surgical management.

  3. Violence associated with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder: The importance of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaco, Raymond W; Chemtob, Claude M

    2015-09-01

    The importance of anger with regard to violence among veterans with combat-related PTSD has received little attention. We previously proposed that in PTSD the activation of threat-related cognitive networks strongly potentiates anger in a positive feedback loop and that inhibitory controls on aggression can be overridden when PTSD and anger activation are conjoined. We predicted that violence would be intensified when combat-related PTSD was conjoined with anger. We used the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) public use data set, selecting the male combat theater veterans, which entailed 1,200 from the main survey (Study 1) and 259 from the clinical interview component (Study 2). Anger indices were constructed from NVVRS variables. PTSD was assessed by continuous symptom scores and by clinical diagnostic measures. Conjoined anger and PTSD was associated with greatly increased violence. PTSD was not associated with violence in the absence of anger. This result was obtained using alternative measures of PTSD and of anger in both the main survey and the clinical interview component. These findings call for reconceptualizing the association of PTSD and violence. Concerted attention should be given to anger as a risk factor for violence in the assessment and treatment of combat-related PTSD, and as an important portal of entry for treatment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Conceptual plural information is used to guide early parsing decisions: Evidence from garden-path sentences with reciprocal verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patson, Nikole D; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2009-05-01

    In three eyetracking studies, we investigated the role of conceptual plurality in initial parsing decisions in temporarily ambiguous sentences with reciprocal verbs (e.g., While the lovers kissed the baby played alone). We varied the subject of the first clause using three types of plural noun phrases: conjoined noun phrases (the bride and the groom), plural definite descriptions (the lovers), and numerically quantified noun phrases (the two lovers). We found no evidence for garden-path effects when the subject was conjoined (Ferreira & McClure, 1997), but traditional garden-path effects were found with the other plural noun phrases. In addition, we tested plural anaphors that had a plural antecedent present in the discourse. We found that when the antecedent was conjoined, garden-path effects were absent compared to cases in which the antecedent was a plural definite description. Our results indicate that the parser is sensitive to the conceptual representation of a plural constituent. In particular, it appears that a Complex Reference Object (Moxey et al., 2004) automatically activates a reciprocal reading of a reciprocal verb.

  5. 'Thou single wilt prove none': Counting, Succession and Identity in Shakespeare's Sonnets

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Shankar

    2017-01-01

    he need to conjoin singularity and exemplarity drives a range of Shakespeare’s procreation sonnets in the young man sub-sequence. Standing for “a singularly perfect nature” as well as for “the yet more total perfection of the Nature of nature,” as Joel Fineman putsit, the young man “represents not only the particular token and general type of ideality, but, also . . . the harmoniously organic way these are related to one another.” Often, these sonnets achieve their end by proje...

  6. Sonographic monitoring of complications and anomalies in twin gestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, B.G.; Grumbach, K.; Arger, P.H.; Mintz, M.C.; Arenson, R.L.; Mennuti, M.T.; Gabbe, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred sixty-eight twin gestations were evaluated to assess the role of US in the diagnosis of obstetric complications and anomalies. US revealed the following complications: symptomatic polyhydramnios (eight cases), myomas (seven), placenta previa (three), and abruption (five). Fetal anomalies included twin-twin transfusion syndrome (two), acardiac anomaly (two), chromosomal abnormality (two), anencephaly (one), hydrocephaly (one), and conjoined twins (two). In 26 gestations intrauterine fetal demise or neonatal death involved one or both twins for a total of 42 deaths, constituting a mortality of 12.5%. No maternal deaths occurred. The impact of sonographic monitoring on the obstetric management of twin gestations is emphasized

  7. Solving Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem Using Dynamic Gaussian Process Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Akandwanaho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves the dynamic traveling salesman problem (DTSP using dynamic Gaussian Process Regression (DGPR method. The problem of varying correlation tour is alleviated by the nonstationary covariance function interleaved with DGPR to generate a predictive distribution for DTSP tour. This approach is conjoined with Nearest Neighbor (NN method and the iterated local search to track dynamic optima. Experimental results were obtained on DTSP instances. The comparisons were performed with Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing. The proposed approach demonstrates superiority in finding good traveling salesman problem (TSP tour and less computational time in nonstationary conditions.

  8. EDUCATIONAL USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING AND AT-MEGA MICROCONTROLLER - A CASE STUDY OF AN ALARM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Cieplak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a case study of Cloud Computing model combined with AT-Mega microcontrollers for educational purposes. The presented system takes advantage of many aspects of Internet of Things model, thus conjoining Cloud Management system with measurement-execution module based on Arduino platform. One benefit of this solution is a cost-effective way of showcasing machine and device integration with distinct cloud services. This article is based on practical experience with students' projects and an home alarm system with use of a Cloud Computing services will be described.

  9. Social Categorization as a Manner of Creating Boundaries, Avoiding and Discriminating against the „Other(s”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Catrina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As a pejorative or disparaging differentiation, discrimination points to exclusions, borders or the closure of the social world. Such negative behaviour towards „the other(s” is the effect of a fixed social identity (social categorization, according to which people express stereotypes (beliefs or prejudices (attitudes. The core of the present article is formed by these elements conjoined with the generic term „discrimination”. Therefore, this article is an analysis of the processes of maintaining discrimination-(reproducing boundaries.

  10. Move Closer: Towards Design Patterns To Support Initiating Social Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb; Boer, Laurens

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers four inspirational design patterns concerned with reducing inhibitions for unacquainted co-located people to interact. These patterns identify impediments to interpersonal contact in relation to the distances between people and present diverse examples of how these challenges may...... be addressed. Each inspirational design pattern offers strategies to make social interaction more likely through enabling, encouraging or excusing people to move closer together. The patterns are "Feel For Fun", "Conjoining Self Images", "Eye To Eye", and "Nudge People Together". Articulating possible...

  11. Hipotonia ortostatyczna i zespół zamknięcia a fizjologia świadomości (Orthostatic Hypotomy, the Lock on Syndrome, and the Physiology of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Schetz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to sketch out the idea how to conjoin the physiological perspective with the philosophical perspective in the full account of human emotions. It discusses cognitive and phenomenological aspects of emotions and deploys the James-Lange argument against the claim that mental states causally precedephysiological occurrences in the body. Given the results of this discussion and taking into account two medical diseases known as orthostatic hypotomy and lock on syndrome, it is argued that the James-Lange conception of the causal direction of stimuli may provide a strong clue to the solution of the philosophical problemconcerning the direction of causation between mind and body.

  12. Making Sense Bringing Everyday Life at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas; Gleerup, Janne; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    Inspired by contemporary work life studies on making sense at work this paper elaborates on using Critical Utopian Action Research as methodology for enabling shared learning spaces in which citizens and professionals can conjoin around discussions of deeper human aspirations enabled through...... synergies between civil engagement and organisational capabilities. The paper reports on experiences with enabling free spaces in the contexts of everyday life, where broader human concerns and aspirations can be addressed, as in the context of work life, where organisational responses on these orientations...

  13. A typology of split conjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Palancar , Enrique L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, I study instances of noun phrase conjunction where the conjoined noun phrase is subject and the referents of the conjuncts are human, of the type ‘John and Mary are having lunch’. More specifically, I study different, possible splits that occur in such structures, which involve the disruption of the phrasal continuity of the conjuncts, resulting in structures roughly equivalent to ‘they are having lunch with Mary’ and ‘John are having lunch with Mary’. I...

  14. Framework for the quantitative weight-of-evidence analysis of 'omics data for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jim; Sauer, Ursula G; Buesen, Roland; Deferme, Lize; Tollefsen, Knut E; Tralau, Tewes; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Poole, Alan; Pemberton, Mark

    2017-12-01

    A framework for the quantitative weight-of-evidence (QWoE) analysis of 'omics data for regulatory purposes is presented. The QWoE framework encompasses seven steps to evaluate 'omics data (also together with non-'omics data): (1) Hypothesis formulation, identification and weighting of lines of evidence (LoEs). LoEs conjoin different (types of) studies that are used to critically test the hypothesis. As an essential component of the QWoE framework, step 1 includes the development of templates for scoring sheets that predefine scoring criteria with scores of 0-4 to enable a quantitative determination of study quality and data relevance; (2) literature searches and categorisation of studies into the pre-defined LoEs; (3) and (4) quantitative assessment of study quality and data relevance using the respective pre-defined scoring sheets for each study; (5) evaluation of LoE-specific strength of evidence based upon the study quality and study relevance scores of the studies conjoined in the respective LoE; (6) integration of the strength of evidence from the individual LoEs to determine the overall strength of evidence; (7) characterisation of uncertainties and conclusion on the QWoE. To put the QWoE framework in practice, case studies are recommended to confirm the relevance of its different steps, or to adapt them as necessary. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Semi-Automatic Evaluation of Intrasubject Variability and Inter-session of Cerebral Activation Areas by Neuro functional Magnetic Resonance (FMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascovsky, Simon; Delgado, Jorge Andres; Sanz, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    To verify the reproducibility of word generation, text comprehension, antonyms generation and motor/somatosensory RMF protocols in a test-retest evaluation through a semiautomatic stereotaxical localization method for activation comparison. Methods: Word generation, text comprehension, antonyms generation and motor/somatosensory FMRI paradigms were applied on 8 healthy subjects on two separate sessions, performing the evaluation of inter-session activations through conjunction and cluster analysis. Results: Activations according to Brodmann areas were reproducible in 50%, 62.5% and 75% for word generation, text comprehension and antonyms generation respectively. For the motor paradigms, right motor conjoined activations were found in 86% of subjects and in 100% of subjects for left conjoined activations. Conclusions: The semi-automatic method of determining inter-session areas of common activation allows its use for functional cytoarchitectonic localization of fMRI activations with minimal intervention, and can be used as a quality control measure of the different paradigms used in RMF, minimizing observer bias.

  16. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H6O3−, (I, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H5FO3−, (II, and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, NH4+·C9H8ClO3−·0.5H2O, (III have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I and (II are isomorphous with the core comprising R12(5, R12(4 and centrosymmetric R42(8 ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. In (III, the water molecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R44(12 hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R43(10 rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R42(8 ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  17. Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2014-12-16

    Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated-fully or partially-from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Preattentive representation of feature conjunctions for concurrent spatially distributed auditory objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegata, Rika; Brattico, Elvira; Tervaniemi, Mari; Varyagina, Olga; Näätänen, Risto; Winkler, István

    2005-09-01

    The role of attention in conjoining features of an object has been a topic of much debate. Studies using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an index of detecting acoustic deviance, suggested that the conjunctions of auditory features are preattentively represented in the brain. These studies, however, used sequentially presented sounds and thus are not directly comparable with visual studies of feature integration. Therefore, the current study presented an array of spatially distributed sounds to determine whether the auditory features of concurrent sounds are correctly conjoined without focal attention directed to the sounds. Two types of sounds differing from each other in timbre and pitch were repeatedly presented together while subjects were engaged in a visual n-back working-memory task and ignored the sounds. Occasional reversals of the frequent pitch-timbre combinations elicited MMNs of a very similar amplitude and latency irrespective of the task load. This result suggested preattentive integration of auditory features. However, performance in a subsequent target-search task with the same stimuli indicated the occurrence of illusory conjunctions. The discrepancy between the results obtained with and without focal attention suggests that illusory conjunctions may occur during voluntary access to the preattentively encoded object representations.

  19. Disintegration of an eruptive filament via interactions with quasi-separatrix layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Jun; Wang, YuMing

    2018-06-01

    The disintegration of solar filaments via mass drainage is a frequently observed phenomenon during a variety of filament activities. It is generally considered that the draining of dense filament material is directed by both gravity and magnetic field, yet the detailed process remains elusive. Here we report on a partial filament eruption during which filament material drains downward to the surface not only along the filament's legs, but to a remote flare ribbon through a fan-out curtain-like structure. It is found that the magnetic configuration is characterized by two conjoining dome-like quasi-sepratrix layers (QSLs). The filament is located underneath one QSL dome, whose footprint apparently bounds the major flare ribbons resulting from the filament eruption, whereas the remote flare ribbon matches well with the other QSL dome's far-side footprint. We suggest that the interaction of the filament with the overlying QSLs results in the splitting and disintegration of the filament.

  20. An anencephalic monocephalus diprosopus "headed twin": postmortem and CT findings with emphasis on the cranial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Gazanfer; Balci, Sevim; Erzen, Canan

    2005-01-01

    Monocephalus diprosopus is a form of conjoined twinning characterized by a single body, one unusual head and two faces or a spectrum of duplication of the craniofacial structures. Such cases have been mainly described according to postmortem pathologic examination. This presented case is a 26-week-stillborn female fetus, with unusual facial appearance with four eyes, two mouths, two noses, two ears and a defective cranial vault. To our knowledge, a detailed computerized tomography (CT) examination of the aberrant facial and cranial bones of such a case has not been reported to date. In this reported case, we present an anencephalic monocephalus diprosopus "headed twin", and describe the CT findings with emphasis on the cranial bones.

  1. Orienting in virtual environments: How are surface features and environmental geometry weighted in an orientation task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Debbie M; Bischof, Walter F

    2008-10-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding of the geometric information, Experiment 1 showed that when featural information is conjoined with the environmental surfaces, men and women encoded both types of information. Experiment 2 showed that, although both types of information are encoded, performance in locating a goal position is better if it is close to a geometrically or featurally distinct location. Furthermore, although features are relied upon more strongly than geometry, initial experience with an environment influences the relative weighting of featural and geometric cues. Taken together, these results show that human adults use a flexible strategy for encoding spatial information.

  2. Endodontic treatment and esthetic management of a primary double tooth with direct composite using silicone buildup guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemination and fusion are morphological dental anomalies, characterized by the formation of a clinically wide tooth. Gemination occurs when one tooth bud tries to divide, while fusion occurs if two buds unite. The terms double teeth, double formation, conjoined teeth, geminifusion, vicinifusion and dental twinning are often used to describe fusion and gemination. Double teeth are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics, spacing problems and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This report presents a case of primary double tooth in a 6-year-old boy involving maxillary left central incisor. The anomalous tooth was carious and pulpally involved. This was treated conservatively by endodontic treatment and esthetic rehabilitation was done with direct composite restoration using a silicone buildup guide. The treated tooth was followed up until exfoliation.

  3. Problem in twin pregnancy: Findings of prenatal sonography and autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Hak Jong; Chun, Yi Kyeong; Kim, Yee Jeong; Hong, Sung Ran

    2001-01-01

    Multifetal gestations are high risk pregnancies with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Multifetal gestations are subject to unique complications including conjoined twins, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), acardiac twins, twin embization of co-twin demise and heterotopic pregnancies. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of types and complications of multifetal gestations is important for antenatal care and prediction of fetal outcome. This study was performed to present the prenatal ultrasonographic findings and pathologic findings of the unique complications of twin pregnancy. Acardia is a lethal anomaly occurring in 1% of monozygotic twin. The acardiac twin has a parasitic existence and depends on the donor (pump) twin for its blood supply via placental anastomoses and retrograde perfusion of umbilical cord. This twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a most extreme manifestation on the TTTS. Doppler verification reversed flow in umbilical cord of the acardiac twin confirms the diagnosis.

  4. Triunity of mandibular deciduous anteriors: A rarity in morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenchappa Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon developmental anomaly such as a triple tooth may result from fusion, gemination, or concrescence that may occur between two and more teeth or between normal tooth and a supernumerary tooth. This anomaly may occur as a result of conjoining or twining defects that affect both primary and permanent dentition. In this article, we report an unusual case of triplication of primary teeth occurring unilaterally between the lower left lateral incisor and the canine, where the lateral incisor is geminated and it is fused to the canine. The triple tooth was extracted under local anesthesia and its crown portion was sectioned at three levels that are coronal, middle, and cervical one-third, respectively, following which, the sections were observed under a stereomicroscope. Based on the clinical and histologic findings, final diagnosis of gemination of lateral incisor with fusion to the canine is confirmed.

  5. An Unusual Case of Heteropagus: Autosite With a Complex Cardiac Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozkan-Ulu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical form of conjoined twinning (heteropagus is an extremely rare event with an incidence of 1–2 million live births. The incomplete component of heteropagus, namely, parasite, usually consists of rudimentary organs. Therefore, the autosite component of heteropagus can be separated successfully. A wide spectrum of associated congenital cardiac malformations, which are usually minor, has been described in autosites. However, a single-ventricle heart anomaly in the autosite has been reported in a very few cases. We report an unusual case of heteropagus with a complex cardiac malformation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third heteropagus case in the literature with a single-ventricle heart in the autosite.

  6. An experimental public: heterogeneous groups defining embodiment in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laki, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I take a look at certain forms of contemporary art as practices that allow meanings within biomedical science and medical practice to emerge in novel ways. I claim that conceptual art and biological art are two unique spaces within which the understanding of embodiment and disease comes to be shaped actively and reflexively, sometimes on the very level of the materiality of the body, sometimes through the articulation and representation of medical images and technologies. I link these developments to Paul Rabinow's notion of biosociality and argue that the molecularization and geneticization of the medical gaze, conjoined with certain social and cultural shifts, results in the formation of an experimental public of artists, scientists and lay people, all invested in actively shaping the conceptualization of bodies and diseases. This will take me to a consideration of the intertwining of art and medicine beyond the domain of the visual.

  7. Conjugated effects of thyroxine and X-rays on the intestinal wall of Alytes obstetricans Larvae (Anuran Amphibian)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauca, M.; Hourdry, J.

    1979-01-01

    The conjoined effects of thyroxine and X-rays on the intestinal wall were studied using Alytes obstetricans tadpoles in premetamorphosis. Thyroxine alone induced degeneration of the larval epithelium (primary epithelium) and its replacement by a secondary epithelium. The latter is derived from stem cells via the development of islets. In animals submitted to irradiation only, many of these stem cells showed signs of necrosis. In irradiated larvae treated with thyroxine, the secondary epitheliocytes were rare and never formed islets. Radioautographic observations confirmed their very low proliferation rate. Contrary to what was observed in the hormone treated larvae, cell fragments of the primary epithelium were extruded in the connective tissue, and phagocytes appear to infiltrate the epithelium. In animals treated with thyroxine and later submitted to irradiation, islets of secondary epitheliocytes developed while some cells degenerated. There again, the phagocytes were noted in both the connective tissue and the epithelium. (orig.) [de

  8. Functional reorganization of the default mode network across chronic pain conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan N Baliki

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is associated with neuronal plasticity. Here we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional changes in patients suffering from chronic back pain (CBP, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS and knee osteoarthritis (OA. We isolated five meaningful resting-state networks across the groups, of which only the default mode network (DMN exhibited deviations from healthy controls. All patient groups showed decreased connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC to the posterior constituents of the DMN, and increased connectivity to the insular cortex in proportion to the intensity of pain. Multiple DMN regions, especially the MPFC, exhibited increased high frequency oscillations, conjoined with decreased phase locking with parietal regions involved in processing attention. Both phase and frequency changes correlated to pain duration in OA and CBP patients. Thus chronic pain seems to reorganize the dynamics of the DMN and as such reflect the maladaptive physiology of different types of chronic pain.

  9. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-01-01

    displayed in green or red (incongruent vs congruent colors). One of the colors, however, was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and frequency effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible...... to study frequency effects across modalities. We found significant behavioral effects of both incongruency and frequency. A significant effect (p effect of frequency was observed and no interaction. Conjoined effects of incongruency...... and frequency were found in parietal regions as well as in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). No interaction between perceptual modality and frequency was found in VWFA suggesting that the region is not strictly visual. These findings speak against a strong version of the prediction error processing hypothesis...

  10. Physicians’ Professionally Responsible Power: A Core Concept of Clinical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B.

    2016-01-01

    The gathering of power unto themselves by physicians, a process supported by evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, licensure, organizational culture, and other social factors, makes the ethics of power—the legitimation of physicians’ power—a core concept of clinical ethics. In the absence of legitimation, the physician’s power over patients becomes problematic, even predatory. As has occurred in previous issues of the Journal, the papers in the 2016 clinical ethics issue bear on the professionally responsible deployment of power by physicians. This introduction explores themes of physicians’ power in papers from an international group of authors who address autonomy and trust, the virtues of perinatal hospice, conjoined twins in ethics and law, addiction and autonomy in clinical research on addicting substances, euthanasia of patients with dementia in Belgium, and a pragmatic approach to clinical futility. PMID:26671961

  11. Primary tendinitis of the long head of the biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, M; Benca, P

    1989-09-01

    Seventeen patients with chronic painful shoulders who showed evidence of isolated bicipital tendinitis involving only the extracapsular, intertubercular portion of the long head of the biceps were chosen for surgical treatment when conservative treatment failed. The patients were thought to have primary bicipital tendinitis. The latter condition is secondary to other shoulder pathologies. Thirteen patients had tenodeses and four patients had transfer of the long head of the biceps to the origin of the conjoined tendon. Overall, excellent and good results were noted in 94% of both groups of patients when the long head of the biceps was tenodesed or transferred. Whether or not the long head of the biceps is a significant depressor of the humeral head requires further investigation.

  12. FCJ-164 ‘Don’t be Rude on the Road’: Cycle Blogging, Trolling and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Jones

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines hostile noise on the UK Guardian’s Bike Blog. Like the Internet, the bicycle has been framed as a redemptive technology at the heart of new forms of urbanity and citizenship. The article examines these struggles, concentrating on how accusations of trolling police the boundaries between cycling as a sphere of autonomous play and a more ‘ethical’ disposition that links cycling to environmental and social responsibility. It argues that a sense of community is established through the embattled relationship with a ‘petrolhead’ mode of online writing which asserts the pleasures of unrestrained lifestyle-as-fun and contests the claims to good citizenship made by pro-cycle bloggers. The article asks whether cycle blogging is constituted by its games of taste and its defensive response to trolling, or if conjoined strategies of netiquette and on-road etiquette framed in terms of ‘responsibility’, offer a route to legitimacy.

  13. Bigger on the inside: building Research Data Services at the University of Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele P. Claibourn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Every story has a beginning, where the narrator chooses to start, though this is rarely the genesis. This story begins with the launch of the University of Virginia Library's new Research Data Services unit in October 2013. Born from the conjoining of a data management team and a data analysis team, Research Data Services expanded to encompass data discovery and acquisitions, research software support, and new expertise in the use of restricted data. Our purpose is to respond to the challenges created by the growing ubiquity and scale of data by helping researchers acquire, analyze, manage, and archive these resources. We have made serious strides toward becoming ‘the face of data services at U.Va.’  This article tells a bit of our story so far, relays some early challenges and how we've responded to them, outlines several initial successes, and summarizes a few lessons going forward.

  14. Aging, selective attention, and feature integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plude, D J; Doussard-Roosevelt, J A

    1989-03-01

    This study used feature-integration theory as a means of determining the point in processing at which selective attention deficits originate. The theory posits an initial stage of processing in which features are registered in parallel and then a serial process in which features are conjoined to form complex stimuli. Performance of young and older adults on feature versus conjunction search is compared. Analyses of reaction times and error rates suggest that elderly adults in addition to young adults, can capitalize on the early parallel processing stage of visual information processing, and that age decrements in visual search arise as a result of the later, serial stage of processing. Analyses of a third, unconfounded, conjunction search condition reveal qualitatively similar modes of conjunction search in young and older adults. The contribution of age-related data limitations is found to be secondary to the contribution of age decrements in selective attention.

  15. Hysteretic recurrent neural networks: a tool for modeling hysteretic materials and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeramani, Arun S; Crews, John H; Buckner, Gregory D

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel recurrent neural network, the hysteretic recurrent neural network (HRNN), that is ideally suited to modeling hysteretic materials and systems. This network incorporates a hysteretic neuron consisting of conjoined sigmoid activation functions. Although similar hysteretic neurons have been explored previously, the HRNN is unique in its utilization of simple recurrence to 'self-select' relevant activation functions. Furthermore, training is facilitated by placing the network weights on the output side, allowing standard backpropagation of error training algorithms to be used. We present two- and three-phase versions of the HRNN for modeling hysteretic materials with distinct phases. These models are experimentally validated using data collected from shape memory alloys and ferromagnetic materials. The results demonstrate the HRNN's ability to accurately generalize hysteretic behavior with a relatively small number of neurons. Additional benefits lie in the network's ability to identify statistical information concerning the macroscopic material by analyzing the weights of the individual neurons

  16. Technical Feasibility Study for Deployment of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems: Portsmouth Naval Shipyard -- Kittery, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) is a United States Navy facility located on a series of conjoined islands in the Piscataqua River between Kittery, ME and Portsmouth, NH. EPA engaged NREL to conduct a study to determine technical feasibility of deploying ground-source heat pump systems to help PNSY achieve energy reduction goals.

  17. Rectal duplication cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Peter H; Hagen, Regine; Willi, Barbara; Ruetten, Maja; Venzin, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    Enteric duplication is a rare developmental malformation in people, dogs and cats. The purpose of the present report is to describe the first case of a rectal duplication cyst in a 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat presenting for acute constipation and tenesmus. On rectal palpation a spherical mass compressing the lumen of the rectum could be felt in the dorsal wall of the rectum. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a well demarcated cystic lesion in the pelvic canal, dorsal to the rectum. The cyst was surgically removed via a perineal approach. No communication with the rectal lumen could be demonstrated. Histopathological examination was consistent with a rectal duplication cyst. Clinical signs resolved completely after excision of this conjoined non-communicating cystic rectal duplicate. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological and genetic evidence for early Holocene cattle management in northeastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hucai; Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Chang, Fengqin

    2013-01-01

    The domestication of cattle is generally accepted to have taken place in two independent centres: around 10,500 years ago in the Near East, giving rise to modern taurine cattle, and two millennia later in southern Asia, giving rise to zebu cattle. Here we provide firmly dated morphological...... and genetic evidence for early Holocene management of taurine cattle in northeastern China. We describe conjoining mandibles from this region that show evidence of oral stereotypy, dated to the early Holocene by two independent (14)C dates. Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing coupled with DNA...... hybridization capture, we characterize 15,406 bp of the mitogenome with on average 16.7-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a hitherto unknown mitochondrial haplogroup that falls outside the known taurine diversity. Our data suggest that the first attempts to manage cattle in northern China predate...

  19. Necessity, private defence and the killing of Mary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J

    2001-07-01

    This article examines the reasons used by the Court of Appeal in Re A (Children) to authorise and justify an operation which would inevitably kill the weaker of a pair of conjoined twins in order to offer the stronger twin a good chance of a long and happy life. The crux of the judgment was that a utilitarian theory of necessity could justify this operation. This article seeks to define the criminal law defences at issue in the case and to argue that utilitarian necessity is such a dangerous doctrine that it should never be employed if there is any other defence which can be made to serve the same purpose--as there was in the present case.

  20. Embodiment and psychopathology: a phenomenological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Schlimme, Jann E

    2009-11-01

    To survey recent developments in phenomenological psychopathology. We present the concept of embodiment as a key paradigm of recent interdisciplinary approaches from the areas of philosophy, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience. This requires a short overview on the phenomenological concept of embodiment; in particular, on the distinction of subject and object body. A psychopathology of embodiment may be based on these and other distinctions, in particular on a polarity of disembodiment and hyperembodiment, which is illustrated by the examples of schizophrenia and depression. Recent contributions to phenomenological accounts of these disorders are presented. Finally, the study discusses the relationship of phenomenological and neuropsychiatric perspectives on embodiment. A phenomenology of embodiment may be combined with enactive approaches to cognitive neuroscience in order to overcome dualist concepts of the mind as an inner realm of representations that mirror the outside world. Phenomenological and ecological concepts of embodiment should also be conjoined to enable a new, advanced understanding of mental illness.

  1. A unique case of craniopagus twins: considerations and challenges for dental rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe oral findings and outline challenges and considerations for general anesthetic (GA) and dental management of 4-year-old female craniopagus (cranially conjoined) twins, at high risk for medical comorbidity, who presented for treatment of severe early childhood caries. This hospital-based procedure required good interdisciplinary communication, cooperation, and presurgical planning to address unique challenges and ensure positive postoperative outcomes. Two separate anesthesia teams delivered GA simultaneously to each twin. To minimize anesthetic exposure, two pediatric dental teams completed dental care concurrently. Extensive plaque accumulation and unusual "mirror-image" caries distribution were attributed to frequency and postural pooling during feeding. The rehabilitation objective was to provide definitive dental management, minimizing future need for dental retreatment under GA. Two-month follow-up revealed intact dental restorations, good oral hygiene, and weight gain. For these unique twins however, the challenge of long-term oral health maintenance remains.

  2. Evaluation of fetal anomalies with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.C.; Platt, L.D.; Colletti, P.M.; Raval, J.K.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty pregnant women underwent MR imaging (0.5 T) after US disclosed a significant fetal anomaly. The ability of MR imaging to depict the abnormalities was assessed. Of 20 abnormalities, 17 were visualized with MR imaging. Abnormalities included conjoined twins, omphalocele, gastroschisis, hydrocephalus, hydronephrosis, fetal ascites, facial teratoma, anencephaly, bladder outlet obstruction, thanatophoric dwarfism, cystic, hygroma, and fetal ovarian cyst. Thirteen of 14 abnormalities in third-trimester fetuses were visualized, as were four of six abnormalities in second-trimester fetuses. Associated polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios was evident in six of six cases. Anomalies were best delineated with T1-weighted sequences. The study suggests that MR imaging is potentially useful as a complementary imaging modality in the evaluation of fetal anomalies

  3. Twins with omphalocele in Denmark (1970-1989)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Merete

    2010-01-01

    Seven pairs of twins, two monozygotic (MZ), two dizygotic (DZ), and three like-sex pairs of unknown zygosity are described. The twin pairs were all discordant for omphalocele except for one pair of conjoined twins. The 8 infants with omphalocele represent 3.1% of the 253 infants with omphalocele......, ascertained in an almost complete nationwide data set of live- and stillborn infants with abdominal wall defects in two decades in Denmark (1970-1989). The occurrence of twins with omphalocele was not significantly different from the occurrence of twins in the Danish population in the same period. To our...... knowledge this is the first report of the occurrence of twins with omphalocele in a systematic nationwide epidemiological study....

  4. Alexander von Humboldt: The American Hemisphere and TransArea Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottmar Ette

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From the very first landing in a bounteous tropical world, European wonderment in the face of so many marvels naturally possessed a dimension that strived for knowledge and tried to conjoin a new world with old and antiquarian knowledge in a very reductionist fashion. Is Alexander von Humboldt therefore merely a new, a “second Columbus,” as he was so often described in the further course of the history of his reception? Does he simply repeat the gestures and res gestae for which the great discoverers had already set the example and in a way even predetermined? Are Humboldt and Bonpland thus caught in the trap of the perception of the other in occidental culture that enters the gray area of colonial expansion and an imperial(ist view?

  5. [Yanomami children's nutritional status in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazônia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istria, Jacques; Gazin, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The nutritional status of 290 Yanomami Amerindians children, from birth to about six year-olds, living in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazonia, has been studied in 1998 and 1999 using the weight-for-height. All of them were of low stature. Twenty malnourished (7%), defined as below two standard deviations of NCHS' data, have been observed. Five of them showed a severe malnutrition (conjoined consequence of infectious attacks in children and of a special bad status in their group.

  6. Genetics in the art and art in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukvic, Nenad; Elling, John W

    2015-01-15

    "Healing is best accomplished when art and science are conjoined, when body and spirit are probed together", says Bernard Lown, in his book "The Lost Art of Healing". Art has long been a witness to disease either through diseases which affected artists or diseases afflicting objects of their art. In particular, artists have often portrayed genetic disorders and malformations in their work. Sometimes genetic disorders have mystical significance; other times simply have intrinsic interest. Recognizing genetic disorders is also an art form. From the very beginning of my work as a Medical Geneticist I have composed personal "algorithms" to piece together evidence of genetics syndromes and diseases from the observable signs and symptoms. In this paper we apply some 'gestalt' Genetic Syndrome Diagnostic algorithms to virtual patients found in some art masterpieces. In some the diagnosis is clear and in others the artists' depiction only supports a speculative differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fused primary first mandibular macromolar with a unique relation to its permanent successors: A rare tooth anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Abhishek; Garg, Shalini; Damle, S G; Opal, Shireen; Singh, Tavleen

    2013-04-01

    Dental anomalies of number and forms may occur in the primary and permanent dentition. Various terms have been used to describe dental twinning anomalies: Germination, fusion, concrescence, double teeth, conjoined teeth, twinned teeth, geminifusion, and vicinifusion. Fused tooth is a developmental anomaly that is seen more frequently in the primary than the permanent dentition. Double tooth involving deciduous anterior teeth is found mostly in the mandible. Very few cases of nonsyndromic double primary molar have been reported in the literature. The succeeding permanent tooth is often found missing congenitally in the same region. This article reports a very rare unilateral occurrence of an anomalous, primary mandibular first macromolar formed by fusion with a dysmorphic premolar like supernumerary tooth in deciduous dentition period. Instead of agenesis of succedaneous tooth, the double tooth has been succeeded by normally developing mandibular first premolar in the same region.

  8. “The principle features of English Pragmatics in applied linguistics”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Siddiqui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatics is a major study of linguistics that defines the hidden meanings of a writer and speaker towards the conjoining effort of linguistic form. It is stated along with its user. Within pragmatics the importance is usually given to a contextual meaning, where every other meaning of given context is referred to speaker as well as writer that wishes to state something. Therefore, the field of Pragmatics helps to deal with speaker’s intended meaning. It is the scope of pragmatics that shows some of linguistic relating terms. They are often stated as utterances, which are informative contribution through physical or real utterance of the meaning, uses of word, structure and setting of the conversations. The second is a speech act that focuses on what the writer and the speaker wants to say to someone. So in this way, the major purpose of pragmatics is engaged with addressor’s intended words to communicate with the addressee.

  9. The Use of Music for Learning Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和梅

    2012-01-01

      Throughout time, healers, philosophers, scientists, and teachers have recognized the place of music for therapeutic and developmental functions (Bancroft,1985:3-7). Researchers over the last twenty years have made astounding advances in the the⁃ory of language acquisition. Many find the pedagogical conjoining of language and music compelling. The first part of this review focuses on the historical and developmental proofs of music’ s relationship with language learning. In part two, neurological the⁃ory on music and the mind are covered. Part three summarizes scholarly inquiry on the use of music for learning languages, espe⁃cially those studies that could prove most instructive both for language teachers and for music therapists in the development of curricula.

  10. Infancia y adolescencia: de los tiempos de socialización sometidos a constricciones múltiples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lahire

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescence are life periods neglected by sociologists. However, time of primary socialization and the first stages of secondary socialization are constitutive times of primary mental and behavioral dispositions which are going to influence individuals durably. A research based on a long series of case studies shows that it is a time of multiple socialization when conjoined, and sometimes contradictory, influences of family, friends and school makes it felt. Thinking sociologically children and teenagers suppose to catch their place into the different contexts –family, group of friends, school– instead of defining them exclusively by a so-called « youth culture ». In its conclusion, the article concludes emphasizing the risks of research objects parcelling: dividing excessively the problems he is studying –school, family, leisure, culture, media, sociability, etc.–, sociologist has no chance of understanding the specificity of juvenile situations.

  11. Embryological and floral effects attributable to deficiencies following crosses with x-rayed pollen of lilium regale W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, J.E.P.; Morgan, D.T. Jr.; Rappleye, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Polyembryonic seeds of Lilium regale E. H. Wilson were induced by X irradiation of the pollen with 500 r. Mitotic analyses of 55 plants arising from the polyembryonic seeds disclosed that two sets of identical unattached twins were heterozygous for different gross deficiencies. Highly atypical flowers were produced by the deficient plants. Smaller deficiencies, beyond the limit of detection, undoubtedly were present in other sets of twins. Two sets of conjoined twins occurred. Increases or decreases in the number of floral parts were numerous; both members of a set of twins had similar flowers, indicating a common origin. It is concluded that X-ray induced deficiencies were responsible for cleavage during embryological development and the subsequent formation of atypical flowers. (author)

  12. Categorization influences illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Michael; Prinzmetal, William; Robertson, Lynn

    2004-08-01

    Illusory conjunctions (ICs) provide evidence for a binding problem that must be resolved in vision. Objects that are perceptually grouped are more likely to have their features erroneously conjoined. We examined whether semantic grouping, determined by category membership (letter vs. number), also influences illusory conjunction rates. Participants were instructed to detect an "L" or a "7" among briefly presented character strings and to report its color. Despite high shape discrimination accuracy, participants often made color conjunction errors, reporting instead the color of a distractor character, "O". This distractor could be ambiguously interpreted as a letter or a number. The status of the "O" was determined by other noncolored flanker characters, which were either letters or numbers. When both the target and flankers were of the same category, participants made more ICs than when the target and flankers were of different categories. This finding demonstrates that alphanumeric categorization can precede and subsequently influence binding.

  13. The fast detection of rare auditory feature conjunctions in the human brain as revealed by cortical gamma-band electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusuvirta, T; Huotilainen, M

    2005-01-01

    Natural environments typically contain temporal scatters of sounds emitted from multiple sources. The sounds may often physically stand out from one another in their conjoined rather than simple features. This poses a particular challenge for the brain to detect which of these sounds are rare and, therefore, potentially important for survival. We recorded gamma-band (32-40 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations from the scalp of adult humans who passively listened to a repeated tone carrying frequent and rare conjunctions of its frequency and intensity. EEG oscillations that this tone induced, rather than evoked, differed in amplitude between the two conjunction types within the 56-ms analysis window from tone onset. Our finding suggests that, perhaps with the support of its non-phase-locked synchrony in the gamma band, the human brain is able to detect rare sounds as feature conjunctions very rapidly.

  14. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  15. Functional connectivity mapping of regions associated with self- and other-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ryan J; Debbané, Martin; Fox, Peter T; Bzdok, Danilo; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-04-01

    Neuroscience literature increasingly suggests a conceptual self composed of interacting neural regions, rather than independent local activations, yet such claims have yet to be investigated. We, thus, combined task-dependent meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) with task-independent resting-state (RS) connectivity analysis to delineate the neural network of the self, across both states. Given psychological evidence implicating the self's interdependence on social information, we also delineated the neural network underlying conceptual other-processing. To elucidate the relation between the self-/other-networks and their function, we mined the MACM metadata to generate a cognitive-behavioral profile for an empirically identified region specific to conceptual self, the pregenual anterior cingulate (pACC), and conceptual other, posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PC). Mining of 7,200 published, task-dependent, neuroimaging studies, using healthy human subjects, yielded 193 studies activating the self-related seed and were conjoined with RS connectivity analysis to delineate a differentiated self-network composed of the pACC (seed) and anterior insula, relative to other functional connectivity. Additionally, 106 studies activating the other-related seed were conjoined with RS connectivity analysis to delineate a differentiated other-network of PCC/PC (seed) and angular gyrus/temporoparietal junction, relative to self-functional connectivity. The self-network seed related to emotional conflict resolution and motivational processing, whereas the other-network seed related to socially oriented processing and contextual information integration. Notably, our findings revealed shared RS connectivity between ensuing self-/other-networks within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting self-updating via integration of self-relevant social information. We, therefore, present initial neurobiological evidence corroborating the increasing

  16. Diprosopia revisited in light of the recognized role of neural crest cells in facial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, D; Weichhold, W; Alberti, E M; Léger, F; Pigeau, F; Horovitz, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the theory of embryogenesis of the face with human diprosopia. This peculiar form of conjoined twinning is of great interest because 1) only the facial structures are duplicated and 2) almost all cases have a rather monomorphic pattern. The hypothesis is that an initial duplication of the notochord leads to two neural plates and subsequently duplicated neural crests. In those conditions, derivatives of the neural crests will be partially or totally duplicated; therefore, in diprosopia, the duplicated facial structures would be considered to be neural crest derivatives. If these structures are identical to those that are experimentally demonstrated to be neural crest derivatives in animals, these findings are an argument to apply this theory of facial embryogenesis in man. Serial horizontal sections of the face of two diprosopic fetuses (11 and 21 weeks gestation) were studied macro- and microscopically to determine the external and internal structures that are duplicated. Complete postmortem examination was performed in search for additional malformations. The face of both fetuses showed a very similar morphologic pattern with duplication of ocular, nasal, and buccal structures. The nasal fossae and the anterior part of the tongue were also duplicated, albeit the posterior part and the pharyngolaryngeal structures were unique. Additional facial clefts were present in both fetuses. Extrafacial anomalies were represented by a craniorachischisis, two fused vertebral columns and, in the older fetus, by a complex cardiac malformation morphologically identical to malformations induced by removal or grafting of additional cardiac neural crest cells in animals. These pathological findings could identify the facial structures that are neural crest derivatives in man. They are similar to those experimentally demonstrated to be neural crest derivatives in animals. In this respect, diprosopia could be considered as the end of a spectrum

  17. Alexander von Humboldt's Idea of Interconnectedness and its Relationship to Interdisciplinarity and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Doherr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexander von Humboldt, a German scientist and explorer of the 19th century, viewed the natural world holistically and described the harmony of nature among the diversity of the physical world as a conjoining between all physical disciplines. He noted in his diary: "Everything is interconnectedness." The main feature of Humboldt's pioneering work was later named "Humboldtian science", meaning the accurate study of interconnected real phenomena in order to find a definite law and a dynamic cause. Following Humboldt's idea of nature, an Internet edition of his works must preserve the author's original intention, retain an awareness of all relevant works, and still adhere to the requirements of scholarly edition. At the present time, however, the highly unconventional form of his publications has undermined the awareness and a comprehensive study of Humboldt's works. Digital libraries should supply dynamic links to sources, maps, images, graphs and relevant texts. New forms of interaction and synthesis between humanistic texts and scientific observation need to be created. Information technology is the only way to do justice to the broad range of visions, descriptions and the idea of nature of Humboldt's legacy. It finally leads to virtual research environments as an adequate concept to redesign our digital archives, not only for Humboldt's documents, but for all interconnected data.

  18. FISH-aimed karyotyping and characterization of Renner complexes in permanent heterozygote Rhoeo spathacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Hasterok, Robert; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2005-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 25S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and telomere sequences as probes was carried out in the complex permanent heterozygote Rhoeo spathacea. Telomere sites were exclusively terminal. All 10 25S rDNA loci were located distally and appeared transcriptionally active after silver staining. Six distal and 2 interstitial 5S rDNA sites were detected; 2 of the distal sites strictly colocalized with 25S rDNA loci. The 2 intercalary 5S rDNA loci occurred in short arms of 2 chromosomes that conjoined at meiosis. Chromosomes differed as to the amount of AT-rich centric heterochromatin, suggesting involvement of pericentromeric regions in translocations. The possibility of Robertsonian-like rearrangements was discussed. Double target FISH with ribosomal probes along with DAPI fluorescence gave the basis for full chromosome identification in mitosis. The 2 Renner complexes are structurally balanced, both having 5 25S and 4 5S rDNA sites. Centromere clustering, telomere association, a high number of NOR sites, and a strong tendency for formation of joint nucleoli contribute to the preservation of highly polarized Rabl arrangement at interphase. These findings were discussed in relation to meiotic catenation in Rhoeo.

  19. Diprosopus (partially duplicated head) associated with anencephaly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Muti Zaitoun, A; Chang, J; Booker, M

    1999-01-01

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twin. A 16 year old mother with a twin pregnancy delivered one normally formed baby boy and one diprosopus male. The malformed baby was 33 weeks of gestation with a single trunk, normal limbs and various degrees of facial duplication. Of the following structures there were two of each: noses, eyes, ears (and one dimple), mouths, tongues and, with bilateral central cleft lips and cleft palates. This was associated with holoprosencephaly and craniorachischisis. Internal organs showed no duplication. There were multiple congenital anomalies including diaphragmatic hernia, small lungs, two lobes of the right lung, ventricular septal defect, small adrenal gland and small left kidney with short ureter. The body also had a short neck, small chest cavities and kyphosis. X-ray revealed duplication of the vertebral column. The case presented here represents a type II of diprosopia of Rating (1933) and is the least common type reported. We also reviewed 22 recently reported cases of diprosopus. In addition to facial duplication, anencephaly, neural tube defect and cardiac malformations represent the more common congenital abnormalities associated with diprosopus. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood. Factors that play a role in diprosopus are probably similar to those factors (genetic, environmental and abnormal placental circulation) which affect monozoygotic twins as observed in this case report. Early ultrasonography diagnosis of diprosopus permits one to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.

  20. [Diprosopus triophthalmus. From ancient terracotta sculptures to spiral computer tomographic reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokiranski, R; Pirsig, W; Nerlich, A

    2005-03-01

    A still-born male fetus from the 19th century, fixed in formalin and presenting as diprosopia triophthalmica, was analysed by helical computer tomography and virtually reconstructed without damage. This rare, incomplete, symmetrical duplication of the face on a single head with three eyes, two noses and two mouths develops in the first 3 weeks of gestation and is a subset of the category of conjoined twins with unknown underlying etiology. Spiral computer tomography of fixed tissue demonstrated in the more than 100 year old specimen that virtual reconstruction can be performed in nearly the same way as in patients (contrast medium application not possible). The radiological reconstruction of the Munich fetus, here confined to head and neck data, is the basis for comparison with a number of imaging procedures of the last 3000 years. Starting with some Neolithic Mesoamerican ceramics, the "Pretty Ladies of Tlatilco", diprosopia triophthalmica was also depicted on engravings of the 16th and 17th century A.D. by artists as well as by the anatomist Soemmering and his engraver Berndt in the 18th century. Our modern spiral computer tomography confirms the ability of our ancestors to depict diprosopia triophthalmica in paintings and sculptures with a high level of natural precision.

  1. [Partial facial duplication (a rare diprosopus): Case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Seddiki, A; Rkain, M; Ayyad, A; Nkhili, H; Amrani, R; Benajiba, N

    2015-12-01

    Diprosopus, or partial facial duplication, is a very rare congenital abnormality. It is a rare form of conjoined twins. Partial facial duplication may be symmetric or not and may involve the nose, the maxilla, the mandible, the palate, the tongue and the mouth. A male newborn springing from inbred parents was admitted at his first day of life for facial deformity. He presented with hypertelorism, 2 eyes, a tendency to nose duplication (flatted large nose, 2 columellae, 2 lateral nostrils separated in the midline by a third deformed hole), two mouths and a duplicated maxilla. Laboratory tests were normal. The cranio-facial CT confirmed the maxillary duplication. This type of cranio-facial duplication is a rare entity with about 35 reported cases in the literature. Our patient was similar to a rare case of living diprosopus reported by Stiehm in 1972. Diprosopus is often associated with abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract, the central nervous system, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and with a high incidence of cleft lip and palate. Surgical treatment consists in the resection of the duplicated components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Operative correction and follow-up of craniofacial duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrikova, Bibiana; Hassfeld, Stefan; Steiner, Hans H; Hähnel, Stefan; Krempien, Robert; Mühling, Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Anterior craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is an extremely rare form of conjoined twins. The children share a single trunk with normal extremities and varying degrees of facial malformation. Duplication of specific structures, such as the nose (diprosopus dirrhinus), eyes (diprosopus tetraophthalmus), and ears, is possible. The authors present a case of partial facial duplication (diprosopus dirrhinus) in a male infant. The clinical and radiographic findings and the surgical correction and follow-up are described. In a single surgical session, the authors were able to achieve not only a functionally but also an aesthetically acceptable result. In the postoperative course, the child showed nearly normal growth and satisfactory psychosocial and motor development. However, 40 months postoperatively, we noticed a tendency of the orbitae to diverge (i.e., toward hypertelorism). The surgical management of complex craniofacial malformations such as diprosopus needs a precise morphologic analysis of the patient's deformity followed by a clear treatment plan. A staged reconstructive approach is carried out to coincide with facial growth patterns and brain and eye function. If the interorbital distance in our patient increases progressively, a second operation for reduction of the interorbital distance may be necessary.

  3. Only (Dis-Connect: Pentecostal Global Networking as Revelation and Concealment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Coleman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary forms of Pentecostalism, such as that of the Faith Movement, are often represented as inherently global, constituting a religion ‘made to travel’ and to missionize across the world. I argue that while much attention has been paid to proselytization as a catalyst in encouraging transnational activities among such Christians, more analysis is needed of how Pentecostalists represent each other in the construction of global imaginaries. The imagined and enacted networks that result assert connections between like-minded believers but also valorize the power of distance in the creation of landscapes of religious agency whose power is illustrated through such tropes as ‘number’, ‘mobility’, ‘presence’ and ‘conquest’. I juxtapose two Prosperity-oriented movements, that of the Swedish Word of Life and the Nigerian Redeemed Christian Church of God, to indicate further how Christians who appear to be conjoined via common forms of worship appear, from another perspective, to be inhabiting and moving across disjunct global landscapes and cartographies as they engage in very different forms of mobility.

  4. Islandinium minutum subsp. barbatum subsp. nov. (Dinoflagellata), a New Organic-Walled Dinoflagellate Cyst from the Western Arctic: Morphology, Phylogenetic Position Based on SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA, and Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Éric; Kim, So-Young; Yang, Eun Jin; Head, Martin J; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Nam, Seung-Il; Yim, Joung Han; Kang, Sung-Ho

    2018-03-25

    A study of modern sediment from the Western Arctic has revealed the presence of a distinctive brown-colored cyst with a spherical central body bearing unbranched processes that are usually solid with a small basal pericoel. Distinctive barbs project from some processes, and process tips are usually minutely expanded into conjoined barbs. The archeopyle is apical and saphopylic. This cyst corresponds to Islandinium? cezare morphotype 2 of Head et al. (2001, J. Quat. Sci., 16:621). Phylogenetic analyses based on the small and large subunit rRNA genes infer close relationship with Islandinium minutum, the type of which is that of the genus. Re-examination of specimens of I. minutum reveals the presence of minute barbs on its processes, but differences with Islandinium? cezare morphotype 2 remain based on size, process distribution, and barb development. Furthermore, the internal transcribed spacer shows I. minutum to be distinct from this morphotype. On the basis of these small but discrete differences, we propose the new subspecies Islandinium minutum subsp. barbatum subsp. nov. Molecular sequencing of other cysts encountered, namely Echinidinium karaense, an unidentified flattened cyst, and "Polykrikos quadratus", places them in the Monovela clade, the latter showing greater morphological variability than previously thought. © 2018 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2018 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. ’n Ondersoek na die kunstenaarskap in Die swye van Mario Salviati binne die konteks van die magiese realisme

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    N. Botes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the nature of the artist in The long silence of Mario Salviati within the context of magic realism This article investigates the nature of the artist in “The long silence of Mario Salviati” (2000 within the context of magic realism. This novel by Etienne van Heerden is particularly interesting as the theme of art is directly intertwined with magic realism. The specific relationship between artistry and magic realism in “The long silence of Mario Salviati” has not been the focus of any particular study yet. Several artists in the novel will be analysed within the context of magic realism and according to magic realist characteristics to give an integrated perspective on style and theme. This investigation largely conjoins with the viewpoints of Faris (1995, although perspectives from other theorists are also taken as a point of departure. Some important characteristics of magic realist texts which are discussed within the context of artistry in “The long silence of Mario Salviati” are inter alia the co-existence of two worlds, doubts from the reader concerning the interpretation of events as realist or magical, the questioning of conventional ideas about time, space and identity, the anti-bureaucratic viewpoint and the focus on collective rather than individual memory.

  6. Maldynia: chronic pain as illness, and the need for complementarity in pain care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James

    2008-10-01

    An expanding epistemology has generated enhanced understanding of the mechanistic basis and existential impact of pain as a complexity-based systems event, and compels the need to develop diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that reflect this progressive knowledge. The basic and clinical sciences, humanities and the experiential narratives of patients all contribute essential lenses through which we can examine and de-mystify the enigma of persistent pain. It is only through the combination of distinct domains of knowledge that we can both comprehend pain as a dysfunction of the dynamical, non-linear adaptability of the nervous system, and at the same time apprehend the manifestations of these changes within the networked-hierarchy of interacting systems that is the patient as person. These are concepts that are inherent to, and derived from complexity theory, and the use of a complexity-based model of pain may be important to fully reconcile the notions of disease and illness, and fit these within a more encompassing framework. Thus, the study of pain conjoins neuroscience to the burgeoning discourse of neurophilosophy, and in so doing, may allow a more thorough dialectical approach to addressing concepts of disease-illness, brain-mind, and ethical dimensions of care. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. 41st WORLD CONGRESS OF ISMH - 19-21 May 2016 - Bucharest, Romania - Abstracts Book

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    Constantin Munteanu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The logo of the congress is: „evergreen balneology - the way ahead”. ”The 41st ISMH Congress” will be a con-join congress with Romanian Society of Balneology and with Romanian Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine &Balneoclimatology. There comes a time of reflection upon different aspects of balneology, after we have had congresses in Extreme Orient (Japan, 2014 and in Latin America (Brazil, 2015. We have seen and understood that there's a real world heritage and culture of thermalisme/balneotherapy whose cradle is Europe. Romania was dwelled since the beginning of the world history until today and archaeological remains of Greek, Roman, and Ottoman Empire culture are found all over the country together with archaeological remains our own culture. 41st ISMH World Congress was accredited by the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (EACCME to provide the following CME activity for medical specialists. The EACCME is an institution of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS, www.uems.net The '41st ISMH World Congress' is designated for up to 15 hours of European external CME credits. Pre Congress Training Courses – acreditated by Romanian College of Physicians with 3 credits (EMC, apart from the congress: Accreditation letter

  8. Salutogenic Education? Movement and Whole Child Health in a Waldorf (Steiner) School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J

    2015-06-01

    Waldorf education, an independent alternative to public schooling, aims to produce holistically healthy graduates in a formulation that rejects the conventional distinction between education and health. Also striving to bridge that divide, this article characterizes the pedagogically salutogenic techniques Waldorf teachers use in pre-kindergarten (pre-K) and lower grade classes and explicates the ethnomedical understandings underlying them. Waldorf teachers position children as budding participants in a unified field of spiritual and other forces, prioritizing whole-child activities that keep these forces healthfully motile. Their work entails a critique not only of mainstream public schooling's ostensibly pathogenic "head-to-head" focus, but also of the biomedical approach to pediatric health. My analysis of this conjoined critique takes into account the cultural, structural, and existential realities within which Waldorf education's salutary pedagogy is daily framed and fabricated. Further, it explores the implications for anthropology of attending to movement as a key feature of healthful human experience. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  9. Comparing the Chinese Dream with the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David S.Pena

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of the Chinese Dream with the American Dream reveals that the Chinese Dream has four main themes:national rejuvenation,common prosperity,democracy,and the people's happiness;whereas,the American Dream emphasizes personal liberty,individual success,and upward social and economic mobility.Investigation of the historical origins and development of the two dreams,conjoined with an account of their aims and purposes,shows that full realization of the Chinese Dream is achieved by successfully building socialism with Chinese characteristics;the American Dream,by contrast,serves as an ideological prop for a particularly aggressive,predatory,and imperialistic form of capitalism.Furthermore,a comparison of each dream in actual practice shows that the Chinese Dream of fully developed socialism has been more successful at promoting common prosperity and peaceful,sustainable development,while the American Dream of unbridled capitalism encourages unsustainable development,growing poverty and inequality,and imperialist wars.Finally,an enumeration of the fundamental differences between the Chinese and American Dreams concludes that the Chinese Dream is fundamentally benign,whereas the American Dream is basically malignant.In order for the American Dream to shed its harmful characteristics,it must reject its capitalist underpinnings and adopt socialism as its ultimate goal.

  10. Blastopathies and microcephaly in a Chornobyl impacted region of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalia; Wang, Bin; Sosyniuk, Zoriana; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Hobart, Holly H

    2014-01-01

    This population-based descriptive epidemiology study demonstrates that rates of conjoined twins, teratomas, neural tube defects, microcephaly, and microphthalmia in the Rivne province of Ukraine are among the highest in Europe. The province is 200 km distant from the Chornobyl site and its northern half, a region known as Polissia, is significantly polluted by ionizing radiation. The rates of neural tube defects, microcephaly and microphthalmia in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than in the rest of the province. A survey of at-birth head size showed that values were statistically smaller in males and females born in one Polissia county than among neonates born in the capital city. These observations provide clues for confirmatory and cause-effect prospective investigations. The strength of this study stems from a reliance on international standards prevalent in Europe and a decade-long population-based surveillance of congenital malformations in two distinct large populations. The limitations of this study, as those of other descriptive epidemiology investigations, is that identified cause-effect associations require further assessment by specific prospective investigations designed to address specific teratogenic factors. PMID:24666273

  11. Towards new paradigms for the treatment of hypobaric decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, T S; Butler, W

    1998-04-01

    Altitude induced (hypobaric) decompression sickness (DCS) has long been treated with ground level oxygen and U.S. Navy Treatment Tables 5 and 6. These treatment tables originate from surface excursion diving and, when implemented, require significant resource allocation. Although they are effective treatment regimens, these tables were not developed for treating hypobaric DCS which has an etiology similar to saturation diving DCS. In this review, different treatment options for hypobaric DCS are presented. These options include more aggressive use of ground level oxygen and treatment tables using a maximum pressure of 2 atmospheres (ATA). Specific attention is given to USAF Table VIII, an experimental hypobaric DCS treatment-table, and space suit overpressurization treatment. This paradigm shift for DCS treatment is based on a projected increase in hypobaric DCS treatment from exposure to low pressure during several operational conditions: cruise flight in the next generation aircraft (e.g., F-22); high altitude, unpressurized flight by special operations forces; and the extraordinary amount of extravehicular activity (EVA) required to construct the international space station. Anticipating the need to treat DCS encountered during these and other activities, it is proposed that 2 ATA or less hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment conjoined with new collapsible chamber technology can be used to address these issues in a safe and cost effective fashion.

  12. Oil palm vegetative development under savanna and forest ecossystems of Roraima, Brazil. = Desenvolvimento vegetativo da palma de óleo em ecossistemas de savana e floresta de Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess field vegetative development of oil palm comercial hibrids up to age of 18 months, in two ecosystems of Roraima. Two essays are being conducted, one of them in area of savanna and the other in deforested area with assessment of commercial hybrids BRS 2528, BRS 3701 and BRS 2301, under experimental design of completely random blocks with six replicates. Monthly measurements, which began 14 months after field planting, took place concerning to number of emitted leaves, width of leaf nr.4 (cm, plant hight (cm and ground level stem diameter (cm. Individual and conjoined variance analysis were performed, considering the effects of hybrids and periods as fixed and the others as aleatory. For comparison of estimated averages of assessed characteristics, Tukey test at level of 5% probability was used. As to detect alterations relative to characteristics during the period of study, concerning each environment, regression equations were estimated, the assessed characteritic being the dependent variable and the measurement epochs being the independent variable. One may conclude that, in deforested areas, hybrids show higher vegetative development than those obtained in savanna; hybrids BRS 2528, BRS 3701 and BRS 2301 showed vegetative development equivalent in savana and hibrid BRS 2301 outstanded from the others in deforested area.

  13. Traveling through the cancer trajectory: social support perceived by women with gynecologic cancer in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C W; Molassiotis, A; Yam, B M; Chan, S J; Lam, C S

    2001-10-01

    A qualitative research design was selected to gather data on the experiences of social support for Chinese women with gynecologic cancer. Eighteen women were recruited and interviewed at an oncology unit of a teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Content analysis of the interview data showed Chinese women with gynecologic cancer placed enormous emphasis on their human relationships. Family members were especially significant to them although not all identified their family relations as satisfactory or helpful. Their social network comprised 4 major sources, including family and friends, work and colleagues, health professionals, and religion and spiritual beliefs. Each network offered significant reciprocal relations, authoritative relations, or entrusting relations. The positive appraisal of the support function was linked to the Chinese value of food, work ethics, the Confucian and religious philosophy, whereas negative aspects of support, such as the stress of maintaining relationships and inadequate information, conjoined with the Chinese suppression of emotion and the busyness of health professionals. Future studies, including social relations as a determinant, should ensure a broad and multifunctional view of social support and acknowledge the cultural influences on the perspective of support.

  14. It 'did what it said on the tin' - participant's views of the content and process of donor conception parenthood preparation workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Montuschi, Olivia

    2014-03-01

    Using donor conception treatment for family building brings challenges as well as rewards. As social model approaches to managing genetic difference within families gradually replace earlier medical models, parents are encouraged to be open with their children about their origins amidst greater social acceptance. Little is known about effective interventions to help prospective parents prepare for such family life. A survey was sent to participants in 16 Preparation for Parenthood workshops run in England by Donor Conception Network, a peer support organisation, between 2008 and 2010. The 79 respondents (32.4% response) included heterosexual couples, lesbian couples and single women considering sperm, egg or double donation. In 86% couples, both partners responded. The use of a range of techniques, a family lifespan approach, facilitators with personal as well as professional experience, medical and psychosocial specialists, and access to peer support were well received. Results suggest the value of attending cognitive and affective processes, acknowledging the impact of stigma and discussing how the donor's biography/presence can be conjoined with that of the new family. Findings suggest workshop approaches to donor conception parenthood preparation can be useful for prospective lesbian/single women/heterosexual-headed families considering donor conception. Such interventions have not previously been reported.

  15. Rebar Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As the cylindrical sp2-bonded carbon allotrope, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used to reinforce bulk materials such as polymers, ceramics, and metals. However, both the concept demonstration and the fundamental understanding on how 1D CNTs reinforce atomically thin 2D layered materials, such as graphene, are still absent. Here, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of CNT-toughened graphene by simply annealing functionalized CNTs on Cu foils without needing to introduce extraneous carbon sources. The CNTs act as reinforcing bar (rebar), toughening the graphene through both π–π stacking domains and covalent bonding where the CNTs partially unzip and form a seamless 2D conjoined hybrid as revealed by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. This is termed rebar graphene. Rebar graphene can be free-standing on water and transferred onto target substrates without needing a polymer-coating due to the rebar effects of the CNTs. The utility of rebar graphene sheets as flexible all-carbon transparent electrodes is demonstrated. The in-plane marriage of 1D nanotubes and 2D layered materials might herald an electrical and mechanical union that extends beyond carbon chemistry. PMID:24694285

  16. Physics of adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerberich, W W; Cordill, M J

    2006-01-01

    Adhesion physics was relegated to the lowest echelons of academic pursuit until the advent of three seemingly disconnected events. The first, atomic force microscopy (AFM), eventually allowed fine-scale measurement of adhesive point contacts. The second, large-scale computational materials science, now permits both hierarchical studies of a few thousand atoms from first principles or of billions of atoms with less precise interatomic potentials. The third is a microelectronics industry push towards the nanoscale which has provided the driving force for requiring a better understanding of adhesion physics. In the present contribution, an attempt is made at conjoining these separate events into an updating of how theoretical and experimental approaches are providing new understanding of adhesion physics. While all material couples are briefly considered, the emphasis is on metal/semiconductor and metal/ceramic interfaces. Here, adhesion energies typically range from 1 to 100 J m -2 where the larger value is considered a practical work of adhesion. Experimental emphasis is on thin-film de-adhesion for 10 to 1000 nm thick films. For comparison, theoretical approaches from first principles quantum mechanics to embedded atom methods used in multi-scale modelling are utilized

  17. Freud's dreams of reason: the Kantian structure of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2009-10-01

    Freud (and later commentators) have failed to explain how the origins of psychoanalytical theory began with a positivist investment without recognizing a dual epistemological commitment: simply, Freud engaged positivism because he believed it generally equated with empiricism, which he valued, and he rejected "philosophy," and, more specifically, Kantianism, because of the associated transcendental qualities of its epistemology. But this simple dismissal belies a deep investment in Kant's formulation of human reason, in which rationality escapes natural cause and thereby bestows humans with cognitive and moral autonomy. Freud also segregated human rationality: he divided the mind between (1) an unconscious grounded in the biological and thus subject to its own laws, and (2) a faculty of autonomous reason, lodged in consciousness and free of natural forces to become the repository of interpretation and free will. Psychoanalysis thus rests upon a basic Kantian construction, whereby reason, through the aid of analytic techniques, provides a detached scrutiny of the natural world, i.e. the unconscious mental domain. Further, sovereign reason becomes the instrument of self-knowing in the pursuit of human perfection. Herein lies the philosophical foundation of psychoanalytic theory, a beguiling paradox in which natural cause and autonomous reason - determinism and freedom - are conjoined despite their apparent logical exclusion.

  18. Applying hybridity: rhythms of the Hajj, Tumblr, and Snowden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Connor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybridity has long been a contested term, critiqued as elitist and contradictory. This paper begins by arguing that hybridity has been debated too often and applied too seldom. It takes the premise that hybridity is an everyday fact of life and accordingly it should be articulated in academic works as a mode of analysis. In acknowledging works that call for the utilization of hybridity’s analytical potential this work applies hybridity to the analysis of three disparate topics, the modern pilgrimage to Mecca or hajj, the social networking and blogging platform Tumblr, and the Edward Snowden affair. Hybridity is contrasted with Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis and applied as a conjoined conceptual focus on these issues. In each scenario a variety of hybrid connections are presented and situated in Bauman’s liquid modernity. These representations of hybridity highlight the manifold dimensions of the concept itself, that it can be superficial, political, celebrated, progressive, and mundane. Rather than dismiss the conceptual complexities of hybridity this paper calls for a harnessing of the broad scope of inference that hybridity presents in application. Working with hybridity thus provides a way to link topics and work organically between multiple disciplines.

  19. Prevalence, morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of confluent inferior pulmonary veins in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Teiichi; Date, Taro; Tokuda, Michifumi

    2008-01-01

    Although the common trunk of left pulmonary veins (PVs) has been reported as a relatively popular anatomical variation of PVs, little is known about the coalescence of contralateral PVs. The present study was conducted to reveal the prevalence and electrophysiologic characteristics of the confluent inferior common PVs. Anatomical variation in the PV drainage to the left atrium (LA) was assessed using the multidetector computed tomography scan in 326 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent the PV isolation procedure. Coalescence of inferior PVs was observed in 5 cases (1.5%). Both inferior PVs conjoined prior to the junction with the LA in 3 cases, while they coalesced at the LA junction in the other 2 cases. The arrhythmogenic activities of the confluent inferior PVs were generally low in all cases without any ectopic firings triggering the observed AF. All inferior PVs, as well as the superior PVs, were successfully isolated either en bloc at the common trunk or individually at the orifice of each PV. Confluent inferior PVs were present in 1.5% of cases in patients with AF who underwent the PV isolation procedure. Preoperative recognition of this venous anomaly by 3-dimensional imaging is important for smooth and safe ablation. (author)

  20. Physicians' Professionally Responsible Power: A Core Concept of Clinical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B

    2016-02-01

    The gathering of power unto themselves by physicians, a process supported by evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, licensure, organizational culture, and other social factors, makes the ethics of power--the legitimation of physicians' power--a core concept of clinical ethics. In the absence of legitimation, the physician's power over patients becomes problematic, even predatory. As has occurred in previous issues of the Journal, the papers in the 2016 clinical ethics issue bear on the professionally responsible deployment of power by physicians. This introduction explores themes of physicians' power in papers from an international group of authors who address autonomy and trust, the virtues of perinatal hospice, conjoined twins in ethics and law, addiction and autonomy in clinical research on addicting substances, euthanasia of patients with dementia in Belgium, and a pragmatic approach to clinical futility. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. ¿CONFIEREN PODERES CAUSALES LOS UNIVERSALES TRASCENDENTES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Alvarado Marambio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the so-called ‘Eleatic’ argument against the existence of transcendent universals, i. e. universals which does not require instantiation for its existence. The Eleatic Principle states that everything produces a difference in the causal powers of something. As transcendent universals seem not to produce such a difference, transcendent universals seem not to exist. The argument depends crucially on the justification and the interpretation of the Eleatic Principle. It is argued, first, that it is not very clear that the principle is justified, and, second, that there are several alternatives for its interpretation, in relation with the different theories one can endorse about modality or causality. Anti-realist theories of modality or causality are not very appropriate for the understanding of what should be a ‘causal power’. Neither does a realist theory of causality conjoined with a combinatorial theory of possible worlds. A ‘causal power’ seems to be better understood in connection with a realist –non-reductionist– theory of causality and a causal theory of modality. Taken in this way the Eleatic Principle, nonetheless, it is argued that transcendent universals do ‘produce’ a difference in causal powers, for every causal connection requires such universals for its existence.

  2. Hegel’s justification of the human right to non-domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westphal Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hegel’ and ‘human rights’ are rarely conjoined, and the designation ‘human rights’ appears rarely in his works. Indeed, Hegel has been criticised for omitting civil and political rights all together. My surmise is that readers have looked for a modern Decalogue, and have neglected how Hegel justifies his views, and hence just what views he does justify. Philip Pettit (1997 has refocused attention on republican liberty. Hegel and I agree with Pettit that republican liberty is a supremely important value, but appealing to its value, or justifying it by appeal to reflective equilibrium, are insufficient both in theory and in practice. By reconstructing Kant’s Critical methodology and explicating the social character of rational justification in non-formal domains, Hegel shows that the republican right to non-domination is constitutive of the equally republican right to justification (Forst 2007 - both of which are necessary requirements for sufficient rational justification in all non-formal domains, including both claims to rights or imputations of duties or responsibilities. That is the direct moral, political and juridical implication of Hegel’s analysis of mutual recognition, and its fundamental, constitutive role in rational justification. Specific corollaries to the fundamental republican right to non-domination must be determined by considering what forms of illicit domination are possible or probable within any specific society, in view of its social, political and economic structures and functioning.

  3. Evolutionary hypothesis for Chiari type I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yvens Barbosa; Ramina, Ricardo; Campos-Herrera, Cynthia Resende; Borges, Guilherme

    2013-10-01

    Chiari I malformation (CM-I) is classically defined as a cerebellar tonsillar herniation (≥5 mm) through the foramen magnum. A decreased posterior fossa volume, mainly due to basioccipital hypoplasia and sometimes platybasia, leads to posterior fossa overcrowding and consequently cerebellar herniation. Regardless of radiological findings, embryological genetic hypothesis or any other postulations, the real cause behind this malformation is yet not well-elucidated and remains largely unknown. The aim of this paper is to approach CM-I under a broader and new perspective, conjoining anthropology, genetics and neurosurgery, with special focus on the substantial changes that have occurred in the posterior cranial base through human evolution. Important evolutionary allometric changes occurred during brain expansion and genetics studies of human evolution demonstrated an unexpected high rate of gene flow interchange and possibly interbreeding during this process. Based upon this review we hypothesize that CM-I may be the result of an evolutionary anthropological imprint, caused by evolving species populations that eventually met each other and mingled in the last 1.7 million years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A New Option for the Reconstruction of Primary or Recurrent Ischial Pressure Sores: Hamstring-Adductor Magnus Muscle Advancement Flap and Direct Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Jin Sik; Hwang, Jungil; Lee, Yung Ki

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the high recurrence rates of ischial pressure sores, surgeons should consider the possibility of future secondary flap surgery during flap selection. The purpose of this article is to present a new surgical option for the reconstruction of primary or recurrent ischial pressure sores using a simple hamstring-adductor magnus advancement flap and direct closure. After horizontal fusiform skin excision, complete bursa excision and ischiectomy were performed. The tenomuscular origin of the adductor magnus and the conjoined tenomuscular origin of the biceps femoris long head and semitendinosus were isolated and completely detached from the inferior border of the ischial tuberosity. They were then advanced in a cephalad direction without detachment of the distal tendon or muscle and securely affixed to the sacrotuberous ligament. The wound was directly closed without further incision or dissection. Twelve ischial pressure sores (6 primary and 6 recurrent; 12 patients) were surgically corrected. The follow-up period was 12 to 65 months. All patients healed successfully without early postoperative complications, such as hematoma, seroma, infection, wound dehiscence, or partial necrosis. Late complications included wound disruption 5 weeks after surgery that spontaneously healed in 1 case and recurrence 3 years later in another case. The new surgical option presented herein, which involves hamstring-adductor magnus advancement flap and direct closure, is a simple and reliable method for providing sufficient muscle bulk to fill the dead space and proper padding to the bone stump while preserving the main vascular perforators and pedicles as well as future surgical options.

  5. Feminism and/in/as psychology: The public sciences of sex and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Pettit, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In our introduction to this special issue on the histories of feminism, gender, sexuality, and the psy-disciplines, we propose the tripartite framework of "feminism and/in/as psychology" to conceptualize the dynamics of their conjoined trajectories and relationship to gender and sexuality from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries. "Feminism and psychology" highlights the tensions between a political movement and a scientific discipline and the efforts of participants in each to problematize the other. "Feminism in psychology" refers to those historical moments when self-identified feminists intervened in psychology to alter its content, methodologies, and populations. We propose, as have others, that these interventions predate the 1970s, the period most commonly associated with the "founding" of feminist psychology. Finally, "feminism as psychology/psychology as feminism" explores the shared ground between psychology and feminism-the conceptual, methodological, and (more rarely) epistemological moments when psychology and feminism made common cause. We suggest that the traffic between feminism and psychology has been persistent, continuous, and productive, despite taking different historically and geographically contingent forms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Modeling drain current of indium zinc oxide thin film transistors prepared by solution deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Lei; Liang, Xiaoci; Cai, Guangshuo; Pei, Yanli; Yao, Ruohe; Wang, Gang

    2018-06-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistor (TFT) deposited by solution method is of considerable technological interest as it is a key component for the fabrication of flexible and cheap transparent electronic devices. To obtain a principal understanding of physical properties of solution-processed IZO TFT, a new drain current model that account for the charge transport is proposed. The formulation is developed by incorporating the effect of gate voltage on mobility and threshold voltage with the carrier charges. It is demonstrated that in IZO TFTs the below threshold regime should be divided into two sections: EC - EF > 3kT and EC - EF ≤ 3kT, where kT is the thermal energy, EF and EC represent the Fermi level and the conduction band edge, respectively. Additionally, in order to describe conduction mechanisms more accurately, the extended mobility edge model is conjoined, which can also get rid of the complicated and lengthy computations. The good agreement between measured and calculated results confirms the efficiency of this model for the design of integrated large-area thin film circuits.

  7. Network flow model of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Tobin, Steven T; Cil, Mehmet; Alshibli, Khalid; Behringer, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    An established aspect of force transmission in quasistatic deformation of granular media is the existence of a dual network of strongly versus weakly loaded particles. Despite significant interest, the regulation of strong and weak forces through the contact network remains poorly understood. We examine this aspect of force transmission using data on microstructural fabric from: (I) three-dimensional discrete element models of grain agglomerates of bonded subspheres constructed from in situ synchrotron microtomography images of silica sand grains under unconfined compression and (II) two-dimensional assemblies of unbonded photoelastic circular disks submitted to biaxial compression under constant volume. We model force transmission as a network flow and solve the maximum flow-minimum cost (MFMC) problem, the solution to which yields a percolating subnetwork of contacts that transmits the "maximum flow" (i.e., the highest units of force) at "least cost" (i.e., the dissipated energy from such transmission). We find the MFMC describes a two-tier hierarchical architecture. At the local level, it encapsulates intraconnections between particles in individual force chains and in their conjoined 3-cycles, with the most common configuration having at least one force chain contact experiencing frustrated rotation. At the global level, the MFMC encapsulates interconnections between force chains. The MFMC can be used to predict most of the force chain particles without need for any information on contact forces, thereby suggesting the network flow framework may have potential broad utility in the modeling of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

  8. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang

    1986-01-01

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  9. Effect of polydeoxyribonucleotide injection on pes anserine bursitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jong-Uk; Cho, Hyung R; Bae, Sae M; Park, Soo K; Choi, Soo L; Seo, Mi S; Lim, Young S; Rn, Soo H Woo; Kim, Young U

    2017-10-01

    Pes anserine (PA) bursitis is an inflammatory condition of the medial knee. The PA bursa becomes more painful when infected, damaged, or irritated. Although various treatment options have been attempted to treat PA bursitis, optimal treatments are still debated. This study aims to investigate the effect of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injection on reducing pain and inflammation in a patient presenting with PA bursitis. A 50-year-old female patient was admitted to our pain clinic with symptoms of tenderness and pain over the medial knee. Physical examination revealed the pain to be located over the proximal medial tibia at the insertion of the conjoined tendons of the PA. The knee had lost its range of movement and strength, and resisted knee flexion. She was diagnosed as having PA bursitis. Ultrasound guided PA bursa injection was carried out. Follow-up for the patient was more than eight months. She showed good improvement in PA bursitis without any complications. This is the first successful report of successful PDRN injection for PA bursa.

  10. Effect of polydeoxyribonucleotide injection on pes anserine bursitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jong-Uk; Cho, Hyung R.; Bae, Sae M.; Park, Soo K.; Choi, Soo .l; Seo, Mi S.; Lim, Young S.; RN, Soo H. Woo; Kim, Young U.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Pes anserine (PA) bursitis is an inflammatory condition of the medial knee. The PA bursa becomes more painful when infected, damaged, or irritated. Although various treatment options have been attempted to treat PA bursitis, optimal treatments are still debated. This study aims to investigate the effect of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injection on reducing pain and inflammation in a patient presenting with PA bursitis. Patient concerns: A 50-year-old female patient was admitted to our pain clinic with symptoms of tenderness and pain over the medial knee. Physical examination revealed the pain to be located over the proximal medial tibia at the insertion of the conjoined tendons of the PA. The knee had lost its range of movement and strength, and resisted knee flexion. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed as having PA bursitis. Interventions: Ultrasound guided PA bursa injection was carried out. Outcomes: Follow-up for the patient was more than eight months. She showed good improvement in PA bursitis without any complications. Lessons: This is the first successful report of successful PDRN injection for PA bursa. PMID:29069005

  11. Differential coding of conspecific vocalizations in the ventral auditory cortical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-03-26

    The mammalian auditory cortex integrates spectral and temporal acoustic features to support the perception of complex sounds, including conspecific vocalizations. Here we investigate coding of vocal stimuli in different subfields in macaque auditory cortex. We simultaneously measured auditory evoked potentials over a large swath of primary and higher order auditory cortex along the supratemporal plane in three animals chronically using high-density microelectrocorticographic arrays. To evaluate the capacity of neural activity to discriminate individual stimuli in these high-dimensional datasets, we applied a regularized multivariate classifier to evoked potentials to conspecific vocalizations. We found a gradual decrease in the level of overall classification performance along the caudal to rostral axis. Furthermore, the performance in the caudal sectors was similar across individual stimuli, whereas the performance in the rostral sectors significantly differed for different stimuli. Moreover, the information about vocalizations in the caudal sectors was similar to the information about synthetic stimuli that contained only the spectral or temporal features of the original vocalizations. In the rostral sectors, however, the classification for vocalizations was significantly better than that for the synthetic stimuli, suggesting that conjoined spectral and temporal features were necessary to explain differential coding of vocalizations in the rostral areas. We also found that this coding in the rostral sector was carried primarily in the theta frequency band of the response. These findings illustrate a progression in neural coding of conspecific vocalizations along the ventral auditory pathway.

  12. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself.

  13. From Population Databases to Research and Informed Health Decisions and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machluf, Yossy; Tal, Orna; Navon, Amir; Chaiter, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    In the era of big data, the medical community is inspired to maximize the utilization and processing of the rapidly expanding medical datasets for clinical-related and policy-driven research. This requires a medical database that can be aggregated, interpreted, and integrated at both the individual and population levels. Policymakers seek data as a lever for wise, evidence-based decision-making and information-driven policy. Yet, bridging the gap between data collection, research, and policymaking, is a major challenge. To bridge this gap, we propose a four-step model: (A) creating a conjoined task force of all relevant parties to declare a national program to promote collaborations; (B) promoting a national digital records project, or at least a network of synchronized and integrated databases, in an accessible transparent manner; (C) creating an interoperative national research environment to enable the analysis of the organized and integrated data and to generate evidence; and (D) utilizing the evidence to improve decision-making, to support a wisely chosen national policy. For the latter purpose, we also developed a novel multidimensional set of criteria to illuminate insights and estimate the risk for future morbidity based on current medical conditions. Used by policymakers, providers of health plans, caregivers, and health organizations, we presume this model will assist transforming evidence generation to support the design of health policy and programs, as well as improved decision-making about health and health care, at all levels: individual, communal, organizational, and national.

  14. A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

  15. A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M., E-mail: rterns@bmb.uga.edu; Terns, Michael P., E-mail: mterns@bmb.uga.edu

    2010-10-15

    The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

  16. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Randall, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion

  17. [A delayed motor production of open chains of linear strokes presented visually in static and dynamic modes: a comparison between 9 to 11 years old children and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A A; Absatova, K A; Korneev, A A; Kurgansky, A V

    2015-01-01

    The production of drawing movements was studied in 29 right-handed children of 9-to-11 years old. The movements were the sequences of horizontal and vertical linear stokes conjoined at right angle (open polygonal chains) referred to throughout the paper as trajectories. The length of a trajectory varied from 4 to 6. The trajectories were presented visually to a subject in static (linedrawing) and dynamic (moving cursor that leaves no trace) modes. The subjects were asked to draw (copy) a trajectory in response to delayed go-signal (short click) as fast as possible without lifting the pen. The production latency time, the average movement duration along a trajectory segment, and overall number of errors committed by a subject during trajectory production were analyzed. A comparison of children's data with similar data in adults (16 subjects) shows the following. First, a substantial reduction in error rate is observed in the age range between 9 and 11 years old for both static and dynamic modes of trajectory presentation, with children of 11 still committing more error than adults. Second, the averaged movement duration shortens with age while the latency time tends to increase. Third, unlike the adults, the children of 9-11 do not show any difference in latency time between static and dynamic modes of visual presentation of trajectories. The difference in trajectory production between adult and children is attributed to the predominant involvement of on-line programming in children and pre-programming in adults.

  18. Toward Aerogel Electrodes of Superior Rate Performance in Supercapacitors through Engineered Hollow Nanoparticles of NiCo2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjiang; Chen, Shuai; Zhu, Xiaoyi; She, Xilin; Liu, Tongchao; Zhang, Huawei; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yang, Dongjiang; Yao, Xiangdong

    2017-12-01

    A biomass-templated pathway is developed for scalable synthesis of NiCo 2 O 4 @carbon aerogel electrodes for supercapacitors, where NiCo 2 O 4 hollow nanoparticles with an average outer diameter of 30-40 nm are conjoined by graphitic carbon forming a 3D aerogel structure. This kind of NiCo 2 O 4 aerogel structure shows large specific surface area (167.8 m 2 g -1 ), high specific capacitance (903.2 F g -1 at a current density of 1 A g -1 ), outstanding rate performance (96.2% capacity retention from 1 to 10 A g -1 ), and excellent cycling stability (nearly without capacitance loss after 3000 cycles at 10 A g -1 ). The unique structure of the 3D hollow aerogel synergistically contributes to the high performance. For instance, the 3D interconnected porous structure of the aerogel is beneficial for electrolyte ion diffusion and for shortening the electron transport pathways, and thus can improve the rate performance. The conductive carbon joint greatly enhances the specific capacity, and the hollow structure prohibits the volume changes during the charge-discharge process to significantly improve the cycling stability. This work represents a giant step toward the preparation of high-performance commercial supercapacitors.

  19. Conjunction of color and form without attention: evidence from an orientation-contingent color aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M R; Hoffman, J E

    1986-05-01

    According to feature-integration theory (Treisman & Gelade, 1980), separable features such as color and shape exist in separate maps in preattentive vision and can be integrated only through the use of spatial attention. Many perceptual aftereffects, however, which are also assumed to reflect the features available in preattentive vision, are sensitive to conjunctions of features. One possible resolution of these views holds that adaptation to conjunctions depends on spatial attention. We tested this proposition by presenting observers with gratings varying in color and orientation. The resulting McCollough aftereffects were independent of whether the adaptation stimuli were presented inside or outside of the focus of spatial attention. Therefore, color and shape appear to be conjoined preattentively, when perceptual aftereffects are used as the measure. These same stimuli, however, appeared to be separable in two additional experiments that required observers to search for gratings of a specified color and orientation. These results show that different experimental procedures may be tapping into different stages of preattentive vision.

  20. Double Exposure and the Climate Gap: Changing demographics and extreme heat in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W.; McDonald, Yolanda J.; Aldouri, Raed; Aboargob, Faraj; Eldeb, Abdelatif; Aguilar, María de Lourdes Romo; Velázquez-Angulo, Juárez Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have recognized a climate gap, wherein poor communities face disproportionate impacts of climate change. Others have noted that climate change and economic globalization may mutually affect a region or social group, leading to double exposure. This paper investigates how current and changing patterns of neighborhood demographics are associated with extreme heat in the border city of Juárez, Mexico. Many Juárez neighborhoods are at-risk to triple exposures, in which residents suffer due to the conjoined effects of the global recession, drug war violence, and extreme heat. Due to impacts of the recession on maquiladora employment and the explosion of drug violence (since 2008), over 75% of neighborhoods experienced decreasing population density between 2000 and 2010 and the average neighborhood saw a 40% increase in the proportion of older adults. Neighborhoods with greater drops in population density and increases in the proportion of older residents over the decade are at significantly higher risk to extreme heat, as are neighborhoods with lower population density and lower levels of education. In this context, triple exposures are associated with a climate gap that most endangers lower socioeconomic status and increasingly older aged populations remaining in neighborhoods from which high proportions of residents have departed. PMID:25642135

  1. Uncovering randomness and success in society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available An understanding of how individuals shape and impact the evolution of society is vastly limited due to the unavailability of large-scale reliable datasets that can simultaneously capture information regarding individual movements and social interactions. We believe that the popular Indian film industry, "Bollywood", can provide a social network apt for such a study. Bollywood provides massive amounts of real, unbiased data that spans more than 100 years, and hence this network has been used as a model for the present paper. The nodes which maintain a moderate degree or widely cooperate with the other nodes of the network tend to be more fit (measured as the success of the node in the industry in comparison to the other nodes. The analysis carried forth in the current work, using a conjoined framework of complex network theory and random matrix theory, aims to quantify the elements that determine the fitness of an individual node and the factors that contribute to the robustness of a network. The authors of this paper believe that the method of study used in the current paper can be extended to study various other industries and organizations.

  2. Uncovering randomness and success in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Sarika; Sarkar, Camellia; Madhusudanan, Anagha; Dwivedi, Sanjiv Kumar

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how individuals shape and impact the evolution of society is vastly limited due to the unavailability of large-scale reliable datasets that can simultaneously capture information regarding individual movements and social interactions. We believe that the popular Indian film industry, "Bollywood", can provide a social network apt for such a study. Bollywood provides massive amounts of real, unbiased data that spans more than 100 years, and hence this network has been used as a model for the present paper. The nodes which maintain a moderate degree or widely cooperate with the other nodes of the network tend to be more fit (measured as the success of the node in the industry) in comparison to the other nodes. The analysis carried forth in the current work, using a conjoined framework of complex network theory and random matrix theory, aims to quantify the elements that determine the fitness of an individual node and the factors that contribute to the robustness of a network. The authors of this paper believe that the method of study used in the current paper can be extended to study various other industries and organizations.

  3. Indigenous ExtrACTIVISM in Boreal Canada: Colonial Legacies, Contemporary Struggles and Sovereign Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Willow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches contemporary extractivism as an environmentally and socially destructive extension of an enduring colonial societal structure. Manifested in massive hydroelectric developments, clearcut logging, mining, and unconventional oil and gas production, extractivism removes natural resources from their points of origin and dislocates the emplaced benefits they provide. Because externally imposed resource extraction threatens Indigenous peoples’ land-based self-determination, industrial sites often become contested, politicized landscapes. Consequently, I also illuminate the struggles of those who strive to turn dreams for sovereign futures into reality through extrACTIVIST resistance to extractivist schemes. Presenting four case synopses—from across Canada’s boreal forest and spanning a broad range of extractive undertakings—that highlight both sides of the extractivism/ACTIVISM formulation, this article exposes the political roots of resource-related conflicts and contributes to an emerging comparative political ecology of settler colonialism. While extractivism’s environmental effects are immediate and arresting, these physical transformations have significant cultural consequences that are underlain by profound political inequities. I ultimately suggest that because extractivism is colonial in its causal logic, effective opposition cannot emerge from environmentalism alone, but will instead arise from movements that pose systemic challenges to conjoined processes of social, economic, and environmental injustice.

  4. Sensor Enclosures: Example Application and Implications for Data Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Maniatis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensors deployed in natural environments, such as rivers, beaches and glaciers, experience large forces and damaging environmental conditions. Sensors need to be robust, securely operate for extended time periods and be readily relocated and serviced. The sensors must be housed in materials that mimic natural conditions of size, density, shape and roughness. We have developed an encasement system for sensors required to measure large forces experienced by mobile river sediment grains. Sensors are housed within two discrete cases that are rigidly conjoined. The inner case exactly fits the sensor, radio components and power source. This case can be mounted within outer cases of any larger size and can be precisely moulded to match the shapes of natural sediment. Total grain mass can be controlled by packing the outer case with dense material. Case design uses Solid-WorksTM software, and shape-matching involved 3D laser scanning of natural pebbles. The cases were printed using a HP DesignjetTM 3D printer that generates high precision parts that lock rigidly in place. The casings are watertight and robust. Laboratory testing produces accurate results over a wider range of accelerations than previously reported.

  5. The Cure for Civiliter Mortuus: Complementary Values of Phenomenology and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Briedis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The core of this article is the ancient question concerning the individual person in relation to his/her society. This fundamental question of ethics and political philosophy is approached from the perspective of phenomenological philosophy. Hence, this article is an attempt to conjoin two prima facie inconsistent (because of category mistake types of attitude towards reality and action, e.g. democracy and phenomenology. The thesis states that there is a common ground between the basic features of phenomenological method and the fundamental values of democracy. This paper explores the arguments that establish this parallelism between the values of democracy and phenomenology. One of the outcomes of this analysis will be the sketch of a new kind of virtue ethics and a new type of citizen, concerning new approaches to identity problem. In this respect method of phenomenology can be used as a technique (phronesis for a future citizenship. On the other hand, this perspective helps to re­evaluate the treasures of antique democracy and compare them with contemporary transformations of democracy in political, social and everyday spheres.  

  6. A comprehensive segmentation analysis of crude oil market based on time irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianan; Shang, Pengjian; Lu, Dan; Yin, Yi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we perform a comprehensive entropic segmentation analysis of crude oil future prices from 1983 to 2014 which used the Jensen-Shannon divergence as the statistical distance between segments, and analyze the results from original series S and series begin at 1986 (marked as S∗) to find common segments which have same boundaries. Then we apply time irreversibility analysis of each segment to divide all segments into two groups according to their asymmetry degree. Based on the temporal distribution of the common segments and high asymmetry segments, we figure out that these two types of segments appear alternately and do not overlap basically in daily group, while the common portions are also high asymmetry segments in weekly group. In addition, the temporal distribution of the common segments is fairly close to the time of crises, wars or other events, because the hit from severe events to oil price makes these common segments quite different from their adjacent segments. The common segments can be confirmed in daily group series, or weekly group series due to the large divergence between common segments and their neighbors. While the identification of high asymmetry segments is helpful to know the segments which are not affected badly by the events and can recover to steady states automatically. Finally, we rearrange the segments by merging the connected common segments or high asymmetry segments into a segment, and conjoin the connected segments which are neither common nor high asymmetric.

  7. Analytical Methods for Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Scent-Markings in Large Wild Mammals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B. Soso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In conjoining the disciplines of “ethology” and “chemistry” the field of “Ethochemistry” has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus, puma (Puma concolor snow leopard (Panthera uncia, African lions (Panthera leo, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, and tigers (Panthera tigris for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal’s sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior.

  8. Shell Bed Identification of Kaliwangu Formation and its Sedimentary Cycle Significance, Sumedang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswan Aswan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i1.151Kaliwangu Formation cropping out around Sumedang area contains mollusk fossils dominated by gastropods and bivalves. In terms of sequence stratigraphy, each sedimentary cycle generally consists of four shell bed types: Early Transgressive Systems Tract (Early TST deposited above an erosional surface or sequence boundary, that is characterized by shell disarticulation, trace fossils, gravelly content, no fossil orientation direction, and concretion at the bottom; Late Transgressive Systems Tract (Late TST identified by articulated (conjoined specimen in its life position, that shows a low level abration and fragmentation, adult specimen with complete shells, and variation of taxa; Early Highstand Systems Tract (Early HST characterized by adult taxa that was found locally in their life position with individual articulation, juvenile specimens frequently occured; Late Highstand Systems Tract (Late HST determined as multiple-event concentrations, disarticulated shell domination, and some carbon or amber intercalation indicating terrestrial influence. Shell bed identification done on this rock unit identified nineteen sedimentary cycles.

  9. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  10. Craniofacial Duplication (Diprosopus) in the Cat — Case Report and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekeles, E.; Aharon, D.C.; Fass, U.

    1985-01-01

    A kitten displaying the features of symmetrical partial duplication of the head (diprosopus) is described. The morphological description of this double monster is compared to three previous similar cases. All four cases were similar in that duplication of the orbits and eyes were not completed and fission of the oral and nasal cavities and their contents were partial. Furthermore, the central nervous systems were duplicated as far caudal as the brain stem. Present case displayed cleft palate in the two faces, a feature that was not described earlier. Though diprosopus is a rare anomaly in cats, it is more common than in the dog, pig and sheep. In cattle, anterior duplications are one of the largest groups of congenital anomalies. Based on generally accepted considerations concerning the mechanism behind the formation of monozyous twins, conjoined twins and anterior duplications, integrated with experimental data on induction of duplications in animals, an hypothesis is proposed for early embryonic fission. It suggests a constant cleaving factor active along the median plane with affinity to midline structures. Its temporal relations with the developing embryo, especially in susceptible species, decide the degree and type of duplication

  11. Inspection of SiC{sub f}/SiC ceramic matrix composite specimens employed for fatigue experiments via laboratory X-ray computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiney, Z.; Bache, M.R.; Jones, J.P. [Swansea Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Structural Materials

    2015-07-01

    Hi-Nicalon SiC{sub f}/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) specimens have been inspected using laboratory based X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT) both prior and subsequent to isothermal fatigue assessment. The fatigue specimens were in the form of a dog bone-shaped geometry with a minimum cross-sectional area of 40 mm{sup 2}. Pre-test μCT inspections were conducted to identify the subsurface composite architecture and locate associated features introduced during the manufacturing process (e.g. isolated or conjoined porosity, matrix or interface discontinuities etc.). These μCT scans were subsequently correlated with matching post-test volumes in an attempt to determine the influence of such features upon damage accumulation and the ultimate failure position and cyclic damage mode(s). The relationship between μCT scan resolution and identification of critical features is also discussed. In typical cone-beam X-ray systems, resolution is proportional to the source-to-specimen distance, but for efficiency may also be chosen so as to minimise the number of scans needed to capture the whole area of interest. The investigations are intended to provide input into the future development of an in situ mechanical testing μCT facility using lab-based X-ray systems.

  12. Epigastric heteropagus associated with an omphalocele and double outlet right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuma Sakaguchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete or asymmetrical conjoined twins are extremely rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of epigastric heteropagus associated with an omphalocele and double outlet right ventricle. The cystic legion of the epigastrium was detected in our patient by an ultrasound scan at 28 weeks' gestation. He was born at 37 weeks' gestation by scheduled caesarean section. A parasite with an incomplete head and lower limb was attached to the epigastrium of the autosite. Surgical separation of the parasite and silo placement for an omphalocele was successfully performed on the 4th day of life. He underwent secondary surgical closure of the omphalocele on the 10th day. For treatment of the cardiac anomaly, he underwent an operation of Blalock–Taussig shunt because of pulmonary artery stenosis at the age of 3 months and correction of double outlet right ventricle at the age of 10 months. At the 20-month follow-up, he was alive and showed a normal growth pattern.

  13. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  14. Estimation of Source Parameters of Historical Major Earthquakes from 1900 to 1970 around Asia and Analysis of Their Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Zhou, S.

    2017-12-01

    Asia, located in the conjoined areas of Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates, is the continent with highest seismicity. Earthquake catalogue on the bases of modern seismic network recordings has been established since around 1970 in Asia and the earthquake catalogue before 1970 was much more inaccurate because of few stations. With a history of less than 50 years of modern earthquake catalogue, researches in seismology are quite limited. After the appearance of improved Earth velocity structure model, modified locating method and high-accuracy Optical Character Recognition technique, travel time data of earthquakes from 1900 to 1970 can be included in research and more accurate locations can be determined for historical earthquakes. Hence, parameters of these historical earthquakes can be obtained more precisely and some research method such as ETAS model can be used in a much longer time scale. This work focuses on the following three aspects: (1) Relocating more than 300 historical major earthquakes (M≥7.0) in Asia based on the Shide Circulars, International Seismological Summary and EHB Bulletin instrumental records between 1900 and 1970. (2) Calculating the focal mechanisms of more than 50 events by first motion records of P wave of ISS. (3) Based on the geological data, tectonic stress field and the result of relocation, inferring focal mechanisms of historical major earthquakes.

  15. Understanding enhanced tourist experiences through technology: a brief approach to the Vilnius case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Beliatskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the notion of enhanced tourist experiences through technology shedding light on co-creation practices and empowerment of customers. Neuhofer and Buhalis (2013 introduced a novel concept of technology-enhanced tourist experiences by generating a joint comprehension of new era of experiences which conjoin the elements of experiences, co-creation and technology. Being one of rather promoting cities in online environment Vilnius represents an interesting case of successive adoption of smart technologies in order to enhance tourist experiences and facilitate customer empowerment in Vilnius tourism domain. This study aims to determine technology-enhanced tourist experiences in order to measure factors of customer empowerment on the example of international incoming tourists to Vilnius (Lithuania. The mix-methods approach (qualitative online content and functionality analysis and quantitative survey was justified as being the most appropriate for the purpose of this research with intention to find a basis for applying of technology-enhanced tourist experiences in Vilnius tourism marketplace. The paper concludes with the definition of current level of ICTs application to enhance tourist experience co-creation and a discussion of practical implications of technology-enhanced tourist experiences development.

  16. Comparison of the models of financial distress prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Omelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of the financial distress is generally supposed as approximation if a business entity is closed on bankruptcy or at least on serious financial problems. Financial distress is defined as such a situation when a company is not able to satisfy its liabilities in any forms, or when its liabilities are higher than its assets. Classification of financial situation of business entities represents a multidisciplinary scientific issue that uses not only the economic theoretical bases but interacts to the statistical, respectively to econometric approaches as well.The first models of financial distress prediction have originated in the sixties of the 20th century. One of the most known is the Altman’s model followed by a range of others which are constructed on more or less conformable bases. In many existing models it is possible to find common elements which could be marked as elementary indicators of potential financial distress of a company. The objective of this article is, based on the comparison of existing models of prediction of financial distress, to define the set of basic indicators of company’s financial distress at conjoined identification of their critical aspects. The sample defined this way will be a background for future research focused on determination of one-dimensional model of financial distress prediction which would subsequently become a basis for construction of multi-dimensional prediction model.

  17. Contemporary French Fiction In and Out of Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane DalMolin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the ways in which the widespread craze for reality TV has now extended its contamination to the comparatively more traditional discipline of literature. Today, there is no use denying that, acknowledging, and internalizing, the American domination in the creation of reality shows, French television has followed suit and, as a result of the cultural flooding of such a model, recent French literature has also been swayed by the empire of television in general, and the power of reality TV in particular. The author delineates the increasingly porous frontier separating and conjoining reality TV and literary representation, questions the adoption and consecration of banality as the basic principle of this porosity, and examines the consequences of such a sustained exposure to images of a trite reality on the quality of traditional cultural artifacts such as books. Among other aspects of this transfer, the essay focuses on the effect of the strange and voyeuristic interdependence of cameras, men and their plain reality. Ultimately, the essay wonders why, in all forms of cultural representation, high or low, a spectacle of great banality has now been elevated to the rank of acclaimed cultural production.

  18. Estimating intratidal nonlinearity of respiratory system mechanics: a model study using the enhanced gliding-SLICE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Stefan; Burcza, Boris; Guttmann, Josef; Haberthür, Christoph; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the clinical situation and in most research work, the analysis of respiratory system mechanics is limited to the estimation of single-value compliances during static or quasi-static conditions. In contrast, our SLICE method analyses intratidal nonlinearity under the dynamic conditions of mechanical ventilation by calculating compliance and resistance for six conjoined volume portions (slices) of the pressure–volume loop by multiple linear regression analysis. With the gliding-SLICE method we present a new approach to determine continuous intratidal nonlinear compliance. The performance of the gliding-SLICE method was tested both in computer simulations and in a physical model of the lung, both simulating different intratidal compliance profiles. Compared to the original SLICE method, the gliding-SLICE method resulted in smaller errors when calculating the compliance or pressure course (all p 2 O s L −1 to 0.8 ± 0.3 cmH 2 O s L −1 (mathematical model) and from 7.2 ± 3.9 cmH 2 O s L −1 to 0.4 ± 0.2 cmH 2 O s L −1 (physical model) (all p < 0.001). We conclude that the new gliding-SLICE method allows detailed assessment of intratidal nonlinear respiratory system mechanics without discontinuity error

  19. Conceptualizing community resilience to natural hazards – the emBRACE framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of community is considered to be vital for building disaster resilience. Yet, community resilience as a scientific concept often remains vaguely defined and lacks the guiding characteristics necessary for analysing and enhancing resilience on the ground. The emBRACE framework of community resilience presented in this paper provides a heuristic analytical tool for understanding, explaining and measuring community resilience to natural hazards. It was developed in an iterative process building on existing scholarly debates, on empirical case study work in five countries and on participatory consultation with community stakeholders where the framework was applied and ground-tested in different contexts and for different hazard types. The framework conceptualizes resilience across three core domains: (i resources and capacities, (ii actions and (iii learning. These three domains are conceptualized as intrinsically conjoined within a whole. Community resilience is influenced by these integral elements as well as by extra-community forces comprising disaster risk governance and thus laws, policies and responsibilities on the one hand and on the other, the general societal context, natural and human-made disturbances and system change over time. The framework is a graphically rendered heuristic, which through application can assist in guiding the assessment of community resilience in a systematic way and identifying key drivers and barriers of resilience that affect any particular hazard-exposed community.

  20. Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Katharine L; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-01-01

    It is known that carbon dioxide emissions cause the Earth to warm, but no previous study has focused on examining how long it takes to reach maximum warming following a particular CO 2 emission. Using conjoined results of carbon-cycle and physical-climate model intercomparison projects (Taylor et al 2012, Joos et al 2013), we find the median time between an emission and maximum warming is 10.1 years, with a 90% probability range of 6.6–30.7 years. We evaluate uncertainties in timing and amount of warming, partitioning them into three contributing factors: carbon cycle, climate sensitivity and ocean thermal inertia. If uncertainty in any one factor is reduced to zero without reducing uncertainty in the other factors, the majority of overall uncertainty remains. Thus, narrowing uncertainty in century-scale warming depends on narrowing uncertainty in all contributing factors. Our results indicate that benefit from avoided climate damage from avoided CO 2 emissions will be manifested within the lifetimes of people who acted to avoid that emission. While such avoidance could be expected to benefit future generations, there is potential for emissions avoidance to provide substantial benefit to current generations. (letter)

  1. Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Katharine L.; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-12-01

    It is known that carbon dioxide emissions cause the Earth to warm, but no previous study has focused on examining how long it takes to reach maximum warming following a particular CO2 emission. Using conjoined results of carbon-cycle and physical-climate model intercomparison projects (Taylor et al 2012, Joos et al 2013), we find the median time between an emission and maximum warming is 10.1 years, with a 90% probability range of 6.6-30.7 years. We evaluate uncertainties in timing and amount of warming, partitioning them into three contributing factors: carbon cycle, climate sensitivity and ocean thermal inertia. If uncertainty in any one factor is reduced to zero without reducing uncertainty in the other factors, the majority of overall uncertainty remains. Thus, narrowing uncertainty in century-scale warming depends on narrowing uncertainty in all contributing factors. Our results indicate that benefit from avoided climate damage from avoided CO2 emissions will be manifested within the lifetimes of people who acted to avoid that emission. While such avoidance could be expected to benefit future generations, there is potential for emissions avoidance to provide substantial benefit to current generations.

  2. Conceptualizing community resilience to natural hazards - the emBRACE framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sylvia; Abeling, Thomas; Deeming, Hugh; Fordham, Maureen; Forrester, John; Jülich, Sebastian; Nuray Karanci, A.; Kuhlicke, Christian; Pelling, Mark; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    The level of community is considered to be vital for building disaster resilience. Yet, community resilience as a scientific concept often remains vaguely defined and lacks the guiding characteristics necessary for analysing and enhancing resilience on the ground. The emBRACE framework of community resilience presented in this paper provides a heuristic analytical tool for understanding, explaining and measuring community resilience to natural hazards. It was developed in an iterative process building on existing scholarly debates, on empirical case study work in five countries and on participatory consultation with community stakeholders where the framework was applied and ground-tested in different contexts and for different hazard types. The framework conceptualizes resilience across three core domains: (i) resources and capacities, (ii) actions and (iii) learning. These three domains are conceptualized as intrinsically conjoined within a whole. Community resilience is influenced by these integral elements as well as by extra-community forces comprising disaster risk governance and thus laws, policies and responsibilities on the one hand and on the other, the general societal context, natural and human-made disturbances and system change over time. The framework is a graphically rendered heuristic, which through application can assist in guiding the assessment of community resilience in a systematic way and identifying key drivers and barriers of resilience that affect any particular hazard-exposed community.

  3. Mondani intraoral welding: historical process and main practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Carlo, L; Pasqualini, M E; Mondani, P M; Rossi, F; Moglioni, E; Shulman, M

    2017-01-01

    The intraoral welder was invented by Dr. Pierluigi Mondani during the early 70’s to weld titanium needle implants to a titanium bar in patient’s mouth and to load them immediately by means of resin prosthesis. The clinical use documented dates back to 1972. Over the years, many practical applications have been added to the initial one, which have expanded the use of this device. In this scientific work, main applications are described. The aim of the work was to trace the historical process of intra-oral welding according to Mondani and describe the main practical applications. Intra-oral welding is a process introduced by dr. Pier Luigi Mondani of Genova (Italy) which allows to firmly conjoin titanium implants of any shape by means of a titanium bar or also directly between them in the mouth during surgery. The immediate stabilization achieved by intraoral welding increases implants success rate, allows immediate loading even in situations of bone atrophy, saves implants that are running into failure, re-evaluates fractured implants, allows to stabilize submerged implants postponing prosthesis management, allows to achieve efficient rehabilitation protocols to deal with difficult cases. The 40-years’ experience with intra-oral welding described in this article, confirms the ease of use and efficiency in providing immediate stabilization of titanium implants of all types.

  4. Integrated, Not Isolated: Defining Typological Proximity in an Integrated Multilingual Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Putnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On the surface, bi- and multilingualism would seem to be an ideal context for exploring questions of typological proximity. The obvious intuition is that the more closely related two languages are, the easier it should be to implement the two languages in one mind. This is the starting point adopted here, but we immediately run into the difficulty that the overwhelming majority of cognitive, computational, and linguistic research on bi- and multilingualism exhibits a monolingual bias (i.e., where monolingual grammars are used as the standard of comparison for outputs from bilingual grammars. The primary questions so far have focused on how bilinguals balance and switch between their two languages, but our perspective on typology leads us to consider the nature of bi- and multi-lingual systems as a whole. Following an initial proposal from Hsin (2014, we conjecture that bilingual grammars are neither isolated, nor (completely conjoined with one another in the bilingual mind, but rather exist as integrated source grammars that are further mitigated by a common, combined grammar (Cook, 2016; Goldrick et al., 2016a,b; Putnam and Klosinski, 2017. Here we conceive such a combined grammar in a parallel, distributed, and gradient architecture implemented in a shared vector-space model that employs compression through routinization and dimensionality reduction. We discuss the emergence of such representations and their function in the minds of bilinguals. This architecture aims to be consistent with empirical results on bilingual cognition and memory representations in computational cognitive architectures.

  5. Cadaver Thanatomicrobiome Signatures: The Ubiquitous Nature of Clostridium Species in Human Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz T. Javan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human thanatomicrobiome studies have established that an abundant number of putrefactive bacteria within internal organs of decaying bodies are obligate anaerobes, Clostridium spp. These microorganisms have been implicated as etiological agents in potentially life-threatening infections; notwithstanding, the scale and trajectory of these microbes after death have not been elucidated. We performed phylogenetic surveys of thanatomicrobiome signatures of cadavers’ internal organs to compare the microbial diversity between the 16S rRNA gene V4 hypervariable region and V3-4 conjoined regions from livers and spleens of 45 cadavers undergoing forensic microbiological studies. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the V4 region had a significantly higher mean Chao1 richness within the total microbiome data. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance statistical tests, based on unweighted UniFrac distances, demonstrated that taxa compositions were significantly different between V4 and V3-4 hypervariable regions (p < 0.001. Of note, we present the first study, using the largest cohort of criminal cases to date, that two hypervariable regions show discriminatory power for human postmortem microbial diversity. In conclusion, here we propose the impact of hypervariable region selection for the 16S rRNA gene in differentiating thanatomicrobiomic profiles to provide empirical data to explain a unique concept, the Postmortem Clostridium Effect.

  6. The Ontological Representation of Death: A Scale to Measure the Idea of Annihilation Versus Passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Ines; Ancona, Dorella; Ronconi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Since the borders between natural life and death have been blurred by technique, in Western societies discussions and practices regarding death have became infinite. The studies in this area include all the most important topics of psychology, sociology, and philosophy. From a psychological point of view, the research has created many instruments for measuring death anxiety, fear, threat, depression, meaning of life, and among them, the profiles on death attitude are innumerable. This research presents the validation of a new attitude scale, which conjoins psychological dimensions and philosophical ones. This scale may be useful because the ontological idea of death has not yet been considered in research. The hypothesis is that it is different to believe that death is absolute annihilation than to be sure that it is a passage or a transformation of one's personal identity. The hypothetical difference results in a greater inner suffering caused by the former idea. In order to measure this possibility, we analyzed the correlation between Testoni Death Representation Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale, Suicide Resilience Inventory-25, and Reasons for Living Inventory. The results confirm the hypothesis, showing that the representation of death as total annihilation is positively correlated to hopelessness and negatively correlated to resilience.

  7. The O/OREOS Mission - Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit. [Astrobiology in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A. J.; Squires, D.; Kitts, C.; Agasid, E.; Bramall, N.; Bryson, K.; Chittenden, J.; Conley, C.; Cook, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The O/OREOS (Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses) nanosatellite is the first science demonstration spacecraft and flight mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small- Payloads Program (ASP). O/OREOS was launched successfully on November 19, 2010, to a high-inclination (72 deg), 650-km Earth orbit aboard a US Air Force Minotaur IV rocket from Kodiak, Alaska. O/OREOS consists of 3 conjoined cubesat (each 1000 cu cm) modules: (i) a control bus; (ii) the Space Environment Survivability of Living Organisms (SESLO) experiment; and (iii) the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment. Among the innovative aspects of the O/OREOS mission are a real-time analysis of the photostability of organics and biomarkers and the collection of data on the survival and metabolic activity for microorganisms at 3 times during the 6-month mission. We report on the spacecraft characteristics, payload capabilities, and present operational phase and flight data from the O/OREOS mission. The science and technology rationale of O/OREOS supports NASA0s scientific exploration program by investigating the local space environment as well as space biology relevant to Moon and Mars missions. It also serves as a precursor for experiments on small satellites, the International Space Station (ISS), future free-flyers and lunar surface exposure facilities.

  8. A collective unconscious reconsidered: Jung's archetypal imagination in the light of contemporary psychology and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Harry T

    2012-02-01

    A needed rapprochement between Jung and the contemporary human sciences may rest less on the much debated relevance of a biologistic collective unconscious than on a re-inscribing of an archetypal imagination, as the phenomenological and empirical core of Jungian psychology. The most promising approaches in this regard in terms of theory and research in psychology come from combining the cognitive psychology of metaphor and synaesthesia, individual differences in imaginative absorption and openness to numinous experience and spirituality as a form of symbolic intelligence. On the socio-cultural side, this cognitive psychology of archetypal imagination is also congruent with Lévi-Strauss on the metaphoric roots of mythological thinking, and Durkheim on a sociology of collective consciousness. This conjoined perspective, while validating the cross cultural commonality of physical metaphor intuited by Jung and Hillman on alchemy, also shows Jung's Red Book, considered as the expressive source for his more formal psychology, to be far closer in spirit to a socio-cultural collective consciousness, based on metaphoric imagination, than to a phylogenetic or evolutionary unconscious. A mutual re-inscribing of Jung into congruent areas of contemporary psychology, anthropology, sociology, and vice versa, can help to further validate Jung's key observations and is fully consistent with Jung's own early efforts at synthesis within the human sciences. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. Anatomy of Phyllodina persica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, and its first occurrence in southeastern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a detailed anatomy of a rare Western Atlantic tellin, Phyllodina persica, under a comparative scenario. Some characters are shared with other tellinids such as the large hemipalps compared to gills; gills with outer demibranch with a single lamella absent from the pericardial region; the type-V stomach associated with the style sac conjoined with the proximal intestine, and distal intestine presenting a dorsal and ventral group of loops, separated by the transverse muscle. The stomach presents a laterally enlarged typhlosole, although shallow, without flange in the margins. This feature is not found in other tellinid species. Another noteworthy feature in the stomach is the aperture of both caeca, which are larger than the left pouch aperture, and as wide as the style sac aperture. Furthermore, there is an interesting small process in the anterior hinge, and a pair of oblique protractor muscles placed posteriorly to the anterior foot retractor muscle, being a new type of intrinsic muscle described in bivalves. In addition to anatomy, this study presents the southernmost record of P. persica, expanding its distribution to the southeastern region of Brazil.

  10. Social Media and the “Read-Only” Web: Reconfiguring Social Logics and Historical Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Sapnar Ankerson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The web’s historical periodization as Web 1.0 (“read-only” and Web 2.0 (“read/write” eras continues to hold sway even as the umbrella term “social media” has become the preferred way to talk about today’s ecosystem of connective media. Yet, we have much to gain by not exclusively positing social media platforms as a 21st-century phenomenon. Through case studies of two commercially sponsored web projects from the mid-1990s—Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab’s Day in the Life of Cyberspace and Rick Smolan’s 24 Hours in Cyberspace —this article examines how notions of social and publics were imagined and designed into the web at the start of the dot-com boom. In lieu of a discourse of versions, I draw on Lucy Suchman’s trope of configuration as an analytic tool for rethinking web historiography. By tracing how cultural imaginaries of the Internet as a public space are conjoined with technological artifacts (content management systems, templates, session tracking, and e-commerce platforms and reconfigured over time, the discourses of “read-only publishing” and the “social media revolution” can be reframed not as exclusively oppositional logics, but rather, as mutually informing the design and development of today’s social, commercial, web.

  11. Evolutionary Relationship of the Scale-Bearing Kraken (incertae sedis, Monadofilosa, Cercozoa, Rhizaria): Combining Ultrastructure Data and a Two-Gene Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumack, Kenneth; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Bonkowski, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The genus Kraken represents a distinct lineage of filose amoebae within the Cercozoa. Currently a single species, Kraken carinae, has been described. SSU rDNA phylogeny showed an affiliation to the Cercomonadida, branching with weak support at its base, close to Paracercomonas, Metabolomonas, and Brevimastigomonas. Light microscopical analyses showed several unique features of the genus Kraken, but ultrastructure data were lacking. In this study, K. carinae has been studied by electron microscopy, these data conjoined with a two-gene phylogeny were used to give more insight into the evolutionary relationship of the genus Kraken within Cercozoa. The data confirmed the absence of flagella, but also showed novel characteristics, such as the presence of extrusomes, osmiophilic bodies, and mitochondria with flat cristae. Surprising was the presence of single-tier scales which are carried by cell outgrowths, much of what is expected of the last common ancestor of the class Imbricatea. The phylogenetic analyses however confirmed previous results, indicating Kraken as a sister group to Paracercomonas in Sarcomonadea with an increased but still low support of 0.98 PP/63 BP. Based on the unique features of Kraken we establish the Krakenidae fam. nov. that we, due to contradictory results in morphology and phylogeny, assign incertae sedis, Monadofilosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Taking Conjunction Search to a Higher Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M. Wolfe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In visual search for conjunctions, targets are defined by combinations of features. Thus, targets might be RED VERTICAL items among RED horizontal and green VERTICAL distractors. Guided Search and similar models argue that features are conjoined only once an object is attended. However, efficient conjunction search is possible because observers can guide attention toward red and toward vertical. Real-world objects may be defined by the conjunction of many features, with no one feature defining the target. Can attention be guided to higher order conjunctions? We created 6D conjunction stimuli and varied the number of features shared between targets and distractors and the number of distractor types. RT x set size slopes range from 1.4 msec/item when two distractor types each share three features with the target to 66 msec/item when six distractor types each share five features with the target. Using different 3D conjunctions, we held distributions of features constant (1/3 of each of three colors, shapes, and orientations. We varied the grouping of distractors in order to look for evidence of simultaneous guidance by multiple attributes versus sequential grouping of subsets (Find the odd orientation in this color subset. We find that guidance and grouping may both contribute to efficient conjunction search.

  13. Novel capsule phase microextraction in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining personal care products in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakade, Sameer S; Borrull, Francesc; Furton, Kenneth G; Kabir, Abuzar; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Fontanals, Núria

    2018-05-01

    A novel sample preparation technique named capsule phase microextraction (CPME) is presented here. The technique utilizes a miniaturized microextraction capsule (MEC) as the extraction medium. The MEC consists of two conjoined porous tubular polypropylene membranes, one of which encapsulates the sorbent through sol-gel technology, while the other encapsulates a magnetic metal rod. As such, MEC integrates both the extraction and stirring mechanisms into a single device. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the application potential of CPME as sample preparation technique for the extraction of a group of personal care products (PCPs) from water matrices. Among the different sol-gel sorbent materials (UCON ® , poly(caprolactone-dimethylsiloxane-caprolactone) (PCAP-DMS-CAP) and Carbowax 20M (CW-20M)) evaluated, CW-20M MEC demonstrated the best extraction performance for the selected PCPs. The extraction conditions for sol-gel CW-20M MEC were optimized, including sample pH, stirring speed, addition of salt, extraction time, sample volume, liquid desorption solvent, and time. Under the optimal conditions, sol-gel CW-20M MEC provided recoveries, ranging between 47 and 90% for all analytes, except for ethylparaben, which showed a recovery of 26%. The method based on CPME with sol-gel CW-20M followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the extraction of PCPs from river water and effluent wastewater samples. When analyzing different environmental samples, some analytes such as 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,2-dihydroxy-4-4 methoxybenzophenone and 3-benzophenone were found at low ng L -1 .

  14. Dicephalous v. diprosopus sharks: record of a two-headed embryo of Galeus atlanticus and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans-Coma, V; Rodríguez, C; López-Unzu, M A; Lorenzale, M; Fernández, B; Vida, L; Durán, A C

    2017-01-01

    As far as is known, this paper gives the first description of a two-headed shark embryo belonging to an oviparous species, Galeus atlanticus (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae). The specimen was detected among 797 embryos intended for cardiovascular studies, which represents a defect incidence of 0·13%. Each head had a mouth, two eyes, a brain, a notochord and five gill openings on each side. The two heads fused behind the gills. On the single body, there were four anticipated dorsal fins, two anterior, right and left and two posterior, right and left. Ventrally, the specimen possessed two pairs of pectoral fins, a pair of pelvic fins and one anal fin. Two adjacent notochords, two neural tubes and two dorsal aortas ran along the body, which bent 180° at its posterior portion. There were two hearts, two oesophaguses, two stomachs, two livers, but a single intestine with a spiral valve. Previous reports of conjoined twins in sharks are scarce and only refer to oviparous and ovoviviparous species. Seven dicephalous sharks reported so far were similar to the specimen described here, namely, with two totally separated heads on one body. Instead, only one case of diprosopus shark has been reported; it had a single body and a single head with partial duplication of the face. Two further cases described in the literature as dicephalous or simply as abnormal sharks should be better regarded as diprosopus, while another three cases, also considered dicephalous, showed a mixture of characteristics of diprosopia and dicephalia. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Clinical and anatomical observations of a two-headed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K R; Partlow, G D; Walker, A F

    1986-04-01

    The clinical and anatomical features of a live-born diprosopic lamb are described. There are no complete anatomical analyses of two-faced lambs in the literature despite the frequency of conjoined twinning in sheep. The lamb had two heads fused in the occipital region. Each head had two eyes. The pinnae of the medial ears were fused. Caudal to the neck the lamb appeared grossly normal. The lamb was unable to raise its heads or stand. Both heads showed synchronous sucking motions and cranial reflexes were present. Nystagmus, strabismus, and limb incoordination were present. The respiratory and heart rates were elevated. There was a grade IV murmur over the left heart base and a palpable thrill on the left side. Each head possessed a normal nasopharynx, oropharynx, and tongue. There was a singular laryngopharnyx and esophagus although the hyoid apparatus was partially duplicated. The cranial and cervical musculature reflected the head duplications. The aortic trunk emerged from the right ventricle just to the right of the conus arteriosus. A ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus were present along with malformed atrioventricular valves. Brainstem fusion began at the cranial medulla oblongata between cranial nerves IX and XII. The cerebella were separate but small. The ventromedial structures from each medulla oblongata were compressed into an extraneous midline remnant of tissue which extended caudally to the level of T2. The clinical signs therefore reflected the anatomical anomalies. A possible etiology for this diprosopus might be the presence early in development of an excessively large block of chordamesoderm. This would allow for the formation of two head folds and hence two "heads."

  16. 2010 August 1-2 Sympathetic Eruptions. II. Magnetic Topology of the MHD Background Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Viacheslav S.; Mikić, Zoran; Török, Tibor; Linker, Jon A.; Panasenco, Olga

    2017-08-01

    Using a potential field source-surface (PFSS) model, we recently analyzed the global topology of the background coronal magnetic field for a sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred on 2010 August 1-2. Here we repeat this analysis for the background field reproduced by a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that incorporates plasma thermodynamics. As for the PFSS model, we find that all three CME source regions contain a coronal hole (CH) that is separated from neighboring CHs by topologically very similar pseudo-streamer structures. However, the two models yield very different results for the size, shape, and flux of the CHs. We find that the helmet-streamer cusp line, which corresponds to a source-surface null line in the PFSS model, is structurally unstable and does not form in the MHD model. Our analysis indicates that, generally, in MHD configurations, this line instead consists of a multiple-null separator passing along the edge of disconnected-flux regions. Some of these regions are transient and may be the origin of the so-called streamer blobs. We show that the core topological structure of such blobs is a three-dimensional “plasmoid” consisting of two conjoined flux ropes of opposite handedness, which connect at a spiral null point of the magnetic field. Our analysis reveals that such plasmoids also appear in pseudo-streamers on much smaller scales. These new insights into the coronal magnetic topology provide some intriguing implications for solar energetic particle events and for the properties of the slow solar wind.

  17. Learning in the machine: The symmetries of the deep learning channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Sadowski, Peter; Lu, Zhiqin

    2017-11-01

    In a physical neural system, learning rules must be local both in space and time. In order for learning to occur, non-local information must be communicated to the deep synapses through a communication channel, the deep learning channel. We identify several possible architectures for this learning channel (Bidirectional, Conjoined, Twin, Distinct) and six symmetry challenges: (1) symmetry of architectures; (2) symmetry of weights; (3) symmetry of neurons; (4) symmetry of derivatives; (5) symmetry of processing; and (6) symmetry of learning rules. Random backpropagation (RBP) addresses the second and third symmetry, and some of its variations, such as skipped RBP (SRBP) address the first and the fourth symmetry. Here we address the last two desirable symmetries showing through simulations that they can be achieved and that the learning channel is particularly robust to symmetry variations. Specifically, random backpropagation and its variations can be performed with the same non-linear neurons used in the main input-output forward channel, and the connections in the learning channel can be adapted using the same algorithm used in the forward channel, removing the need for any specialized hardware in the learning channel. Finally, we provide mathematical results in simple cases showing that the learning equations in the forward and backward channels converge to fixed points, for almost any initial conditions. In symmetric architectures, if the weights in both channels are small at initialization, adaptation in both channels leads to weights that are essentially symmetric during and after learning. Biological connections are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Addressing BI Transactional Flows in the Real-Time Enterprise Using GoldenGate TDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Alok

    It's time to visit low latency and reliable real-time (RT) infrastructures to support next generation BI applications instead of continually debating the need and notion of real-time. The last few years have illuminated some key paradigms affecting data management. The arguments put forth to move away from traditional DBMS architectures have proven persuasive - and specialized architectural data stores are being adopted in the industry [1]. The change from traditional database pull methods towards intelligent routing/push models is underway, causing applications to be redesigned, redeployed, and re-architected. One direct result of this is that despite original warnings about replication [2] - enterprises continue to deploy multiple replicas to support both performance, and high availability of RT applications, with an added complexity around manageability of heterogeneous computing systems. The enterprise is overflowing with data streams that require instantaneous processing and integration, to deliver faster visibility and invoke conjoined actions for RT decision making, resulting in deployment of advanced BI applications as can be seen by stream processing over RT feeds from operational systems for CEP [3]. Given these various paradigms, a multitude of new challenges and requirements have emerged, thereby necessitating different approaches to management of RT applications for BI. The purpose of this paper is to offer a viewpoint on how RT affects critical operational applications, evolves the weight of non-critical applications, and pressurizes availability/data-movement requirements in the underlying infrastructure. I will discuss how the GoldenGate TDM platform is being deployed within the RTE to manage some of these challenges particularly around RT dissemination of transactional data to reduce latency in data integration flows, to enable real-time reporting/DW, and to increase availability of underlying operational systems. Real world case studies will be

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells enhance autophagy and increase β-amyloid clearance in Alzheimer disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin Young; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Ha Na; Oh, Se Hee; Bae, Jae-Sung; Ha, Hee-Jin; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests a central role for autophagy in Alzheimer disease (AD), and dysfunction in the autophagic system may lead to amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation. Using in vitro and in vivo AD models, the present study investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance autophagy and thus exert a neuroprotective effect through modulation of Aβ clearance In Aβ-treated neuronal cells, MSCs increased cellular viability and enhanced LC3-II expression compared with cells treated with Aβ only. Immunofluorescence revealed that MSC coculture in Aβ-treated neuronal cells increased the number of LC3-II-positive autophagosomes that were colocalized with a lysosomal marker. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that most autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in Aβ-treated cells were not fused with lysosomes, whereas a large portion of autophagosomes were conjoined with lysosomes in MSCs cocultured with Aβ-treated neuronal cells. Furthermore, MSC coculture markedly increased Aβ immunoreactivity colocalized within lysosomes and decreased intracellular Aβ levels compared with Aβ-treated cells. In Aβ-treated animals, MSC administration significantly increased autophagosome induction, final maturation of late AVs, and fusion with lysosomes. Moreover, MSC administration significantly reduced the level of Aβ in the hippocampus, which was elevated in Aβ-treated mice, concomitant with increased survival of hippocampal neurons. Finally, MSC coculture upregulated BECN1/Beclin 1 expression in AD models. These results suggest that MSCs significantly enhance autolysosome formation and clearance of Aβ in AD models, which may lead to increased neuronal survival against Aβ toxicity. Modulation of the autophagy pathway to repair the damaged AD brain using MSCs would have a significant impact on future strategies for AD treatment. PMID:24149893

  20. The world in a box? Food security, edible insects, and "One World, One Health" collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates-Doerr, Emily

    2015-03-01

    Scientists in the Netherlands are cultivating edible insects to address concerns of international food security. Committed to the One World, One Health (OWOH) movement, their research aims to create a safe and effective global solution to the conjoined problems of climate change and an increasing worldwide demand for protein. Their preliminary work is promising, as it suggests that when compared to other sources of meat, insects can be an efficient, safe, and low-impact source of nutrients. Additionally, in many sites with endemic malnutrition, people find insects tasty. The problem these scientists are grappling with, however, is that insects that are easily mass-produced are not the insects people typically want to eat. This paper shows how the contingency of edibility complicates existing scientific models of travel that posit that singular objects spread peripherally outwards from a center into a globally connected, singular world. The scientists are finding that the production of successful food products necessitates that insects be constantly tinkered with: there is no "insect" that can be globally edible since "the global" itself is not a singular entity. This in turn complicates the vision of replicability and "scaling up" inherent in an OWOH vision of science. The researchers' process of moving their goods from the laboratory boxes they work with into the mealtime practices they seek to impact is compelling them to cultivate and articulate new ideals for research, methods of translation, and pathways by which goods can travel. They are finding that if they want to affect the health of "the world," they must engage with many different worlds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reveal genes functionally associated with ACADS by a network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2015-09-15

    Establishing a systematic network is aimed at finding essential human gene-gene/gene-disease pathway by means of network inter-connecting patterns and functional annotation analysis. In the present study, we have analyzed functional gene interactions of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene (ACADS). ACADS plays a vital role in free fatty acid β-oxidation and regulates energy homeostasis. Modules of highly inter-connected genes in disease-specific ACADS network are derived by integrating gene function and protein interaction data. Among the 8 genes in ACADS web retrieved from both STRING and GeneMANIA, ACADS is effectively conjoined with 4 genes including HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. The functional analysis is done via ontological briefing and candidate disease identification. We observed that the highly efficient-interlinked genes connected with ACADS are HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. Interestingly, the ontological aspect of genes in the ACADS network reveals that ACADS, HAHDA and HADHB play equally vital roles in fatty acid metabolism. The gene ACAT1 together with ACADS indulges in ketone metabolism. Our computational gene web analysis also predicts potential candidate disease recognition, thus indicating the involvement of ACADS, HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1 not only with lipid metabolism but also with infant death syndrome, skeletal myopathy, acute hepatic encephalopathy, Reye-like syndrome, episodic ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. The current study presents a comprehensible layout of ACADS network, its functional strategies and candidate disease approach associated with ACADS network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring Interdisciplinarity: a theoretical consideration of Bioethics at the interface between Theology, Philosophy and Life Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leentie de Lange

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex ethical problems resulting from research and advances in biotechnologies increasingly confront Christian ministers and theologians with difficult and complex moral dilemmas. Where do they turn to in order to give guidance and answer questions concerning practical bioethical problems? This article argues that Bioethics as the systematic study of specific moral dilemmas implies conjoining a variety of ethical methodologies in an interdisciplinary framework. In trying to clarify this complex nature of Bioethics when practiced specifically from a Christian Theological viewpoint, the article examines theoretical considerations regarding the interface between three contributing disciplines, viz. Theology, Philosophy and Life Sciences. This is done by investigating three questions: What is the place of Bioethics in the hierarchy of disciplines? In what way do Philosophy, Theology, and Life Sciences contribute to the theoretical foundations of interdisciplinary Bioethics?, and How do different methodologies relate to one another in order to show the true interdisciplinary character of Bioethics? The article concludes that it is vital to re-examine the theoretical basis of Bioethics as a philosophical grounding or methodology in order to place moral knowledge within a meta-theoretical and epistemological framework. It is clear that Bioethics is a complex endeavour served by many disciplines, as well as a complex interdisciplinary form of knowledge. Scholars, scientists and theologians must all learn to transcend the barriers between the multitude of interrogational disciplines and endeavour to work towards designing a well- founded and meaningful framework within which the methodological assumptions and theoretical grounding have been clarified, and one which also recognizes the complex interdisciplinary nature of Bioethics.

  3. The electronic structure of vanadium monochloride cation (VCl+): Tackling the complexities of transition metal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYonker, Nathan J.; Halfen, DeWayne T.; Allen, Wesley D.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2014-11-01

    Six electronic states (X 4Σ-, A 4Π, B 4Δ, 2Φ, 2Δ, 2Σ+) of the vanadium monochloride cation (VCl+) are described using large basis set coupled cluster theory. For the two lowest quartet states (X 4Σ- and A 4Π), a focal point analysis (FPA) approach was used that conjoined a correlation-consistent family of basis sets up to aug-cc-pwCV5Z-DK with high-order coupled cluster theory through pentuple (CCSDTQP) excitations. FPA adiabatic excitation energies (T0) and spectroscopic constants (re, r0, Be, B0, bar De, He, ωe, v0, αe, ωexe) were extrapolated to the valence complete basis set Douglas-Kroll (DK) aug-cc-pV∞Z-DK CCSDT level of theory, and additional treatments accounted for higher-order valence electron correlation, core correlation, and spin-orbit coupling. Due to the delicate interplay between dynamical and static electronic correlation, single reference coupled cluster theory is able to provide the correct ground electronic state (X 4Σ-), while multireference configuration interaction theory cannot. Perturbations from the first- and second-order spin orbit coupling of low-lying states with quartet spin multiplicity reveal an immensely complex rotational spectrum relative to the isovalent species VO, VS, and TiCl. Computational data on the doublet manifold suggest that the lowest-lying doublet state (2Γ) has a Te of ˜11 200 cm-1. Overall, this study shows that laboratory and theoretical rotational spectroscopists must work more closely in tandem to better understand the bonding and structure of molecules containing transition metals.

  4. Parent-identified barriers to pediatric health care: a process-oriented model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Seid, Michael; Reyes Gelhard, Leticia

    2006-02-01

    To further understand barriers to care as experienced by health care consumers, and to demonstrate the importance of conjoining qualitative and quantitative health services research. Transcripts from focus groups conducted in San Diego with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with special health care needs. Participants were asked about the barriers to care they had experienced or perceived, and their strategies for overcoming these barriers. Using elementary anthropological discourse analysis techniques, a process-based conceptual model of the parent experience was devised. The analysis revealed a parent-motivated model of barriers to care that enriched our understanding of quantitative findings regarding the population from which the focus group sample was drawn. Parent-identified barriers were grouped into the following six temporally and spatially sequenced categories: necessary skills and prerequisites for gaining access to the system; realizing access once it is gained; front office experiences; interactions with physicians; system arbitrariness and fragmentation; outcomes that affect future interaction with the system. Key to the successful navigation of the system was parents' functional biomedical acculturation; this construct likens the biomedical health services system to a cultural system within which all parents/patients must learn to function competently. Qualitative analysis of focus group data enabled a deeper understanding of barriers to care--one that went beyond the traditional association of marker variables with poor outcomes ("what") to reveal an understanding of the processes by which parents experience the health care system ("how,"why") and by which disparities may arise. Development of such process-oriented models furthers the provision of patient-centered care and the creation of interventions, programs, and curricula to enhance such care. Qualitative discourse analysis, for example using this project's widely applicable

  5. Some Syntactic Features of Relative Constructions in the Greek New Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman C du Toit

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Greek New Testament, relative sentences that are introduced by relative pronouns alone, apart from the adverbial uses, are the most frequent subordinate sentence type. The research reported on in this paper aimed to investigate and describe a number of syntactic features of relative constructions in the Greek New Testament, taking account, among others, of some typological parameters that have been developed in the general linguistics literature for these constructions.The results indicate that relative constructions in the Greek New Testament have a variety of features, all of which have counterparts in some modern (or other ancient languages, despite the differences. The relative sentence in the Greek New Testament is mostly postnominal, and the relative pronoun-type is used in those cases for encoding the role of the coreferential element in the relative sentence. Phrases expressing a variety of syntactic functions in a sentence (e.g. subject, direct object, etc. are accessible to relativisation, that is, they can be represented by relative pronouns. Nominal elements serve mostly as antecedents of relative sentences, although sentences appear in that function as well.A variety of syntactic types of relative sentences can be distinguished, including the prenominal participial, postnominal finite/participial, circumnominal, free relative, adverbial, prejoined, postjoined, sentential and conjoined types. These can be linked in a systematic way to the four functions of relative sentences in the New Testament, i.e. identifying, appositive, adverbial and continuative.Relative sentences also play a role in communicative strategies. Prejoined relative sentences, for example, are most suitable for exposition and theme-building, especially in the correlative diptych construction.

  6. In vivo assessment of a new multifunctional coating architecture for improved Mg alloy biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro S; Zomorodian, Amir; Kwiatkowski, Lech; Lutze, Rafal; Balkowiec, Alicja; Colaço, Bruno; Pinheiro, Vitor; Fernandes, João C S; Montemor, Maria F; Fernandes, Maria H

    2016-08-10

    Magnesium alloys are regarded as potential biodegradable load-bearing biomaterials for orthopedic applications due to their physico-chemical and biomechanical properties. However, their clinical applicability is restricted by their high degradation rate, which limits the physiological reconstruction of the neighbouring tissues. In this work, a multifunctional coating architecture was developed on an AZ31 alloy by conjoining an anodization process with the deposition of a polymeric-based layer consisting of polyether imine reinforced with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, aiming at improved control of the corrosion activity and biological performance of the Mg substrate. Anodization and coating protocols were evaluated either independently or combined for corrosion resistance and biological behaviour, i.e. the irritation potential and angiogenic capability within a chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, and bone tissue response following tibia implantation within a rabbit model. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that coated Mg constructs, particularly anodized plus coated with AZ31, exhibited excellent stability compared to the anodized alloy and, particularly, to the bare AZ31. Microtomographic evaluation of the implanted samples correlated with these degradation results. Mg constructs displayed a non-irritating behaviour, and were associated with high levels of vascular ingrowth. Bone ingrowth neighbouring the implanted constructs was observed for all samples, with coated and anodized plus coated samples presenting the highest bone formation. Gene expression analysis suggested that the enhanced bone tissue formation was associated with the boost in osteogenic activity through Runx2 upregulation, following the activation of PGC-1α/ERRα signaling. Overall, the developed multifunctional coatings appear to be a promising strategy to obtain safe and bioactive biodegradable Mg-based implants with potential applications within bone tissue.

  7. Tracking Listeria monocytogenes contamination and virulence-associated characteristics in the ready-to-eat meat-based food products industry according to the hygiene level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, A R; Gama, L T; Fraqueza, M J

    2017-02-02

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected from final products and food contact surfaces of 10 ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) producing industries were analyzed to relate their virulence-associated characteristics and genetic profiles with the hygiene assessment of those industries. Together with sample collection, an audit was performed to evaluate the implemented food safety management system and to investigate the specific audit requisites more associated to the occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups frequently related with human disease. L. monocytogenes was present in 18% of the samples. The isolates (n=62) were serogrouped and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC and inlJ, and also plcA, hlyA, actA and iap was done by multiplex PCR. After this initial characterization, selected isolates (n=31) were submitted to antibiotic resistance testing by the disk diffusion method for the currently most used human and veterinary antibiotics and resistance was low. These isolates were also subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping and serogrouping of L. monocytogenes isolates revealed a genetically diverse population. Our data indicate that contamination of final products does not seem to be uniquely related to the sampled food surfaces. The occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups more commonly associated with human disease in industries with a high hygienic audit classification could be the result of a previous identification of the pathogen, with an enforcement of the hygiene program without recognizing the real source of contamination. This reinforces the importance of a conjoined diagnosis using audit data and microbiological testing. Food safety management systems of those industries need improvement, particularly in cleaning and sanitizing operations, analytical control, preventive maintenance, personal hygiene and root cause analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The gene-editing of super-ego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2018-04-17

    New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such. Moreover, investigating the question transformed into a formal argument reveals that the argument does not hold either. Nonetheless, the compelling force of the question calls for closer scrutiny, revealing that this way of arguing for biotechnology is based on five assumptions. Analysis of these assumptions shows their significant axiological, empirical, and philosophical challenges. This makes it reasonable to claim that these kinds of question based promotions of specific biotechnologies fail. Hence, the aspirations to make a super-man with a super-ego appear fundamentally flawed. As these types of moral bioenhancement arguments become more prevalent, a revealing hype test is suggested: What is special with this technology (e.g., gene editing), compared to existing methods, that makes it successful in improving human social characteristics in order to make the world a better place for all? Valid answers to this question will provide good reasons to pursue such technologies. Hence, the aim is not to bar the development of modern biotechnology, but rather to ensure good developments and applications of highly potent technologies. So far, we still have a long way to go to make persons with goodness gene(s).

  9. Everything in moderation, even hype: learning from vaccine controversies to strike a balance with CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benston, Shawna

    2017-12-01

    The ease and applicability of CRISPR/Cas9--a new and precise gene editing and reproductive technology--have garnered hype and heightened concern about its potential 'unprecedented and horrific consequences' and have led many scientific leaders to call for a moratorium on its research and use. CRISPR appears distinctly more controversial than previous technological innovations (genetic or otherwise), with a greater reach and speed of human treatment and enhancement; however, we have seen similarly inflated hopes and fears in response to other medical innovations for well over a century. One intervention that has both historically and recently incited alarm--vaccines--serves as a pertinent example of what could go wrong if a technology's reach is shortened due to inflated fears. By comparing the vaccine controversy and the CRISPR debate, we can help separate the hype from the realistic potential of these technologies. How our society grapples with such innovations will determine the extent to which their impact on our individual and collective health will be beneficial. We must recognise the need for a tempered approach to CRISPR conversation leading to regulation and ethical application. Although CRISPR's reach will continue expanding with ongoing research, thus requiring continuous evaluation, the lessons we have learned from the vaccine controversy demonstrate that our approach must not be to shut down regulation and application now, but to thoughtfully conjoin productive debate and action so that therapeutic gene editing can alleviate suffering as soon as possible without precipitating social outcomes we would belatedly deplore. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Metric invariance in object recognition: a review and further evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E E; Biederman, I; Hummel, J E

    1992-06-01

    Phenomenologically, human shape recognition appears to be invariant with changes of orientation in depth (up to parts occlusion), position in the visual field, and size. Recent versions of template theories (e.g., Ullman, 1989; Lowe, 1987) assume that these invariances are achieved through the application of transformations such as rotation, translation, and scaling of the image so that it can be matched metrically to a stored template. Presumably, such transformations would require time for their execution. We describe recent priming experiments in which the effects of a prior brief presentation of an image on its subsequent recognition are assessed. The results of these experiments indicate that the invariance is complete: The magnitude of visual priming (as distinct from name or basic level concept priming) is not affected by a change in position, size, orientation in depth, or the particular lines and vertices present in the image, as long as representations of the same components can be activated. An implemented seven layer neural network model (Hummel & Biederman, 1992) that captures these fundamental properties of human object recognition is described. Given a line drawing of an object, the model activates a viewpoint-invariant structural description of the object, specifying its parts and their interrelations. Visual priming is interpreted as a change in the connection weights for the activation of: a) cells, termed geon feature assemblies (GFAs), that conjoin the output of units that represent invariant, independent properties of a single geon and its relations (such as its type, aspect ratio, relations to other geons), or b) a change in the connection weights by which several GFAs activate a cell representing an object.

  11. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  12. Early one-stage surgical reconstruction of the extremely high vagina in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, P K; Gustafson, M L

    1994-02-01

    High vaginal atresia is a very rare anomaly seen in the most severely masculinized females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. These children have a foreshortened vagina conjoining the urogenital sinus proximal to the external urethral sphincter. In the past, they have undergone early clitoral recession and labioscrotal reduction, followed by vaginal pull-through at 2 to 4 years of age. Cumulative experience with repair of this anomaly has led us to attempt earlier one-stage intervention and to develop techniques that circumvent previously encountered vaginal stenoses. One-stage reconstruction of three older children (ages 2 to 9 years) involved: closure of the urethrovaginal fistula, mobilization of the vagina from the rectum and urethra, use of bilateral buttock flaps to augment the anterior vaginal wall, augmentation of the posterior wall with an inverted perineal U flap, clitoral recession, and advancement of labioscrotal and clitoral shaft flaps inferiorly to create labia majora and minora (respectively). The introiti were quite capacious after employing such flaps, did not require postoperative dilatation, and were free of strictures or urethrovaginal fistulae during long-term follow-up. Three younger patients were seen for initial evaluation at 8 to 12 months of age, when early one-stage reconstruction was undertaken. Paradoxically, these repairs were technically less difficult and did not require buttock flap augmentation because an island of anterior perineal skin could be rotated in to reach the anterior vaginal wall. A nerve stimulator was used to identify the external urethral sphincter, while the vagina was aggressively mobilized and advanced forward beyond the site of fistula closure on the urethra to avert formation of a urethro-vaginal fistula.2 +

  13. From Population Databases to Research and Informed Health Decisions and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossy Machluf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the era of big data, the medical community is inspired to maximize the utilization and processing of the rapidly expanding medical datasets for clinical-related and policy-driven research. This requires a medical database that can be aggregated, interpreted, and integrated at both the individual and population levels. Policymakers seek data as a lever for wise, evidence-based decision-making and information-driven policy. Yet, bridging the gap between data collection, research, and policymaking, is a major challenge.The modelTo bridge this gap, we propose a four-step model: (A creating a conjoined task force of all relevant parties to declare a national program to promote collaborations; (B promoting a national digital records project, or at least a network of synchronized and integrated databases, in an accessible transparent manner; (C creating an interoperative national research environment to enable the analysis of the organized and integrated data and to generate evidence; and (D utilizing the evidence to improve decision-making, to support a wisely chosen national policy. For the latter purpose, we also developed a novel multidimensional set of criteria to illuminate insights and estimate the risk for future morbidity based on current medical conditions.ConclusionUsed by policymakers, providers of health plans, caregivers, and health organizations, we presume this model will assist transforming evidence generation to support the design of health policy and programs, as well as improved decision-making about health and health care, at all levels: individual, communal, organizational, and national.

  14. Soft tissue influence on ex vivo mobility in the hip of Iguana: comparison with in vivo movement and its bearing on joint motion of fossil sprawling tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Fischer, Martin S; Nyakatura, John A

    2014-07-01

    The reconstruction of a joint's maximum range of mobility (ROM) often is a first step when trying to understand the locomotion of fossil tetrapods. But previous studies suggest that the ROM of a joint is restricted by soft tissues surrounding the joint. To expand the limited informative value of ROM studies for the reconstruction of a fossil species' locomotor characteristics, it is moreover necessary to better understand the relationship of ex vivo ROM with the actual in vivo joint movement. To gain insight into the relationship between ex vivo mobility and in vivo movement, we systematically tested for the influence of soft tissues on joint ROM in the hip of the modern lizard Iguana iguana. Then, we compared the ex vivo mobility to in vivo kinematics of the hip joint in the same specimens using X-ray sequences of steady-state treadmill locomotion previously recorded. With stepwise removal of soft tissues and a repeated-measurement protocol, we show that soft tissues surrounding the hip joint considerably limit ROM, highlighting the problems when joint ROM is deduced from bare bones only. We found the integument to have the largest effect on the range of long-axis rotation, pro- and retraction. Importantly, during locomotion the iguana used only a fragment of the ROM that was measured in our least restrictive dissection situation (i.e. pelvis and femur only conjoined by ligaments), demonstrating the discrepancy between hip joint ROM and actual in vivo movement. Our study emphasizes the necessity for caution when attempting to reconstruct joint ROM or even locomotor kinematics from fossil bones only, as actual in vivo movement cannot be deduced directly from any condition of cadaver mobility in Iguana and likely in other tetrapods. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  15. The proliferation of sexual health: Diverse social problems and the legitimation of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Mamo, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Especially since the 1990s, the term sexual health has flourished in professional, commercial, and lay domains. Yet the more the phrase has become visible, the greater the mutability in its meanings. These developments matter for an understanding of healthism-the idea that modern individuals are enjoined to recognize a moral obligation to maximize their health. Theorists of healthism have paid relatively little attention to sexuality and its frequent rendering as controversial, illegitimate, or stigmatizing. We argue that because pairing "sexual" with "health" serves to legitimize and sanitize sexuality, the framing of sexual issues as matters of sexual health is widely appealing across multiple social arenas, and this appeal helps to explain both the proliferation of the term and the diversification of its uses. Secondly, we argue that while the polysemy of sexual health might suggest that the phrase lacks a clear meaning, in another sense the term is quite meaningful: content analysis of journal articles, newspaper articles, and websites shows that the semantics of sexual health can be categorized into six social problem niches, within which sexuality and health are construed in distinctive ways. For each social problem framing, we identify the implied meanings of both sexuality and health, the "opposite" of sexual health, the institutional action plans, the individual injunctions, and the presumed ontologies of bodies and selves. By focusing on how the conjoining of "sexual" and "health" changes the meanings of both terms, our analysis adds nuance to discussions of healthism: it challenges a singular conception of healthism and points to the need for clearer consideration of its different forms. At the same time, we call attention to the significance of "sexual healthism" as a particular example of the "will to health" while also highlighting implications of characterizing sexual issues as matters of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of the peritracheal fold in the dog tracheal transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, P J; Costantino, P D; Lueg, E A; Chaplin, J M; Brandwein, M S; Passalaqua, P J; Fliegelman, L J; Laitman, J T; Marquez, S; Urken, M L

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the technical aspects of the canine model of human tracheal transplantation for potential application to reconstruction of extremely long tracheal defects (> 10 cm). In phase 1, long tracheal segments were skeletonized and pedicled with the thyroid glands, cranial thyroid arteries and veins, and internal jugular vein branches. The segments were elevated completely, attached to the vascular pedicle only, and replaced with primary tracheal anastomoses. In phase 2, long segments were elevated along with a diffuse soft tissue "blanket" that envelops the trachea and thyroid glands. Because this study was designed to primarily address, in situ, tracheal perfusion territories of a cranially located vascular pedicle, microvascular anastomoses were not conducted. Two small-bodied beagles (10-15 kg) and 5 large-bodied mixed-breed dogs (20-30 kg) were humanely killed 2 to 41 days after surgery, and anatomic and histological analyses were conducted. Unlike that of humans, the thyroid gland complex of dogs is not intimately associated with the trachea but is conjoined with a peritracheal soft tissue "fold." Within this fold, blood is transmitted to the trachea via a diffuse, segmental vascular plexus. In phase 1, pronounced tracheal necrosis occurred within 2 to 5 days. In phase 2, extremely long tracheal segments (10-12 cm), based only on a cranially located pedicle, were still viable at 2 to 6 weeks. Preservation of the "peritracheal fold" in the dog model of tracheal transplantation is critical to the onset and maintenance of vascular perfusion in a long tracheal segment. Furthermore, the use of large-bodied dogs is necessary to provide for a usable venous efflux component.

  17. Nursing as concrete philosophy, Part I: Risjord on nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, Kyriakos

    2018-04-01

    This essay addresses the problem of the essentiality of nursing knowledge and what kind of theory, if any, is essential to nursing practice. The overarching aim of the essay was to argue for the thesis that nursing may be described as a kind of philosophical activity, and, consequently, that philosophy is the kind of "theory" that is essential to nursing practice and to the nursing discipline at large. The essay consists of two papers. The present paper, Part I, is a critical examination of Mark Risjord's discussion of the problem of the theory-practice gap in his Nursing Knowledge: Practice, Science, Philosophy, from 2010. According to Risjord, the cause of the theory-practice gap originates in an erroneous conception of science (logical positivism) which had a decisive influence upon the way nursing scholars appropriated theoretical frameworks for the nursing discipline. This philosophical influence is considered in effect to have generated the theory-practice gap. In order to bridge the gap, Risjord suggests, the nursing discipline needs to adopt a standpoint epistemology conjoined with a postpositivist conception of scientific theory. In this way, a legitimate brand of nursing science may be developed and the theory-practice gap overcome. I will argue that neither Risjord's diagnosis of the problem, nor his recommended cure, may succeed in rescuing the nursing discipline from the theory-practice gap. Rather, the real cause of the theory-practice gap, I will claim, derives from an erroneous conception of nursing (not of science), namely the conception of nursing as a kind of science (roughly speaking). On my view, to overcome the gap, the nursing discipline needs to make salient the inherently philosophical character of nursing. In the second paper (Part II), I will continue the discussion of nursing knowledge and delineate the thesis of nursing as a kind of concrete philosophy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Diffusion of responsibility attenuates altruistic punishment: A functional magnetic resonance imaging effective connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Liu, Chao; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Humans altruistically punish violators of social norms to enforce cooperation and pro-social behaviors. However, such altruistic behaviors diminish when others are present, due to a diffusion of responsibility. We investigated the neural signatures underlying the modulations of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment, conjoining a third-party punishment task with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate Granger causality mapping. In our study, participants acted as impartial third-party decision-makers and decided how to punish norm violations under two different social contexts: alone (i.e., full responsibility) or in the presence of putative other third-party decision makers (i.e., diffused responsibility). Our behavioral results demonstrated that the diffusion of responsibility served as a mediator of context-dependent punishment. In the presence of putative others, participants who felt less responsible also punished less severely in response to norm violations. Our neural results revealed that underlying this behavioral effect was a network of interconnected brain regions. For unfair relative to fair splits, the presence of others led to attenuated responses in brain regions implicated in signaling norm violations (e.g., AI) and to increased responses in brain regions implicated in calculating values of norm violations (e.g., vmPFC, precuneus) and mentalizing about others (dmPFC). The dmPFC acted as the driver of the punishment network, modulating target regions, such as AI, vmPFC, and precuneus, to adjust altruistic punishment behavior. Our results uncovered the neural basis of the influence of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment and highlighted the role of the mentalizing network in this important phenomenon. Hum Brain Mapp 37:663-677, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia by two-dimensional and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Xin-lin; Yang, Xiao-hong; Ma, Hui-jing

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the contribution of two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US) and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound (3D-SUIS) in the prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia. Between September 2010 and April 2014, a prospective study was conducted in a single referral center using 3D-SUIS performed after 2D-US in 10 cases of sirenomelia. Diagnostic accuracy and detailed findings were compared with postnatal three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT), radiological findings and autopsy. Pregnancy was terminated in all 10 sirenomelia cases, including 9 singletons and 1 conjoined twin pregnancy, for a total of 5 males and 5 females. These cases of sirenomelia were determined by autopsy and/or chromosomal examination. Initial 2D-US showed that there were 10 cases of oligohydramnios, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, single umbilical artery, fusion of the lower limbs and spinal abnormalities; 8 cases of dipus or monopus; 2 cases of apus; and 8 cases of cardiac abnormalities. Subsequent 3D-SUIS showed that there were 9 cases of scoliosis, 10 cases of sacrococcygeal vertebra dysplasia, 3 cases of hemivertebra, 1 case of vertebral fusion, 3 cases of spina bifida, and 5 cases of rib abnormalities. 3D-SUIS identified significantly more skeletal abnormalities than did 2D-US, and its accuracy was 79.5% (70/88) compared with 3D-HCT and radiography. 3D-SUIS seems to be a useful complementary method to 2D-US and may improve the accuracy of identifying prenatal skeletal abnormalities related to sirenomelia.

  20. Combining Energy Conversion and Storage: A Solar Powered Supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Remya; Kumar, P. Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A plasmonic TiO_2/CdS/Au fibers photoanode is fabricated for the first time. • The efficiency of the plasmonic cell is greater by 1.35 times than the non-plasmonic one. • A solar powered supercapacitor is developed with plasmonic photoanode and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. • The solar cell current charges the supercapacitor. • A specific capacitance of 150 F g"−"1 is achieved under sunlight without any external bias. - Abstract: A solar powered supercapacitor wherein a plasmonic quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) sources the photocurrent for charging/discharging a conjoined supercapacitor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is demonstrated. Gold or Au fibers are integrated into a titanium dioxide/cadmium sulfide (TiO_2/CdS) electrode to yield a TiO_2/CdS/Au photoanode. The plasmonic effect of Au fibers is reflected in the higher incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE = 55%) and an improved overall power conversion efficiency (3.45%) produced by the TiO_2/CdS/Au photoanode relative to the non-plasmonic TiO_2/CdS photoanode. A Janus type bi-functional electrode composed of MWCNTs on either face separated by glass is prepared and it is coupled with the TiO_2/CdS/Au electrode and another MWCNT electrode to yield the tandem solar powered supercapacitor. By channelling the photocurrent produced by the QDSC part, under 0.1 sun illumination, the capacitance of the symmetric supercapacitor, without the application of any external bias is 150 F g"−"1 which compares well with reported values of electrically powered MWCNT supercapacitors. Our innovative design for a photo-supercapacitor offers a new paradigm for combining low cost photovoltaics with energy storage to yield a technologically useful device that needs nothing else other than solar energy to run.

  1. All I Believed is True: Dickens under the Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Connor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dickens’s experiments with mesmerism belonged to a period in which the scientific understanding of the phenomena by experimental investigators began to diffuse into popular forms. Even though explanation and knowledge gradually clustered on the side of professional and elite science, and pure performance became more characteristic of popular expositions and demonstrations of mesmerism, explanation and performance remained closely and intricately intertwined.  It would be tempting to contend that Dickens asserted and enoyed a comic self-distancing from the often frankly absurd theatrical mechanics of mesmerism. But, this article argues, Dickens was at times at least partly under, as well as beyond reach of the influence. There were two conjoined issues of power involved in mesmerism. The first was the power exercised over particular subjects in mesmeric relations. The other is a more general effort to establish and maintain power over the mesmeric phenomenon itself. Spiritual-religious and scientific-materialist explanations offered very different understandings, but they both constituted an effort to stabilise and regularise a set of phenomena that otherwise threatened to radiate unpredictably in all directions. This involves a complex play between explanation and performance. Both forms of explanation attempted to stabilise and simplify relations that the various ways in which mesmerism was performed and enacted tended in fact to multiply and complicate. This article reads Dickens's own involvement in this dynamic, principally through his mesmerism of Madame Augusta de la Rue, both exercising power through mesmerism, and attempting to secure power over it.

  2. Moral Learning: Conceptual foundations and normative relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railton, Peter

    2017-10-01

    What is distinctive about a bringing a learning perspective to moral psychology? Part of the answer lies in the remarkable transformations that have taken place in learning theory over the past two decades, which have revealed how powerful experience-based learning can be in the acquisition of abstract causal and evaluative representations, including generative models capable of attuning perception, cognition, affect, and action to the physical and social environment. When conjoined with developments in neuroscience, these advances in learning theory permit a rethinking of fundamental questions about the acquisition of moral understanding and its role in the guidance of behavior. For example, recent research indicates that spatial learning and navigation involve the formation of non-perspectival as well as ego-centric models of the physical environment, and that spatial representations are combined with learned information about risk and reward to guide choice and potentiate further learning. Research on infants provides evidence that they form non-perspectival expected-value representations of agents and actions as well, which help them to navigate the human environment. Such representations can be formed by highly-general mental processes such as causal and empathic simulation, and thus afford a foundation for spontaneous moral learning and action that requires no innate moral faculty and can exhibit substantial autonomy with respect to community norms. If moral learning is indeed integral with the acquisition and updating of casual and evaluative models, this affords a new way of understanding well-known but seemingly puzzling patterns in intuitive moral judgment-including the notorious "trolley problems." Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Midwives' perceptions of women's preferences related to midwifery care in Germany: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Susanne; Mattern, Elke; Ayerle, Gertrud M

    2018-06-01

    To explore how midwives perceive patient preferences related to midwifery care in Germany. This qualitative study, which was part of a larger study, used a hermeneutic-interpretive approach and involved focus group interviews with midwives. Data collection and analysis were done in a conjoined fashion between April 2015 and September 2016. Four focus group interviews were conducted in four different federal states of Germany. The sample of 20 qualified midwives was heterogeneous with regards to age, educational level, professional experience, type of midwifery care provided, and setting (employed, caseload, education) in which they provided services. Three main themes were identified: Strengths and limitations of midwives' present professional profile (midwives' area of responsibility, range of services, and competency); lack of midwives and midwifery services; women's experiences of conflict in interprofessional care. Each main theme is broken down into several aspects of content. Many women are not aware of the scope of professional knowledge and expertise of midwives. Moreover, the poor delineation of midwives' and obstetricians' areas of competency in Germany's hospitals seems to be disadvantageous for the women. Midwives feel that due to context implications they cannot live up to the quality of midwifery care they aspire to. Lack of midwives results in midwives being overwhelmed, women underserved, and both disappointed. On the one hand, new models of midwifery/maternity care need to be developed to solve some of the existing problems; on the other hand, new forms of interprofessional cooperation and management of transition of care points are required. Overall it is important that changes are implemented in such a way that women are enabled, and welcome, to clearly state their preferences for midwifery and maternity care. Particularly in Germany, tertiary education of midwives is needed to broaden their expertise and place them on an equal footing with

  4. Literary Censorship: The Changing Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Sharqi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Censorship is a double-edged sword that has bred legal, political, and moral wrangling across the globe. The basic controversy, which harkens back to ancient times, stems from the motivation and intention of the censoring authority. The censoring authority controls literary and informational contents, based on the promulgated political, moral, religious, and cultural values of the land. Historically, the politicians, judiciary, clergymen, powerful groups, and the public at large were involved in guarding public morals and rooting out obscenity. The obscenity laws outlawed the selling, purchasing, printing, importing, and mailing of obscene items. However, in today's day and age, the Internet has made it difficult to control the circulation of what was once considered obscene. Censorship has evolved to monitor and control online content to keep abreast with the changing times; nevertheless, it does not always effectively control the questionable content. Moreover, in the past, cultural values and demography played a vital role in deciding what needed to be censored. Internet, as an electronic global village, has redefined demography; therefore, the global as well as indigenous standards upon which literature were once analyzed for censorship is now blurred. The promise of free speech has given power to the people that live in mature democracies. However, there should be a self-imposed code of conduct so that the right of free speech does not infringe on others' right of existence. This paper reviews censorship, tracing its historical path and evolution over the years, its changing standards, and its pros and cons. Lastly, the paper discusses the need to conjoin freedom of speech with the responsibility to protect the diverse cultures, religions, races, sects, genders, and especially the young generation.

  5. 2010 August 1–2 Sympathetic Eruptions. II. Magnetic Topology of the MHD Background Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, Viacheslav S.; Mikić, Zoran; Török, Tibor; Linker, Jon A. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Panasenco, Olga, E-mail: titovv@predsci.com [Advanced Heliophysics, 1127 E Del Mar Blvd, Suite 425, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Using a potential field source-surface (PFSS) model, we recently analyzed the global topology of the background coronal magnetic field for a sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred on 2010 August 1–2. Here we repeat this analysis for the background field reproduced by a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that incorporates plasma thermodynamics. As for the PFSS model, we find that all three CME source regions contain a coronal hole (CH) that is separated from neighboring CHs by topologically very similar pseudo-streamer structures. However, the two models yield very different results for the size, shape, and flux of the CHs. We find that the helmet-streamer cusp line, which corresponds to a source-surface null line in the PFSS model, is structurally unstable and does not form in the MHD model. Our analysis indicates that, generally, in MHD configurations, this line instead consists of a multiple-null separator passing along the edge of disconnected-flux regions. Some of these regions are transient and may be the origin of the so-called streamer blobs. We show that the core topological structure of such blobs is a three-dimensional “plasmoid” consisting of two conjoined flux ropes of opposite handedness, which connect at a spiral null point of the magnetic field. Our analysis reveals that such plasmoids also appear in pseudo-streamers on much smaller scales. These new insights into the coronal magnetic topology provide some intriguing implications for solar energetic particle events and for the properties of the slow solar wind.

  6. Photophysics of the variable quantum yield of asymmetric bilirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Bilirubin (BR), responsible for neonatal jaundice, is a molecule containing two pyrromethenone chromophores conjoined by a 'saturated' carbon CH 2 group. Because this disease is cured by phototherapy, BR has been extensively studied by laser means. When the chromophores in each half of the molecule are identical, we have symmetrical BR (SBR); when they are not, we have asymmetric BR (ASBR). The quantum yield of the photoproducts in simple organic solution from SBR is not wavelength-dependent, while that from ASBR is. Because of the proximity of the two chromophores, both the SBR and ASBR systems are subject to Davidoff (dynamic electric dipole) splitting of the chromophore excited states. A quantum mechanical calculation shows that when the two (ASBR) chromophore states are not degenerate, the higher Davidoff state is preferentially occupied by the chromophore with the 'original' higher energy, and the lower Davidoff state by the chromophore of 'original' lower energy. This is just what is required for the quantum yield to vary with wavelength. If the variation of the quantum yield of ASBR in the presence of human serum albumen is approximated by a square-wave (narrow line approximation), the deduced ratio of the short wavelength photoproduct yield with the long wavelength one is in agreement with accepted values for the 'original' energy difference of the chromophores, and the Davidoff splitting parameter. A previous explanation has involved variation of relaxation processes with wavelength, but only qualitatively. The quantum yields for SBRs bonded to HSA are not yet published, but show wavelength variation, possibly from asymmetric bonding. In 0.1% ammonia/methanol however, there is no such variation for the SBRs, while for ASBR, there is, and the photoproduct ratios for long and short wavelength are reciprocals of one another, as predicted by our theory

  7. Are there any association between polycistic ovary syndrome and congenital abnormalities of Müllerian ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubić-Pavlović, Aleksandra; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Petrić, Aleksandra; Stefanović, Milan

    2014-06-01

    There are many specificities of merital infertility and sometimes surprising connections between some thinks with no connections at first sight. Examinations of these patients imply diagnostic actions such as the blood basal hormone sample, doing hysterosalpingography, ultrahysterosonography, ultrasound examinations, and sometimes laparoscopy and hysteroscopy if there are necessary. The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of the connection between policystic ovary (PCO) syndrome (Sy) and congenital Müllerian ducts abnormalities. This study included 356 patients treated in the period from January 1, to December 31, 2009, in the Department of Infertility of the Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology in Nis, Serbia. Exclusion criteria were no myoma, ovary cysts, tubal and male factors of infertility. A total of 180 patients were divided into 3 groups: the group I with PCO sy, the group II with uterine congenital malformation and the group III with a combination of these disorders. The middle age of patients was 29.6 +/- 4.8, body mass index (BMI) was 26.1 +/- 4,8 kg/m2 the middle thicknes of endometrium was 5.2 + 2.7 mm, and there were no significant differences between the examined groups. There were no significant among in a number of miscarriages in the examined groups. We found that PCO Sy and congenital abnormalities of Müllerian ducts were conjoint in 30% of examined patients. Conjoined PCO Sy and congenital abnormalities of Müllerian ducts do not result in a higher number of miscarriages than only either PCO Sy or abnormalities of Müllerian ducts. It is important to check BMI, basal level of follicle stimulating hormone and number of antral follicles because the induction protocol and concentracion of inductors depends on these characteristics, thus, the succsessful cycles and pregnancy.

  8. Value of children and fertility: Results from a cross-cultural comparative survey in eighteen areas in Asia, Africa, Europe and America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    For explaining cross-cultural differences in fertility behavior, this paper conjoins three complementary approaches: the 'demand'-based economic theory of fertility (ETF), a revised version of the 'supply'-based 'value-of-children' (VOC)-approach as a special theory of the general social theory of social production functions and the framing theory of variable rationality. A comprehensive model is specified that encompasses the variable efficiency of having children for the optimization of physical well-being and of social esteem of (potential) parents; it also accounts for the variable rationality of fertility decisions. The model is tested with a data set that comprises information on VOC and fertility of women within the social settings of 18 areas (Peoples Republic of China, North and South India, Indonesia, Palestine, Israel, Turkey, Ghana, South Africa, East and West Germany, the Czech Republic, France, Russia, Poland, Estonia, the United States and Jamaica). Latent class analysis is used to establish a measurement model for the costs and benefits of children and to analyze area differences by a two-level multinomial-model. Two-level Cox-regressions are used to estimate the effects of perceived costs and benefits of children, individual resources and context opportunities, with births of different parity as dependents. This simultaneous test in a cross-cultural context goes beyond the current state of fertility research and provides evidence about the cross-cultural validity of the model, the systematic effects of VOC on fertility and the changing rationality of fertility decisions during demographic transition and socio-economic change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How Are ‘Barack Obama’ and ‘President Elect’ Differentially Stored in the Brain? An ERP Investigation on the Processing of Proper and Common Noun Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. Methodology/Principal Findings 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related (“Woody Allen” or “social security”), while the others were not (“Sigmund Parodi” or “judicial cream”). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. Conclusions/Significance When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes. PMID:19774070

  10. How are 'Barack Obama' and 'President Elect' differentially stored in the brain? An ERP investigation on the processing of proper and common noun pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2009-09-23

    One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related ("Woody Allen" or "social security"), while the others were not ("Sigmund Parodi" or "judicial cream"). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes.

  11. Analysis and integration of multilevel inverter configuration with boost converters in a photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabaharan, N.; Palanisamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of MLI with boost converters in photovoltaic system including MPPT. • Results are taken for different irradiations and different temperature condition. • Proposed system is tested with sudden step changes from standard test condition. • Analysis of switching losses and conduction loss is discussed. • Theoretical calculation of % THD using asymptotic formula is discussed. - Abstract: This paper proposes a single phase multilevel inverter configuration that conjoins three series connected full bridge inverter and a single half bridge inverter for renewable energy application especially photo-voltaic system. This configuration of multilevel inverter reduces the value of total harmonic distortion. The half bridge inverter utilized in the proposed configuration increases the output voltage level to nearly twice the output voltage level of a conventional cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter. This higher output voltage level is generated with lesser number of power semiconductor switches compared to conventional configuration, thus reducing the total harmonic distortion and switching losses. The effectiveness of the proposed configuration is illustrated by replacing the isolated DC sources in multilevel inverter with individual photo-voltaic panels using separate perturb and observer based maximum power point tracking and boost converters. The verification of the proposed system is demonstrated successfully using MATLAB/Simulink based simulation with different irradiation and temperature conditions. Also, the transient operation of the system is verified with results depicted using step change in standard test condition. In the proposed system, total harmonic distortion of the output voltage is 9.85% without using passive filters and 3.91% with filter inductance. Theoretical calculation of the power losses and total harmonic distortion with mathematical equations are discussed. Selective experimental results are presented to prove the

  12. Improving inter-transmission compensation in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilov, Dimo; Stoilov, Luben

    2013-01-01

    This article is intended as a roadmap to the correction of the existing shortcomings in the EU power transmission tariff system, especially in the existing mechanism of Inter-Transmission System Operator (TSO) Compensation (ITC). The relevant literature is surveyed and the essence of the issue is formulated. Definitions, preconditions, assumptions and constraints for the problem are explained. The paper outlines the most simple and straightforward approach for the improvement of inter-transmission compensation in the Continental European Synchronous Area. The proposals are based on the old practice of socialization of the network costs retained in almost all European countries, i.e. the principle of charging the customers “at the exit”. Equal treatment is given to internal users and cross-border users: a TSO is reimbursed for both internal and cross-border flows from the users conjoined to its network on an equal footing with the users extracting power from the peripheral nodes. The existing inequity in individual payments for power transmission is overcome and the cross-border subsidy element is avoided. This approach should be tested (modeled and evaluated) with real data for the European union of networks. Some key parts of the article are written in a more popular style, in order to be accessible to inexpert readers as well. -- Highlights: •A roadmap to the correction of the shortcomings in the EU power transmission tariff system. •Simple and straightforward approach for improvement of ITC in the European synchronous area. •Equal treatment to internal and cross-border users avoiding cross-subsidies. •Formalization and illustration of the approach. •Real data tests for the European interconnected systems should be performed

  13. Equilibrium Droplets on Deformable Substrates: Equilibrium Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koursari, Nektaria; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Starov, Victor M

    2018-05-15

    Equilibrium conditions of droplets on deformable substrates are investigated, and it is proven using Jacobi's sufficient condition that the obtained solutions really provide equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformed support. At the equilibrium, the excess free energy of the system should have a minimum value, which means that both necessary and sufficient conditions of the minimum should be fulfilled. Only in this case, the obtained profiles provide the minimum of the excess free energy. The necessary condition of the equilibrium means that the first variation of the excess free energy should vanish, and the second variation should be positive. Unfortunately, the mentioned two conditions are not the proof that the obtained profiles correspond to the minimum of the excess free energy and they could not be. It is necessary to check whether the sufficient condition of the equilibrium (Jacobi's condition) is satisfied. To the best of our knowledge Jacobi's condition has never been verified for any already published equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate. A simple model of the equilibrium droplet on the deformable substrate is considered, and it is shown that the deduced profiles of the equilibrium droplet and deformable substrate satisfy the Jacobi's condition, that is, really provide the minimum to the excess free energy of the system. To simplify calculations, a simplified linear disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm is adopted for the calculations. It is shown that both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium are satisfied. For the first time, validity of the Jacobi's condition is verified. The latter proves that the developed model really provides (i) the minimum of the excess free energy of the system droplet/deformable substrate and (ii) equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate.

  14. 2010 August 1–2 Sympathetic Eruptions. II. Magnetic Topology of the MHD Background Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, Viacheslav S.; Mikić, Zoran; Török, Tibor; Linker, Jon A.; Panasenco, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Using a potential field source-surface (PFSS) model, we recently analyzed the global topology of the background coronal magnetic field for a sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred on 2010 August 1–2. Here we repeat this analysis for the background field reproduced by a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that incorporates plasma thermodynamics. As for the PFSS model, we find that all three CME source regions contain a coronal hole (CH) that is separated from neighboring CHs by topologically very similar pseudo-streamer structures. However, the two models yield very different results for the size, shape, and flux of the CHs. We find that the helmet-streamer cusp line, which corresponds to a source-surface null line in the PFSS model, is structurally unstable and does not form in the MHD model. Our analysis indicates that, generally, in MHD configurations, this line instead consists of a multiple-null separator passing along the edge of disconnected-flux regions. Some of these regions are transient and may be the origin of the so-called streamer blobs. We show that the core topological structure of such blobs is a three-dimensional “plasmoid” consisting of two conjoined flux ropes of opposite handedness, which connect at a spiral null point of the magnetic field. Our analysis reveals that such plasmoids also appear in pseudo-streamers on much smaller scales. These new insights into the coronal magnetic topology provide some intriguing implications for solar energetic particle events and for the properties of the slow solar wind.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  16. A caridade científica: Moncorvo Filho e o Instituto de Proteção e Assistência à Infância do Rio de Janeiro (1899-1930 Scientific charity: Moncorvo Filho and the Instituto de Proteção e Assistência à Infância of Rio de Janeiro (1899-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Martha de Luna Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Examina a trajetória do médico Arthur Moncorvo Filho e o Instituto de Proteção e Assistência à Infância, fundado por ele em 1899 no Rio de Janeiro, associando-os ao processo de construção da rede institucional de assistência à saúde infantil no Brasil, na primeira metade do século XX. A partir do pressuposto de que tal processo se deu pela combinação de ações filantrópicas, práticas científicas e investimentos públicos, aponta-se o papel modelar desempenhado por esse médico filantropo, ao articular atividades assistenciais e aplicação de técnicas médicas inovadoras, e ao propor/reivindicar políticas públicas destinadas à maternidade e à infância.The article follows the trajectory of Doctor Arthur Moncorvo Filho and the Instituto de Proteção e Assistência à Infância, an organization that he founded in Rio de Janeiro in 1899. It examines them within the context of the construction of Brazil's institutional network in the field of children's health assistance in the first half of the twentieth century, a process that combined philanthropic activities, scientific practices, and public investments. This philanthropic physician played a model role, as he conjoined assistance activities with the application of innovative medical techniques and proposed or called for public policies that targeted motherhood and children.

  17. The Importance of the Study of Cognitive Performance Enhancement for U.S. National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malish, Richard G

    2017-08-01

    The American military is embarking on the 'Third Offset'-a strategy designed to produce seismic shifts in the future of warfare. Central to the approach is the conjoining of humans, technology, and machines to deliver a decisive advantage on the battlefield. Because technology will spread rapidly and globally, tactical overmatch will occur when American operators possess a competitive edge in cognition. Investigation of cognitive enhancing therapeutics is not widely articulated as an adjunct to the Third Offset, yet failure to study promising agents could represent a strategic vulnerability. Because of its legacy of research into therapeutic agents to enhance human-machine interplay, the aerospace medical community represents a front-running candidate to perform this work. Notably, there are strong signals emanating from gambling, academic, and video-gaming enterprises that already-developed stimulants and other agents provide cognitive benefits. These agents should be studied not only for reasons of national security, but also because cognitive enhancement may be a necessary step in the evolution of humankind. To illustrate these points, this article will assert that: 1) the need to preserve and enhance physical and cognitive health will become more and more important over the next century; 2) aeromedical specialists are in a position to take the lead in the endeavor to enhance cognition; 3) signals of enhancement of the type useful to both military and medical efforts exist aplenty in today's society; and 4) the aeromedical community should approach human enhancement research deliberately but carefully.Malish RG. The importance of the study of cognitive performance enhancement for U.S. national security. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):773-778.

  18. A pharmacology guided approach for setting limits on product-related impurities for bispecific antibody manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sharmila; Sonoda, Junichiro; Tully, Timothy; Williams, Ambrose J; Yang, Feng; Macchi, Frank; Hudson, Terry; Chen, Mark Z; Liu, Shannon; Valle, Nicole; Cowan, Kyra; Gelzleichter, Thomas

    2018-04-13

    bFKB1 is a humanized bispecific IgG1 antibody, created by conjoining an anti-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) half-antibody to an anti-Klothoβ (KLB) half-antibody, using the knobs-into-holes strategy. bFKB1 acts as a highly selective agonist for the FGFR1/KLB receptor complex and is intended to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic defects by mimicking the activity of the hormone FGF21. An important aspect of the biologics product manufacturing process is to establish meaningful product specifications regarding the tolerable levels of impurities that copurify with the drug product. The aim of the current study was to determine acceptable levels of product-related impurities for bFKB1. To determine the tolerable levels of these impurities, we dosed obese mice with bFKB1 enriched with various levels of either HMW impurities or anti-FGFR1-related impurities, and measured biomarkers for KLB-independent FGFR1 signaling. Here, we show that product-related impurities of bFKB1, in particular, high molecular weight (HMW) impurities and anti-FGFR1-related impurities, when purposefully enriched, stimulate FGFR1 in a KLB-independent manner. By taking this approach, the tolerable levels of product-related impurities were successfully determined. Our study demonstrates a general pharmacology-guided approach to setting a product specification for a bispecific antibody whose homomultimer-related impurities could lead to undesired biological effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [The mini-open Latarjet procedure for treatment of recurrent anterior instability of the shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, J; Beitzel, K; Imhoff, A B; Braun, S

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder stabilization. Symptomatic recurrent anterior shoulder instability combined with glenoid bone loss of approximately 20-35 % of the glenoid surface, engaging Hill-Sachs lesion and/or previously failed arthroscopic Bankart repair. In patients with a high risk of redislocation (contact sports) or irreparable soft tissue injury the Latarjet procedure can be considered as a first-line treatment. Contraindicated if arthroscopic Bankart repair is possible. Irreparable damage of subscapularis tendon. Bony defect >35 % of the glenoid that cannot be filled with coracoid bone block. Arbitrary shoulder dislocation. Young patients with open growth plates (relative contraindication). Mini-open deltopectoral approach of approximately 6 cm. Preparation of the coracoid process and the conjoined tendons. Osteotomy of the coracoid process at its base using a 90° sawblade. Split of the subscapularis tendon. Preparation of the glenoid defect and implantation of 2-3 suture anchors where appropriate. Drilling of two parallel holes through the coracoid process. Fixation of the bone block with cannulated screws at the anterior glenoid rim and refixation of the joint capsula, if necessary with the help of the suture anchors. Wound drainage and closure in layers. Intermittent immobilization in a sling for 6 weeks with limited abduction, flexion and external rotation. Sport-specific training after 3 months, over-head sports after 6 months. Since 2009 64 mini-open Latarjet procedures (61 patients) performed. In all, 9.4 % of patients suffered from persistent instability (dislocations and subluxations); only 1 patient needed revision surgery due to instability.

  20. Segmentation of urinary bladder in CT urography (CTU) using CLASS with enhanced contour conjoint procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a computerized method for bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) for computeraided diagnosis of bladder cancer. A challenge for computerized bladder segmentation in CTU is that the bladder often contains regions filled with intravenous (IV) contrast and without contrast. Previously, we proposed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) consisting of four stages: preprocessing and initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and post-processing. In case the bladder is partially filled with contrast, CLASS segments the non-contrast (NC) region and the contrast (C) filled region separately and conjoins the contours with a Contour Conjoint Procedure (CCP). The CCP is not trivial. Inaccuracies in the NC and C contours may cause CCP to exclude portions of the bladder. To alleviate this problem, we implemented model-guided refinement to propagate the C contour if the level set propagation in the region stops prematurely due to substantial non-uniformity of the contrast. An enhanced CCP with regularized energies further propagates the conjoint contours to the correct bladder boundary. Segmentation performance was evaluated using 70 cases. For all cases, 3D hand segmented contours were obtained as reference standard, and computerized segmentation accuracy was evaluated in terms of average volume intersection %, average % volume error, and average minimum distance. With enhanced CCP, those values were 84.4±10.6%, 8.3±16.1%, 3.4±1.8 mm, respectively. With CLASS, those values were 74.6±13.1%, 19.6±18.6%, 4.4±2.2 mm, respectively. The enhanced CCP improved bladder segmentation significantly (p<0.001) for all three performance measures.

  1. A Schutzian Analysis of Prayer with Perspectives from Linguistic Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K; Staudigl, M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to analyze the phenomenon of Christian prayer by way of combining two different analytical frameworks. We start by applying Schutz's theories of "intersubjectivity," "inner time," "politheticality," and "multiple realities," and then proceed by drawing on the ideas and insights of linguistic philosophers, notably, Wittgenstein's "language-game," Austin's "speech act," and Evans's "logic of self-involvement". In conjoining these accounts, we wish to demonstrate how their combination sheds new light on understanding the phenomenon of prayer. Prayer is a complex phenomenon that involves two major dimensions: the private and the social, as Matthew (6: 6) and Acts (1: 14), respectively, demonstrate. Schutz's study of the phenomenon of "inner time" and the "polithetical" structure of consciousness, at both the subjective and intersubjective level, provides a useful lens to analyze these two dimensions. In addition, prayer, in following a specific set of rules, can also be considered as a specific, i.e., religious "language-game". In the last analysis, however, we propose to analyze prayer (and, finally, religion) within the Schutzian framework of "multiple realities," "enclaves," and "symbolic appresentation," which permits accessing the "religious finite province of meaning" in the very midst of the paramount reality of everyday life. In a nutshell, we claim that Christian prayer is a practice of constructing and living within a "religious province of meaning" in the everyday world; it is a practice that revolves around self-involving language-activities such as praising, confessing, thanksgiving, or requesting to God, which enable the praying subject to transfigure the language of everydayness and "see through" (Schutz) the world of everyday life in order to let it appear in a different light, e.g., the light of grace, gift, and salvation.

  2. O estado nutricional de crianças Yanomami do Médio Rio Negro, Amazônia Yanomami children's nutritional status in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Istria

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O estado nutricional de 290 crianças, desde o nascimento até a idade de uns seis anos, da população Yanomami do Médio Rio Negro, Amazonas, foi observado em 1998 e 1999. Essa população tem um modo de viver tradicional e dispõe de um largo espaço para as atividades de caça e de colheita. O índice peso/altura foi comparado aos valores de referência do National Center for Health Statistics. Todas essas crianças são de pequena morfologia. Uma desnutrição (índice The nutritional status of 290 Yanomami Amerindians children, from birth to about six year-olds, living in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazonia, has been studied in 1998 and 1999 using the weight-for-height. All of them were of low stature. Twenty malnourished (7%, defined as below two standard deviations of NCHS' data, have been observed. Five of them showed a severe malnutrition (<= -3 SD. Differences appeared between the communities, however without evident connection with the practices of these groups and their contacts with the outside. These data indicate a lack of scarcity in this population who preserves a traditional way of life and disposes of a large space for gathering and hunting. The cases of malnutrition are probably a conjoined consequence of infectious attacks in children and of a special bad status in their group.

  3. Biomimetic multidirectional scaffolds for zonal osteochondral tissue engineering via a lyophilization bonding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Drew; Nguyen, Andrew; Wei, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The zonal organization of osteochondral tissue underlies its long term function. Despite this, tissue engineering strategies targeted for osteochondral repair commonly rely on the use of isotropic biomaterials for tissue reconstruction. There exists a need for a new class of highly biomimetic, anisotropic scaffolds that may allow for the engineering of new tissue with zonal properties. To address this need, we report the facile production of monolithic multidirectional collagen-based scaffolds that recapitulate the zonal structure and composition of osteochondral tissue. First, superficial and osseous zone-mimicking scaffolds were fabricated by unidirectional freeze casting collagen-hyaluronic acid and collagen-hydroxyapatite-containing suspensions, respectively. Following their production, a lyophilization bonding process was used to conjoin these scaffolds with a distinct collagen-hyaluronic acid suspension mimicking the composition of the transition zone. Resulting matrices contained a thin, highly aligned superficial zone that interfaced with a cellular transition zone and vertically oriented calcified cartilage and osseous zones. Confocal microscopy confirmed a zone-specific localization of hyaluronic acid, reflecting the depth-dependent increase of glycosaminoglycans in the native tissue. Poorly crystalline, carbonated hydroxyapatite was localized to the calcified cartilage and osseous zones and bordered the transition zone. Compressive testing of hydrated scaffold zones confirmed an increase of stiffness with scaffold depth, where compressive moduli of chondral and osseous zones fell within or near ranges conducive for chondrogenesis or osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. With the combination of these biomimetic architectural and compositional cues, these multidirectional scaffolds hold great promise for the engineering of zonal osteochondral tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 948-958, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  4. Effects of Land-Use Change and Managed Aquifer Recharge on Geochemical Reactions with Implications for Groundwater Quantity and Quality in Atoll Island Aquifers, Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Gurdak, J. J.; Odigie, K. O.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    This study compares the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll groundwater systems in Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur houses a U.S. Department of Defense military installation and presents an ideal study location where a human impacted aquifer is co-located next to a natural aquifer as part of two artificially conjoined atoll islands. The hydrogeology and geochemistry of carbonate atoll aquifers has been well studied, particularly because of its small, well-defined hydrologic system that allows for relatively precise modeling. However, it is unknown how changes in land-use/land cover and managed aquifer recharge (MAR) alters natural geochemical processes in atoll aquifers. A better understanding of this has implications on groundwater quantity and quality, carbonate dissolution, and best aquifer management practices in the context of rising sea level and saltwater intrusion. Roi has been heavily modified to house military and civilian operations; here, lack of vegetation and managed recharge has increased the volume of potable groundwater and affected the geochemical processes in the freshwater lens and saltwater transition zone. Namur is heavily vegetated and the hydrogeology is indicative of a natural atoll island. A suite of monitoring wells were sampled across both island settings for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, DOC/DIC, δ13C and δ18O/2H isotopes. By modeling geochemical reactions using a conservative mixing approach, we measure deviations from expected reactions and compare the two contrasting settings using derived geochemical profiles through a wide salinity spectrum. Results indicate that groundwater on Namur is more heavily depleted in δ13C and has greater dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting higher microbial oxidation and greater dissolution within the carbonate aquifer. This suggests MAR and reduction of vegetation makes the groundwater supply on atoll islands more resilient to sea level rise.

  5. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 2--Neuroscientific studies of morality and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Martina; Buniak, Liana; Giordano, James

    2015-02-15

    Moral philosophy and psychology have sought to define the nature of right and wrong, and good and evil. The industrial turn of the twentieth century fostered increasingly technological approaches that conjoined philosophy to psychology, and psychology to the natural sciences. Thus, moral philosophy and psychology became ever more vested to investigations of the anatomic structures and physiologic processes involved in cognition, emotion and behavior--ultimately falling under the rubric of the neurosciences. Since 2002, neuroscientific studies of moral thought, emotions and behaviors have become known as--and a part of--the relatively new discipline of neuroethics. Herein we present Part 2 of a bibliography of neuroethics from 2002-2013 addressing the "neuroscience of ethics"--studies of putative neural substrates and mechanisms involved in cognitive, emotional and behavioral processes of morality and ethics. A systematic survey of the neuroethics literature was undertaken. Bibliographic searches were performed by accessing 11 databases, 8 literature depositories, and 4 individual journal searches, and employed indexing language for National Library of Medicine (NLM) Medical Subject Heading databases. All bibliographic searches were conducted using the RefWorks citation management program. This bibliography lists 397 articles, 65 books, and 52 book chapters that present (1) empirical/experimental studies, overviews, and reviews of neural substrates and mechanisms involved in morality and ethics, and/or (2) reflections upon such studies and their implications. These works present resources offering iterative descriptions, definitions and criticisms of neural processes involved in moral cognition and behaviors, and also provide a historical view of this field, and insights to its developing canon.

  6. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  7. Preoperative evaluation of the depth of anal canal invasion in very low rectal cancer by magnetic resonance imaging and surgical indications for intersphincteric resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Kameoka, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the depth of anal canal invasion (DACI), and determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the conjoined longitudinal muscle (CLM) can be used to identify the surgical indication for intersphincteric resection. Sixty-six patients with T1 (n=2), T2 (n=20), T3 (n=39), and T4 (n=5) lower rectal cancer were included. Depth of anal canal invasion was defined as extension of the tumor to the anal canal. The outline of the CLM on MRI was assessed as clear, unclear, or absent (indicating invasion). A comparison of overall T-stage and DACI of 22 pT1-pT2 tumors revealed that none had a higher T-stage within the anal canal, and 16 of 39 pT3 tumors had only pT0-pT2 invasion within the anal canal. The CLM was clear in 30 cases of T0-T2 DACI, unclear in 5 cases of T0-T2 DACI, and 3 cases of T3-T4 DACI, and showed invasion in 3 cases of T2 DACI and 25 cases of T3-T4 DACI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of using a clear CLM outline for determining T0-T2 DACI was 78.9, 91.9, 100, and 77.8%, respectively. Preoperative evaluation of DACI was compatible with the surgical indications. A clear CLM accurately indicates T0-T2 DACI. (author)

  8. Modelling the evaporation of a tear film over a contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Kevin; Xu, Amber; Anderson, Daniel M; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2015-06-01

    A contact lens (CL) separates the tear film into a pre-lens tear film (PrLTF), the fluid layer between the CL and the outside environment, and a post-lens tear film (PoLTF), the fluid layer between the CL and the cornea. We examine a model for evaporation of a PrLTF on a modern permeable CL allowing fluid transfer between the PrLTF and the PoLTF. Evaporation depletes the PrLTF, and continued evaporation causes depletion of the PoLTF via fluid loss through the CL. Governing equations include Navier-Stokes, heat and Darcy's equations for the fluid flow and heat transfer in the PrLTF and porous layer. The PoLTF is modelled by a fixed pressure condition on the posterior surface of the CL. The original model is simplified using lubrication theory for the PrLTF and CL applied to a sagittal plane through the eye. We obtain a partial differential equation (PDE) for the PrLTF thickness that is first-order in time and fourth-order in space. This model incorporates evaporation, conjoining pressure effects in the PrLTF, capillarity and heat transfer. For a planar film, we find that this PDE can be reduced to an ordinary differential equation (ODE) that can be solved analytically or numerically. This reduced model allows for interpretation of the various system parameters and captures most of the basic physics contained in the model. Comparisons of ODE and PDE models, including estimates for the loss of fluid through the lens due to evaporation, are given. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  9. Entering the era of nanoscience: time to be so small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskoković, Vuk

    2013-09-01

    The field of nanoscience has produced more hype than probably any other branch of materials science and engineering in its history. Still, the potentials of this new field largely lay undiscovered ahead of us; what we have learnt so far with respect to the peculiarity of physical processes on the nanoscale is only the tip of an iceberg. Elaborated in this critical review is the idea that the surge of interest in physical chemistry of phenomena at the nanoscale presents a natural consequence of the spatial refinement of the human ability to controllably manipulate the substratum of our physical reality. Examples are given to illustrate the sensitivity of material properties to grain size on the nanoscale, a phenomenon that directly contributed to the rise of nanoscience as a special field of scientific inquiry. Main systemic challenges faced by the present and future scientists in this field are also mentioned. In part, this perspective article resembles standing on the constantly expanding seashore of the coast of nanoscience and nanoengineering and envisioning the parts of the island where the most significant advances may be expected to occur and where, therefore, most of the attention of scientist in this field is to be directed: (a) crossing the gap between life science and materials science; (b) increasing experimentation sensitivity; (c) crisscrossing theory and experiments; and (d) conjoining top-down and bottom-up synthetic approaches. As for materials and the application areas discussed, a special emphasis is placed on calcium phosphate nanoparticles and their usage in controlled drug delivery devices and other applications of biomedical relevance. It is argued that the properties of nanoparticles as drug carriers often comprise the critical determinant for- the efficacy of the drug therapy. Therefore, the basic properties of nanoparticles to be optimized for the purpose of maximizing this efficacy are discussed: size, size distribution, morphology

  10. Discrimination of single features and conjunctions by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Chevalier, H; Lobaugh, N J

    2003-12-01

    Stimuli that are discriminated by a conjunction of features can show more rapid early processing in adults. To determine how this facilitation effect develops, the processing of visual features and their conjunction was examined in 7-12-year-old children. The children completed a series of tasks in which they made a target-non-target judgement as a function of shape only, colour only or shape and colour features, while event-related potentials were recorded. To assess early stages of feature processing the posteriorly distributed P1 and N1 were analysed. Attentional effects were seen for both components. P1 had a shorter latency and P1 and N1 had larger amplitudes to targets than non-targets. Task effects were driven by the conjunction task. P1 amplitude was largest, while N1 amplitude was smallest for the conjunction targets. In contrast to larger left-sided N1 in adults, N1 had a symmetrical distribution in the children. N1 latency was shortest for the conjunction targets in the 9-10-year olds and 11-12-year olds, demonstrating facilitation in children, but which continued to develop over the pre-teen years. These data underline the sensitivity of early stages of processing to both top-down modulations and the parallel binding of non-spatial features in young children. Furthermore, facilitation effects, increased speed of processing when features need to be conjoined, mature in mid-childhood, arguing against a hierarchical model of visual processing, and supporting a rapid, integrated facilitative model.

  11. Saving Soil for Sustainable Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo M. Torre

    2017-02-01

    managing environmental and landscape preservation. The interplay between urban economics and environmentally sound regulations reveals some controversial issues in urban governance and nature preservation: perhaps some abstract regulations, conjoined with non-case-oriented urban policies, consider these keywords as the old chemists considered the Philosopher’s Stone. The analyses show criticality emerging themes in emblematic cases, studied in some municipal contexts.

  12. Emilia Snethlage (1868-1929: uma naturalista alemã na Amazônia Emília Snethlage (1868-1929: a german naturalist in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Junghans

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A ornitóloga alemã Emilia Snethlage (1868-1929 desenvolveu sua carreira científica no Brasil, trabalhando no Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi e no Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Um dos pontos altos da sua obra científica foi o "Catálogo das aves amazônicas", publicado em 1914. Outro foi a travessia que realizou a pé, acompanhada apenas por guias índios, entre os rios Xingu e Tapajós, em 1909, percorrendo um território até então desconhecido. A historiografia das ciências no Brasil apresenta, até agora, poucos exemplos da atuação feminina no campo das ciências naturais antes da fundação das universidades na década de 1930. A análise da trajetória de Emilia Snethlage, articulando questões de história das mulheres e o estudo das formas de inserção da cientista em redes institucionais e sociais, poderá contribuir para o melhor entendimento de campos historiográficos pouco percorridos.The German ornithologist Emilia Snethlage (1868-1929 spent her scientific career in Brazil, working at the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi in the state of Pará and at the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro. One of the highlights of her scientific work was her catalog of Amazonian birds, published in 1914. Another was her travels by foot through the unknown regions between the Xingu and Tapajós rivers in 1909, accompanied solely by Indian guides. To date, the historiography of the sciences in Brazil has provided few examples of female engagement in the field of the natural sciences prior to establishment of universities in the 1930s. Conjoining issues in women's history with the study of the roles played by this female scientist in institutional and social networks, this analysis of Emília Snethlage's career can help us better understand little explored fields of historiography.

  13. Co-localization of a CD1d-binding glycolipid with a radiation-attenuated sporozoite vaccine in LN-resident DCs for a robust adjuvant effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Kawamura, Akira; Andrews, Chasity D.; Miller, Jessica L.; Wu, Douglass; Tsao, Tiffany; Zhang, Min; Oren, Deena; Padte, Neal N.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Ho, David D.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-01-01

    A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the present study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to as irradiated P. yoelii sporozoites (IrPySpz). 7DW8-5 had a superb adjuvant effect only when the glycolipid and IrPySpz were conjointly administered intramuscularly (i.m.). Therefore, we evaluated the impact of distinctly different biodistribution patterns of αGalCer and 7DW8-5 on their respective adjuvant activities. While both glycolipids induce a similar cytokine response in sera of mice injected intravenously, after i.m. injection, αGalCer induces a systemic cytokine response, whereas 7DW8-5 is locally trapped by CD1d expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Moreover, the i.m. co-administration of 7DW8-5 with IrPySpz results in the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and the activation and maturation of DCs. These events cause the potent adjuvant effect of 7DW8-5, resulting in the enhancement of the CD8+ T-cell response induced by IrPySpz, and, ultimately, improved protection against malaria. Our study is the first to show that the co-localization of a CD1d-binding iNKT-cell stimulatory glycolipid and a vaccine, like RAS, in dLN-resident DCs upon i.m. conjoin administration governs the potency of the adjuvant effect of the glycolipid. PMID:26254338

  14. Homeostatic Control of the Thyroid Pituitary Axis: Perspectives for Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf eHoermann

    2015-11-01

    scaled back to a supporting role that is more representative of its conditional interplay with peripheral thyroid hormones. This reopens the debate on measurement of free thyroid hormones and encourages the identification of suitable biomarkers. Homeostatic principles conjoin all thyroid parameters into an adaptive context, demanding a more flexible interpretation in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction.

  15. Systems Neuroscience of Psychosis: Mapping Schizophrenia Symptoms onto Brain Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, Werner; Stegmayer, Katharina; Walther, Sebastian; Dierks, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    parameters. In clinical practice, the novel psychopathology allows confining the communication deficits of the individual patient, shifting attention from the symptoms to the intact resources. We have studied this approach and observed important advantages for therapeutic alliances, personalized treatment, and de-escalation strategies. Future studies will further conjoin clinical definitions of psychotic symptoms with brain structures and functions, and disentangle structural and functional deficit patterns within these systems to identify neurobiologically distinct subsyndromes. Neurobiologically homogeneous patient groups may provide new momentum for treatment research. Finally, lessons learned from schizophrenia research may contribute to developing a comprehensive perspective on human experience and behavior that integrates methodologically distinct, but internally consistent, insights from humanities and neuroscience. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Surgical anatomy and histology of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle for blepharoptosis correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Boban

    2013-01-01

    s crease was formed by the conjoined fascia including the fascia of the orbicularis muscle, the superficial layer of the orbital septum, and the aponeurosis of the LPS muscle, as well as the pretarsal fascia. Conclusion. The conducted study provided a valuable morphological basis for biomechanical and clinical considerations regarding blepharoptosis surgery. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175030

  17. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balduzzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks

  18. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-06-13

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized

  19. Partitioning carbon fluxes from a Midwestern corn and soybean rotation system using footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, C.; Hatfield, J.; Prueger, J. H.; Wacha, K.

    2017-12-01

    Midwestern US agriculture is dominated by corn and soybean production. Corn has typically higher Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) than soybean due to increased carboxylation efficiency and different crop management. The conjoined NEE may be measured with eddy covariance (EC) stations covering both crops, however, it is often unclear what the contribution of each crop is, as the CO2 source area remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of CO2 fluxes from each crop for a conventional corn-soybean rotation system from 2007 - 2015. Therefore, the combined CO2 flux of three adjacent fields with annual corn-soybean rotation was measured with a 9.1 m EC tower (Flux 30). In the center of two of these fields, additional EC towers (Flux 10 and Flux 11) were positioned above the corn and soybean canopy to validate Flux 30 NEE. For each EC system the annual 90% NEE footprint area was calculated, footprints were partitioned among fields, and NEE separated accordingly. The average annual 90% footprint area of Flux 30, and Flux 10/11 corn and soybean was estimated to 206, 11 and 7 ha, respectively. The annual average (±SE) NEE of Flux 30 was -693 ± 47 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, of which 83% out of 90% originated from the three adjacent fields. Corn and soybean NEE measured at Flux 10 and 11 was -1124 ± 95 and 173 ± 73 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, respectively, and 89% and 90% originated from these fields. That demonstrates, that Flux 30 represents the combined NEE of a corn-soybean rotation, and Flux 10 and 11 measured NEE from a single crop. However, the share of Flux 30 NEE originating from corn and soybean grown on the Flux 10/11 fields was -192 ± 16 and -205 ± 18 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, indicating a substantial difference to single crop NEE. While it was possible to measure the NEE of a corn-soybean rotation with a tall EC tower, footprint partitioning could not retrieve NEE for each crop, probably due to differences in measurement height and footprint source area.

  20. The role of the pediatric surgeon in the perinatal multidisciplinary team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboei, E H

    2008-10-01

    The pediatric surgeons' understanding of the etiology of many prenatally diagnosed surgical conditions has grown significantly in recent years. The impact of prenatal pediatric surgical consultation on the perinatal course has not been explored extensively. The aim of this study was to explore the pediatric surgeon's role as a team member on the management and outcome of prenatally diagnosed surgical congenital anomalies. A retrospective study was performed of all pregnant women diagnosed at our institution by antenatal ultrasound as having a fetus with congenital anomalies. The pediatric surgeon's role in decisions on the termination of pregnancy, IN UTERO intervention, or an altered mode or timing of delivery was studied. Patients were divided according to prenatal decisions into 5 groups; group one included those who had nonaggressive obstetric management, groups two and three included pregnancies where the mode or time of delivery was changed, group four consisted of patients who underwent amniocentesis for karyotype analysis and group five had a termination of pregnancy. There were 406 fetuses diagnosed with congenital anomalies out 20 995 pregnancies. The incidence of congenital anomalies was 1.93 %. The total number of surgical anomaly cases was 234/400 (58.5 %). The pediatric surgeon was the team leader for the management and counseling of parents in 184 out of 227 cases (82.4 %) in group one, two (0.85 %) and 10 (4.3 %) patients in groups 2 and 3, respectively. The pediatric surgeon was the main team member who took the decision in groups 4 and 5. Eighty-three out of 400 cases (35.5 %) had amniocentesis. Although termination of pregnancy in 26/83 (31.3 %) or an altered mode or time of delivery was the outcome for group four; this was not related to the results of the test. Twenty-six pregnancies (11 %) were terminated in group five. The pregnancy terminations included fetuses with Potter's and VATER syndrome, multiple congenital anomalies and conjoined

  1. US surface ozone trends and extremes from 1980 to 2014: quantifying the roles of rising Asian emissions, domestic controls, wildfires, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meiyun; Horowitz, Larry W.; Payton, Richard; Fiore, Arlene M.; Tonnesen, Gail

    2017-03-01

    US surface O3 responds to varying global-to-regional precursor emissions, climate, and extreme weather, with implications for designing effective air quality control policies. We examine these conjoined processes with observations and global chemistry-climate model (GFDL-AM3) hindcasts over 1980-2014. The model captures the salient features of observed trends in daily maximum 8 h average O3: (1) increases over East Asia (up to 2 ppb yr-1), (2) springtime increases at western US (WUS) rural sites (0.2-0.5 ppb yr-1) with a baseline sampling approach, and (3) summertime decreases, largest at the 95th percentile, and wintertime increases in the 50th to 5th percentiles over the eastern US (EUS). Asian NOx emissions have tripled since 1990, contributing as much as 65 % to modeled springtime background O3 increases (0.3-0.5 ppb yr-1) over the WUS, outpacing O3 decreases attained via 50 % US NOx emission controls. Methane increases over this period contribute only 15 % of the WUS background O3 increase. Springtime O3 observed in Denver has increased at a rate similar to remote rural sites. During summer, increasing Asian emissions approximately offset the benefits of US emission reductions, leading to weak or insignificant observed O3 trends at WUS rural sites. Mean springtime WUS O3 is projected to increase by ˜ 10 ppb from 2010 to 2030 under the RCP8.5 global change scenario. While historical wildfire emissions can enhance summertime monthly mean O3 at individual sites by 2-8 ppb, high temperatures and the associated buildup of O3 produced from regional anthropogenic emissions contribute most to elevating observed summertime O3 throughout the USA. GFDL-AM3 captures the observed interannual variability of summertime EUS O3. However, O3 deposition sink to vegetation must be reduced by 35 % for the model to accurately simulate observed high-O3 anomalies during the severe drought of 1988. Regional NOx reductions alleviated the O3 buildup during the recent heat waves of 2011

  2. Modos de subjetivação na condição de aprendiz: embates atuais Forms of subjectivation among learners: current conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mendes Lima

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa processos de produção de subjetividade desenvolvidos em ações educativas dirigidas a jovens moradores de zonas periféricas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Tem como campo de inspiração os trabalhos desenvolvidos por uma importante organização não-governamental, numa experiência profissionalizante voltada para a formação artístico-cultural que conjuga elementos de música, teatro e circo. Busca-se aqui compreender, a partir da articulação dos elementos saúde, trabalho e arte, os diferentes sentidos expressos na condição de aprendiz, tomando por empréstimo a acepção grega de "um aprendiz experimentador de si". Essa acepção lança o jovem para além das significações dominantes, que toma o aprendizado como um leque de possibilidades a serem continuamente inventadas. Nesse percurso, dá-se visibilidade a uma experiência que enfrenta e cria alternativas aos embates vividos por uma juventude periférica frente aos modos de vida vigentes, que tendem a formatar sobremaneira o corpo e a condição de aprendiz. Esses embates e formatações, em nosso estudo, materializam pólos não excludentes da arte: como produto para o mercado e como processo de transformação de modos de vida.Taking its inspiration from work conducted by an important nongovernmental organization, the article analyzes the processes by which subjectivity is produced during educational activities. This particular professionalizing experience, offered to youth on Rio de Janeiro's urban periphery, involves artistic-cultural training that conjoins elements from music, theater, and circus. In an endeavor to understand the different meanings expressed in the status of learner, the present study explores health, work, and art, borrowing from the Greek notion of 'leaner of oneself', a notion that takes these youth beyond predominant significances and turns apprenticeship into a broad range of possibilities that are continually being invented. The

  3. Local fibroblast proliferation but not influx is responsible for synovial hyperplasia in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Fumitaka; Saito, Tetsuya [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Kawahata, Kimito [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Department of Molecular Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Inagaki, Yutaka [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Center for Matrix Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and the Institute of Medical Sciences, Tokai University, 143 Shimo-kasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193 (Japan); Miyasaka, Nobuyuki [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Kohsaka, Hitoshi, E-mail: kohsaka.rheu@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan)

    2016-02-12

    Synovial fibroblasts play crucial roles in inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). How they accumulate in the RA joints remains unclear. This study was conducted to discern whether cellular influx from the outside of the joints and local proliferation are responsible for synovial fibroblast accumulation in an animal model of RA. We found that synovial fibroblasts were identified as GFP+ cells using collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2)-GFP transgenic reporter mice. Then, bone marrow transplantation and parabiosis techniques were utilized to study the cellular influx. Irradiated wild-type mice were transplanted with bone marrow from Col1a2-GFP mice. Col1a2-GFP and wild-type mice were conjoined for parabiosis. The transplanted mice and the parabionts were subjected to collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). We found no GFP+ cells in the hyperplastic synovial tissues from the transplanted mice with CAIA and from the wild-type parabionts with CAIA. Furthermore, normal and CAIA synovial tissues from Col1a2-GFP mice and from fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) transgenic mice, in which cells in S/G{sub 2}/M phases of the cell cycle express Azami-Green, were studied for Ki67, a cellular proliferation marker, and vimentin, a fibroblast marker, expression. The percentages of Ki67+/GFP+ and Azami-Green+/vimentin+ cells in the CAIA synovial tissues were higher than those in the untreated synovial tissues (34% vs. 0.40% and 19% vs. 0.26%, respectively). These findings indicate that local fibroblast proliferation but not cellular influx is responsible for the synovial hyperplasia in CAIA. Suppression of proliferation of the local synovial fibroblasts should be a promising treatment for RA. - Highlights: • We studied how synovial fibroblasts accumulate in joints in a murine model of RA. • Bone marrow-derived cells did not accumulate in arthritic joints. • Synovial fibroblasts did not accumulate in arthritic joints via

  4. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  5. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley O.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 × 10"5 m"3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 × 10"4 m"3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a six-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land

  6. Little Cross-Feeding of the Mycorrhizal Networks Shared Between C3-Panicum bisulcatum and C4-Panicum maximum Under Different Temperature Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Řezáčová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF interconnect plants of the same and/or different species, redistributing nutrients and draining carbon (C from the different plant partners at different rates. Here, we conducted a plant co-existence (intercropping experiment testing the role of AMF in resource sharing and exploitation by simplified plant communities composed of two congeneric grass species (Panicum spp. with different photosynthetic metabolism types (C3 or C4. The grasses had spatially separated rooting zones, conjoined through a root-free (but AMF-accessible zone added with 15N-labeled plant (clover residues. The plants were grown under two different temperature regimes: high temperature (36/32°C day/night or ambient temperature (25/21°C day/night applied over 49 days after an initial period of 26 days at ambient temperature. We made use of the distinct C-isotopic composition of the two plant species sharing the same CMN (composed of a synthetic AMF community of five fungal genera to estimate if the CMN was or was not fed preferentially under the specific environmental conditions by one or the other plant species. Using the C-isotopic composition of AMF-specific fatty acid (C16:1ω5 in roots and in the potting substrate harboring the extraradical AMF hyphae, we found that the C3-Panicum continued feeding the CMN at both temperatures with a significant and invariable share of C resources. This was surprising because the growth of the C3 plants was more susceptible to high temperature than that of the C4 plants and the C3-Panicum alone suppressed abundance of the AMF (particularly Funneliformis sp. in its roots due to the elevated temperature. Moreover, elevated temperature induced a shift in competition for nitrogen between the two plant species in favor of the C4-Panicum, as demonstrated by significantly lower 15N yields of the C3-Panicum but higher 15N yields of the C4-Panicum at elevated as

  7. The divergence between the virus and cellular oxidative stress as separate environmental agents that trigger autoimmunity originates from their different procedural mechanisms of activating the same molecular entity: the transcription factor NF-kappa B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert O. Temajo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To happen, autoimmunity in man requires triggering by environmental factors: the viruses and cellular stress, in genetically primed individuals. The viruses and stress are operatives in this scene as stimuli for the activation of the transcription factor (TF, NF-ΚB. NF-ΚB is unusually activated: the viral activation occurs via serine residues-phosphorylation by IKKβ and IKKε, while the activation by oxidative stress occurs via tyrosine phosphorylation of IΚBα. The phosphorylation of particular amino acid residues of a given protein molecule modulates that protein’s polymorphic conformations, appropriately. For a TF, a given conformation influences its choice of cognate DNA sequence recognition as well as its interactions with neighboring molecules. The TF NF-ΚB performs a battery of regulatory functions. Because it is variously phosphorylated as seen above this implies that NF-ΚB is capable of assuming a multitude of polymorphic conformations that we refer to as “derivative isoforms”. Thus the virus activation of NF-ΚB occurring by phosphorylation at serines S536 and S468 is observed to generate the isoforms with the potential to activate the transcription of viral latency genes, hereby installing a latent infection. But oxidative stress activation of NF-ΚB occurs via phosphorylation of Tyr42 of IΚBα and this yields isoforms that activate the transcription of replication and transcription activator (RTA, the master lytic switch, which thereby abrogates the latency. The steps involved are that the stress-activated NF-ΚB and the viral miRNAs conjoin in a regulatory circuitry identified as feedback and feed-forward network motifs that co-accomplish the switching on of RTA which in turn activates the transcription of the immediate early genes BZLF1 and BRLF1. These two latter genes together mobilize the expression of the set of lytic genes, resulting in a lytic cascade and consequentially set in trend the viral journey to the

  8. Homeostatic Control of the Thyroid–Pituitary Axis: Perspectives for Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E. M.; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2015-01-01

    back to a supporting role that is more representative of its conditional interplay with peripheral thyroid hormones. This reopens the debate on the measurement of free thyroid hormones and encourages the identification of suitable biomarkers. Homeostatic principles conjoin all thyroid parameters into an adaptive context, demanding a more flexible interpretation in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:26635726

  9. Fluorescent fusion proteins of soluble guanylyl cyclase indicate proximity of the heme nitric oxide domain and catalytic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Haase

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the structural organisation of heterodimeric soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET was measured between fluorescent proteins fused to the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of the sGC beta1 and alpha subunits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was used as FRET donor and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP as FRET acceptor. After generation of recombinant baculovirus, fluorescent-tagged sGC subunits were co-expressed in Sf9 cells. Fluorescent variants of sGC were analyzed in vitro in cytosolic fractions by sensitized emission FRET. Co-expression of the amino-terminally tagged alpha subunits with the carboxy-terminally tagged beta1 subunit resulted in an enzyme complex that showed a FRET efficiency of 10% similar to fluorescent proteins separated by a helix of only 48 amino acids. Because these findings indicated that the amino-terminus of the alpha subunits is close to the carboxy-terminus of the beta1 subunit we constructed fusion proteins where both subunits are connected by a fluorescent protein. The resulting constructs were not only fluorescent, they also showed preserved enzyme activity and regulation by NO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the ability of an amino-terminal fragment of the beta1 subunit to inhibit activity of an heterodimer consisting only of the catalytic domains (alphacatbetacat, Winger and Marletta (Biochemistry 2005, 44:4083-90 have proposed a direct interaction of the amino-terminal region of beta1 with the catalytic domains. In support of such a concept of "trans" regulation of sGC activity by the H-NOX domains our results indicate that the domains within sGC are organized in a way that allows for direct interaction of the amino-terminal regulatory domains with the carboxy-terminal catalytic region. In addition, we constructed "fluorescent-conjoined" sGC's by fusion of the alpha amino-terminus to the beta1 carboxy-terminus leading to a

  10. [Reconstruction of ankle and foot with combination of free perforator flaps and skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lu; Gong, Ketong; Yin, Zhonggang; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of free perforator flaps combined with skin graft for reconstruction of ankle and foot soft tissue defects. Between June 2014 and October 2015, 20 cases of ankle and foot soft tissue defects were treated. There were 16 males and 4 females, aged from 19 to 61 years (mean, 43.3 years). Injury was caused by traffic accident in 7 cases, by crashing in 9 cases, and machine twist in 4 cases. The locations were the ankle in 6 cases, the heel in 3 cases, the dorsum pedis in 4 cases, and the plantar forefoot in 7 cases of avulsion injury after toes amputation. The size of wound ranged from 15 cm×10 cm to 27 cm×18 cm. The time from injury to treatment was from 11 to 52 days (mean, 27 days). The anterolateral thigh perforator flap was used in 11 cases, thoracodorsal antery perforator flap in 3 cases, medial sural artery perforator flap in 4 cases, deep inferior epigastric perforator flap in 1 case, and anteromedial thigh perforator flap in 1 case, including 5 chimeric perforator flaps, 5 polyfoliate perforator flaps, 3 flow-through perforator flaps, and 3 conjoined perforator flaps. The size of the perforator flap ranged from 10.0 cm×6.5 cm to 36.0 cm×8.0 cm, the size of skin graft from 5 cm×3 cm to 18 cm×12 cm. Venous crisis occurred in 2 flaps which survived after symptomatic treatment; 18 flaps survived successfully and skin grafting healed well. The follow-up time ranged 4-18 months (mean, 8.3 months). The flaps had good appearance, texture and color, without infection. The patients could walk normally and do daily activities. Only linear scars were observed at the donor sites. Free perforator flap can be used to reconstruct defects in the ankle and foot, especially in the weight-bearing area of the plantar forefoot. A combination of free perforator flap and skin graft is ideal in reconstruction of great soft tissue defects in the ankle and foot.

  11. Structure and function of the tricuspid and bicuspid regurgitant aortic valve: an echocardiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnerfalk, Mattias; Tamás, Éva

    2015-07-01

    The emerging new treatment options for aortic valve disease call for more sophisticated diagnostics. We aimed to describe the echocardiographic pathophysiology and characteristics of the purely regurgitant aortic valve in detail. Twenty-nine men, with chronic aortic regurgitation without concomitant heart disease referred for aortic valve intervention, underwent 2D transoesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) examination prior to surgery according to a previously published matrix. Measurements of the aortic valve apparatus in long and short axis view were made in systole and diastole and analysed off-line. The aortic valves were grouped as tricuspid (TAV) or bicuspid (BAV), and classified by regurgitation mechanism. Twenty-four examinations were eligible for analysis of which 13 presented TAV and 11 BAV. The regurgitation mechanism was classified as dilatation of the aorta in 6 cases, as prolapse in 11 cases and as poor cusp tissue quality or quantity in 7 cases. The ventriculo-aortic junction (VAJ) and valve opening were closely related (TAV r = 0.5, BAV r = 0.73) but no correlation was found between the VAJ and the maximal sinus diameter (maxSiD) or the sinotubular junction (STJ). However, the STJ and maxSiD were significantly related (TAV vs BAV: systole r = 0.9, r = 0.8; diastole r = 0.9, r = 0.7), forming an entity. The conjoined BAV cusps were shorter than the anterior cusps when closed (P = 0.002); the inter-commissural distances of the cusps in the BAV group were significantly different (P = 0.001 resp. 0.03) in both systole and diastole. The VAJ was independent of other aortic dimensions and should thereby be considered as a separate entity with influence on valve opening. The detailed 2D TEE measurements of this study add further important information to our knowledge about the function and echocardiographic anatomy of the pathological aortic valve and root either as a stand-alone examination or as a benchmark and complement to 3D echocardiography. This may

  12. 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocyte, 99mTc-labeled antigranulocyte antibody and 67Ga scintigraphy in the evaluation of painful hip and knee prosthetic replacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.; Pereira, L.; Joao, F.; Lima, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To evaluate the utility of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocyte, 99mTc-labeled anti-granulocyte antibody and 67Ga scintigraphy in patients suspected to have infected hip and knee replacements, from March/1998 to March/ 2002. Methods: Retrospective study of 33 patients (12 male, 21 female) with an average age of 61,1 ± 7,3 years. Nineteen had hip replacements and 14 were submitted to knee replacements. 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocyte scintigraphy was performed in 17 patients, 99mTc-labeled anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy in 13 patients and 67Ga scintigraphy in 3 patients. Twenty-six patients were also submitted to 3-phase 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Results were compared to those from studies with infection/inflammation agents. Concordant positive studies were considered to be a positive result for infection. A second study using 67Ga was also performed in 3 patients. Results: Diagnosis was based on surgical findings in 14 patients, pathologic study of biopsy specimen in 1 case and clinical/ imaging follow-up in 18 patients. Infection was detected in 22 cases and absent in 11. The conjoined evaluation of scintigraphic studies considered infection to be present in 20 cases and absent in 13. With infection/inflammation agents, 20 cases were positive (+) and 13 cases were negative (-). Using 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocytes, 12 cases were (+) and 5 cases were (-). With 99mTc-labeled anti-granulocyte antibodies, 8 cases were (+) and 5 were (-). With 67Ga, all 3 cases were (-). In patients with (+) studies using infection/ inflammation agents, a false positive case with 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocytes was reported. Two false negative cases were detected, both with 99mTc-labeled antigranulocyte antibodies, in patients with (-) studies. Regarding the studies with 99mTc-MDP, 24 were (+) and 2 were (-). Eighteen of these (+) cases were also (+) in studies with infection/inflammation agents, but 6 were (-) with these agents. Negative cases were also (-) in

  13. The electronic structure of vanadium monochloride cation (VCl{sup +}): Tackling the complexities of transition metal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeYonker, Nathan J., E-mail: ndyonker@memphis.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Halfen, DeWayne T.; Ziurys, Lucy M. [Department of Chemistry, Department of Astronomy, Arizona Radio Observatory, and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Allen, Wesley D. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Computational Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Six electronic states (X {sup 4}Σ{sup −}, A {sup 4}Π, B {sup 4}Δ, {sup 2}Φ, {sup 2}Δ, {sup 2}Σ{sup +}) of the vanadium monochloride cation (VCl{sup +}) are described using large basis set coupled cluster theory. For the two lowest quartet states (X {sup 4}Σ{sup −} and A {sup 4}Π), a focal point analysis (FPA) approach was used that conjoined a correlation-consistent family of basis sets up to aug-cc-pwCV5Z-DK with high-order coupled cluster theory through pentuple (CCSDTQP) excitations. FPA adiabatic excitation energies (T{sub 0}) and spectroscopic constants (r{sub e}, r{sub 0}, B{sub e}, B{sub 0}, D{sup ¯}{sub e}, H{sub e}, ω{sub e}, v{sub 0}, α{sub e}, ω{sub e}x{sub e}) were extrapolated to the valence complete basis set Douglas-Kroll (DK) aug-cc-pV∞Z-DK CCSDT level of theory, and additional treatments accounted for higher-order valence electron correlation, core correlation, and spin-orbit coupling. Due to the delicate interplay between dynamical and static electronic correlation, single reference coupled cluster theory is able to provide the correct ground electronic state (X {sup 4}Σ{sup −}), while multireference configuration interaction theory cannot. Perturbations from the first- and second-order spin orbit coupling of low-lying states with quartet spin multiplicity reveal an immensely complex rotational spectrum relative to the isovalent species VO, VS, and TiCl. Computational data on the doublet manifold suggest that the lowest-lying doublet state ({sup 2}Γ) has a T{sub e} of ∼11 200 cm{sup −1}. Overall, this study shows that laboratory and theoretical rotational spectroscopists must work more closely in tandem to better understand the bonding and structure of molecules containing transition metals.

  14. Comparison of CLASS and ITK-SNAP in segmentation of urinary bladder in CT urography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a computerized method for bladder segmentation in CT urography (CTU) for computeraided diagnosis of bladder cancer. We have developed a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) consisting of four stages: preprocessing and initial segmentation, 3D and 2D level set segmentation, and post-processing. In case the bladder contains regions filled with intravenous (IV) contrast and without contrast, CLASS segments the noncontrast (NC) region and the contrast (C) filled region separately and conjoins the contours. In this study, we compared the performance of CLASS to ITK-SNAP 2.4, which is a publicly available software application for segmentation of structures in 3D medical images. ITK-SNAP performs segmentation by using the edge-based level set on preprocessed images. The level set were initialized by manually placing a sphere at the boundary between the C and NC parts of the bladders with C and NC regions, and in the middle of the bladders that had only C or NC region. Level set parameters and the number of iterations were chosen after experimentation with bladder cases. Segmentation performances were compared using 30 randomly selected bladders. 3D hand-segmented contours were obtained as reference standard, and computerized segmentation accuracy was evaluated in terms of the average volume intersection %, average % volume error, average absolute % volume error, average minimum distance, and average Jaccard index. For CLASS, the values for these performance metrics were 79.0±8.2%, 16.1±16.3%, 19.9±11.1%, 3.5±1.3 mm, 75.7±8.4%, respectively. For ITK-SNAP, the corresponding values were 78.8±8.2%, 8.3±33.1%, 24.2±23.7%, 5.2±2.6 mm, 71.0±15.4%, respectively. CLASS on average performed better and exhibited less variations than ITK-SNAP for bladder segmentation.

  15. Light-seeds within: The alchemy of re-finding light in the world soul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Stacy Lynn

    The light of the Anima Mundi has been repressed for over two thousand years. From a feminine in-sighting, this dissertation considers the reasons for the World Soul's repression and how her light can be renewed. The division of body and mind, image and word, physicality and spirituality, as well as nature and science has been costly, though this time of crisis also holds great opportunity to change perspective and live differently. The art of alchemy contains the secrets to transform elements in opposition into those in relationship in order to give birth to something new. Where feminine and masculine have been divorced and divided, the 'Royal Art' of alchemy seeks to renew soul in the world as an experience of life's interconnectivity and as a sacred marriage of matter and spirit. Through the four elements and three alchemical stages, this journey articulates the amorphous unconscious to evolve the light within the body of the microcosm and the macrocosm. The study's phenomenological perspective merges creative imagination with experiential gnosis in an exploration of the rich tapestry and mystery of an esoteric tradition. Through dream tending and active imagination, one connects to the subtle body, the imaginal world, and mythological regions with archetypal energies where elemental symbols are seeds. When cultivated and tended, these seeds grow into embodied feelings, visceral happenings. These experiential moments contain the revelations necessary for personal and global transmutation. Alchemy's tenet of 'as above, so below' holds a simple truth. When an individual works on her light, the Anima Mundi's light grows brighter. The alchemical process awakens love as the animating essence, the divine spark within the heart of all life---the gold in every atom of creation. Where matter and spirit conjoin, the hierosgamos reveals life's divine nature as an intimate dance and a web of interconnectivity. When lived for the sake of the whole and seen with the eyes of an

  16. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 x 105 m3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 x 104 m3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a seven-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land-use/land-cover change and

  17. Understanding Pediatric Dentists' Dental Caries Management Treatment Decisions: A Conjoint Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateeb, E T; Warren, J J; Gaeth, G J; Momany, E T; Damiano, P C

    2016-04-01

    restorative treatment option (Atraumatic Restorative Treatment in this application) when forced to make tradeoffs in a "conjoined," or holistic, context among different factors presented in real-life patient scenarios. A deeper understanding of dentists' treatment decisions is vital to develop valid practice guidelines and interventions that encourage the use of appropriate restorative treatment modalities.

  18. Surgical anatomy and histology of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle for blepharoptosis correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Boban; Novaković, Marijan; Milisavljević, Milan; Milićević, Sasa; Maliković, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    The detailed knowledge of the architecture of the upper eyelid is very important in numerous upper eyelid corrective surgeries. The article deals with the detailed anatomy of the major components of the upper lid, which are commonly seen in surgical practice. This study was conducted on 19 human cadavers (12 adults and 7 infants) without pathologic changes in the orbital region and eyelids. Anatomic microdissection of the contents of the orbita was performed bilaterally on 12 orbits from 6 unfixed cadavers (3 male and 3 female). Micromorphologic investigations of the orbital tissue were performed on 8 en bloc excised and formalin-fixed orbits of infant cadavers. Specimens were fixed according to the Duvernoy method. An intra-arterial injection of 5% mixture of melt formalin and black ink was administered into the carotid arterial system. Using routine fixation, decalcination, dehydration, illumination, impregnation and molding procedures in paraplast, specimens were prepared for cross-sections. The measurement of the muscle length and diameter in situ in 6 nonfixed cadavers (12 orbits) showed an average length of the levator palpbrae superioris (LPS) muscle body of the 42.0 +/- 1.41 mm on the right, and 40.3 +/- 1.63 mm on the left side. In all the cases, the LPS had blood supply from 4 different arterial systems: the lacrimal, supratrochlear, and supraorbital artery and muscle branches of the ophthalmic artery. The LPS muscle in all the specimens was supplied by the superior medial branch of the oculomotor nerve. The connective tissue associated with the LPS muscle contains two transverse ligaments: the superior (Whitnall's) and intermuscular transverse ligaments (ITL). The orbital septum in all the specimens originated from the arcus marginalis of the frontal bone, and consisted of two layers--the superficial and the inner layer. In addition, a detailed histological analysis revealed that the upper eyelid's crease was formed by the conjoined fascia including the

  19. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-08-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  20. The Role of Faculty in Connecting Canadian Undergraduate Arts and Humanities Students to Scholarly Inquiries into Teaching: A Case for Purposeful Experiential Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny R. Ratsoy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, various sectors of Canadian universities are advocating an assortment of beyond-the-classroom learning models – from research assistantships through service learning and cooperative education placements. At the same time, faculty who engage in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL and related inquiries into teaching and learning are striving to shift attention on their activities from the periphery to a more central position within campus culture – a particular challenge for Arts and Humanities professors, who may find themselves marginalized within SoTL. This article focuses attention on the intersections of experiential learning and SoTL and SoTL-related activity. Students have much to benefit from, and offer to, these activities – beyond their usual role as subjects of studies. I present a framework based on examples from research and my own experiences – with a focus on undergraduate Arts students, who, arguably, have the fewest opportunities for Experiential Learning in general – that illustrates varying degrees of involvement. As Arts faculty attempt to enhance and highlight inquiries into teaching and learning, they would be wise to conjoin them with experiential learning by including students in the process and product. Divers secteurs des universités canadiennes conseillent de plus en plus un assortiment de modèles d’apprentissage hors de la salle de classe – que ce soit par le biais de postes d’assistants à la recherche, de l’apprentissage par le service ou de stages dans le cadre de l’enseignement coopératif. En même temps, les professeurs qui sont actifs dans l’Avancement des connaissances en enseignement et en apprentissage (ACEA et dans des domaines connexes liés à l’enseignement et à l’apprentissage s’efforcent d’attirer l’attention sur leurs activités pour les faire passer de la périphérie à une position plus centrale sur les campus – ce qui s’avère être un

  1. CT urography: segmentation of urinary bladder using CLASS with local contour refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M; Cohan, Richard H; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CT urography (CTU), as a critical component for computer-aided detection of bladder cancer. The presence of regions filled with intravenous contrast and without contrast presents a challenge for bladder segmentation. Previously, we proposed a conjoint level set analysis and segmentation system (CLASS). In case the bladder is partially filled with contrast, CLASS segments the non-contrast (NC) region and the contrast-filled (C) region separately and automatically conjoins the NC and C region contours; however, inaccuracies in the NC and C region contours may cause the conjoint contour to exclude portions of the bladder. To alleviate this problem, we implemented a local contour refinement (LCR) method that exploits model-guided refinement (MGR) and energy-driven wavefront propagation (EDWP). MGR propagates the C region contours if the level set propagation in the C region stops prematurely due to substantial non-uniformity of the contrast. EDWP with regularized energies further propagates the conjoint contours to the correct bladder boundary. EDWP uses changes in energies, smoothness criteria of the contour, and previous slice contour to determine when to stop the propagation, following decision rules derived from training. A data set of 173 cases was collected for this study: 81 cases in the training set (42 lesions, 21 wall thickenings, 18 normal bladders) and 92 cases in the test set (43 lesions, 36 wall thickenings, 13 normal bladders). For all cases, 3D hand segmented contours were obtained as reference standard and used for the evaluation of the computerized segmentation accuracy. For CLASS with LCR, the average volume intersection ratio, average volume error, absolute average volume error, average minimum distance and Jaccard index were 84.2 ± 11.4%, 8.2 ± 17.4%, 13.0 ± 14.1%, 3.5 ± 1.9 mm, 78.8 ± 11.6%, respectively, for the training set and 78.0 ± 14.7%, 16.4 ± 16.9%, 18.2 ± 15

  2. Clinical and Anatomic Predictors of Outcomes After the Latarjet Procedure for the Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability With Combined Glenoid and Humeral Bone Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, William R; Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A; Horan, Marilee P; Dornan, Grant J; Millett, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    The Latarjet procedure for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability is highly successful, but reasons for failure are often unclear. Measurements of the "glenoid track" have not previously been evaluated as potential predictors of postoperative stability. There are clinical and anatomic characteristics, including the glenoid track, that are predictive of outcomes after the Latarjet procedure. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients who underwent the Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability with glenoid bone loss before October 2012 were assessed for eligibility. Patient-reported subjective data that were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed included demographic information, patient satisfaction, pain measured on a visual analog scale (VAS), questions regarding instability, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) scores, and Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS) scores. Anatomic measurements were performed of the coracoid size (surface area and width), width of the conjoined tendon and subscapularis tendon, estimated glenoid defect surface area, Hill-Sachs interval (HSI), and projected postoperative glenoid track engagement. Failure was defined as the necessity for revision stabilization or continued instability (dislocation or subjective subluxation) at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. A total of 38 shoulders in 38 patients (33 men, 5 women) with a mean age of 26 years (range, 16-43 years) were included. The mean follow-up for 35 of 38 patients (92%) was 3.2 years (range, 2.0-7.9 years); 25 of 38 had undergone prior stabilization surgery, and 6 had workers' compensation claims. All mean subjective outcome scores significantly improved (P instability. Patients with moderate or higher preoperative pain scores (VAS ≥3) had a negative correlation with postoperative SF-12 PCS

  3. Evaporation-precipitation variability over Indian Ocean and its assessment in NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFSv2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Samir; Parekh, Anant; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Dhakate, Ashish; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Rahaman, Hasibur [Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad (India); Gairola, Rakesh Mohan [Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad (India)

    2012-11-15

    simulation comply the distinct feature of the observed mean annual cycle of evaporation and precipitation, but with the additive systematic bias over most of the region. El Nino and negative Indian Ocean Dipole (NIOD) seems to have much better control over the interannual variability of evaporation in the CFS simulation, contrary to the observation where El Nino and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (PIOD) has the larger say. Both El Nino and PIOD (La Nina and NIOD) have the negative (positive) influence on the basin wide evaporation with the exception over a limited region and this relation holds for the twain. The seasonal (JJA and SON) locking of El Nino and PIOD to evaporation and precipitation is displayed by the north-south and east-west asymmetric correlation pattern respectively and this is much perspicuous in the observation as compared to the CFS. The conjoined influence of El Nino and PIOD on evaporation (precipitation) reveals the dominance of PIOD (PIOD + El Nino) response in case of both the observation as well as the CFS. This study will lead a way forward to rectify the ubiquitous cold SST bias in the CFS simulation and help in establishing the credibility of the CFS in terms of seasonal predictability. (orig.)

  4. Fístula Arteriovenosa após Nefrectomia Radical: A Propósito de um Caso Clínico Arteriovenous fistula after Radical Nephrectomy:: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Duarte

    2011-09-01

    renal failure (CRF on hemodialysis, sent to a Urology consultation because of a solid nodule in the right kidney, suggestive of malignancy, found by MRI. He underwent radical nephrectomy and conjoined ligation of the renal pedicle, without surgical complications. Four months later, fluid overload symptoms appeared, difficult to control with dialysis, associated with a continuous right abdominal flank murmur. Eco-Doppler and Angiographic studies showed a fistula between the renal artery and the inferior vena cava. He underwent embolization of the AVF with coils, and migration of the coils into the pulmonary artery occured. The collection of these was performed immediately, and without complications, with basket. Subsequently, the patient was subjected to a laparotomy with simple ligation of the proximal aortic renal artery, with stabilization and resolution of clinical status. Regarding this case the authors discuss the diagnostic approach and therapeutic hierarchy of renal-IVC arteriovenous fistula, in direct and endovascular surgery.

  5. Figuring Reconciliation: Dancing With the Enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S. Sutton

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about fi guring “argument as dance” and one way of conceiving how to live or embody argument as such. Concretely, it displays “argument as war” alongside a road in Mississippi after a white man shoots down James Meredith as he asserts his legal right to vote. And it tells “how to” perceive the shooting as dance by turning fi rstly to the performance of dance fi gured in the beginnings of rhetoric and then secondly, setting forth demystifi ed methods and strategies of body-speech fi guring argument as dance, rather than as war, through performances of Nelson Mandela. More generally, it explores a new meaning or experience of rhetoric by explicitly conjoining two historical times, two geographies, two speakers, enemies and dancers, that are inextricably interconnected. Using a combination of description and analysis, the fi rst is a full display of three photographs picturing argument as war. The whole picture serves as a descriptive compass or guide for making our way analytically through argument as war and into dance language and behavior and their interconnections to argument. The second is a retrospective discussion of the background, dancing/argumentative practices, what is called “blinking on the behalf of the enemy,” of Nelson Mandela. Overall, the strategy of reticulating political times, chronology and political spaces, geography on the one hand, and argument as war and argument as dance on the other hand is to reconcile confl icting measures and to produce a performance practice (of rhetoric of which there is no canon. Cet article représente «l’argumentation comme danse» et présente une façon de concevoir comment éprouver et discerner ainsi l’argumentation. Concrètement, il fait voir «l’argumentation comme guerre» le long d’une route au Mississippi après qu’un homme blanc ait tiré James Meredith alors que ce dernier affi rmait son droit légal de vote. Et il relate «comment» percevoir

  6. Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey, 1904-1905

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Charles D.

    1905-01-01

    IntroductionRemarks on the work of the yearBranches of workThe United States Geological Survey was created in 1879 for the purpose—as its name implies—of examining and reporting on the geologic structure and mineral resources and products of the national domain. To the adequate description of geologic formations and structure cartography is essential, and Congress early recognized this fact by making appropriations for the preparation of a geologic map of the United States. The topographic base map, in order to show with sufficient precision the relations of the geologic formations and the intricacies of the structure, must have a rather large scale and present considerable detail. No such map of this country existed in 1879, and its preparation was immediately begun. The waters of the country are of vast importance, and in a broad sense may be regarded as one of its greatest mineral resources. Hence, in the evolution of the work of the Survey, and especially in view of the great importance of the subject to the irrigation interests, Congress early began making appropriations for ascertaining the amount and quality of the surface and underground waters and when, in 1902, the service for the reclamation of arid lands was organized, that work naturally was placed in the hands of the Secretary of the Interior and by him intrusted to the Director of the Survey.The three great branches of work carried on by the Geological Survey are, therefore, the geologic, the topographic, and the hydrographic, and with these, more especially the latter, is conjoined the Reclamation Service ; publication and administration constitute necessary auxiliary branches. Along these great lines the work of the Survey has progressed without essential variation for many years. The changes made have been due to normal expansion rather than to radical departure in object or plan.State cooperationDuring the last fiscal year, State cooperation, as explained in previous reports, continued