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Sample records for diazo dye reactive

  1. Biodegradation pathway and detoxification of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatizamir, Naeimeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana; Yakhchali, Bagher; Alikhani, Hossein A; Mohammadi, Leila

    2011-11-01

    The in vivo biodegradation of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised on cubes of nylon sponge and on sunflower-seed shells (SS) in laboratory-scale bioreactors was investigated. The SS cultivation led to the best results with a decolouration percentage of 90.3% in 72 h for an initial RB5 concentration of 100 mg/L. It was found that the addition of 0.4 mM veratryl alcohol (VA) into the medium considerably increased the decolouration rate in SS cultivation. However, the addition of VA had no effect in the nylon cultivation. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that RB5 was transformed into one metabolite after 24 h. UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) also confirmed the biodegradation of RB5. Toxicity of RB5 solutions before and after fungal treatment was assayed using Sinorhizobium meliloti as a sensitive soil microorganism. P. chrysosporium transformed the toxic dye RB5 into a non-toxic product.

  2. Simultaneous production of laccase and decolouration of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 in a fixed-bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enayatzamir, Kheirghadam [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alikhani, Hossein A. [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rodriguez Couto, Susana [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: susana.rodriguez@urv.cat

    2009-05-15

    In this paper the production of laccase and the decolouration of the recalcitrant diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens immobilised on stainless steel sponges in a fixed-bed reactor were studied. Laccase production was increased by 10-fold in the presence of RB5 and reached a maximum value of 1025 U/l. Enhanced laccase production in the presence of RB5 in this fungus is an added advantage during biodegradation of RB5-containing effluents. The decolouration of RB5 was due to two processes: dye adsorption onto the fungal mycelium and dye degradation by the laccase enzymes produced by the fungus. RB5 decolouration was performed during four successive batches obtaining high decolouration percentages (74%, 43% and 52% in 24 h for the first, third and four batch, respectively) without addition of redox mediators. Also, the in vitro decolouration of RB5 by the concentrated culture extract, containing mainly laccase, produced in the above bioreactor was studied. The decolouration percentages obtained were considerably lower (around 20% in 24 h) than that attained with the whole culture.

  3. Solar photocatalytic degradation of mono azo methyl orange and diazo reactive green 19 in single and binary dye solutions: adsorbability vs photodegradation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Soon-An; Min, Ohm-Mar; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of adsorbability and number of sulfonate group on solar photocatalytic degradation of mono azo methyl orange (MO) and diazo Reactive Green 19 (RG19) in single and binary dye solutions. The adsorption capacity of MO and RG19 onto the TiO₂ was 16.9 and 26.8 mg/g, respectively, in single dye solution, and reduced to 5.0 and 23.1 mg/g, respectively, in the binary dye solution. The data obtained for photocatalytic degradation of MO and RG19 in single and binary dye solution were well fitted with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of diazo RG19 were significant higher than the mono azo MO either in single or binary dye solutions. The higher number of sulfonate group in RG19 contributed to better adsorption capacity onto the surface of TiO₂ than MO indicating greater photocatalytic degradation rate.

  4. Algal decolorization and degradation of monoazo and diazo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanan Hafez

    2008-05-15

    This study is to inspect how the variation of molecular structures and functional groups present in our models, monoazo dye (Tartrazine) and diazo dye (Ponceau), affects decolorization capabilities of green algae, cyanobacteria and diatoms. The results revealed that the removal of azo dyes was rapid at the initial period of study (3 days) and became slowly with the time (6 days). The maximum decolorization was observed at 5 ppm Tartrazine with S. bijugatus (68%) and N. muscourm after 6 days incubation. The reduction of color removal appears to be related to the molecular structure of the dyes and species of algae used. The culture of the diatom Nitzschia perminuta was completely died after 2 days of incubation. Azo reductase of algae, which is responsible for degradation of azo dyes into aromatic amine by breaking the azo linkage, was estimated. IR spectra represented a new peak at 3300 cm(-1) and a reduction in the azo band at 1642-1631 cm(-1). In order to investigate the sorption behavior of algae, Langmuir equilibrium model was tested.

  5. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility.

  6. Investigation of nonionic diazo dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farzana Ahmad; Muhammad Jamil; Young Jae Jeon; Lee Jin Woo; Jae Eun Jung; Jae Eun Jang

    2012-04-01

    Sudan black B (SBB) was used to investigate as the nonionic diazo dye-doped in polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) display, by polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) method. The maximum absorbance, contrast ratio, dichroic ratio and the order parameter of nonionic diazo dye in nemetic host (TL203) were investigated using UV–Vis polarized spectroscopy. The orientation of the dye molecules was controlled by electric field, which enabled the contrast ratio of the dye to be obtained by electrically switching. The change occurring on droplet morphologies and electro-optical properties of PDLC film with the change in contents of Sudan black dye and liquid crystals (LC) contents was investigated. We found an increase in LC droplet sizes with the increase of diazo dye and LC contents. Moreover the addition of small amount of nonionic diazo dye reduced the threshold voltage (Vth), increased off-state transmittance, enhanced the contrast ratio and decreased the response time of dye-doped PDLC. Additionally the change in transition temperature of LC and changes in LC droplet morphologies with the addition of dye were also observed. Such changes were observed with the images taken by polarized optical microscope (POM). The detail discussions on such behaviours were also made.

  7. Enzymatic decolorization of anthraquinone and diazo dyes using horseradish peroxidase enzyme immobilized onto various polysulfone supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mithat; Kaya, Mehmet Arif; Altikatoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Huseyin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, covalent immobilization of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto various polysulfone supports was investigated. For this purpose, different polysulfones were methacrylated with methacryloyl chloride, and then, nonwoven fabric samples were coated by using solutions of these methacrylated polysulfones. Finally, support materials were immersed into aquatic solution of HRP enzyme for covalent immobilization. Structural analysis of enzyme immobilization onto various polysulfones was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Decolorization of textile diazo (Acid Black 1) and anthraquinone (Reactive Blue 19) dyes was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Covalently immobilized enzyme has been used seven times in freshly prepared dye solutions through 63 days. Dye decolorization performance of the immobilized systems was observed that still remained high (70%) after reusing three times. Enzyme activities of immobilized systems were determined and compared to free enzyme activity at different conditions (pH, temperature, thermal stability, storage stability). Enzyme activities of immobilized systems and free enzyme were also investigated at the different temperatures and effects of temperature and thermal resistance for different incubation time at 50 °C. In addition, storage activity of free and immobilized enzymes was determined at 4 °C at different incubation days.

  8. Preparation and characterization of zinc and cobalt (II, III) oxides mixture and direct red 23 diazo dye heterogeneous photocatalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giovanni Bóro Paschoal; Marcelo Rodrigues Da Silva; Keiko Takashima

    2015-08-01

    The decolourization of the direct red 23 diazo dye, commonly used in textile industries, was investigated through the heterogeneous photocatalysis mediated by zinc oxide, n-type semiconductor combined with p-type cobalt oxide at 30°C. The mixture of n- and p-type semiconductors may form a p–n junction, which can decrease the band gap energy and thus increase the photocatalytic activity. This work reports the preparation and characterization of cobalt oxide and oxide mixtures of Zn and Co in 1, 3 and 5% proportions, respectively, as well as their photocatalytic activity, measured by direct red 23 diazo dye decolourization rate constants. These oxides were characterized through the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. The suspension, formed from direct red 23 diazo dye solution and oxide mixtures, was kept in the dark for 1 h at 30°C for diazo dye adsorption on the oxide surface and irradiated by UV light for diazo dye decolourization. The mixture of ZnO containing, respectively, 3 and 5% cobalt oxide showed higher decolourization rate constant in comparison to ZnO.

  9. Phragmites sp. physiological changes in a constructed wetland treating an effluent contaminated with a diazo dye (DR81).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata Alexandra; Duarte, Joana Gouveia; Vergine, Pompilio; Antunes, Carlos D; Freire, Filipe; Martins-Dias, Susete

    2014-01-01

    The role of Phragmites sp. in phytoremediation of wastewaters containing azo dyes is still, in many ways, at its initial stage of investigation. This plant response to the long-term exposure to a highly conjugated di-azo dye (Direct Red 81, DR81) was assessed using a vertical flow constructed wetland, at pilot scale. A reed bed fed with water was used as control. Changes in photosynthetic pigment content in response to the plant contact with synthetic DR81 effluent highlight Phragmites plasticity. Phragmites leaf enzymatic system responded rapidly to the stress imposed; in general, within 1 day, the up-regulation of foliar reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes (especially superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peroxidase) was noticed as plants entered in contact with synthetic DR81 effluent. This prompt activation decreased the endogenous levels of H₂O₂ and the malonyldialdehyde content beyond reference values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity intensification was not enough to cope with stress imposed by DR81. GPX activity was pivotal for the detoxification pathways after a 24-h exposure. Carotenoid pool was depleted during this shock. After the imposed DR81 stress, plants were harvested. In the next vegetative cycle, Phragmites had already recovered from the chemical stress. Principal component analysis (PCA) highlights the role of GPX, GST, APX, and carotenoids along catalase (CAT) in the detoxification process.

  10. Masked rhodamine dyes of five principal colors revealed by photolysis of a 2-diazo-1-indanone caging group: synthesis, photophysics, and light microscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Vladimir N; Mitronova, Gyuzel Yu; Bossi, Mariano L; Boyarskiy, Vadim P; Hebisch, Elke; Geisler, Claudia; Kolmakov, Kirill; Wurm, Christian A; Willig, Katrin I; Hell, Stefan W

    2014-10-06

    Caged rhodamine dyes (Rhodamines NN) of five basic colors were synthesized and used as "hidden" markers in subdiffractional and conventional light microscopy. These masked fluorophores with a 2-diazo-1-indanone group can be irreversibly photoactivated, either by irradiation with UV- or violet light (one-photon process), or by exposure to intense red light (λ∼750 nm; two-photon mode). All dyes possess a very small 2-diazoketone caging group incorporated into the 2-diazo-1-indanone residue with a quaternary carbon atom (C-3) and a spiro-9H-xanthene fragment. Initially they are non-colored (pale yellow), non-fluorescent, and absorb at λ=330-350 nm (molar extinction coefficient (ε)≈10(4)  M(-1)  cm(-1)) with a band edge that extends to about λ=440 nm. The absorption and emission bands of the uncaged derivatives are tunable over a wide range (λ=511-633 and 525-653 nm, respectively). The unmasked dyes are highly colored and fluorescent (ε=3-8×10(4)  M(-1)  cm(-1) and fluorescence quantum yields (ϕ)=40-85% in the unbound state and in methanol). By stepwise and orthogonal protection of carboxylic and sulfonic acid groups a highly water-soluble caged red-emitting dye with two sulfonic acid residues was prepared. Rhodamines NN were decorated with amino-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester groups, applied in aqueous buffers, easily conjugated with proteins, and readily photoactivated (uncaged) with λ=375-420 nm light or intense red light (λ=775 nm). Protein conjugates with optimal degrees of labeling (3-6) were prepared and uncaged with λ=405 nm light in aqueous buffer solutions (ϕ=20-38%). The photochemical cleavage of the masking group generates only molecular nitrogen. Some 10-40% of the non-fluorescent (dark) byproducts are also formed. However, they have low absorbance and do not quench the fluorescence of the uncaged dyes. Photoactivation of the individual molecules of Rhodamines NN (e.g., due to reversible or irreversible

  11. Decolorization and detoxification of sulfonated toxic diazo dye C.I. Direct Red 81 by Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Madhuri M; Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Pathade, Girish R

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66 strain shows ability to decolorize various industrial dyes among which, it showed complete decolorization and degradation of toxic, sulfonated recalcitrant diazo dye Direct Red 81 (50 mg/L) within 1.5 h of incubation under static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for decolorization was 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. Significant induction in the activity of intracellular oxidoreductive enzymes suggested its involvement in the decolorization of Direct Red 81. The biodegradation of Direct Red 81 was monitored by UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC. The final products were characterized by GC-MS and possible pathway of the degradation of the dye was proposed. The phytotoxicity assay (with respect to plants Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo) revealed that the degradation of Direct Red 81 produced nontoxic metabolites. Finally E. faecalis was employed to decolorize actual industrial effluent showing decolorization (in terms of ADMI value) with moderate COD and BOD reduction. Moreover the result increases the applicability of the strain for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  12. Facile one pot synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and statistical evaluation for photocatalytic degradation of a diazo dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suvanka; Ghosh, Ananya; Kabir, Humayun; Saha, Rajnarayan

    In the present work zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) have been synthesized to estimate its photocatalytic degradation potential on an industrially used diazo dye and optimization of the total treatment process has been designed. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to model the operational parameters for this photocatalytic degradation. The crystallite size (101 plane) of the synthesized ZNR has been found to be 20.99 nm having a band gap energy of 3.45 eV. At elevated pH, the rate of degradation of the photocatalyst was found to be higher than that of acidic pH. The independent variables of the model are time (9.6-122 min), pH (2-12.2), catalyst dose (0.2-0.4 g/L) and dye concentration (88-512 mg/L). It was seen that the degradation efficiency was significantly affected by the initial dye concentration and the pH, the optimal values of the parameters being a pH of 10.67, an initial concentration of 150 mg/L and ZnO dose of 0.37 g/L, the time taken being 88.52 min. The actual degradation efficiency of the dye reached 96.9% at optimized condition, which is quite close to the predicted value of 98.07%.

  13. Comparative Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo and Diazo Dyes Under Simulated Visible Light Using Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anku, William Wilson; Oppong, Samuel Osei-Bonsu; Shukla, Sudheesh Kumar; Govender, Poomani Penny

    2016-01-01

    This research work delved into the photocatalytic degradation of monoazo dye (methyl orange) and diazo dye (congo red) in aqueous solution using Fe3+/C/S-doped TiO2 nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were synthesised through sol-gel method and characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, EDX, BET and UV-Vis. Photocatalytic degradation of the dyes was monitored under simulated visible light using pristine TiO2, C/S/doped-TiO2 and Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 with varying concentrations of Fe3+. The influence of catalyst doping, solution pH, and light intensity were also examined. Doping TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S caused reduction in its band gap value with the resultant improvement in its visible light activity. The photocatalytic efficiency of the catalysts is given as follows: TiO2 TiO2 TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 (0.3% Fe3+) as the best performing photocatalyst. The monoazo dye experienced higher degradation efficiency than the diazo dye. Degradation of the azo dyes was observed to decrease with increasing pH from 2 to 12. Increased visible light intensity enhanced the photodegradation efficiency of the dye. Dye decolourization was observed to be faster than its mineralization.

  14. Determining Compatibilities of Reactive Dyes in Pad Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠天民

    2001-01-01

    Compatibilities of reactive dyes were conventionally shown by exhausting curves. But the change of proportion of dyes in padding dyebath was difficult for pad dyeing to be described by these curves. In this paper, a kind of simulation of pad dyeing process was used to determine dyestuff compatibility in pad dyeing for ramie and linen fabrics. Seven reactive dyes were divided into three groups and tested., The group with Cibacron Yellow C - 2R, Red C - R, and Blue C - R showed very good compatibility both for ramie and linen,and the other two groups of dyes gave out correspondingly low compatibilities in the pad dyeing tests. The results of the method for determining the compatibility of dyes displayed good consistency with the actul pad dyeing process.

  15. Biodegradation of direct blue 129 diazo dye by Spirodela polyrrhiza: An artificial neural networks modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Moradi, Z; Vafaei, F

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza was examined for direct blue 129 (DB129) azo dye. The dye removal efficiency was optimized under the variable conditions of the operational parameters including removal time, initial dye concentration, pH, temperature and amount of plant. The study reflected the significantly enhanced dye removal efficiency of S. polyrrhiza by increasing the temperature, initial dye concentration and amount of plant. Intriguingly, artificial neural network (ANN) predicted the removal time as the most dominant parameter on DB129 removal efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of dye treatment on some physiologic indices of S. polyrrhiza including growth rate, photosynthetic pigments content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were studied. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content and in multiplication of fronds after exposure to dye solution. In contrast, malondialdehyde content as well as catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities significantly increased that was probably due to the ability of plant to overcome oxidative stress. As a result of DB129 biodegradation, a number of intermediate compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. Accordingly, the probable degradation pathway of DB129 in S. polyrrhiza was postulated.

  16. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N

    2014-06-05

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  17. Advanced oxidation of acid and reactive dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslan-Alaton, I.; Gursoy, B.H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    M) for 10:hsp sp="0.25" min Fenton treatment at pH 3, resulting in reduced chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal efficiencies; only acetate was detected as a stable dye oxidation end product. During anaerobic digestion, 100, 29% and no inhibition in methane production was observed...... for the untreated blue, red and orange dyes, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blue reactive dye on methane production was ∼21% after Fenton treatment. Neither untreated nor treated dyes exhibited an inhibitory effect on denitrification. Aerobic glucose degradation was inhibited by 23-29% by untreated dyes......The effect of untreated and Fenton-treated acid dyes (C.I. Acid Red 183 and C.I. Acid Orange 51) and a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 4) on aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic processes was investigated. The optimum Fe2+:H2O2 molar ratio was selected as 1:5 (4:hsp sp="0.25" mM:20:hsp sp="0.25"m...

  18. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample.

  19. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  1. Nucleophilic addition of reactive dyes on amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S E

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% of of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  2. Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton cellulose using a new reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, R; Gaffer, H E

    2013-08-14

    Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric using a new antibacterial reactive dye having a modified chemical structure to the commercial reactive dye CI Reactive Red 198 were studied. This modification was carried out by replacing metanilic acid in the commercial dye with 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (sulfadimidine). Optimum exhaustion and fixation values were achieved at 60 g/l sodium sulphate and 20 g/l sodium carbonate for both dyes. The modified dye exhibited higher substantivity, exhaustion and fixation efficiency compared to the commercial dye. Antibacterial activities of the dyed samples at different concentrations of both dyes were studied against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The cotton dyed with the modified dye shows higher antibacterial efficacy compared to the dyed cotton fabric using the commercial dye, especially on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. All the reactive dyeings also exhibited high fastness properties.

  3. Reactive dye extraction utilizing regenerated bleaching earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite bleaching earth is utilized for purifying used motor oil through a recovery process in order to improve the quality and stability of the final product. Indeed, spent bleaching earth is generated due to adsorbing oil impurities. Polluted spent bleaching earth contains 20-40% (w/w oil and is flammable. Its disposal without pre-treatment leads to loss of oil along with environmental impacts. Accordingly, similar studies have been conducted since 1979 until now. This research was a laboratory study on reactive dye adsorption. Cleaning bleaching clay, thermal remediation and acid washing activation methods were utilized. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments and determine the optimal parameters in order to run the dye adsorption process. The main experimental parameters have been concluded as temperature (200-800 °C, acid solution concentration (0.1-3 M, dye solution concentration (1-35 ppm, and ratio of activated earth to dye solution (0.1-2 %, w/w. Results revealed that dye adsorption process along with oil removal at a temperature of 650 °C, acid solution concentration of 0.83 M, dye solution concentration of 11.75 ppm and ratio of activated earth to dye solution of 1.52 % (w/w results in an adsorption efficiency of 68.57%. This removal efficiency is a bit higher than activated virgin bleaching earth and much higher than virgin bleaching earth, which has adsorption capacities of 66.75% and 51.56%, respectively. Considering this recycling process, the purified material is quite acceptable technically, environmentally and economically.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  5. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophi...

  6. Color removal of reactive dyes from water by clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armağan, Bülent; Turan, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Orhan; Celik, Mehmet S

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of reactive dyes on Gordes (Turkey) clinoptilolite was investigated by a series of batch and column adsorption experiments. Three reactive dyes (Everzol Black, Everzol Red, Everzol Yellow) were used in laboratory studies. Synthetic wastewaters were used and the ability of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and their modified form were examined. The adsorption results, in batch and column reactor, indicate that natural zeolite have limited adsorption capacities of the reactive dyes but are substantially improved upon modifying their surfaces with quaternary amines (HTAB). The degree of hydrophilicity is found to play an important role in the uptake of reactive dyes.

  7. Aerobic decolourization of two reactive azo dyes under varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(5), pp. 672-677, 1 ... pharmaceutical, textile, leather, cosmetics and paper industries due to their ... Five different textile dyes; reactive torquoise blue, disperse yellow, reactive orange ...

  8. Colorimetric studies of some newly synthesized bisazo reactive dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A series of cold brand bisazo reactive dyes (4a–h) were obtained by the coupling of tetrazotised 4,4′-methylene-bis(2-methyl-5-nitro aniline) (2) with various cyanurated coupling components (3a–h) in good yield. Their dyeing performances as reactive dyes have been assessed on silk, wool and cotton fabrics. These dyes were characterized by UV–Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques elemental analysis. The percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation on different fibers were found to be very ...

  9. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method.

  10. Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

  11. Diazo transfer for azido-functional surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of azido-functionalized polymers is gaining increasing attention. We wish to report an innovative, novel strategy for azido functionalization of polymeric materials, coupling plasma technology and solution processed diazo transfer reactions. This novel approach allows the azido group to be introduced downstream of the material preparation, thus preserving its physicochemical and mechanical characteristics, which can be tailored a priori according to the desired application. The whole process involves the surface plasma functionalization of a material with primary amino groups, followed by a diazo transfer reaction, which converts the amino functionalities into azido groups that can be exploited for further chemoselective reactions. The diazo transfer reaction is performed in a heterogeneous phase, where the azido group donor is in solution. Chemical reactivity of the azido functionalities was verified by subsequent copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

  12. Dyeing of UV irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics with multifunctional reactive and disperse dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dyeing behaviour of UV irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics using multifunctional reactive and disperse dyes has been investigated. The plain, woven, mercerized, bleached, cotton and polyester fabrics were exposed to UV radiation (180 w, 254 nm for 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Dyeing was performed using irradiated fabric with a dye solution of un-irradiated reactive and disperse/azo dyes. The dyeing parameters such as, temperature, time, pH and salt concentration have been optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics in CIE Lab systems using spectra flash SF600. Finally ISO standard methods were employed to observe the effect of UV radiation on fastness properties. It was found that UV radiation has a potential to improve the colour strength values of cotton and polyester fabrics by using reactive and disperse dyes.

  13. Determination of two reactive dyes concentration in dyed cotton fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to determine the unknown concentration of dichlortriazinyl reactive dyes, namely Reactive Yellow 22 and Reactive Blue 163, in dyed cotton fabric. The samples of cotton fabric were dyed individually with each dye as well as with a mixture of two dyes. The unknown concentrations of dyes were determined by measuring the corresponding reflectance values of dyed fabric samples and then using the relation between the concentration and reflectance values of the samples. The method set by Kubelka and Munk was used. The accuracy and repeatability of the concentrations determination were calculated by the statistical processing of the data obtained by measurements. Relative errors of individual determination of Reactive Yellow 22 and Reactive Blue 163 were 3.66% and 5.94% respectively. Relative errors in determination of Reactive Yellow 22 and Reactive Blue 163 in a mixture were 3.47% and 3.19% respectively. The results showed that reflectance spectrophotometry can be successfully used as the method for concentration determination of Reactive Yellow 22 and Reactive Blue 163 in dyed cotton fabric and can therefore be applied as the shade control method in dyeing.

  14. Optimisation of decolourisation and degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the ability of the electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes and using a model diazo dye such as Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of main parameters, such as voltage, pH and iron concentration. Dye decolourisation, reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and energy consumption were studied. Central composite face-centred experimental design matrix and response surface methodology were applied to design the experiments and to evaluate the interactive effects of the three studied parameters. A total of 20 experimental runs were set, and the kinetic data were analysed using first-order and second-order models. In all cases, the experimental data were fitted to the empirical second-order model with a suitable degree for the maximum decolourisation of RB5, COD reduction and energy consumption by electro-Fenton-Fe alginate gel beads treatment. Working with the obtained empirical model, the optimisation of the process was carried out. The second-order polynomial regression model suggests that the optimum conditions for attaining maximum decolourisation, COD reduction and energy consumption are voltage, 5.69 V; pH 2.24 and iron concentration, 2.68 mM. Moreover, the fixation of iron on alginate beads suggests that the degradation process can be developed under this electro-Fenton process in repeated batches and in a continuous mode.

  15. Colorimetric studies of some newly synthesized bisazo reactive dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh R. Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of cold brand bisazo reactive dyes (4a–h were obtained by the coupling of tetrazotised 4,4′-methylene-bis(2-methyl-5-nitro aniline (2 with various cyanurated coupling components (3a–h in good yield. Their dyeing performances as reactive dyes have been assessed on silk, wool and cotton fabrics. These dyes were characterized by UV–Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques elemental analysis. The percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation on different fibers were found to be very good. The dyed fabric showed moderate to very good light fastness and good to excellent washing and rubbing fastness properties. Spectral properties and colorimetric data (L∗, a∗, b∗, C∗, H∗, K/S have also been studied in detail.

  16. The Removal of Composite Reactive Dye from Dyeing Unit Effluent Using Sewage Sludge Derived Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY, Sajjala SREEDHAR

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from dried municipal sewage sludge and batch mode adsorption experiments were conducted to study its potential to remove composite reactive dye from dyeing unit effluent. Adsorption parameters for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined and the effects of effluent pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. The toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP) was used to assess the acceptability of sewage ...

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  18. Diazo transfer at polydopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Mrówczyńsk, R.; Magerusan, L.; Turcu, R.; Liebscher, J

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of introducing azido functions onto polydopamine by diazo transfer making use of existing aminoethyl moieties was verified at polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The resulting azidofunctionalized Fe3O4@polydopamine nanoparticles serve as a magnetic nano-platform for the introduction of interesting applicatory functions by click-chemistry (CuAAC) as exemplified by linking biotin, tetraacetylglucose, dansyl and proline.

  19. Enhanced biodecolorization of reactive dyes by basidiomycetes under static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Ismat; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the biodecolorization potential of basidiomycete fungi Trametes hirsuta, Pycnoporus sp., and Irpex sp. for different reactive dyes viz. Reactive Red 120, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Reactive Orange G, and Reactive Orange 16 under static and shaking conditions. The screening trials revealed that T. hirsuta exhibited maximum potential (83.75 %) for biodecolorization of RBBR dye under static conditions after the fifth day of incubation. However, the rate of biodecolorization of RBBR dye by Pycnoporus sp. was much slow and reached maximum (81.25 %) after 15 days of incubation under shaking conditions. By process optimization, enhanced decolorization (91.2 %) of RBBR by T. hirsuta was achieved at pH 5.5 within 24 h using a defined salt medium amended with p-coumaric acid under static conditions. pH was found to be an important parameter for the enzymatic system involved in RBBR dye decolorization by T. hirsuta and Pycnoporus sp. Biodecolorization of RBBR dye was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ, 578 nm) by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The shift in maximum wavelength toward shorter/longer wavelength in UV-vis scanning spectrum revealed the degradation of RBBR dye into different transformation products.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    OpenAIRE

    HINOJOSA Belén; MONTAVA Ignacio; BOU-BELDA Eva; Díaz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generate...

  1. Diazo transfer at polydopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Mrówczyńsk, R.; Magerusan, L.; Turcu, R.; Liebscher, J

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of introducing azido functions onto polydopamine by diazo transfer making use of existing aminoethyl moieties was verified at polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The resulting azidofunctionalized Fe3O4@polydopamine nanoparticles serve as a magnetic nano-platform for the introduction of interesting applicatory functions by click-chemistry (CuAAC) as exemplified by linking biotin, tetraacetylglucose, dansyl and proline. Peer Reviewed

  2. Taming hazardous chemistry in flow: the continuous processing of diazo and diazonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadman, Benjamin J; Collins, Stuart G; Maguire, Anita R

    2015-02-02

    The synthetic utilities of the diazo and diazonium groups are matched only by their reputation for explosive decomposition. Continuous processing technology offers new opportunities to make and use these versatile intermediates at a range of scales with improved safety over traditional batch processes. In this minireview, the state of the art in the continuous flow processing of reactive diazo and diazonium species is discussed.

  3. Eco- and genotoxicological assessments of two reactive textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de; Meireles, Gabriela; Brito, Lara Barroso; Rodrigues, Laís de Brito; Palma de Oliveira, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of natural waters has been one of the major problems of modern society and the textile industry is rated as an important polluting source, due to the generation of large amounts of wastewaters. The aim of this study was to assess textile dyes Reactive Blue 19 (RB19, anthraquinone dye) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120, azo dye) in terms of the potential to induce adverse effects on aquatic organisms and humans. Thus, these dyes were tested using the following assays: Microtox assay (Vibrio fischeri); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); Daphnia similis; and Comet with normal human dermal fibroblasts as well as Ames test (TA98, TA100, YG1041, YG1042--with and without S9). RB19 was relatively nontoxic to all aquatic bioindicators analyzed with an EC50 of more than 100 mg/L, whereas RR120 was only moderately toxic to A. salina with a EC50-48h of 81.89 mg/L. Mutagenicity through base pair substitution was observed with RB19 in the presence of S9 (Ames-positive). The comet assay did not demonstrate any apparent genotoxic effects for any tested dye. Although mutagenicity was detected with RB19, the mutagenic effect observed may be considered weak compared to the ability to induce DNA damage by other classes of dyes such as disperse dyes. Therefore, these dyes may be classified as nonmutagens (RR120) or weak mutagens (RB19) and relatively nontoxic for aquatic organisms. However, it is noteworthy that the weak acute toxicity to A. salina induced by RR120 is sufficient to suggest potential damage to the aquatic ecosystem and emphasizes the need for biomonitoring dye levels in wastewater systems.

  4. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-11-01

    A bacterial consortium (consortium GR) consisting of Proteus vulgaris NCIM-2027 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168 could rapidly decolorize and degrade commonly-used sulfonated reactive dye Green HE4BD and many other reactive dyes. Consortium GR shows markedly higher decolorization activity than that of the individual strains. The preferable physicochemical parameters were identified to achieve higher dye degradation and decolorization efficiency. The supplementation of cheap co-substrates (e.g., extracts of agricultural wastes) could enhance the decolorization performance of consortium GR. Extent of mineralization was determined with TOC and COD measurements, showing nearly complete mineralization of Green HE4BD by consortium GR (up to 90% TOC and COD reduction) within 24 h. Oxidoreductive enzymes seemed to be involved in fast decolorization/degradation process with the evidence of enzymes induction in the bacterial consortium. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of Green HE4BD by consortium GR are non-toxic. Consortium GR also shows significant biodegradation and decolorization activities for mixture of reactive dyes as well as the effluent from actual dye manufacturing industry. This confers the possibility of applying consortium GR for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  5. The removal of reactive dyes using high-ash char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.F.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of reactive dyes on high-ash char was studied. Equilibrium data were obtained using the static method with controlled agitation at temperatures in the range of 30 to 60ºC. The Langmuir isotherm model was used to describe the equilibrium of adsorption, and the equilibrium parameters, R L, in the range of 0 to 1 indicate favorable adsorption. The amount of dye adsorbed increased as temperature increased from 30 to 40ºC, but above 40ºC the increase in temperature resulted in a decrease in the amount of dye adsorbed. The kinetic data presented are for controlled agitation at 50 rpm and constant temperature with dye concentrations in the range of 10 ppm to50 ppm. The film mass transfer coefficient, Kf, and the effective diffusivity inside the particle, De, were fitted to the experimental data. The results indicate that internal diffusion governs the adsorption rate.

  6. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Awais Khatri; Mazhar Hussain Peerzada

    2012-01-01

    Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used...

  7. Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Vílar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-30

    An industrial waste sludge mainly composed by metal hydroxides was used as a low-cost adsorbent for removing a reactive textile dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue) in solution. Characterization of this waste material included chemical composition, pH(ZPC) determination, particle size distribution, physical textural properties and metals mobility under different pH conditions. Dye adsorption equilibrium isotherms were determined at 25 and 35 degrees C and pH of 4, 7 and 10 revealing reasonably fits to Langmuir and Freundlich models. At 25 degrees C and pH 7, Langmuir fit indicates a maximum adsorption capacity of 91.0mg/g. An adsorptive ion-exchange mechanism was identified from desorption studies. Batch kinetic experiments were also conducted at different initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage and pH. A pseudo-second-order model showed good agreement with experimental data. LDF approximation model was used to estimate homogeneous solid diffusion coefficients and the effective pore diffusivities. Additionally, a simulated real effluent containing the selected dye, salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals, was also used in equilibrium and kinetic experiments and the adsorption performance was compared with aqueous dye solutions.

  8. Pad ultrasonic batch dyeing of causticized lyocell fabric with reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Aijaz Ahmed; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Jhatial, Abdul Khalique; Bughio, Noor-Ul-Ain

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, cellulosic fabric dyed with reactive dyes requires significant amount of salt. However, the dyeing of a solvent spun regenerated cellulosic fiber is a critical process. This paper presents the dyeing results of lyocell fabrics dyed with conventional pad batch (CPB) and pad ultrasonic batch (PUB) processes. The dyeing of lyocell fabrics was carried out with two commercial dyes namely Drimarine Blue CL-BR and Ramazol Blue RGB. Dyeing parameters including concentration of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dwell time were compared for the two processes. The outcomes show that PUB dyed samples offered reasonably higher color yield and dye fixation than CPB dyed samples. A remarkable reduction of 12h in batching time, 18ml/l in NaOH and 05g/l in Na2CO3 quantity was observed for PUB processed samples producing similar results compared to CPB process, making PUB a more economical, productive and an environment friendly process. Color fastness examination witnessed identical results for both PUB and CPB methods. No significant change in surface morphology of PUB processed samples was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis.

  9. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  10. Electrochemical degradation of reactive dyes at different DSA compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rodrigo G. da; Aquino Neto, Sydney; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the electrochemical oxidation of the reactive dyes reactive blue 4 (RB-4) and reactive orange 16 (RO-16) on RuO{sub 2} dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Electrolysis was achieved under galvanostatic control as a function of supporting electrolyte and electrode composition. The electrolyses, performed in either the presence or absence of NaCl, were able to promote efficient color removal; moreover, at low chloride concentration (0.01 mol L{sup -1}), total color removal was obtained after just 10 min of electrolysis, and a significant increase in total dye combustion was achieved for all the studied anodes in chloride medium (reaching ca. 80% - chemical oxygen demand - COD removal). No significant enhancement in dye color removal or mineralization was observed upon increasing chloride concentration. The influence of oxide composition on dye elimination seems to be significant in both media (with or without chloride), being Ti/Ru{sub 0.30}Ti{sub 0.70}O{sub 2}, the most active material for organic compound oxidation. The oxygen evolution reaction was shown to be a limiting reaction in both supporting electrolytes; i.e., NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and its competition with organic compound oxidation remained an obstacle. The adsorbable organo halogens formation study revealed that there is slight consumption of the undesirable species formed within the first minutes of the electrolysis, being Ti/(RuO{sub 2}){sub 0.70}(Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 0.30} the most environmentally friendly composition. Both anode composition and chloride concentration affect the formation of these undesirable compounds. (author)

  11. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colored textile effluents represent severe environmental problems as they contain mixture of chemicals, auxiliariesand dyestuffs of different classes and chemical constitutions. Elimination of dyes in the textile wastewater by conventionalwastewater treatment methods is very difficult. At present, there is a growing interest in using inexpensive and potentialmaterials for the adsorption of reactive dyes. Shale has been reported to be a potential media to remove color from wastewaterbecause of its chemical characteristics. In this study, shale was used as an adsorbent. The chosen shale had particlesizes of : A (1.00 < A < 2.00 mm, B (0.50 < B < 1.00 mm, C (0.25 < C < 0.50 mm, D (0.18 < D < 0.25 mm and E (0.15 < E < 0.18mm. Remazol Deep Red RGB (Red, Remazol Brilliant Blue RN gran (Blue and Remazol Yellow 3RS 133% gran (Yellow wereused as adsorbates. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the effect of contact time, pH, temperatureand initial dye concentration. It was found that the equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model,with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 0.0110-0.0322 mg/g for Red, 0.4479-1.1409 mg/g for Blue and 0.0133-0.0255 mg/g for Yellow, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of reactive dye by shale occurred at an initial pH of 2,initial concentration of 700 Pt-Co and temperature 45°C. Reactive dye adsorption capacities increased with an increase of theinitial dye concentration and temperature whereas with a decrease of pH. The fixed bed column experiments were appliedwith actual textile wastewater for estimation of life span. The results showed that COD and color removal efficiencies of shalefix bed column were 97% and 90%, respectively. Also the shale fixed bed columns were suitable for using with textile effluentfrom activated sludge system because of their COD and color removal efficiencies and life expectancy comparison using withdyebath wastewater and raw

  12. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7 W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30 °C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye.

  13. A REVIEW ON EFFICACIOUS METHODS TO DECOLORIZE REACTIVE AZO DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Vijayaraghavan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the intensive review of reactive azo dye, Reactive Black 5. Various physicochemical methods namely photo catalysis, electrochemical, adsorption, hydrolysis and biological methods like microbial degradation, biosorption and bioaccumulation have been analyzed thoroughly along with the merits and demerits of each method. Among these various methods, biological treatment methods are found to be the best for decolorization of Reactive Black 5. With respect to dye biosorption, microbial biomass (bacteria, fungi, microalgae, etc, and outperformed macroscopic materials (seaweeds, crab shell, etc. are used for decolorization process. The use of living organisms may not be an option for the continuous treatment of highly toxic organic/inorganic contaminants. Once the toxicant concentration becomes too high or the process operated for a long time, the amount of toxicant accumulated will reach saturation. Beyond this point, an organism's metabolism may be interrupted, resulting in death of the organism. This scenario is not existed in the case of dead biomass, which is flexible to environmental conditions and toxicant concentrations. Thus, owing to its favorable characteristics, biosorption has received much attention in recent years.

  14. A REVIEW ON EFFICACIOUS METHODS TO DECOLORIZE REACTIVE AZO DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Vijayaraghavan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the intensive review of reactive azo dye, Reactive Black 5. Various physicochemical methods namely photo catalysis, electrochemical, adsorption, hydrolysis and biological methods like microbial degradation, biosorption and bioaccumulation have been analyzed thoroughly along with the merits and demerits of each method. Among these various methods, biological treatment methods are found to be the best for decolorization of Reactive Black 5. With respect to dye biosorption, microbial biomass (bacteria, fungi, microalgae, etc, and outperformed macroscopic materials (seaweeds, crab shell, etc. are used for decolorization process. The use of living organisms may not be an option for the continuous treatment of highly toxic organic/inorganic contaminants. Once the toxicant concentration becomes too high or the process operated for a long time, the amount of toxicant accumulated will reach saturation. Beyond this point, an organism's metabolism may be interrupted, resulting in death of the organism. This scenario is not existed in the case of dead biomass, which is flexible to environmental conditions and toxicant concentrations. Thus, owing to its favorable characteristics, biosorption has received much attention in recent years.

  15. Process Improvement of Reactive Dye Synthesis Using Six Sigma Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanich, Thanapat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on the problem occurred in the reactive dye synthesis process of a global manufacturer in Thailand which producing various chemicals for reactive dye products to supply global industries such as chemicals, textiles and garments. The product named “Reactive Blue Base” is selected in this study because it has highest demand and the current chemical yield shows a high variation, i.e. yield variation of 90.4% - 99.1% (S.D. = 2.405 and Cpk = -0.08) and average yield is 94.5% (lower than the 95% standard set by the company). The Six Sigma concept is applied aiming at increasing yield and reducing variation of this process. This approach is suitable since it provides a systematic guideline with five improvement phases (DMAIC) to effectively tackle the problem and find the appropriate parameter settings of the process. Under the new parameter settings, the process yield variation is reduced to range between 96.5% - 98.5% (S.D. = 0.525 and Cpk = 1.83) and the average yield is increased to 97.5% (higher than the 95% standard set by the company).

  16. Plasma Induced Physicochemical Changes and Reactive Dyeing of Wool Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Udakhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma treatment on physical and chemical properties of wool fabric and its relation to exhaustion of Drimalan Navy Blue FBI reactive dye. AFM analysis of plasma treated wool fabric has shown partial removal of epicuticle and thus reduced scale height. FD spectroscopy has shown improvement in hydrophilicity by many folds after plasma treatment. ATR graphs depict the removal of hydrophobic layer of 18-MEA and introduction of hydrophilic groups like cysteic acid after plasma treatment. Alkali solubility of wool fabric increases with increasing plasma treatment time. Wetting time for plasma treated fabric reduces drastically when compared to untreated wool fabric. It is found that plasma treated fabric takes much lesser time to reach maximum dye exhaustion than untreated fabric. Substantivity of the dye increases significantly after plasma treatment. Colour fastness properties improve with increase in plasma treatment time. Chemical oxygen demand (COD of spent dyebath liquor is found to reduce with increase in plasma treatment time. Biological oxygen demand (BOD is found to be higher for plasma treated samples, while ratio of COD/BOD has reduced with increase in the plasma treatment time.

  17. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, Wafaa [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@est-uh2c.ac.ma [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Dassaa, A. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Chenik, H. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Azzi, M. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2010-12-15

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm{sup -2} and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E{sub dye}) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg{sub dye} was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg{sub dye} for disperse and 50 kWh/kg{sub dye} for the mixture.

  18. Enhanced decomposition of reactive blue 19 dye in ultrasound assisted electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Maria; Farooq, Robina; Khan, Zahid Mehmood; Khan, Zarsher; Shaukat, S F

    2011-01-01

    Textile industry effluents contain reactive dyes that may harm our receiving waters. A typical reactive blue (RB) 19 dye is frequently detected in significant concentrations in textile industry effluents. Such dyes have generally shown resistance to decomposition and tend to persist in the environment for long periods and multiply the impacts to water and environment. Therefore, the present investigation focused on high-rate decomposition of a typical reactive dye RB 19 under various ultrasound and electrochemical process conditions. The decomposition of un-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed forms of reactive blue (RB) 19 dye by ultrasound assisted electrochemical process was investigated using various parameters including dye concentration, pH, ultrasonic frequency and reaction time. Reaction kinetics, organic carbon and mechanism for dye decomposition were determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, TOC (total organic carbon) analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Almost complete 90% color removal and a maximum of 56% TOC removal for 50 mg L(-1) dye concentration of un-hydrolyzed RB 19 dye was achieved at an ultrasonic frequency of 80 kHz, pH of 8 after 120 min. GC-MS analysis showed that a sonoelectrochemical treatment of un-hydrolyzed RB 19 dye for 30 min resulted in the formation of products e.g. acetic acid, benzoic acid etc. with the complete removal of dye. For hydrolyzed dye, a treatment of 10 min was enough and the results were comparable with 30 min treatment of un-hydrolyzed dye. Kinetics of ultrasound assisted electrolysis showed that the dye decomposition followed 1st order. The ultrasound assisted electrolysis for dye decomposition and hence decolorization proved to be more effective and the total energy consumption reduced to half as compared with simple electrolysis/sonochemical decomposition. Therefore, ultrasound assisted electrolysis was found to be more effective technique for dye decomposition of an otherwise environmentally

  19. [Experimental study of immune reactivity in Swiss mice due to topical administration of three textile dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavăt, C C; Lupuşoru, R V; Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena

    2010-01-01

    Reactive Red 183, Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Blue 204 (red dye, green dye and blue dye) are three reactive dyes frequently used in textile industry. In some atmospheric conditions ( high temperature, perspiration, pH values, UV/IR radiations), some quantities of these hydrolyzed dyes, could pass from textile clothes directly into the human skin. There were used 4 groups of white Swiss mice (with similar weight and number of both sexes), control group and 3 groups, treated once daily with a retro-auricular application of different reactive dyes. After 14 days of treatment, blood samples were taken from retro-orbitary plexus to assess leukocyte count, phagocytic capacity of peripheral neutrophils, serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages, splenic T lymphocytes with rossetting capacity and spleen cells forming Jerne plaques. The retro-acuricular and latero-cervical nodes were weighted. Red dye did not influence the weight of the studied nodes, but determined statistically significant modifications on non-specific immune system parameters. Blue and grena dyes determined modifications of weight especially of retroauricular nodes. Grena dye determined important effects of non-specific immune system parameters (serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages). The blue dye did not determine a biological response. Red and green dye determined important effects on non-specific immune system parameters.

  20. New Diazo Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-02

    those based on pyrene include colorless photodegradation products and good availability of raw materials without sacrifice of spectral...34Diazotype Proesses", John Wiley « Sons, Inc., 1965 pp. 194-302. 5. Rys Ä Zollinger, Fundamentals of the Chemistry & Application of Dyes ...Co., London, 1949. 7. Venkatararnan, The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes , Vol. I and II. First Ed., Academic Press, 1952. Journals 8. Brown, "The Basis

  1. Biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone and phthalocyanine dyes under various oxidation-reduction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young H; Matthews, Rosalyn D; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2006-02-01

    The decolorization of two anthraquinone dyes (Reactive Blue 4 [RB4] and Reactive Blue 19 [RB19]) and two phthalocyanine dyes (Reactive Blue 7 [RB7] and Reactive Blue 21 [RB21]) was investigated at an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L using an unacclimated, enrichment culture. The culture was fed a mixture of organic compounds and maintained initially under aerobic conditions, and then progressively developed anoxic/ anaerobic conditions. Biotransformation-related decolorization of the dyes did not take place under aerobic conditions, but use of the feed organic mixture and biomass production by the enrichment culture were not affected. Complete ammonia removal occurred in the control and all dye-amended cultures. The development and extent of nitrification were much lower in the latter cultures, in which ammonia removal via air stripping was the dominant mechanism. Prolonged incubation of the culture under anoxic/anaerobic conditions with multiple carbon source additions resulted in a high decolorization extent of anthraquinone dyes (over 84%) and only partial decolorization of phthalocyanine dyes (49 to 66%). Development of significant methanogenic activity took place in the control and, to a lesser extent, in the two phthalocyanine dye-amended cultures, but the anthraquinone dyes severely inhibited the development of methanogenic activity. The RB4 and RB19 decolorization was attributed to nonreversible, microbially mediated dye transformation(s), demonstrated by the accumulation of decolorization products with absorbance maxima in the 420- to 460-nm region. The decolorization of RB4 and RB19 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L, the observed maximum decolorization rate per unit biomass was 9.1 and 37.5 mg dye/mg volatile suspended solids x day for the RB4 and RB19, respectively. Thus, partial decolorization of reactive phthalocyanine dyes and extensive biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone dyes is

  2. Radiolysis of Reactive Azo Dyes in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin N.M. Bagyo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of radiation on aerated reactive dye solutions i.e Cibacron Violet, Cibacron Orange and Cibacron Yellow solutions have been studied. Parameters analysis were the change of pH after radiation, the change of absorption, degradation products and effects of pH on the radiolysis. The uv-vis absorption of solutions were observed before and after irradiation. pH variation was done from pHs 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12. Irradiation was done at doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy/h and was determined by a Fricke dosimeter. HPLC with UV detector was used to analyze the degradation products. Oxalic acid was the main degradation product and small amount of succinic acid was also detected.

  3. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of photodegradation of a diazo compound: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetani, M A; Hisaindee, S M; Abdullah, F; Ashraf, S S; Rauf, M A

    2010-06-01

    The photolytic degradation of the diazo dye, Amido Black, using UV/H(2)O(2) has been carried out experimentally and parameters for most efficient dye degradation have been determined. The degradation of the dye was followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC, and LC-MS and is proposed to be initiated by ()OH radicals formed by the photolysis of H(2)O(2). A detailed study was also carried out using LC-MS and LC-MS/MS to determine the degradation pathway of the dye as well as to identify some of the intermediate products formed. Our results suggest that Amido Black degradation occurs preferentially by ()OH radical attack at the more electron rich diazo functionality of the molecule. Furthermore, evidence is presented that subsequent steps in this diazo dye degradation pathway include radical denitration, radical desulfonation and radical diazotization. This report is one of the very few studies that have proposed possible mechanistic pathways for the degradation pathways of a diazo compound.

  4. Effective NH2-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ailian; Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang; Lu, Xiaoping; Han, Pingfang

    2011-10-30

    The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH(2)-attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH(2) groups.

  5. Decolorization of reactive violet 5 dye in textile wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav N. Malinovic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The textile dyeing industry consumes large quantities of water and produces large volumes of wastewater from different steps in the dyeing and finishing processes. Wastewater from printing and dyeing units is often rich in color, containing residues of reactive dyes and chemicals, such as complex components. This study investigates the decolorization of synthetic dye wastewater containing textile dye Reactive Violet 5 (RV5 by electrocoagulation. A laboratory batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of various operating parameters using aluminium (Al, iron (Fe and stainless steel (SS anode. The effect of dye concentration, current density, supporting electrolyte, sup­porting electrolyte concentration, electrolysis duration, and material of anode of the systems were evaluated. Color removal efficiency was 22, 91.5 and 99.8 % in 15 minutes using Al, Fe and SS anode, respectively (j = 10 mA/cm2, cNaCl = 0.171 M.

  6. Impact of Artificial Perspiration on Photo-stability of Reactive Dyes on Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG De-hua; ZHANG Li-yuan; PAN Da-wei; HE Jin-xin

    2006-01-01

    The photo-reactions between metabolic products of human sweat and dyestuffs on garments may produce many toxic substances which could directly contact skin and threaten human health. In order to investigate the impact of the perspiration on photo-fading of reactive dyes on cellulose,nine commercial reactive dyes belonging to three types of chromophores (azo, Cu-complex azo and anthraquinone)respectively were chosen and their perspiration-light stability on cotton fabric was studied following ATTS test standard.It is found that the impact of the artificial perspiration on dyes varies with different chromophores: anthraquinone reactive dyes always show the best photo-stability, whereas Cu-complex azo reactive dyes appear to be the most sensitive under exposure to light and perspiration. The pH value of perspiration also greatly influences the fading of dyes with different reactive groups: the fading rate of most chlorotriazinyl reactive dyes in acidic perspiration (pH = 3.5) is higher than in alkaline perspiration (pH=8.0), while the reverse is true for most vinylsulphonyi dyes.Furthermore, the study of the contribution of individual component of the artificial perspiration discloses that LHistidine monohydrochloride monohydrate, DL-Aspartic acid and lactic acid play the major roles on the photo-fading of those selected dyestuffs and inorganic salts including disodium hydrogen phosphate and sodium chloride usually decelerate photo-fading.

  7. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  8. One-step purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase using reactive dye-affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cunxi; Lee, Thomas C; Crowley, Kathleen S; Bell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Reactive dye purification is an affinity purification technique offering unique selectivity and high purification potential. Historically, purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) has involved several steps of precipitation and column chromatography. Here, we describe a novel purification method that is simple, time-saving, inexpensive, and reproducible. The novel method employs a single chromatography step using a reactive dye resin, Reactive brown 10-agarose. Reactive brown 10 preferentially binds the PAT protein, which can then be specifically released by one of its substrates, acetyl-CoA. Using Reactive brown 10-agarose, PAT protein can be purified to homogeneity from E. coli or plant tissue with high recovery efficiency.

  9. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  10. Kinetics of Hydrolysis of Cationic Reactive Disperse Dyes Containing Quaternary Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kong-liang; HOU Ai-qin

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of cationic reactive disperse dyes containing quaternary group and chemical shift(13CNMR) of the adjacent carbon atoms with pyridine-acetylamino were discussed. The results show pyridine-acetylamino reactive group had higher reactivity than chloroacetylamino and chemical shift(13CNMR) of the adjacent carbon atoms with pyridine-acetylamino moved 18.77 ppm.

  11. Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojčinović, Biljana P; Roglić, Goran M; Obradović, Bratislav M; Kuraica, Milorad M; Kostić, Mirjana M; Nešić, Jelena; Manojlović, Dragan D

    2011-08-30

    Decolorization of reactive textile dyes Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 52, Reactive Yellow 125 and Reactive Green 15 was studied using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Used initial dye concentrations in the solution were 40.0 and 80.0mg/L. The effects of different initial pH of dye solutions, and addition of homogeneous catalysts (H(2)O(2), Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)) on the decolorization during subsequent recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor, i.e. applied energy density (45-315kJ/L) were studied. Influence of residence time was investigated over a period of 24h. Change of pH values and effect of pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation on the decolorization was also tested. It was found that the initial pH of dye solutions and pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation did not influence the decolorization. The most effective decolorization of 97% was obtained with addition of 10mM H(2)O(2) in a system of 80.0mg/L Reactive Black 5 with applied energy density of 45kJ/L, after residence time of 24h from plasma treatment. Toxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as a test organism.

  12. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used. The new dye-bath formulation using the organic salt gave more than 90% dye-fixation. Traditional pad-steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes requires the use of inorganic electrolyte, sodium-chloride, and alkali, sodium-carbonate, to ensure effective dye consumption and fixation. These inorganic chemicals when drained generate heavy contents of dissolved solids and oxygen demand in the effluent leading to environmental pollution. Thus, Tetrasodium N, N-biscarboxylatomethyl-L-Glutamate was used in place of inorganic electrolyte and alkali to improve effluent quality. A significant increase in dye-fixation and ultimate color-yield was obtained with same colorfastness properties of the dyed fabric comparing to the traditional pad-steam dye-bath formulation.

  13. Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Nemade, Harshal N; Markad, Vijay L; Adav, Sunil S; Patole, Milind S; Kodam, Kisan M

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with development of aerobic granules from textile wastewater sludge and challenged with different concentration of reactive blue 59 (RB59) to test their dye degradation potential. The granules efficiently degraded reactive blue 59 and also sustained higher dye loading of up to 5.0 g l(-1). The significant induction of enzymes azoreductase and cytochrome P-450 indicated their prominent role in the dye degradation while genotoxicity studies demonstrated that the biotransformed product of the dye as non-toxic. The microbial community of the textile dyes degrading aerobic sludge granules analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), revealed significantly diverse dye degrading microbial community belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria.

  14. Adsorption Kinetics of Reactive Dyes on Ash from Town Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordjevic Dragan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanism of adsorption of reactive dyes from the textile industry on ash from heating plant produced by brown coal combustion, some characteristic sorption constants are determined using Langergren adsorption equations for pseudo-fi rst and pseudo-second order. Combined kinetic models of pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order can provide a simple but satisfactory explanation of the adsorption process for a reactive dye. According to the characteristic diagrams and results of adsorption kinetic parameters of reactive dyes on ashes, for the applied amounts of the adsorbents and different initial dye concentrations, it can be concluded that the rate of sorption is fully functionally described by second order adsorption model. According to the results, the rate constant of pseudo-second order decreases with increasing initial dye concentration and increases with increasing amount of adsorbent – ash.

  15. Color removal from acid and reactive dye solutions by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/adsorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebia, S; Kacha, S; Bouberka, Z; Bouyakoub, A Z; Derriche, Z

    2009-04-01

    In this study, electrocoagulation of Marine Blue Erionyl MR (acid dye) and electrocoagulation followed by adsorption of Brilliant Blue Levafix E-BRA (reactive dye) from aqueous solutions were investigated, using aluminum electrodes and granular activated carbon (GAC). In the electrocoagulation and adsorption of dyestuff solutions, the effects of current density, loading charge, pH, conductivity, stirring velocity, contact time, and GAC concentration were examined. The optimum conditions for the electrocoagulation process were identified as loading charges 7.46 and 1.49 F/m3, for a maximum abatement of 200 mg/L reactive and acid dye, respectively. The residual reactive dye concentration was completely removed with 700 mg/L GAC. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of a combined process to remove significant concentrations of recalcitrant dyes from water, using moderate activated carbon energy and aluminum consumption, and thereby lowering the cost of treatment.

  16. Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method.

  17. Chemical Modification on Reactive Dye Adsorption Capacity of Castor Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dharmalingam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The roles played by four major functional groups (amine, carboxyl, azo, hydroxyl groups in the biomass of castor seeds in adsorption of seven dyes were investigated. These functional groups in castor seeds were chemically modified individually to determine their contribution to the adsorption of ionic dyes. The dyes used were remazol red B, procino yellow, fast green FCF, brilliant cresyl blue, methylene blue, neutral red, red-141. It was found that hydroxyl group inhibited the adsorption of anionic dyes but it was major functional group in the adsorption of cationic dyes, hydroxyl group was important functional group in the adsorption of all seven dyes and the effect of methylation of amino group was not significant on the adsorption of seven dyes.

  18. Quaternized magnetic microspheres for the efficient removal of reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Chendong; Li, Penghui; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Yang

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, a novel quaternized magnetic resin, NDMP, was prepared and characterized. Two reactive dyes (RDs), Orange G (OG) and red RWO, were used as a small-molecular RD and large-molecular RD, respectively, to investigate their adsorption on NDMP. A common quaternized magnetic resin, MIEX, was selected for comparison. The adsorption kinetics of OG onto both resins and the adsorption kinetics of RWO onto NDMP followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, whereas the adsorption of RWO onto MIEX was better fitted by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The experimental data illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of both RDs onto NDMP (1.9 mmol OG/g, 0.70 mmol RWO/g) was twice as large as that on MIEX (1.0 mmol OG/g, 0.35 mmol RWO/g). The Langmuir equation and the Freundlich model fit the isotherm data for OG and RWO adsorption, respectively. The adsorption of OG on the NDMP and MIEX resins declined in the presence of NaCl or Na₂SO₄. The effects of the salts on the adsorption of RWO were different. The recyclability of NDMP and MIEX were also evaluated. This work provides a reusable efficient adsorbent for the removal of RDs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of redox mediators to accelerate the transformation of reactive azo dyes in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.; Bouwman, R.H.M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Azo dyes are nonspecifically reduced under anaerobic conditions but the slow rates at which reactive azo dyes are converted presents a serious problem for the application of anaerobic technology as a first stage in the complete biodegradation of these compounds. As quinones have been found to cataly

  20. Oxidation of Levafix CA reactive azo-dyes in industrial wastewater of textile dyeing by electro-generated Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, Hanaa S; Ghoneim, Mohamed M; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; Zidan, Naglaa M

    2010-03-15

    The indirect electrochemical removal of pollutants from effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. Removal (decolorization and mineralization) of Levafix Blue CA and Levafix Red CA reactive azo-dyes from aqueous media by electro-generated Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) using a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and a platinum gauze anode was optimized. Progress of oxidation (decolorization and mineralization) of the investigated azo-dyes with time of electro-Fenton's reaction was monitored by UV-visible absorbance measurements, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the electro-Fenton's oxidation system is efficient for treatment of such types of reactive dyes. Oxidation of each of the investigated azo-dyes by electro-generated Fenton's reagent up to complete decolorization and approximately 90-95% mineralization was achieved. Moreover, the optimized electro-Fenton's oxidation was successfully applied for complete decolorization and approximately 85-90% mineralization of both azo-dyes in real industrial wastewater samples collected from textile dyeing house at El-Mahalla El-Kobra, Egypt.

  1. Accelerated decolorization of reactive azo dyes under saline conditions by bacteria isolated from Arabian seawater sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Azeem; Kausar, Farzana; Arshad, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2012-12-01

    Presence of huge amount of salts in the wastewater of textile dyeing industry is one of the major limiting factors in the development of an effective biotreatment system for the removal of azo dyes from textile effluents. Bacterial spp. capable of thriving under high salt conditions could be employed for the treatment of saline dyecontaminated textile wastewaters. The present study was aimed at isolating the most efficient bacterial strains capable of decolorizing azo dyes under high saline conditions. Fiftyeight bacterial strains were isolated from seawater, seawater sediment, and saline soil, using mineral salt medium enriched with 100 mg l−1 Reactive Black-5 azo dye and 50 g NaCl l−1 salt concentration. Bacterial strains KS23 (Psychrobacter alimentarius) and KS26 (Staphylococcus equorum) isolated from seawater sediment were able to decolorize three reactive dyes including Reactive Black 5, Reactive Golden Ovifix, and Reactive Blue BRS very efficiently in liquid medium over a wide range of salt concentration (0-100 g NaCl l)⁻¹. Time required for complete decolorization of 100 mg dye l ⁻¹ varied with the type of dye and salt concentration. In general, there was an inverse linear relationship between the velocity of the decolorization reaction (V) and salt concentration. This study suggested that bacteria isolated from saline conditions such as seawater sediment could be used in designing a bioreactor for the treatment of textile effluent containing high concentration of salts.

  2. Printing properties of the red reactive dyes with different number sulfonate groups on cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Li, Min; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-30

    Cellulose fabric is an important printing substrate. Four red azo reactive dyes based on 1-naphthol-8-amino-3,6-disulfonic acid for cotton fabric printing were designed. Their UV-Vis spectra and printing properties for cotton were investigated. The relationship between the chemical structures of the dyes and their printing properties on cotton fabric was discussed. The results show that the color yield (K/S) values of the printed fabrics decreased with the increase of sulfonate groups, but the fixation and penetration of the reactive dyes on cotton fabric increased. The reactive dyes with fewer number sulfonate groups were sensitive to alkaline and urea. Whereas, the reactive dyes with numerous sulfonate groups were not sensitive to urea and had good leveling properties, penetration uniformity, and good wet fastness for cotton fabric. Surface wettability of all cotton fabrics printed with four dyes was excellent. It is possible to print cotton fabric urea-free using the reactive dyes with numerous sulfonate groups.

  3. Photocatalytic Degradation of Two Commercial Reactive Dyes in Aqueous Phase Using Nanophotocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kansal SushilKumar; Kaur Navjeet; Singh Sukhmehar

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study involves the photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Reactive Orange 4 (RO4) dyes, employing heterogeneous photocatalytic process. Photocatalytic activity of different semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) has been investigated. An attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters through amount of catalyst, concentration of dye, and pH on photocatalytic degradation of RB5 and RO4. The experiments were carried ou...

  4. Degradation of reactive dyes by ozonation and oxalic acid-assimilating bacteria isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosumi, Akihiro; Kaneko, Erika; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2008-07-01

    Ozonation and treatment of wastewaters with oxalic acid-assimilating bacterium was attempted for the complete degradation of reactive dyes. Oxalic acid-assimilating bacterium, Pandoraea sp. strain EBR-01, was newly isolated from soil under bamboo grove and was identified to be a member of the genus Pandoraea by physicochemical and biochemical tests including 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The bacterium was grown optimally at pH 7 and temperature of 30 degrees C under the laboratory conditions. Reactive Red 120 (RR120), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) were used in degradation experiments. At the initial reactive dye concentrations of 500 mg/l and the ozonation time of 80 min, it was confirmed that 75-90 mg/l oxalic acid was generated from reactive dyes by ozonation. Microbial treatment using EBR-01 greatly decreased the amount of oxalic acid in the mixture after 48 h, but it was not removed completely. TOC/TOC(0) of reactive dye solutions was also decreased to 80-90% and 20-40% by ozonation and microbial treatment using EBR-01, respectively. The study confirmed that consecutive treatments by ozone and microorganisms are efficient methods to mineralize reactive dyes.

  5. Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojcinovic, Biljana P. [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Center of Chemistry, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Roglic, Goran M. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 158, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Obradovic, Bratislav M., E-mail: obrat@ff.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kuraica, Milorad M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kostic, Mirjana M. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Textile Engineering, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nesic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Dragan D. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 158, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Decolorization of four reactive textile dyes using non-thermal plasma reactor. {yields} Influence of applied energy on decolorization. {yields} Effects of initial pH and addition of homogeneous catalysts. {yields} Toxicity evaluation using the brine shrimp as a test organism. - Abstract: Decolorization of reactive textile dyes Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 52, Reactive Yellow 125 and Reactive Green 15 was studied using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Used initial dye concentrations in the solution were 40.0 and 80.0 mg/L. The effects of different initial pH of dye solutions, and addition of homogeneous catalysts (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Fe{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}) on the decolorization during subsequent recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor, i.e. applied energy density (45-315 kJ/L) were studied. Influence of residence time was investigated over a period of 24 h. Change of pH values and effect of pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation on the decolorization was also tested. It was found that the initial pH of dye solutions and pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation did not influence the decolorization. The most effective decolorization of 97% was obtained with addition of 10 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a system of 80.0 mg/L Reactive Black 5 with applied energy density of 45 kJ/L, after residence time of 24 h from plasma treatment. Toxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as a test organism.

  6. Synthesis and Application of Azo Disperse Reactive Dyes derived from p-Aminobenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabo Fasansi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Disperse reactive dyes were synthesized by diazotizing p-aminobenzaldehyde and coupling with different substituted pyridones and 2-naphthol. The dyeing performance of the dyes was assessed on polyester, nylon, cotton and wool fabrics. The dyes obtained gave various shades of yellow with good depth, brightness and leveling properties on the fabrics. The dyed fabric showed fairly good to very good light fastness and very good to excellent fastness to washing, hot pressing and rubbing. The dyebath exhaustion on the polyester, nylon, wool and cotton fabrics was found to be very good and fixation on wool was better than on cotton fabric.

  7. Effective NH{sub 2}-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ailian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Xiaoping, E-mail: xplu@njut.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Han, Pingfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} We prepared a new amine functionalized adsorbent derived from clay-based material. {yields} Attapulgite surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. {yields} Some modification parameters affecting the adsorption potential were investigated. {yields} Enhance the attapulgite adsorptive capacity for reactive dyes from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH{sub 2}-attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH{sub 2} groups.

  8. Adsorption of dissolved Reactive red dye from aqueous phase onto activated carbon prepared from agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaar, S; Kalaamani, P; Porkodi, K; Varadarajan, P R; Subburaam, C V

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of Reactive red dye (RR) onto Coconut tree flower carbon (CFC) and Jute fibre carbon (JFC) from aqueous solution was investigated. Adsorption studies were carried out at different initial dye concentrations, initial solution pH and adsorbent doses. The kinetic studies were also conducted; the adsorption of Reactive red onto CFC and JFC followed pseudosecond-order rate equation. The effective diffusion coefficient was evaluated to establish the film diffusion mechanism. Quantitative removal of Reactive red dye was achieved at strongly acidic conditions for both the carbons studied. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption capacity were found to be 181.9 and 200 mg/g for CFC and JFC, respectively. The overall rate of dye adsorption appeared to be controlled by chemisorption, in this case in accordance with poor desorption studies.

  9. Electrochemical Decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 Textile Dye using Pt/Ir Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır K. Körbahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical decolorization of textile dyeing wastewater containing Reactive Violet 5 (RV5 were investigated at Pt/Ir electrodes in the presence of 75%NaCl+25%Na2CO3 (w/w supporting electrolyte mixture in a batch electrochemical reactor. Experimental parameters were operated in the range of 300-1500 mg/L textile dye concentration, 4-20 g/L 75%NaCl+25%Na2CO3 electrolyte concentration, 5-15 mA/cm2 current density, and 20-60°C reaction temperature in 15 min electrolysis time. Reactive Violet 5 decolorization increased with increasing current density and electrolyte concentration, and decreasing the textile dye concentration. Although a slight increase obtained in color removal efficiency, the temperature was not show much significant effect on decolorization. Depending on electrochemical reaction conditions, Reactive Violet 5 textile dye decolorization were obtained between 42.8-100%.

  10. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH REACTIVE BLUE 204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes are synthetic organic compounds used on a wide scale in textile industry, for painting materials of different types and compositions (e.g. 100% cotton, wool, natural satin, viscose, synthetic fibres. Reactive dyes are solid compounds (powders completely water soluble at normal temperature and pressure conditions. Their structures contain chromophore groups, which generate colour, and auxochrome groups, which determine the compounds water solubility and the capacity to fix to the textile fiber. Such organic compounds absorb UV-Vis radiations at specific wavelengths, corresponding to maximum absorbtion peaks, in both solution and dyed fiber. The human organism, through the dyed clothing, comes in direct contact with those dyes which can undergo modifications once exposed to UV radiations, having the posibility to reach the organism via cutanated transport. As it is known, the provoked negative effects are stronger during summer when UV radiations are more intense and in order to reduce their intensity dark coloured clothing is avoided. Dyes can be transformed in compounds which are easily absorbed into the skin. Some of these metabolites can be less toxic than the original corresponding dye, whilst others, such as free radicals, are potentially cancerous. Knowledge of the biological effects of the organic dyes, reactive dyes in particular, correlated with their structural and physical characteristics, permanently consists an issue of high scientific and practical interest and its solution may contribute in the diminishing of risk factors and improving of population health. UV radiation influence on the structural and colour modifications of textile materials were studied. Colour modifications are due to structural changes in aromatic and carbonil groups. In most cases photo-oxidative processes were identified in the dye structure. Dyeing was performed using non-irradiated and irradiated cotton painted with reactive blue dye 204.

  11. Comparison of activated carbon and bottom ash removal of reactive dye from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincer, A.R.; Gunes, Y.; Karakaya, N.; Gunes, E. [Trakya University, Tekirdag (Turkey). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2007-03-15

    The adsorption of reactive dye from synthetic aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon (GAC) and coal-based bottom ash (CBBA) were studied under the same experimental conditions. As an alternative to GAC CBBA was used as adsorbent for dye removal from aqueous solution. The amount of Vertigo Navy Marine (VNM) adsorbed onto CBBA was lower compared with GAC at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased from 0.71 to 3.82 mg g{sup -1}, and 0.73 to 6.35 mg g{sup -1} with the initial concentration of dye from 25 to 300 mg l{sup -1} respectively. The initial dye uptake of CBBA was not so rapid as in the case of GAC and the dye uptake was slow and gradually attained equilibrium.

  12. Practice research of dyeing with novel low-alkaline reactive dyes%新型低碱活性染料染色实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志忠

    2015-01-01

    针对活性染料常规染棉织物工艺中纯碱用量过多的问题,采用新型低碱活性染料对棉织物进行染色;低碱活性染料染色所需纯碱用量少,仅为传统活性染料染色时纯碱用量的10%~15%,有利于提高染色一次成功率和染色后的皂洗,有效降低了染色用水和污水处理量;染色织物的得色量高,缩短了染色时间,提高了染色效率。%Aimed at the problem of excess alkali used in dyeing cotton fabrics with reactive dyes, a novel low-alkaline reactive dye was used to dye cotton fabrics. Less alkaline was needed in low-alkaline reactive dyes dyeing with a dosage of only 10%~15%comparing to traditional reactive dyes, which benefited to improve first-time success and soap wash. The amount of water and waste water treatment were reduced effectively. The dyed fabrics obtained high color yield and the low-alkaline reactive dyes dyeing process possessed short dyeing time and effective production efficiency.

  13. Semiconductor-assisted photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, C A; Wypych, F; Moraes, S G; Durán, N; Nagata, N; Peralta-Zamora, P

    2000-02-01

    This work reports the semiconductor-assisted photochemical degradation of reactive dyes. In an oxygenated-UV-ZnO system almost total decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Black B, Reactive Blue 221 and Reactive Blue 222 was observed in reaction times of about 60 min. Extending the photochemical treatment up to 120 min, mineralization higher than 80% for all the dyes was observed. During the same period, the residual acute toxicity was significantly reduced only for Remazol Black B. A systematic optimization study carried out by factorial design showed that for the reactive dyes tested, the ZnO semiconductor exhibits a better efficiency than that observed with anatase TiO2. A synergistic effect in the coupled TiO2-ZnO system was not observed.

  14. Biodegradation and detoxification of reactive textile dye by isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Dayanad C; Telke, Amar A; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2009-03-01

    An isolated bacterium from a textile disposal site, Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, has the ability to decolorize the reactive textile dyes and methyl orange. This bacterium showed the potential to decolorize the textile dye Reactive Blue 59 at a high concentration (5 g/L(-1)), which is frequently used in the textile industry of Solapur, India. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, azoreductase, and dichlorophenol indophenol reductase was observed during the decolorization of Methyl Orange and Reactive Blue 59. Methyl Orange (as model azo dye) was used to understand the mechanism of biodegradation by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The final product was identified as 1,4-benzenediamine, N, N-dimethyl by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies revealed the nontoxic nature of the products of Reactive Blue 59.

  15. Study on the dyeing properties of moderate temperature reactive dyes%中温活性染料上染性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 胡敏亚

    2014-01-01

    The dyeing properties of reactive dye are evaluated by dyeing characteristic values such as substantivity, exhaustion, fixation and reactivity, also migration index (MI) and level dyeing factor (LDF) are investigated to characterize migration property and level dyeing property. Two kinds of moderate temperature reactive dye were used to dye cotton knitted fabric by exhaust dyeing, then the dyeing characteristic is evaluated. The migration index and level dyeing factor were obtained in order to analyze the dyeing property of different dyes.%采用活性染料的染色特征值(S、E、F、R值)来评价染料的性能,并结合移染指数MI和匀染因子LDF评价染料的移染性和匀染性。通过选择2种中温活性染料,采用浸染工艺进行纯棉针织布的打样染色试验,测定各种染料的染色特征值,通过计算得出移染指数和匀染因子,并分析不同染料的上染性能。

  16. Synthesis and characterization of reactive dye-cassava mesocarp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... tested for dye fixation, fastness (acid, alkali, wash) and solvent stability. Results ... obtained by using such an agricultural waste in feeding ... The cassava peels were obtained from a cassava processing mill at. Choba, Nigeria.

  17. Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Sala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A, followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1 with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved.

  18. Kinetics and inhibition during the decolorization of reactive anthraquinone dyes under methanogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, E J; Beydilli, M I; Lee, Y H; Pavlostathis, S G

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the biological decolorization of two reactive anthraquinone dyes (Reactive Blue 4, RB 4; Reactive Blue 19, RB 19) under methanogenic conditions. Using a mixed, methanogenic culture, batch assays were performed to evaluate both the rate and extent of color removal as well as any potential inhibition. The effect of initial dye, biomass, and organic feed concentration, as well as the effect of repetitive dye addition on color removal kinetics and culture inhibition were assessed. Overall, a lower rate and extent of color removal was observed in RB 4-amended cultures as opposed to the RB 19-amended cultures. For an incubation time of ca. 15 days and an initial dye concentration of 2000 mg/L, the extent of color removal was 50 and 95% for RB 4 and RB 19, respectively. Inhibition of acidogenesis and to a larger degree of methanogenesis, resulting in accumulation of volatile fatty acids, was observed in both RB 4- and RB 19-amended cultures. Although the degree of inhibition varied among the two dyes tested (RB 19 was more inhibitory than RB 4), an increase of inhibition was observed with increasing initial dye concentration. At an initial dye concentration of 500 mg/L or higher, methane production was lower than 6% of that of the control culture for both RB 4 and RB 19. However, color removal occurred despite culture inhibition.

  19. Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Meireles, Gabriela; dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2014-02-01

    Human eyes have a remarkable ability to recognize hundreds of colour shades, which has stimulated the use of colorants, especially for clothing, but toxicological studies have shown that some textile dyes can be hazardous to human health. Under conditions of intense perspiration, dyes can migrate from coloured clothes and penetrate into human skin. Garments made from cotton fabrics are the most common clothing in tropical countries, due to their high temperatures. Aiming to identify safe textile dyes for dyeing cotton fabrics, the genotoxicity [in vitro Comet assay with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), Tail Intensity] and mutagenicity [Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay (30min), tester strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042] of Reactive Blue 2 (RB2, CAS No. 12236-82-7, C.I. 61211) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19, CAS No. 61931-49-5, C.I. 205075) were evaluated both in the formulated form and as extracted from cotton fibres using different artificial sweats. Both the dyes could migrate from cotton fibres to sweat solutions, the sweat composition and pH being important factors during this extraction. However, the dye sweat solutions showed no genotoxic/mutagenic effects, whereas a weak mutagenic potential was detected by the Ames test for both dyes in their formulated form. These findings emphasize the relevance of textile dyes assessment under conditions that more closely resemble human exposure, in order to recognize any hazard.

  20. Dyeing behaviors of an easy washing-off reactive dye%易洗涤活性染料的染色性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德虎; 赵涛

    2012-01-01

    采用合成的易洗涤活性染料对棉织物进行染色,探讨了盐用量、碱用量、固色温度、时间和浴比等因素对染色性能的影响,并测试了染料的染色特征值S、E、R、F值.结果表明,所合成的易洗涤活性染料对棉织物浸染具有较好的染色性能,优化的染色工艺为:氯化钠60 g/L,碳酸钠20 g/L,固色温度为50℃,固色时间为60 min,浴比为1∶20.采用易洗涤活性染料染色,皂洗温度比常规活性染料低20℃,固色率可达57.2%,且色牢度良好.%Cotton fabric is dyed with a synthesized easy washing-off reactive dye, influences of salt and alkali dosages, fixation temperature and time, and bath ratio on dyeing behaviors are discussed, and dyeing characteristic values such as S( substantiv-ity), E( exhaustion), R(reactivity), F( fixation) of the reactive dyes are determined. The results show that the synthesized easy washing-off reactive dyes feature good dyeing behaviors in reactive exhaust dyeing of cotton fabric, and the optimum dyeing parameters are sodium chloride 60 g/L, sodium carbonate 20 g/L, fixation at 50 ℃ for 60 min with bath ratio 1:20. Dyeing with the synthesized reactive dyes can reduce soaping temperature by 20 ℃ compared with conventional reactive dyes, and the cotton dyeings have good color fastness and fixation yield of 57.2%

  1. Kinetics and mechanism of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the diazo functional groups of 1-diazo-2-indanone and 2-diazo-1-indanone in aqueous solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiang, Yvonne; Kresge, A J; Sadovski, Oleg; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yu

    2005-01-01

    Rates of hydrolysis of 1-diazo-2-indanone and 2-diazo-1-indanone were measured in dilute aqueous perchloric acid solutions using both H2O and D2O as the solvent, and rates of hydrolysis of the latter...

  2. Biological decolorization of the reactive dyes Reactive Black 5 by a novel isolated bacterial strain Enterobacter sp. EC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Su, Jian-Qiang; Tian, Yun; Xiong, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Tian-Ling

    2009-11-15

    Studies were carried out on the decolorization of the reactive dye Reactive Black 5 by a newly isolated bacterium, EC3. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparisons indicate that this strain belonged to the genus Enterobacter. The optimal conditions for the decolorizing activity of Enterobacter sp. EC3 were anaerobic conditions with glucose supplementation, at pH 7.0, and 37 degrees C. The maximum decolorization efficiency against Reactive Black 5 achieved in this study was 92.56%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) analyses before and after decolorization and the colorless bacterial biomass after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation, rather than inactive surface adsorption. The bacterial strain also showed a strong ability to decolorize various reactive textile dyes, including both azo and anthraquinone dyes. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a bacterial strain of Enterobacter sp. has been reported with decolorizing ability against both azo and anthraquinone dyes.

  3. Photoassisted Electrochemical Treatment of Azo and Phtalocyanine Reactive Dyes in the Presence of Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Sala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical treatment (EC was applied at different intensities to degrade the chromophoric groups of dyes C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5 and C.I. Reactive Blue 7 (Rb7 until uncolored species were obtained. Decolorization rate constants of the azo dye RB5 were higher than the phtalocyanine Rb7 ones. In addition, the EC treatment was more efficient at higher intensities, but these conditions significantly increased the generation of undesirable by-products such as chloroform. The combination of EC with UV irradiation (UVEC drastically minimized the generation of chloroform. The photo-assisted electrochemical treatment was also able to achieve decolorization values of 99%. Finally, mixtures of dyes and surfactants were treated by EC and UVEC. In the presence of surfactants, the decolorization kinetic of dyes was slowed due to the competitive reactions of surfactants degradation. Both methods achieved total decolorization and in both cases, the generation of haloforms was negligible.

  4. Compound study on low salt dyeing dark trichromatic reactive dyes%低盐活性染料深三原色的复配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪; 陈美芬; 简卫; 赵德峰

    2012-01-01

    Novel low salt dyeing dark trichromatic reactive dyes were compounded, optimal ratio was obtained by studying the effect of different monomer compound ratios on dyeing performance. Dyeing build up and dyeing fastness were compared between self-made low salt dyeing dark trichromatic reactive dyes and monomers.%复配了新型低盐活性染料深三原色,研究了不同单体之间的复配比例对染料染色性能的影响,得到了最佳复配比例。对低盐活性染料深三原色与复配的染料单体在染色提升力和染色牢度等方面进行了对比研究。

  5. Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthorn, Duangrat; Singhtho, Siritham; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

    2004-09-01

    The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of the dye solution had little effect on removal of basic dyes, and efficiencies ranged from 97% to 99% over the range of pH used. Over a wide range of pH levels, all types of treated cattail powder had negative charges and probably attracted the basic dyes possessing positive charges. Efficiency of removal by the three NLC treatments ranged from 37% to 42% for direct dyes and from 22% to 54% for direct dyes at pH 7. The pH of the dye solution had substantial effects on the efficiency of removal in direct and reactive dyes. Dye removal was highest at pH 3, with 99% for a direct dye (Sirius Red Violet RL) and 96% for a reactive dye (Basilen Red M-5B). There was mutual attraction between negatively charged direct dye molecules and positively charged molecules on the surface of the FH-treated cattail. In tests of desorption of dyes from cattail in distilled water, the desorption percentage for FH-NLC after adsorbing basic, direct and reactive dyes was 6%, 10% and 35%, respectively, which indicated a chemisorption mechanism for basic and direct dyes and some physiosorption for reactive dyes.

  6. Determination of the phthalocyanine textile dye, reactive turquoise blue, by electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osugi Marly E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Turquoise blue 15 (AT15 is a reactive dye widely used in the textile industry to color natural fibers. The presence of these dyes in effluent and industrial wastewater is of considerable interest due ecotoxicological and environmental problems. The electrochemical reduction of this dye has been investigated in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential electrolysis and cathodic stripping voltammetry. Optimum conditions for dye discoloration by controlled potential electrolysis use an alkaline medium. Using cathodic stripping voltammetry a linear calibration graph was obtained from 5.00x10-8 mol L-1 to 1.00x10-6 mol L-1 of AT15 at pH 4.0, using accumulation times of 180 and 240 s and an accumulation potential of 0.0 V. The proposed method was applied in direct determination of the dye in tap water and in textile industry effluent.

  7. Removal of azo and anthraquinone reactive dyes from industrial wastewaters using MgO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza, E-mail: Moussavi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Maryam [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    In the present investigation, a porous MgO powder was synthesized and tested for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. The size of the MgO particles was in the range of 38-44 nm, with an average specific surface area of 153.7 m{sup 2}/g. Adsorption of reactive blue 19 and reactive red 198 was conducted to model azo and anthraquinone dyes at various MgO dosages, dye concentrations, solution pHs and contact times in a batch reactor. Experimental results indicate that the prepared MgO powder can remove more than 98% of both dyes under optimum operational conditions of a dosage of 0.2 g, pH 8 and a contact time of 5 min for initial dye concentrations of 50-300 mg/L. The isotherm evaluations revealed that the Langmuir model attained better fits to the experimental equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities were 166.7 and 123.5 mg of dye per gram of adsorbent for RB 19 and RR 198, respectively. In addition, adsorption kinetic data followed a pseudo-second-order rate for both tested dyes.

  8. Investigation on Effluent Characteristics of Organic Cotton Fabric Dyeing With Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan; Md. Mazedul Islam; Elias Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is the major concern in the age of modern world. For textile and apparel sector, this has been a burning issue for many related concerned bodies. The pretreatment and dyeing process of greige fabrics results in large volume of effluents that has harmful effect on environment. In this study, the ecological parameters of the effluents obtained from scouring and dyeing of 100% organic cotton single jersey knitted fabrics with environmentally low impact Remazol ser...

  9. Union Dyeing Behavior on the Blends of Tencel and Shrinkproofing Wool with the Same Reactive Dyestuffs in One Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Quan; WU Chan-juan; XU Bin

    2002-01-01

    In order to obtain union colour on the blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool and improve the efficiency of dyeing process, the dyeing behavior on the blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool in the same bath was studied. The Argazol TW reactive dyestuffs were involved in the dyeing process. The parameters under different conditions such as exhaustion, fixation,compatibility as well as soaping fastness were investigated in detail. It is shown that the Argazol TW reactive dyestuffs are suitable for dyeing of blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool and good dyeing behavior can be expected.

  10. DFT Study of the Structure, Reactivity, Natural Bond OrbitalandHyperpolarizabilityofThiazoleAzoDyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman I. Osman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure, reactivity, natural bond orbital (NBO, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO properties of three thiazole azo dyes (A, B and C were monitored by applying B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The geometrical parameters,dipolemoments,HOMO-LUMO(highestoccupiedmolecularorbital,lowestunoccupied molecular orbital energy gaps, absorption wavelengths and total hyperpolarizabilities were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 chloroform (CHCl3, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 and dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO. The donor methoxyphenyl group deviates from planarity with the thiazole azo moiety by ca. 38◦; while the acceptor dicyanovinyl, indandione and dicyanovinylindanone groups diverge by ca. 6◦. The HOMOs for the three dyes are identical. They spread over the methoxyphenyl donor moiety, the thiazole and benzene rings as π-bonding orbitals. The LUMOs are shaped up by the nature of the acceptor moieties. The LUMOs of the A, B and C dyes extend over the indandione, malononitrile and dicyanovinylindanone acceptor moieties, respectively, as π-antibonding orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO splittings showed that Dye C is much more reactive than dyes A and B. Compared to dyes A and B, Dye C yielded a longer maximum absorption wavelength because of the stabilization of its LUMOs relative to those of the other two. The three dyes show solvatochromism accompanied by significant increases in hyperpolarizability. The enhancement of the total hyperpolarizability of C compared to those of AandBisduetothecumulativeactionofthelongπ-conjugationoftheindanoneringandthestronger electron-withdrawingabilityofthedicyanovinylmoietythatformthedicyanovinylindanoneacceptor group. These findings are facilitated by a natural bond orbital (NBO technique. The very high total hyperpolarizabilities of the three dyes define their potent nonlinear optical (NLO behaviour.

  11. Electrochemical degradation of reactive dye in the presence of water jet cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Jia, Jinping; Wang, Yalin

    2010-03-01

    Degradation of a reactive dye, Brilliant Red X-3B, induced by electrolysis coupled with water jet cavitation was studied. The experiment was performed in 4.5L of aqueous solution containing X-3B concentrations ranging from 40 to 120mg/L by applying Ti-IrO(2) as anode and graphite as cathode. The water jet cavitation process decreased the diffusion layer thickness and consequently increased the current density. Compared to water jet cavitation and electrolysis alone, the combination of the two methods enhanced X-3B removal and showed a synergistic effect. The azo bond of the dye molecule was broken down and the naphthalene ring was transformed to multi-substituted benzene during the combined process. The dye degradation rate increased with increasing concentration. Acidic conditions (e.g., pH 1) favored the decolorization of the reactive dye. The use of TiO(2) coated with IrO(2) as anode and graphite as cathode showed the best performance for the dye removal efficiency, compared to other electrode pairs. Addition of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), and especially Cl(-) ions into solution significantly enhanced the degradation. However, CO(3)(2-) inhibited the dye decolorization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosorption Reactive Orange 16 Dye using Sargassum glaucescens from the Aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Dyes are oneof the most important environmental pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Due to the complex molecular structure, toxic removal of the pollutant is always challenging. Thisstudy aimed toevaluate the efficiency of Sargassum glaucescens In the adsorption of ReactiveOrange16 dyein aquatic environments. Materials and Methods: This research was a lab study. S. glaucescens was used as an adsorbent to remove dye Reactive Orange 16. The effect of various parameters such as pH, initial dyes concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, Equilibrium Isotherm were studied. Concentration was measured in the wavelength of 526 nm by spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that removal of the color increases by increasing the amount of absorbent and contact time, and decreases by increasing PH solution and initial concentration of dye. The equilibrium constant was consistent with both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm but it was more consistent with Freundlich isotherm (R2 :0.989. Conclusion: This study showed that Sargassum glaucescens having high absorption capacity, was economic and could be effective as an absorbent in water treatment especially in the removal of dyes from waste and textile sewage and other manufacturing industries and dye consumption.

  13. Reactive Black 5 dye degradation using filters of smuggled cigarette modified with Fe(3.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glugoski, Letícia Polli; de Jesus Cubas, Paloma; Fujiwara, Sérgio Toshio

    2016-05-14

    This study presents an attempt to solve two serious environmental problems: the generation of toxic effluents and solid waste disposal. The work proposes recycling cigarette filters with the purpose of degrading reactive dyes, which are used in the textile industry. Filters of smuggled cigarettes were recycled through Fe(3+) immobilization on their surface. The material obtained was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The factorial design revealed that the most suitable conditions for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye were obtained by using 1 g of material at pH 3.0 in a 100 mg L(-1) hydrogen peroxide solution. The material showed excellent performance in the Reactive Black 5 dye degradation process; in 60 min, 99.09 % dye was removed. At pH 7.0, the dye degradation was 72.67 %, indicating that the material prepared can be used at pH values greater than 3.0 without the occurrence of hydrated Fe(3+) oxide precipitation. Furthermore, the material showed no loss of catalytic activity after three degradation studies.

  14. Single and binary adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions onto clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sismanoglu, Tuba; Kismir, Yasemin; Karakus, Selcan

    2010-12-15

    The adsorption of Reactive Blue 21 (RB21) and Reactive Red 195 (RR195) onto clinoptilolite type natural zeolite (ZEC) has been investigated at 298.15K. The uptake of single and binary reactive dyes from aqueous solutions has been determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. Two mono-component (RB21 and RR195) and binary component (RB21 with RR195, and RR195 with RB21), isotherms were determined. The mono-component Langmuir isotherm model was applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for RB21 and RR195 dyes. The monolayer coverage capacities of clinoptilolite for RB21 and RR195 dyes in single solution system were found as 9.652 and 3.186 mg/g, respectively. Equilibrium adsorption for binary systems was analyzed by using the extended Langmuir models. The rate of kinetic processes of single and binary dye systems onto clinoptilolite was described by using two kinetics adsorption models. The pseudo-second-order model was the best choice among the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behaviour of single and binary dyes onto clinoptilolite.

  15. Comparison of four supports for adsorption of reactive dyes by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-e; HU Yong-you

    2007-01-01

    Four materials, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC), sodium alginate (SA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and chitosan (CTS), were prepared as supports for entrapping fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The adsorption of synthetic dyes, reactive brilliant blue KN-R, and reactive brilliant red K-2BP, by these immobilized gel beads and plain gel beads was evaluated. The adsorption efficiencies of reactive brilliant red K-2BP and reactive brilliant blue KN-R by CTS immobilized beads were 89.1% and 93.5% in 12 h, respectively. The adsorption efficiency by Na-CMC immobilized beads was slightly lower than that of mycelial pellets. But the dye culture mediums were almost completely decolorized in 48 h using the above-mentioned two immobilized beads (exceeding 95%). The adsorption efficiency by SA immobilized beads exceeded 92% in 48 h. PVA-SA immobilized beads showed the lowest adsorption efficiency, which was 79.8% for reactive brilliant red K-2BP and 92.5% for reactive brilliant blue KN-R in 48 h. Comparing the adsorption efficiency by plain gel beads, Na-CMC plain gel beads ranked next to CTS ones. SA and PVA-SA plain gel beads hardly had the ability of adsorbing dyes. Subsequently, the growth of mycelia in Na-CMC and SA immobilized beads were evaluated. The biomass increased continuously in 72 h. The adsorption capacity of reactive brilliant red K-2BP and reactive brilliant blue KN-R by Na-CMC immobilized beads was 78.0 and 86.7 mg/g, respectively. The SEM micrographs show that the surface structure of Na-CMC immobilized bead is loose and finely porous, which facilitates diffusion of the dyes.

  16. A New Approach to Dyeing of 80 : 20 Polyester/Cotton Blended Fabric Using Disperse and Reactive Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Polyester/Cotton blended fabrics are normally dyed by two-bath or one-bath two-step dyeing method. This paper deals with a new approach involving azeotropic ternary mixture of organic solvents pretreatment to dye polyester/cotton blends using disperse and reactive dyes in one-bath method. The effect of solvent pretreatments on dyeability, fastness, and few physicochemical properties has been investigated involving SEM, FTIR, DSC, and XRD studies, and results are presented.

  17. 水溶液中活性染料的紫外光降解脱色%Degradation of reactive dyes by UV-light in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章燕琴; 许红梅; 祝贺; 石鑫; 王小雪; 龙家杰

    2012-01-01

    Taking a low-pressure mercury violet lamp as light source, the photodegradation characteristics and parameters of reactive dyes in oxygenated aqueous solution without any photocatalyst and promoters is discussed. The degradation of reactive dyes with different molecular structures is investigated. The results show that the pH value, dye concentration and parent structure, and the light radiation time has significantly effect on decolorization rate of Reactive Yellow X-R. The decolorization rate decreases with the increase of pH value and concentration (50 ~ 120 mg/L), and the acidic medium is more helpful. High decoloration rate is observed in initial degradation stage, and the efficiency of color degradation increases with time. The decolorization rate is fast at the beginning, and getting higher with reaction time. The azo reactive dyes with aromatic group and het-erocyclic rings in the parent structure degrade readily by UV-light, but their decolorization rate decreases significantly after the introduction of coordination metal ion Cu( Ⅱ) into the parent structure. The more complex and more substitutes the diazo component and/or coupling component has, the lower the decolorization rate is, but the reactive groups have little effect on the decolorization rate.%以低压紫外汞灯为光源,在无光催化剂及促进剂条件下,探讨紫外光对通氧水溶液中活性染料的光降解脱色特性和主要影响因素,以及不同结构类型活性染料的紫外光脱色降解性能.结果表明,溶液pH值、染料浓度、光照时间及母体结构类型对活性黄X-R染料溶液的脱色率有较大影响;染料的光降解脱色率随溶液pH值增大而降低,酸性条件有助于染料母体结构的降解消色;活性黄X-R染料的光降解脱色率随其质量浓度增加(50 mg/L增大到120 mg/L),呈线性降低;染料的光降解脱色速率在起始阶段较快,并随一定范围内处理时间的延长,其脱色率增大;染料结

  18. Radiation-induced decomposition and decoloration of reactive dyes in the presence of H 2O 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Yang, Ruiyuan; Wang, Wenfeng; Shen, Zhongqun; Bian, Shaowei; Zhu, Zhiyuan

    2006-02-01

    The dyeing wastewaters represent a large input of hazardous compounds to the environment and these compounds are usually non-biodegradable. In this study, electron beam irradiation-induced decoloration and decomposition of reactive dyes in aqueous solution were investigated. Two different reactive dyes (reactive red KE-3B and reactive blue XBR) solutions were irradiated with electron beam at different doses in the absence and presence of H 2O 2. The changes of absorption spectra and pH value were described and analyzed as well as the degree of decoloration and COD removal. The influences of absorbed doses, H 2O 2 additions and initial dye concentrations are discussed. The experimental results show that reactive dyes in aqueous solutions can be effectively degraded by electron beam irradiation, especially in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Photodegradation of Reactive Dyes by UV/Ferrioxalate/H2O2 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Binsong(王滨松); Huang Junli; Zhang Jie

    2004-01-01

    Three types of simulated commercial reactive dye wastewater, separately prepared with FN-2BL red, C-R blue and C-2R yellow, were oxidized with UV/ferrioxalate/H2O2 system, especially by the introduction of Fe2+ ion. The experimental results show that the optimized experimental conditions are pH=3.5, [Fe2+]=1mM, H2O2782mg/L for FN-2BL red and C-R blue and H2O2646mg/L for C-2R yellow, t=4h and T=80℃ when the concentration of dye is 400mg/L. Under such conditions, the observed COD and color removal efficiencies are above 94% and 99%, respectively for all the cases. This investigation has provided fundamental information for the treatment of wastewater containing reactive dyes using UV/ferrioxalate/H2O2.

  20. Reactive dyes decolouration by TiO2 photo-assisted catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, C; Yeber, M C; Freer, J; Baeza, J; Mansilla, H D

    2001-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of three reactive azo dyes (yellow-2, orange-16 and red-2) and one anthraquinone reactive dye (blue-19) was studied. The reactions were carried out in a reactor with recirculation using TiO2 immobilised on glass Raschig rings (system A) and compared with a batch system using the catalyst in aqueous suspension (system B). Both reaction systems were irradiated with a 125 W, lambda > 254 nm lamp. The suspended TiO2 system was also studied using a 125 W 360 nm lamp (system C). Kinetic studies indicated a rapid colour removal, following the order B > A > C. The same trend was observed in COD and TOC removal profiles. The energy consumption per order of magnitude of catalytic degradation of the dyes was lower in the batch reactor (system B) than in the reactor with recirculation and immobilised TiO2 (system A).

  1. Study on the Hydrolysis and Ammonolysis Kinetics of a Monochlorotriazinyl Reactive Dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jian-ming

    2009-01-01

    To understand the reaction behaviour of the reactive dye with amino groups on protein fibres, the reaction kinetics of competitive hydrolysis and ammonolysis of a monochlorotriazina reactive dye were studied at 50 -80℃ and pH = 8 - 10 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed the pseudofirst-order phenomenon for the general reaction of concurrent hydrolysis and ammonolysis of the dyes. The ammonolysis reaction was always faster than the hydrolysis reaction in the range of temperature and pH employed, but the preference for ammonolysis to hydrolysis reaction decreased with the increase of temperature and pH value. The ratios of ammonolysis/hydrolysis rate constant reduced from 17.6 to 5.4 when the temperature increased from 50 to 80℃ in pH =10, and from 7.2 to 5.4 when the pH value increased from 8 to 10 at 80℃.

  2. Optimization and kinetics evaluation of biodegradation of synthetic azo reactive dye by fungal consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, V; Sivakumar, V

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater containing direct dyes discharged from various industries, in particular, textile industry, often cause many environmental problems. Among the various effluent treatment methods, biological methods found to be cost effective and do not end up in secondary pollutants. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the decolorization of cibacron yellow S-3R, an azo reactive dye by using fungal cultures such as Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Myrothecium verrucaria. The fungi were able to decolorize individually the azo reactive dye cibacron yellow S-3R to an extent of nearly in the range 75 - 85%, whereas the mixed fungal consortium was able to decolorize to an extent of nearly 95%.The study is extended with the kinetics of decolorization of Cibacron yellow S-3R using mixed fungal consortium containing equal proportions of the cultures. The experimental results show that decolorization kinetics follow second order rate equation.

  3. Chemical modification of cotton fabrics for improving utilization of reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Long; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Deshuai

    2013-01-02

    The cotton fabric was chemically modified with the acrylamide through Michael addition reaction and Hoffman degradation reaction. And the optimum chemical modification conditions were determined. The molecular structure of the modified cotton fabric was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structures of both the raw and modified cotton fabrics were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The raw and modified cotton fabrics were dyed using commercial reactive dyes with vinyl-sulfone groups. The results showed that the total dye utilization of modified cotton fabrics in the salt-free dyeing was higher than that of raw cotton fabrics in the conventional dyeing. And the color fastness properties and tear strength of modified fabrics were both satisfactory.

  4. Decoloration of reactive dyes with ultrasound/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajnhandl, S.; Majcen Le Marechal, A.; Brodnjak Voncina, B. [Univ. of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2003-07-01

    The decoloration of water solutions of six reactive dyes (Bezactiv Yellow VG-R, Bezactiv Red VB-N, Bezactiv Blue V-3R, Remazol Dark Black N 150%, Remazol Brill Blue BB 133% and Remazol Black B 133%), under ultrasound and ultrasound/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} conditions was examined. The decreasing of the dye concentration was followed by absorbance measurements. The results were evaluated using calibration curves of the corresponding dye. The study has shown that the efficiency of the ultrasound treatment is significantly enhanced if the combination of ultrasound and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used. The rate of colour degradation was twice as fast as that accomplished by sonolysis alone. The best results were obtained with the Remazol Black B 133% dye solution. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis of oxidized guar gum by dry method and its application in reactive dye printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghong; Liu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Dapeng; Gao, Chunmei; Ni, Boli; Chen, Jiucun

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare oxidized guar gum with a simple dry method, basing on guar gum, hydrogen peroxide and a small amount of solvent. To obtain a product with suitable viscosity for reactive dye printing, the effects of various factors such as the amount of oxidant and solvent, reaction temperature and time were studied with respect to the viscosity of reaction products. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The hydrated rate of guar gum and oxidized guar gum was estimated through measuring the required time when their solutions (1%, w/v) reached the maximum viscosity. The effects of the salt concentration and pH on viscosity of the resultant product were studied. The mixed paste containing oxidized guar gum and carboxymethyl starch was prepared and its viscosity was determined by the viscometer. The rheological property of the mixed paste was appraised by the printing viscosity index. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with sodium alginate. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace sodium alginate as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing.

  6. Removal of anionic reactive dyes from water using anion exchange membranes as adsorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Hung; Wu, Jeng-Shiou; Chiu, Hsin-Chieh; Suen, Shing-Yi; Chu, Khim Hoong

    2007-04-01

    Two commercial anion exchange membranes, strong basic (SB6407) and weak basic (DE81), were evaluated for the removal of anionic reactive dyes, Cibacron blue 3GA (three sulfonic acid groups per dye molecule) and Cibacron red 3BA (four sulfonic acid groups per dye molecule), from water in this study. The adsorption isotherm results show that the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Cibacron blue 3GA (31.5mg/cm(3) for SB6407 and 25.5mg/cm(3) for DE81) were greater than those of Cibacron red 3BA (24.5mg/cm(3) for SB6407 and 18.5mg/cm(3) for DE81). For each reactive dye, the capacity for SB6407 was higher than DE81 based on the same membrane volume. However, consideration of the number of ion exchange sites interacting with a dye molecule indicates that the DE81 results are close to the theoretical values while the SB6407 membrane had some unused binding sites. In addition, Cibacron red 3BA demonstrated faster and stronger binding with both anion exchange membranes than Cibacron blue 3GA. Both dyes could bind with strong basic SB6407 more quickly and stronger. In the batch desorption process, different desorption solutions were tested and the mixtures of salt, acid, or base in methanol solution (e.g. 1N KSCN in 60% methanol or 1N HCl in 60% methanol) achieved better performance. Finally, in the flow process with one piece of anion exchange membrane (initial dye concentration of 0.05g/L), SB6407 was found superior to DE81 in dye recovery and both membranes retained their original uptake capacities over three cycles of adsorption, washing, and desorption.

  7. Microbial diversity in a continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of the azo dyes Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Black 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Jörgen; Pinhassi, Jarone; Lindh, Markus; Welander, Ulrika

    2013-02-01

    In the present study the degradation of two common azo dyes used in dye houses today, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 was evaluated in biofilters. In two experiments, bioreactors performed over 80% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of only 28.4h with little production of metabolites. Molecular analyses showed a diverse and dynamic bacterial community composition in the bioreactors, including members of the Bacteroidetes, Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Clostridium (Firmicutes) that possess the capacity to reduce azo dyes. Collectively, the results indicate that the development of mixed bacterial communities from natural biomaterials contributes to an efficient and robust degradation performance in bioreactors even at high concentration of dyes.

  8. Calixarenes: A Versatile Source for the Recovery of Reactive Blue-19 Dye from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work demonstrates the comparative extraction efficiency of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (1 and its derivatives (2-4 toward a series of some selected reactive dyes such as Reactive Black-5 (RB-5, Reactive Blue-19 (RB-19 and Reactive Red-45 (RR-45. The study elaborates effectiveness of different anchoring groups present on the periphery of calix[4]arene platform and highlights the importance of preorganization concerning the application of supramolecular chemistry in separation science and technology. It has been observed that compound 4 shows good extraction efficiency toward RB-19 among the selected reactive dyes. Enhanced extraction efficiency was observed with the addition of NaCl at pH 7. The proposed extraction mechanism through inclusion complexation was confirmed by log-log plot analysis, which shows 1:1 complexation between 4 and RB-19. The solvatochromic response of 4 in various solvents of different polarities showed good response in methanol. The log K of complex was found as 5.2. The complex formation between 4 and RB-19 has also been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The recovery of 4 and RB-19 dye was achieved at pH 8 that signifies the reusability of 4 again and again.

  9. Comparative Studies on Dyeability with Direct, Acid and Reactive Dyes after Chemical Modification of Jute with Mixed Amino Acids Obtained from Extract of Waste Soya Bean Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Nilendu Sekhar; Konar, Adwaita; Roy, Alok Nath; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Jute fabric was treated with mixed natural amino acids obtained from waste soya bean seed extract for chemical modification of jute for its cataionization and to enhance its dyeability with anionic dyes (like direct, reactive and acid dye) as well enabling soya modified jute for salt free dyeing with anionic reactive dyes maintaining its eco-friendliness. Colour interaction parameters including surface colour strength were assessed and compared for both bleached and soya-modified jute fabric for reactive dyeing and compared with direct and acid dye. Improvement in K/S value (surface colour strength) was observed for soya-modified jute even in absence of salt applied in dye bath for reactive dyes as well as for direct and acid dyes. In addition, reactive dye also shows good dyeability even in acid bath in salt free conditions. Colour fastness to wash was evaluated for bleached and soya-modified jute fabric after dyeing with direct, acid and reactive dyes are reported. Treatment of jute with soya-extracted mixed natural amino acids showed anchoring of some amino/aldemine groups on jute cellulosic polymer evidenced from Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. This amino or aldemine group incorporation in bleached jute causes its cationization and hence when dyed in acid bath for reactive dye (instead of conventional alkali bath) showed dye uptake for reactive dyes. Study of surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of said soya-modified jute as compared to bleached jute was studied and reported.

  10. Reactive dye house wastewater treatment. Use of hybrid technology: Membrane, sonication followed by wet oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V. [Univ. of Mumbai (India)

    1999-05-01

    To address problems associated with treatment of an aqueous waste stream from a reactive dye house, a model dye, turquoise blue CI25, was studied. A hybrid technology, membrane separation followed by sonication and wet oxidation, has been demonstrated to treat the wastewater for reuse and discharge. Experiments were first performed with the reactive dye solution in water. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) was found to be suitable to concentrate the dye. The concentrate was then treated with a wet oxidation process. Kinetics studies were performed with and without catalyst, in the temperature range of 170--215 C. The color destruction achieved was > 99%. After process parameters were fixed, studies were conducted with the actual dye waste stream. The actual waste stream was found to be refractory for wet oxidation under the above conditions. Sonication of the concentrate obtained after membrane filtration, in the presence of CuSO{sub 4}, made the waste stream amenable to wet oxidation. Sonication followed by wet oxidation was found to be more effective at near neutral conditions as compared to basic conditions.

  11. Case study of the sonochemical decolouration of textile azo dye Reactive Black 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajnhandl, Simona [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)]. E-mail: simona.vajnhandl@uni-mb.si; Le Marechal, Alenka Majcen [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2007-03-06

    The decolouration and mineralization of reactive dye C.I. Reactive Black 5, a well-known representative of non-biodegradable azo dyes, by means of ultrasonic irradiation at 20, 279 and 817 kHz has been investigated with emphasis on the effect of various parameters on decolouration and degradation efficiency. Characterization of the used ultrasound systems was performed using calorimetric measurements and oxidative species monitoring using Fricke and iodine dosimeter. Experiments were carried out with low frequency probe type, and a high-frequency plate type transducer at 50, 100 and 150 W of acoustic power and within the 5-300 mg/L initial dye concentration range. Decolouration, as well as radical production, increased with increasing frequency, acoustic power, and irradiation time. Any increase in initial dye concentration results in decreased decolouration rates. Sonochemical decolouration was substantially depressed by the addition of 2-methyl-2-propanol as a radical scavenger, which suggests radical-induced reactions in the solution. Acute toxicity to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri was tested before and after ultrasound irradiation. Under the conditions employed in this study, no toxic compounds were detected after 6 h of irradiation. Mineralization of the dye was followed by TOC measurements. Relatively low degradation efficiency (50% after 6 h of treatment) indicates that ultrasound is rather inefficient in overall degradation, when used alone.

  12. Biodegradation of reactive textile dye Red BLI by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, D C; Patil, P S; Jadhav, J P; Govindwar, S P

    2008-07-01

    A novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing reactive textile dye Red BLI is isolated from the soil sample collected from contaminated sites of textile industry from Solapur, India. The bacterial isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis. The Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 decolorized Red BLI (50 mg l(-1)) 99.28% within 1h under static anoxic condition at pH range from 6.5 to 7.0 and 30 degrees C. This strain has ability to decolorize various reactive textile dyes. UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR and TLC analysis of samples before and after dye decolorization in culture medium confirmed decolorization of Red BLI. A significant increase in the activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase and NADH-DCIP reductase in cells obtained after decolorization indicates involvement of these enzymes in the decolorization process. Phytotoxicity testing with the seeds of Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo, showed more sensitivity towards the dye, while the products obtained after dye decolorization does not have any inhibitory effects.

  13. Basic and Reactive Dyes Sorption Enhancement of Rice Hull through Chemical Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew-Teng Ong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many studies have been conducted on the removal of either anionic or cationic dyes. However, as a mixture of dyes does commonly exist together in wastewater, therefore it is of great interest to have a material that can remove both types of dyes. Approach: To prepare an inexpensive and efficient sorbent by chemically modifying rice hull for the removal of both basic and reactive dyes. Different chemical modifications were performed on rice hull and a comparison study on the uptake of dyes was carried out. Optimization study was carried out on most promising modified rice hull. Surface morphology of modified rice hull was examined and the functional groups present were determined using FTIR. Results: From the results, it appeared that by using EDA modified rice hull, an appreciable amount of both dyes could be sorbed. Varying the EDA/NRH ratios and heating temperatures affected the uptake of BB3 and RO16. The investigated sorbents were non-porous materials, due to the absence of pores and cavities. Sorption-desorption study showed that a complete recovery of BB3 can be obtained using high concentrations of H2SO4 and HCl but the desorption experiments of RO16 using NH3 and NaOH were not successful. Conclusion: The modification of rice hull with EDA under the optimum conditions (in a ratio of 1.00 g of NRH to 0.02 mole of EDA in a well stirred water bath at 80°C for 2 h resulted in the formation of a sorbent (MRH that could be used successfully to remove Both Basic (BB3 and Reactive dyes (RO16.

  14. Decolorization of the dye, Reactive Blue 19, using ozonation, ultrasound, and ultrasound-enhanced ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Raman; Mutharasan, Raj; Shah, Y T; Dhurjati, Prasad

    2003-01-01

    Reactive dyes constitute a significant portion of colorants used in industries ranging from the textile industry to the paper industry. In most cases, the effluent streams from textile plants are highly colored, and treatment methods for dye decolorization such as chemical oxidation need to be explored. The oxidation processes investigated in this study are those of ozonation, ultrasound, and ultrasound-enhanced ozonation. The oxidation of an anthraquinone dye was studied under conditions of varying ultrasonic power, dye concentration, ozone concentration, pH, and temperature. Laboratory experiments were performed using a semibatch reactor by ozonating dye samples with and without ultrasound. Under conditions of constant ultrasonic radiation and continuous gas application, decolorization rates have been enhanced by ultrasound. The apparent first-order rate constants increased between 35 and 204% for the ultrasonic power inputs between 40 W/L and 120 W/L compared with ozonation alone. The effects of ultrasonic power input on the gas-liquid mass-transfer coefficient were also investigated and the results indicate that an increase in ultrasonic power input increases the mass-transfer coefficient. The mass-transfer coefficient increased between 89 and 93% for ozone inlet concentrations between 5.4 and 9.4 mg/L at an ultrasonic power of 120 W/L compared with ozonation alone. The reactions of the dye with ultrasound-enhanced ozone occurred through the hydroxyl radical pathway.

  15. Biosorption of textile dye reactive blue 221 by capia pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Peppers are very important foodstuffs in the world for direct and indirect consumption, so they are extensively used. The seeds of these peppers are waste materials that are disposed of from houses and factories. To evaluate the performance of this biomass in the treatment of wastewaters, a study was conducted to remove a textile dye, reactive blue 221, which is commercially used in textile mills. Raw seed materials were used without any pre-treatment. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and dose of biosorbent were studied to determine the optimum conditions for this biomass on color removal from wastewaters. The optimum pH value for dye biosorption was found to be 2.0. At an initial dye concentration of 217 mg L(-1), treatment efficiency and biosorption capacity were 96.7% and 95.35 mg g(-1), respectively. A maximum biosorption capacity of 142.86 mg g(-1) was also obtained. Equilibrium biosorption of dye by capia seeds was well described by the Langmuir isotherm with a correlation coefficient above 99%. The biosorption process was also successfully explained with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. This biomass was found to be effective in terms of textile dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF COLOR PARAMETERS AND FASTNESS PROPERTIES ON DIFFERENT KNITTED FABRIC STRUCTURES DYED WITH REACTIVE DYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAM Md Shamim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to analyze various color parameters and measure the fastness properties on different fabric structure like as plain single jersey, single lacoste, Terry fleece and heavy single jersey. Color has a semantic content which touching directly our sentimental world. It has a significant influence on the aesthetic properties of textiles. Color is the result of dyeing a textile material depends on the chemical structure of the dyes and the physical and chemical properties. In this research work the author use spectrophotometer to find out the color parameters among different fabric structures that were dyed with the same recipe. For this study dyeing was carried out on different fabric structures for light, medium, dark and extra dark shade. Remazol Yellow RR, Remazol Red RR, Remazol Blue RR reactive dye was used for dyeing. Heavy jersey Fabric was taken as a standard and different color parameters like as DL*, Da*, Db* and DL*, Dc*, Dh* were measured. Before measuring the color parameters different fastness properties were tested also. This study comparatively discusses on the different colour parameters and fastness properties of plain single jersey, single lacoste, Terry fleece and heavy single jersey made from 100% cotton fibre. As colour parameters are important term in wet processing and dyeing quality depends on this parameters. In this research work the Author analysis the colour parameters among different fabric structure. Standard recipe for light, Medium, Deep & extra deep Shade was used for this study.

  17. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by adsorption on coir pith activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhy, K; Selvapathy, P

    2006-07-01

    The removal efficiency of activated carbon prepared from coir pith towards three highly used reactive dyes in textile industry was investigated. Batch experiments showed that the adsorption of dyes increased with an increase in contact time and carbon dose. Maximum de-colorisation of all the dyes was observed at acidic pH. Adsorption of dyes was found to follow the Freundlich model. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption followed first order and the values of the Lagergren rate constants of the dyes were in the range of 1.77 x 10(-2)-2.69 x 10(-2)min(-1). The column experiments using granular form of the carbon (obtained by agglomeration with polyvinyl acetate) showed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in bed depth and decrease of flow rate. The bed depth service time (BDST) analysis carried out for the dyes indicated a linear relationship between bed depth and service time. The exhausted carbon could be completely regenerated and put to repeated use by elution with 1.0M NaOH. The coir pith activated carbon was not only effective in removal of colour but also significantly reduced COD levels of the textile wastewater.

  18. Aftertreatment of Conventional Direct Dyeings of Cotton with a Bis-reactive Cationic Fixing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHARIF Saima; SAEED Ahmad; MUHAMMAD Naeem Khan; MUHAMMAD Fauz-uI-Azeem

    2009-01-01

    A his-reactive cationic fixing agent,ethylenebis[N-(2,3-epoxypropyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride] has been used as an aftertreatment reagent to improve the wash fasmess of direct dyes on cotton.The effects of different pH conditions and concentrations on the effectiveness of this cationic fixing agent have been investigated.The results showed that aftertreatment at pH 11 produced dyeings with higher colour strength and better wash fastness than that at pH 7.In addition,the cationic agent at a low concentration was found to be more effective under both neutral and alkaline conditions.

  19. Ozonation of reactive dye, Procion red MX-5B catalyzed by metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachhade, K; Sandhya, S; Swaminathan, K

    2009-08-15

    Ozonation of aqueous solution of Procion red MX-5B, a commercial azo reactive dye was investigated. The effect of various experimental variables on decolorization and degradation of the dye has been studied. Color removal was faster than organic removal. Dye mineralization was evident by the generation of sulphate, chloride, nitrate, oxalic and acetic acid during ozonation. The decolorization and organic removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Among the metal ions studied, manganese catalyzed ozonation showed better decolorization and organic removal. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated the disappearance of bands for aromatics and appearance of bands due to carboxylic acids in the ozonated samples. Acetyl benzoic acid, diethyl phthalate and phthalic anhydride were identified as intermediates by gas chromatography mass spectra (GC/MS). Based on these findings a tentative pathway for the degradation MX-5B was postulated.

  20. Effect of metal ions on reactive dye decolorization by laccase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Young-Mo; Jeon, Jong-Rok; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-08-30

    In this work, the influence of different metal ions on laccase activity and laccase-catalyzed dye decolorization was investigated under in vitro conditions using crude laccase obtained from a white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Laccase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) at low concentrations (1mM). Increasing the concentration of metal ions except that of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) up to 5mM and above decreased the enzyme activity. Among several heavy metals, Fe(2+) highly inhibited the enzyme activity. Effect of metal ions was tested on decolorization of two reactive dyes, namely Remazol black-B (RB-5) and Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) at a concentration of 50 mg l(-1). The presence of heavy metals generally did not exert much influence on the decolorization except Fe(2+). Cu(2+) and Cr(6+) enhanced the decolorization of both dyes. In the presence of 1mM Cu(2+), 94% of RB-5 and 35.5% of RBBR were decolorized during 1h incubation. G. lucidum laccase was able to tolerate mixture of several metal ions. Treatment of simulated reactive dye effluent by laccase showed that the redox mediator system is necessary for effluent decolorization. Syringaldehyde, a natural redox mediator, was very effective than the synthetic mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). The initial rate of effluent decolorization in presence of syringaldehyde (0.0831 h(-1)) was 5.6 times higher than HBT (0.0152 h(-1)). Although the rate of decolorization was markedly decreased in the effluent containing mixed metal ions, presence of syringaldehyde showed effective decolorization. This study indicates that G. lucidum laccase and natural redox mediator system could be a potential candidate for color removal from reactive dye effluent.

  1. Biosorption of BF-4B Reactive Red Dye by using Leaves of Macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido Nivaldo Módenes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal potential on BF-4B reactive red dye by Eichhornia crassipes dried leaves has been investigated. Furthermore, the influence of process parameters such as solution pH, agitation, and particle size on the dye adsorption efficiency was assessed. Both kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed in batch operation of the system. Kinetic results demonstrated that the equilibrium state was achieved after 45 min process time. The kinetic experimental data were best described by applying a pseudo-second order model that evaluated the value of rate constant 0.22 g/mg/min and an equilibrium dye concentration 8.20 mg/g. A set of isotherm models, taken from knowledge database, was tested in order to represent the equilibrium adsorption data. The Langmuir model performed the best when fitting experimental data where the maximum adsorption capacity of 20.38 mg/g was achieved. The results demonstrated that the E. crassipes has good potential to be used as a biosorbent in industrial treatment systems to remove reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  2. Photocatalytic Degradation of Two Commercial Reactive Dyes in Aqueous Phase Using Nanophotocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kansal SushilKumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study involves the photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 and Reactive Orange 4 (RO4 dyes, employing heterogeneous photocatalytic process. Photocatalytic activity of different semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO has been investigated. An attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters through amount of catalyst, concentration of dye, and pH on photocatalytic degradation of RB5 and RO4. The experiments were carried out by varying pH (3–11, amount of catalyst (0.25–1.5 g/L, and initial concentration of dye (10–100 mg/L. The optimum catalyst dose was found to be 1.25 and 1 g/L for RB5 and RO4, respectively. In the case of RB5, maximum rate of decolorization was observed in acidic medium at pH 4, whereas the decolorization of RO4 reached maximum in basic region at pH 11. The performance of photocatalytic system employing ZnO/UV light was observed to be better than TiO2/UV system. The complete decolorization of RB5 was observed after 7 min with ZnO, whereas with TiO2, only 75% dye degraded in 7 min. In the case of RO4, 92 and 62% decolorization was noticed in the same duration.

  3. Photocatalytic Degradation of Two Commercial Reactive Dyes in Aqueous Phase Using Nanophotocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sushil Kumar; Kaur, Navjeet; Singh, Sukhmehar

    2009-07-01

    This study involves the photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Reactive Orange 4 (RO4) dyes, employing heterogeneous photocatalytic process. Photocatalytic activity of different semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) has been investigated. An attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters through amount of catalyst, concentration of dye, and pH on photocatalytic degradation of RB5 and RO4. The experiments were carried out by varying pH (3-11), amount of catalyst (0.25-1.5 g/L), and initial concentration of dye (10-100 mg/L). The optimum catalyst dose was found to be 1.25 and 1 g/L for RB5 and RO4, respectively. In the case of RB5, maximum rate of decolorization was observed in acidic medium at pH 4, whereas the decolorization of RO4 reached maximum in basic region at pH 11. The performance of photocatalytic system employing ZnO/UV light was observed to be better than TiO2/UV system. The complete decolorization of RB5 was observed after 7 min with ZnO, whereas with TiO2, only 75% dye degraded in 7 min. In the case of RO4, 92 and 62% decolorization was noticed in the same duration.

  4. Adsorption of the reactive azo dyes onto NH4Cl-induced activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Shekoohiyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of NH4Cl-induced activated carbon (NAC was examined in order to adsorb RR198, an azo reactive model dye, from an aqueous solution. Methods: The effects of pH (3 to 10, adsorbent dose (0.1 to 1.2 g/L, dye concentration and contact time on the adsorption efficiency were investigated. Results: The results showed that the removal of dye was highest at a solution pH of 7 and a powder dose of 1.1 g/L. The 85.9%, 72.6% and 65.4% removal of RR198 was obtained for a concentration of 25, 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively, at a relatively short contact time of 30 minutes, and at optimum pH and NAC concentrations of 1 g/L. The experimental data for kinetic analysis illustrated a best fit to the pseudo-second-order model. The study data on equilibrium were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models; the Langmuir equation provided the best fit for the data. Conclusion: Therefore, the NAC appears to be an efficient and appropriate adsorbent for the removal of reactive azo dyes from waste streams.

  5. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye by a newly isolated bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila BS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sana; Malik, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    The textile and dye industries are considered as one of the major sources of environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to investigate the degradation of the azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB 5) using a bacterium isolated from soil samples collected around a textile industry. The bacterial strain BS1 capable of degrading RB 5 was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas entomophila on the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing. The effects of different parameters on the degradation of RB 5 were studied to find out the optimal conditions required for maximum degradation, which was 93% after 120 h of incubation. Static conditions with pH in the range of 5-9 and a temperature of 37 °C were found to be optimum for degrading RB 5. Enzyme assays demonstrated that P. entomophila possessed azoreductase, which played an important role in degradation. The enzyme was dependent on flavin mononucleotide and NADH for its activity. Furthermore, a possible degradation pathway of the dye was proposed through gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis, which revealed that the metabolic products were naphthalene-1,2-diamine and 4-(methylsulfonyl) aniline. Thus the ability of this indigenous bacterial isolate for simultaneous decolorization and degradation of the azo dye signifies its potential application for treatment of industrial wastewaters containing azo dyes.

  6. STATISTICAL INVESTIGATION OF ADSORPTION OF TWO REACTIVE TEXTILE DYES BY VARIOUS ADSORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan DANIŞ

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry, in which uses the dyestuffs containing coloured and complex chemical compounds, is both water consumer and water pollutant. The removal of these compounds from the wastewaters is one of the most important problems in the textile industry. In this study, the adsorption of two reactive dyes (Red Px and Yellow P onto Aşkale and Balkaya lignites, Bensan clay and powdered active carbon (PAC from aqueous solution was statistically investigated. The adsorption time, dye concentration, solid/liquid ratio and mixing rate were chosen as parameters. The effects of these parameters on the amount of dye adsorbed by the adsorbents were determined. The results obtained have been statistically evaluated by using the stepwise method and SPSS Sortware version (9.1. The experimental observations and statistical evaluations shown that the effective parameters on the adsorption are equilibrium dye concentration and solid/liquid ratio. It was found that the adsorptive behaviours of both lignites and clay are similar to each other, but powdered active carbon displays different adsorptive behaviour. Finally, the empirical equations showing the relation between amount of dye adsorbed and the effective parameters were developed.

  7. Removal of Reactive Red 141 Dye from Synthetic Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process: Investigation of Operational Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rahmanpour Salmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of textile industries waste especially their dying effluent impose a serious pollution on the environment. Reactive dyes are one of the most used dyes which are recalcitrant to conventional treatment processes. In the performed project, the effectiveness of electrocoagulation process was studied on decolorization. RR141 was selected as model dye and treatment process was performed in a simple batch of electrocoagulation (EC cell using iron electrodes. Central Composite Design (CCD was used to plan study runs. Experiments were done under 5 levels of various operational parameters at bench scale. Initial concentration of dye was varied among 50 and 500ppm, pH ranging from 4-12; retention time was ranged between 3-30 minutes, 1-3cm was selected as the distance between electrodes, and current intensity studied under the range of 5-30 mA/cm2. EC treatment process of dyestuff wastewater was satisfactory at high levels of current density, pH, and retention time. While increasing the initial dye concentration and electrodes gap had a negative effect on decolorization performance. Determined optimal conditions to treat 200ml of sample were including pH: 9.68, electrode gap: 1.58cm, dye concentration: 180ppm, retention time: 10.82 minutes, and current intensity: 22.76mA/cm2. Successful removal of the model dye about 99.88% was recorded in the mentioned values of variables. Simple design and operation of the experiments can be an interesting option for implementation and applying of inexpensive electrocoagulation treatment process which was successful to reach nearly a complete decolorization.

  8. Effect of functional groups on sludge for biosorption of reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Junxiong; CUI Longzhe; WANG Yanxin; LIU Chengfu

    2009-01-01

    The sludge, which was collected from a biological coke wastewater treatment plant, was used as a low-cost adsorbent in the removal of reactive dyes (methylene blue (MB) and reactive red 4 (RR4)) from aqueous solution. The pH of dye solution played an important role on the dye uptake. As the solution pH increase, the MB uptake increased, while the RR4 uptake decreased. The maximum uptake of RR4 by protonated sludge was 73.7 mg/g at pH 1, and the maximum uptake of MB by sludge was 235.3 mg/g at pH 9. Three functional groups, including carboxyl, phosphonate, and amine group, were identified by potentiometric titration, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The anionic functional groups, phosphonate and carboxyl group, were identified as the binding sites for the cationic MB. Amine groups were identified to bind RR4. The main mechanism of the reactive dyestuffs adsorption is electrostatic interaction.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl potato starch and its application in reactive dye printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Gong, Honghong; Lü, Shaoyu; Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Huang, Yinjuan; Han, Fei

    2012-11-01

    Carboxymethyl potato starch (CMPS) was synthesized with a simple dry and multi-step method as a product of the reaction of native potato starch and monochloroacetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The influence of the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to anhydroglucose unit, the volume of 95% (v/v) ethanol, the rotation rate of motor driven stirrer and the reaction time for degree of substitution (DS) were evaluated. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). FTIR spectrometry showed new bonds at 1618 and 1424 cm⁻¹ when native starch underwent carboxymethylation. SEM pictures showed that the smooth surface of native starch particles was mostly ruptured. XRD revealed that starch crystallinity was reduced after carboxymethylation. The viscosity of the mixture paste of carboxymethyl starch and sodium alginate (SA) was measured using a rotational viscometer. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with SA. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace SA as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anomalous behavior of visible light active TiO2 for the photocatalytic degradation of different Reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Shahi, Satwant Kaur; Singh, Vasundhara

    2015-11-01

    Nanocrystalline undoped, N-doped, N and metal codoped titania with different particle size, surface area, anatase phase content, crystallinity, band gap and zeta potential were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The photocatalytic activities of the synthesized TiO2 powders were compared by employing four different Reactive dyes. The order of photocatalytic activity observed for Reactive Red 198 dye (RR 198) was undoped = N,Cu codoped = N-doped > N,Fe codoped TiO2, Reactive Blue 4 dye (RB 4) was N,Cu codoped > N,Fe codoped > N-doped > undoped TiO2, Reactive Black 5 dye (RB 5) was N,Cu codoped* > undoped > N-doped > N,Fe codoped TiO2 and negligible degradation was observed for Reactive Orange 16 dye (RO 16). In this paper, the anomalous trend of the photocatalytic activity of various photocatalysts for the degradation of a particular class of dyes has been observed and accounted for based upon three parameters: mechanism of degradation, physicochemical properties of the catalyst and adsorption behavior based on the zeta potential. It was concluded that apart from these parameters, the substrate-specificity of the catalyst is also of equal importance in developing new catalysts for the photodegradation of dyes present in textile effluents.

  11. Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (φ) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 稀土在亚麻织物活性染料染色中的应用%Application of Rare Earth in Dyeing of Reactive Dyes of Linen Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at explore the principle of accelerating in rare earth in dyeing of reactive dyes of linen fabric,and introduces the dyeing of linen fabric with reactive dyes of rare earth accelerating agent.%探究稀土在亚麻织物活性染料染色中的促染原理,介绍亚麻织物稀土促染活性染料的染色工艺。

  13. 反应性直接染料的应用性能%Practical performance of reactive direct dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔浩然

    2011-01-01

    The reactive direct dye featuring short dyeing process and good dye depth, is very similar to direct dyes. This kind of dyes can crosslink with cellulose fiber and fix on it in alkali bath, with washing and soaping process just after dyeing, and excellent wet color fastness, which in turn is similar to reactive dyes. It is particularly suitable for cotton (viscose) fabric dyeing, especially for the process of scouring, washing and dyeing in one bath and one-step of cotton knits in deep shade. It has very broad application prospects with high production efficiency and energy saving.%近年问世的反应性直接染料,染色程序简短,染深性好,与直接染料很相似.其在碱性浴中能与纤维素纤维发生交联固着,染后只需水洗、皂洗,染色湿牢度优秀,也与活性染料相似.反应性直接染料特别适合纯棉(粘胶)织物染色,尤其适合纯棉针织物深浓色泽练、洗、染—浴一步法染色,生产效率高,且有节能减排优势.

  14. THE REMOVAL OF REACTIVE RED 228 DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CHITOSAN-MODIFIED FLAX SHIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax shive (FS is a byproduct from flax fiber separation. The use of absorbent prepared from chitosan-modified flax shive (CFS has been studied for removal of reactive red dye (RR228 from aqueous solutions. CFS was characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. A batch adsorption study was conducted under various contact time, initial concentration, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the BET and Langmuir surface area of CFS were 1.772 m2 g-1 and 3.057 m2 g-1, respectively. Results showed that CFS has the same pores as FS and that the –NH2 group on CFS is the main adsorption site for dye sorption. Equilibrium adsorption capacity could be reached within 480 min, and RR228 uptake was satisfactory at a pH of 2.0. The percentage removal were 100%, 100%, 90%, and 85% at pH 2.0 under dye concentrations of 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L, and 40 mg/L, respectively. The adsorption accurately fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and a Langmuir isotherm model. It is proposed that CFS could be applied as a low-cost absorbent in removal of dyes from wastewater.

  15. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

    2013-04-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment.

  16. REMOVAL OF REACTIVE DYES FROM WASTEWATER OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES BY USING ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY ADSORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAM Md Shamim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at developing a method to treat wastewater by using inexpensive adsorbents. Textile industries produce wastewater, otherwise known as effluent, as a bi-product of their production. The effluent contains several pollutants. Among the various stages of textile production, the operations in the dyeing plant, which include pre-treatments, dyeing, printing and finishing, produce the most pollution. The textile dyeing wastes contain unused or partially used organic compounds, and high level of different pollutants. They are often of strong color and may also be of high temperature. When disposed into water bodies or onto land these effluents will result in the deterioration of ecology and damage to aquatic life. Furthermore they may cause damage to fisheries and economic loss to fishermen and farmer, there may be impacts on human health which can be removed with the help of an effluent treatment plant (ETP. The “clean” water can then be safely discharged into the environment and ultimately save our environment from pollution. In this study, rice husk and cotton dust were used as an adsorbent. In this research work waste water was characterized with this useless adsorbents. The parameters which were tested in this study are DO, BOD, COD, TS, TDS and TSS. The results showed that the selected bio adsorbents have good potential for removal of reactive dyes from textile effluent.

  17. Salt-free dyeing of silk fabrics with reactive dyes%真丝绸活性染料无盐染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓红; 贾雪平

    2011-01-01

    真丝绸通过阳离子改性剂改性后,的蚕丝纤维上引入阳离子性基团,可人大提高活性染料对真丝织物的上染率和固色率.研究确定了真丝绸改性的最佳工艺为:改性剂用量10 g/L,改性时间30 min,改性温度60℃,改性pH9.0;真丝绸用活性染料雅格素黄N-SR无盐染色的最佳下艺:染色pH7.5,沸染50 min.改性染色后丝绸的各项牢度较好,染色深度明显增加.%Silk fabrics were modified with cationic modifier, some cationic groups were introduced to the surface or inter of silk fabrics. The dyeing and fixing rate of silk fabrics with reactive dyeing were improved.It was shown that the optimum process of silk modifying: the concentration of modifier 10 g/L, time 30min,temperature 60 ℃ and modified pH 9.0. The best dyeing process of salt-free dyeing for silk with reactive dyes Argazol yellow N-SR: boiling temperature, dyeing holding time 50min, dyeing pH 7.5. After modified, silk fabrics achieved good dyeing fastness, the depth of dyeing was also increased.

  18. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive blue 220 textile dye by Lentinus crinitus extracellular extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebisch, Carolina Heyse; Malinowski, Alexandre Knoll; Schadeck, Ruth; Mitchell, David A; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Paba, Jaime

    2010-08-15

    Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 220 (RB220) by a novel isolate of Lentinus crinitus fungi. The optimal conditions for the production of destaining activity were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g L(-1)) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 28 degrees C and pH 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB220 achieved in this study was around 95%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. This effect was associated with a putative low molecular weight laccase (41 kDa) displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents.

  19. Decolorization of different textile dyes by Penicillium simplicissimum and toxicity evaluation after fungal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Bergsten-Torralba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of decolorization and detoxification of the textile dyes Reactive Red 198 (RR198, Reactive Blue 214 (RB214, Reactive Blue 21 (RB21 and the mixture of the three dyes (MXD by Penicillium simplicissimum INCQS 40211. The dye RB21, a phthalocyanine, was totally decolorized in 2 days, and the others, the monoazo RR198, the diazo RB214 and MXD were decolorized after 7 days by P. simplicissimum. Initially the dye decolorization involved dye adsorption by the biomass followed by degradation. The acute toxicity after fungal treatment was monitored with the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex and measured through Effective Concentration 50% (EC50. P. simplicissimum reduced efficiently the toxicity of RB21 from moderately acutely toxic to minor acutely toxic and it also reduced the toxicity of RB214 and MXD, which remained minor acutely toxic. Nevertheless, the fungus increased the toxicity of RR198 despite of the reduction of MXD toxicity, which included this dye. Thus, P. simplicissimum INCQS 40211 was efficient to decolorize different textile dyes and the mixture of them with a significant reduction of their toxicity. In addition this investigation also demonstrated the need of toxicological assays associated to decolorization experiments.

  20. Decolorization of different textile dyes by Penicillium simplicissimum and toxicity evaluation after fungal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten-Torralba, L R; Nishikawa, M M; Baptista, D F; Magalhães, D P; da Silva, M

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of decolorization and detoxification of the textile dyes Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Blue 214 (RB214), Reactive Blue 21 (RB21) and the mixture of the three dyes (MXD) by Penicillium simplicissimum INCQS 40211. The dye RB21, a phthalocyanine, was totally decolorized in 2 days, and the others, the monoazo RR198, the diazo RB214 and MXD were decolorized after 7 days by P. simplicissimum. Initially the dye decolorization involved dye adsorption by the biomass followed by degradation. The acute toxicity after fungal treatment was monitored with the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex and measured through Effective Concentration 50% (EC50). P. simplicissimum reduced efficiently the toxicity of RB21 from moderately acutely toxic to minor acutely toxic and it also reduced the toxicity of RB214 and MXD, which remained minor acutely toxic. Nevertheless, the fungus increased the toxicity of RR198 despite of the reduction of MXD toxicity, which included this dye. Thus, P. simplicissimum INCQS 40211 was efficient to decolorize different textile dyes and the mixture of them with a significant reduction of their toxicity. In addition this investigation also demonstrated the need of toxicological assays associated to decolorization experiments.

  1. Influence of mass transfer and chemical reaction on ozonation of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I.S.; Wiesmann, U. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Azo dyes can be only mineralised by chemical oxidation. In this paper the oxidation of reactive black 5 (RB 5) and reactive orange 96 (RO 96) with concentrations between 35 and 5700 mgL{sup -1} (RB 5) and between 20 and 2050 mgL{sup -1} (RO 96) is investigated. A lab scale bubble column was used, which was gassed by a mixture of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. The oxidation rate was influenced by mass transfer for all dye concentrations used. For lower dye concentrations mass transfer alone was decisive for reaction rate showing an enhancement factor of E {approx} 1. However, in the region of higher dye concentrations, the slope of the decreasing ozone concentration inside the liquid boundary layer increases more and more with increasing dye concentration as a result of a chemical oxidation. Therefore, the enhancement factor depends on the kind and concentration of the azo dyes. For RB 5 as an diazo dye an enhancement factor of E = 9 was observed for 3800 mgL{sup -1}, RO 96 as a mono azo dye with a remarkable higher chemical oxidation rate shows an E = 17 already for 2050 mgL{sup -1}. (orig.)

  2. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S. Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber. PMID:22272108

  3. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Perveen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  4. Effect of viscosity, basicity and organic content of composite flocculant on the decolorization performance and mechanism for reactive dyeing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanfang Wang; Baoyu Gao; Qinyan Yue; Yah Wang

    2011-01-01

    A coagulation/flocculation process using the composite floceulant polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin dimethylamine (PAC-EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of an anionic azo dye (Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP dye).The effect of viscosity (η),basicity (B =[OH]/[Al]) and organic content (Wp) on the flocculation performance as well as the mechanism of PAC-EPI-DMA flocculant were investigated.The η was the key factor affecting the dye removal efficiency of PAC-EPI-DMA.PAC-EPI-DMA with an intermediate η (2400 mPa-sec) gave higher decolorization efficiency by adsorption bridging and charge neutralization due to the co-effect of PAC and EPI-DMA polymers.The Wp of the composite flocculant was a minor important factor for the flocculation.The adsorption bridging of PAC-EPI-DMA with η of 300 or 4300 mPa.sec played an important role with the increase of Wp,whereasthe charge neutralization of them was weaker with the increase of Wp.There was interaction between Wp and B on the removal of reactive dye.The composite flocculant with intermediate viscosity and organic content was effective for the treatment of reactive dyeing wastewater,which could achieve high reactive dye removal efficiency with low organic dosage.

  5. UV-Vis microspectrophotometry as a method of differentiation between cotton fibre evidence coloured with reactive dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza

    2015-05-01

    The main purposes of this study was to assess the usefulness of microspectrophotometry (MSP), both in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) range for discriminating single cotton fibres dyed with reactive dyes coming from the same manufacturer, as well as the possibility of evaluation of the concentration of dye in an examine fibre. This study utilised woven cotton fabrics dyed with different concentrations of one-compound reactive dyes with the commercial name Cibacron® (at present Novacron®) as the focus of the MSP analysis. The spectra were recorded in the UV-Vis range between 200 and 800 nm, in transmission mode. The results from this study illustrated that all of the analysed cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes were distinguishable between each other with the use of MSP, mostly in the visible, and also in ultraviolet range. The limit for applied MSP techniques was 0.18% of the concentration of a dye in the textile sample. The results indicate that based on the absorbance measurements for fibres constituting e.g. forensic traces it was not possible to estimate the concentration of the dye in the fibre because Beer's law did not obey. The intra-sample, and inter- sample variation, as well as dichroism effect in a case of a cotton fibres dyed with reactive dye were observed. On the basis of the results obtained for each analysed cotton sample, it was concluded that there was no correlation between colour uniformity in cotton fabric (changes in lightness, red/green and yellow/blue colour) and concentration of the reactive dye.

  6. Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached.

  7. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting...

  8. Rhodium catalyzed arylation of diazo compounds with aryl boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Jayanta; Anbarasan, Pazhamalai

    2015-04-03

    A general and efficient synthesis of diarylacetate, a diarylmethine derivative, was accomplished through rhodium catalyzed direct arylation of diazo compounds with arylboronic acids. The reaction tolerates various boronic acid derivatives and functional groups. Notably, chemoselective arylation of diazo compounds over other electrophiles were demonstrated. The efficacy of the developed methodology is shown by the expeditious synthesis of the core structure of diclofensine.

  9. COD and color removal of reactive orange 16 dye solution by electrochemical oxidation and adsorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zuhailie; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye was investigated using electrochemical oxidation and adsorption (batch method) using mixture of coconut trunk charcoal-graphite-tin-polyvinyl chloride(PVC). In batch studies for adsorbents pellet and powder form of the charcoal mixture were used. RO16 was chosen as the model dye because of its high resistance towards conventional treatment methods. NaCl and RO16 concentration, treatment duration, weight of electrode and adsorbent and volume of solution were kept constant for both methods. The effectiveness of the treatments were compared and evaluated by percentage of RO16 decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and results indicated that electrochemical oxidation method ables to decolorized RO16 dye up to 98.5% after 20 minutes electrolysis time while pellet and powder in batch method only removed 17.1 and 33.6% of RO16 color respectively. However, only 45.6% of COD can be removed using electrochemical oxidation method while pellet and powder in batch method removed 47.8 and 49.6% of COD respectively. The decolorization and COD removal of RO16 was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (by the changes of absorption spectrum intensity of azo chromophore (-N=N-) at λ=388 and 492.50 nm and Hach spectrophotometer respectively. FTIR was used to determine functional groups present in the coconut trunk charcoal.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of reactive black-5 dye using TiO2 impregnated ZSM-5

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O K Mahadwad; P A Parikh; R V Jasra; C Patil

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of reactive black-5 (RB-5) dye was investigated using supported TiO2 photocatalyst based adsorbent as a semiconductor photocatalyst in a batch reactor. The synthesized photocatalyst composition was developed using TiO2 as photoactive component and zeolite (ZSM-5) as the adsorbents. Attempts were also made to optimize the composition of the supported catalyst and to study the reliability of prepared catalyst. The optimum formulation of supported catalyst was found to be (TiO2: ZSM-5 = 0.15:1) which gave the highest efficiency with 98% degradation of 50 mg/L RB-5 solution in 90 min. Effect of different parameters such as initial concentration of dye solution, catalyst amount on the rate of photodegradation was also studied. The reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD, 88%) proves the mineralization of the RB-5 dye along with the colour removal. The supported TiO2 was found to be stable for repeated use.

  11. Removal of Reactive Orange 16 Dye from Aqueous Solution by Using Modified Kenaf Core Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham Kadhim Obaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluated removal of reactive orange 16 (RO16 dye from aqueous solution was studied in batch mode by using kenaf core fiber as low-cost adsorbents. In this attempt, kenaf core fiber with size 0.25–1 mm was treated by using (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride (CHMAC as quaternization agent. Then effective parameters include adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time and initial dye concentration on adsorption by modified kenaf core fiber was investigated. In addition, isotherms and kinetics adsorption studies were estimated for determination of the equilibrium adsorption capacity and reactions dynamics, respectively. Results showed that the best dose of MKCF was 0.1 g/100 mL, the maximum removal of RO16 was 97.25 at 30°C, pH = 6.5, and agitation speed was 150 rpm. The results also showed that the equilibrium data were represented by Freundlich isotherm with correlation coefficients R2=0.9924, and the kinetic study followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients R2=0.9997 for Co=100 mg/L. Furthermore, the maximum adsorption capacity was 416.86 mg/g. Adsorption through kenaf was found to be very effective for the removal of the RO16 dye.

  12. The feasibility of Cassia fistula gum with polyaluminium chloride for the decolorization of reactive dyeing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng Yuan Shing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a new environmental-friendly coagulant that can partially replace conventional polyaluminium chloride (PAC which was shown to be toxic to aquatic environment, gum extracted from seeds of Cassia fistula Linn. (CF was investigated in decolorization of reactive dyes Blue 19 (RB19 and Black 5 (RB5 using jar-test experiments. The optimal results showed that crude CF gum (at pH 10, initial dye concentrations (IDC of 100 and 50 mg L-1, gum dosages 200 and 300 mg L-1, reaction time 30 and 45 min, and agitation speed 60 rpm did not achieve high degrees of decolorization in RB5 and RB19 (55.7 and 62.0 %, respectively as compared with PAC coagulant (97.2 and 94.4 %, respectively at the same IDC and reaction time. Whereas when CF gum was used in combination with PAC, decolorization efficiencies of both dyes reached over 92 % at 40 % volume fraction of gum. These results indicated the potential of using CF gum as a “green” coagulant or as a contributing factor to color removal of textile wastewater.

  13. Degradation of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 in pyrite ash catalyzed Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becelic-Tomin, Milena; Dalmacija, Bozo; Rajic, Ljiljana; Tomasevic, Dragana; Kerkez, Djurdja; Watson, Malcolm; Prica, Miljana

    2014-01-01

    Pyrite ash (PA) is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4) degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L(-1); [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L(-1). The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu) content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  14. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Becelic-Tomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrite ash (PA is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4 degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  15. Removal of reactive blue 19 dye by sono, photo and sonophotocatalytic oxidation using visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Abdul Nasir; Siddique, Maria; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Romana

    2015-09-01

    An efficient sonophotocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 19 (RB 19) dye was successfully carried out using sulfur-doped TiO2 (S-TiO2) nanoparticles. The effect of various treatment processes that is sonolysis, photolysis, catalysis, sonocatalysis, photocatalysis, and sonophotocatalysis were investigated for RB 19 removal. S-TiO2 were synthesized in 1, 3 and 5 wt.% of sulfur by sol-gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results confirm anatase phase of TiO2, porous agglomerate structure, and a red shift in the absorbance spectra of S-TiO2. The dye degradation was studied by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ max=594 nm. The reaction parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, initial dye concentration, ultrasonic power and effect of sulfur doping in different weight percent were studied to find out the optimum degradation conditions. Optimum conditions were found as: S-TiO2=5 wt.%, catalyst (S-TiO2 5 wt.%)=50mg, RB 19 solution concentration=20 mg L(-1), pH=3, ultrasound power=100 and operating temperature=25°C. The response of 5 wt.% S-TiO2 was found better than 1 and 3 wt.% S-TiO2 and other forms TiO2. The sonophotocatalysis process was superior to other methods. During this process the ultrasound cavitation and photocatalysis water splitting takes place which leads to the generation of OH. As reveled by the GCMS results the reactive blue 19 (20 mg L(-1)) was degraded to 90% within 120 min. The S-TiO2 sonophotocatalysis system was studied for the first time for dye degradation and was found practicable, efficient and cost effective for the degradation of complex and resistant dyes such as RB19.

  16. Differential Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes During Degradation of Azo Dye Reactive black 8 in Hairy roots of Physalis minima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pamela; Modi, Nikita; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, Neetin

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the protection of plant metabolism in presence of azo dye was characterized by studying activities of the role of antioxidant enzymes in the hairy roots (HRs) of Physalis minima L. during degradation of an azo dye, Reactive Black 8 (RB8). When the HRs were exposed to RB8 (30 mg L(-1)), a  nine fold increase in SOD activity was observed after 24 h, while 22 and 50 fold increase in activity was observed for POX and APX respectively after 72 h, whereas there was no significant change in activity of CAT. The activation of different antioxidant enzymes at different time intervals under dye stress suggests the synchronized functioning of antioxidant machinery to protect the HRs from oxidative damage. FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of dye and the non-toxic nature of metabolites formed after dye degradation was confirmed by phytotoxicity study.

  17. Assessment of the banana pseudostem as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Geraldi, Claudinéia A Q; Manenti, Diego R; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Oliveira, Ana Paula de; Borba, Carlos E; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the removal of reactive blue 5G (RB5G) dye using the drying biomass of banana pseudostem (BPS) was investigated. The characterization of BPS particles was performed. Improvement in the RB5G dye removal performance at the following sorption conditions was evidenced: pH 1, 30°C sorption temperature and 40 rpm shaking, regardless of the particle size range. Kinetic RB5G dye sorption data obtained at better conditions fit well in an Elovich model. A combined Langmuir-BET isotherm model provides a good representation of the RB5G dye equilibrium sorption data, which shows the evidence of a physical sorption process on the BPS surface. Based on the results, the removal of RB5G dye molecules by BPS is based on a physical sorption process.

  18. Decolorization of reactive dyes by laccase immobilized in alginate/gelatin blent with PEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; FAN Xuerong; CUI Li; WANG Qiang; ZHOU Aihui

    2008-01-01

    To achieve effective decolorization of reactive dyes, laccase immobilization was investigated. Laccase 0.2% (m/V) (Denilite ⅡS) was trapped in beads of alginate/gelatin blent with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and then the supporters were activated by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The results of repeated batch decolorization showed that gelatin and appropriate concentration of glutaraldehyde accelerated the decolorization of Reactive Red B-3BF (RRB); PEG had a positive effect on enzyme stability and led to an increase of color removal. While the beads contained 0.2%, 2.0%, 2.0%, and 0.5% (m/V) of laccase, alginate, gelatin, and PEG, respectively. The dye of 50 mg/L initial concentration of RRB was decolorized down to 50% during the tenth repeated batch. As far as the decolorization mechanism was concerned, the thermal and pH stabilities of the immobilized laccase were also investigated and were both appreciably improved. The study indicates that the immobilized laccase can be potential candidate for utilization in biodecolorization processes.

  19. Formation of Sulfonyl Aromatic Alcohols by Electrolysis of a Bisazo Reactive Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P. Elizalde-González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Five sulfonyl aromatic alcohols, namely 4-((2-hydroxyethylsulfonylphenol, 4-((2-(2-((4-hydroxyphenylsulfonylethoxyvinylsulfonylphenol, 4-(ethylsulfonylphenol, 4-(vinylsulfonylphenol and 5-((4-aminophenylsulfonyl-2-penten-1-ol were identified by LC-ESI-Qq-TOF-MS as products formed by electrolysis of the bisazo reactive dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5. Since electrolyses were performed in an undivided cell equipped with Ni electrodes in alkaline medium, amines like 4-(2-methoxyethylsulfonylbenzene-amine (MEBA with m/z 216 were also suspected to be formed due to the plausible chemical reaction in the bulk or the cathodic reduction of RB5 and its oxidation by-products. Aiming to check this hypothesis, a method was used for the preparation of MEBA with 98% purity, via chemical reduction also of the dye RB5. The logP of the synthesized sulfonyl aromatic compounds was calculated and their logkw values were determined chromatographically. These data were discussed in regard to the relationship between hydrophobicity/lipophilicity and toxicity.

  20. Activation of waste MDF sawdust charcoal and its reactive dye adsorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Q; Allen, S J; Matthews, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of converting waste medium density fibreboard (MDF) sawdust into chars and activated carbon using chemical activation and thermal carbonisation processes. The MDF sawdust generated during the production of architectural mouldings was characterised and found to have unique properties in terms of fine particle size and high particle density. It also has a high content of urea formaldehyde resin used as a binder in the manufacturing of MDF board. Direct thermal carbonisation and chemical activation of the sawdust by metal impregnation and acid (phosphoric acid) treatment prior to pyrolysis treatment were carried out. The surface morphology of the raw dust, its chars and activated carbon were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorptive properties and total pore volume of the materials were also analysed using the BET nitrogen adsorption method. Liquid adsorption of a reactive dye (Levafix Brilliant red E-4BA) by the derived sawdust carbon was investigated in batch isothermal adsorption process and the results compared to adsorption on to a commercial activated carbon (Filtrasorb F400). The MDF sawdust carbon exhibited in general a very low adsorption capacity towards the reactive dye, and physical characterisation of the carbon revealed that the conventional chemical activation and thermal carbonisation process were ineffective in developing a microporous structure in the dust particles. The small size of the powdery dust, the high particle density, and the presence of the urea formaldehyde resin all contributed to the difficulty of developing a proper porous structure during the thermal and chemical activation process. Finally, activation of the dust material in a consolidated form (cylindrical pellet) only achieved very limited improvement in the dye adsorption capacity. This original study, reporting some unexpected outcomes, may serve as a stepping-stone for future investigations of recycle and

  1. Reactive dyeing of cotton cheese at low temperature%纯棉筒子纱低温活性染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅

    2013-01-01

    The application performance of low energy L type reactive dye is analyzed.Cotton cheese dyeing with L type reactive dye is carried out,and the dyeing process including dyeing temperature and fixation time,is optimized.The results show that this dye can be carried out at low temperature down to 40 ℃ and fixed with combined alkali(sodium carbonate 5 g/L and caustic soda 1 g/L).The quality of cheese dyeings can meet the standard.The process features low steam and alkali consumption and low production cost.%低温L型活性染料具有不同于其它活性染料的特殊母体结构,可在低温下固色.优化了染色温度和固色时间,试验结果表明,该染料染色温度可低至40℃,采用复合碱(纯碱5 g/L+烧碱1 g/L)固色,筒子纱各项染色质量指标达到标准要求,节汽节碱,降低了生产成本.

  2. Comparison of ultraviolet radiation/hydrogen peroxide, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes for the decolorization of reactive dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Miljana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectivness of UV/H2O2 process, Fenton and photo-Fenton process at decolorization of commercially important textile dyes Reactive Orange 4 (RO4 and Reactive Blue 19 (RB19 was evaluated. The effect of operational condition such as initial pH, initial H2O2 concentration, initial Fe2+ concentration and initial dye concentration on decolorization of RO4 and RB19 was studied. The photo-Fenton process is found to be more efficient than UV/H2O2 and Fenton process for decolorization of simulated dye bath effluent and solutions of the dyes in water alone under optimum conditions. In simulated dye bath the removal efficiency was slightly lower than for the solutions of the dyes in water alone for both dyes types. The results revealed that the tested advanced oxidation processes were very effective for decolorization of RO4 and RB19 in aqueous solution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34008

  3. Phenyl-ring rotational disorder in the two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structure of the 1:1 proton-transfer salt of the diazo-dye precursor 4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline (aniline yellow) with L-tartaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D; Young, David J

    2010-07-01

    In the structure of the 1:1 proton-transfer compound from the reaction of L-tartaric acid with the azo-dye precursor aniline yellow [4-(phenyldiazenyl)aniline], namely 4-(phenyldiazenyl)anilinium (2R,3R)-3-carboxy-2,3-dihydroxypropanoate, C(12)H(12)N(3)(+) x C(4)H(5)O(6)(-), the asymmetric unit contains two independent 4-(phenyldiazenyl)anilinium cations and two hydrogen L-tartrate anions. The structure is unusual in that all four phenyl rings of the two cations have identical rotational disorder with equal occupancy of the conformations. The two hydrogen L-tartrate anions form independent but similar chains through head-to-tail carboxyl-carboxylate O-H...O hydrogen bonds [graph set C(7)], which are then extended into a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded sheet structure through hydroxy O-H...O hydrogen-bonded links. The anilinium groups of the 4-(phenyldiazenyl)anilinium cations are incorporated into the sheets and also provide internal hydrogen-bonded extensions, while their aromatic tails are layered in the structure without significant association except for weak pi-pi interactions [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.844 (3) A]. The hydrogen L-tartrate residues of both anions exhibit the common short intramolecular hydroxy-carboxylate O-H...O hydrogen bonds. This work provides a solution to the unusual disorder problem inherent in the structure of this salt, as well as giving another example of the utility of the hydrogen tartrate anion in the generation of sheet substructures in molecular assembly processes.

  4. On Advance of Low Electrolyte Dyeing Technique with Reactive Dye%活性染料低电解质染色研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳金发; 马小强

    2012-01-01

    印染工业中存在电解质用量大,染色废水处理负担重等一系列问题。目前实现活性染料低电解质或无电解质染色的主要方法有:开发低电解质活性染料、对纤维素纤维阳离子改性、研发活性染料无电解质染色助剂及调整染色工艺。这些方法的工艺、效果和应用前景各有不同。%Nowadays,the dyeing industry is faced with the problems of high consumption of electrolyte and high cost in disposal of waste water.There are several ways of reducing or eliminating the usage of electrolyte in dyeing.For instance,we can develop and deploy reactive dye with low electrolyte,pretreat the dye by cationizing the cellulosic fibers,develop electrolyte free dyeing auxiliary and improve dyeing technique.The paper studies on these techniques,their effect and application.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of reactive and disperse textile dyes using human dermal equivalent (3D cell culture system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Primo, Fernando Lucas; Gobo, Graciely Gomides; da Costa, Cleber Rafael Vieira; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of dyes are marketed daily for different purposes, including textile dyeing. However, there are several studies reporting attributing to dyes deleterious human effects such as DNA damage. Humans may be exposed to toxic dyes through either ingestion of contaminated waters or dermal contact with colored garments. With respect to dermal exposure, human skin equivalents are promising tools to assess in vitro genotoxicity of dermally applied chemicals using a three-dimensional (3D) model to mimic tissue behavior. This study investigated the sensitivity of an in-house human dermal equivalent (DE) for detecting genotoxicity of textile dyes. Two azo (reactive green 19 [RG19] and disperse red 1[DR1]) dyes and one anthraquinone (reactive blue 2 [RB2]) dye were analyzed. RG19 was genotoxic for DE in a dose-responsive manner, whereas RB2 and DR1 were nongenotoxic under the conditions tested. These findings are not in agreement with previous genotoxicological assessment of these dyes carried out using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, which showed that DR1 was genotoxic in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and RG19 was nongenotoxic for normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). These discrepant results probably may be due to differences between metabolic activities of each cell type (organ-specific genotoxicity, HepG2 and fibroblasts) and the test setup systems used in each study (fibroblasts cultured at 2D and three-dimensional [3D] culture systems). Genotoxicological assessment of textile dyes in context of organ-specific genotoxicity and using in vitro models that more closely resemble in vivo tissue architecture and physiology may provide more reliable estimates of genotoxic potential of these chemicals.

  6. Synthesis of porous chitosan-polyaniline/ZnO hybrid composite and application for removal of reactive orange 16 dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannusamy, Pandiselvi; Sivalingam, Thambidurai

    2013-08-01

    For the first time, chitosan-polyaniline/ZnO hybrids were prepared through a polymerization of aniline hydrochloride in the presence of ZnCl2 and chitosan. The hybrid materials were characterized by FT-IR, BET, SEM, UV-vis spectra and XRD analysis. From the BET and SEM micrographs, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles into chitosan-polyaniline hybrid could obviously increase the porosity due to good possibility for dye adsorption. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage and pH using reactive orange 16 as a model pollutant. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm equation, with maximum adsorption capacity value was found to be 476.2mgg(-1). Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model agreed well with the experimental data and good correlation (R(2)>0.999). Photocatalytic degradation of dye under UV irradiation at pH 5.8 has also been examined. FT-IR spectrum clearly indicates that before adsorption of hybrid showed the functional groups of chitosan and polyaniline, whereas the dye adsorbed hybrid only present the dye molecules and ZnO. Based on the results of present investigation, the introduction of ZnCl2 into chitosan-polyaniline hybrid will enhance the adsorption of reactive dyes and photocatalytic degradation.

  7. Laccase Immobilization on Poly(p-Phenylenediamine/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite for Reactive Blue 19 Dye Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxun Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic poly(p-phenylenediamine (PpPD nanocomposite was synthesized via mixing p-phenylenediamine solution and Fe3O4 nanoparticles and used as a carrier for immobilized enzymes. Successful synthesis of PpPD/Fe3O4 nanofiber was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Laccase (Lac was immobilized on the surface of PpPD/Fe3O4 nanofiber through covalent bonding for reactive blue 19 dye removal. The immobilized Lac-nanofiber conjugates could be recovered from the reaction solution using a magnet. The optimum reaction pH and temperature for the immobilized Lac were 3.5 and 65 °C, respectively. The storage, operational stability, and thermal stability of the immobilized Lac were higher than those of its free counterpart. The dye removal efficiency of immobilized Lac was about 80% in the first 1 h of incubation, while that of free Lac was about 20%. It was found that the unique electronic properties of PpPD might underlie the high dye removal efficiency of immobilized Lac. Over a period of repeated operation, the dye removal efficiency was above 90% during the first two cycles and remained at about 43% after eight cycles. Immobilized Lac on PpPD/Fe3O4 nanofiber showed high stability, easy recovery, reuse capabilities, and a high removal efficiency for reactive blue 19 dye; therefore, it provides an optional tool for dye removal from wastewater.

  8. Renovation and Reuse of Reactive Dyeing Effluent by a Novel Heterogeneous Fenton System Based on Metal Modified PTFE Fibrous Catalyst/H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Fe bimetallic grafted polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE fiber complexes were prepared and optimized as the novel heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the degradation of reactive dyes under UV irradiation. Cotton fabrics were dyed with three reactive dyes, namely, Reactive Red 195, Reactive Yellow 145, and Reactive Blue 222, in tap fresh water using exhaustion process. The spent dyeing effluents were then collected and degraded with the optimized Cu-Fe bimetallic grafted PTFE fiber complex/H2O2 system. The treated dyeing effluents were characterized and reused for the dyeing of cotton fabrics through the same process. The effect of reuse process number on quality of the dyed cotton fabrics was examined. The results indicated that the Cu-Fe bimetallic modified PTFE fiber complex with a Cu/Fe molar ratio of 2.87 was found to be the most effective fibrous catalyst, which enhanced complete decolorization of the treated dyeing effluents with H2O2 in 4 h. However, the TOC removal for the treated dyeing effluents was below 80%. The dyeing quality was not affected for three successive cycles. The increase in residual TOC value influences fourth dyeing cycle. Further TOC reduction of the treated effluents is needed for its repeated reuse in more than three dyeing cycles.

  9. Sorption and desorption studies of a reactive azo dye on effective disposal of redundant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2013-07-01

    The effective disposal of redundant elephant dung (ED) is important for environmental protection and utilization of resource. The aim of this study was to remove a toxic-azo dye, Reactive Red (RR) 120, using this relatively cheap material as a new adsorbent. The FTIR-ATR spectra of ED powders before and after the sorption of RR 120 and zero point charge (pHzpc) of ED were determined. The sorption capacity of ED for removing of RR 120 were carried out as functions of particle size, adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, ionic strength, initial dye concentration, and contact time. Sorption isotherm, kinetic, activation energy, thermodynamic, and desorption parameters of RR 120 on ED were studied. The sorption process was found to be dependent on particle size, adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, ionic strength, initial dye concentration, and contact time. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy indicated that amine and amide groups have significant role on the sorption of RR 120 on ED. The pHzpc of ED was found to be 7.3. Sorption kinetic of RR 120 on ED was well described by sigmoidal Logistic model. The Langmuir isotherm was well fitted to the equilibrium data. The maximum sorption capacity was 95.71 mg g(-1). The sorption of RR 120 on ED was mainly physical and exothermic according to results of D-R isotherm, Arrhenius equation, thermodynamic, and desorption studies. The thermodynamic parameters showed that this process was feasible and spontaneous. This study showed that ED as a low-cost adsorbent had a great potential for the removal of RR 120 as an alternative eco-friendly process.

  10. Removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solution using bagasse fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumate Teachakulwiroj

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse fly ash, a waste from the sugar industry, was investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods of removing reactive dyes (Remazol Black B; RBB, Remazol Brilliant Blue R; RBBR, and Remazol Brilliant Red F3B; RBRF3B from aqueous solutions. Bagasse fly ash was collected from a local sugar factory in Saraburi province, Thailand. It was oven dried at 110ºC overnight and sieved to the desired particle size of 150 µm or smaller. The 50 mL plastic conical tubes containing solution and bagasse fly ash were shaken at room temperature (27±2ºC. The pH values of solutions were adjusted by addition of HNO3 and NaOH. The batch study indicated that initial pH of aqueous solutions did not affect dye removal. While the removal efficiency decreased with increasing initial concentration, it increased with increasing adsorbent concentration. The best adsorptions were obtained under condition of 50 mg/L concentration, original pH solution of about 5, and 240, 300, and 240 minutes contact time for RBB, RBBR, and RBRF3B, respectively. Most adsorption experiments showed in the range of about 50% to 98% removal; that is, the efficiencies of RBB, RBBR, and RBRF3B adsorption were found to be between 58.48-98.03%, 46.15-93.47%, and 46.30- 94.60%, respectively. For the linear and nonlinear forms of the Langmuir and Freundlich models, the results indicated that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the data better than the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Adsorption of these dyes onto bagasse fly ash was favorable sorption. Therefore, bagasse fly ash, the low-cost agricultural waste in Thailand, is suitable for use as adsorbent for RBB, RBBR, and RBRF3B under this investigation.

  11. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Investigation of Interactions between Reactive Red 223 and Reactive Orange 122 Anionic Dyes and Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB Cationic Surfactant in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the conductometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of reactive anionic dyes, namely, reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB. In a systematic investigation, the electrical conductivity data was used to calculate various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG, enthalpy (ΔH, and the entropy (ΔS of solubilization. The trend of change in these thermodynamic quantities indicates toward the entropy driven solubilization process. Moreover, the results from spectroscopic data reveal high degree of solubilization, with strong interactions observed in the cases of both dyes and the CTAB. The spontaneous nature of solubilization and binding was evident from the observed negative values of free energies (ΔGp and ΔGb.

  12. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic investigation of interactions between reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 anionic dyes and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) cationic surfactant in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Mansha, Asim; Rasool, Nasir; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Siddiq, Mohammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the conductometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of reactive anionic dyes, namely, reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). In a systematic investigation, the electrical conductivity data was used to calculate various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and the entropy (ΔS) of solubilization. The trend of change in these thermodynamic quantities indicates toward the entropy driven solubilization process. Moreover, the results from spectroscopic data reveal high degree of solubilization, with strong interactions observed in the cases of both dyes and the CTAB. The spontaneous nature of solubilization and binding was evident from the observed negative values of free energies (ΔG p and ΔG b).

  13. DECOLORIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF AZO DYE REACTIVE RED2 BY ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC SEQUENTIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naimabadi ، H. Movahedian Attar ، A. Shahsavani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the anaerobic treatability of reactive Red2 in an anaerobic/aerobic sequential process. Laboratory scale anaerobic baffled reactor and fixed activated sludge reactor were operated at different organic loadings and hydraulic retention times. The effects of shock dye concentration on the chemical oxygen demand and color removal efficiencies were investigated in the anaerobic baffled reactor. The effect of hydraulic retention time on the color and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies were also investigated in the aerobic reactor. The studies were carried out in continuous mode and the effluent of the anaerobic baffled reactor was used as feed for the fixed activated sludge reactor. Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 54.5% was obtained at HRT =1 day in the anaerobic reactor. The average color removal was 89.5%. Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 69% was obtained at HRT =7 h in the aerobic fixed activated sludge reactor. A slight decrease of the color was also observed in the aerobic reactor. This investigation has shown that successful treatment of a highly colored wastewater is possible in the anaerobic baffled reactor. Also the results showed that, anaerobic biological system has higher efficiency in dye removal than fixed activated sludge system, while aerobic system has higher efficiency in chemical oxygen demand removal comparing with the anaerobic baffled reactor.

  14. Treatment of Sulfonated Azo Dye Reactive Red 198 by UV/H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson P. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available UV/H2O2 system was tested on the color removal of sulfonated azo dye Reactive Red 198 (RR, which is widely used in textile process. The effects of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, pH, and the in-line addition of hydrogen peroxide on high color and chemical oxygen demand (COD removals were investigated. The kinetic of dye decolorization was also determined. The results showed that 2% H2O2 decreased the process efficiency, while 1% H2O2 solution led to a better performance of the system. Despite the fact that the pH increase had small effect on color removal, it affects positively COD removals. The same behavior was found for temperature increase. A high temperature resulted in a slight decrease in color removal and a sharp decrease for COD removal. In addition the H2O2 in-line provided a small improvement in both color and COD removals. UV/1% H2O2 treatment was the most efficient, the good performance was linked to higher amount of hydroxyl radicals formed.

  15. Laccase-conjugated amino-functionalized nanosilica for efficient degradation of Reactive Violet 1 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlout, Mayur; Rudakiya, Darshan M.; Gupte, Shilpa; Gupte, Akshaya

    2017-08-01

    Immobilization of enzyme with nanostructures enhances its ideal characteristics, which may allow the enzyme to become more stable and resistant. The present investigation deals with the formulation of laccase nanosilica conjugates to overcome the problems associated with its stability and reusability. Synthesized nanosilica and laccase nanoparticles were spherical shaped, with the mean size of 220 and 615 nm, respectively. Laccase nanoparticles had an optimum temperature of 55 °C and pH 4.0 for the oxidation of ABTS. Laccase nanoparticle retained 79% of residual activity till 20th cycle. It also showed 91% of its initial activity at lower temperatures even after 60 days. Laccase nanoparticles were applied for Reactive Violet 1 degradation wherein 96.76% of decolourization was obtained at pH 5.0 and 30 °C within 12 h. Toxicity studies on microbes and plants suggested that the degraded metabolites were less toxic than control dye. Thus, the method applied for immobilization increased storage stability and reusability of laccase, and therefore, it can be utilized for efficient degradation of azo dyes.

  16. Monitoring the crystallization from solution of a reactive dye by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Thomas; Tebbutt, John S.; Challis, Richard E.

    2000-05-01

    Ultrasound has potential to be used as a process monitoring tool alongside other techniques, such as pH, conductivity and dielectric measurements, tomography and optical turbidity. This paper outlines the development of a small volume test cell designed to monitor crystallization from solution in real time using low power ultrasound. The associated software is described and a series of experiments that have been carried out on a crystallizing orange reactive dye (BASF plc) are presented. Ultrasound has been used to monitor the crystallization process and the measurements yield data that separate into two distinct groups. These correspond to whether the dye is stirred or unstirred whilst crystallizing. Optical microscopy shows that well-dispersed crystals or extended networks of closely associated crystals are formed respectively. It was not possible to determine the principal physical constants of the crystallizing material due to its nature, so detailed theoretical modelling of the crystallization could not be achieved. Nevertheless, the phenomenological results indicate that the technique has potential to be incorporated into rugged instrumentation for monitoring crystallization in an industrial process environment.

  17. Application of response surface analysis for biodegradation of azo reactive textile dye using Aspergillus foetidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Singh, Lakhvinder

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the application of experimental design methodology for the optimization of decolourization of azo reactive textile dye Remazol Red RR and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) using fungal isolate Aspergillus foetidus. Response surface methodology (RSM), involving central composite design matrix in three most important input variables; temperature, pH and initial dye concentration was employed. A total of 20 experiments were conducted in the study towards the construction of a quadratic model. This demonstrated the benefits of approach in achieving excellent predictions, while minimizing the number of experiments required. Very high regression coefficient between the variables and the responses indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data. Under optimized conditions fungal isolate was capable to decolourize Remazol Red RR up to 86.21% and COD reduction up to 55.43% was achieved during the experimental setup. Enzymatic activity indicated excellent outcome under the optimal process conditions. The experimental values agreed with the predicted ones, indicating suitability of the model and success of RSM approach in optimizing the process.

  18. Optimization of integrated chemical-biological degradation of a reactive azo dye using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarjanto, Gatut [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Keller-Lehmann, Beatrice [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia); Keller, Jurg [Advanced Wastewater Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: j.keller@awmc.uq.edu.au

    2006-11-02

    The integrated chemical-biological degradation combining advanced oxidation by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} followed by aerobic biodegradation was used to degrade C.I. Reactive Azo Red 195A, commonly used in the textile industry in Australia. An experimental design based on the response surface method was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of influencing factors (UV irradiation time, initial hydrogen peroxide dosage and recirculation ratio of the system) on decolourisation efficiency and optimizing the operating conditions of the treatment process. The effects were determined by the measurement of dye concentration and soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD). The results showed that the dye and S-COD removal were affected by all factors individually and interactively. Maximal colour degradation performance was predicted, and experimentally validated, with no recirculation, 30 min UV irradiation and 500 mg H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/L. The model predictions for colour removal, based on a three-factor/five-level Box-Wilson central composite design and the response surface method analysis, were found to be very close to additional experimental results obtained under near optimal conditions. This demonstrates the benefits of this approach in achieving good predictions while minimising the number of experiments required.

  19. Optimisation of Reactive Black 5 dye removal by electrocoagulation process using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, W T; Aroua, M K; Szlachta, M; Lee, C S

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a regression model obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) was proposed for the electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of textile wastewater. The Reactive Black 5 dye (RB5) was used as a model dye to evaluate the performance of the model design. The effect of initial solution pH, applied current and treatment time on RB5 removal was investigated. The total number of experiments designed by RSM amounted to 27 runs, including three repeated experimental runs at the central point. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the F-test, coefficient of determination (R(2)), adjusted R(2) and standard deviation. The optimum conditions for RB5 removal were as follows: initial pH of 6.63, current of 0.075 A, electrolyte dose of 0.11 g/L and EC time of 50.3 min. The predicted RB5 removal was 83.3% and the percentage error between experimental and predicted results was only 3-5%. The obtained data confirm that the proposed model can be used for accurate prediction of RB5 removal. The value of the zeta potential increased with treatment time, and the X-ray diffraction pattern shows that iron complexes were found in the sludge.

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of substituted arylazo pyridone dyes in photocatalytic system: Experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dostanić, J., E-mail: jasmina@nanosys.ihtm.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Lončarević, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zlatar, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Chemistry, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vlahović, F. [University of Belgrade, Innovation center of the Faculty of Chemistry, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, D.M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Electronic effects of para substituted arylazo pyridone dyes. • Linear relationship between Hammett σ{sub p} constants and dyes photoreactivity. • The photocatalytic reactions facilitated by el.-acceptors and retarded by el.-donors. • Fukui functions to analyze the reactivity on concurrent sites within a molecule. • Hydroxyl radicals sustain attack from two reaction sites, depending on a substituent type. - Abstract: A series of arylazo pyridone dyes was synthesized by changing the type of the substituent group in the diazo moiety, ranging from strong electron-donating to strong electron-withdrawing groups. The structural and electronic properties of the investigated dyes was calculated at the M062X/6-31 + G(d,p) level of theory. The observed good linear correlations between atomic charges and Hammett σ{sub p} constants provided a basis to discuss the transmission of electronic substituent effects through a dye framework. The reactivity of synthesized dyes was tested through their decolorization efficiency in TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic system (Degussa P-25). Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed a strong correlation between reactivity of investigated dyes and Hammett substituent constants. The reaction was facilitated by electron-withdrawing groups, and retarded by electron-donating ones. Quantum mechanical calculations was used in order to describe the mechanism of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions of investigated dyes and interpret their reactivities within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). According to DFT based reactivity descriptors, i.e. Fukui functions and local softness, the active site moves from azo nitrogen atom linked to benzene ring to pyridone carbon atom linked to azo bond, going from dyes with electron-donating groups to dyes with electron-withdrawing groups.

  1. Biodegradation of Reactive Black 5 by Aeromonas hydrophila strain isolated from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Bouraie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila isolate showed the best decolorization of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 at the concentration of 100 mg L−1 on modified mineral salt medium among 42 bacterial isolates. Optimization of parameters for RB5 dye decolourization was studied under static condition. Under optimized condition, decolorization efficiency of RB5 by A. hydrophila was found to be 76% at 100 mg L−1 within 24 h. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolorization was 7 and 35 °C respectively. Biodegradation and decolorization of RB5, was monitored by UV–Vis spectrophotometry, Thin Layer Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis. The study has confirmed the potential of A. hydrophila isolated from textile effluent in degradation of RB5 and opened scope for future analysis in the treatment of textile effluent.

  2. Low frequency sonochemical synthesis of nanoporous amorphous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) and adsorption of remazol reactive dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Siti Zubaidah; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali, E-mail: rozali@ukm.edu.my [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Nanoporous amorphous-MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by sonochemical process (sonication) on the solid manganese (II) acetate tetrahydrate (Mn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O) in 0.1 M KMnO{sub 4}. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology of the material was scanned by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and absorptions of MnO{sub 2} bonding was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrometer (FT-IR). Remazol reactive dye or Red 3BS, was used in the adsorption study using nanoporous amorphous-MnO{sub 2}. In batch experiment, 10 ppm of Remazol reactive dye was used and experiment was carried out at room temperature. Adsorption of Remazol dye on 0.2g synthesized nanoporous amorphous-MnO{sub 2} showed 99 – 100% decolorization.

  3. Response surface-optimized removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from its aqueous solutions using polyethyleneimine enhanced ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, J; Singh, M; Sikder, J; Padarthi, V; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S

    2015-11-01

    Retention of toxic dyes with molecular weights lower than the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the ultrafiltration membranes can be improved through selective binding of the target dyes to a water-soluble polymer, followed by ultrafiltration of the macromolecular complexes formed. This method, often referred to as polymer enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF), was investigated in the present study, using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as the chelating agent. Model azo dye Reactive Red 120 was selected as the poorly biodegradable, target contaminant, because of its frequent recalcitrant presence in colored effluents, and its eventual ecotoxicological impacts on the environment. The effects of the governing process factors, namely, cross flow rate, transmembrane pressure polymer to dye ratio and pH, on target dye rejection efficiency were meticulously examined. Additionally, each parameter level was statistically optimized using central composite design (CCD) from the response surface methodology (RSM) toolkit, with an objective to maximize performance efficiency. The results revealed high dye retention efficiency over 99%, accompanied with reasonable permeate flux over 100L/m(2)h under optimal process conditions. The estimated results were elucidated graphically through response surface (RS) plots and validated experimentally. The analyses clearly established PEUF as a novel, reasonably efficient and economical route for recalcitrant dye treatment.

  4. A constructed wetland model for synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilratnisakorn, S; Thiravetyan, P; Nakbanpote, W

    2009-01-01

    Textile wastewater is contaminated by reactive dye causing unattractive levels of wastewater color, high pH and high salt content when discharged into public water systems. Decolorization of textile wastewater by plant, phytoremediation, is an alternative, sustainable method which is suitable for long term operation. Narrow-leaved cattails are one species of wetland plant with efficiency for decolorizing and remediating textile wastewater. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be lowered and dye residue can be removed. The plant also showed a good salt tolerance even after being exposed to a salt solution for 15 days. The narrow-leaved cattails were set up in a constructed wetland model with a vertical flow system operating from bottom to top for synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) removal. Narrow-leaved cattails could achieve the removal of SRDW at approximately 0.8 g(SRDW) m(-2) day(-1). Decolorization of SRDW by this plant was approximately 60%. The advantage of this method is that it is suitable for textile wastewater management and improvement of wetland. These plants could lower COD, remove dye, sodium and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas other biological and chemical methods could not remove TDS and dye in the same time. These results suggested that the spongy cell structure of this plant has the ability to absorb large amounts of water and nutrients. Physico-chemical analysis revealed increasing amounts of sulfur, silicon, iron and calcium in the plant leafs and roots after exposure to wastewater. Proteins or amide groups in the plant might help in textile dye removal. Regarding decolorization, this plant accumulates dye in the intercellular space and still grows in this SRDW condition. Hence, it can be noted here that narrow-leaved cattails are efficient for textile dye wastewater treatment.

  5. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59 by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane, U. V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies of the product were carried out.

  6. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  7. Cold pad-batch dyeing of cotton knitgoods with reactive dyes%纯棉针织物的活性冷轧堆染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞萍; 王朦朦

    2012-01-01

    Cold pad-batch dyeing of cotton knits with reactive Argazol CBM dyes are carried out. Effects of alkali, urea,sodium sulphate, batching-up temperature and time on color depth of cotton knits are discussed. The color fastness of dyed fabrics are tested and compared with traditional process. The optimum dyeing process with reactive Argazol CBM dyes are determined as follows: sodium carbonate 50 g/L,sodium hydroxide 6 g/L, urea 20 g/L, sodium sulphate 40 g/L, pick-up 80%, batching-up at 35 ℃ for 20 h. Cotton dyeings feature 4~5 grade of dry rub fastness, 4 grade of wet rub fastness, 4-5 grade of soaping fastness.%采用活性染料雅格素CBM对纯棉针织物进行冷轧堆染色,分析了碱剂、尿素、元明粉、堆置温度和时间对棉针织物染色深度的影响,测试了染色织物的色牢度.活性染料雅格素CBM三原色冷堆法染色棉针织物的优化工艺条件为:50 g/L纯碱与6 g/L烧碱组成混合碱剂,尿素20 g/L,元明粉40 g/L,轧余率80%左右,35℃堆置20h;染色后,织物的干摩擦牢度达到4~5级,湿摩擦牢度4级,皂洗牢度4~5级.

  8. Low salt dyeing of cotton fabric with reactive dyes%棉织物活性染料低盐染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓红; 贾雪平

    2011-01-01

    对棉织物阳离子改性后再用活性染料进行染色.研究表明:采用优化的改性工艺(阳离子改性剂9.5 g/L,NaOH 5.0 g/L,浴比50:1,80℃改性55 min)对棉织物进行处理后,再低盐染色[活性染料2%(omf),元明粉lO g/L,浴比50:1,染色温度55℃,染色时间雅格素红60 min、雅格素黄和雅格素藏青50 min]染色,染料固着率高,可实现棉织物活性染料低盐染色.%Cationic modified cotton fabric is dyed with reactive dyes. The results show that low salt dyeing of cotton fabric can be realized with high fixation yield, cationic modification is carried out at 80℃ for 55 minutes with cationic modifier 9.5 g/L,NaOH 5.O g/L and bath ratio 50 ∶ 1, and low salt dyeing is undergone at 55℃ with reactive dyes 2%(omf) , anhydrous sodium sulphate 10g/L and bath ratio 50 ∶ 1, dyeing time for Argazol red is 60 minutes, for Argazol yellow and Argazol turquoise blue is 50 minutes respectively.

  9. Research development of salt-free and low-salt dyeing for reactive dyes%活性染料无盐低盐染色研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘影

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of salts put in dyeing of reactive dyes as accelerant wil lead to environmental pol ution. Thus salt- free and low- salt dyeing has become a hot research issue. Research development of salt- free and low- salt dyeing for reactive dyes were ful y discussed in four aspects: (1) developing new reac-tive dyes through changing of reactive group; (2) increasing dye adsorption by fiber modification; (3) developing alternative of novel dyeing auxiliaries and salt;(4) designing reasonable and novel dyeing process.%活性染料染色需加入大量的盐促染,导致环境污染。因此,无盐低盐染色成为当前研究的热点。从4方面综合分析了活性染料低盐无盐染色的研究进展:(1)改变反应基团,开发新型活性染料;(2)对纤维改性,提高对染料的吸附能力;(3)开发新染色助剂和盐的替代物;(4)制定合理的染色工艺,开发新型染色工艺。

  10. Decolorization of mixtures of different reactive textile dyes by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida and inhibitory effect of polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazono, Koichi; Nakamura, Kazunori

    2005-03-01

    We tried to decolorize mixtures of four reactive textile dyes, including azo and anthraquinone dyes, by a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete sordida. P. sordida decolorized dye mixtures (200 mg l-1 each) by 90% within 48 h in nitrogen-limited glucose-ammonium media. Decolorization of dye mixtures needed Mn2+ and Tween 80 in the media. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) played a major role in dye decolorization by P. sordida. Decolorization of dye mixtures by P. sordida was partially inhibited by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that wastewaters from textile industries often contain. This was caused by an inhibitory effect of PVA on the decolorization of Reactive Red 120 (RR120) with MnP reaction system. Second addition of Tween 80 to the reaction mixtures in the presence of PVA improved the decolorization of RR120. These results suggest that PVA could interfere with lipid peroxidation or subsequent attack to the dye.

  11. Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by White-Rot Fungus Datronia sp. KAPI0039 and Their Application for Reactive Dye Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilanee Vaithanomsat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on decolorization of 2 reactive dyes; Reactive Blue 19 (RBBR and Reactive Black 5 (RB5, by selected white-rot fungus Datronia sp. KAPI0039. The effects of reactive dye concentration, fungal inoculum size as well as pH were studied. Samples were periodically collected for the measurement of color unit, Laccase (Lac, Manganese Peroxidase (MnP, and Lignin Peroxidase (LiP activity. Eighty-six percent of 1,000 mg L−1 RBBR decolorization was achieved by 2% (w/v Datronia sp. KAPI0039 at pH 5. The highest Lac activity (759.81 UL−1 was detected in the optimal condition. For RB5, Datronia sp. KAPI0039 efficiently performed (88.01% decolorization at 2% (w/v fungal inoculum size for the reduction of 600 mg L−1 RB5 under pH 5. The highest Lac activity (178.57 UL−1 was detected, whereas the activity of MnP and LiP was absent during this hour. The result, therefore, indicated that Datronia sp. KAPI0039 was obviously able to breakdown both reactive dyes, and Lac was considered as a major lignin-degradation enzyme in this reaction.

  12. Valorization of Waste Obtained from Oil Extraction in Moringa Oleifera Seeds: Coagulation of Reactive Dyes in Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Vilaseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. This waste constitutes a natural coagulant which was demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of industrial reactive dyestuff effluents, characterized by alkaline pH, high NaCl content and hydrolyzed dyes. The coagulation yield increased at high NaCl concentration, whereas the pH did not show any significant effect on dye removal. Moringa oleifera showed better results for dye removal than the conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high quality results.

  13. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive sulfonated azo dyes by a newly isolated Brevibacterium sp. strain VN-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscon, Elisangela; Grossman, Matthew James; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Durrant, Lucia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Azo dyes constitute the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes used in the textile, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries and represent major components in wastewater from these industrial dying processes. Biological decolorization of azo dyes occurs efficiently under low oxygen to anaerobic conditions. However, this process results in the formation of toxic and carcinogenic amines that are resistant to further detoxification under low oxygen conditions. Moreover, the ability to detoxify these amines under aerobic conditions is not a wide spread metabolic activity. In this study we describe the use of Brevibacterium sp. strain VN-15, isolated from an activated sludge process of a textile company, for the sequential decolorization and detoxification of the azo dyes Reactive Yellow 107 (RY107), Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Blue 71 (DB71). Tyrosinase activity was observed during the biotreatment process suggesting the role of this enzyme in the decolorization and degradation process, but no-activity was observed for laccase and peroxidase. Toxicity, measured using Daphnia magna, was completely eliminated.

  14. Decolorization and degradation of xenobiotic azo dye Reactive Yellow-84A and textile effluent by Galactomyces geotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kurade, Mayur B; Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kabra, Akhil N; Kim, Pil Joo; Waghmode, Tatoba R

    2014-08-01

    Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 exhibited 86% decolorization of azo dye Reactive Yellow-84A (50mgL(-1)) within 30h at 30°C and pH 7.0 under static condition. Examination of azoreductase, laccase and tyrosinase enzyme activities confirmed their prominent role in Reactive Yellow-84A degradation. Considerable reduction of COD (73%) and TOC (62%) during degradation of the dye was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were further analyzed by HPLC, FTIR, GC-MS and HPTLC. The degradation products were identified as 4(5-hydroxy, 4-amino cyclopentane) sulfobenzene and 4(5-hydroxy cyclopentane) sulfobenzene by GC-MS. In addition, when G. geotrichum was applied to decolorize textile effluent, it showed 85% of true color removal (ADMI removal) within 72h, along with a significant reduction in TOC and COD. Phytotoxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of degraded Reactive Yellow-84A as compared to original dye.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Paracoccus sp. GSM2 Capable of Degrading Textile Azo Dye Reactive Violet 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun C. Bheemaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential bacterial strain GSM2, capable of degrading an azo dye Reactive Violet 5 as a sole source of carbon, was isolated from textile mill effluent from Solapur, India. The 16S rDNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics indicated an isolated organism as Paracoccus sp. GSM2. This strain exhibited complete decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 (100 mg/L within 16 h, while maximally it could decolorize 800 mg/L of dye within 38 h with 73% decolorization under static condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 6.0–9.0 and 25–40°C, respectively. The isolate was able to decolorize more than 70% of five structurally different azo dyes within 38 h. The isolate is salt tolerant as it can bring out more than 90% decolorization up to a salt concentration of 2% (w/v. UV-Visible absorption spectra before and after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation and was further confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Overall results indicate the effectiveness of the strain GSM2 explored for the treatment of textile industry effluents containing various azo dyes. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on biodegradation of Reactive Violet 5 by Paracoccus sp. GSM2.

  16. Metal-Diazo Radicals of α-Carbonyl Diazomethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feifei; Xiao, Longqiang; Liu, Lijian

    2016-03-01

    Metal-diazo radicals of α-carbonyl diazomethanes are new members of the radical family and are precursors to metal-carbene radicals. Herein, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with spin-trapping, we detect diazo radicals of α-carbonyl diazomethanes, induced by [RhICl(cod)]2, [CoII(por)] and PdCl2, at room temperature. The unique quintet signal of the Rh-diazo radical was observed in measurements of α-carbonyl diazomethane adducts of [RhICl(cod)]2 in the presence of 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline-1-N-oxide (DMPO). DFT calculations indicated that 97.2% of spin density is localized on the diazo moiety. Co- and Pd-diazo radicals are EPR silent but were captured by DMPO to form spin adducts of DMPO-N• (triplet-of-sextets signal). The spin-trapping also provides a powerful tool for detection of metal-carbene radicals, as evidenced by the DMPO-trapped carbene radicals (DMPO-C•, sextet signal) and 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane-carbene adducts (MNP-C•, doublet-of-triplets signal). The transformation of α-carbonyl diazomethanes to metal-carbene radicals was confirmed to be a two-step process via metal-diazo radicals.

  17. Decolorization of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Textile Wastewater by the UV/H2O2 Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Abbas; Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad; Jamalodin Hashemian, Sayed; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Khavanin, Ali; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    Photo-oxidation of dyes is a new concern among researchers since it offers an attractive method for decoloration of dyes and breaks them into simple mineral forms. An advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, was investigated in a laboratory scale photoreactor for decolorization of the Reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The effects of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, pH, initial dye concentration and UV dosage, on decolorization have been evaluated. The RB19 solution was completely decolorized under optimal hydrogen peroxide dosage of 2.5 mmol L-1 and low-pressure mercury UV-C lamps (55 w) in less than 30 min. The decolorization rate followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The rate increased linearly with volumetric UV dosage and nonlinearly with increasing initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum of hydrogen peroxide dosage, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process was an effective technology for RB19 dye treatment in wastewater.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF COLOR PARAMETERS AND FASTNESS PROPERTIES ON DIFFERENT KNITTED FABRIC STRUCTURES DYED WITH REACTIVE DYES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ALAM Md Shamim; HAQUE Mr.Emdadul

    2016-01-01

    .... It has a significant influence on the aesthetic properties of textiles. Color is the result of dyeing a textile material depends on the chemical structure of the dyes and the physical and chemical properties...

  19. Removal of Reactive Dyes (Green, Orange, and Yellow from Aqueous Solutions by Peanut Shell Powder as a Natural Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Nadi H, Alizadeh M, Ahmadabadi M, Yari AR, Hashemi S. Removal of Reactive Dyes (Green, Orange, and Yellow from Aqueous Solutions by Peanut Shell Powder as a Natural Adsorbent. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(2:41-7. Abstract: Background & Aims of the Study: Textile dyes generally are made of synthetic, organic, and aromatic compounds that may be contain of some heavy metals in their structure. Complex structure and presence of these metals cause toxicity and may be mutagen, teratogen or carcinogen. This study has investigated the ability of peanut shell powder to removal of some reactive dyes (Green 19, Orange 16, and Yellow 14 from aqueous solutions. Materials & Methods : The effects of contact time, initial concentration of reactive dyes, adsorbent dosage and pH have been reported. The applicability of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm was tried for the system to completely understand the adsorption isotherm processes. Results: Batch adsorption studies showed that the peanut shell powder was able to remove the reactive dyes from aqueous solutions in the concentration range 25 to 250 mg/L. The highest percent removal for the Green 19, Orange 16, and Yellow 14 dyes was 84.2%, 87.36% and 88.49%, respectively. The adsorption was favored with maximum adsorption at pH=2. Also the optimum adsorbent dose was obtained 0.4 g/100 mL. By increasing adsorbent dose and initial concentration, removal efficiency was increased considerably. The adsorption isotherm studies clearly indicated that the adsorptive behavior of dyes on peanut shell satisfies only the Freundlich with average R 2 =0.926. Conclusions: Based on findings, the peanut shell powder was found as a low cost, natural and abundant availability adsorbent to removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solution. References: 1. García-Montaño J, Torrades F, García-Hortal JA, Domènec X, Peral J. Combining photo-Fenton process with aerobic sequencing batch reactor for commercial hetero

  20. pH effect on decolorization of raw textile wastewater polluted with reactive dyes by advanced oxidation with uv/h2o2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Rimeika, M.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of the advanced oxidation process (UV/H2O2) in decolorizing real textile wastewater polluted with commercial reactive dyes - Reactive Yellow 84 and Reactive Red 141 was investigated. All the experiments were performed in a lab-scale reactor with the original high pH of the wastewat

  1. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Suxiang [Xuchang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Cai, Lejuan, E-mail: 494169965@qq.com [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry (China); Li, Dapeng, E-mail: lidapengabc@126.com; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi [Xuchang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  2. Removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater by immobilized chitosan upon grafted Jute fibers with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud S.

    2015-10-01

    Jute fibers were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation technique. Chitosan was immobilized upon the grafted Jute fibers to be used as an adsorbent for waste reactive dye. The treated Jute fibers were characterized by using of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Jute treatment on its thermal stability by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its mechanical properties were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and the different factors affecting the dye adsorption such as pH and contact time were also studied. It was found that the dye adsorption was enhanced in the low pH range and increased with increasing of the contact time, regardless of temperature change.

  3. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of phenol and reactive dyes from aqueous solution on mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanthapanichakoon, W; Ariyadejwanich, P; Japthong, P; Nakagawa, K; Mukai, S R; Tamon, H

    2005-04-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics and ethanol regeneration efficiency of an activated carbon prepared from waste tires and a commercial activated carbon were investigated. Water vapor adsorption experiments reveal that both activated carbons showed hydrophobic surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments reveal that the prepared activated carbon possessed comparable phenol adsorption capacity as the commercial one but clearly larger adsorption capacity of two reactive dyes, Black 5 and Red 31. It was ascertained that the prepared activated carbon exhibited less irreversible adsorption of phenol and the two dyes than its commercial counterpart. Moreover, ethanol regeneration efficiency of the prepared AC saturated with either dye was higher than that of the commercial AC. Because of its superior liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics as well as higher ethanol regeneration efficiency, the prepared activated carbon is more suitable for wastewater treatment, especially for adsorbing similarly bulky adsorbates.

  4. 低盐染色活性染料深三原色的对比研究%Comparative study on low salt dsrk trichromatic reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪; 陈美芬; 简卫; 赵德峰

    2012-01-01

    复配了低盐染色活性染料深三原色LS红、LS黄和LS蓝,测定了其低盐染色效果。与深三原色ED系列在染料的耐碱稳定性和溶解度、染色提升力、冷堆染色适应性和染后的各项牢度等方面进行了对比研究。%In this paper, dyeing effect of self-made combined low salt dark trichromatic reactive dyes LS red, LS yellow and LS blue was measured. And the alkali stability, solubility, dyeing build up, cold pad-batch adaptability and color fastness of new combined dyes were compared with ED reactive dyes named dyeing

  5. 低温活性染料的染色工艺及染色性能研究%Research on the dyeing process and performance of low temperature reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉梅; 宋慧君; 盛杰侦

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote the application of low temperature reactive dyes in production,the effect of dyeing process on the dye uptake of type L reactive dyes and dyeing performance of type L reactive dyes were investigated. The results showed that the opti-mal conditions were sodium chloride 50 g/ L,sodium carbonate 5 ~ 6 g/ L,dyeing and fixing at 40 ℃,and fixing for 70 min with L type reactive dye 3% ,blend of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide as fixing alkali agent. The affinity and substantivity of type L reac-tive dye with cellulose fibers are low,while reaction rate is high,and compatibility is good between dyes.%为了推进低温活性染料在生产中的应用,研究了染色工艺对 L 型活性染料上染百分率的影响与 L 型活性染料的染色性能。结果表明,当 L 型活性染料质量分数为3%时,用纯碱与烧碱的混合碱为固色碱剂,最佳染色和固色温度为40℃、最佳食盐用量为50 g/ L、最佳纯碱用量为5~6 g/ L、最佳固色时间为70 min,L 型活性染料对纤维素纤维的亲和力及直接性低、反应速率大、染料之间相容性好。

  6. High Selective and Catalyst-directed Addition of Diazo Compounds to Imines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ming; HU Wen-Hao; Groneberg Luisa S.; Doyle Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    @@ Transition metal-catalyzed decomposition of diazo compounds and subsequent transformations constitute vast synthetically useful reactions. Recently the catalytic approaches to ylide generation and reaction leading to heterocycle compounds from diazo compounds have achieved remarkable successes.

  7. An optimized assay of specific IgE antibodies to reactive dyes and studies of immunologic responses in exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, U; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Belin, L

    1990-03-01

    Methods of assaying reactive dye-specific IgE antibodies were investigated with a RAST. Sera from three patients, occupationally exposed to a reactive dye, Remazol black B (Chemical Abstract registry number 17095-24-8), were used. Directly dyed disks, that is, disks without any carrier protein, resulted in poor and unreliable measures of specific IgE. In contrast, optimized preparation of conjugates between the dye and human serum albumin resulted in efficient binding of specific IgE. The patients' RAST results were strongly positive, whereas sera from 36 exposed workers but without symptoms and sera from unexposed subjects with high levels of total IgE were negative. The hapten and carrier specificity of the IgE antibodies was studied by direct RAST and RAST inhibition. In one patient, the antibodies were principally hapten specific, whereas another patient was found to have antibodies with a high degree of specificity to the carrier. The third patient's antibodies were intermediate between the other two patients' antibodies in this respect, suggesting that antibody specificity is dependent not only on the nature of the hapten but also on individual immune response factors. The study demonstrates that it is important to use an optimized preparation of dye-protein conjugates to elicit reliable results and a high degree of specific IgE binding in the RAST.

  8. The survey of electrocoagulation Process for removal dye Reactive Orange 16 from aqueous solutions using sacrificial iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Discharge of textile industries colored wastewaters without enough treatment into natural water supplies cause serious damages to the environment. This study was performed to investigate the effect of electrocoagulation for dye removal from synthetic wastewater using iron electrodes. Removal of dye reactive orange 16 (RO16 by electrocoagulation using iron electrode was conducted in a batch reactor with volume 1 liter. The effect of operating parameters such as current density, initial concentration of dye, pH and contact time was studied and the electrical energy consumption was calculated. The maximum efficiency of hardness removal which was obtained in current density of 20mA/cm2, optimum concentration 50mg L-1, optimum pH 5.5, reaction time of 30 min and NaCL concentration 1.5g/l are equal to 99.27%. Also COD removal efficiency is increased to 66%. Results show, electrocoagulation process by iron electrode is an effective method for reactive dye removal from colored wastewater.

  9. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Mg(OH2-PAM Inorganic-Organic Composite Polymer in Removing Reactive Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Ern Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of inorganic-organic composite polymer was prepared. Magnesium hydroxide and polyacrylamide was composed in a composite matrix to prepare Mg(OH2-PAM (MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymer. The characteristics of MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymer was investigated in terms of chemical, physical, physical, thermal and morphological properties through FT-IR, conductivity, intrinsic viscosity, TGA and TEM, respectively. Results showed that the properties of MHPAM composite polymers varied with the compositions in the composite polymers. Different compositions of MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymers were applied in removing reactive dye from aqueous solution. MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymer with Mg(OH2 : PAM ratio of 90 : 10 gave the best dye removal (% where it was able to remove 98% of reactive dye at pH 11.00 with a dosage of 500 mg/L. Kinetics study was carried out using different dye concentration and it was found that the experimental data fitted the pseudo-second-order model better compared to pseudo-first-order model.

  10. Heterogeneous fenton process using the mineral hematite for the discolouration of a reactive dye solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. F. Araujo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study on the heterogeneous Fenton reaction using hematite powder (Fe2O3 in suspension for the discolouration of the reactive dye Drimarene Red X-6BN in aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the process was studied as a function of the experimental conditions: initial pH; H2O2 dose; and hematite powder concentration; all of which showed a strong effect on the reaction kinetics. Under the best experimental conditions: pH = 2.5; H2O2 dose = 800 mg/L; and [Hematite] = 20 g/L, it was possible to remove about 99% of the initial colour in 120 minutes in a batch reaction at 25ºC. The analysis of the kinetic results suggests that the reaction is initiated by heterogeneous generation of free radicals on the hematite surface, but as soluble iron (III and iron (II species are released into the solution during the course of the reaction, a simultaneous homogeneous Fenton reaction step propagates and contributes to the overall reaction.

  11. Adsorption of phenol and reactive dye from aqueous solution on activated carbons derived from solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kyuya; Namba, Akio; Mukai, Shin R; Tamon, Hajime; Ariyadejwanich, Pisit; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2004-04-01

    Activated carbons were produced from several solid wastes, namely, waste PET, waste tires, refuse derived fuel and wastes generated during lactic acid fermentation from garbage. Activated carbons having various pore size distributions were obtained by the conventional steam-activation method and via the pre-treatment method (i.e., mixture of raw materials with a metal salt, carbonization and acid treatment prior to steam-activation) that was proposed by the authors. The liquid-phase adsorption characteristics of organic compounds from aqueous solution on the activated carbons were determined to confirm the applicability of these carbons, where phenol and a reactive dye, Black5, were employed as representative adsorbates. The hydrophobic surface of the carbons prepared was also confirmed by water vapor adsorption. The characteristics of a typical commercial activated carbon were also measured and compared. It was found that the activated carbons with plentiful mesopores prepared from PET and waste tires had quite high adsorption capacity for large molecules. Therefore they are useful for wastewater treatment, especially, for removal of bulky adsorbates.

  12. Sandal reactive dyes decolorization and cytotoxicity reduction using manganese peroxidase immobilized onto polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal manganese peroxidases (MnPs) have great potential as bio-remediating agents and can be used continuously in the immobilized form like many other enzymes. Results In the present study, purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme isolated from Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 was immobilized onto polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads and investigated its potential for the decolorization and detoxification of new class of reactive dyes and textile wastewater. The optimal conditions for MnP i...

  13. Valorization of waste obtained from oil extraction in moringa oleifera seeds: coagulation of reactive dyes in textile effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Mercè Vilaseca; Víctor López-Grimau; Carmen Gutiérrez-Bouzán

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight) which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. ...

  14. Grafting of aniline derivatives onto chitosan and their applications for removal of reactive dyes from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Mojtaba; Jaymand, Mehdi; Niroomand, Pouneh; Farnoudian-Habibi, Amir; Karaj-Abad, Saber Ghasemi

    2017-02-01

    A series of chitosan-grafted polyaniline derivatives {chitosan-g-polyaniline (CS-g-PANI), chitosan-g-poly(N-methylaniline) (CS-g-PNMANI), and chitosan-g-poly(N-ethylaniline) (CS-g-PNEANI)} were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization method. The synthesized copolymers were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). These copolymers were applied as adsorbent for removal of acid red 4 (AR4) and direct red 23 (DR23) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption processes were optimized in terms of pH, adsorbent amount, and dyes concentrations. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) for the synthesized copolymers were calculated, and among them the CS-g-PNEANI sample showed highest Qm for both AR4 (98mgg(-1)) and DR23 (112mgg(-1)) dyes. The adsorption kinetics of AR4 and DR23 dyes follow the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The regeneration and reusability tests revealed that the synthesized adsorbents had the relatively good reusability after five repetitions of the adsorption-desorption cycles. As the results, it is expected that the CS-g-PANIs find application for removal of reactive dyes (especially anionic dyes) from industrial effluents mainly due to their low production costs and high adsorption effectiveness.

  15. Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyani, D.C.; Telke, A.A.; Dhanve, R.S. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Jadhav, J.P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)], E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5 g l{sup -1}), at temperature 30 deg. C, and pH range 6.2-7.5 in static condition. This isolate also showed decolorization of the media containing a mixture of dyes. Measurements of COD were done at regular intervals to have an idea of mineralization, showing 52% reduction in the COD within 24 h. Induction in the activity of lignin peroxidase and azoreductase was observed during decolorization of Reactive Red 2 in the batch culture, which represented their role in degradation. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, HPLC. The final product, 2-naphthol was characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy. The phytotoxicity study revealed the degradation of Reactive Red 2 into non-toxic product by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

  16. Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of Reactive Red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, D C; Telke, A A; Dhanve, R S; Jadhav, J P

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this work is to evaluate textile dyes degradation by novel bacterial strain isolated from the waste disposal sites of local textile industries. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organisms as Pseudomonas species and designated as strain Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. The isolate was able to decolorize sulfonated azo dye (Reactive Red 2) in a wide range (up to 5 g l(-1)), at temperature 30 degrees C, and pH range 6.2-7.5 in static condition. This isolate also showed decolorization of the media containing a mixture of dyes. Measurements of COD were done at regular intervals to have an idea of mineralization, showing 52% reduction in the COD within 24h. Induction in the activity of lignin peroxidase and azoreductase was observed during decolorization of Reactive Red 2 in the batch culture, which represented their role in degradation. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, HPLC. The final product, 2-naphthol was characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy. The phytotoxicity study revealed the degradation of Reactive Red 2 into non-toxic product by Pseudomonas sp. SUK1.

  17. Determination of Minimum Enzymatic Decolorization Time of Reactive Dye Solution by Spectroscopic & Mathematical Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mithat Celebi; Zafer Omer Ozdemir; Emre Eroglu; Melda Altikatoglu; Ibrahim Guney

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing,paper printing,color photography and petrole-um products.Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation,precipitation,adsorption,chemical degradation,photo degradation,and chemical coagulation.Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an im-portant issue for several research field (chemistry,environment)In this study,minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data.Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance de-crease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye.All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 ℃ constant temperature for 30 minutes.The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model.Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation.It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF PHOTOCATALYTIC DECOLOURIZATION OF REACTIVE RED 120 DYE IN TEXTILE EFFLUENT USING UV/H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ananthashankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP for degradation of reactive red 120 dye in aqueous solutions was tested in this present study. Ten different concentrations of the reactive red 120 dye were ex-posed to UV alone and a combination of UV with two different concentrations (10 ml/L and 20 ml/L of H2O2 for 10 different retention times at the pH of textile effluent (pH = 10-11. The effect of acidifying the dye solution on the removal efficiency was also investigated. The COD removal efficiency was determined for the most efficient treatment. The dye degradation efficiency obtained after 60 min exposure to UV alone was 27.01% for 50 mg/L dye concentration and 0.33% for 500 mg/L dye concentration. The degradation efficiency obtained after exposure to UV/10 ml/L H2O2 was 99.83% after 25.4 min for the 50 mg/L dye concentration and 99.70% after 60 min for the 500 mg/L dye concentration. Exposure to UV/ 20 ml/L H2O2 resulted in a degradation efficiency of 99.96% after 20 min for the 50 mg/L dye concentration and 99.95% after 60 min for the 500 mg/L dye concentration. Increasing the H2O2 from 10 ml/L to 20 ml/L (UV/20 ml/L H2O2 improved the oxidation efficiency and reduced the treatment time. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD analysis performed on the effluent obtained from the UV/20 ml/L H2O2 treatment showed a COD removal efficiency of 99.96% (from 704 mg/L to 416 mg/L after 20 min for the 50 mg/L dye concentration and 99.95% (from 1184 mg/L to 256 mg/L after 60 min for the 500 mg/L dye concentrations. However the final COD concentrations were higher than the COD discharge limit of 80 mg/L. The COD discharge limit of 80 mg/L could be achieved with UV/ 20 ml/L H2O2 treatment by increasing the exposure time (longer than 60 min. The pH of the treated effluent is within the accepted discharge limit of 6-9. Treatment of the dye effluent under acidic condition was slightly faster but the time reduction does not justify the cost of chemicals

  19. Dyeing Property of Reactive Disperse Dyes on Wool/Polyester Blended Fabric%毛/涤混纺织物改性分散染料染色性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜栋; 黄旭

    2014-01-01

    本文研发了一种新型的改性分散染料并对其染色性能进行研究。将β-乙烯砜硫酸酯活性基团引入到分散染料分子中,合成新的反应型分散染料,β-乙烯砜硫酸酯活性基团与羊毛形成共价键从而上染纤维,分散染料则上染涤纶。这种改性分散染料在pH值7,100℃时具有最高上染百分率。研究发现,含有双β-乙烯砜硫酸酯活性基团的改性分散染料的染色性能优于含单个活性基团的改性分散染料。改性分散染料的摩擦、皂洗和汗渍牢度较好。%A kind of new reactive disperse dye and its dyeing properties were researched. The bis-sulphatoethylsolphone reactive groups were introduced into the disperse dye and formed a new reactive disperse dye. The bis-sulphatoethylsolphone reactive groups could form covalent bond with wool and disperse dyes could be taken up to polyester. Maximum exhaustion values were observed at pH value 7 and 100℃. The dyes containing bis-sulphatoethylsolphone reactive groups had better dyeing properties compared with mono-sulphatoethylsulphone reactive group dyes. All dyed fabrics had good rub fastness, soaping fastness and perspiration fastness.

  20. Comparison of decolorization of reactive azo dyes by microorganisms isolated from various sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Padamavathy; S.Sandhya; K.Swaminathan; Y.V.Subrahmanyam; S.N.Kaul

    2003-01-01

    Azo dyes are among the oldest man-made chemicals and they are still widely used in the textile, printing and the food industries. About 10%-15% of the total dyes used in the industry is released into the environment during the manufacturing and usage. Some dyes and some of their N-substituted aromatic bio-transformation products are toxic and/or carcinogenic and therefore these dyes are considered to be environmental pollutants and health hazards. These azo dyes are degraded by physico-chemical and biological methods. Of these, biological methods are considered to be the most economical and efficient. In this work, attempts were made to degrade these dyes aerobically. The organisms which were efficient in degrading the following azo dyes-Red RB, Remazol Red, Remazol Blue, Remazol Violet, Remazol Yellow, Golden Yellow, Remazol Orange, Remazol Black- were isolated from three different sources viz., wastewater treatment plant, paper mill effluent treatment plant and tannery wastewater treatment plant. The efficiency of azo dye degradation by mixed cultures from each source was analyzed. It was found that mixed cultures from tannery treatment plant worked efficiently in decolorizing Remazol Red, Remazol Orange, Remazol Blue and Remazol Violet, while mixed cultures from the paper mill effluent worked efficiently in decolorizing Red RB, Golden Yellow and Remazol Yellow. The mixed cultures from wastewater treatment plant efficiently decolorized Remazol Black.

  1. Decolorization and degradation of reactive dye during the dyed cotton fabric rinsing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Deng-Hong; Zheng, Qing-Kang; Chen, Sheng; Liu, Qing-Shu; Wang, Xiu-Xing; Guan, Yu; Pu, Zong-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Dyeing process of textile consumes large quantities of water, which results in huge amounts of colored wastewater. Most of the dye wastewater treating methods focused on the treatment of wastewater after the rinsing process of dyed textile. In this paper, tetraacetylethylenediamine/hydrogen peroxide (TAED/H₂O₂) active oxidation (AO) system was developed to rinse dyed textile and decolorize the rinsing wastewater simultaneously. The results indicated that the decolorization ratio of the rinse effluent obtained by AO method were in the range of 51.72%-84.15% according to different dyes and the COD value decreased more than 30% compared with that of traditional rinsing process. The decolorization kinetics investigation showed that the decolorization of dyes during AO rinsing process followed the law of pseudo-first order kinetics. The result of UV-Vis and UPLC-MS analysis demonstrated that the dye was degraded into colorless organic molecular fragments and partly mineralized during the AO rinsing process.

  2. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye.

  3. Resist Pattern Inspection Using Fluorescent Dye-Doped Polystyrene Thin Films in Reactive-Monolayer-Assisted Thermal Nanoimprint Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Shoichi; Sato, Yuko; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2011-06-01

    Fluorescent dye-doped polystyrene (PS) thin films were studied for defect inspection of PS resist patterns by fluorescence microscopy in reactive-monolayer-assisted thermal nanoimprint lithography using a photoreactive monolayer. A fluorescent dye of N,N '-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide doped in a PS resist thin film maintained an almost identical fluorescence intensity after annealing at a temperature necessary for thermal nanoimprinting. To avoid degradation of a dye doped in a resist film owing to exposure to ultraviolet light for preparing a PS graft layer on the photoreactive monolayer, a double coating method for preparing a dye-doped PS resist layer on the PS graft layer was adopted. It was demonstrated by the fluorescent microscopic defect inspection that resist pattern defects due to unleveled residual layers after thermal nanoimprinting were significantly decreased by adding low-molecular-weight PS (5,100 g mol-1) to high-molecular-weight PS (360,000 g mol-1). The rheological study revealed that the low-molecular-weight PS obviously functioned as a plasticizer, which flattened residual layers and decreased their thickness.

  4. Removal of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile wastewater by pomegranate seed powder: Isotherm and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Dehvari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was the evaluation of adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile synthetic wastewater by pomegranate seed powder. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental research, which was performed in laboratory scale. In this study, the parameters such as adsorbent dose, pH and retention time, initial concentration of dye and agitation rate have been investigated. After washing and boiling of pomegranate seeds for 2 h, they dried, milled and finally pulverized by standard ASTM sieves (40-100 mesh. Maximum adsorption wave length (λmax by spectrophotometer ultra violet/visible (model SP-3000 Plus 592 nm was determined. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were analyzed. Results: According to results, the removal efficiency with adsorbent dose, retention time and agitation rate has a direct relation. Maximum adsorption occurred in the first 60 min. The removal efficiency with initial concentration of dye and pH of solution has indirect relation. The Freundlich isotherm fits the experimental data better than the other isotherms. It was recognized that the adsorption followed by pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.99. Conclusion: Based on the results, pomegranate seeds as a new natural sorbent can be used in removal of dye and other environmental pollutants with desirable absorption capacity.

  5. 低盐复合活性黑染料的对比研究%Comparative study on low salt composite reactive black dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪; 简卫; 陈美芬; 赵德峰

    2012-01-01

    The low salt dyeing effect of self-made low salt composite reactive black LS was measured, and alkali stability, solubility, dyeing build up, cold pad-batch dyeing adaptability and dyeing fastness were compared between self-made low salt composite reactive black LS and reactive black ED.%自制了低盐复合活性黑LS染料,测定了其低盐染色效果,并在染料的耐碱稳定性、溶解度、染色提升力、冷堆染色适应性及染后各项牢度等方面与活性黑ED染料进行了对比研究。

  6. 活性染料超声波染色与常规染色工艺的对比研究%Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic dyeing of reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾野梅; 刘丽

    2011-01-01

    通过单因子试验和正交试验,对比研究常规条件和超声波条件下活性染料染棉织物上染百分率的差异,得出2种条件下活性艳蓝KN-R染棉织物的优化工艺.结果表明:超声波对染色过程有促进作用,可提高染料的上染百分率和K/S值,达到降低染色温度、缩短染色时间、提高染色织物皂洗牢度和固色率的目的;超声波染色优化工艺为:染料2% (owf),元明粉50g/L,磷酸三钠8g/L,染色温度50℃,染色时间105 min.%Cotton fabric is dyed with reactive dye, Brilliant Blue KN-R, under ultrasonic condition and conventional condition. Hie influence of ultrasound on the dye uptake of cotton fiber with reactive dye is analyzed through single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, and the optimum dyeing processes are received. The results show that ultrasound has promoting action during dyeing process, can increase uptake rate and K/S value. Compared with the conventional dyeing process, ultrasound can not only improve the soaping fastness, but also shorten the dyeing time, increase fixation rate and lower dyeing temperature. The optimum conditions of ultrasonic dyeing are dye 2%(owf), hydrosulfite 50 g/L, trisodium phosphate 8 g/L, dyeing time 105 min, and temperature 50 t.

  7. Study on the dyeing of the pineapple fibers with bi-functional reactive dyes%双活性基活性染料菠萝纤维染色工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 顾东雅

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple fibers were dyed with bi-functional reactive dyes of Cibacron FN. Dyeing tempera-ture, the amount of sodium sulfate, and dosage of alkaline agent were analyzed using single factor experiment and taking the K/S value and the dyeing uptake as measurement index. At the same time, the curve of the rate of dyeing and building up properties of dyes in the pineapple fibers were discussed. The optimal dyeing conditions were obtained: the amount of alkaline agent was 12 g/L, the dosage of sodium sulfate was 40 g/L, and the dyeing temperature was 65 ℃. Under the optimal dyeing conditions, pineapple fibers had higher dye-ing uptake. Good matching color effect and good building up properties on pineapple fibers could be obtained by trichromatic color reactive dyes of Cibacron FN.%采用汽巴克隆FN双活性基活性染料对菠萝纤维进行染色,以表面得色K/S值和上染率为衡量指标,对染色温度、元明粉用量和纯碱用量等工艺条件进行单因素分析,同时分析了染料在菠萝纤维上的上染率曲线和提升性能.试验得到最佳染色工艺为:纯碱用量12 g/L、元明粉用量40 g/L、染色温度65℃.在此工艺条件下,菠萝纤维具有较好的上染率;汽巴克隆FN三原色活性染料能获得较好的拼色效果,在纤维上的提升性能也较好.

  8. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksakal, Ozkan [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum 25240 (Turkey); Ucun, Handan, E-mail: hanucun@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, Bartin 74100 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    This study investigated the biosorption of Reactive Red 195 (RR 195), an azo dye, from aqueous solution by using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo. To this end, pH, initial dye concentration, biomass dosage and contact time were studied in a batch biosorption system. Maximum pH for efficient RR 195 biosorption was found to be 1.0 and the initial RR 195 concentration increased with decreasing percentage removal. Biosorption capacity increased from 6.69 mg/g at 20 deg. C to 7.38 mg/g at 50 deg. C for 200 mg/L dye concentration. Kinetics of the interactions was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, the Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the Elovich equation also showed a good fit to the experimental data. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was found to be 8.904 kJ/mol by using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the study also evaluated the thermodynamic constants of biosorption ({Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S). The results indicate that cone biomass can be used as an effective and low-cost biosorbent to remove reactive dyes from aqueous solution.

  9. Effect of air plasma treatment on the dyeing of Tencel fabric with C.I. Reactive Black 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. S.; Liu, H. L.; Yu, W. D.

    2015-02-01

    The Tencel fabrics were treated by the atmospheric pressure plasma with air for different length of time and dyed with the C.I. Reactive Black 5 at 1%, 5% and 10% o.m.f. The effect of the prolonged plasma treatment time was characterized by both the weight loss and the whiteness index analyses, which implied that with the increase of the plasma treatment time, the treated fabrics were lighter and yellower than the untreated ones. The contact angle decreased dramatically from 139° to instantly spread. The results of SEM showed that, with the prolonged treatment time, more significant crater-like surface morphology on the fiber of Tencel samples was formed. Compared with untreated samples, the values of dye bath exhaustion and total fixation effect were higher. But they did not increase with the prolonged plasma treatment time. With the prolonged storage time after the plasma treatment, the result to ageing effect indicated that the values of dye bath exhaustion and total fixation effect reduced. The Integ values for characterizing the coloring effect were evaluated by the CIE system of color measurement. In most cases, the Integ values reached the highest ones when the plasma treatment time was 10 or 20 min. When the concentration of the dye bath was low (at 1% o.m.f.), the longer plasma treatment time was, the higher the Integ value was. However, if the fabrics after plasma treatment were stored for 21 days, the longer plasma treatment time did not cause the larger Integ value. When the concentration was 1%, the Integ value increased with the weight loss increasing, which was different from the values of fabrics with 5% and 10% concentration. If the dyeing concentration was low, the fixation had a more significant effect on the color fastness to wet rubbing; in contrast, if the dyeing concentration was high, the surface roughness had a more important effect on it.

  10. 苎麻织物活性染料深浓染色工艺方法研究%Dyeing process research on deep dyeing of ramie fabric with reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊; 王雪燕

    2016-01-01

    Ramie fabric was treated with the combination of strong alkali and self-made cationic gelatin protein. The influence parameters of the strong alkali pretreatment conditions (alkali dosage, treatment time) on the modified and dyeing effects were all discussed. And then the effects of cationic protein modified conditions (cationic gelatin dosage, sodium hydroxide dosage, modification time and temperature) on the fabric dyeing uptake, fixation rate and dyeing depth were investigated. The optimization parameters of ramie fabric pretreated and modified conditions were confirmed. The results showed the dyeing properties and reactive dyes utilization ratio of modified ramie fabric were able to be significantly improved, which was pretreated with the strong alkali and then treated with self-made cationic gelatin protein.%采用浓碱与自制的阳离子明胶蛋白助剂联合处理苎麻织物,探讨浓碱预处理条件(碱用量、处理时间)对改性效果和活性染料染色效果的影响,并研究阳离子蛋白助剂改性条件(助剂用量、氢氧化钠用量、改性时间、改性温度)对苎麻织物活性染料染色的上染百分率、固色效率、染色深度的影响,确定了最佳苎麻预处理条件及浸渍改性条件。结果表明,经浓碱预处理后,再经阳离子明胶蛋白助剂改性的苎麻织物染色性能显著改善,活性染料利用率明显提高。

  11. 棉针织物Anozol L型活性染料低温染色%Low temperature dyeing of cotton knits with Anozol L-type reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玲

    2011-01-01

    采用Anozol L型活性染料对纯棉针织物进行低温染色,探讨了染色温度、碱剂种类、固色pH值、元明粉质量浓度和固色时间对K/S值的影响,得出的优化染色工艺为:染料2%(onf),纯碱5g/L,烧碱0.5~1.0 g/L,元明粉40 g/L,40℃固色90 min.该系列染料提升性好,适宜染中深色;染色织物匀染性好,耐摩擦色牢度和耐皂洗色牢度均较高,具有显著的节能减排优势.%Anozol L-type reactive dyes are applied to cotton knits dyeing at low temperature and the factors affecting the K/S values are discussed, including dyeing temperature, alkaline agent, fixing pH value, dosage of Na2SO4 and fixing time. The results show that the optimum dyeing process is L-type reactive dye 2% (omf), Na2CO3 5 g/L, NaOH 0.5 ~ 1 g/L, Na2SO4 40 g/L,fixing at 40 ℃ for 90 min. Anozol L-type reactive dyes have good building up properties and levelness which are suitable for medium to dark shade dyeing, as well as good fastness to rubbing and soaping. L-type reactive dyes also have the advantage of energy saving and emission reduction.

  12. Roles of Novel Reactive Cationic Copolymers of 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium Chloride and Dimethyldiallylammonium Chloride in Fixing Anionic Dyes on Cotton Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikai Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of novel reactive cationic copolymers (P(CMDA-DMDAACs of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium chloride (CMDA and dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC in fixing anionic dyes on cotton fabric were studied by modern instrumental analysis technologies such as FT-IR spectra and SEM analysis, to achieve the new theoretical guides for the wide applications of those dye fixatives. The FT-IR spectra of the obtained insoluble-water color lakes verified that they could be formed from the electrostatic interactions of the P(CMDA-DMDAACs with anionic dyes, which were further confirmed by the FT-IR analysis of the anionic dyes on dyeing cotton sample fixed by P(CMDA-DMDAACs. The FT-IR spectra of cotton samples fixed by P(CMDA-DMDAACs showed the absorptions of P(CMDA-DMDAACs and the signs similar to the formation of new ether linkage on cotton fabric even after being repeatedly washed, which were further confirmed by the SEM analysis of the fixed dyeing cotton samples. Thus, the reactive units (CMDA of the obtained P(CMDA-DMDAACs could be expected to bring about the covalent bonds with the hydroxyl groups of cotton (cellulose to form an ether linkage when fixing, resulting in the stronger interactions of P(CMDA-DMDAACs with cotton fabric, as well as their electrostatic forces with anionic dyes to produce the insoluble-water color lakes, for the development of fastness of anionic dyes on cotton fabric.

  13. 纱线活性染料染灰色日晒牢度探讨%A Study on the Color Fastness to Light of Yarn in Grey Dyeing with Reactive Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉梅; 顾晓忠; 王强; 顾春华; 蒋静娟

    2011-01-01

    According to the character of low color fastness to light of yarn in grey dyeing with reactive dyes, the optimum three primary colors for guaranteeing the quality were suggested based on the amount and cost of dyes. The color fastness to light of yarn in grey was improved.%针对纱线活性染料染灰色日晒牢度差问题,结合拼色用量及染色成本,给出合理染料组合,使日晒牢度得以提高,质量得到保证。

  14. Cloud Point Extraction of Toxic Reactive Black 5 Dye from Water Samples Using Triton X-100 as Nonionic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziyeh Mousavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A surfactant mediated cloud point extraction (CPE procedure has been developed to remove color from wastewater containing reactive black 5, using triton x-100 (TX-100 as non-ionic surfactant. The effects of the concentration of the surfactant, pH, temperature and salt concentration on the different concentrations of dye have been studied and optimum conditions were obtained for the removal of reactive black 5 (RB 5. The concentration of RB 5 in the dilute phase was measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the separation of phases was complete and the recovery of RB 5 was very effective in the presence of NaCl as an electrolyte. The results showed that up to 600 mg L-1 of RB 5 can quantitatively be removed (>97% by cloud point extraction procedure in a single extraction using optimum conditions.

  15. Photo-Fenton oxidation of azo dye Reactive Black B using an immobilized iron oxide as heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Ho, Chien-Hung; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2013-04-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of azo dye Reactive Black B (RBB) by the photo-Fenton system catalyzed with an immobilized iron oxide, B1 (supported with SiO2 grain), was investigated. Reactive Black B oxidation was carried out in an expended-bed reactor in which the effect of B1 dosage on the decolorization and degradation of RBB was examined. Through pseudo-first-order kinetic studies, decolorization was found to be faster than degradation with a fixed rate constant ratio. By determining the iron dissolution from B1, RBB oxidation was supposed to mainly occur on the B1 surface, which catalyzed the generation of hydroxyl radicals in the photo-Fenton reaction. Accordingly, the efficiency of photo-Fenton could reach 100% and 91.2% of decolorization and degradation, respectively, in 300 minutes.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of cellulose modified nano zero-valent iron for dye discoloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Pei; Ma, Jun; Liu, Huiling; Ning, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) was innovatively and successfully modified by using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) as dispersants. The systematic characterization observations (including XRD, SEM and TEM) illustrate that, compared with bare nano zero-valent iron particles (BNZVI), the particle sizes of hydroxyethyl cellulose modified (ENZVI) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose modified (PNZVI) were decreased, while the dispersity and antioxidizability of ENZVI and PNZVI particles were increased. The discoloration efficiencies of ENZVI, PNZVI, and BNZVI were compared by using dyes (including orange II, methyl orange, methyl blue, and methylene blue) as target pollutant. The results show that both the discoloration efficiency and reaction rate of ENZVI and PNZVI are higher than that of BNZVI. In addition, effects of dispersant content, dye type, pH value, initial dye concentration, iron dosage, and reaction temperature on discoloration efficiencies were studied. The results show that discoloration efficiency was decreased by increasing initial pH value and dye concentration, and it was increased with the increase the iron dosage and reaction temperature. Under optimized NZVI addition of 0.7 g L-1, the discoloration efficiencies of ENZVI and PNZVI were increased to 96.33% and 98.62%, respectively. And the possible discoloration pathway and dispersant modification mechanism of NZVI were discussed. This study suggests hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose dispersed NZVI can be utilized as a promising modified nano-material for degradation of dye wastewater.

  17. Roles of Novel Reactive Cationic Copolymers of 3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium Chloride and Dimethyldiallylammonium Chloride in Fixing Anionic Dyes on Cotton Fabric

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The roles of novel reactive cationic copolymers (P(CMDA-DMDAAC)s) of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium chloride (CMDA) and dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) in fixing anionic dyes on cotton fabric were studied by modern instrumental analysis technologies such as FT-IR spectra and SEM analysis, to achieve the new theoretical guides for the wide applications of those dye fixatives. The FT-IR spectra of the obtained insoluble-water color lakes verified that they could be form...

  18. Removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by a non-conventional and low cost agricultural waste: adsorption on ash of Aloe Vera plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are an important class of pollutants and disposal of them in precious water resources must be avoided. Among various methods adsorption occupies a prominent place in dye removal. The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption of dye Reactive Red 198 and Blue 19 (RR-198 & RB-19 (on to Aloe Vera plant ash from aqueous solutions. In this research Aloe Vera ash was prepared at laboratory conditions and then after shredding, screened by ASTM standard sieve with 60 -200 mesh sizes and the effects of pH (3-12, adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g/L, contact time (10-60 min, initial dye concentration (10-160 mg/L and temperature were investigated in the experiment. In different samples Dye concentration was measured by spectrophotometer at 592 nm and 520 nm wavelength for RR198 and RB19 respectively. Also the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were determined in order to describe the relations between the colored solutions and the adsorbent. The results of this study showed that acidic conditions were more conducive to enhance the hydrolysis rate than basic ones as the decomposition was optimum at pH 3. The adsorption rate of RR-198 and RB-19 dyes was increased by increasing of initial dye concentration, increasing of adsorbent dose in 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L. Dye solution was decolorized in a relatively short time (20 min. The efficiencies for RR-198 and RB- 19 reactive dyes were 82.68% and 90.42% respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax has been found to be 80.152 mg/g for RR-198 reactive dye and 88.452 mg/g for Blue 19 reactive dye. Adsorption isotherms were examined by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm that finally showed the Freundlich multilayer isotherm has better accordance with dates. The results indicate that Aloe Vera ash plant as a natural and inexpensive adsorbent is a suitable adsorbent for the adsorption of textile dyes.

  19. Full Factorial Experimental Design Analysis of Reactive Dye Removal by Carbon Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Özbay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of Remazol Yellow dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon prepared by chemical activation of sunflower seed cake. It was found that the carbon content of biomass increases up to 65.12% after activation and carbonization processes. The maximum percentage dye removal was obtained as 82.12% with 0.4 g/50 mL adsorbent dosage at 313 K. The Langmuir model showed the best fit with equilibrium isotherm data. The interactions were evaluated with respect to both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The adsorption process was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. To optimize the operating conditions, the effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration were investigated by full factorial experimental design method; adsorbent dosage was found as the most significant factor with lower than 95% confidence level. The obtained results are very promising since (i the utilization of sunflower seed cake activated carbon (SSCAC played a critical role in the adsorption of dye; (ii sunflower seed cake was an intriguing, low-cost, and easily available material. It can be an alternative adsorbent precursor for more expensive adsorbents used for Remazol Yellow (RY removal.

  20. 植酸钠在双蛋白纤维活性染料染色中的应用%Application of sodium phytate in dyeing of double protein fibers with reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹机良; 孟春丽; 赵思梦

    2014-01-01

    采用植酸钠作为双蛋白纤维(大豆蛋白/酪素蛋白/聚乙烯醇)活性染料染色促染和固色助剂,探讨了植酸钠用量、氯化钠用量、植酸钠加入方式、染色时间、染色温度对染色效果的影响,比较了植酸钠染色工艺和常规染色工艺对染色效果的影响,测试了染色纤维的牢度。研究结果表明,植酸钠可在染色初始阶段一次投入,但用量较多,为100 g/L左右;也可采用10 g/L氯化钠和10 g/L植酸钠的混合物作为活性染料染色的促染和固色碱剂,植酸钠加入方式为在始染时加入1/3,升温至60℃,加入剩余的2/3,60℃保温60 min,染色织物的染色效果及染色牢度与常规染色工艺接近。%Sodium phytate was used as an accelerant and fixing agent for reactive dyeing of double pro-tein fibers. The influences of sodium phytate concentration, dosage of sodium chloride, input mode, dyeing temperature and time on dyeing performance were investigated. The influence of sodium phytate dyeing meth-od on dyeing performance was compared with conventional reactive dyeing method. The color fastness of dyed fibers was also tested. The results showed that sodium phytate could be added once at the initial stage of dyeing, however, the dosage of sodium phytate was more and reached up to 100 g/L. The method of addi-tion of sodium chloride 10 g/L and sodium phytate 10 g/L to the dyeing system also be used, the optimal addi-tion method for sodium phytate was input 1/3 at the beginning and then the dye bath was heated up to 60 ℃, and the other 2/3 of sodium phytate was input and the dye bath was held at 60 ℃ for 60 min. The dyed fab-rics were found to have the same K/S value and color fastness with the conventional reactive dyeing method.

  1. B型活性染料用于小麦蛋白纤维针织物的染色%Dyeing of Wheat Protein Fiber Knitted Fabric by B Type Reactive Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪敏; 张海燕

    2014-01-01

    选用活性红B-2BF、活性黄B-4RFN、活性深蓝B-2GLN三原色染料对小麦蛋白纤维针织物进行染色,测试并分析了固色温度、元明粉用量、固色剂种类、pH值等因素对染色后织物皂洗牢度以及固色率的影响。结果表明,B型活性染料在小麦蛋白纤维针织物上的最佳染色工艺为:元明粉用量40 g/L,固色剂为碳酸钠,染浴pH值为9左右,染色温度40℃,染色时间为40 min,固色温度65℃,固色时间为60 min。%Wheat protein fiber knitted fabric was dyed by the trichromatic dyes of reactive Red B-2BF, reactive Yellow B-4RFN and reactive dark blue B-2GLN, and the effects of fixation temperature, the dosage of anhydrous sodium sulphate, the species of fixing agent and pH value on soaping fastness and fixation rate of fabric after dye-ing were tested and compared.The results show that the optimal process of wheat protein fiber knitted fabric by B reactive dyes is that the dosage of anhydrous sodium sulphate is 40 g/L, fixing agent is sodium carbonate, pH val-ue is about 9, and dyeing temperature is 40 ℃, dyeing time is 40 minutes, fixation temperature is 65 ℃, and fixation time is 60 minutes.

  2. Electrokinetic effect and surface free energy behavior in the adsorption process of a reactive dye onto Leacril pretreated with polyethyleneimine ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Martín, E; Ontiveros-Ortega, A; Espinosa-Jiménez, M; Perea-Carpio, R

    2007-07-15

    In a previous paper, we studied the adsorption of a polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine ion (PEI), onto Leacril in order to increase the amount of the reactive dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) taken up by these fibers. We observed that this polycation changes the fibers zeta potential sign at low concentration, ca. 0.03 g/L, and thus the RBBR adsorption onto Leacril is improved when implementing the PEI treatment. The aim of this work is to study the PEI effect related to the amount of dye adsorbed by Leacril. For this purpose, we present data on streaming potential, adsorption isotherms, and surface free energy component determination as a function of the PEI concentration used in the pretreatment, as well as a function of the RBBR concentration used in the dyeing solutions. Adsorption experimental results show that the amount of RBBR taken by the fibers increases with the PEI concentration used in the pretreatment, and this effect becomes significant at higher concentrations of RBBR solution. The zeta potential increases to positive values in the range of low concentrations of dye solution when Leacril fibers have been pretreated with the polyelectrolyte. From surface free energy component determinations it is worth noting that the electron-donor component, gamma(-), decreases with the RBBR concentration in the treatment. The results we have obtained suggest that the interaction between the amine group of the PEI previously adsorbed and the reactive beta-sulfato-ethysulfonyl group of the dye can be responsible for the improvement in dye uptake.

  3. Use of RSM modeling for optimizing decolorization of simulated textile wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 capable of simultaneous removal of reactive dyes and hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Tanvir; Nadeem, Habibullah; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Abid, Muhammad; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Remediation of colored wastewater loaded with dyes and metal ions is a matter of interest nowadays. In this study, 220 bacteria isolated from textile wastewater were tested for their potential to decolorize each of the four reactive dyes (reactive red-120, reactive black-5, reactive yellow-2, and reactive orange-16) in the presence of a mixture of four different heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd) commonly found in textile effluents. Among the tested bacteria, the isolate ZM130 was found to be the most efficient in decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of the mixture of heavy metals and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The strain ZM130 was highly effective in simultaneously removing hexavalent chromium (25 mg L(-1)) and the azo dyes (100 mg L(-1)) from the simulated wastewater even in the presence of other three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Simultaneous removal of chromium and azo dyes ranged as 76.6-98.7 % and 51.9-91.1 %, respectively, after 180 h incubation. On the basis of quadratic polynomial equation and response surfaces given by the response surface methodology (RSM), optimal salt content, pH, carbon co-substrate content, and level of multi-metal mixtures for decolorization of reactive red-120 in a simulated textile wastewater by the strain ZM130 were predicted to be 19.8, 7.8, and 6.33 g L(-1) and a multi-metal mixture (Cr 13.10 mg L(-1), Pb 26.21 mg L(-1), Cd 13.10 mg L(-1), Zn 26.21 mg L(-1)), respectively. Moreover, the strain ZM130 also exhibited laccase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase) activity during the decolorization of reactive red-120. However, the laccase activity was found to be maximum in the presence of 300 mg L(-1) of the dye as compared to other concentrations. Hence, the isolation of this strain might serve as a potential bio-resource required for developing the strategies aiming at bioremediation of the

  4. Dyeing Properties of Basofil Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; DAI Jin-jin

    2002-01-01

    The structures and properties of Basofil fiber were studied using X- rays small angle diffraction analysis,differential- scanuing calorimeter and scanning electron microscopy. Disperse dyes, acid dyes and reactive dyes had been tried for dyeing Basefil fiber. It was shown disperse dyes were superior to other ones. The two series of high temperature dyes and low temperature dyes were compared for their suitability for Basofil fiber, and their dyeing behaviors were determined.

  5. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing.

  6. Comparison of diazo-coupling, formazan, and silver staining techniques for visualizing alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes after electrophoresis in homogeneous-pore and gradient-pore polyacrylamide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, A W; Skillen, A W

    1988-03-01

    Three techniques for visualization of alkaline phosphatase after polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis are compared. These are diazo-dye simultaneous coupling with the substrate sodium naphthyl phosphate and 5-chloro-2-toluene diazonium chloride; formazan precipitation with the substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; and silver staining with the substrate sodium glycerophosphate. Each staining technique was tested with gradient-pore and homogeneous-pore acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The main factors assessed are sensitivity; separation of the human serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes of the liver, bone, and intestinal types; and differences in substrate affinity, as well as the complexity of each technique. Using the three techniques only minor differences in substrate affinity are evident. There is some nonspecific staining with the diazo-coupling technique but not with the formazan and silver staining techniques. The differences, in the mobility of the liver, bone, and intestinal isoenzymes achieved by homogeneous-pore gel electrophoresis are sufficient to allow them to be clearly distinguished. However, only very small differences in mobility are found with gradient-pore gel electrophoresis, but the sharper bands in this medium allow much smaller amounts of activity to be detected. As little as 160 microU of enzyme can be visualized by the diazo technique. Silver staining gives an approximately fourfold increase in sensitivity over the formazan technique, which in turn gives a fourfold increase over the diazo technique. An important aspect of the silver staining technique is the potential of increasing sensitivity much further by improvements in the photographic physical development stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Kinetic study approach of remazol black-B use for the development of two-stage anoxic-oxic reactor for decolorization/biodegradation of azo dyes by activated bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafale, Nishant; Wate, Satish; Meshram, Sudhir; Nandy, Tapas

    2008-11-30

    The laboratory-isolated strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus circulance, NAD 1 and NAD 6 were observed to be predominant in the bacterial consortium responsible for effective decolorization of the azo dyes. The kinetic characteristics of azo dye decolorization by bacterial consortium were determined quantitatively using reactive vinyl sulfonated diazo dye, remazol black-B (RB-B) as a model substrate. Effects of substrate (RB-B) concentration as well as different substrates (azo dyes), environmental parameters (temperature and pH), glucose and other electron donor/co-substrate on the rate of decolorization were investigated to reveal the key factor that determines the performance of dye decolorization. The activation energy (E(a)) and frequency factor (K(0)) based on the Arrhenius equation was calculated as 11.67 kcal mol(-1) and 1.57 x 10(7)mg lg MLSS(-1)h(-1), respectively. The Double-reciprocal or Lineweaver-Burk plot was used to evaluate V(max), 15.97 h(-1) and K(m), 85.66 mg l(-1). The two-stage anoxic-oxic reactor system has proved to be successful in achieving significant decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by specific developed bacterial consortium with a removal of 84% color and 80% COD for real textile effluents vis-à-vis >or=90% color and COD removal for synthetic dye solution.

  8. Novel 2-phenyl-3-{4’-[N-(4”-aminophenylcarbamoyl]-phenyl}-quinazoline-4(3Hone-6-sulphonic acidbased mono azo reactive dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIVYESH R. PATEL

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of new heterocyclic mono azo reactive dyes 7a–m were prepared by diazotization of 2-phenyl-3-{4’-[N-(4”-aminophenylcarbamoyl]-phenyl}-quinazoline-4(3H-one-6-sulphonic acid (3 and coupling with various cyanurated coupling components 6a–m and their dyeing performance on silk, wool and cotton fibres was assessed. These dyes were found to give a variety of colour shades with very good depth and levelness on the fibres. All the compounds were identified by conventional method (IR and 1H-NMR and elemental analyses. The percentage dye bath exhaustion on different fibres was reasonably good and acceptable. The dyed fibre showed moderate to very good fastness to light, washing and rubbing.

  9. Effect of redox mediator, AQDS, on the decolourisation of a reactive azo dye containing triazine group in a thermophilic anaerobic EGSB reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezerra Dos Santos, A.; Cervantes-Carillo, F.J.; Yaya Beas, R.E.; Lier, van J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of thermophilic (55 degreesC) anaerobic treatment applied to colour removal of a triazine contained reactive azo dye was investigated in two 0.531 expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactors in parallel at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 h. Generally, this group of azo dy

  10. Low-Cost Biodegradation and Detoxification of Textile Azo Dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 by Providencia rettgeri Strain HSL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study focuses on exploitation of agricultural waste wheat bran (WB as growth medium for degradation of textile azo dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 (RB 172 using a single bacterium P. rettgeri strain HSL1 (GenBank accession number JX853768.1. The bacterium was found to completely decolorize 50 mg L−1 of dye RB 172 within 20 h at 30 ± 0.2°C under microaerophilic incubation conditions. Additionally, significant reduction in COD (85% and TOC (52% contents of dye decolorized medium was observed which suggested its mineralization. Induction in the activities of azoreductase (159% and NADH-DCIP reductase (88% provided an evidence for reductive cleavage of dye RB 172. The HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS analysis of decolorized products confirmed the degradation of dye into various metabolites. The proposed metabolic pathway for biodegradation of RB 172 has been elucidated which showed the formation of 2 intermediate metabolites, namely, 4-(ethenylsulfonyl aniline and 1-amino-1-(4-aminophenyl propan-2-one. The acute and phytotoxicity evaluation of degraded metabolites suggests that bacterial strain favors the detoxification of dye RB 172. Thus, WB could be utilized as a low-cost growth medium for the enrichment of bacteria and their further use for biodegradation of azo dyes and its derivatives containing wastes into nontoxic form.

  11. The Use of HRP in Decolorization of Reactive Dyes and Toxicological Evaluation of Their Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Reis da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the potential use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP in the decolorization of the following textile dyes: Drimarene Blue X-3LR (DMBLR, Drimarene Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN, Drimarene Rubinol X-3LR (DMR, and Drimarene Blue CL-R (RBBR. Dyes were individually tested in the reaction media containing 120 mg⋅L-1, considering the following parameters: temperature (20–45°C, H2O2 concentration (0–4.44 mmol⋅L-1, and reaction time (5 minutes, 1 and 24 h. The following conditions: 35°C, 0.55 mmol⋅L-1, and 1h, provided the best set of results of color removal for DMBLR (99%, DMBBLN (77%, DMR (94%, and RBBR (97%. It should be mentioned that only 5 minutes of reaction was enough to obtain 96% of decolorization for DMBLR and RBBR. After the decolorization reactions of DMBLR, DMR, and RBBR, it was possible to observe the reduction of Artemia salina mortality and the no significant increase in toxicity for the products generated from DMBBLN.

  12. The Use of HRP in Decolorization of Reactive Dyes and Toxicological Evaluation of Their Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Michelle Reis; de Sá, Lívian Ribeiro Vasconcelos; Russo, Carlos; Scio, Elita; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the potential use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the decolorization of the following textile dyes: Drimarene Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimarene Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimarene Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimarene Blue CL-R (RBBR). Dyes were individually tested in the reaction media containing 120 mg·L−1, considering the following parameters: temperature (20–45°C), H2O2 concentration (0–4.44 mmol·L−1), and reaction time (5 minutes, 1 and 24 h). The following conditions: 35°C, 0.55 mmol·L−1, and 1h, provided the best set of results of color removal for DMBLR (99%), DMBBLN (77%), DMR (94%), and RBBR (97%). It should be mentioned that only 5 minutes of reaction was enough to obtain 96% of decolorization for DMBLR and RBBR. After the decolorization reactions of DMBLR, DMR, and RBBR, it was possible to observe the reduction of Artemia salina mortality and the no significant increase in toxicity for the products generated from DMBBLN. PMID:21318147

  13. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor for degradation and detoxification of high concentrations of dye Reactive Black 5 in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojčinović Biljana P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation and detoxification efficiency of high concentrations of commercially available reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 solution (40, 80, 200, 500, 1000 mg L-1, were studied. Advanced oxidation processes in water falling film based dielectric barrier discharge as a non-thermal plasma reactor were used. For the first time, this reactor was used for the treatment of high concentrations of organic pollutants such as reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 in water. Solution of the dye is treated by plasma as thin water solution film that is constantly regenerated. Basically, the reactor works as a continuous flow reactor and the electrical discharge itself takes place at the gas-liquid interphase. The dye solution was recirculated through the reactor with an applied energy density of 0-374 kJ L-1. Decolorization efficiency (% was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometric technique. Samples were taken after every recirculation (~ 22 kJ L-1 and decolorization percent was measured after 5 min and 24 h of plasma treatment. The efficiency of degradation (i.e. mineralization and possible degradation products were also tracked by determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD and by ion chromatography (IC. Initial toxicity and toxicity of solutions after the treatment were studied with Artemia salina test organisms. Efficiency of decolorization decreased with the increase of the dye concentration. Complete decolorization, high mineralization and non-toxicity of the solution (<10 % were acomplished after plasma treatment using energy density of 242 kJ L-1, while the initial concentrations of Reactive Black 5 were 40 and 80 mg L-1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030 i br. 171034

  14. Fe-Catalyzed Olefin Hydroamination with Diazo Compounds for Hydrazone Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Qi, Jifeng; Cui, Sunliang

    2016-01-01

    A novel Fe-catalyzed olefin hydroamination with diazo compounds for accessing hydrazones has been developed. Diazo compounds are used as radical acceptors and can be trapped by the in situ generated alkyl radical toward C-N bond formation. The reaction conditions are mild, and the substrate scope is broad. Additionally, this hydroamination protocol is applicable for intramolecular reactions to construct diverse heterocycles.

  15. Activity of the endophytic fungi Phlebia sp. and Paecilomyces formosus in decolourisation and the reduction of reactive dyes' cytotoxicity in fish erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Lígia Maria Crubelati; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito; Kava, Vanessa; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar

    2017-02-01

    The current study investigates the potential for discolouration and degradation of Reactive Blue 19 and Reactive Black 5 textile dyes by endophytic fungi Phlebia sp. and Paecilomyces formosus as well as the potential cytotoxicity of products or by-products generated by the treatments in fish erythrocytes. It was observed at 30 days that both endophytes showed biodegradation activity with 0.1 g mL(-1) of dyes. P. formosus showed highest extracellular and intracellular protein content levels after the 15th day, and Phlebia sp. stands out for production of extracellular laccase, indicating that this enzyme may be associated with the decolouration capacity. The dyes showed toxic effects in fishes at 0.01 g mL(-1) concentration, resulting in the appearance of micronuclei in erythrocyte cells. When degraded dyes treated by endophytes were tested, the frequency of micronuclei reduced approximately 20%, indicating the effectiveness of these endophytic in the treatment of textile dyes with less environmental impact, thus indicating a potential for application of these fungi in bioremediation process.

  16. Levafix CA高日晒活性三原色轧染适用性测试%Suitability test for Levafix CA high light trichromatic reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李偲

    2014-01-01

    通过分析Levafix CA高日晒活性中浅色三原色的渗透性、比移值、耐盐碱性、配伍性等性能,采用轧染工艺多次染色做效果对比,最后对轧染色布进行牢度测试,结果表明:Levafix CA高日晒活性三原色具有良好的渗透性、配伍性,对盐碱上染影响一致,同步上色性、染色稳定性好,色布日晒牢度达到5级以上,汗光牢度达到4级以上,且其他色牢度不会降低,适合轧染染拼色。%The permeability, Rf value, saline-alkaline resistance and compatibility of Levafix CA high light reactive dyes in mid-light primary colors were analyzed. The effect of multi-dyeing via pad dyeing process was compared. The fastness of pad-dyed fabrics was finally tested. Results showed that Levafix CA high light trichromatic reactive dyes exhibit good permeability, compatibility, synchronous coloring and dyeing stability, and its influences on saline and alkaline dyeing is consistent. It was suitable for color matching by pad dyeing, for the light fastness and perspiration-light fastness reached above 5 grade and 4 grade respectively and other fastnesses did not decrease.

  17. Influence of metal ion on the chromatic light of reactive dyes%金属离子对活性染料色光的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展义臻; 赵雪; 王炜

    2015-01-01

    Effects of Ca2+、Cu2+、Fe2+ on the chromatic light 13 different reactive dyes were investigated. The results show that Cu2+ offers great influence on the dyeing chromatic light of black reactive dyes, bright red, dark red, Navy, brilliant yellow and Yellow EX-D4R, but it shows little influence on that of Brilliant Blue R, Turquoise Blue G, and Yellow 3RS. Fe3+ has a litter influence on reactive dyes except for Bright Red GG, Brilliant Yellow 3G and Turquoise Blue G. Ca2+ has a little influence on reactive dyes.%探讨了Ca2+、Cu2+、Fe3+3种金属离子对常用的13只活性染料色光的影响,结果表明:Cu2+对黑色活性染料、黄色调的大红和蓝色调的深红、藏青、嫩黄和活性EX-D4R黄等影响较大,而对活性R艳蓝、活性G翠蓝、活性3RS黄等影响相对较小。除了艳色调的活性GG大红、活性3G嫩黄和活性G翠蓝,Fe3+对活性染料影响相对较小。Ca2+对活性染料总体影响较小。

  18. Study of reactive blue 171 dye degradation in hybrid system of UV/H2O2 & SBAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila Moradi Pasand

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, because of complexity of dye structure, biological system was not able to remove the dye as efficient as hybrid system of advanced oxidation processes UV/H2O2 with SBAR.

  19. Relations among different structure of reactive blue dyes and poplar dyeing properties%活性蓝染料结构与杨木单板染色性能的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻胜飞; 刘元; 李贤军; 罗武生

    2015-01-01

    本研究以活性蓝 X-BR、活性蓝 K-3R、活性蓝 KN-R、活性蓝 M-BE、活性蓝 M-2GE、活性蓝 EF-3G染料为原料,通过紫外-可见分光光度法研究它们的结构跟颜色、在杨木单板染色中的特征参数 S、E、R、F 值、上染率和固色率曲线之间的关系。实验结果表明:活性染料发色体共轭体系的长度越长,供、吸电子基团协调作用越大,空间位阻越小,水溶液的最大吸收波长越大,产生深色位移。染料对木材纤维亲和力 S 值的大小排序为:活性蓝 KN-R>活性蓝 X-BR>活性蓝 K-3R>活性蓝 M-BE >活性蓝 M-2GE >活性蓝 EF-3G;R、E 和 F值的大小比较:活性蓝 M-BE>活性蓝 M-2GE >活性蓝 EF-3G >活性蓝 X-BR>活性蓝 KN-R>活性蓝 K-3R。含有单一含氯均三嗪活性基染料的上染率先随时间的延长而增大,在加碱后10 min 内立即降低,随后又增大,含有β-羟乙基砜硫酸酯活性基染料的上染率都随时间的延长而增大;固色率都随时间的延长而增加,在固色30 min 后保持不变。%The relationships were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry method among the structure of reactive blue X-BR, reactive blue K-3R, reactive blue KN-R, reactive blue M-BE, reactive blue M-2GE, reactive blue EF-3G and their colors, poplar dyeing characteristic parameters — S, E, R and F values, exhaustion curves and fixation curves. The results show that the longer the length of reactive dye chromophore of conjugated system was, the more coordinating role of donating and withdrawing electron groups had, the smaller the space steric hindrance was, and the larger the wavelength of maximum aqueous absorption was, thereby resulting in a dark shift; S value of different dyes to the wood fiber ranked from big to small as follows: reactive blue KN-R> reactive blue X-BR> reactive blue K-3R> reactive blue M-BE> reactive blue M-2GE> reactive blue EF-3G; the R, E and F values order as follows: reactive blue

  20. 改性剂FK-316在低盐染色中的应用%Low-salt reactive dyeing of cotton modified with FK-316

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瀚宇; 王冬生; 齐文玉

    2011-01-01

    The modification is applied to cotton knitted fabric with cationic agent FK-316, and then reactive dyeing with low-salt is carried out. The optimal conditions of modification and low-salt dyeing are settled. The modifying process is modifier FK-316 5%(omf) ,pH value 9.0,holding 20 min at 70℃. The low-salt dyeing process is reactive dye 1 %(omf) .sodium sulfate 20 g/L, liquor ratio 1 :15 ~ 1 :20,dyeing 50 min at 60 ℃.fixing for 50 min with 20 g/L soda ash. When the amount of the dye is equal to or less than 2%, the salt dosage can be reduced to the 1/3 of that in conventional dyeing. The dyeing depth and color fastness are the same with those in conventional dyeing with salt.%对纯棉针织物先采用阳离子改性剂FK-316改性处理,再实施活性染料低盐染色,优化改性处理和低盐染色工艺条件.改性工艺:改性剂FK-316质量分数5%(omf),pH值9.0,70℃保温处理20 min;低盐染色工艺:染料1%(omf),元明粉20 g/L,浴比1∶15~1∶20,染色温度60℃,保温染色50 min,纯碱20 g/L,固色时间50min.阳离子改性剂FK-316应用于活性染料低盐染色时,当染料用量在2%及以下时(中、浅色),盐用量可以降到常规染色盐用量的1/3以下,达到有盐染色相同的染色深度和染色牢度.

  1. Reactive bay functionalized perylene monoimide-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane organic electronic dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangatia Lodrick Makokha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation-induced quenching is particularly detrimental in perylene diimides, which are characterized by a near-unity fluorescence quantum yield in solution but are far less emissive in the solid state. Previously, perylene diimide has been improved by linking it to the inorganic cage of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes. As a further study on perylene diimidepolyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, we report on a double functionalized molecular structure, which can be used for substitution at the bay area and as a side group in other materials. Typical solution absorption and emission features of the perylene diimide fragment have been observed in this new reactive perylene diimide-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. Moreover, reduced stacking during aggregation and spherical particles exhibiting solid fluorescence have been obtained. Organic semiconducting material with enhanced solid state photophysical properties, like solid fluorescence is a subject of great interest owing to its possible high-tech applications in optoelectronic devices.

  2. The Effects of TiO2 Nanoparticles over Time on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of White Cotton Fabrics and Fabrics Died with Reactive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mirkhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, nano particles of titanium are used mainly in the textile industry. Examples of it can be named as cultivation of nano particles of titanium on polyester cotton fabrics, with features as white-washing, self- cleaning and also the effect of TiO2 on the dyed textiles with natural dyes as well as the effect of commodities reactive to increase the brightness and transparency of them. But, as this procedure has the added benefits, it will sure have some disadvantages and thus, the aim of this project is to study the effects of nano- TiO2 in the passage of time, at different times over the physical and mechanical properties of checked cotton fabrics. And even the study of dyed fabrics with natural dyes in reactive so that it can examine the beneficial and harmful effects of the degradation and also check the results on the Cotton Nano TiO2 Fabric.

  3. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  4. Multiwalled carbon nanotube/TiO2 nanocomposite as a highly active photocatalyst for photodegradation of Reactive Black 5 dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid; Tong Ling Tan; Chin Wei Lai; Emy Marlina Samsudin

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite UV‐visible light‐responsive multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanophotocatalyst was successfully synthesized by a modified sol‐gel method using titanium isopropoxide and functionalized MWCNTs as the starting precursors. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 and the nanohybrid material was investigated through the photodegradation of Reactive Black 5 dye under ultraviolet light irradiation. X‐ray diffraction analysis indicated that anatase phase was obtained for both the pure TiO2 and the MWCNT/TiO2 composite, while Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of MWCNTs in the composite. Field emission scanning elec‐tron microscopy revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles with an individual diameter of about 10–20 nm were coated on the surface of the MWCNTs. The specific surface areas of the samples were found to be 80 and 181 m2/g for the pure TiO2 and MWCNT/TiO2, respectively. As a result, MWCNT/TiO2 showed better photocatalytic performance than pure TiO2 because the high surface area of MWCNTs enabled them to function as good electron acceptors for the retardation of electron‐hole pair recombination.

  5. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye using anaerobic/aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and photochemical membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: sjyou@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China); Damodar, Rahul A. [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China); Hou, Sheng-Chon [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Three different types of advance treatment methods were evaluated for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The performance of two stage anaerobic SBR-aerobic MBR, anaerobic MBR with immobilized and suspended biocells and an integrated membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) using slurry UV/TiO{sub 2} system were investigated. The results suggest that, nearly 99.9% color removal and 80-95% organic COD and TOC removal can be achieved using different reactor systems. Considering the Taiwan EPA effluent standard discharge criteria for COD/TOC, the degree of treatment achieved by combining the anaerobic-aerobic system was found to be acceptable. Anew, Bacilluscereus, high color removal bacterium was isolated from Anaerobic SBR. Furthermore, when this immobilized into PVA-calcium alginate pellets, and suspended in the anaerobic MBR was able to achieve high removal efficiencies, similar to the suspended biocells system. However, the immobilized cell Anaerobic MBR was found to be more advantageous, due to lower fouling rates in the membrane unit. Results from slurry type MPR system showed that this system was capable of mineralizing RB5 dyes with faster degradation rate as compared to other systems. The reactor was also able to separate the catalyst effectively and perform efficiently without much loss of catalyst activity.

  6. Hydro- and solvothermally-prepared ZnO and its catalytic effect on photodegradation of reactive orange 16 dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, zinc oxide powders were obtained by two different techniques: hydro- and solvothermal synthesis starting from Zn(NO32 and Zn(CH3COO2, respectively. The influence of synthetic procedure on the structural, microstructural, thermal and photocatalytic properties of the prepared ZnO powders was investigated. Both ZnO samples were further annealed at moderate conditions (300°C to avoid grain growth and to remove traces of impurities. In all four cases a single-phase hexagonal ZnO was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The morphology of prepared ZnO powders was different and it varied from rounded nanograins to microrods. All prepared samples showed higher photocatalytic efficiency in degradation of textile azo-dye Reactive Orange 16(RO16 than the commercial ZnO. In addition, the non-annealed samples had better photocatalytic properties than the commercial Degussa P25 TiO2 powder. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45007, br. ON171032 i br. ON172013

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of organic reactive dyes over MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites under UV-visible irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Santhanam; Selvaraj, Ayyasamy; Ramasamy, Anaipalayam Kandasamy

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of organic reactive dyes have been investigated using MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites in the presence of electron acceptors under UV-Visible light irradiation. This MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites were prepared by annealing different mass ratios of pyrophanite MnTiO3 (3-11 wt%) and TiO2 at 300°C. All the MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites were characterized by spectral techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and diffused reflectance UV-visible spectroscopic analysis (DRS). Among them, 9 wt% MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Reactive Blue 4 (RB 4). The photocatalytic efficiency of 9 wt% MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was further enhanced by the addition of substantial amount of electron acceptors like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonium peroxydisulfate ([NH4]2S2O8). The presence of oxidants (electron acceptors) facilitates the fast degradation of dye solution even in higher concentration upto 200 mg/L. The photocatalytic activity of MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was also studied for the degradation of other four different structured reactive dyes. The extent of mineralization of these organic reactive dyes during photocatalytic degradation was estimated from COD analysis. MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites was also found to have good photostability in the presence of oxidants.

  8. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Patrícia Maia Pereira; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2010-01-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by...

  9. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  10. 细菌纤维素纤维的活性染料染色%Reactive dyeing of bacterial cellulose fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽; 张林; 董朝红; 朱平; 张须友; 赵晓霞

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is formed by microbial fermentatfon of low-molecutar carbohydrate, which is different from cellulose made from plants.Bacterial cellulose is dyed with reactive dyes and dyeing processes are optimized as follow: dyes 2%(omf) , sodium chloride 60 g/L, pH value 10 and fixing at 60 ℃ for 30 minutes.The Bacterial cellulose features high dye uptake, high dye fixing percentage, high soaping fastness, as wall as little damage to the mechanical properties of cellulose.%区别于植物来源的纤维素,细菌纤维素是小分子碳水化合物经微生物发酵形成的纤维素.采用活性染料对细菌纤维素纤维进行染色,得到染色优化工艺为:染料质量分数2%(omf),氯化钠质量浓度60g/L,pH值10,60℃固色30 min.该纤维的上染率和固色率较高,皂洗牢度较好,纤维的力学性能损伤较小.

  11. Optimization of culture condition for enhanced decolorization and degradation of azo dye reactive violet 1 with concomitant production of ligninolytic enzymes by Ganoderma cupreum AG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlout, Mayur; Gupte, Shilpa; Gupte, Akshaya

    2013-04-01

    The strain Ganoderma cupreum AG-1 (Genbank accession no. HQ328947) isolated from the decayed wood was evaluated for its ability to decolorize azo dye reactive violet 1 as well as for the production of ligninolytic enzymes. In the initial decolorization study, the strain was capable of decolorizing 19 different azo dyes. The strain was capable of decolorizing dye over a pH range of 4.5-6 at 30 °C. The optimum pH was found to be 4.5. Various other process parameters like additional carbon and nitrogen source and initial dye concentration were also optimized. The decolorization medium was supplemented with appropriate nitrogen source (yeast extract, 5 g l(-1)) and carbon source (mannose, 2 g l(-1)); the decolorization obtained was 98 %. The pattern of enzymes involved in the biodegradation was studied and laccase and MnP were found to be the major enzymes. High laccase activity shown by G. cupreum AG-1 and its ability to decolorize dyes are a good indication of its possible use in the treatment of textile effluents.

  12. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  13. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  14. Heterogeneous photo-catalysis system for the degradation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Hui; Wei, Hau-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a heterogeneous photo-catalysis system by introducing a novel brick supported iron oxide (denoted as B1) for the heterogeneous photoassisted degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) at pH value from 3 to 7 in a three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) fluidized bed reactor (3P-FBR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and N(2) adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the B1 catalyst. The in situ formation of hydrogen peroxide and the depletion of oxalic acid by photochemical cycle of Fe(III)-oxalate complex under UVA light (λ = 365 nm) were studied. The effects of the solution pH and the concentration of oxalic acid on the degradation of RB5 are elucidated. About 90% decolourization was measured and 80% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was eliminated at pH 5.0 after 120 min for 20 mg/L RB5 in presence of 10 g/L B1 catalyst, 30 mg/L oxalic acid under 15 W UVA light. A mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of RB5 over B1 catalyst is proposed.

  15. Research on Dyeing Behaviors of Modiifed Ramie Fabric with Reactive Dyes%改性苎麻织物活性染料染色性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊; 王雪燕

    2015-01-01

    Ramie fabric was pretreated by strong alkali, and then with self-made cationic gelatin protein. The dyeing effect of modified ramie fabric was discussed, including dye uptake, fixation yield, dyeing depth and color fastness. The results showed the pretreatment process could effectively improve the dyeing effect, and achieve dyeing with salt-free and lower alkali dosage.%采用浓碱预处理与自制的阳离子明胶蛋白助剂联合处理苎麻织物,研究了改性苎麻织物活性染料染色的上染百分率、固色率、染色深度、染色牢度等性能。结果表明,经浓碱预处理及阳离子明胶蛋白助剂改性联合处理的苎麻织物染色性能显著提高,可实现活性染料无盐低碱深浓染色。

  16. Adsorption of Reactive Red 198 Azo Dye fromAqueous Solution onto theWaste Coagulation Sludge of theWater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmoudi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Much attention has been recently paid on using waste materials as adsorbents for removal of contaminants from water and wastewater. A new low cost waste was examined for its capacity to adsorb RR198, an azo reactive model dye, from an aqueous solution."nMaterials andMethods: The waste was dried, powdered and characterized before being used as an adsorbent. The effects of pH (3-10, adsorbent dose (0.2-3 g, dye concentration and contact time on the adsorption efficiency were investigated. Equilibrium study data were modeled using Langmuir and Freundlich models."nResults: The characterization analysis indicated that itwas composedmainly of ferric hydroxide. The powder had a BET and average pore size of 107 m2/g and 4.5 nm, respectively. The results showed that dye removal was highest at a solution pH of 7 to 8 and a powder dose of 2 g/L. The RR198 removal percentage decreased from 100& to 43& at 140 min contact time when the concentration of dye was increased from 25 mg/L to 100 mg/L, at optimum pH and dosage. The Langmuir equation provided the best fit for the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity was calculated to be 34.4 mg/g."nConclusion: According to the obtained results, the water coagulation waste sludge appears to be a suitable low cost and effcient adsorbent for removing reactive azo dyes from waste streams.

  17. Nonracemic 2-diazo-1-oxiranyl-ethanone, a versatile chiral epoxide educt in diazocarbonyl reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groarke; McKervey; Miel; Nieuwenhuyzen

    2000-08-10

    (S)-(-)-2-Diazo-1-oxiranyl-ethanone, prepared in two steps from (R)-(+)-glycidol, has been employed as an intermediate in several characteristic diazocarbonyl reactions to yield novel, nonracemic products including an epoxy quinoxaline and epoxy thiazoles and oxazoles.

  18. Application of Solar Irradiation / K2S2O8 Photochemical Oxidation Process for the Removal of Reactive Blue 19 Dye fromAqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abootoraby

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgroundandObjectives: Dyes are organic compoundswith complex structures,which due to toxicity, carcinogenicity and nonbiodegredabity, this type of pollutants is one of the most important pollutants of the environment. The goal of this researchwas to study the feasibility of the application of solar irradiation in presence of potassium persulfate (K2S2O8 for the removal of Reactive blue19 (RB19 from synthetic wastewater."nMaterials andMethods: This researchwas carried out in laboratory scalewith using of 200ml volume of batchphotoreactor.The effectsofoperatingparameters suchas concentrationofK2S2O8,pH,photoexposure time and preliminary concentrations of dye on decolorization have been evaluated.Different concentrations of pollutant inwastewaterwere prepared by solution of variousmasses of RB19 on tapwater. The reactors were exposedwith natural solar irradiation as aUVAsource from11 amto 14 pm.Themaximumabsorbtion wave length of this dye (!max was determined by spectrophotometer (Unico, 2100. The measurement of dye concentrations was determined with using of standard curve and its best line equation"nResults:Analysis of absorbtion spectra showed that the !max of RB19 is 592 nm. The average intensity of the UVA irradiated from solar system was 54.6 µW/Cm2. The results of decolorization process showed that 38.2%of this dye can be removed within 3 hr in the presence of potassium persulfate and decreasing of pH leads to the elevation of dye removal efficiency. Based on these findings, the efficiency of dye removal with 3h photoexposure time and pH ranges of 4,6 and 8 were found to be 98.2 88.5 and 78.5%, respectively.Also, the results showed that increasing of K2S2O8 dosage leads to elevation of dye removal efficiency in 3h photoexposure time and K2S2O8 dosages within 1-5mmol/L, with the removal efficiency of 75,86,92,95 and 98.5%, respectively.Analysis of data indicates that the kinetic of the removal of RB19 with this process is a first

  19. Reactive dyes dyeing properties of modified CVC fabric with cationic gelatin protein agent%阳离子明胶蛋白改性 CVC 织物活性染料的染色性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华凤; 王雪燕

    2015-01-01

    CVC fabric is modified with sele‐made cationic gelatin protein agent .Then the best modified process conditions are optimized w hich are conducive to improving the dyeing perform‐ance of reactive dyes . And the salt‐free dyeing properties of modified CVC fabric are re‐searched .Compared with the unmodified CVC fabric dyeing with salt ,the salt‐free dyeing mod‐ified CVC fabric demonstrates a higher dyestuff up‐take ,K/S value and fixation rate .The fast‐ness to soaping is improved w hile the rubbing fastness slightly decreases ,w hich needs further study .%针对活性染料利用率低,染深色及盐用量多的问题,利用自制阳离子明胶蛋白助剂对CVC织物进行阳离子化改性,优化出有利于提高活性染料吸附上染性能的最佳改性工艺条件,并且研究了改性CVC织物活性染料无盐染色的性能。结果表明,改性CVC织物无盐染色可获得比未改性CVC织物常规加盐染色更高的上染百分率、K/S值、固色效率和皂洗牢度,但是摩擦牢度有轻微降低,需要进一步研究。

  20. Biodegradation of reactive textile dyes by basidiomycetous fungi from brazilian ecosystems Biodegradação de corantes têxteis reativos fungos basidiomicetos do ecossistema brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M.G. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Trametes villosa and Pycnoporus sanguineus to decolorize reactive textile dyes used for cotton manufacturing in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was evaluated. Growth and decolorization halos were determined on malt extract agar containing 0.002g L-1 of the dye. T. villosa decolorized all 28 of the tested dyes while P. sanguineus decolorized only 9. The effect of culture conditions (shaking and dye and nitrogen concentration on the degradation of Drimaren Brilliant Blue dye was evaluated during growth of the fungi in liquid synthetic medium. Shaking favored degradation and decolorization was not repressed by nitrogen. In pure culture, T. villosa and P. sanguineus decolorized synthetic effluent consisting of a mixture of 10 dyes. Higher decolorization of the synthetic effluent was observed when a mixed culture of the two fungi was used. This study demonstrated differences between tropical basidiomycete species in terms of their ability to degrade reactive dyes, and reinforces the potential of this group of fungi for the decolorization of textile effluents.O potencial de Trametes villosa e Pycnoporus sanguineus de descolorir corantes têxteis reativos utilizados na manufatura de algodão no estado de Minas Gerais foi avaliado. Halos de crescimento e descoloração foram determinados em agar extrato malte (MEA com 0,002g L-1 do corante. T. villosa descoloriu os 28 corantes testados e P. sanguineus apenas 9. A influência de condições de cultivo (agitação, concentração de corante e concentração de nitrogênio na degradação do corante azul brilhante Drimaren foi avaliada durante crescimento dos fungos em meio líquido sintético. Agitação favoreceu a degradação e não foi observada repressão da descoloração pelo nitrogênio. Em cultura pura, T. villosa e P. sanguineus descoloriram efluente sintético constituído por uma mistura de dez corantes. Maior descoloração do efluente sintético foi observada no cultivo

  1. 微波对棉织物活性染料染色的作用机理探讨%Mechanism of microwave on cotton fabric with reactive dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫若子

    2016-01-01

    以纯棉织物为研究对象,在微波或常规染色条件下,采用HE型活性染料对其染色,从染色热力学和动力学2方面探讨微波对棉织物活性染料染色的作用机理。结果表明,微波处理后染色吸附性能不变,属于Langmuir型;染料在棉织物上的上染速率和表观扩散系数提高,扩散活化能降低,半染时间缩短,染色速率常数提高。%Cotton was dyed with HE reactive dye under the condition of microwave and conventional dyeing. The dyeing mechanism of microwave on cotton with reactive dye was analyzed through thermodynamic and kinetic studies. The results showed that dye adsorption properties were not changed after microwave treatment, which belonged to the Langmuir type. The dyeing rate and apparent diffusion coefficient of the dyes on cotton fabric improved, diffusion activation energy decreased, half-dyeing time shortened and the dyeing rate constants increased.

  2. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  3. 涂料与活性染料喷墨印花的颜色效果%Inkjet printing color effects of pigments and reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田安丽; 房宽峻; 王玉平; 付少海

    2013-01-01

    涂料喷墨印花是比染料喷墨印花更加绿色环保的喷墨印花技术。比较染料和涂料喷墨印花颜色效果的差异,对于开发提高涂料墨水颜色效果的织物处理技术,改进涂料粒子的颜色性能,促进更加绿色环保的涂料喷墨印花技术的发展具有重要意义。选择活性染料墨水和涂料墨水在棉织物上进行喷墨印花,比较两者的颜色效果。结果表明,活性染料墨水在明度、彩度、表观颜色深度、色域等颜色参数方面均优于涂料墨水,但是活性染料墨水在织物上容易渗化,最大墨量较小。造成这种现象的原因是两种墨水产生颜色的机理不同,活性染料是以分子状态吸收和反射可见光赋予织物颜色,而涂料是以粒子状态吸收和反射可见光赋予织物颜色。%Pigment printing is a more eco-friendly technology compared with dye printing. Color effects comparison study about differences of dye and pigment inkjet printing is of significant meaning in developing fabric finishing technology to enhance pigment ink printing effect, to improve color properties of pigment particle, and to promote the development of eco-friendly pigment printing technology. Reactive dye and pigment ink were chosen to print on cotton fabric, and the color effects of them were compared. The result showed that reactive ink performed better in lightness, chrominance, color depth and gamut, but reactive dye was likely to diffuse on fabric and presented low max ink containing. The reason is that the color creating mechanisms of two kinds of ink were different and reactive dyes generated color by absorbing and reflecting light in form of molecule, while pigment did that in form of particles.

  4. Hairy root induction and phytoremediation of textile dye, Reactive green 19A-HE4BD, in a halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak H. Lokhande

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report phytoremediation of textile dyes using hairy roots derived through Agrobacterium rhizogenes (NCIM 5140 infection of in vitro leaf and stem explants of a halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. L. Leaf explants showed higher frequency of hairy root induction (70% than stem explants (30%, and maximum number of roots (leaf 42.3 ± 2.4 and stem 50.3 ± 1.7. Transformed nature of hairy roots was ascertained by amplifying 970 bp region of T-DNA of Ri plasmid. Hairy roots were screened for phytoremediation of various textile dyes and results showed that HRs were able to degrade Reactive green 19A HE4BD upto 98% within 5 days of incubation. Spectrophotometric analysis showed decrease in dye concentration while HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed its degradation. Seed germination assay demonstrated non-toxic nature of the extracted metabolites. This is the first report on induction of hairy root culture in Sesuvium portulacastrum and phytoremediation of textile dyes.

  5. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. P Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of cerium - titania - alumina - based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature - programmed reduction (TPR, X - ray diffraction (XRD, specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO2 - TiO2 - Al2O3 gave a result similar to that of TiO2. On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes.

  6. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.P; Lenzi, G.G.; Jorge, L.M.M.; Santos, O.A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Colpini, L.M.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Palotina, PR (Brazil). Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis

    2011-07-15

    This work reports the use of cerium-titania-alumina-based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gave a result similar to that of TiO{sub 2}. On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes. (author)

  7. 皂洗酶A对活性染料的降解性研究%Study on decoloration of reactive dyes by soaping enzyme A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许存存; 孙从振; 张成玉; 盛克宁; 闵洁

    2016-01-01

    采用皂洗酶A对活性染料按照皂洗工艺条件进行分解,结果表明,皂洗酶A反应活性受到染料结构影响,只对乙烯砜结构的染料具有较高的降解率,表现出酶反应的专一性。%Reactive dyes were carried out in accordance with the soaping process conditions of decompo⁃sition using soaping enzyme A. It was found that reaction activity of soaping enzyme A was influenced by dye structure. The soaping enzyme A only degraded the structure of the vinyl sulfone, and had a high decoloration ratio, showing the reaction specificity of enzyme.

  8. Characterization of a salt resistant bacterial strain Proteus sp. NA6 capable of decolorizing reactive dyes in presence of multi-metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naila; Hussain, Sabir; Azeem, Farrukh; Shahzad, Tanvir; Bhatti, Sajjad Haider; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Maqbool, Zahid; Abid, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Microbial biotechnologies for the decolorization of textile wastewaters have attracted worldwide attention because of their economic suitability and easiness in handling. However, the presence of high amounts of salts and metal ions in textile wastewaters adversely affects the decolorization efficiency of the microbial bioresources. In this regard, the present study was conducted to isolate salt tolerant bacterial strains which might have the potential to decolorize azo dyes even in the presence of multi-metal ion mixtures. Out of the tested 48 bacteria that were isolated from an effluent drain, the strain NA6 was found relatively more efficient in decolorizing the reactive yellow-2 (RY2) dye in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Based on the similarity of its 16S rRNA gene sequence and its position in a phylogenetic tree, this strain was designated as Proteus sp. NA6. The strain NA6 showed efficient decolorization (>90 %) of RY2 at pH 7.5 in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl under static incubation at 30 °C. This strain also had the potential to efficiently decolorize other structurally related azo dyes in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Moreover, Proteus sp. NA6 was found to resist the presence of different metal ions (Co(+2), Cr(+6), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2), Cd(+2)) and was capable of decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of different levels of the mixtures of these metal ions along with 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Based on the findings of this study, it can be suggested that Proteus sp. NA6 might serve as a potential bioresource for the biotechnologies involving bioremediation of textile wastewaters containing the metal ions and salts.

  9. Evaluation of phytoremediation potential of Tagetes patula L. for the degradation of textile dye Reactive Blue 160 and assessment of the toxicity of degraded metabolites by cytogenotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Asmita V; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-06-01

    Tagetes patula is an annual flowering plant belonging to family Asteraceae. The present study deals with in vitro decolorization and remediation of a textile dye Reactive Blue 160 by T. patula. There was considerable (∼90%) decolorization of the dye within 4d of incubation, as confirmed by UV-vis, HPLC and FTIR analysis. The enzymes responsible for the remediation were lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase, laccase and NADH-DCIP reductase which were found in root tissues of the plantlets. GC-MS analysis of the products revealed formation of six metabolites such as sodium benzenesulfonate, 6-chloro 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, disodium benzene-1,4-disulfonate, sodium 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate, 1-phenylmethanediamine and sodium 4-amino-3-carboxybenzenesulfonate after phytoremediation of Reactive Blue 160. Based on the FTIR and GC-MS results, the possible pathway for the biodegradation of Reactive Blue 160 has been traced. The non-toxic nature of the degraded products was confirmed by performing cytogenotoxicity tests on root tip cells of growing Allium cepa.

  10. Printing with Pigment and Reactive Dye in One Printing Paste%涂料活性同浆印花工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武丰才; 李文权

    2001-01-01

    A new printing process-printing with pigment and reactive dye in one primting paste is deacribed.The process is characterized by brilliance colour,good colour fastness,stable shade and low cost.%介绍一种新型印花工艺——涂料活性同浆印花工艺。实践证明:该工艺具有色泽浓艳,色牢度高 ,成本低,色光稳定的特点。

  11. Synthesis and Application of Acid Dyes Based on 3-(4-Aminophenyl-5-benzylidene-2-substituted phenyl-3, 5-dihydroimidazol-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devang N. Wadia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of eight novel heterocyclic based monoazo acid dyes were synthesized using various substituted imidazol-4-one as diazo component and coupled with various amino-napthol sulphonic acids. The resultant dyes were characterized using standard spectroscopic methods and then dyeing performance on wool fabric was assessed. Final results concluded that exhaustion (%E of the dyes on wool fibers increased with decreasing pH of application and that fixation (%F of the dyes on wool fibers increased with increasing pH of application and the highest total fixation efficiency was achieved at pH 5. Wash and light fastness properties of prepared dyes showed encouraging results.

  12. Control of side-to-center color deviation in reactive pad dyeing%活性轧染的边中色差控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朝德

    2011-01-01

    活性染料轧染咖啡、棕色、军绿等敏感色时易产生边中色差.文中比较系统地分析了产生色差的原因,如前处理煮退不匀、去碱不净,染色时轧车轧液、轧槽加料不匀、烘燥时染料泳移等,并提出了解决措施,以及在染色操作中需予以重视的事项.%There is side to center color deviation in reactive pad dyeing in sensitive colors such as coffee, brown and army green. Reasons for color deviation are analyzed systematically, including uneven scouring and desizing in pretreatment, exhausted alkali after mercerization, inconsistent padding bath and dosing, dye migration during drying and so on, solutions are put forward, and important attentions in dyeing are given.

  13. Unusual Reaction of β-Hydroxy α-Diazo Carbonyl Compounds with Trichloroacetonitrile (CI3CCN) and Sodium Hydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-Feng; JIANG Nan; WANG Jian-Bo

    2003-01-01

    @@ In the process of preparing α-diazo carbonyl compound 2 by imidation of 1, we unexpectedly observed a direct conversion of the hydroxyl group into trichloroacetylamino group. In this presentation, we report this unprecedented reaction, as well as the Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed reaction of the resulting β-(trichloroacetyl)amino β-diazo carbonylcompounds 3. [ 1

  14. Comparative study on using carbon or nitrogen limited medium to culture white rot fungi for reactive brilliant red dye K-2BP decolotization under non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; DaWen; WEN; XiangHua; QIAN; Yi

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore ways for the application of white rot fungus in dye effluent treatment under non-sterile conditions, experiment on decolorization of reactive brilliant red was carried out, employing nitrogen-limited and carbon-limited medium with C/N ratio of 56/2.2 and 28/44 (in mmol/L), respectively. The results showed that the decolorization rate reached 92% while culturing white rot fungus with nitrogen-limited medium; however, the decolorization process ended in carbon-limited medium (n(C)/n(N) = 28/44) because of bacterial contamination. In addition, pH rose up to 9.31 after 4 d of decolorization, which was caused by bacterial contamination in the carbon-limited system. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen-limited medium can inhibit bacterial growth to some extent while carbon-limited medium is more easily contaminated by bacteria. Nitrogen-limited medium is more suitable in culture of white rot fungus for decolorization of reactive dye. Medium with the ability of inhibiting yeast growth should be developed by adjusting other components of nitrogen-limited medium.

  15. Effect of polyethyleneimine ion on the sorption of a reactive dye onto Leacril fabric: electrokinetic properties and surface free energy of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Tejada, M M; Ontiveros-Ortega, A; Giménez-Martín, E; Espinosa-Jiménez, M; Molina Díaz, A

    2006-05-01

    Data are presented on the kinetics, electrokinetics, and surface free energy in the process of adsorption of polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a pretreatment of Leacril, later dyed with the reactive dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR). The electrokinetic potential of Leacril is negative, due probably to the presence of sulfonate and sulfate end-group onto Leacril fibers. The zeta potential of Leacril decreases in absolute value as a function of NaCl concentration in solution, probably because of compression of the electrical double layer. The zeta potential of Leacril as a function of the concentration of PEI in solution increases because of the adsorption of PEI ions through chemical reaction between the sulfonate end-groups of Leacril and the amine groups of PEI. The adsorption kinetics shows that an increase in the concentration of PEI, brings about an increase in the amount of RBBR adsorbed onto the fiber. This may be an indication of the chemical reaction between the reactive groups of the polyelectrolyte and dye molecules. The behavior of the surface free energy of the systems involved confirms these conclusions.

  16. Magnetic and photocatalytic response of Ag-doped ZnFeO nano-composites for photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Asif, E-mail: ahayat@ksu.edu.sa [College of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Ramay, Shahid Mahmood [College of Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Zaghayer, Yousef S. [College of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Industrial Catalysts Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Imran, Muhammad [College of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Atiq, Shahid [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Al-Johani, Meshal S. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • Self-consistent sol–gel based auto-combustion route was used. • Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution was investigated. • Due to Ag doping, band gap reduced. • Activity of Ag-doped samples was higher than that of un-doped ones. - Abstract: To investigate the photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution, pure ZnO and Fe/Ag-doped magnetic photocatalysts having nominal compositions of Zn{sub 0.95−x}Fe{sub 0.05}Ag{sub x}O (x = 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1) have been synthesized via self-consistent sol–gel based auto-combustion route. Thermally stable samples were subsequently confirmed to exhibit wurtzite type hexagonal structure, characteristic of ZnO. The nature of chemical bonding was elaborated by Fourier transform analysis. Electron microscopic techniques were employed to investigate the structural morphology and to evaluate the particle size. Ferromagnetic nature of the Fe/Ag doped samples was revealed by vibrating sample magnetometry, enabling the photocatalytic samples to be re-collected magnetically for repeated usage. The enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation with 5 and 10 wt.% Ag/ZnFeO has been observed validating the potential applications of these materials in the field of photo-degradation of organic pollutants.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF UV/TiO2-ZnO-Co PHOTOCATALITIC DEGRADATION OF AZO DYE (REACTIVE RED 120 BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHSEN MANSOURI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs are the most attractive methods to degrade diferent organic pollutants. The AOPs have grown extensively because water quality control and regulations have become very strict in many countries. Optimizing the photocatalytic degradation of azo dye (Reactive Red 120 was our goal of research for applying the experimental design methodology. pH (X1, concentration of dye (X2 and TiO2-ZnO-Co nanoparticles volume (X3 in reactions were described mathematically as the function of parameters and were designed by using response surface methodology (RSM. Results were in agreement with empirical values and the sensitivity analysis showed above parameters as the most efficient variables in decolorization efficiency. Analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed highly determination coefficient value (R2 = 0.9996 and adjusted-R2 = 0.999 and satisfactory prediction second-order regression model. The desirable quantities were obtained at the pH = 7, TiO2-ZnO-Co concentration = 0.1 g·L-1, and the initial Reactive Red 120 (RR 120 concentration = 16.4 mg·L-1. Finally, kinetics reaction of degradtion RR 120 was carried in the optimum conditions.

  18. Degradation of a textile reactive azo dye by a combined biological-photocatalytic process: Candida tropicalis Jks2 -Tio2/Uv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Jafari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 azo dye was investigated by biological, photocatalytic (UV/TiO2 and combined processes.Application of Candida tropicalis JKS2 in treatment of the synthetic medium containing RB5 indicated complete decolorization of the dye with 200 mg/L in less than 24 h. Degradation ofthe aromatic rings, resulting from the destruction of the dye, did not occur during the biological treatment. Mineralization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution was obtained after 80 min by photocatalytic process (in presence of 0.2 g/L TiO2. COD (chemical oxygen demand wasnot detectable after complete decolorization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution. However,photocatalytic process was not effective in the removal of the dye at high concentrations (≥200 mg/L. With 200 mg/L concentration, 74.9% of decolorization was achieved after 4 hillumination under photocatalytic process and the absorbance peak in UV region (attributed to aromatic rings was not completely removed. A two-step treatment process, namely,biological treatment by yeast followed by photocatalytic degradation, was also assessed. In the combined process (with 200 mg/L RB5, absorbance peak in UV region significantly disappeared after 2 h illumination and about 60 % COD removal was achieved in the biological step. It is suggested that the combined process is more effective than the biological and photocatalytic treatments in the remediation of aromatic rings.

  19. Degradation of a textile reactive azo dye by a combined biological-photocatalytic process: Candida tropicalis Jks2 -Tio2/Uv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Narjes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, the decolorization and degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 azo dye was investigated by biological, photocatalytic (UV/TiO2 and combined processes. Application of Candida tropicalis JKS2 in treatment of the synthetic medium containing RB5 indicated complete decolorization of the dye with 200 mg/L in less than 24 h. Degradation of the aromatic rings, resulting from the destruction of the dye, did not occur during the biological treatment. Mineralization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution was obtained after 80 min by photocatalytic process (in presence of 0.2 g/L TiO2. COD (chemical oxygen demand was not detectable after complete decolorization of 50 mg/L RB5 solution. However, photocatalytic process was not effective in the removal of the dye at high concentrations (≥200 mg/L. With 200 mg/L concentration, 74.9% of decolorization was achieved after 4 h illumination under photocatalytic process and the absorbance peak in UV region (attributed to aromatic rings was not completely removed. A two-step treatment process, namely, biological treatment by yeast followed by photocatalytic degradation, was also assessed. In the combined process (with 200 mg/L RB5, absorbance peak in UV region significantly disappeared after 2 h illumination and about 60% COD removal was achieved in the biological step. It is suggested that the combined process is more effective than the biological and photocatalytic treatments in the remediation of aromatic rings.

  20. A rapid two-step bioremediation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 4 by a marine-derived fungus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Naik, C.G.

    . These analyses confirmed changes in the aromatic character of the parent dye and formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds as the final products of the enzymatic degradation. Based on these results, the probable degradation products of RB4 were 2...

  1. Applicaton of sodium phytate as accelerant and fixing agent for cotton reactive dyeing%植酸钠作为棉织物活性染料促染固色助剂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹机良; 孟春丽; 程献伟; 王柯钦

    2013-01-01

    采用植酸钠作为棉织物活性染料促染和固色助剂,探讨了植酸钠用量、加入方式、染色时间对染色效果的影响,比较了植酸钠促染固色一步工艺和常规活性染料染色工艺,测试了染色织物的牢度。研究结果表明,采用植酸钠作为活性染料染色棉织物的促染和固色助剂,可在染色初始阶段一次性投入植酸钠,用量为90~120 g/L,染色时间为60 min左右时,染色织物的K/S值和色牢度与常规工艺相近。植酸钠工艺对染色温度的适应性范围比常规染色工艺宽。%Sodium phytate was used as an accelerant and fixing agent for cotton reactive dyeing. The in-fluences of sodium phytate concentration, input mode and dyeing time on dyeing performance were investigat-ed. The process of sodium phytate one step accelerant and fixing method was compared with conventional re-active dyeing process. And the color fastness of dyed fabric was also tested. It was found that as accelerant and fixing agent for cotton reactive dyeing, sodium phytate could be input to the dyeing system at the begin-ning of dyeing. When the dosage of sodium phytate was 90~120 g/L and dyeing time was 60 min, the K/S val-ue and color fastness of dyed fabric were similar to those of conventional reactive dyed fabric. The sodium phytate dyeing process had broader range of dyeing temperature than the conventional dyeing process.

  2. Rapid and direct spectrophotometric method for kinetics studies and routine assay of peroxidase based on aniline diazo substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirazizi, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Azita; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Bakavoli, Mehdi; Legge, Raymond L

    2016-12-01

    Peroxidases are ubiquitous enzymes that play an important role in living organisms. Current spectrophotometrically based peroxidase assay methods are based on the production of chromophoric substances at the end of the enzymatic reaction. The ambiguity regarding the formation and identity of the final chromophoric product and its possible reactions with other molecules have raised concerns about the accuracy of these methods. This can be of serious concern in inhibition studies. A novel spectrophotometric assay for peroxidase, based on direct measurement of a soluble aniline diazo substrate, is introduced. In addition to the routine assays, this method can be used in comprehensive kinetics studies. 4-[(4-Sulfophenyl)azo]aniline (λmax = 390 nm, ɛ = 32 880 M(-1) cm(-1) at pH 4.5 to 9) was introduced for routine assay of peroxidase. This compound is commercially available and is indexed as a food dye. Using this method, a detection limit of 0.05 nmol mL(-1) was achieved for peroxidase.

  3. Removal of reactive dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R from aqueous solutions by using anaerobically digested sewage sludge based adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özçimen Didem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorbents were produced from sewage sludge via chemical and thermal activation processes. Experiments were carried out in a tubular furnace at the heating rate of 20˚C min-1 and temperature of 550 ˚C with a nitrogen flow rate of 400 mL min-1 for 1 h. Dye adsorption experiments were performed with Remazol Brilliant Blue R for its several concentrations under batch equilibrium conditions by comparing sewage sludge based adsorbents with raw material and a commercial activated carbon. Maximum adsorption capacities of carbonized sewage sludge (CSWS and activated sewage sludge (ASWS were found as 7.413 mg g-1 and 9.376 mg g-1 for 100 mg L-1 dye solution, whereas commercial activated carbon had a capacity of 11.561 mg g-1. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to explain the adsorption mechanism together with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Langmuir isotherm, which had adsorption capacities of 34.60 mg g-1 (CSWS and 72.99 mg g-1 (ASWS, provided better fit to the equilibrium data than that of Freundlich isotherm. Pseudo second-order, model which had adsorption capacities of 7.451 mg g-1 (CSWS and 9.319 mg g-1 (ASWS, was very favorable to explain the adsorption kinetics of the dye with high regression coefficients.

  4. Adsorption study of anionic reactive dye from aqueous solution to Mg-Fe-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, I. M.; Gasser, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Mg-Fe-Cl Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been prepared using a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps with Mg/Fe = 3. The interlayer anions readily replaced by carbonate are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. The effects of different parameters, such as pH, contact time, concentration of dye and temperature on the capacity and adsorption mechanism of Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH in removing an anionic dye (congo red, CR) from aqueous solution were separately investigated. The results show that Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH is particularly efficient in removing CR and the dye removal increases with decreasing pH. The adsorption of CR on Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH reached equilibrium after 15 min where 100 mg/L CR was removed. The equilibrium isotherm indicates that the adsorption of CR onto Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH fits to Langmuir and Freundlich equation as well. The adsorption data obtained from the Langmuir model gave good values of the determination coefficient and the saturated adsorption capacity of Mg-Fe-CO3-LDH for CR was found to be 104.6 mg/g. The regeneration study indicates that the prepared LDH could be used for several cycles. The thermodynamic parameters have been calculated, and the adsorption process was found to be spontaneous, endothermic in nature and follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  5. Degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye by CWPO using Fe/mining sand under photo-Fenton process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Nurulhuda; Nasuha, Norhaslinda; Halim, Siti Fatimah Abdul; Ngah, Khairuddin

    2015-05-01

    This present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) process using photo-Fenton method and the used of mining sand as support catalyst as well as to determine the optimum parameters and effect of catalyst wt%, pH, H2O2 concentration, initial dye concentration and catalyst dosage on RB 5 degradation. The Fe/mining sand was prepared by impregnation technique and a solar degradation of RB 5 carried out by mean photo-Fenton reaction promoted by solar energy. The dye degradation was monitored during the experimental runs through UV/Vis spectrophotometer. In this process, the reaction condition were optimized at 0.4 of catalyst wt%, pH 2, 4 mM of H2O2 concentration and 0.5 g of catalyst dosage which achieved degradation efficiency at 100% for the three experiments except catalyst dosage which achieved 97.54% respectively within 180 min. The degradation of RB 5 also decreased with the increasing of dye concentration with 10 mg/L achieved the optimum degradation of 99.93%. The results demonstrated that photo-Fenton method could effectively degrade RB 5 and reduce the operating cost by conducting the experiment at optimum conditions.

  6. Degradação de corantes reativos pelo sistema ferro metálico/peróxido de hidrogênio Degradation of reactive dyes by the metallic iron/ hydrogen peroxide system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Lima de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the degradation of aqueous solutions of reactive azo-dyes is reported using a combined reductive/advanced oxidative process based in the H2O2/zero-valent iron system. At optimized experimental conditions (pH 7, H2O2 100 mg L-1, iron 7 g L-1 and using a continuous system containing commercial iron wool, the process afforded almost total discolorization of aqueous solutions of three reactive azo-dyes (reactive orange 16, reactive black 5 and brilliant yellow 3G-P at a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 min. At these conditions the hydrogen peroxide is almost totally consumed while the released total soluble iron reaches a concentration compatible with the current Brazilian legislation (15 mg L-1.

  7. Preparation and application of a reactive hair dye%一种活性染发剂的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建召; 曹光群; 孙培冬

    2012-01-01

    A reactive dye was synthesized from acid yellow 73, epichlorohydrin and sodium hydrosulfide via a two step process. The effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and mole ratio of reactants on yield of product of the first step was studied. Suitable reaction conditions were identified as: n ( epichlorohydrin) : n(acid yellow 73) = 20: 1,reaction temperature 80 ℃,reaction time 4 h,yield 65%. Thio - modified acid yellow 73 was synthesized by treating the intermediate product prepared in the first step by sodium hydrosulfide. Chemical structure of the intermediate product and final product was characterized by 1R and LC - MS. The thio - modified acid yellow 73 product was formulated in hair dye to investigate its dyeing efficacy. Results showed that the product can combine to hair with good fastness against water washing.A reactive dye was synthesized from acid yellow 73, epichlorohydrin and sodium hydrosulfide via a two step process. The effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and mole ratio of reactants on yield of product of the first step was studied. Suitable reaction conditions were identified as: n ( epichlorohydrin) : n(acid yellow 73) = 20: 1,reaction temperature 80 ℃,reaction time 4 h,yield 65%. Thio - modified acid yellow 73 was synthesized by treating the intermediate product prepared in the first step by sodium hydrosulfide. Chemical structure of the intermediate product and final product was characterized by 1R and LC - MS. The thio - modified acid yellow 73 product was formulated in hair dye to investigate its dyeing efficacy. Results showed that the product can combine to hair with good fastness against water washing.%以酸性黄73、环氧氯丙烷、硫氢化钠为原料,采用两步法合成活性染料,考察了反应时间、反应温度、原料摩尔比对第1步反应产物收率的影响,得到的较佳反应条件为∶n(环氧氯丙烷)∶n(酸性黄73)=20∶1,80℃下反应4h,在此条件下第1步反应产物的收率为65

  8. Modeling of Reactive Blue 19 azo dye removal from colored textile wastewater using L-arginine-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles: Optimization, reusability, kinetic and equilibrium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalvand, Arash; Nabizadeh, Ramin [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Ganjali, Mohammad [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoobi, Mehdi [Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazmara, Shahrokh [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hossein Mahvi, Amir, E-mail: ahmahvi@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the removal of Reactive Blue 19 from colored wastewater using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles modified with L-arginine (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine). In order to investigate the effect of independent variables on dye removal and determining the optimum condition, the Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Applying Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles for dye removal showed that; by increasing adsorbent dose and decreasing pH, dye concentration, and ionic strength dye removal has been increased. In the optimum condition, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles were able to remove dye as high as 96.34% at an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, adsorbent dose of 0.74 g/L, and pH 3. The findings indicated that dye removal followed pseudo-second-order kinetic (R{sup 2}=0.999) and Freundlich isotherm (R{sup 2}=0.989). Based on the obtained results, as an efficient and reusable adsorbent, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles can be successfully applied for dye removal from colored wastewater. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine removed RB 19 azo dye from wastewater efficiently. • BBD under RSM was used to analyze and optimize the adsorption process. • pH was the most influential parameter in dye removal.

  9. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sposina S. Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR, Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN, Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR, and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR. The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h. The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h.

  10. Efficient and rapid adsorption characteristics of templating modified guar gum and silica nanocomposite toward removal of toxic reactive blue and Congo red dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sagar; Patra, Abhay Shankar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Mahato, Vivekananda; Sarkar, Supriyo; Singh, R P

    2015-09-01

    The present study highlights the potentiality of sol-gel synthesized guar gum-graft-poly (acrylamide)/silica (g-GG/SiO2) hybrid nanocomposite toward the rapid removal of toxic reactive blue 4 (RB) and Congo red (CR) dyes from aqueous solution. Various physicochemical characterizations support the feasibility of the functionalized guar gum matrix as efficient template for the formation of homogeneous nanoscale silica particles. The composite demonstrates rapid and superior adsorption efficiency of RB (Qmax: 579.01 mg g(-1) within 40 min) and CR (Qmax: 233.24 mg g(-1) within 30 min) dyes from aqueous environment. Here, the pH driven adsorption process depends strongly on the ionic strength of the salt solution. The adsorption kinetics data predicts that pseudo second-order (surface adsorption) and intraparticle diffusion take place simultaneously. The adsorption equilibrium is in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm, while the thermodynamics study confirms spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. Desorption study predicts the excellent regenerative efficacy of nanocomposite.

  11. Role of pH in the Aqueous Phase Reactivity of Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles with Acid Orange 7, a Model Molecule of Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Freyria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of both pH and surface oxidation of nanoparticles is studied on the interaction between a commercial slurry of Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron (NZVI and the azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7. NZVI is a reducing agent used for the degradation of several pollutants, including azo dyes: during pollutant degradation, it undergoes progressive oxidation and dissolution. Though it is generally acknowledged that NZVI consists of core-shell nanoparticles, where the core of metallic iron is covered by FexOy shell, it still remains a poorly defined system. In this work, the solid fraction recovered by filtration and drying was characterized by means of XRD diffraction with Rietveld refinement, N2 isotherms at 77 K, FE-SEM and TEM observation, EDX analysis, and IR spectroscopy. Powders were obtained from both the parent slurry and the same slurry pretreated with HCl in order to remove FexOy shell, finally reactivating the nanoparticles. The aforementioned physicochemical characterization allowed figuring out some correlations between the properties of the studied nanomaterial and the processes occurring when it is in contact with AO7 in aqueous phase. The type of interaction occurring within the NZVI/AO7 system (adsorption and type of redox reactions strongly depends not only on the pH of the starting solution, but also on the surface oxidation of the nanoparticles.

  12. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S; Pereira, Patrícia Maia; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2010-11-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80-90%, 1 h) and RBBR (80-90%, 24 h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85-97%, 1 h) and DMBBLN (63-84%, 24 h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h.

  13. A highly efficient immobilized ZnO/Zn photoanode for degradation of azo dye Reactive Green 19 in a photocatalytic fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin-Li; Ho, Li-Ngee; Ong, Soon-An; Wong, Yee-Shian; Voon, Chun-Hong; Khalik, Wan Fadhilah; Yusoff, Nik Athirah; Nordin, Noradiba

    2017-01-01

    Photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) is a potential wastewater treatment technology that can generate electricity from the conversion of chemical energy of organic pollutants. An immobilized ZnO/Zn fabricated by sonication and heat attachment method was applied as the photoanode and Pt/C plate was used as the cathode of the PFC in this study. Factors that affect the decolorization efficiency and electricity generation of the PFC such as different initial dye concentrations and pH were investigated. Results revealed that the degradation of Reactive Green 19 (RG19) was enhanced in a closed circuit PFC compared with that of a opened circuit PFC. Almost 100% decolorization could be achieved in 8 h when 250 mL of 30 mg L(-1) of RG19 was treated in a PFC without any supporting electrolyte. The highest short circuit current of 0.0427 mA cm(-2) and maximum power density of 0.0102 mW cm(-2) was obtained by PFC using 30 mg L(-1) of RG19. The correlation between dye degradation, conductivity and voltage output were also investigated and discussed.

  14. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Pereira, Patrícia Maia; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h) and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h) and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h. PMID:21052547

  15. Heterogeneous fenton-like degradation of an azo dye reactive brilliant orange by the combination of activated carbon-FeOOH catalyst and H 2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jinhua; Lin, Guanghui; Li, Ping;

    2013-01-01

    The decoloration of an azo dye reactive brilliant orange (X-GN) by a heterogeneous Fenton system using activated carbon-FeOOH catalyst (AC-FeOOH) and H2O2 was studied. Under typical conditions (pH 7.0, H2O2 10 mmol/L, AC-FeOOH 1.0g/L and 30°C), 98% decoloration rate of X-GN was achieved in 240 mm...... that the decoloration of X-GN followed a pseudo-first order reaction and the activation energy was 17.2 kJ/mol. Iron leaching from AC-FeOOH occurred during the reaction, but the decoloration efficiency of X-GN was still higher than 80% after four runs. The AC-FeOOH has a good stability and can be reused. Besides...

  16. 提高活性染料印花色牢度的方法%Method of improving the color fastness of reactive dyes printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬

    2016-01-01

    The reason of the low fixation rate and poor color fastness of the reactive dyes printing were analyzed. The various methods of pressurized optical network, the second soaping, soft finishing, padding cross-linking agent, resin finishing etc. were introduced, in order to offer an suggestion for improving the printing color fastness.%分析了活性染料印花固色率较低、色牢度差的原因。介绍了加压光网、2次皂洗、柔软整理、浸轧交联剂、树脂整理等方法,为有效提高印花色牢度提供借鉴。

  17. Photocatalytic removal of reactive yellow 145 dye from simulated textile wastewaters over supported (Co, Ni3O4/Al2O3 co-catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Emman J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The supported co-catalyst (Co, Ni3O4/Al2O3 was prepared via using a co-precipitation method. Three sets of these materials were prepared by calcination at three different temperatures 500, 600, and 700°C. Crystal structure of the prepared materials was investigated using powder X-rays diffraction (PXRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Atomic force microscope (AFM, and specific surface area (BET. The activity of the prepared catalysts was investigated by following both of photocatalytic and adsorption removal of Reactive yellow 145 dye (RY 145 from simulated industrial wastewaters. In this study, different reaction conditions were performed such as effect of pH of the reaction mixture, mass dosage of the used catalyst, and effect of temperature. In addition to that adsorption isotherms and reaction kinetics were investigated. Also the activity of these catalysts were investigated after cyclization of the used catalysts.

  18. Adsorption studies of a water soluble dye, Reactive Red MF-3B, using sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Yuanfa; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo; Yang, Jun

    2007-05-08

    The removal of water-soluble Reactive Red MF-3B from aqueous media by sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay was studied in a batch system. The surfactant used was octodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (OTMAC). Adsorbent characterizations were investigated using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and surface area analysis. The effects of pH, contact time, initial solute concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption of Reactive Red MF-3B onto modified clay were investigated. On the basis of kinetic studies, specific rate constants involved in the processes were calculated and second-order adsorption kinetics was observed in the case. Film diffusion was found to be the rate-limiting step. Reactive Red MF-3B adsorption was found to increase with increase temperature. The Reactive Red MF-3B equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, the former being found to provide the better fit of the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. From the results it can be concluded that the surfactant-modified clay could be a good adsorbent for treating Reactive Red MF-3B-contaminated waters.

  19. Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile waste water using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balapure, Kshama; Bhatt, Nikhil; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    The present research emphasizes on degradation of azo dyes from simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film reactor. Degradation of simulated textile wastewater (COD 7200mg/L and dye concentration 300mg/L) was studied in a microaerophilic fixed film reactor using pumice stone as a support material under varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The intense metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterial consortium in the reactor led to 97.5% COD reduction and 99.5% decolorization of simulated wastewater operated under OLR of 7.2kgCODm(3)/d and 24h of HRT. FTIR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS studies revealed the formation of lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds under 24h of HRT, leading to complete mineralization of simulated wastewater. The detection of oxido-reductive enzyme activities suggested the enzymatic reduction of azo bonds prior to mineralization. Toxicity studies indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of simulated wastewater.

  20. Optimization of culture medium composition for manganese peroxidase and tyrosinase production during Reactive Black 5 decolourization by the yeast Trichosporon akiyoshidainum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, María M; Pajot, Hipólito F; Rovati, José I; Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2012-03-01

    Decolourization and degradation of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 was carried out by the yeast Trichosporon akiyoshidainum. A nine-factor Plackett-Burman design was employed for the study and optimization of the decolourization process and production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and tyrosinase activities. In the present study, 26 individual experiments were conducted and three responses were evaluated. Raising yeast extract concentration significantly enhanced decolourization and MnP production. Carbon and nitrogen sources, glucose and (NH4)2 SO4, showed no significant effect on any response over the concentration range tested. Other culture medium components, such as CaCl2 or MgSO4, could be excluded from the medium formula, as they had no effect on the evaluated responses. Metal ions (Fe, Cu and Mn) showed different effects on decolourization and enzymatic activities. Addition of copper significantly enhanced MnP activity and decreased dye decolourization. On the contrary, iron had a positive effect on decolourization and no effect on enzyme production. Oddly, increasing manganese concentration had a positive effect on tyrosinase production without affecting decolourization or MnP activity. These results strongly suggest that dye decolourization should be regarded as a complex multi-enzymatic process, where optimal medium composition should arise as a compromise between those optimal for each implied enzyme production. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Application of EDDHA-Na in soaping after reactive dyeing%乙二胺二邻苯基乙酸钠在皂洗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于兴凯; 左建民

    2012-01-01

    乙二胺二邻苯基乙酸钠(EDDHA-Na)是一种含有两个苯环的酰胺类聚合物,具有极佳的吸附和分散作用.试验研究了EDDHA-Na的合成方法,并将其用于活性染料皂洗工艺中.通过红外光谱分析和质谱分析,确定了实验室合成物的分子结构;活性染色织物经自制EDDHA-Na皂洗后,具有良好的牢度性能和防沾色效果;大生产实践则表明,自制EDDHA-Na的皂洗效果与常用皂洗剂马丙共聚物相当,且具有经济优势.%Sodium ethy diammedhephen acetic( EDDHA-Na) is a kind of amide polymer with two phenyl groups It has excellent adsorption and dispersion effect Synthesis of EDDHA-Na and its application to reactive soaping process are introduced. The structure of EDDHA-Na is identified by FTIR and mass spectrometry methods Reactive dyeings soaped with self-made EDDHA-Na has good color fastness and anti-staming property Production practice shows that the soaping effect with EDDHA-Na is similar to that with maleic-methyl acrylate copolymer

  2. Highly photocatalytic activity of novel Fe-MIL-88B/GO nanocomposite in the degradation of reactive dye from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tuan A.; Le, Giang H.; Vu, Hoa T.; Nguyen, Kien T.; Quan, Trang T. T.; Nguyen, Quang K.; Tran, Hoa T. K.; Dang, Phuong T.; Vu, Loi D.; Lee, Gun D.

    2017-03-01

    An Fe-MIL-88B/graphene oxide (GO) composite was successfully synthesized by the hydrofluoric acid (HF) free-solvothermal method. The sample was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). BET shows that Fe-MIL-88B/GO is of a mesoporous structure, while XRD and XPS results reveal that besides the Fe-MIL-88B phase, a new α-FeOOH phase in the novel Fe-MIL-88B/GO composite is formed. The as-prepared Fe-MIL-88B/GO nanocomposite was used to test the photocatalytic degradation of reactive dye (reactive red-RR195) from aqueous solution. This novel metal-organic framework (MOF)/GO composite exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity. Thus, after 25 min of reaction under simulated sunlight irradiation, removal efficiency reached 98%. Moreover, this composite still maintained high photocatalytic activity after three cycles of reaction runs, indicating its high stability and reusability. This opens a new application potential for MOF/GO as a highly efficient photo-Fenton catalyst.

  3. 纯棉织物B型活性印花冷堆固色%Cold print-batch process of cotton fabric with B type reactive dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友波; 唐群; 吴君风

    2012-01-01

    Cotton printing is carried out with cold batching fixation using B-type reactive dyes. In this process, alkaline is first padded into high count polyester fabric, and then the reactive printed cotton fabric is batched and dwelled together with the treated polyester fabric. The factors affecting the printing effects are analyzed, including specifications of polyester fabric, the padder pressure and thickener types. Cold batching fixation and steaming fixation are compared. It is found that the cold batching fixation features high color yield of up to 90% and good color fastness.%纯棉织物用异双活性基的B型活性染料印花后冷堆固色,通过将固色碱液施于经纬密度较高的涤纶布上,再将其与印有活性染料的纯棉织物一起打卷,使该含有碱剂的涤纶织物衬于棉织物之中.通过试验,分析了影响印花效果的因素,包括涤纶的组织规格、轧车压力、糊料种类等;比较了冷堆固色与汽蒸固色的效果,发现B型活性染料采用冷堆固色方法,固色率可达90%,且色牢度好.

  4. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  5. Decolorization and soaping of reactive dyes with soaping agent%新型皂洗剂对活性染料的脱色和皂洗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹机良; 安刚

    2011-01-01

    Soaping enzyme 210B was used as decolorizer and soaping agent of cotton fabric dyed by three reactive dyes, Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R, Dark Blue B-2GLN and Blue K-3RL.The influences of the dosage of soaping enzyme 210B, temperature, time and dosage of sodium sulphate on decolorization of dye solution and fabric soaping results were investigated.The results showed that the decoloration rate could reach 100% when the dosage of soaping agent was 0.2 g/L, 0.4 g/L and 0.8 g/L for Reactive Dark Blue B-2GLN.Blue K-3RL and Brilliant Blue KN-R, pH 7 and decolorized at 90 ℃ for 15 min. The soaping fastnesses were similar with the conventional soaping when 0.6 g/L of soaping enzyme was used and soaped at 85 ℃ for 20 min under pH 7.%采用皂洗酶210B作为活性艳蓝KN-R、活性深蓝B-2GLN和活性蓝K-3RL染色棉织物的皂洗剂和脱色剂,探讨了皂洗酶浓度、温度、时间、pH值、硫酸钠用量等工艺因素对染料溶液的脱色和染色织物皂洗效果的影响.结果表明:活性深蓝B-2GLN、活性蓝K-3RL和活性艳兰KN-R在皂洗剂用量分别为0.2、0.4和0.8 g/L,pH值7,90℃处理15 min时,脱色率达到100%皂洗酶用量为0.6g/L、pH值7、85℃皂洗20 min时,具有与常规皂洗工艺相近的各项牢度.

  6. One-bath dyeing of polyester/cotton blend with microencapsulated disperse/neutral fixation reactive dyes%涤/棉织物微胶囊分散染料/中性固色活性染料一浴法染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延伟; 孟春丽; 曹机良; 董志龙

    2015-01-01

    The microencapsulated disperse dyes and neutral fixation reactive dyes were applied in one-bath dyeing of polyester/cotton blend. The stain performance of neutral fixation reactive dyes on polyes⁃ter and microencapsulated disperse dyes on cotton, the effects of dyeing temperature, time, pH, dosage of so⁃dium chloride on dyeing behavior were analyzed. The color fastness of polyester/cotton blend fabrics dyed with neutral fixation reactive dyes and microencapsulated disperse dyes were tested. It was found that the neutral fixation reactive dyes stained less on polyester, and microencapsulated disperse dyes also stained less on cotton. The K/S value of dyed cotton fabric increased with the increasing of dosage of sodium chloride, but the K/S value of dyed polyester fabric decreased with the increasing of dosage of sodium chloride. The results showed that the optimal process was: addition neutral fixation reactive dyes and microencapsulated disperse dyes, NaCl 40 g/L or so, dyeing at 130 ℃ for 60 min under pH=7, the color fastnesses of polyester/cotton blend fibers could meet the demand of wearability.%采用微胶囊分散染料和中性固色活性染料一浴法对涤/棉模拟交织物染色,分析了微胶囊分散染料对棉织物、中性固色活性染料对涤纶的沾色,探讨了染色温度、染色时间、染色pH、氯化钠用量等对染色性能的影响,测试了染色织物的色牢度。研究结果表明:中性固色活性染料对涤纶织物的沾色以及微胶囊分散染料对棉织物的沾色均较少,随着氯化钠用量的增加,染色棉织物的表观色深逐渐增加,而涤纶织物的表观色深有所下降。中深色染色的最佳工艺条件为:加入一定比例的中性固色活性染料和微胶囊分散染料,染色pH=7,染色温度130℃,保温时间60 min,氯化钠用量40 g/L左右,涤/棉混纺织物用微胶囊分散染料/中性固色活性染料染色后,各项色牢度均满足服用要求。

  7. Effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle on dyes biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Laura; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Alves, M.M.; Gavrilescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the biodecolourisation of two dyes, a xanthene dye, Erythrosine B (Ery B) and an azo dye, Reactive Red 51 (RR120), was investigated colourdecolourisationunder batch anaerobic conditions by using non - acclimated anaerobic granular sludge. The effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle (FN) (as adsorbent or mediator) on dyes removal was experienced.

  8. Descoloration of industrial dyes and simulated textile effluents dyes by turnip peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Maria Cristina; Angelita D Corrêa; Torres, Juliana A.; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de

    2012-01-01

    The removal of important textile dyes by turnip peroxidase (TNP) was evaluated. The textile effluents besides the residual dyes contain also chemical auxiliaries such as salts, dispersing and wetting agents. The effect of these was evaluated in the removal of the dyes reactive blue 21 and reactive blue 19 by TNP in synthetic effluents. A decrease of the efficency decolorization was observed. The action of the enzyme on colour removal of dye mixture was equivalent to the dyes alone. The chemic...

  9. Synthesis and application of new mordent and disperse azo dyes based on 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHARAT C. DIXIT

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel mordent and disperse azo dyes were prepared by the coupling of various diazo solutions of aromatic amines with 2,4-ihydroxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analyses as well as IR and NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been iscussed in terms of structural property relationship. The dyeing assessment of all the dyeswas evaluated on wool and polyester textile fibers. The dyeing of chrome treated (i.e., chrome mordented wool and polyesters was also monitored. The results show that a better hue was obtained on mordented fibers. The results of the anti-bacterial properties of the chrome dyes revealed that the toxicity of these dyes against bacteria is fairly good.

  10. The Preparation of Protein Anti-staining Agent for Reactive Dyes%活性染料蛋白类防沾色剂的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华凤; 王雪燕

    2015-01-01

    以明胶和自制的阳离子交联改性剂WLS为原料,制备了一种阳离子明胶蛋白助剂,并与聚乙烯基吡咯烷酮( PVP)复配,制成一种新型防沾色助剂,应用于活性染料染色棉织物皂洗后处理。以白布沾色K/S值和色布耐皂洗色牢度为评价指标,运用正交试验确定了有利于改善活性染料染色棉织物皂洗防沾色的阳离子明胶蛋白助剂的合成条件,其为:m(明胶蛋白)∶m (WLS)=1∶10,NaOH用量为WLS用量的1.8%,反应温度70℃,反应时间3h;PVP与阳离子明胶蛋白复配质量比为1:50。%Taking gelatin and self-made cationic crosslinking modifier WLS as raw materials, a kind of cat-ionic gelatin protein additive was prepared and was compounded with PVP to prepare a new anti-staining agent for after-soaping treatment of dyed cotton fabric with reactive dyes. Taking K/S value of stained cloth and color fast-ness to soaping of dyed cloth as evaluation indicators, the preparation conditions of cationic gelatin protein addi-tives was determined by using orthogonal test, which could improve soaping anti-staining property of cotton fabric dyed with reactive dyes. The preparation conditions were: m ( gelatin): m ( WLS) was 1∶14, the dosage of NaOH was1. 8% of that of WLS, the reaction temperature was 70℃ and time was 3h, the quality ratio of PVP to cationic gelatin protein was 1∶50 .

  11. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  12. Development of Novel Low-Cost Quaternized Adsorbent from Palm Oil Agriculture Waste for Reactive Dye Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Shin Koay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to chemically modify palm kernel shell (MPKS to increase adsorption affinity towards Reactive Black 5 (RB5. Granulated palm kernel shell (PKS was quaternized successfully by treating with N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride under alkaline conditions and was characterized. Surface characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and BET analysis confirmed the surface pore enlargement from mesospores to macropores after modification. Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR Spectrometer and CHN analysis revealed that the quaternary ammonia group (NR4+ was successfully reacted on MPKS fiber. pH 4 is the optimum for removal of RB5 on MPKS. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson models. The Redlich-Peterson model was found to fit well with the data. The maximum adsorption capacity of MPKS was 207.5 mg/g for adsorption of RB5.

  13. Synthesis of New Azo Dyes and Copper(II) Complexes Derived from Barbituric Acid and 4-Aminobenzoylhydrazone

    OpenAIRE

    GUP, Bülent KIRKAN and Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    Four new azo dyes, L1, L2, L3, and L4, were prepared by linking benzaldehyde p-aminobenzoylhydrazone (3) and p-hydroxybenzaldehyede p--aminobenzoylhydrazone (4) to barbituric acid and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid through diazo-coupling reactions. Reactions of the azo-dyes with copper chloride and bidentate ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline, produced mixed-ligand dinuclear complexes with general stoichiometry [Cu2L(phen)2]Cl2 (7, 8, 9, and 10). The structures of both azo dyes and their compl...

  14. CFS氧化降解偶氮染料活性黑RB5%Degradation of azo dye C.I. Reactive Black 5 by composite ferrate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦平; 许国仁; 李圭白

    2008-01-01

    研究了复合高铁酸盐溶液(CFS)氧化降解活性黑(RB5)染料废水的反应条件和降解机理.结果表明:CFS氧化降解RB5的最佳pH范围为pH<10,并且在该范围内Fe(VI)的反应速率较快.当pH=8~9,CFS投加量为20 mg·L-1时,氧化反应5 min和20 min时,RB5的脱色率分别为80%和95%.对TOC和COD的去除实验表明,在氧化反应过程中存在有机分子的矿化反应,但矿化速率远低于脱色反应速率.UV-Vis和FTIR结果表明,染料分子中的偶氮基团能被Fe(VI)氧化破坏,并且处理后样品中RB5的特征红外吸收峰消失,说明了染料分子中部分苯环和萘环被破坏,从而使得染料废水的毒性降低、可生化性提高.因此,CFS作为一种高效、低廉的强氧化剂,为染料工业废水的处理提供了一个可行的方法.%Composite ferrate solution(CFS)was used directly in oxidation of ago dye wastewater of C.I.Reactive Black 5(RB5).The optimal oxidation conditions and degradation mechanism were investigated.The results indicated that the optimal pH for the oxidation was pH<10,and Fe(VI)had higher reactivity in this pH range.For example.with the CFS dosage of 20 mg·L-1 at pH=8~9,about 80% and 95% RB5 had been discolored at 5 min and 20 min.respectively.TOC and COD removal experiments indicated that the organic molecules could be mineralized, but the mineralization rate was much slower than the decolorization rate.UV-Vis and FT-IR results showed that the azo groups could be broken by the oxidation of Fe(VI),and almost all the characteristic absorption bands of RB5 disappeared which indicates the benzene and naphthalene structure had been destructed.The azo dye wastewater treated by CFS has lower toxicity and improved biodegradability.As a strong oxidant with lower cost,CFS has supplied a feasible choice for the treatment of ago dye in industrial wastewater.

  15. .Investigation the  Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI Performance in the Presence of UV light and Hydrogen Peroxide on Removal of Azo Dyes Acid Orange 7 and Reactive Black 5 from Aquatic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Zarrabi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Colored wastewaters are known as one of the most important sources of environmental pollutants. Having toxic chemicals and aesthetic problems has made treatment of these wastewaters very crucial. So far a number of methods such as electrochemical treatment, coagulation and flocculation, and adsorption have been used for treatment of textile industries wastewater. Hence,  the efficiency of zero-valent iron powder in the presence of UV light and hydrogen peroxide to remove Acid Orange 7 and Reactive Black 5 from the synthetic solutions was investigated.Materials and Methods: Conducting all experiments in a batch reactor, we examined different parameters including initial concentration of the color (25, 50, 75 mg/L, contact time (30,  60, 120 min, pH (3, 7, 11, the amount of iron powder (0.6, 1.3,  2  g/l, and hydrogen peroxide concentration (10, 15, 20  ml/l.Result: The results showed that dye removal efficiency was increased by increasing contact time, the amount of iron powder and hydrogen peroxide concentration. On the other hand, with the increasing pH and initial concentration of dye, removal efficiency decreased in both AO7and RB5 dyes.Conclusion: We found that the integrated ZVI/UV/H2O2 method has  high efficiency in removing azo dyes Acid Orange 7 and Reactive Black 5.

  16. Electro-flocculation associated with the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam as natural coagulant for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Souza dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although an important significant sector in world economy, the textile industry is known for its large volumes of wastewater generated in production processes. In the search for cleaner technologies, the application of electrochemical processes, such as electro-flocculation, or natural coagulants, such as Moringa oleifera Lam extract, have become recurrent in literature. Since the required operating conditions for alternative technologies are such that they hamper effective application, current paper presents results obtained with the use of a hybrid system of treatment which combines electro-flocculation and the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera lam to evaluate the removal of reactive blue 5G dye from aqueous solutions. Milder conditions of electric current intensity (0.10 – 1.50 A and natural coagulant concentration (250-2000 mg L-1 were tested. Through a Central Composite Rotatable Design, it was possible to obtain a quadratic model which subsidized the optimization of operating conditions. Applying an electric current of 0.97 A to sacrificial electrodes of iron and a concentration of 2000 mg L-1 for the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam, an average 86.79% color removal was obtained, considered a satisfactory rate.

  17. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens culture and enhancement of its photocatalytic activity for the degradation of a sulfonated textile dye Reactive Red 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Razia; Fulekar, M H

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims at exploiting Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for the biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and also investigates role of bacterial enzymes in the biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Bacterial synthesized as well as metal doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Amylase activity (43.37IU) in culture supernatant evinced a potential involvement of extracellular enzyme in TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis. Crystallite size of bio-synthesized nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 15.23-87.6nm. FTIR spectroscopy and native-PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) clearly indicated involvement of alpha amylase in biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and in their stabilization. TEM micrographs of the synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with a size range of 22.11-97.28nm. Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 31 (RR31) dye was carried out using bio-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles under UV radiation. Photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles was enhanced by Ag, La, Zn and Pt doping. Platinum doped TiO2 showed highest potential (90.98%) in RR31 degradation as compared to undoped (75.83%).

  18. Physicochemical modeling of reactive violet 5 dye adsorption on home-made cocoa shell and commercial activated carbons using the statistical physics theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaoui, Lotfi; Lima, Éder Cláudio; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz; Dias, Silvio L. P.; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb

    Two equilibrium models based on statistical physics, i.e., monolayer model with single energy and multilayer model with saturation, were developed and employed to access the steric and energetic aspects in the adsorption of reactive violet 5 dye (RV-5) on cocoa shell activated carbon (AC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC), at different temperatures (from 298 to 323 K). The results showed that the multilayer model with saturation was able to represent the adsorption system. This model assumes that the adsorption occurs by a formation of certain number of layers. The n values ranged from 1.10 to 2.98, indicating that the adsorbate molecules interacted in an inclined position on the adsorbent surface and aggregate in solution. The study of the total number of the formed layers (1 + L2) showed that the steric hindrance is the dominant factor. The description of the adsorbate-adsorbent interactions by calculation of the adsorption energy indicated that the process occurred by physisorption in nature, since the values were lower than 40 kJ mol-1.

  19. Biodegradation of benzidine based dye Direct Blue-6 by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalme, S D; Parshetti, G K; Jadhav, S U; Govindwar, S P

    2007-05-01

    Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 was able to degrade a diazo dye Direct Blue-6 (100 mg l(-1)) completely within 72 h of incubation with 88.95% reduction in COD in static anoxic condition. Induction in the activity of oxidative enzymes (LiP, laccase) and tyrosinase while decolorization in the batch culture represents their role in degradation. Dye also induced the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase, one of the enzyme of mixed function oxidase system. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy and HPLC. The final products, 4-amino naphthalene and amino naphthalene sulfonic acid were characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy.

  20. Review of reactive dyes discovery for 60 years commemoration (to be continued)%纪念活性染料发现60年回顾(待续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣圻

    2015-01-01

    爱因斯坦曾说:“没有想象力就没有创造力,就不会有发现。”乔布斯的想象力产生了Iphone及Ipad,使苹果名躁一时。Rattee和Stephen偶然发现二氯均三嗪染料在碱性介质中会与纤维素纤维键合,这一偶然性实际上存在于必然性之中。没有1954年的偶然发现,也就没有现代活性染料。60年的活性染料发展史可分为3个阶段:首先是活性基的研究和开发,通过筛选数十个活性基,如今主要是一氯(氟)均三嗪和乙烯砜型;2个或2个以上复合活性基染料成为活性染料划时代的发展;染料与染料、染料与助剂复配型商品化染料的出台,上升到更高层次的实用阶段。详细评价了各活性基和各染料品种的优劣,展望了我国活性染料行业如何由大做强,提出了若干建议。%As Einstein said:"no imagination, no creativity, no discovery."Iphone and Ipad came from Jobs's imagination, which made apple brand enjoy quite a reputation. Rattee and Stephen found dichlorotriazine dye can bond with cellulose fiber in alkaline medium accidentally, in which the contingency actually exists in the inevitability. There would be no current reactive dyes without the occasional finding of 1954. 60 years development of reactive dyes is divided into 3 stages:the first is the research and development of active groups by sifting from dozens of active groups. At present, monochlorotriazinyl and vinylsulfone types dominate the primary active groups;reactive dyes with two or more than two composite active groups dyes became the epoch-making development;commercial compound dyestuffs of dyes and dyes, dyes and auxiliaries appeared and rose to the practical stage of higher level. Advantages and disadvantages of each active groups and the dyes varieties have been evaluated in detail. Some suggestions of developing China's reactive dye industries bigger and stronger has been put forward.

  1. BF3.SiO2: an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of azo dyes at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Bi Fatemeh Mirjalili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A rapid one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of azo dyes via ‎sequential diazotization–diazo coupling of aromatic amines with coupling agents at room ‎temperature in the presence of BF3.SiO2 as acidic catalyst. The obtained aryl diazonium salts bearing silica supported boron tri-flouride counter ion‎ was sufficiently stable to be kept at room ‎temperature in the dry state.‎

  2. Five-membered rings as diazo components in optical data storage devices: An ab initio investigation of the lowest singlet excitation energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åstrand, P.-O.; Sommer-Larsen, P.; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2000-01-01

    been investigated as diazo components for a potential use in optical das storage materials. It is found that the diazo compounds with two heterocyclic five-membered rings have pi --> pi* excitation energies corresponding to laser wavelengths in the region 450-500 nm whereas one five-membered ring...

  3. 草酸钠作为促染剂在活性黄3RS染色中的应用%Using Sodium Oxalate in the Dyeing of Cotton Fabric with Reactive Yellow 3 RS as an Accelerant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞波; 周康; 胡文乾; 叶晓燕

    2015-01-01

    草酸盐作为光催化促进剂,在光化学反应中有着广泛的应用.研究了在活性黄3RS染棉织物过程中,草酸钠作为促染剂以取代无机盐(硫酸钠和氯化钠)的可行性,并将草酸钠与甲酸钠和柠檬酸钠等有机盐的促染效果进行了比较.结果显示草酸钠的促染效果优于甲酸钠、柠檬酸钠和氯化钠,与硫酸钠的促染效果相当.草酸钠作为促染剂,对染色织物的染色牢度和色光均没有影响.草酸钠可以取代无机盐,提高降解染色废水的光化学效果.%Sodium oxalate is used widely in the field of photochemical reaction as an accelerant. The feasibility of using sodium oxalate in the dyeing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes in place of inorganic salt ( sodium sulfate or sodium chlorate) was studied. Meanwhile, the dyeing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes using sodium formate and sodium citrate were investigated and the results obtained were compared with that of sodium oxalate. The re-sults show that the effect of sodium oxalate as an accelerant is better than that of sodium formate, sodium citrate and sodium chlorate, and its effect is equal to that of sodium sulfate. Sodium oxalate has no effect on the fastness and shade of the dyed fabric as an exhausting agent. Sodium oxalate could substitute for inorganic salt to enhance photochemical reaction of dyeing wastewater.

  4. Low Salt Dyeing Process by Reactive Dyes with the Method of Substitute Salt%代盐法活性染料低盐染色工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉

    2014-01-01

    将柠檬酸钠、甲酸钠、EDTA二钠盐作为促染剂用于棉织物活性染料染色,探讨了对固色率的影响,然后分别与元明粉复配,探讨最佳复配用量,并进行染色性能测试。结果表明,用柠檬酸钠、甲酸钠代替元明粉作促染剂时,促染效果较好,而EDTA促染效果较差;柠檬酸钠与元明粉复配最佳合计用量为32 g/L,固色率为93.17%,盐用量降低36.00%;甲酸钠与元明粉复配最佳用量合计为24 g/L,固色率为89.56%,盐用量降低52.00%,但色差较柠檬酸钠与元明粉复配时大;将柠檬酸钠、甲酸钠与元明粉复配,复配最佳用量合计为31 g/L,固色率为91.35%,盐用量降低38.00%,耐皂洗色牢度整体有所提高,复配体系色差较小,促染效果较好。%With sodium citrate, sodium formate and EDTA disodium salt as accelerating agent,cotton fabric was dyed by reactive dyes, and the effects on fixation were discussed. And then sodium citrate, sodium formate and EDTA disodium salt was respectively compounded with sodium sulfate, and the optimal compounded dosage was discussed, and the dyeing property was tested.The results shows that accelerating effect is good when sodium citrate and sodium formate replaces sodium sulfate as accelerating agent, but accelerating effect of EDTA disodium salt is poor; the optimal dosage of sodium citrate and sodium sulfate compounded system is 32 g/L, the fixation rate is 93.17%, and salt consumption declines by 36.00%; the optimal dosage of sodium formate and sodium sulfate com-pounded system is 24 g/L, the fixation rate is 89.56%, and salt consumption declines by 52.00%, but color differ-ence is bigger when compared with sodium citrate and sodium sulfate compounded system; the optimal dosage of sodium citrate, sodium formate and sodium sulfate compounded system is 31 g/L ,the fixation rate is 91.35%, and salt consumption declines by 38.00%, and soaping fastness increases, color

  5. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater containing the Reactive Orange 16 azo dye by a combination of ozonation and moving-bed biofilm reactor: evaluating the performance, toxicity, and oxidation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Francine D; Bassin, João Paulo; Dezotti, Márcia

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an aqueous solution containing the azo dye Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was subjected to two sequential treatment processes, namely: ozonation and biological treatment in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The most appropriate ozonation pretreatment conditions for the biological process and the toxicity of the by-products resulting from RO16 ozone oxidation were evaluated. The results showed that more than 97 % of color removal from the dye solutions with RO16 concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 mg/L was observed in 5 min of ozone exposure. However, the maximum total organic carbon removal achieved by ozonation was only 48 %, indicating partial mineralization of the dye. Eleven intermediate organic compounds resulting from ozone treatment of RO16 solution were identified by LC/MS analyses at different contact times. The toxicity of the dye-containing solution decreased after 2 min of ozonation, but increased at longer contact times. The results further demonstrated that the ozonolysis products did not affect the performance of the subsequent MBBR, which achieved an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium removal of 93 ± 1 and 97 ± 2 %, respectively. A second MBBR system fed with non-ozonated dye-containing wastewater was run in parallel for comparison purposes. This reactor also showed an appreciable COD (90 ± 1 %) and ammonium removal (97 ± 2 %), but was not effective in removing color, which remained practically invariable over the system. The use of short ozonation times (5 min) and a compact MBBR has shown to be effective for the treatment of the simulated textile wastewater containing the RO16 azo dye.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of changes induced by solvent and substituent in electronic absorption spectra of some azo disperse dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Asadollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Farahnak, Lahya

    2012-04-01

    Five azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4'-aminoacetophenone and p-anisidine and coupling with varies N-alkylated aromatic amines. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-vis, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The electronic absorption spectra of dyes are determined at room temperature in fifteen solvents with different polarities. The solvent dependent maximum absorption band shifts, were investigated using dielectric constant (ɛ), refractive index (n) and Kamlet-Taft polarity parameters (hydrogen bond donating ability (α), hydrogen bond accepting ability (β) and dipolarity/polarizability polarity scale (π*)). Acceptable agreement was found between the maximum absorption band of dyes and solvent polarity parameters especially with π*. The effect of substituents of coupler and/or diazo component on the color of dyes was investigated. The effects of acid and base on the visible absorption maxima of the dyes are also reported.

  7. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes.

  8. Potentiometric detection of silver (I) ion based on carbon paste electrode modified with diazo-thiophenol-functionalized nanoporous silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ting; Chai Yaqin, E-mail: yqchai@swu.edu.cn; Yuan Ruo; Guo Junxiang

    2012-07-01

    For the first time, triazene compound functionalized silica gel was incorporated into carbon paste electrode for the potentiometric detection of silver (I) ion. A novel diazo-thiophenol-functionalized silica gel (DTPSG) was synthesized, and the presence of DTPSG acted as not only a paste binder, but also a reactive material. The electrode with optimum composition, exhibited an excellent Nernstian response to Ag{sup +} ion ranging from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M with a detection limit of 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M and a slope of 60.4 {+-} 0.2 mV dec{sup -1} over a wide pH range (4.0-9.0) with a fast response time (50 s) at 25 Degree-Sign C. The electrode also showed a long-time stability, high selectivity and reproducibility. The response mechanism of the proposed electrode was investigated by using AC impedance. Moreover, the electrode was successfully applied for the determination of silver ions in radiology films, and for potentiometric titration of the mixture solution of Cl{sup -} and Br{sup -} ions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized silica gels have become promising materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work is the first attempt to apply triazene functionalized silica gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Functionalized silica gels were used to detect silver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The response of the previously reported papers are compared with this work. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result indicates the proposed electrode is better than reported Ag{sup +} electrodes.

  9. Determinação eletroanalítica de corante reativo presente como contaminante em proteínas purificadas por cromatografia de afinidade Electroanalytical determination of a reactive dye currently used in affinity chromatography for protein purificaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly E. Osugi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Procion Green HE-4BD is a reactive dye currently used in affinity purification, and commonly present as a contaminant in the final biological preparation. An assay method is described to determine trace amounts of the dye in the presence of human serum albumin(HSA and leakage from agarose as affinity sorbent by cathodic stripping voltammetry. The proposed method is based on the reductive peak at -0.55V in B-R buffer pH 3 (E=0V and t= 240s, obtained when samples of HSA 2% (m/v containing dye concentrations in sodium hydroxide pH 12 are submitted to a heating time of 330 min at 80 ºC. Linear calibration curves can be obtained for RG19 dye concentrations from 5x10-9 mol L-1 to 8 x10-8 mol L-1. The detection limit (3sigma is 1x10-9 mol L-1.

  10. Synthesis and dyeing performance of a novel polycarboxylic acid azo dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Xu; Bing Tao Tang; Shu Fen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A novel reactive polycarboxylic acid dye was synthesized by the reaction of polymaleic anhydride (PMA) with 3-methyl-l-(4-sulfonylphenyl)-4-(4-aminophenylazo)-2-pyrazoline-5-one. The structure of the novel dye was characterized by FTIR, UV-vis and 13C NMR spectra. The dyeing properties of dye on cotton were tested, and the novel dye possessed high fixation and good fastness.

  11. Synthesis of indazoles by the [3+2] cycloaddition of diazo compounds with arynes and subsequent acyl migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Shi, Feng; Martinez, Pablo D G; Raminelli, Cristiano; Larock, Richard C

    2008-01-04

    The [3+2] cycloaddition of a variety of diazo compounds with o-(trimethylsilyl)aryl triflates in the presence of CsF or TBAF at room temperature provides a very direct, efficient approach to a wide range of potentially biologically and pharmaceutically interesting substituted indazoles in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Simple diazomethane derivatives afford N-unsubstituted indazoles or 1-arylated indazoles, depending upon the stoichiometry of the reagents and the reaction conditions, while dicarbonyl-containing diazo compounds undergo carbonyl migration to afford 1-acyl or 1-alkoxycarbonyl indazoles selectively.

  12. NaOH改性落叶松锯木屑对活性染料的吸附性能%Performance of NaOH-Modified Larch Sawdust Adsorbing Reactive Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱永; 吴磊; 王建军; 庄俊涛

    2012-01-01

    通过间歇式试验研究NaOH改性落叶松锯木屑对活性染料KN-B、K-2BP和KN-R的吸附脱色性能.结果表明,酸性条件下该改性木屑对3种染料均具有较好的脱色效果.在初始pH值为3时,3种染料的吸附脱色率均表现为随温度升高而逐渐降低,随改性木屑用量的增加而增加的趋势;而随染料初始浓度的增大,表现出先升高后降低的趋势.在初始pH值为3、温度为298 K条件下,3种染料在改性锯木屑上的等温吸附符合Langmuir吸附模型,KN-B、K-2BP和KN-R的最大饱和吸附量分别为22.32、10.47和14.93 mg·g-1,吸附自由能△G298K分别为-12.61、-9.77和-14.45 kJ·mol-1,均为物理性自发吸附过程.试验条件下,KN-R、KN-B和K-2BP的吸附动力学均符合准二级动力学吸附方程,吸附速率常数依次减小.综合等温吸附和吸附动力学研究结果表明,3种染料的脱色效果以KN-R为最好,KN-B次之,K-2BP最差.%Through batch experiments, performances of NaOH-modified larch sawdust adsorbing and decoloring Reactive Black 5 ( KN - B) , Reactive Red 24 ( K - 2BP) and Reactive Blue 19 ( KN - R) were investigated. Results show that in acid conditions, the sawdust could decolor quite well the three dyes in wastewaters. In wastewater, 3 in initial pH, adsorption and decoloration rate of the three dyes declined with rising temperature, but rose with application rate of the sawdust and content of NaCl, and went upwards first and then downwards with rising initial concentration of reactive dyes. Under the conditions of 3 in initial pH and 298 K in temperature, isothermal adsorption of the three dyes on the sawdust fitted the Langmuir adsorption model quite well. Of the three dyes, KN - B, K - 2BP and KN - R, the monolayer sorption capacity Qmax was measured to be 22. 32, 10. 47 and 14. 93 mg ? g-1, respectively, and the adsorption thermodynamic parameter ΔG298 K, - 12. 61, -9. 77 and - 14. 45 kJ ? mol , respectively, demonstrating that the

  13. Preparation of P(St-BA-VBT)/dye Colored Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-mei; FANG Kuan-jun

    2015-01-01

    P (St-BA-VBT)/dye colored nanoparticles were prepared by staining P (Styrene-Butyl Acrylate-VinylBenzyl Trimethylammonium chloride) nanoparticles synthesized by soap free cationic emulsion polymerization with reactive dyes. The effects of reactive dyes dosage, dyeing temperature and time on amounts of dyes adsorbed on the nanoparticles were analysed. Results showed that when Reactive Red 195 dosage was 5.25%, the adsorption amounts of dyes on the nanoparticles reached a maximum value of 18.64 mg/g at 65℃for 90 min.

  14. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 5-Diazo-4-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methylthio Pyrazol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小毛; 胡方中; 杨华铮

    2004-01-01

    The crystal of the title compound, 5-diazo-4-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methylthio pyrazole, has been prepared and determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with a = 29.174(8), b = 4.7592(12), c = 15.956(4) A, β =117.632(4)°, C7H8N4O2S, Mr = 212.23, V = 1962.7(9) A3, Z = 8, Dx = 1.436 g/cm3, S = 1.000,μ(MoKα) = 0.31 mm-1, T = 298(2) K, F(000) = 880, R = 0.0658 and wR = 0.1741 for 1091independent reflections with I ≥ 2σ(I). The crystal of the title compound is formed with π-πinteractions through electrostatic attractions. Moreover, no HSO4- exists in the crystal structure.Therefore, only diazo pyrazole was obtained rather than either diazonium salt of the corresponding pyrazole or diazoaminopyrazole when 5-amino-4-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methylthio pyrazole was diazotized with sodium nitrite, catalyzed by sulfuric acid at 0 ℃.

  15. Quantitative comparison of long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes to Cy dyes: fluorescence of the dyes and their bioconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Judith E; Rothe, Anca; Buller, Gayle; Bradford, Jolene; Gray, Diane R; Filanoski, Brian J; Telford, William G; Yue, Stephen; Liu, Jixiang; Cheung, Ching-Ying; Chang, Wesley; Hirsch, James D; Beechem, Joseph M; Haugland, Rosaria P; Haugland, Richard P

    2003-12-01

    Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

  16. [Tattooing dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Pierchalla, P

    1988-01-01

    Nine different tattoo dyes were analysed by various tests. Mixtures of organic dyes and inorganic filler were found; the inorganic filler consisted mainly of titanium dioxide (TiO2). Heavy metals, e.g. mercury, cadmium, or chrome as the common components of the traditional tattoo dyes, are capable of evoking unwanted skin reactions, but were not detected. Tattoo dyes are not officially controlled, and thus it is not known which substances-in addition to those identified by us-are presently used to produce ornamental tattoos. However, our results suggest that classic dyes have been superceded by newer, mainly synthetic dyes.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and applications of some novel mordent and heterocyclic disperse dyes on polyester and wool fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitendra Mangubhai Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The novel mordent and disperse heterocyclic dyes were prepared by coupling of various diazo solution of aromatic amines with 1-[(2-butyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-yl]-1-(4-hydroxyphenylmethanone. The resultant mordent and disperse heterocyclic dyes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structural property relationship. The dyeing assessment of all the mordent and disperse heterocyclic dyes was evaluated on wool and polyester textile fibers. The results of antibacterial studies of chrome pretreated fabrics revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis bacteria was fairly good.

  18. A bootstrapped neural network model applied to prediction of the biodegradation rate of reactive Black 5 dye - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.16210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Rogério Moreira Prado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current essay forwards a biodegradation model of a dye, used in the textile industry, based on a neural network propped by bootstrap remodeling. Bootstrapped neural network is set to generate estimates that are close to results obtained in an intrinsic experience in which a chemical process is applied. Pseudomonas oleovorans was used in the biodegradation of reactive Black 5. Results show a brief comparison between the information estimated by the proposed approach and the experimental data, with a coefficient of correlation between real and predicted values for a more than 0.99 biodegradation rate. Dye concentration and the solution’s pH failed to interfere in biodegradation index rates. A value above 90% of dye biodegradation was achieved between 1.000 and 1.841 mL 10 mL-1 of microorganism concentration and between 1.000 and 2.000 g 100 mL-1 of glucose concentration within the experimental conditions under analysis.   

  19. Structure and reactivity of thiazolium azo dyes: UV-visible, resonance Raman, NMR, and computational studies of the reaction mechanism in alkaline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Laurence C; Batchelor, Stephen N; Moore, John N

    2013-03-07

    UV-visible absorption, resonance Raman, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, allied with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, have been used to study the structure, bonding, and alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of the cationic thiazloium azo dye, 2-[2-[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl]-3-methyl-thiazolium (1a), along with a series of six related dyes with different 4-dialkylamino groups and/or other phenyl ring substituents (2a-c, 3a-c) and the related isothiazolium azo dye, 5-[2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl]-2-methyl-isothiazolium (4). These diazahemicyanine dyes are calculated to have a similar low-energy structure that is cis, trans at the (iso)thiazolium-azo group, and for which the calculated Raman spectra provide a good match with the experimental data; the calculations on these structures are used to assign and discuss the transitions giving rise to the experimental spectra, and to consider the bonding and its variation between the dyes. UV-visible, Raman, and NMR spectra recorded from minutes to several weeks after raising the pH of an aqueous solution of 1a to ca. 11.5 show that the dominant initial step in the reaction is loss of diethylamine to produce a quinonimine (ca. hours), with subsequent reactions occurring on longer time scales (ca. days to weeks); kinetic analyses give a rate constant of 2.6 × 10(-2) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) for reaction of 1a with OH(-). UV-visible spectra recorded on raising the pH of the other dyes in solution show similar changes that are attributed to the same general reaction mechanism, but with different rate constants for which the dependence on structure is discussed.

  20. 新型低温皂洗剂A在棉针织色布上的应用%Application of soaping agent A to reactive dyeing of cotton knits at low-temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光勇; 刘金华; 鲍亮; 李世琪; 顾学平

    2012-01-01

    采用低温皂洗剂A对染色纯棉针织物进行皂洗处理,探讨了低温皂洗剂A用量、皂洗温度、时间、pH值和染料类型等工艺因素对皂洗脱色率和皂洗牢度的影响.优化的皂洗工艺为:低温皂洗剂A3g/L,60℃皂洗20min.,低温皂洗工艺与常规皂洗工艺相比,皂洗织物的色牢度相当,且前者色光变化小,皂洗残液无色透明,节能减排效果显著.%Soaping is carried out to the reactive dyeings with low-temperature soaping agent A. Effect of technological factors on soaping are analyzed, such as dosage of low temperature soaping agent A, soaping temperature and timetpH value and reactive dyes type on color fastness to washing. The optimum process is obtained as follows; soaping at 60 ℃ for 20 min with low temperature soaping agent A3 g/L Compared with traditional soaping process, the new low-temperature soaping process features similar color fastness, less shade change, and lower energy consumption.

  1. A Study on Synthesis and Application of Easily Rinsable Reactive Dyes%一种易洗涤活性染料的合成及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德虎; 赵涛

    2011-01-01

    A non-mutagenic intermediate 2,2′-dimethyl-5,5′-di-n-propoxylbenzidine was synthesized from 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol and 1-bromopropane by nucleophilic substitution,reduction and rearrangement reaction;the products were characterized by IR and 1 H-NMR.Four reactive dyes were synthesized from 2,2′-dimethyl-5,5′-di-n-propoxylbenzidine,and the maximum absorption wavelengths of the dyes in acid and alkali solutions were determined.In normal dyeing process,wash fastnesses and fastnesses to crocking of the four dyes were 4 or higher after 1 hot wash,1 soaping and 1 cold wash.%以4-甲基-2-硝基苯酚、正溴丙烷为起始原料,经亲核取代、还原、重排反应制得无诱变性的2,2'-二甲基-5,5'-二-n-丙氧基联苯胺,并以此为重氮组份合成了四支易洗涤活性染料。通过红外、核磁等方法对各中间体进行了表征,并测定了酸、碱条件下染料的最大吸收波长。采用常规染色,一次热水洗、皂洗后,测得其耐水洗色牢度、耐摩擦色牢度均在4级以上。

  2. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  3. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  4. Laccase-mediator system in the decolorization of different types of recalcitrant dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei Rong; Chao, Ya Peng; Zhang, Guo Qing; Xue, Zhi Quan; Qian, Shijun

    2009-01-01

    Phloroglucinol, thymol, and violuric acid (VIO) were selected as laccase mediators after screening 14 different compounds with indigo carmine (indigoid dye) as a substrate. With the presence of these three mediators, a nearly complete decolorization (90-100%) was attained in 1 h. Thus, these three compounds were used as mediators for the decolorization of other four dyes. The results indicated that VIO was effective mediator in decolorization of Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR, anthraquinoid dye) and Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 (CBB, triphenylmethane dyes), and Acid red (diazo dye). In presence of VIO, the four dyes described above attained 70% decolorization. Thymol was able to mediate decolorization of RBBR and Azure A (heterocyclic dye). Phloroglucinol has no mediating capability in decolorization of the four dyes analyzed. Mediator concentration, pH, and copper ion have an effect on the decolorization of the RBBR. Our data suggested that the decolorization capabilities of laccase/mediator system were related to the types of mediator, the dye structure and decolorization condition.

  5. 活性染料染色用高浓液体有机固色剂HG的开发和应用%Development and Application on High-concentrated Organic Fixing Agent HG Used in Reactive Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蔚; 魏巍; 陆海英; 庄永祥; 杨军浩

    2012-01-01

    The passage introduces a high-concentrated organic fixing agent HC~ which was applicable to all kinds of reactive dyes, including Dyeing at Low Liquor Ratio. Perfect tinctorial yield and reproducibility were achieved when used on different structured reactive dyes. It was act as fixing agent when dyeing in the reactive dyes. It consumes only 1/8~1/10 compared with Sodium carbonate and shortened 20-30 minutes with excellent leveling effect and low dyeing disadvantages. Furthermore, owing to the less consumption, the textile is easier to wash, cutting down the washing times, eliminating acid wash and saving great: amount on energy as well as working hours. It only consumes half of the water compared with Sodium carbonate techniques and 1/3 of gas consumption. This can greatly reduce amount of waste water and alkali content. Different from the Substitution alkali which was sold in the market, it is a high concentrated and organic liquid. In its molecular structure, the carbon chain of hydrophobic groups is shorter, water-soluble groups and hydrophilic group are included, which plays important role in the buffer solution system regarding fluxing, penetrating, dispersing, retarding and migrating.%该文介绍了一种自主研发的高浓液体有机固着剂HG,它适用于各种类型的活性染料的染色,也适用于小浴比染色新工艺。对各种结构的活性染料能得到较高的给色量和良好的重现性。它在活性染料染色时用作固色剂,其用量仅为纯碱的1/8~1/10,加碱时间缩短为20~30min,匀染效果佳,可大幅降低染色疵病率。同时,由于用量少,染色后的织物易于洗涤,可以减少水洗道数,省去酸洗,节约了大量的水和汽及工时,用水量仅为纯碱工艺的1/2,蒸汽用量仅是纯碱工艺的1/3,减少了污水和污水中碱剂含量。它和已进入市场的代碱剂有所不同,它是高浓液体的、有机的,它的分子结构中疏抽№

  6. 近紫外光-AgCl体系脱色处理活性艳红K-2BP染料废水%Treatment for Decoloring Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP Dye Wastewater By Near UV-AgCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琪娟

    2011-01-01

    the utilization of solar energy. This study uses the near ultraviolet ray as the light source, AgCI as the catalyst, to reveal the effects of the dye concentration, the amount of catalyst, pH, the different light sources on the decoloring rate of reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye wastewater. The results show that with the dye initial concentration of 50hng/L, the concentration of catalyst 1000mg/L, and pH=4.0, the decoloring rate of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye waste water reacbes 72.1%. Under the best technological conditions as indicated by the theory, the application of this system to the actual dye waste water may result in more ideal results. On the basis of the discussion of the various factors that influence the decoloring of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye wastewater with near ultraviolet ray-AgC1 system, a dynamic equation for the degradation of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP is established, to analyze the degradation mechanism, and the structural composition of some replaced aromatic compounds during the K-2BP degradation process, as well as the reaction intermediate products and final products, and thus to trace its degraclation routes. AgC1 as a catalyst is similar in the catalytic oxidation mechanism to TiO2, and the sunlight can be used as the light source, not just UV. This not only reduces the energy consumption, but also repeatedly uses AgCl. It opens a new way for the photocatalytic oxidation of degradation wastewater.

  7. Direct identification of early synthetic dyes: FT-Raman study of the illustrated broadside prints of José Gaudalupe Posada (1852-1913)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, F.; Mauck, K.; Chefitz, M.; Freeman, R.

    2010-09-01

    Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used for the non-invasive, direct identification of colorants used to dye historical printed papers, overcoming obstacles such as low concentration of the dye, faded colors and fluorescence interference of the aged paper substrate. Based on a newly created FT-Raman reference database of 20 widely used dyes in the 19th century paper industry, the detectability of these dyes on aged biomaterials was determined by studying dyed paper samples from contemporary dye manuals, and identifying diagnostic peaks detectable on those substrates. Lastly, the method was applied to analyze the colorants used to dye the papers of a group of prints illustrated by the influential Mexico City artist José Guadalupe Posada, active 1876-1913. Unambiguous identification of the synthetic organic colorants Malachite Green (a triarylmethane dye), Orange II and Metanil Yellow (two acid monoazo dyes), Cotton Scarlet (an acid diazo dye), Phloxine (a xanthene dye) and Victoria Blue (a triarylmethane dye) in several of Posada’s prints challenged previous art-historical assumptions that these artworks were colored with natural dyes. The acquired knowledge has important conservation implications given that aniline dyes are sensitive to light and to aqueous treatments otherwise commonly carried out on works of art on paper.

  8. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment s...

  9. 涤棉混纺织物分散红玉/活性红轧染工艺的探讨%Discussion on polyester-cotton blend fabric pad dyeing with disperse red/reactive red dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹颖; 戴桦根

    2013-01-01

    The pad dyeing of polyester-cotton blend fabric was discussed according to the influences of curing temperature, curing time, electrolyte consumption, soda ash and steaming time on the fabric weight and soaping fastness. The optimum process was as follows: curing temperature 200 ℃, curing time 100 s, Na2CO3 30 g/L, NaCI 200 g/L. The pad dyeing effect of under this process was good and the washing fastness was over 4 grade, the levelness △E was 1.0.%通过探讨焙烘温度、焙烘时间、电解质用量、纯碱用量、汽蒸时间对织物单位面积质量和皂洗牢度的影响,优化涤棉轧染工艺.最佳工艺为:焙烘温度200℃,焙烘时间100s,Na2CO3用量30 g/L,NaCl用量200 g/L.此工艺条件下,染料的上染效果较好,皂洗牢度在4级以上;匀染性较好,△E为1.0.

  10. Efficient degradation of Methylene Blue dye over highly reactive Cu doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles photocatalyst under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi

    2012-09-01

    Visible light induced photocatalysts of Cu doped SrTiO3 (Cu/SrTiO3) nanoparticles with the size -60-75 nm were prepared via facile sol-gel method. The morphological, optical, crystalline properties and compositions of synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). A significant red shift in the UV-diffused reflectance spectrum was observed and the absorption edge shifted to visible region by the Cu doping. Surprisingly, the band gap of SrTiO3 was changed from 3.2 eV drop to 2.96 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles was demonstrated for the degradation of Methylene Blue dye under visible light irradiation. The formation of new acceptor region in Cu/SrTiO3 was responsible for high photocatalytic activity of Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The results showed that the Methylene Blue dye was degraded by -66% within time span of 2 h over the Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. This dye degradation reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and also exhibited first order reaction rate. The calculated rate constant for the degradation reaction following first order kinetics was k = 0.0016 min(-1).

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Printing Application of Solvent Dyes Based on 2-Hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat C. Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent dyes have been prepared by the coupling of diazo solution of different aromatic amines with 2-hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analysis as well as IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The UV-Visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structure property relationship. The printing of all the dyes on cotton fiber was monitored. The result shows that better hue was obtained on printing on cotton fiber and it is resulted in yellow to reddish brown colorations which showed a good fastness to light, with poor to good fastness to washing, perspiration and sublimation, however it shows poor rubbing fastness.

  12. Theoretical Study on Vibrational Spectra, Detonation Properties and Pyrolysis Mechanism for Cyclic 2-Diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hong Li; Geng-xin Yin; Xian-zhou Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the full optimized molecular geometrical structures at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G** level,there exists intramolecular hydrogen bond interaction for cyclic 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol.The assigned infrared spectrum is obtained and used to compute the thermodynamic properties.The results show that there are four main characteristic regions in the calculated IR spectra of the title compound.The detonation velocities and pressures are also evaluated by using Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the calculated density and condensed phase heat of formation.Thermal stability and the pyrolysis mechanism of 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol are investigated by calculating the bond dissociation energies at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level.

  13. Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Some Thiosemicarbazones and Their Applications as Intermediates for 5-Arylazothiazole Disperse Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffer, Hatem E; Khalifa, Mohamed E

    2015-12-09

    The solid-solid reactions of thiosemicarbazide with 4-formylantipyrine, 2-acetylpyrrole and camphor were performed to afford the thiosemicarbazones 1-3 which underwent hetero-cyclization with phenacyl bromide to furnish the corresponding thiazole derivatives 4-6. The yields of the reactions are quantitative in all cases and the products do not require further purification. A series of 5-arylazo-2-(substituted ylidene-hydrazinyl)-thiazole dyes 7-9 was then prepared by diazo coupling of thiazole derivatives 4-6 with several diazonium chlorides. The synthesized dyes were applied as disperse dyes for dyeing polyester fabric. The dyed fabrics exhibit good washing, perspiration, sublimation and light fastness properties, with little variation in their moderate to good rubbing fastness.

  14. Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Some Thiosemicarbazones and Their Applications as Intermediates for 5-Arylazothiazole Disperse Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem E. Gaffer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid-solid reactions of thiosemicarbazide with 4-formylantipyrine, 2-acetylpyrrole and camphor were performed to afford the thiosemicarbazones 1–3 which underwent hetero-cyclization with phenacyl bromide to furnish the corresponding thiazole derivatives 4–6. The yields of the reactions are quantitative in all cases and the products do not require further purification. A series of 5-arylazo-2-(substituted ylidene-hydrazinyl-thiazole dyes 7–9 was then prepared by diazo coupling of thiazole derivatives 4–6 with several diazonium chlorides. The synthesized dyes were applied as disperse dyes for dyeing polyester fabric. The dyed fabrics exhibit good washing, perspiration, sublimation and light fastness properties, with little variation in their moderate to good rubbing fastness.

  15. Preparation of a Fiber Modifier HBP-NH2 and Its Application in Salt-free Dyeing of Silk Fabric with Reactive Dyes%纤维改性剂HBP-NH2的制备及在真丝织物活性染料无盐染色中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小云; 王成龙; 吴靖; 余志成

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hyperbranched poly amide-amine (HBP-NH2) polymers with different terminal groups were prepared to modify silk fiber for improving the dye uptake and color fastness of silk fabric dyed with salt-free reactive dye. Diethylenetriamine and methylacrylate were used as material to prepare HBP-NH2(0) ~HBP-NH2(6) which had different amino end groups by changing reaction time (0 ~6 h) of the monomer. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectro-scopic analysis and amino content determination showed that there are a lot of alkaline groups including amino and imino groups in HBP-NH2. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that HBP-NH2 had good thermal stability. The prepared 7 kinds of HBP-NH2 were used for fiber modification of silk fabric respectively, and the modified silk fabric was then dyed with salt-free reactive dye. The results showed that the modified silk fabric had good dyeing property and the silk fabric modified by HBP-NH2(5) had higher K/S value and color fastness. Salt-free dyeing of silk fabric with reactive dye could be realized by using HBP-NH2 as fiber modifier.%制备不同端氨基超支化聚合物( HBP-NH2)用于真丝纤维改性,提高真丝织物用活性染料进行无盐染色的上染率和染色牢度.以二乙烯三胺与丙烯酸甲酯为原料,改变合成单体的反应时间(0~6 h),制备出不同的端氨基超支化聚合物HBP-NH2 (0)~HBP-NH2 (6).通过红外光谱和氨基含量测试证明HBP-NH2中含有大量的氨基和亚氨基等碱性基团,热重分析显示HBP-NH2具有较好的热稳定性.将制备的7种HBP-NH2分别用于真丝织物的改性,改性后的真丝织物在以活性染料进行的无盐染色试验中,表现出较好的染色性能,其中以HBP-NH2(5)改性后的真丝织物具有较高的染色K/S值和较好的色牢度.将HBP-NH2作为真丝纤维改性剂,可以实现用活性染料对真丝织物进行无盐染色的、目标.

  16. Controllable Rh(III)-Catalyzed Annulation between Salicylaldehydes and Diazo Compounds: Divergent Synthesis of Chromones and Benzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Gao, Shang; Yang, Chi; Guo, Songjin; Lin, Aijun; Yao, Hequan

    2016-12-16

    A Rh(III)-catalyzed annulation between salicylaldehydes and diazo compounds with controllable chemoselectivity is described. AgNTf2 favored benzofurans via a tandem C-H activation/decarbonylation/annulation process, while AcOH led to chromones through a C-H activation/annulation pathway. The reaction exhibited good functional group tolerance and scalability. Moreover, only a single regioisomer of benzofuran was obtained due to the in situ decarbonylation orientation effect.

  17. Role of brown-rot fungi in the bioremoval of azo dyes under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is vital to the understanding of bioremediation of structurally different azo dyes by some unusual Brown-rot fungi. Bioremoval of each dye (20 mg l-1 was tested in two different culture media under static and shaking conditions by taking inocula from different fungi. Fungal strains showed varying dyes removal abilities, though considerable high in case of Acid Red (AR 151(di-azo as compared to Orange (Or II (mono-azo. With an exception of Aspergillus tereus SA3, all the fungal isolates showed higher removal of dyes in SDB. Under static condition, the maximum decolorizing fungal strains were; Aspergillus flavus SA2 (67% and Alternaria spp. SA4 (57% in AR 151, while Penicillium spp. (34 and 33 % in Orange II, in SDB and STE, respectively. Bioremoval of dyes was considerably increased when experiments were shifted from static to shaking mode. It was specifically increased (% in; AR 151 (255 with Penicillium spp., Or II with A. flavus SA2 (112 and Alternaria spp. (111. The primary mechanism of dyes removal proved to be fungal biosorption. However, reduction of dyes (onto fungal with formation of their products (α. naphthol, sulphalinic acid and aniline furthermore revealed that dyes (specifically azo were actually biodegraded.

  18. Degradação de corantes reativos por processo foto-fenton envolvendo o uso de peneira molecular 4A modificada com Fe3+ Degradation of reactive dyes by photo-fenton process using Fe3+ immobilized in molecular sieve 4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciély Ignachewski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the preparation and characterization of a supported catalyst intended for degradation of reactive dyes by Fenton-like processes is described. The photocatalyst was prepared by immobilization of Fe3+ into the molecular sieve (4A type surface and characterized by x-ray diffractometry and infrared, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy. The solid containing 0.94% (w/w of ferric ions was used in degradation studies of aqueous reactive-dyes samples with really promissory results. Generally, Vis-assisted photochemical processes leads to almost total decolorization of all tested dyes at reaction times lower than 30 min. It was also observed that the iron-molecular sieve matrix can be reused.

  19. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon.

  20. Mycoremediation of Congo red dye by filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Bhattacharya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo, anthroquinone and triphenylmethane dyes are the major classes of synthetic colourants, which are difficult to degrade and have received considerable attention. Congo red, a diazo dye, is considered as a xenobiotic compound, and is recalcitrant to biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several fungi, under certain environmental conditions, are able to transfer azo dyes to non toxic products using laccases. The aim of this work was to study the factors influencing mycoremediation of Congo red. Several basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes species were tested for the decolourisation of Congo red (0.05 g/l in a semi synthetic broth at static and shaking conditions. Poor decolourisation was observed when the dye acted as the sole source of nitrogen, whereas semi synthetic broth supplemented with fertilizer resulted in better decolourisation. Decolourisation of Congo red was checked in the presence of salts of heavy metals such as mercuric chloride, lead acetate and zinc sulphate. Decolourisation parameters such as temperature, pH, and rpm were optimized and the decolourisation obtained at optimized conditions varied between 29.25- 97.28% at static condition and 82.1- 100% at shaking condition. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed bands with molecular weights ranging between 66.5 to 71 kDa, a characteristic of the fungal laccases. High efficiency decolourisation of Congo red makes these fungal forms a promising choice in biological treatment of waste water containing Congo red.

  1. Cloreto de n-(2-hidroxil propil-3-trimetil amônio quitosana como adsorvente de corantes reativos em solução aquosa Chitosan-n-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride as adsorbent for the removal of the reactive dye from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valfredo T. Fávere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The quaternary chitosan was synthesized by reaction of chitosan with glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride. it was characterized by infrared spectra and conductometric titration. Adsorption of reactive blue 4 (RB4 and reactive red 120 (RR120 by quaternary chitosan was studied from aqueous medium. Two kinetic adsorption models were tested: pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order. The experimental data best fitted the pseudo second-order model. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit to the equilibrium data in the concentration range investigated and the maximum adsorption capacity determined was 415 mg (RR120 and 637 mg (RB4 of reactive dye per gram of adsorbent.

  2. Theoretical studies on 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol derivatives aimed at finding superior propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Lianjun; Wang, Guixiang; Du, Hongchen; Gong, Xuedong

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to find superior propellants, 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) and its -NO(2), -NH(2), -CN, -NC, -ONO(2), and -NF(2) derivatives were studied at the B3LYP/6-311++G level of density functional theory (DFT). Sensitivity was evaluated using bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The C-NO(2) bond appears to be the trigger bond during the thermolysis process for these compounds, except for the -ONO(2) and -NF(2) derivatives. Electrostatic potential results show that electron-withdrawing substituents make the charge imbalance more anomalous, which may change the strength of the bond, especially the weakest trigger bond. Most of the DDNP derivatives have the impact sensitivities that are higher than that of DDNP, making them favorable for use as solid propellants in micro-rockets. The theoretical densities (ρ), heats of formation (HOFs), detonation energies (Q), detonation pressures (P), and detonation velocities (D) of the compounds were estimated. The effects of various substituent groups on ρ, HOF, Q, D, and P were investigated. Some derivatives exhibit perfect detonation properties. The calculated relative specific impulses (I (r,sp)) of all compounds except for -NH(2) derivatives were higher than that of DDNP, and also meet the requirements of propellants.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zong-Wei; Liu, Yu-Cun; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Yan, Li-Wei; Chen, Ji

    2010-05-15

    Spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) with good flowability and controlled bulk density (0.65-0.95 g/cm(3)) has been prepared at factory scale by the modified method using 4-methylphenol as crystal control ingredient. Results showed that the yield of product was increased by 5-10%, and the waste water was significantly decreased due to circulation use of waste water compared with traditional method. Synthesized spherical DDNP was characterized by IR, laser granularity measurement, SEM, HPLC and XRD. IR spectrum confirmed the structural features of spherical DDNP. The particle analysis revealed that the modified method could offer spherical DDNP with average particle size of 350 microm and high purity (>98.52%). The XRD peaks of spherical DDNP have similar diffraction angles as those of traditional DDNP. The DSC profile of spherical DDNP showed the exothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 161.2-188.5 degrees C. The product can be pressed at over 40MPa without dead pressed phenomenon, and the minimum detonating charge of spherical DDNP was measured to be about 0.15g. Furthermore, impact sensitivity test suggested that spherical DDNP is less sensitive than traditional DDNP. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zongwei [Chemical Industry and Ecology Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Liu Yucun, E-mail: yzw_019@yahoo.cn [Chemical Industry and Ecology Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Liu Dengcheng [Chemical Industry and Ecology Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Yan Liwei; Chen Ji [Liao Ning Hua Feng Chemical Industry Co., Ltd, Fushun, Liaoning 113003 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) with good flowability and controlled bulk density (0.65-0.95 g/cm{sup 3}) has been prepared at factory scale by the modified method using 4-methylphenol as crystal control ingredient. Results showed that the yield of product was increased by 5-10%, and the waste water was significantly decreased due to circulation use of waste water compared with traditional method. Synthesized spherical DDNP was characterized by IR, laser granularity measurement, SEM, HPLC and XRD. IR spectrum confirmed the structural features of spherical DDNP. The particle analysis revealed that the modified method could offer spherical DDNP with average particle size of 350 {mu}m and high purity (>98.52%). The XRD peaks of spherical DDNP have similar diffraction angles as those of traditional DDNP. The DSC profile of spherical DDNP showed the exothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 161.2-188.5 deg. C. The product can be pressed at over 40 MPa without dead pressed phenomenon, and the minimum detonating charge of spherical DDNP was measured to be about 0.15 g. Furthermore, impact sensitivity test suggested that spherical DDNP is less sensitive than traditional DDNP.

  5. Response surface optimization of electro-oxidation process for the treatment of C.I. Reactive Yellow 186 dye: reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K.; Muthukumar, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, central composite design at five levels (-β, -1, 0, +1, +β) combined with response surface methodology has been applied to optimize C.I. Reactive Yellow 186 using electro-oxidation process with graphite electrodes in a batch reactor. The variables considered were the pH (X 1), NaCl concentration (M) (X 2), and electrolysis time (min) (X 3) on C.I. Reactive Yellow 186 were studied. A second-order empirical relationship between the response and independent variables was derived. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination value (R 2 = 0.9556 and 0.9416 for color and COD, respectively). The optimized condition of the electro-oxidation of Reactive Yellow 186 is as follows: pH 3.9; NaCl concentration 0.11 M; and electrolysis time 18 min. Under this condition, the maximal decolorization efficiency of 99 % and COD removal 73 % was achieved. Detailed physico-chemical analysis of electrode and residues of the electro-oxidation process has also been carried out UV-Visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The intermediate compounds formed during the oxidation were identified using a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. According to these results, response surface methodology could be useful for reducing the time to treat effluent wastewater.

  6. Response surface optimization of electro-oxidation process for the treatment of C.I. Reactive Yellow 186 dye: reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K.; Muthukumar, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, central composite design at five levels (- β, -1, 0, +1, + β) combined with response surface methodology has been applied to optimize C.I. Reactive Yellow 186 using electro-oxidation process with graphite electrodes in a batch reactor. The variables considered were the pH ( X 1), NaCl concentration (M) ( X 2), and electrolysis time (min) ( X 3) on C.I. Reactive Yellow 186 were studied. A second-order empirical relationship between the response and independent variables was derived. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination value ( R 2 = 0.9556 and 0.9416 for color and COD, respectively). The optimized condition of the electro-oxidation of Reactive Yellow 186 is as follows: pH 3.9; NaCl concentration 0.11 M; and electrolysis time 18 min. Under this condition, the maximal decolorization efficiency of 99 % and COD removal 73 % was achieved. Detailed physico-chemical analysis of electrode and residues of the electro-oxidation process has also been carried out UV-Visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The intermediate compounds formed during the oxidation were identified using a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. According to these results, response surface methodology could be useful for reducing the time to treat effluent wastewater.

  7. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  8. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Mercapto-β-amino Esters via Rh(II)/Chiral Phosphoric Acid-Cocatalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Diazo Compounds, Thiols, and Imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guolan; Ma, Chaoqun; Xing, Dong; Hu, Wenhao

    2016-12-02

    An enantioselective method for the synthesis of α-mercapto-β-amino esters has been developed via a rhodium(II)/chiral phosphoric acid-cocatalyzed three-component reaction of diazo compounds, thiols, and imines. This transformation is proposed to proceed through enantioselective trapping of the sulfonium ylide intermediate generated in situ from the diazo compound and thiol by the phosphoric acid-activated imine. With this method, a series of α-mercapto-β-amino esters were obtained in good yields with moderate to good stereoselectivities.

  9. Self-sustainable Chlorella pyrenoidosa strain NCIM 2738 based photobioreactor for removal of Direct Red-31 dye along with other industrial pollutants to improve the water-quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Surbhi; Singh, Rachana; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Nigam, Subhasha

    2016-04-05

    The genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of diazo dyes from industrial effluents pose a serious environmental threat by contaminating aquatic ecosystem and consequently impact human health. The potential of a diazo dye resistant, self-sustainable photosynthetic green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 provides a viable green technology for an efficient biodegradation of diazo dye Direct Red-31 (DR-31) and overall improvement of water quality. Herein, we for the first time report the degradation of DR-31 using C. pyrenoidosa. Batch experiments were performed to optimize the effect of initial pH, contact time and toxicity-range of DR-31 in order to achieve the optimal conditions for maximum decolourization in continuous cyclic photobioreactor. In batch culture, C. pyrenoidosa exhibited 96% decolourization with 40mgL(-1) dye at pH3. The equilibrium was attained within 30min and the maximum uptake of 30.53mgg(-1) algal biomass was observed during this period. This was found to be fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The FT-IR spectra showed a change from -N=N- to N-H suggesting the possible involvement of the azoreductase enzyme. The application of C. pyrenoidosa not only degraded the DR-31 but also improved the quality of water by reducing COD (82.73%), BOD (56.44%), sulphate (54.54%), phosphate (19.88%), and TDS (84.18%) which was further enhanced in continuous cyclic bioreactor treatment. The results clearly showed that C. pyrenoidosa provides an efficient, self-sustainable green technology for decolourization of DR-31 and improved the water quality.

  10. Blocking layer effect on dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with TiO2 nanorods prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Lijian; Li Can

    2011-01-01

    Three different thickness dense TiO2 (150 nm, 300 nm and 450 nm respectively) films were deposited on ITO substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique. These dense TiO2 films were used as the blocking layers. After that, TiO2 nanorod films were deposited on these dense TiO2 films by same technique. Both the dense and nanorod TiO2 films have an anatase phase. The dense TiO2 films have an orientation along the [101] direction and the TiO2 nanorod films show a very strong orientation...

  11. A low-cost wheat bran medium for biodegradation of the benzidine-based carcinogenic dye Trypan Blue using a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-03-25

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L-1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm-1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  12. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  13. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  14. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects; Avaliacao da toxicidade e genotoxicidade dos corantes azo reativos Remazol Preto B e Remazol Alaranjado 3R e da eficacia da radiacao com feixe de eletrons na reducao da cor e efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-07-01

    The textile industries play an important role in national and global economy. But, their activities are considered potentially polluting. The use of large volumes of water and the production of colored wastewater with high organic matter are among the main issues raised, especially during the stage of dyeing and washing of the textile process. The reactive azo dyes are the main colors used in the industry for dyeing of cotton in Brazil and worldwide. Because of its low setting and variations in the fiber production process, about 30% of the initial concentration used in the dyeing baths are lost and will compose the final effluent. These compounds have a low biodegradability, are highly soluble in water and therefore are not completely removed by conventional biological processes. In addition, other processes do not promote degradation but the transference to solid environment. The dyes discarded without treatment in the water body can cause aesthetic modifications, alter photosynthesis and gas solubility, as well as being toxic and genotoxic. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of two reactive azo dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R - R3AR) and the percentage of color and toxicity reduction after the use of electron beam radiation. The acute toxicity assays performed with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Biomphalaria glabrata showed different response patterns for dyes. The different chemical forms of dyes were slightly toxic to Vibrio fischeri and only the RPB dye (vinylsulphone) was toxic (EC50{sub 15min} = 6,23 mg L-1). In tests with Daphnia similis, the dye RPB was slightly toxic in its pattern form, sulphatoethylsulphone, (CE50{sub 48h} = 91,25 mg L{sup -1}) and showed no toxicity in other chemical forms. However, the RA3R dye was toxic to the dafnids and the vinylsulphone form very toxic (EC50{sub 48h} = 0,54 mg L-1). No toxicity was observed in Biomphalaria glabrata assays. Chronic toxicity was

  15. Remediation of textile azo dye acid red 114 by hairy roots of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. and assessment of degraded dye toxicity with human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pamela; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, N S

    2016-07-05

    Bioremediation has proven to be the most desirable and cost effective method to counter textile dye pollution. Hairy roots (HRs) of Ipomoea carnea J. were tested for decolourization of 25 textile azo dyes, out of which >90% decolourization was observed in 15 dyes. A diazo dye, Acid Red 114 was decolourized to >98% and hence, was chosen as the model dye. A significant increase in the activities of oxidoreductive enzymes was observed during decolourization of AR114. The phytodegradation of AR114 was confirmed by HPLC, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The possible metabolites were identified by GCMS as 4- aminobenzene sulfonic acid 2-methylaniline and 4- aminophenyl 4-ethyl benzene sulfonate and a probable pathway for the biodegradation of AR114 has been proposed. The nontoxic nature of the metabolites and toxicity of AR114 was confirmed by cytotoxicity tests on human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). When HaCaT cells were treated separately with 150 μg mL(-1) of AR114 and metabolites, MTT assay showed 50% and ≈100% viability respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry data showed that, as compared to control, the cells in G2-M and death phase increased by 2.4 and 3.6 folds respectively on treatment with AR114 but remained unaltered in cells treated with metabolites.

  16. Cobalt ferrite nano-composite coated on glass by Doctor Blade method for photo-catalytic degradation of an azo textile dye Reactive Red 4: XRD, FESEM and DRS investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Parhizkar, Janan

    2015-11-05

    Cobalt ferrite nano-composite was prepared by hydrothermal route using cobalt nitrate, iron nitrate and ethylene glycol as chelating agent. The nano-composite was coated on glass by Doctor Blade method and annealed at 300 °C. The structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). Powder XRD analysis confirmed formation of CoFe2O4 spinel phase. The estimated particle size from FESEM data was 50 nm. The calculated energy band gaps, obtained by Tauc relation from UV-Vis absorption spectra was 1.3 eV. Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 4 as an azo textile was investigated in aqueous solution under irradiation showed 68.0% degradation of the dye within 100 min. The experimental enhanced activity compare to pure Fe2O3 can be ascribed to the formation of composite, which was mainly attributable to the transfer of electron and hole to the surface of composite and hinder the electron hole recombination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational and experimental analysis identified 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine as a potential agent for treating infection by Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaimas, Kitiporn; Wang, Yulin; Rotimi, Solomon O; Olasehinde, Grace; Fatumo, Segun; Lanzer, Michael; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; König, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum (PF) is the most severe malaria parasite. It is developing resistance quickly to existing drugs making it indispensable to discover new drugs. Effective drugs have been discovered targeting metabolic enzymes of the parasite. In order to predict new drug targets, computational methods can be used employing database information of metabolism. Using this data, we performed recently a computational network analysis of metabolism of PF. We analyzed the topology of the network to find reactions which are sensitive against perturbations, i.e., when a single enzyme is blocked by drugs. We now used a refined network comprising also the host enzymes which led to a refined set of the five targets glutamyl-tRNA (gln) amidotransferase, hydroxyethylthiazole kinase, deoxyribose-phophate aldolase, pseudouridylate synthase, and deoxyhypusine synthase. It was shown elsewhere that glutamyl-tRNA (gln) amidotransferase of other microorganisms can be inhibited by 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine. Performing a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) assay, we showed, that 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine is also severely affecting viability of PF in blood plasma of the human host. We confirmed this by an in vivo study observing Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

  18. Decolorization of textile dyes by Alishewanella sp. KMK6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Kodam, Kisan M

    2012-07-01

    Alishewanella sp. strain KMK6 was isolated from textile dye-contaminated soil. The strain was able to decolorize and degrade different azo dyes and displayed high dye degradation ability and tolerance. The bacterium could completely degrade 2.5 g l(-1) dye, Reactive Blue 59 within 6 h. The induction in the level of cytochrome P-450 and activities of azoreductase and NADH-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase were observed in the cells after dye decolorization indicating the role of these enzymes. The intermediates of Reactive Blue 59 degradation were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ecotoxicity has been evaluated for dye and its metabolites by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (a yellow tetrazole) and comet assay, and it revealed that the dye degradation products were nontoxic.

  19. Decolorization of azo dye C.I. Reactive Black 5 by ozonation in aqueous solution: influencing factors, degradation products, reaction pathway and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing; Dai, Yong; Han, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, ozonation treatment of C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5) was investigated at various operating parameters. The results showed that the aqueous solution initially containing 200 mg/L RB5 was quickly decolorized at pH 8.0 with an ozone dose of 3.2 g/h. Reaction intermediates with m/z 281, 546, 201, 350, 286 and 222 were elucidated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, while sulfate ion, nitrate ion and three carboxylic acids (i.e., oxalic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid) were identified by ion exchange chromatography. Thus, the cleavage of the azo bond and the introduction of OH groups in the corresponding positions were proposed as the predominant reaction pathway. The detachment of sulfonic groups was also commonly observed during the ozonation treatment. The proposed degradation mechanism was confirmed by frontier electron density calculations, suggesting the feasibility of predicting the major events in the whole ozonation process with the computational method. Compared with RB5 degradation, the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) proceeded much more slowly, and approximately 54% TOC was removed after 4 h of ozonation. Acute toxicity tests with Photobacterium phosphoreum showed that the toxicity of reaction solution was firstly increased and then decreased to a negligible level after 160 min.

  20. Sonophotolytic degradation of azo dye reactive black 5 in an ultrasound/UV/ferric system and the roles of different organic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Lim, Teik-Thye; Wu, Xiaohui

    2011-04-01

    The sonophotolytic advance oxidation system (US/UV/Fe(3+)) could achieve synergistic degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5), as compared to UV/Fe(3+) and US/Fe(3+) systems. A synergy factor of 2.5 based on the pseudo-first-order degradation rate constant (k(obs)) was found, along with enhancements in organic detoxification and mineralization. The presence of organic ligands could affect the US/UV/Fe(3+) system differently. Oxalate, citrate, tartrate and succinate could enhance the RB5 degradation, while NTA and EDTA exhibited strong inhibitions. The influence of these ligands on k(obs)(RB5) in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand systems followed the sequence of oxalate > tartrate > succinate > citrate > without ligand > NTA > EDTA, while they could be degraded simultaneously with the k(obs)(ligand) order of oxalate > citrate > tartrate > succinate > NTA > EDTA. Monitoring of iron species and the generated H(2)O(2) and •OH revealed that the ligands in the US/UV/Fe(III)-ligand system could play different mechanistic roles: (1) promoting H(2)O(2) production, (2) accelerating Fenton reaction, and (3) competing with RB5 for reacting with •OH. Among the ligands, oxalate exhibited the most significant enhancement of RB5 oxidation in the sonophotolytic system, and the process was pH-dependent. An initial reaction lag in RB5 degradation was observed when Fe(2+) was used in lieu of Fe(3+) as the catalyst in the sonophotolytic system.

  1. Waterless Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaşoğlu, Hakkı Yasin; AVİNÇ, Osman Ozan; Arzu YAVAŞ

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO), having liquid-like densities, hereby provides hydrophobic dyes an advantage on dissolving. Their gas-like low viscosities and diffusion properties can lead to shorter dyeing durations compared to conventional water dyeing process. Supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing, a novel dyeing process, is an anhydrous dyeing and this process involves the use of less energy and chemicals than conventional water dyeing processes resulting in a potential of up to 50% low...

  2. Bacterial decolorization of textile dyes is an extracellular process requiring a multicomponent electron transfer pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigé, Ann; Motte, Bart; Borloo, Jimmy; Buysschaert, Géraldine; Devreese, Bart; Van Beeumen, Jozef J

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have reported microorganisms as efficient biocatalysts for colour removal of dye-containing industrial wastewaters. We present the first comprehensive study to identify all molecular components involved in decolorization by bacterial cells. Mutants from the model organism Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, generated by random transposon and targeted insertional mutagenesis, were screened for defects in decolorization of an oxazine and diazo dye. We demonstrate that decolorization is an extracellular reduction process requiring a multicomponent electron transfer pathway that consists of cytoplasmic membrane, periplasmic and outer membrane components. The presence of melanin, a redox-active molecule excreted by S. oneidensis, was shown to enhance the dye reduction rates. Menaquinones and the cytochrome CymA are the crucial cytoplasmic membrane components of the pathway, which then branches off via a network of periplasmic cytochromes to three outer membrane cytochromes. The key proteins of this network are MtrA and OmcB in the periplasm and outer membrane respectively. A model of the complete dye reduction pathway is proposed in which the dye molecules are reduced by the outer membrane cytochromes either directly or indirectly via melanin.

  3. Capacity of Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus for decolorization of chemically different dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, C; Rawal, B; Bhatt, M; Patel, M; Sasek, V; Molitoris, H P

    2001-08-23

    The rate and efficiency of decolorization of poly R-478- or Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)-containing agar plates (200 microg x g(-1)) were tested to evaluate the dye degradation activity in a total of 103 wood-rotting fungal strains. Best strains were able to completely decolorize plates within 10 days at 28 degrees C. Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus were selected and used for degradation of six different groups of dyes (azo, diazo, anthraquinone-based, heterocyclic, triphenylmethane, phthalocyanine) on agar plates. Both fungi efficiently degraded dyes from all groups. Removal of RBBR, Bromophenol blue, Cu-phthalocyanine, Methyl red and Congo red was studied with I. lacteus also in liquid medium. Within 14 days, the following color reductions were attained: RBBR 93%, Bromophenol blue 100%, Cu-phthalocyanine 98%, Methyl red 56%, Congo red 58%. The ability of I. lacteus to degrade RBBR spiked into sterile soil was checked, the removal being 77% of the dye added within 6 weeks. The capacity of selected white rot fungal species to remove efficiently diverse synthetic dyes from water and soil environments is documented.

  4. Catalytic degradation of reactive yellow dye using ash fly supported iron ion%粉煤灰负载铁离子催化氧化活性黄染料废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商丹红; 张志生; 胡晨爽

    2013-01-01

    以粉煤灰为载体,制备铁/粉煤灰负载型催化剂,并利用该催化剂催化H2O2氧化降解活性黄染料废水,探讨了H2O2投加量、催化剂投加量、染料初始浓度和初始pH值等因素对染料废水COD去除率和脱色率的影响.结果表明,当染料废水COD初始浓度为200 mg/L,初始pH值为1.7,投加0.5 g/100 mL催化剂及加入1.0 mL浓度为1.13 mol/L的H2O2溶液时,处理效果最好,此时染料废水的COD去除率和脱色率分别达到63%和99%,并且废水的可生化性得到很大的提高.利用该负载催化剂能够有效地减少活性黄染料废水中Fe3+的残留量.%Ash fly supported iron ion catalyst was prepared by using ash fly as a carrier. Its catalysis effect on oxidizing reactive yellow dye by H2O2 was studied. And the effects of dosage of H2O2, catalyst loading, initial reactive yellow concentration and solution pH on the removal rate of COD and the discoloration rate were investigated. The results show that the removal rate of COD and the discoloration rate can reach 63% and 99% , respectively under the optimal conditions of initial COD concentration of 200 mg/L, pH of 1. 7, catalyst of 0. 5 g/ 100 mL and 1. 13 mol/L H2O2 of 1. 0 mL,and the biodegradability of the wastewater can be greatly improved. The residues of Fe3+ in aqueous solutions can be reduced effectively when using the supported catalysts.

  5. Mixed-ligand complexes of ruthenium(II) incorporating a diazo ligand: Synthesis, characterization and DNA binding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Megha S Deshpande; Avinash S Kumbhar

    2005-03-01

    Mixed-ligand complexes of the type [Ru(N-N)2(dzdf)]Cl2, where N-N is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 9-diazo-4,5-diazafluorene (dzdf), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR and NMR spectroscopy. Binding of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by absorption spectroscopy, steady-state emission spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The experimental results indicate that the size and shape of the intercalating ligands have marked effect on the binding affinity of the complexes to CT-DNA. The complex [Ru(phen)2(dzdf)]Cl2 binds with CT-DNA through an intercalative binding mode, while the complex [Ru(bpy)2(dzdf)]Cl2 binds electrostatically.

  6. In-situ Decolorization of Residual Dye Effluent in Textile Jet Dyeing Machine by Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmed Shaikh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea of decolourization was investigated in which residual dyeing effluent from textile dyeing process was treated using O3 in the same machine where it was generated. The novelty comes from the idea of doing dyeing and treatment simultaneously. At the completion of dyeing process, O3 gas was injected directly into the machine to remove colour and COD from the wastewater. To evaluate the effectiveness of new method, pilot-scale studies were performed, and decolourization of residual dyeing effluents containing C.I. Reactive Orange 7, C.I. Reactive Blue 19, and C.I. Reactive Black 5 was carried out in specially built textile jet dyeing machine. The results showed that almost 100% colour removal and 90% COD reduction were achieved when process conditions such as pH, dye concentration (mg/L, ozone production rate (g/hr, and temperature were optimized. The study concludes that new method has a great potential to eliminate the need of a separate end-of-the-pipe wastewater treatment system, thus offering an on-site and cost-effective solution.

  7. Mediator-assisted decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes/dye mixture by Cyathus bulleri laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2008-12-01

    Laccase from basidiomycete fungus Cyathus bulleri was evaluated for its ability to decolorize a number of reactive and acidic dyes in the presence of natural and synthetic mediators. The extent of decolorization was monitored at different mediator/dye concentrations and incubation time. Among the synthetic mediators, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was effective at low mediator/dye ratios and resulted in 80-95% decolorization at rates that varied from 226 +/- 4 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for Reactive Orange 1 to 1,333 +/- 15 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for Reactive Red 198. Other synthetic mediators like 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and violuric acid showed both concentration- and time-dependent increases in percent decolorization. Natural mediators like vanillin, on the other hand, were found to be less effective on all the dyes except Reactive Orange 1. Computed rates of decolorization were about twofold lower than that with ABTS. The laccase-ABTS system also led to nearly 80% decolorization for the simulated dye mixture. No clear correlation between laccase activity on the mediator and its ability to decolorize dyes was found, but pH had a significant effect: Optimum pH for decolorization coincided with the optimum pH for mediator oxidation. The treated samples were also evaluated for toxicity in model microbial systems. The laccase-mediator system appears promising for treatment of textile wastewaters.

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  9. Inlfuencing Factors and Improvement Methods on Wet Rubbing Fastness of Cotton Fabrics Dyed with Reactive Dye%活性染料染色织物湿摩擦色牢度的影响因素及提升措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁长波; 王雪燕; 赵振河

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the staining mechanism and the influencing factors of wet rubbing fastness of fabrics dyed with reactive dye were analyzed. Then two measures to improve the fastness were put forward, including the method of adequately removing loose color on fabrics and that of introducing cross-linker in dyeing.%本文分析了湿摩擦过程中活性染料沾色机理及影响染色织物湿摩擦色牢度的因素,重点介绍了提升染色织物湿摩擦色牢度的两种措施,即充分去除浮色和交联染色法。

  10. Dyeing of Organic Cotton Fabric using Conventional and Ultrasonic Exhaust Dyeing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research dyeing behavior of organic cotton woven fabric using ultrasonic technique and conventional dyeing method has been compared. The fabric samples were dyed with reactive dyes Drimarene Red Cl-5B and Drimarene Blue Cl-BR (0.5% owf using exhaust dyeing method. The samples were ultrasonically dyed at varied temperature (60, 50 and 40oC for 60, 50, 40 and 30 minutes and for conventional method at varied temperature but at recommended time, 60 minutes. For optimizing the dyeing behavior, the samples were causticized by pad-batch method and then dyed with ultrasonic technique at varied temperature and time. It has been observed organic cotton fabric dyed using ultrasonic exhaust method at 60oC for 50 minutes gives highest (K/S?max value, excellent fastness property, deeper dye diffusion and less surface deterioration compared to the conventional dyeing method. Moreover, causticized and dyed sample with ultrasonic technique at 60oC for 30 minutes gives colour strength value almost equal to the conventional recommended dyeing method. Hence, dyeing of organic material using ultrasonic exhaust method saves energy and time

  11. 21 CFR 73.3121 - Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting one or more... containing the color additives are thoroughly washed to remove unbound reactive dyes. (3) Authorization and... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-dye copolymers. 73...

  12. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of degrading Remazol Black-B azo dye efficientlywere screened through experimentation on modified mineral salt medium. Isolate SS1 (collected from wastewater ofSupreme Textile Industry was able to completely remove the Remazol Black-B dye from the liquid medium in 18 h.Further, the isolate showed the best performance at the dye concentration of 100 mg L-1 medium (pH 7 and attemperature 35oC. Similarly, yeast extract proved to be the best carbon source for decolorization purpose. Theresults imply that the isolate SS1 could be used for the removal of the reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  13. Application of Fenton heterogeneous dog hair solid catalyst in decoloration of simulated reactive dye wastewater%非均相Fenton狗毛固体催化剂在活性染料模拟废染液脱色中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨晓; 王雪燕

    2014-01-01

    以狗毛作为催化剂载体,采用浸渍法负载Fe3+,制备了非均相Fenton反应催化剂,并将其用于催化活性蓝M-B模拟废染液的脱色.结果表明:在初始染料质量浓度为100 mg/L的50 mL模拟废染液中,添加Fe3+吸附量为33.0 mg/g的狗毛非均相Fenton反应催化剂0.4 g以及30%的H2O20.4 mL/L,脱色液pH控制在6左右,室温(25℃)下,脱色反应120 min,活性蓝M-B脱色率可达85%.%Fenton reaction heterogeneous catalyst was prepared using dog hair as the catalyst carrier with impregnation method loading Fe3+, which was catalyzed the decoloration of Reactive Blue M-B simulated dye wastewater. The experimental results showed that: the initial dye concentration was 100 mg/L of simulat-ed waste dye 50 mL, addition 0.4 g of heterogeneous Fenton catalyst dog hair with 33.0 mg/g of Fe3+ adsorp-tion amount and 0.4 mL/L of 30% H2O2, decoloration solution pH was control ed at about 6, reacted at room temperature (25℃) for 120 min, the decoloration rate of Reactive Blue M-B could reach 85%.

  14. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  15. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  16. New Diazo Coupling Reactions for Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Alfuzosin in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vamsi Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures were developed for the analysis of Alfuzosin hydrochloride (AFZ in pure form as well as in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the reaction of AFZ with nitrite in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with ethoxyethylenemaleic ester (Method A or ethylcyanoacetate (Method B or acetyl acetone (method C in basic medium to form azo dyes, showing absorption maxima at 440, 465 and 490 nm respectively. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration of 4-20 μg/mL of AFZ for methods A, B and 3-15 μg/mL of AFZ for method C. The molar absorptivity and sandell’s sensitivity of AFZ- ethoxyethylenemaleic ester, AFZ- ethylcyanoacetate and AFZ-acetyl acetone are1.90 × 104, 0.022; 1.93 × 104, 0.021 and 2.67 × 104 L mole-1 cm-1, 0.015 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of AFZ in pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  18. Dyeing of Polypropylene Fibers with Vat Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hang; ETTERS J. Nolan; LEONAS Karen K

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene fibers have been extensively used in a variety of products, including carpets and upholstery, due to their non-absorbency, good weather resistance, good resistance to microorganisms and so on. Because of their hydrophobic and highly crystalline nature, those well-established conventional dyeing processes are difficult to apply to unmodified polypropylene. Colors of polypropylene fibers are primarily obtained by mass coloration which has the disadvantages of limited number of colors available and difficulties in inventory control due to the rapidly changing color needs of the market. In this paper, the use of vat dyes to dye polypropylene fabrics is investigated. Seventeen vat dyes were screened and factors influencing uptake of dyes by polypropylene fabrics were studied.

  19. Preparation of some new coumarin dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Series of coumarins containing heterocyclic substituent in 3-position were prepared.Sulfonyl chloride, a reactive group, was drawn into the heterocycle, and further condensed withamines to give series of new compounds that contain N-alkyl sulfamide. The spectral propertiesand dyeing character of these new dyes are discussed. A bathochromic shift (10 nm), enhancedfastness in light and sublimation (1-2 grade) and larger molar extinction coefficient (increase 104L ·mol-1 ·cm-1) are apparent with these new compounds. In the meantime, larger solubility appearswith these new compounds.

  20. Regio-selective synthesis of diversely substituted benzo[a]carbazoles through Rh(iii)-catalyzed annulation of 2-arylindoles with α-diazo carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2017-01-19

    A novel synthetic approach toward benzo[a]carbazoles or 6-amino benzo[a]carbazoles containing an unprotected NH unit through Rh(iii)-catalyzed cascade reactions of 2-arylindoles or 2-arylindole-3-carbonitriles with α-diazo carbonyl compounds has been established. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which the NH unit of indole is used as a directing group for an intramolecular C(sp(2))-H bond functionalization to give benzo[a]carbazole derivatives. Notably, this method features easily obtainable substrates, good functional group tolerance, excellent regio-selectivity, and high atom-efficiency.

  1. Synthesis of Isocoumarins from Cyclic 2-Diazo-1,3-diketones and Benzoic Acids via Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation and Esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; He, Xinwei; Zhang, Lanlan; Han, Guang; Zuo, Youpeng; Shang, Yongjia

    2017-02-17

    A mild and efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation/esterification reaction for the synthesis of isocoumarins has been developed. This procedure uses readily available benzoic acids and cyclic diazo-1,3-diketones as starting materials and involves domino intermolecular C-H activation in combination with intramolecular esterification to give the corresponding isocoumarins in moderate to excellent yields. This process provides a facile approach for the construction of isocoumarins containing various functional groups that does not require any additives.

  2. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of the diazo dye naphthol blue black in water using MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 nanocomposites under simulated solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamba, Gcina; Mbianda, Xavier Yangkou; Mishra, Ajay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    A simple sol-gel method was employed to prepare gadolinium, nitrogen and sulphur tridoped titania decorated on oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2), using titanium (IV) butoxide and thiourea as titanium and nitrogen and sulphur source, respectively. Samples of varying gadolinium loadings (0.2%, 0.6%, 1.0% and 3.0% Gd3+) relative to titania were prepared to investigate the effect of gadolinium loading and the amounts of carbon nanotubes, nitrogen and sulphur were kept constant for all the samples. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated for the degradation of naphthol blue black (NBB) in water under simulated solar light irradiation. Higher degradation efficiency (95.7%) was recorded for the MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) nanocomposites. The higher photocatalytic activity is attributed to the combined effect of improved visible light absorption and charge separation due to the synergistic effect of Gd, MWCNTs, N, S and TiO2. Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis revealed a higher degree of complete mineralisation of naphthol blue black (78.0% TOC removal) which minimises the possible formation of toxic degradation by-products such as the aromatic amines. The MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) was fairly stable and could be re-used for five times, reaching a maximum degradation efficiency of 91.8% after the five cycles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Partially purified bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of textile and other industrially important dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Suhail; Ali Khan, Amjad; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic action of partially purified bitter gourd peroxidase for the degradation/decolorization of complex aromatic structures. Twenty-one dyes, with a wide spectrum of chemical groups, currently being used by the textile and other important industries have been selected for the study. Here, for the first time we have shown peroxidases from Momordica charantia (300 EU/gm of vegetable) to be highly effective in decolorizing industrially important dyes. Dye solutions, containing 50-200 mg dye/l, were used for the treatment with bitter gourd peroxidase (specific activity of 99.0 EU/mg protein). M. charantia peroxidases were able to decolorize most of the textile dyes by forming insoluble precipitate. When the textile dyes were treated with increasing concentration of enzyme, it was observed that greater fraction of the color was removed but four out of eight reactive dyes were recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase. Step-wise addition of enzyme to the decolorizing reaction mixture at the interval of 1h further enhanced the dye decolorization. The rate of decolorization was enhanced when the dyes were incubated with fixed quantity of enzyme for increasing times. Decolorization of non-textile dyes resulted in the degradation and removal of dyes from the solution without any precipitate formation. Decolorization rate was drastically increased when the textile and other industrially important non-textile dyes were treated with bitter gourd peroxidase in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Complex mixtures of dyes were prepared by taking three to four reactive textile and non-textile dyes in equal proportions. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with the enzyme in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Our data suggest that the peroxidase/mediator system is an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of effluents containing recalcitrant dyes from textile, dye manufacturing

  5. Treatment of textile dye-house waste water by fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalankilli, G.; Sunder, A.E. [S.S.M. Institute of Textile Technology and Polytechnic College, Komarapalayam (India). Dept. of Textile Processing

    2003-07-01

    The use of fly ash for the removal of dyes, one each from acid basic and reactive class dyes from aqueous solution at different concentration and pH, has been investigated. Dyes used were Methylene Blue (CI Basic Blue 9), Drimalan Orange FGL (CI Reactive Orange 53), and Erioxyl Yellow (CI Acid Yellow 127). Fly ash was from Mettur coal-fired power station. The adsorption and desorption studies confirm fly ash as an effective unconventional sorbent that can be explored in treating the effluent that contain these dyes. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h and 97.1% (18 h, as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l by 80.5% (3 h and 89.0% (18 h, was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l. No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved

  7. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy of black dyes on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Laurence C; Batchelor, Stephen N; Smith, John R Lindsay; Moore, John N

    2010-10-10

    Resonance Raman and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded from samples of cotton, viscose, polyester, nylon, and acrylic textile swatches dyed black with one of seven single dyes, a mixture of two dyes, or one of seven mixtures of three dyes. The samples generally gave characteristic Raman spectra of the dyes, demonstrating that the technique is applicable for the forensic analysis of dyed black textiles. Survey studies of the widely used dye Reactive Black 5 show that essentially the same Raman spectrum is obtained on bulk sampling from the dye in solution, on viscose, on cotton at different uptakes, and on microscope sampling from the dye in cotton threads and single fibres. The effects of laser irradiation on the Raman bands and emission backgrounds from textile samples with and without dye are also reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Investigation to Adopt Zero Liquid Discharge in Textile Dyeing Using AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel idea of using ozone oxidation at the end of reactive dyeing process was explored in order to achieve zero discharge dyeing. An advanced oxidative treatment was given during the dyeing process to remove unfixed and hydrolyzed reactive dyes from cotton substrate. Three different shades were dyed using vinylsulphone reactive class of dyes. At the end of fixation step, washing of fabrics was carried out using appropriate quantities of ozone in the process. Ozone oxidation continued until the liquor was decolorized around 95-100% and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand was reduced about 80-90%, thus achieving zero liquid discharge dyeing process. The decolouration efficiency of wastewater was regarded as an indicative of removal of dyes from the textile materials because fabric was being washed continuously in the same liquor. Fabric samples dyed with conventional and new methods were compared in terms of change in shade, colourfastness properties, colour stripping, and fabric appearance. Overall results showed that the use of ozone during reactive dyeing can result in less water consumption, reduced process time, and zero discharge of coloured effluents from textile dyeing factories.

  9. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Mohammad Fadhil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising.

  10. Experimental Study of Dye Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Membrane Technologies of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fadhil Abid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration?=?65 mg/L, feed temperature?=?39?C and pressure?=?8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising.

  11. Statistical Optimization of Conditions for Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by Cordyceps militaris MTCC 3936 Using RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the biobleaching potential of white rot fungus Cordyceps militaris MTCC3936 was investigated. For preliminary screening, decolorization properties of C. militaris were comparatively studied using whole cells in agar-based and liquid culture systems. Preliminary investigation in liquid culture systems revealed 100% decolorization achieved within 3 days of incubation for reactive yellow 18, 6 days for reactive red 31, 7 days for reactive black 8, and 11 days for reactive green 19 and reactive red 74. RSM was further used to study the effect of three independent variables such as pH, incubation time, and concentration of dye on decolorization properties of cell free supernatant of C. militaris. RSM based statistical analysis revealed that dye decolorization by cell free supernatants of C. militaris is more efficient than whole cell based system. The optimized conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes were identified as dye concentration of 300 ppm, incubation time of 48 h, and optimal pH value as 5.5, except for reactive red 31 (for which the model was nonsignificant. The maximum dye decolorizations achieved under optimized conditions for reactive yellow 18, reactive green 19, reactive red 74, and reactive black 8 were 73.07, 65.36, 55.37, and 68.59%, respectively.

  12. Statistical Optimization of Conditions for Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by Cordyceps militaris MTCC 3936 Using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir; Kaur, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the biobleaching potential of white rot fungus Cordyceps militaris MTCC3936 was investigated. For preliminary screening, decolorization properties of C. militaris were comparatively studied using whole cells in agar-based and liquid culture systems. Preliminary investigation in liquid culture systems revealed 100% decolorization achieved within 3 days of incubation for reactive yellow 18, 6 days for reactive red 31, 7 days for reactive black 8, and 11 days for reactive green 19 and reactive red 74. RSM was further used to study the effect of three independent variables such as pH, incubation time, and concentration of dye on decolorization properties of cell free supernatant of C. militaris. RSM based statistical analysis revealed that dye decolorization by cell free supernatants of C. militaris is more efficient than whole cell based system. The optimized conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes were identified as dye concentration of 300 ppm, incubation time of 48 h, and optimal pH value as 5.5, except for reactive red 31 (for which the model was nonsignificant). The maximum dye decolorizations achieved under optimized conditions for reactive yellow 18, reactive green 19, reactive red 74, and reactive black 8 were 73.07, 65.36, 55.37, and 68.59%, respectively. PMID:25722980

  13. Zinc chloride as a coagulant for textile dyes and treatment of generated dye sludge under the solid state fermentation: hybrid treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Avinash A; Lade, Harshad S; Lee, Dae Sung; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-01-01

    Dye sludge generation is major drawback of coagulation process. Efficient hybrid technology by combining coagulation and solid state fermentation (SSF) has capacity to solve generated dye sludge problem. Coagulation of 100mg/L Reactive Red 120 (RR120) using ZnCl2 showed 99% color removal. Mixture of textile dyes (MTD) and textile wastewater (TW) showed 96% and 98% ADMI (American Dye Manufacturing Institute) removal after coagulation by ZnCl2. 92% and 94% ADMI removal from MTD and TW dye sludge and 96% decolorization of RR120 sludge was observed respectively by developed microbial consortium (DCM) in 72h under SSF. Scale up of coagulation process by coagulation reactor (CR) having 50L capacity operated for 30min/cycle. CR showed average 94% ADMI removal from TW in 10 successive cycles. Scale up of SSF composting bioreactor (CB) showed complete dye removal from dye sludge obtained from CR (500L of TW) in 30days.

  14. Dyes as teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, S

    1992-01-01

    The main fats and problems of the role of dyes in prenatal pathology are reviewed. The first section deals with the practical aspects related to teratological screening of industrial dyes (including also the results obtained in this laboratory). In the second section, various aspects of azo-dye teratogenesis are largely discussed, including also the experimental contributions of this laboratory. Concluding remarks are made with respect to the importance and to the perspectives of this field of research.

  15. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  16. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment.

  17. A novel reactive resin for embedding biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongfu; Liu, Xiuli; Gang, Yadong; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2017-02-01

    We developed a novel reactive embedding resin that crosslinking with the biological tissue via the reaction of epoxy group and amino group, which improves its compatibility with biological tissue and can be good to preserve endogenous fluorescent protein and dyes.

  18. Improvement of colour strength and colourfastness properties of gamma irradiated cotton using reactive black-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Adeel, Shahid; Nadeem, Raziya; Asghar, Toheed

    2012-03-01

    The dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Reactive Black-5 dye powder has been investigated. The mercerized, bleached and plain weaved cotton fabric was irradiated to different absorbed doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature of dyeing, time of dyeing and pH of dyeing solutions were optimised. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organisation (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It is found that gamma irradiated cotton dyed with Reactive Black-5 has not only improved the colour strength but also enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  19. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  20. Experimental Study on Lanthanum Modified ZnO -TiO2 Photocatalytic Oxidation of Reactive Dyes%镧改性 ZnO - TiO2光催化氧化活性染料的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉婷; 朱雷; 肖扬帆

    2015-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法制备掺杂ZnO的TiO2复合半导体,用X射线衍射和电镜扫描对晶体结构进行表征,最优的锌掺杂量、镧掺杂量、煅烧温度分别为3%,0.3%,500℃。以活性染料配水作为目标降解物,考察了对6种不同活性染料的光催化氧化效果。0.3%镧改性ZnO-TiO2对活性艳蓝X-BR的色度去除率可以达到97.3%,得到最佳脱色率的条件是使用紫外光作为光源,光照时间2 h ,初始质量浓度100 mg/L ,pH值控制在1左右,氯离子浓度控制在1 mol/L。%In this study ,the sol -gel method is adopted to prepare TiO2 -doped ZnO semiconductor ,in which X -ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the crystal structure and the optimal amount of zinc dop-ing ,doping lanthanum and calcination temperatures is 3% ,0 .3% and 500 ℃ respectively .The reactive dyes with water is used as a target degradation to investigate the photocatalytic oxidation effects of six different reactive dyes .The chroma re-moval efficiency of ZnO-TiO2 with 0 .3% on lanthanum-modified reactive Brilliant Blue X -BR can reach 97 .3% and it is obtained the best conditions decolorization rate ,that is ,the ultraviolet light is used as a light source ,exposure time 2 hours ,the initial concentration of 100 mg /L ,pH control in about 1 and the chloride ion concentration at 1 mol/L .

  1. Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončarić Božić, A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, P.; Člupek, M.; Babický, V.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying a high voltage pulsed electrical discharges for dye wastewater treatment. Commercial organic monochlorotriazine reactive dye of the anthraquinone type C.I. Reactive Blue 49 (RB49) was chosen as a representative of persistent and recalcitrant wastewater pollutant. The modified pinhole discharge flow-through reactor was used to treat such type of contaminant. Applying HV pulses 30 kV, 3.15 J/pulse, 50 Hz repetition rate, complete decolorisation and partial mineralization of RB49 has been reached and demonstrated by means of UV/VIS absorption, TOC and AOX measurements.

  2. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo

  3. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also b

  4. Effectiveness of Rosewater Waste in De-colorization of Reactive Blue 19 from Synthetic Textile Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad miri; mohammad tghi ghaneyan; alireza shahriari; reza ali fallahzaeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose: Discharge of the wastewater containing reactive dyes into water resources can have detrimental effects on the environment and to the human health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic nature. The present study was performed to evaluate the efficiency of rosewater waste in removal of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solutions. Methods: In this experimental study, the effects of various application parameters including pH (4-10), initial concentration of dye...

  5. Valorisation of Moringaoleifera waste: treatment and reuse of textile dye effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca Vallvé, M. Mercedes; López Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez Bouzán, María Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on the valorisation of an agricultural waste as natural coagulant to treat wastewater from the textile industry. In this paper, the waste of Moringaoleifera oil extraction is used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. Moringaoleifera shows better results for dye removal than conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high...

  6. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites.

  7. Comparative use of bacterial, algal and protozoan tests to study toxicity of azo- and anthraquinone dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Cenek; Dias, Nicolina; Kapanen, Anu; Malachová, Katerina; Vándrovcová, Marta; Itävaara, Merja; Lima, Nelson

    2006-06-01

    Toxicity of two azo dyes (Reactive Orange 16 (RO16); Congo Red (CR)) and two anthraquinone dyes (Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR); Disperse Blue 3 (DB3)) were compared using bacterium Vibrio fischeri, microalga Selenastrum capricornutum and ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The following respective endpoints were involved: acute toxicity measured as bacterial luminescence inhibition, algal growth inhibition, and the effects on the protozoa including viability, growth inhibition, grazing effect and morphometric effects. In addition, mutagenicity of the dyes was determined using Ames test with bacterium Salmonella typhimurium His(-). DB3 dye was the most toxic of all dyes in the bacterial, algal and protozoan tests. In contrast to other dyes, DB3 exhibited mutagenic effects after metabolic activation in vitro in all S. typhimurium strains used. Of the methods applied, the algal test was the most sensitive to evaluate toxicity of the dyes tested.

  8. Batch and flow photochemical benzannulations based on the reaction of ynamides and diazo ketones. Application to the synthesis of polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumstad, Thomas P; Haze, Olesya; Mak, Xiao Yin; Lam, Tin Yiu; Wang, Yu-Pu; Danheiser, Rick L

    2013-11-15

    Highly substituted polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds are produced via a two-stage tandem benzannulation/cyclization strategy. The initial benzannulation step proceeds via a pericyclic cascade mechanism triggered by thermal or photochemical Wolff rearrangement of a diazo ketone. The photochemical process can be performed using a continuous flow reactor which facilitates carrying out reactions on a large scale and minimizes the time required for photolysis. Carbomethoxy ynamides as well as more ketenophilic bis-silyl ynamines and N-sulfonyl and N-phosphoryl ynamides serve as the reaction partner in the benzannulation step. In the second stage of the strategy, RCM generates benzofused nitrogen heterocycles, and various heterocyclization processes furnish highly substituted and polycyclic indoles of types that were not available by using the previous cyclobutenone-based version of the tandem strategy.

  9. Research Progress on One-bath Dyeing of Nylon/Cotton Fabric%锦/棉织物一浴法染色研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈镇; 粟建权

    2015-01-01

    本文简单介绍了锦纶、棉纤维的基本结构和染色性能,详细阐述了活性染料、活性/中性染料、活性/分散染料、活性/金属络合染料、活性/酸性染料、酸性染料、直接/酸性染料、中性/直接染料、液体硫化染料等当前9种不同的锦/棉织物一浴染色工艺的基本原理和研究进展。%In this paper, the basic structure and dyeing properties of nylon and cotton were introduced briefly. The basic principle and research progress of nine different one-bath dyeing methods for nylon/cotton fabric were described in detail, including reactive dyeing, reactive/neutral dyeing, reactive/disperse dyeing, reactive/metal complex dyeing, reactive/acid dyeing, acid dyeing, direct/acid dyeing, neutral/direct dyeing, liquid sulfur dyeing.

  10. 蛋白类防沾色剂在活性染料染色棉织物皂洗处理中的应用效果评价%Evaluation on the Application Effects of Protein Anti-staining Agent in Soaping Dyed Cotton Fabrics with Reactive Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华凤; 赵晓丽; 王雪燕

    2016-01-01

    Dyed cotton fabric with reactive dyes was carried out anti-staining soaping with self-made protein anti-staining agent, the influence of anti-staining agent on dyed fabric color fastness, floating color removal, cap-illary effect, color and other properties in the soaping process was discussed.The results showed that the protein anti-staining agent had good anti-staining effect on the cotton fabrics with different dosage of dyes or different kinds of dyes, the fabric kept good color fastness after soaping, floating color on the white fabric was significantly reduced;at the same time, the breathability and the wrinkle resistance of dyed fabric increased slightly, the col-ored light of fabric changed very small, indicating that the anti-staining agent had good practical value.But the wettability of the fabric decreased a little, which needed further research.%用自制的蛋白类防沾色助剂对活性染料染色的棉织物进行防沾皂洗后处理,探讨了该防沾色助剂在皂洗过程中对染色织物色牢度、浮色去除、毛效、透气性、色光等性能的影响。结果表明:该防沾助剂对不同用量染料和不同种类染料染色的棉织物都具有良好的防沾效果,染色织物防沾皂洗后能够保持良好的色牢度,浮色对白布的沾色明显减少,同时,处理织物的透气性,抗皱性略微增大,色布色光变化微小,表明该蛋白类防沾色助剂具有良好的实用价值。但该助剂存在处理织物的润湿性略微减少的缺点,需要进一步深入研究。

  11. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  12. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  13. Fong's: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong's Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong's National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong's Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  14. Biological decolorization of xanthene dyes by anaerobic granular biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Laura Carmen; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Gavrilescu, Maria; Alves, Maria Madalena

    2012-09-01

    Biodegradation of a xanthene dyes was investigated for the first time using anaerobic granular sludge. On a first screening, biomass was able to decolorize, at different extents, six azo dye solutions: acid orange 7, direct black 19, direct blue 71, mordant yellow 10, reactive red 2 and reactive red 120 and two xanthene dyes--Erythrosine B and Eosin Y. Biomass concentration, type of electron donor, induction of biomass with dye and mediation with activated carbon (AC) were variables studied for Erythrosine B (Ery) as model dye. Maximum color removal efficiency was achieved with 4.71 g VSS L⁻¹, while the process rates were independent of the biomass concentration above 1.89 g VSS L⁻¹. No considerable effects were observed when different substrates were used as electron donors (VFA, glucose or lactose). Addition of Ery in the incubation period of biomass led to a fivefold increase of the decolorization rate. The rate of Ery decolorization almost duplicated in the presence of commercial AC (0.1 g L⁻¹ AC₀). Using different modified AC samples (from the treatment of AC₀), a threefold higher rate was obtained with the most basic one, AC(H₂), as compared with non-mediated reaction. Higher rates were obtained at pH 6.0. Chemical reduction using Na₂S confirmed the recalcitrant nature of this dye. The results attest that decolorization of Ery is essentially due to enzymatic and adsorption phenomena.

  15. Diode-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukova, O. A.; Gorbunkov, M. V.; Petukhov, V. A.; Semenov, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    This letter reports diode pumping for dye lasers. We offer a pulsed dye laser with an astigmatism-compensated three-mirror cavity and side pumping by blue laser diodes with 200 ns pulse duration. Eight dyes were tested. Four dyes provided a slope efficiency of more than 10% and the highest slope efficiency (18%) was obtained for laser dye Coumarin 540A in benzyl alcohol.

  16. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Uganda is a home of thousands of largely unknown and undocumented plants. ... Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the ... Asteraceae characterized by bitter leaves, traditionally used for treating fever.

  17. Statistical optimization for decolorization of textile dyes using Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S

    2009-06-15

    The conventional treatment of dark coloured textile wastewater using chemical coagulation generates large volume of sludge, which requires further treatment and disposal. In the present investigation, a systematic optimization study of the important variables influencing the decolorization of Reactive Orange-16 (RO-16) and Reactive Red-35 (RR-35) dyes by the white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) was carried out. A full factorial central composite design was employed for experimental design and optimization of results. The effect of concentrations of dye, glucose and ammonium chloride on decolorization was studied and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Maximum decolorization of 94.5% and 90.7% for RO-16 and RR-35 was obtained at optimum concentrations of dye, glucose and ammonium chloride i.e., 0.66, 17.50 and 2.69 g/L for RO-16 and 0.68, 16.67 and 2.13 g/L for RR-35, respectively.

  18. The use of supramolecular chemistry in dye delivery systems

    CERN Document Server

    Merckel, D A S

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports an investigation into supramolecular recognition of the sulfate/ sulfonate oxoanionic group, a moiety present in the majority of reactive dyes. In the first section the problems associated with the use of reactive dyes in dyeing cotton fabrics together with a literature review of supramolecular approaches to anion recognition are discussed. Drawing on the current literature concerning anion recognition (in particular the recognition of phosphates), the main body of the thesis concerns the design and synthesis of several series ofC-shaped (tweezer) and tripodal potential sulfate/ sulfonate receptors. These receptors incorporate the H-bond donor groups guanidine and thiourea and to a lesser extent urea and amide functionalities. In addition the behaviour of potential tweezer-like receptor molecules based on s-triazine (derived from cyanuric chloride) has also been investigated. The sulfate/ sulfonate and related phosphonate association properties of these potential receptors have been studie...

  19. Adsorption of Dyes Using Different Types of Sand: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Sand is mixed with cement and water to make concrete, used in the manufacture of brick, glass .... powdered foods, or to absorb water in hygroscopic applications. ...... 37 M.B. Hasan, Adsorption of Reactive Azo Dyes on Chitosan/Oil Palm Ash.

  20. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment systems. Eighty-five percent of tie-dye entrepreneurs agreed that there must be wastewater treatment before release into the environment. From group discussions, it was found that the entrepreneurs realized the wastewater problem and wanted to carry out environment friendly tie-dyeing. Our study demonstrated that the average value of the colour density, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solids (TDS and pH of the wastewater characteristics were 170 SU (space units, 1584 mg/l, 2487 mg/l and 8, respectively. For the upflow anaerobic filter, 5 sets of experiments, with 24 hours retention time, were designed, with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % of cow’s feces ferment, respectively (sets 1st-5th. The result showed decreasing colour densities from 170 SU to 160 SU (dark colour, 60 SU (very light colour, 12 SU (no colour, 10 SU (no colour and 10 SU (no colour, respectively. We conclude that the upflow anaerobic filter, containing 2% cow’s feces ferment is an efficient way to reduce colour density of the wastewater. Mixing cow’s feces ferment with tie-dye wastewater increased COD and TDS in wastewater. Mean COD was increased by residual organic matter from 1584 mg/l (before treatment to (after-treatment, sets 2nd- 5th 1600 mg/l, 1680 mg/l, 1710 mg/l and 1750 mg/l, respectively. COD aftertreatment was higher than the industrial effluence standard (400 mg/l. Further treatment COD might include wetland procedures. TDS was increased by some residual organic matter

  1. Key factors regarding decolorization of synthetic anthraquinone and azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyakamol, A; Imai, T; Chairattanamanokorn, P; Higuchi, T; Sekine, M

    2009-07-01

    The factors affecting decolorization of anthraquinone dye represented by Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and azo dye represented by Methyl Orange (MO) were studied in batch experiments under mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic conditions. The results indicated differences in decolorization properties of the dyes with different chromophore structures. In abiotic conditions, MO could be decolorized by a physicochemical reaction when it was sterilized at 121 degrees C together with sludge cells or glucose. RB4 only showed absorption onto the cell mass. The presence of a redox mediator accelerated the decolorizing reaction when supplied together with glucose in the presence of sterilized sludge cells. In biotic conditions, the results indicated that the biological activity of microorganisms was an important factor in decolorization. The main factor involved in decolorization was the conversion of cosubstrate as electron donor, which reacted with dye as an electron acceptor in electron transfer. Redox mediators, anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid, and anthraquinone could accelerate decolorization even if a small amount (0.2 mM) was applied. On the other hand, a high concentration of redox mediator (1.0 mM) had an inhibitory effect on decolorization especially under thermophilic conditions. In addition, the decolorization of dye was accelerated by increasing treatment temperature, as shown in biotic treatments. Based on these results, increasing the treatment temperature could be used to improve the decolorizing process of textile dye wastewater treatment, especially for recalcitrant dyes such as anthraquinone.

  2. Detoxification of azo dyes by bacterial oxidoreductase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shahid; Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Crowley, David E

    2016-08-01

    Azo dyes and their intermediate degradation products are common contaminants of soil and groundwater in developing countries where textile and leather dye products are produced. The toxicity of azo dyes is primarily associated with their molecular structure, substitution groups and reactivity. To avoid contamination of natural resources and to minimize risk to human health, this wastewater requires treatment in an environmentally safe manner. This manuscript critically reviews biological treatment systems and the role of bacterial reductive and oxidative enzymes/processes in the bioremediation of dye-polluted wastewaters. Many studies have shown that a variety of culturable bacteria have efficient enzymatic systems that can carry out complete mineralization of dye chemicals and their metabolites (aromatic compounds) over a wide range of environmental conditions. Complete mineralization of azo dyes generally involves a two-step process requiring initial anaerobic treatment for decolorization, followed by an oxidative process that results in degradation of the toxic intermediates that are formed during the first step. Molecular studies have revealed that the first reductive process can be carried out by two classes of enzymes involving flavin-dependent and flavin-free azoreductases under anaerobic or low oxygen conditions. The second step that is carried out by oxidative enzymes that primarily involves broad specificity peroxidases, laccases and tyrosinases. This review focuses, in particular, on the characterization of these enzymes with respect to their enzyme kinetics and the environmental conditions that are necessary for bioreactor systems to treat azo dyes contained in wastewater.

  3. Mechanism of dye response and interference in the Bradford protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, S J; Jones, C G

    1985-12-01

    Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 protein-binding dye exists in three forms: cationic, neutral, and anionic. Although the anion is not freely present at the dye reagent pH, it is this form that complexes with protein. Dye binding requires a macromolecular form with certain reactive functional groups. Interactions are chiefly with arginine rather than primary amino groups; the other basic (His, Lys) and aromatic residues (Try, Tyr, and Phe) give slight responses. The binding behavior is attributed to Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions. Assay interference by bases, detergents, and other compounds are explained in terms of their effects upon the equilibria between the three dye forms.

  4. Biodegradation of C.I. Reactive Red 195 by Enterococcus faecalis strain YZ66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Madhuri Sahasrabudhe; Pathade, Girish

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic dyes are extensively used in textile dyeing, paper, printing, colour photography, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and other industries. Among these, azodyes represents the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes. As high as 50% of the dyes are released into the environment during manufacture and usage. Traditional methods of treatment are found to be expensive and have operational problems. Biological decolourization has been investigated as a method to transform, degrade or mineralize azo dyes. In the present studies bacteria from soil from dye waste area, dye waste, sewage and dung were subjected to acclimatization with C.I. Reactive Red 195 an azo dye, in the basal nutrient media. The most promising bacterial isolate was used for further dye degradation studies. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical characteristics revealed the isolated organism as Enterococcus faecalis strain YZ66. The strain showed 99.5% decolourization of the selected dye (Reactive Red 195-50 mg/l) within one and half hour in static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolourization was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis, FTIR, TLC and HPLC. The final products were characterized by Gas chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry. Toxicity study demonstrated no toxicity of the biodegradation product. The results suggest that the isolated organism E. faecalis strain YZ 66 can be used as a useful tool to treat waste water containing reactive dyes.

  5. Decolorization and degradation of textile dyes with biosulfidogenic hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambanengwe, C C Z; Togo, C A; Whiteley, C G

    2007-01-01

    Successful decolorization of azo dyes (Orange II, Amido Black 10, Reactive Black 5, and Reactive Red 120) and industrial textile dye influents and effluents with sulfate-reducing bacteria from within a biosulfidogenic reactor was achieved with decolorizations ranging from 96% to 49% over 144 h. Concomitant with the decrease in absorbance of the dye in the visible region (480-620 nm) was an increase in the absorbance at 280 nm, over 48 h, suggesting an increase in concentration of single aromatic amines. With an extended period of time there was a subsequent decrease in the absorbance at 280 nm indicating that the aromatic amines had been degraded. The anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 2, remained unchanged after 144 h of incubation in the biosulfidogenic reactor and was only rapidly decolored at 192 h, implying that certain factors are induced in the reactor to break down this non-azo dye. The fastest decolorization/degradation rates and highest hydrogenase enzyme production were observed with Orange II, while the slowest decolorization/degradation rate and least enzyme production were with Reactive Blue 2, suggesting that these processes are controlled, to a certain degree, by an enzymatic mechanism. With sulfate-reducing bacteria that had been cultured on a lactate medium, there was complete decolorization of both authentic dyes and industrial influents and effluents as monitored by the decrease of absorbance in the visible region (480-620 nm). There was, however, very little breakdown of the single aromatic compounds as the absorbance at 280 nm remained fairly significant. This supports the suggestion that, within the biosulfidogenic reactor, there are factors other than the identified hydrogenases that are responsible for degradation of the aromatic compounds.

  6. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizong Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sludge (AS, capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  7. Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

    It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

  8. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Cascade Annulation/C-H Activation of o-Ethynylanilines with Diazo Compounds: One-Pot Synthesis of Benzo[a]carbazoles via 1,4-Rhodium Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Songjin; Yuan, Kai; Gu, Meng; Lin, Aijun; Yao, Hequan

    2016-10-05

    A Rh(III)-catalyzed cascade annulation/C-H activation of o-ethynylanilines with diazo compounds has been developed. This concise method allows for the rapid formation of a number of benzo[a]carbazoles in high yields, exhibiting good functional group tolerance and scalability. The key to the success of this approach involves one C-N bond and two C-C bond formation, and an aryl-to-aryl 1,4-rhodium migration.

  9. Isolation and identification of halophilic bacteria strain Halomonas elogata and its application on degradation of an azo dye Reactive Blue BRF%极端嗜盐菌Halomonas elogata的分离鉴定及其降解偶氮染料活性兰BRF的条件优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娜; 张前前; 杜宗军; 张栋梅

    2012-01-01

    An extremely halophilic bacterial strain was acclimated,isolated and purified from the saline-alkali soil obtained from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.It was identified as Halomonas elogata based on its morphology,physiological-biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.Subsequently,the influencing factors on the azo dye degradation were explored.Degradation effects in a series of salt concentrations were compared.In single factor experiments,the influencing factors of inoculation volume,initial azo dye concentration and pH were tested respectively under inoculation conditions of 30℃ and 5% salinity.The orthogonal experiments L9(33) were designed to obtain the optimal experiment conditions.Finally,the degradation products were estimated by the UV-vis spectra.The results indicated that the strain Halomonas elogata was tolerant to a wide salinity ranging from 0 to 32%,while the optimal salinity for its cell growth was from 5% to 20%.Among salinity range of 3% to 25%,the degradation rate increased initially and then decreased with the salinity increasing,and the best degradation effect happened when the salinity was 5%.At 30℃ and salinity of 5%,the optimal conditions for degradation of azo dye Reactive Blue BRF were found as follows:initial concentration of 100 mg · L-1 for azo dye,pH 7 and initial inoculation volume of 5% for the strain.Under these conditions,an 88.62% degradation of azo dye was achieved over a time period of 72 hours.The UV-vis spectra revealed that the degradation products were quite different from Reactive Blue BRF.There was no peak in visible region and its n-hexane extraction,while its dichloromethane extracts exhibited two UV absorption peaks implying that degradation products might be polar aromatic amines and heterocyclic compounds.Mass spectrometry results revealed that the degradation products included polar compounds such as benzyl diamine and 2,6-diamino-phenol.%从新疆地区土壤中经驯化、分离

  10. Croatian Traditional Herbal Dyes For Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    Sutrlović, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Textiles, namely protein fibers, in continental part of central Europe have been traditionally dyed by natural dyes. In the process textile materials were pre or after treated by metal salts – mordants (usually: KAl(SO4)2•12H2O, SnCl2•2H2O, FeSO4•7H2O, CuSO4•5H2O). Most represented active substances in herbal extracts are flavonoid derivatives, which by complexing with metal ions constitute colored complexes. Depending on herb species and mordant applied, a wide palette of colors is available...

  11. Laser dye technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  12. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  14. Dyes with high affinity for polylactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang

    2007-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.

  15. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P.R.; Atkins, R.L.; Henry, R.A.; Fletcher, A.N.

    1978-07-25

    The invention provides a dye laser comprising a lasing solution of a 7-substituted azaquinolone-2 in which the aza nitrogen occupies at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions. The 7-substituent is hydroxy, alkoxy, amino or substituted amino. Substituents may be attached to other ring positions. The present lasing compounds are aza analogs of corresponding quinolone compounds and, hence, are named ''azaquinolone'' compounds. The dye lasers lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  16. Hair care and dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient.

  17. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cummings_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3362 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Cummings_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 DYE SOLAR CELL RESEARCH Franscious... Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2...

  18. Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Amit; Madamwar, Datta

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial cultures isolated from sites polluted by industrial textile effluents were screened for their ability to decolorize cyclic azo dyes. Gloeocapsa pleurocapsoides and Phormidium ceylanicum decolorized Acid Red 97 and FF Sky Blue dyes by more than 80% after 26 days. Chroococcus minutus was the only culture which decolorized Amido Black 10B (55%). Chlorophyll a synthesis in all cultures was strongly inhibited