Sample records for diatrizoate

  1. Iohexol and diatrizoate: comparison in visceral arteriography

    Adam, A.; Hemingway, A.P.; Allison, D.J.


    Iohexol, a low osmolality, nonionic contrast medium, and diatrizoate, a conventional ionic contrast medium, were evaluated for patient tolerance during visceral arteriography. Almost all the procedures performed with iohexol were painless: most patients given this agent reported only a mild feeling of warmth. Diatrizoate produced some pain and a feeling of intense heat in most patients. Both media produced excellent radiographic results and no serious adverse reactions occurred.

  2. Intravenous injection of ioxilan, iohexol and diatrizoate

    Thomsen, H.S.; Dorph, S.; Mygind, T.; Sovak, M.; Nielsen, H.; Rygaard, H.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Hemmingsen, L.; Holm, J.

    Effects of intravenous ioxilan, a new third generation non-ionic contrast medium, diatrizoate, iohexol and saline on urine profiles were compared. Albumin, glucose, sodium, phosphate, and the enzymes NAG, LDH and GGT were followed in 24 normal rats over 7 days. Diatrizoate significantly affected all profile components during the first two hours. Albuminuria was significantly greater after diatrizoate than after iohexol or ioxilan, and excretion of glucose, LDH and GGT was significantly higher than after ioxilan. Both iohexol and ioxilan increased the excretion of albumin, LDH and GGT, while iohexol also significantly increased excretion of glucose and sodium. There was a greater excretion of glucose and GGT after iohexol than after ioxilan. Saline did not induce any changes. At day 7, serum sodium, urea, creatinine, and albumin were normal for all test substances, and kidney histology revealed no difference between the groups of animals. It is thus concluded that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media may cause temporary glomerular and tubular dysfunction in rats. In this model, the kidney is affected most by diatrizoate, less by iohexol, and least by ioxilan.

  3. The effect on the blood-brain barrier of intracarotid contrast media--iopamidol and diatrizoate.

    Hayakawa, K; Nakamura, R; Ishii, Y


    The effect on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was assessed following intracarotid injection of iopamidol (300 mgI/ml.), meglumine diatrizoate (305 mgI/ml.) and isotonic saline. Four ml/kg of 2% Evans blue solution and 0.1 mCi 99m Technetium-DTPA (Tc-DTPA) were used as tracers. No blue staining was observed in the saline group. Three out of 10 animals showed blue staining in the iopamidol group. All ten animals showed blue staining in the diatrizoate group. There were statistical differences between the diatrizoate and the other two groups. Tc-DTPA extravasation was 0.37 +/- 0.13 (mean +/- SD) in the saline group, 1.29 +/- 0.77 in the iopamidol group and 3.88 +/- 1.67 in the diatrizoate group. Statistical differences were observed among three groups. These observations suggest that Tc-DTPA is very sensitive in detecting a subtle BBB injury and that iopamidol had a significantly smaller effect on the BBB than did meglumine diatrizoate.

  4. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic effects of ioversol during cardiac angiography. Comparison with iopamidol and diatrizoate.

    Hirshfeld, J W; Wieland, J; Davis, C A; Giles, B D; Passione, D; Ray, M B; Ripley, N S


    We studied the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses to left ventriculography and coronary arteriography with three angiographic contrast agents. Two were nonionic agents (ioversol 32% iodine, 60 patients, and iopamidol 37% iodine, 30 patients). The third was a conventional ionic agent (diatrizoate 37% iodine, 30 patients). Cardiovascular hemodynamics and the electrocardiogram were recorded for 5 minutes after left ventricular injection and for 2 minutes after coronary injections. Following left ventriculography, diatrizoate caused a greater increase in cardiac output, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and corrected QT interval while causing a greater decrease in arterial pressure than did either ioversol or iopamidol, which were indistinguishable from each other. Following left coronary arteriography, diatrizoate caused a significant decrease in heart rate, prolongation of the corrected QT interval, and increase in T wave amplitude. In contrast, neither ioversol nor iopamidol caused significant changes in any electrocardiographic parameters. Adverse reactions were more common with diatrizoate than with either ioversol or iopamidol. There were no recognizable differences in angiographic image quality among the three agents. We conclude that the angiographic performance of ioversol is equivalent to that of iopamidol and that both cause less hemodynamic and electrocardiographic disturbance than diatrizoate.

  5. [Reduced cardiotoxicity of contrast media in angiocardiography. Comparative clinical study using diatrizoate with added calcium or metrizamide (author's transl)].

    Zipfel, J; Baller, D; Blanke, H; Karsch, K R; Rentrop, P; Wiegand, V W; Wolpers, H G; Hellige, G


    Cardiodepressive side effects of angiocardiography can be reduced by using non-ionic metrizamide (Amipaque) or adding calcium to diatrizoate (Urografin 76%). In 15 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing heart catheterization, we compared cardiac side effects of coronary angiography and left ventricular angiography using metrizamide and diatrizoate with and without additional calcium (11.3 mmol/l) as contrast media under randomized conditions. In selective intracoronary injection with diatrizoate alone, peak left ventricular pressure and contractility (dP/dtmax) showed a fall of 30 +/- 11% and 31 +/- 15% (n = 33 injections). Using diatrizoate with added calcium (11.3 mmol/l), the fall was only 23 +/- 12% and 20 +/- 10% respectively (n = 31 injections). With metrizamide (n = 32 injections) cardiac side effects are even less and the decrease in pressure and contractility only 13 +/- 10% and 7 +/- 7% respectively, which its highly significant (p less than 0.0001) compared with the effect of diatrizoate. The heartrate slowing, not essentially altered by calcium addition, was minimal using non-ionic metrizamide. In left ventricular angiography, the pressure fall in the late phase after injection of diatrizoate, caused by decrease peripheral vascular resistance (vasodilation), was lacking when injecting metrizamide (p less than 0.001). Metrizamide has even less cardiodepressive side effects than diatrizoate with additional calcium when used in angiocardiography and seems to be suitable particularly for the evaluation of high risk patients.

  6. Palladium nanoparticles produced by fermentatively cultivated bacteria as catalyst for diatrizoate removal with biogenic hydrogen

    Hennebel, T.; Fitts, J.; Nevel, S. V.; Verschuere, S.; De Corte, S.; De Gusseme, B.; Cuvelier, C.; van der Lelie, D.; Boon, N.; Verstraete, W.


    A new biological inspired method to produce nanopalladium is the precipitation of Pd on a bacterium, i.e., bio-Pd. This bio-Pd can be applied as catalyst in dehalogenation reactions. However, large amounts of hydrogen are required as electron donor in these reactions resulting in considerable costs. This study demonstrates how bacteria, cultivated under fermentative conditions, can be used to reductively precipitate bio-Pd catalysts and generate the electron donor hydrogen. In this way, one could avoid the costs coupled to hydrogen supply. The catalytic activities of Pd(0) nanoparticles produced by different strains of bacteria (bio-Pd) cultivated under fermentative conditions were compared in terms of their ability to dehalogenate the recalcitrant aqueous pollutants diatrizoate and trichloroethylene. While all of the fermentative bio-Pd preparations followed first order kinetics in the dehalogenation of diatrizoate, the catalytic activity differed systematically according to hydrogen production and starting Pd(II) concentration in solution. Batch reactors with nanoparticles formed by Citrobacter braakii showed the highest diatrizoate dehalogenation activity with first order constants of 0.45 {+-} 0.02 h{sup -1} and 5.58 {+-} 0.6 h{sup -1} in batches with initial concentrations of 10 and 50 mg L{sup -1} Pd, respectively. Nanoparticles on C. braakii, used in a membrane bioreactor treating influent containing 20 mg L{sup -1} diatrizoate, were capable of dehalogenating 22 mg diatrizoate mg{sup -1} Pd over a period of 19 days before bio-Pd catalytic activity was exhausted. This study demonstrates the possibility to use the combination of Pd(II), a carbon source and bacteria under fermentative conditions for the abatement of environmental halogenated contaminants.

  7. Adriamycin nephrosis and contrast media; A comparison between diatrizoate and iohexol in rats

    Thomsen, H.S.; Golman, K.; Hemmingsen, L.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P. (Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev (Denmark). Inst. of Pathology Centralsygehuset, Nykoebing Falster (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus (Sweden). Dept. of Experimental Research)


    Urine profiles (albumin, glucose, NAG, LDH, GGT and sodium) were followed for 9 days after intravenous injection of either diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 27 Wistar rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin 42 days before. Another 9 rats exposed to neither Adriamycin nor contrast media served as controls. None of the contrast media caused further increased albuminuria of significance, whereas both induced significantly increased excretion of all 5 tubular components. The excretion of NAG and sodium was significantly higher following diatrizoate than following iohexol. From 24 h post injection there was no significantly greater excretion of any of the components after either diatrizoate or iohexol than after saline among the rats given Adriamycin. At the end of day 9 after contrast medium injection neither serum sodium, potassium, glucose, urea, creatinine, nor albumin revealed any contrast media related changes. Kidney histology showed quantitatively larger lesions in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and contrast media than in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and saline. There were no differences between the two contrast media groups. It is thus concluded, that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media cause temporary tubular dysfunction but no further glomerular dysfunction in rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin. The histologic findings indicate that both media may worsen non-reversible renal lesions. (orig.).

  8. Urine profiles and kidney histology following intravenous diatrizoate and iohexol in the degeneration phase of gentamicin nephropathy in rats. Effects on urine and serum profiles.

    Thomsen, H S; Golman, K; Larsen, S; Hemmingsen, L; Skaarup, P


    Urine chemical profiles were followed for three or nine days after intravenous injection of diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 30 rats, where a tubulointerstitial nephropathy was induced by gentamicin given over an eight-day period. Another ten rats injected with saline served as controls. Compared to injection of saline, both iohexol and diatrizoate induced dysfunction. The excretion of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase was significantly greater following iohexol than following diatrizoate. No significant differences between the two media were shown by the various serum components examined. Among the gentamicin-treated rats, light microscopy showed prolonged occurrence of tubular necrosis and a more intensive round cell infiltration following iohexol than following diatrizoate and saline. Both contrast media induced further temporary renal dysfunction in rats with gentamicin nephropathy; iohexol induced more morphologic changes than diatrizoate.

  9. CT-determined canine kidney and urine iodine concentration following intravenous administration of sodium diatrizoate, metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate.

    Brennan, R E; Rapoport, S; Weinberg, I; Pollack, H M; Curtis, J A


    Following 24-hour fasting and fluid deprivation, sequential changes in CT numbers of the canine kidney were determined in 4 dogs, each of whom received, at intervals, IV sodium diatrizoate, metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate at a dose of 500 mgI/kg body weight. The urinary bladder was catheterized for baseline determination of urine osmolality and, subsequently, urine volume and CT number, CT number of the bladder urine from 0 to 10 minutes and from 10 to 20 minutes post-injection was obtained by scanning known dilutions of urine in vitro. Peak renal cortical enhancement occurred within 2 minutes of bolus injection and was not dependent on the chemical make-up of the contrast agent. Peak medullary enhancement occurred within 3 minutes of bolus injection. Peak medulla CT number following sodium diatrizoate was significantly less than that following metrizamide (P less than 0.025) or iopamidol (P less than 0.01). Peak medulla CT number was significantly less following sodium diatrizoate (P less than 0.01), metrizamide (P less than 0.01) and iopamidol (P less than 0.05) than following sodium ioxaglate. Urine iodine concentrations followed a similar pattern, with significant differences as follows: sodium diatrizoate less than metrizamide = iopamidol less than sodium ioxaglate. It was concluded that the investigational agents metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate have theoretical advantage for excretory urography. Differences in renal handling of these agents are detectable, with CT scanning as differences in renal medullary enhancement and urine iodine concentration.

  10. In vitro study on the anticoagulant effect of the water soluble contrast material: Diatrizoate, Ioxaglate and Iopromide

    Lim, Duk; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    It has been reported that newly developed nonionic contrast material is less effective in anticoagulation than ionic contrast media. Anticoagulation properties were studied with high osmolar ionic contrast medium (diatrizoate), low osmolar ionic medium (ioxaglate) and low osmolar nonionic contrast medium (iopromide) as well as with normal saline for control. Arterial blood was taken from 10 adults before angiography. Two ml. of the arterial blood was introduced into the plastic syringes containing 2 cc. of each contrast medium and saline . The syrings were kept undisturbed in room temperature for 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes and then the blood contrast mixture was poured on the filter paper to detect the clots formed in the syrings. Delay of the clotting time was also checked in the contrast media with various concentrations of 100%, 30%, 10%, and 3%. Chi-square test of the data shows very significant difference in anticoagulation effect between the ionic group (diatrizoate, ioxzglate) and the nonionic one (iopromide). Clotting time in the nonionic medium (iopromide) was shorter in 30% concentration than that of the ionic material (diatrizoate, ioxaglate). Nonionic contrast medium (iopromide) has anticoagulation effect, but less effective than ionic media (diatrizoate, ioxaglate)

  11. Pulmonary edema following high intravenous doses of diatrizoate in the rat

    Maare, K.; Violante, M.; Zack, A.

    Serious adverse reactions to intravenous contrast media are rare but of major concern. Corticosteroids are the most commonly used drugs for prophylaxis but there is little documentation of their effectiveness. Controversy also exists about the optimum regime for these drugs. A rat model was used to evaluate the effect of methylprednisolone pretreatment for contrast media-induced pulmonary edema. Rats were given 40 mg methylprednisolone/kg intravenously at various time intervals before the intravenous injection of a high dose of diatrizoate (6 g I/kg). The combination of one dose of methylprednisolone at 24 hours plus another dose at 0.5 hours was the only regimen that caused a significant reduction in the degree of pulmonary edema induced by contrast media. This result provides support for the clinical regimen utilizing iterated doses of corticosteroids over a prolonged period of time. (orig.).

  12. Diatrizoate, Iopromide and Iotrolan Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Daunorubicin in Multidrug Resistant K562/adr Cells: Impaired the Mitochondrial and Inhibited the P-Glycoprotein Function

    Nitaya S.N. Ayudhya


    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance was an obstacle in cancer chemotherapy because the cells decreased their intracellular drug accumulation by energy-dependent compounds efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp. This study observed some iodinated radiographic contrast media, diatrizoate, iopromide and iotrolan affected the cellular energetic state and the kinetics of P-gp in drug-sensitive K562 and drug resistant K562/adr cell lines using spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer. By colorimetric MTT assay, it was found that contrast media (0-3500 µM had no effect on both K562 and K562/adr cell viabilities, but in co-treatment with daunorubicin (DNR, diatrizoate decreased cell viability in K562/adr cells by decreasing ICso of DNR from 610.7 ±74.5 nM to 360±108.9 nM. The change in cellular energetic state was studied using rhodamine B as a probe to estimate mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. The results showed that 3500 µM diatrizoate decreased ΔΨm from 162.2±0.3 mV to 86.9±9.9 mV in K562/adr cells. The kinetics of P-gp-mediated efflux of DNR could be reduced by diatrizoate from 0 (no inhibition to 0.65±0.11. This inhibition could be partially prevented in co-incubation with 20 nM concanamycin A or 10 µM cytochalasin B. Among the three molecules, diatrizoate showed the best efficiency. It could be proposed for further studies that diatrizoate could be used as MDR identification or MDR imaging and also acted as MDR sensitizing agent in cancer treatments.

  13. Identification of transformation products during advanced oxidation of diatrizoate: Effect of water matrix and oxidation process.

    Azerrad, Sara P; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Gilboa, Maayan; Schulz, Manoj; Ternes, Thomas; Dosoretz, Carlos G


    Removal of micropollutants from reverse osmosis (RO) brines of wastewater desalination by oxidation processes is influenced by the scavenging capacity of brines components, resulting in the accumulation of transformation products (TPs) rather than complete mineralization. In this work the iodinated contrast media diatrizoate (DTZ) was used as model compound due to its relative resistance to oxidation. Identification of TPs was performed in ultrapure water (UPW) and RO brines applying nonthermal plasma (NTP) and UVA-TiO2 as oxidation techniques. The influence of main RO brines components in the formation and accumulation of TPs, such as chloride, bicarbonate alkalinity and humic acid, was also studied during UVA-TiO2. DTZ oxidation pattern in UPW resulted similar in both UVA-TiO2 and NTP achieving 66 and 61% transformation, respectively. However, DTZ transformation in RO brines was markedly lower in UVA-TiO2 (9%) than in NTP (27%). These differences can be attributed to the synergic effect of RO brines components during NTP. Moreover, reactive species other than hydroxyl radical contributed to DTZ transformation, i.e., direct photolysis in UVA-TiO2 and direct photolysis + O3 in NTP accounted for 16 and 23%, respectively. DTZ transformation led to iodide formation in both oxidation techniques but it further oxidized to iodate by ozone in NTP. In total 14 transformation products were identified in UPW of which 3 were present only in UVA-TiO2 and 2 were present exclusively in NTP; 5 of the 14 TPs were absent in RO brines. Five of them were new and were denoted as TP-474A/B, TP-522, TP-586, TP-602, TP-628. TP-522 (mono-chlorinated) was elucidated only in presence of high chloride titer-synthetic water matrix in NTP, most probably formed by active chlorine species generated in situ. TPs accumulation in RO brines was markedly different in comparison to UPW. This denotes the influence of RO brines components in the formation of reactive species that could further attack

  14. Stability indicating spectrophotometric and spectrodensitometric methods for the determination of diatrizoate sodium in presence of its degradation product

    Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed K.; Riad, Safaa M.; Abdel Gawad, Sherif A.; Fawaz, Esraa M.; Shehata, Mostafa A.


    Three sensitive, selective, and precise stability indicating methods for the determination of the X-ray contrast agent, diatrizoate sodium (DTA), in the presence of its acidic degradation product (highly cytotoxic 3,5 diamino metabolite) and in pharmaceutical formulation were developed and validated. The first method is a first derivative (D1) spectrophotometric one, which allows the determination of DTA in the presence of its degradate at 231.2 nm (corresponding to zero crossing of the degradate) over a concentration range of 2-24 μg/mL with mean percentage recovery 99.95 ± 0.97%. The second method is the first derivative of the ratio spectra (DD1) by measuring the peak amplitude at 227 nm over the same concentration range as D1 spectrophotometric method, with mean percentage recovery 99.99 ± 1.15%. The third method is a TLC-densitometric one, where DTA was separated from its degradate on silica gel plates using chloroform:methanol:ammonium hydroxide (20:10:2 by volume) as a developing system. This method depends on quantitative densitometric evaluation of thin layer chromatogram of DTA at 238 nm over a concentration range of 4-20 μg/spot, with mean percentage recovery 99.88 ± 0.89%. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of DTA in pharmaceutical dosage forms without interference from other dosage form additives. The results were statistically compared with the official US pharmacopeial method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed.

  15. Facile formation of dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles modified with diatrizoic acid for enhanced computed tomography imaging applications.

    Peng, Chen; Li, Kangan; Cao, Xueyan; Xiao, Tingting; Hou, Wenxiu; Zheng, Linfeng; Guo, Rui; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang


    We report a facile approach to forming dendrimer-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au DSNPs) through the use of amine-terminated fifth-generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified by diatrizoic acid (G5.NH(2)-DTA) as stabilizers for enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging applications. In this study, by simply mixing G5.NH(2)-DTA dendrimers with gold salt in aqueous solution at room temperature, dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) with a mean core size of 2.5 nm were able to be spontaneously formed. Followed by an acetylation reaction to neutralize the dendrimer remaining terminal amines, Au DSNPs with a mean size of 6 nm were formed. The formed DTA-containing [(Au(0))(50)-G5.NHAc-DTA] DSNPs were characterized via different techniques. We show that the Au DSNPs are colloid stable in aqueous solution under different pH and temperature conditions. In vitro hemolytic assay, cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry analysis, and cell morphology observation reveal that the formed Au DSNPs have good hemocompatibility and are non-cytotoxic at a concentration up to 3.0 μM. X-ray absorption coefficient measurements show that the DTA-containing Au DSNPs have enhanced attenuation intensity, much higher than that of [(Au(0))(50)-G5.NHAc] DENPs without DTA or Omnipaque at the same molar concentration of the active element (Au or iodine). The formed DTA-containing Au DSNPs can be used for CT imaging of cancer cells in vitro as well as for blood pool CT imaging of mice in vivo with significantly improved signal enhancement. With the two radiodense elements of Au and iodine incorporated within one particle, the formed DTA-containing Au DSNPs may be applicable for CT imaging of various biological systems with enhanced X-ray attenuation property and detection sensitivity.

  16. Removal and diagnosis effect of staining with mixture of methylene blue and meglucamine diatrizoate for minute mammary lesion%亚甲蓝和泛影葡胺定位法切除乳腺微小病变

    郭钊轩; 朱大江; 朱婧; 陈金桃; 玛诺; 宋锦文


    目的 探讨B超下亚甲蓝和泛影葡胺定位法在乳腺微小病灶(直径≤1.0 cm)切除和诊断中的作用.方法 对136例患者212个乳腺病灶在B超下进行亚甲蓝和泛影葡胺染色定位并手术切除.结果 136例患者212病灶全部成功切除,其中7例为早期浸润型导管癌,1例为导管内癌.结论 亚甲蓝和泛影葡胺技术可有效提高对乳腺微小病灶切除的准确性以及早期乳腺癌的诊断率,安全性好.%Objective To discuss the effect of staining with the mixture of methylene blue and meglucamine diatrizoate on removal and diagnosis of minute mammary lesion(diameter≤ 1. 0cm). Methods 212 cases of mammary lesion were removed and diagnosed by the method of B-ultrosound and staining with the mixture of methylene blue and meglucamine diatrizoate. Results All of cases were removed and diagnosed successfully, including 7cases of early invasive ductus cancer and 1 case of ductal carcinoma in situ. Conclusion The method of staining with the mixture of methylene blue and meglucamine diatrizoate could significantly improve the accuracy of removal of minute mammary lesion and the percentage of diagnois of early breast cancer, and have high safety.

  17. Elimination of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid by photo-Fenton process and enhanced treatment by coupling with electro-Fenton process.

    Bocos, Elvira; Oturan, Nihal; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Oturan, Mehmet A


    The removal of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid (DIA) from water was performed using photo-Fenton (PF) process. First, the effect of H2O2 dosage on mineralization efficiency was determined using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The system reached a maximum mineralization degree of 60 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal at 4 h with 20 mM initial H2O2 concentration while further concentration values led to a decrease in TOC abatement efficiency. Then, the effect of different concentrations of Fenton's reagents was studied for homogeneous Fenton process. Obtained results revealed that 0.25 mM Fe(3+) and 20 mM H2O2 were the best conditions, achieving 80 % TOC removal efficiency at 4 h treatment. Furthermore, heterogeneous PF treatment was developed using iron-activated carbon as catalyst. It was demonstrated that this catalyst is a promising option, reaching 67 % of TOC removal within 4 h treatment without formation of iron leachate in the medium. In addition, two strategies of enhancement for process efficiency are proposed: coupling of PF with electro-Fenton (EF) process in two ways: photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) or PF followed by EF (PF-EF) treatments, achieving in both cases the complete mineralization of DIA solution within only 2 h. Finally, the Microtox tests revealed the formation of more toxic compounds than the initial DIA during PF process, while, it was possible to reach total mineralization by both proposed alternatives (PEF or PF-EF) and thus to remove the toxicity of DIA solution.

  18. 泛影葡胺治疗急性胰腺炎腹胀的疗效分析%The Effect of Meglumine Diatrizoate Impregnation from Gastric Tube on Abdomi nal Distention of Acute Pancreatitis Patients



      目的探讨分析泛影葡胺治疗急性胰腺炎腹胀疗效以及可行性。方法将急性胰腺炎(轻型)患者55例,随机分为治疗组28例及对照组27例。对照组给予禁食、胃肠减压及补液、镇痛、抑酶、改善微循环药物和抗生素应用、营养支持等,并胃管注入中药生大黄;治疗组于上述治疗措施基础上改用胃管注入泛影葡胺。观察肠鸣音恢复时间,肛门首次排便时间,腹胀缓解时间进行观察比较。结果治疗组各项指标恢复时间与对照组比较明显缩短(P<0.05)。结论胃管内注入泛影葡胺能较快缓解急性胰腺炎患者的腹胀症状,缩短住院时间。%Objective To explore the effect of meglumine diatrizoate impregnation from gastric tube on abdominal distention of acute pancreatitis patients. Methods 55 cases with acute pancreatitis were randomly divided into two groups,experimenta group with 28 cases and control group with 27 eases. The control group were treated with conventiona treatment and rheum officinale impregnation from gastric tube,the experimental group were given meglumine diatrizoate impregnation from gastric tube based on routine therapy . The recovery time of bowel sound,the first defecation time,the release time of abdominal distention were observed and compared. Results Compare with control grOup,all the observation indicators Of The experimental group were improved(P<0.05) .Conclusion The meglumine diatrizoate impregnation from gastric tube Could relieve abdominal distention of acute pancreatitis patients and reduce the hospitalization time .

  19. Drug: D02015 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D02015 Drug Diatrizoate meglumine (USP); Cystografin (TN); Hypaque (TN); Reno (TN);... Urovist (TN) C11H9I3N2O4. C7H17NO5 808.8803 809.1272 D02015.gif Diagnostic aid [radiopaque medium] ATC code...X-ray contrast media V08AA01 Diatrizoic acid D02015 Diatrizoate meglumine (USP) CAS: 131-49-7 PubChem: 7849077 LigandBox: D02015

  20. Filling gastric cavity with milk and meglumini diatrizoate improves the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for diagnosing the gastric cancer%牛奶造影剂充盈法在18F-FDG PET/CT诊断胃癌中的增益价值

    左卫; 吴湖炳; 王全师; 李洪生; 周文兰; 董烨


    探讨牛奶造影剂充盈后延迟显像在18F-FDG PET/CT诊断胃癌中的增益价值.临床疑诊胃癌或须除外胃癌患者81例,在行18F-FDG PET/CT常规全身显像后,口服纯牛奶和复方泛影葡胺混合液500-600 mL充盈胃腔,10-20 min后进行胃局部延迟显像.肉眼分析比较胃腔充盈前后的图像差别,以手术和胃镜活检病理以及临床随访为确诊依据,评估牛奶造影剂充盈胃腔方法在PET/CT诊断胃癌中的增益价值.81例患者中,经病理确诊为胃癌者51例,良性病变30例.牛奶造影剂充盈胃腔后PET诊断胃癌的灵敏度从常规显像的60.7%提高至82.3%(x2=5.829,P=0.016),特异性从46.7%提高至76.6%(x2=5.711,P=0.017).综合分析PET和CT所见,CT弥补了6例(6/9) 18F-FDG摄取不高的胃癌病灶的检出.常规显像和牛奶造影剂充盈胃腔后延迟显像PET/CT诊断胃癌的灵敏度分别88.2%、94.1%,特异性分别为83.3%、90.0%,二者的诊断效能无显著性差异(x2 =0.487,P=0.484和x2=0.144,P=0.704).牛奶造影剂充盈后延迟显像胃癌病灶及其侵犯范围的显示程度较空腹状态时更清楚(t=6.866,P=0.000),在45.0% (23/51)弥漫型胃癌或18F_FDG摄取较低患者中提示CT的影像改变更有助于准确地显示和判断肿瘤的侵犯范围.18F-FDG PET/CT对原发性胃癌具有较高的诊断价值,采用牛奶造影剂胃充盈法尽管未能显著提高其诊断效能,却能更清晰地显示胃癌病灶及其侵犯范围.

  1. In vivo nephroprotective efficacy of propolis against contrast-induced nephropathy

    Baykara, Murat; Silici, Sibel; Özçelik, Mehtap; Güler, Osman; Erdoğan, Nuri; Bilgen, Mehmet


    PURPOSE Contrast agents administered in diagnostic imaging or interventional procedures of clinical radiology may cause contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Preventive measures against CIN involve pharmaceutical pretreatments, such as N-acetylcystein (NAC) or calpain, but alternative medicines can also be helpful. This study aims to assess the prospects of a natural compound, propolis, as a potential nephroprotector against a specific contrast agent, diatrizoate. METHODS In vivo experiments were performed on 35 male rats in five groups: control, diatrizoate alone, and pretreatments with propolis, NAC, or calpain one hour before diatrizoate administration. Three days later, blood and renal tissue samples were collected and quantitatively processed for determining induced changes in critical biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as serum creatinine and plasma urea. RESULTS Diatrizoate increased creatinine (113%), urea (400%), and MDA (162%) levels and decreased GSH (−71%), SOD (−69%), GSH-Px (−77%), and CAT (−73%) levels. Evaluating the response of each pretreatment provided sufficient evidence that propolis was as effective as either NAC or calpain, but consistently more prominent in restoring the MDA, GSH, SOD, and GSH-Px levels close to their normal range. This outcome demonstrated the nephroprotective effect of propolis against CIN. CONCLUSION Propolis protects renal tissue against toxicity, free radicals, and other adverse effects induced by diatrizoate. This function is most likely exerted through the antioxidant and antitoxic activities of propolis. PMID:26027766

  2. Degradation of Iodinated Contrast Media in Aquatic Environment by Means of UV, UV/TiO2 Process, and by Activated Sludge.

    Borowska, Ewa; Felis, Ewa; Żabczyński, Sebastian

    Iodinated contrast media (ICM), which are used for radiological visualization of human tissue and cardiovascular system, are poorly biodegradable; hence, new methods of their removal are sought. In this study, the effectiveness of selected X-ray ICM removal by means of UV and UV/TiO2 pretreatment processes from synthetic hospital wastewater was demonstrated. The following compounds were investigated: iodipamide, iohexol, and diatrizoate. The experiments were as follows: (i) estimated susceptibility of the ICM to decay by UV radiation in different aquatic matrices, (ii) determined an optimal retention time of hospital wastewater in the UV reactor, (iii) determined optimum TiO2 concentration to improve the effectiveness of the UV pretreatment, and (iv) investigated removal of ICM by combination of the photochemical and biological treatment methods. The quantum yields of selected ICM decay in deionized water (pH = 7.0) were established as 0.006, 0.004, and 0.029 for iohexol, diatrizoate, and iodipamide, respectively. Furthermore, the experiments revealed that diatrizoate and iohexol removal in the UV/TiO2 process is more efficient than in UV process alone. For diatrizoate, the removal efficiency equaled to 40 and 30 %, respectively, and for iohexol, the efficiency was 38 and 27 %, respectively. No significant increase in iodipamide removal in UV and UV/TiO2 processes was observed (29 and 28 %, respectively). However, highest removal efficiency was demonstrated in synthetic hospital wastewater with the combined photochemical and biological treatment method. The removal of diatrizoate and iohexol increased to at least 90 %, and for iodipamide, to at least 50 %.

  3. Shoulder arthrography: comparison of morbidity after use of various contrast media

    Hall, F.M.; Goldberg, R.P.; Wyshak, G.; Kilcoyne, R.F.


    This prospective study compares immediate and delayed patient discomfort in 177 patients following shoulder arthrography using intraarticular combinations of metrizamide, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, meglumine diatrizoate, lidocaine, epinephrine, and air. Patients receiving conventional ionic monomeric positive contrast media had a 60% (90/150) incidence of moderate or severe delayed exacerbation of their baseline symptoms; only 14% (3/21) of patients receiving metrizamide, a nonionic contrast medium had similar levels of postprocedural discomfort. Morbidity was somewhat diminished with the use of double-contrast (45%, 34/75) rather than single-contrast (75%, 56/75) examinations, and with avoidance of sodium-containing contrast agents or epinephrine. Nonionic or monovalent polymeric contrast media, despite their present high cost, may be the agents of choice if single-contrast arthrography is performed in joints associated with a high incidence of postprocedural pain.

  4. Effects of contrast media on erythrocyte aggregation during sedimentation.

    Huang, Xuequn; Yoshikoshi, Akio; Hirano, Kunihiro; Sakanishi, Akio


    To evaluate the effects of contrast media (CMs) on erythrocyte aggregation, we measured the erythrocyte sedimentation with Westergren method at 25 degrees C. CMs were diatrizoate (Urografin 76%) for ionic CM and iopamidol (Iopamiron 370) for nonionic CM. Swine red blood cells (RBCs) were suspended in autologous plasma containing diatrizoate (URO), iopamidol (IOP), and saline (SAL) at 6.7% w/w, as well as in plasma alone (PLA), at 40% of the hematocrit. Sigmoid sedimentation curves were fitted to the Puccini et al. (1977) equation, and the average number of RBCs per aggregate m was calculated by Stokes' law against the time t. According to the Murata-Secomb (1988) theory we estimated the collision rate K between two aggregates from dm/dt in the stationary phase during sedimentation. Corresponding to the maximal ESR, the dm/dt (in cells/s) was 0.52 in PLA, 0.09 in SAL, 0.06 in URO and 0.03 in IOP, so that K also decreased in proportion to dm/dt from 145 fL/s in PLA to 8 fL/s in IOP. Both the ionic and nonionic CMs tend to inhibit the RBC aggregation more than that in SAL; the latter iopamidol appears to be inhibitory more than the former diatrizoate in autologous plasma.

  5. Nefropatia induzida por contraste: avaliação da proteção pela n-acetilcisteína e alopurinol em ratos uninefrectomizados Contrast-induced nephropathy: evaluation of n-acetylcysteine and allopunirol protective effect in uninephrectomized rats

    José Carlos Carraro Eduardo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A nefropatia por contraste é a terceira causa de insuficiência renal aguda em pacientes hospitalizados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação da n-acetilcisteína e do alopurinol na proteção renal em ratos de ambos os sexos que receberam diatrizoato. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar adultos jovens, uninefrectomizados e submetidos a restrição hídrica, receberam solução salina (grupo 1: machos; grupo 2: fêmeas, diatrizoato (grupo 3: machos; grupo 4: fêmeas, diatrizoato e n-acetilcisteína (grupo 5: machos, diatrizoato e alopurinol (grupo 6: machos e diatrizoato e n-acetilcisteína + alopurinol (grupo 7: machos. A filtração glomerular foi avaliada pela creatinina. O teste t de Student e o teste do sinal foram utilizados para análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Ratos que receberam diatrizoato apresentaram elevação estatisticamente significante da creatinina sérica, quando comparados aos controles, porém não houve diferença entre os sexos. Os animais que receberam alopurinol não mostraram aumento significante da creatinina, enquanto a administração de n-acetilcisteína não impediu a elevação da creatinina. CONCLUSÃO: O alopurinol mostrou-se mais efetivo que a n-acetilcisteína na proteção funcional renal ao dano induzido pelo diatrizoato de sódio. Não houve diferença entre os sexos na intensidade do dano renal pelo diatrizoato de sódio.OBJECTIVE: Contrast medium-induced nephropathy is the third most frequent cause of iatrogenic acute renal failure involving inpatients. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effect of n-acetylcysteine and allopurinol in both male and female rats receiving diatrizoate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five young adult Wistar rats submitted to hydric restriction were divided into groups as follows: groups 1 and 2 (respectively male and female rats receiving saline solution; groups 3 and 4 (respectively male and female rats receiving diatrizoate; group 5

  6. Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media and musk fragrances from wastewater?

    Ternes, Thomas A; Stüber, Jeannette; Herrmann, Nadine; McDowell, Derek; Ried, Achim; Kampmann, Martin; Teiser, Bernhard


    A pilot plant for ozonation and UV-disinfection received effluent from a German municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) to test the removal of pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and musk fragrances from municipal wastewater. In the original STP effluent, 5 antibiotics (0.34-0.63 microgl(-1)), 5 betablockers (0.18-1.7 microgl(-1)), 4 antiphlogistics (0.10-1.3 microgl(-1)), 2 lipid regulator metabolites (0.12-0.13 microgl(-1)), the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (2.1 microgl(-1)), 4 ICM (1.1-5.2 microgl(-1)), the natural estrogen estrone (0.015 microgl(-1)) and 2 musk fragrances (0.1-0.73 microgl(-1)) were detected by LC-electrospray tandem MS and/or GC/MS/MS. ICM, derived from radiological examinations, were present with the highest concentrations (diatrizoate: 5.7 microgl(-1), iopromide: 5.2 microgl(-1)). By applying 10-15 mgl(-1) ozone (contact time: 18 min), all the pharmaceuticals investigated as well as musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN) and estrone were no longer detected. However, ICM (diatrizoate, iopamidol, iopromide and iomeprol) were still detected in appreciable concentrations. Even with a 15 mgl(-1) ozone dose, the ionic diatrizoate only exhibited removal efficiencies of not higher than 14%, while the non-ionic ICM were removed to a degree of higher than 80%. Advanced oxidation processes (O(3)/UV-low pressure mercury arc, O(3)/H(2)O(2)), which were non-optimized for wastewater treatment, did not lead significantly to a higher removal efficiency for the ICM than ozone alone.

  7. Removal of Persistent Organic Contaminants by Electrochemically Activated Sulfate.

    Farhat, Ali; Keller, Jurg; Tait, Stephan; Radjenovic, Jelena


    Solutions of sulfate have often been used as background electrolytes in the electrochemical degradation of contaminants and have been generally considered inert even when high-oxidation-power anodes such as boron-doped diamond (BDD) were employed. This study examines the role of sulfate by comparing electro-oxidation rates for seven persistent organic contaminants at BDD anodes in sulfate and inert nitrate anolytes. Sulfate yielded electro-oxidation rates 10-15 times higher for all target contaminants compared to the rates of nitrate anolyte. This electrochemical activation of sulfate was also observed at concentrations as low as 1.6 mM, which is relevant for many wastewaters. Electrolysis of diatrizoate in the presence of specific radical quenchers (tert-butanol and methanol) had a similar effect on electro-oxidation rates, illustrating a possible role of the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in the anodic formation of sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) species. The addition of 0.55 mM persulfate increased the electro-oxidation rate of diatrizoate in nitrate from 0.94 to 9.97 h(-1), suggesting a nonradical activation of persulfate. Overall findings indicate the formation of strong sulfate-derived oxidant species at BDD anodes when polarized at high potentials. This may have positive implications in the electro-oxidation of wastewaters containing sulfate. For example, the energy required for the 10-fold removal of diatrizoate was decreased from 45.6 to 2.44 kWh m(-3) by switching from nitrate to sulfate anolyte.

  8. Local blood-brain barrier penetration following systemic contrast medium administration. A case report and an experimental study

    Utz, R.; Ekholm, S.E.; Isaac, L.; Sands, M.; Fonte, D.

    The present study was initiated by a severe complication in a patient with renal dysfunction who developed cortical blindness and weakness of her left extremities 30 hours following renal and abdominal angiography. To evaluate the impact of prolonged high serum concentrations of contrast medium (CM) this clinical situation was simulated in a laboratory model using sheep with elevated serum levels of contrast medium maintained for 48 hours. The experimental data did not support the theory that the prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of contrast medium (4 ml/kg body weight of meglumine diatrizoate 60%) is sufficient alone to cause penetration of the blood-brain barrier.

  9. Iopamidol: a non-ionic contrast agent for peripheral arteriography.

    Widrich, W C; Robbins, A H; Rommel, A J; Andrews, R


    Ten patients undergoing peripheral arteriography with iopamidol were evaluated in a carefully controlled Phase I study using a variety of objective and subjective tests of discomfort. There was minimal objective evidence of pain, and the patients reported that they perceived minor discomfort and a warm sensation during the contrast injections. Five patients who had previously undergone arteriography using 2 mg of lidocaine per ml of methylglucamine diatrizoate noted a marked decrease in discomfort when iopamidol was used. Opacification of peripheral arteries was excellent. Multiple physical examinations, chemical tests, electrocardiograms, and intra-arterial pressure recordings showed that iopamidol is safe.

  10. Value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of primary gastric cancer via stomach distension

    Ma, Quanmei, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Xin, Jun, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhao, Zhoushe, E-mail: [GE, Shenyang 110004 (China); Guo, Qiyong, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Yu, Shupeng, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Xu, Weina, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Changping, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhai, Wei, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)


    Objective: To clarify the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detecting primary gastric cancer via gastric distention using a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine. Materials and methods: A total of 68 patients (male: 47, female: 21; age: 41–87 years) suspected of gastric carcinoma underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging. After whole-body PET/CT imaging in a fasting state, the patients drank a measured amount of milk with Diatrizoate Meglumine. Local gastric district PET/CT imaging was performed 30 min later. The imaging was analyzed by semi-quantitative analysis, standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary tumor was measured in a region of interest. The diagnosis results were confirmed by gastroscopy, pathology, and follow-up results. Results: Of the 68 patients, 56 malignant gastric neoplasm patients (male: 37, female: 19) were conformed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of fasting whole-body PET/CT imaging for a primary malignant tumor were 92.9%, 75.0%, 94.5%, and 69.0%, respectively. The values for distension with a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine were 91.1%, 91.7%, 98.1%, and 68.8%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.919 ± 0.033 and 0.883 ± 0.066 for the diagnosis of gastric cancer with SUV{sub max} in a fasting state and after intake of mixture respectively, the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.359). Using gastric distension with a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine, the mean ratio of the lesion's SUV{sub max} to the adjacent gastric wall SUV{sub max} increased significantly from 3.30 ± 3.05 to 13.50 ± 15.05, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging is highly accurate for the diagnosis of primary gastric carcinoma. Gastric distention can display the lesions more clearly, however, it cannot significantly improve diagnostic accuracy.

  11. The impact of iodinated X-ray contrast agents on formation and toxicity of disinfection by-products in drinking water.

    Jeong, Clara H; Machek, Edward J; Shakeri, Morteza; Duirk, Stephen E; Ternes, Thomas A; Richardson, Susan D; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J


    The presence of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) in source waters is of high concern to public health because of their potential to generate highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ICM in source waters and the type of disinfectant on the overall toxicity of DBP mixtures and to determine which ICM and reaction conditions give rise to toxic by-products. Source waters collected from Akron, OH were treated with five different ICMs, including iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, diatrizoate and iomeprol, with or without chlorine or chloramine disinfection. The reaction product mixtures were concentrated with XAD resins and the mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the reaction mixture concentrates was measured. Water containing iopamidol generated an enhanced level of mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after disinfection. While chlorine disinfection with iopamidol resulted in the highest cytotoxicity overall, the relative iopamidol-mediated increase in toxicity was greater when chloramine was used as the disinfectant compared with chlorine. Four other ICMs (iopromide, iohexol, diatrizoate, and iomeprol) expressed some cytotoxicity over the control without any disinfection, and induced higher cytotoxicity when chlorinated. Only iohexol enhanced genotoxicity compared to the chlorinated source water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors with oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III) and sulfate as electron acceptors

    Schmidt, Natalie; Page, Declan; Tiehm, Andreas


    Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds was examined in long term batch experiments for a period of two and a half years to obtain more insight into the effects of redox conditions. A mix including lipid lowering agents (e.g. clofibric acid, gemfibrozil), analgesics (e.g. diclofenac, naproxen), beta blockers (e.g. atenolol, propranolol), X-ray contrast media (e.g. diatrizoic acid, iomeprol) as well as the antiepileptic carbamazepine and endocrine disruptors (e.g. bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol) was analyzed in batch tests in the presence of oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III), and sulfate. Out of the 23 selected substances, 14 showed a degradation of > 50% of their initial concentrations under aerobic conditions. The beta blockers propranolol and atenolol and the analgesics pentoxifylline and naproxen showed a removal of > 50% under anaerobic conditions. In particular naproxen proved to be degradable with oxygen and under most anaerobic conditions, i.e. with manganese (IV), iron (III), or sulfate. The natural estrogens estriol, estrone and 17β-estradiol showed complete biodegradation under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions, with a temporary increase of estrone during transformation of estriol and 17β-estradiol. Transformation of 17β-estradiol under Fe(III)-reducing conditions resulted in an increase of estriol as well. Concentrations of clofibric acid, carbamazepine, iopamidol and diatrizoic acid, known for their recalcitrance in the environment, remained unchanged.

  13. CT colonography with reduced bowel preparation after incomplete colonoscopy in the elderly

    Iafrate, F.; Stagnitti, A. [University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Hassan, C.; Zullo, A. [Hospital-Rome, Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Rome (Italy); Spagnuolo, A. [Univeristy of Rome, I.C.O.T, Department of Radiological Sciences, Latina (Italy); Ferrari, R.; Laghi, A.


    We prospectively assessed the feasibility and acceptance of computerized tomographic colonography (CTC) without bowel cathartic preparation in elderly patients after incomplete colonoscopy. A total of 136 patients underwent CTC without cathartic preparation. The time delay between conventional colonoscopy and CTC ranged between 3 and 20 days, depending on the clinical situation. Before CTC, fecal tagging was achieved by adding diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium to regular meals. CTCs were interpreted using a primary two-dimensional (2D) approach and 3D images for further characterization. Patients were interviewed before and 2 weeks after CTC to assess preparation acceptance. CTC was feasible and technically successful in all the 136 patients. Fecal tagging was judged as excellent in 113 (83%) patients and sufficient in 23 (17%). Average CT image interpretation time was 14.8 min. Six (4.4%) cases of colorectal cancer and nine (6.6%) large polyps were detected, as well as 23 (11.3%) extracolonic findings of high clinical importance. No major side effect occurred, although 25% patients reported minor side effects, especially diarrhea. Overall, 76/98 patients replied that they would be willing to repeat the test if necessary. CTC without cathartic preparation is a technically feasible and safe procedure to complete a colonic study in the elderly, prompting its use in clinical practice. (orig.)

  14. Intraoperative perfusion contrast echocardiography. Initial experience during coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Kabas, J S; Kisslo, J; Flick, C L; Johnson, S H; Craig, D M; Stanley, T E; Smith, P K


    Intraoperative evaluation of the effectiveness of myocardial revascularization has been limited by an inability to assess regional myocardial perfusion. Microbubbles of sonicated diatrizoate sodium and diatrizoate meglumine (Renografin) have been an effective echocardiographic contrast agent and have been employed clinically during cardiac catheterization. This recent development in contrast-enhanced two-dimensional echocardiography permits real-time imaging of transmural myocardial blood flow but has not been evaluated in the operating room. This study represents the initial surgical application of this directed technique and was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intraoperative perfusion contrast echocardiography in assessing the results of coronary artery bypass grafting. Twenty men with significant coronary artery disease ranging in age from 49 to 73 years were studied. Direct contrast agent injection into completed saphenous vein bypass grafts caused the myocardium supplied by each graft to be well delineated and provided a tomographic view of contrast distribution. The enhanced region was well correlated with the size and distribution of the native vessel. Rapid contrast washout (less than 20 seconds) indicated satisfactory regional perfusion. Contrast echocardiography prolonged the operation less than 10 minutes and did not result in any perioperative complications.

  15. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G


    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination.

  16. Development of sustainable Palladium-based catalysts for removal of persistent contaminants from drinking water

    Shuai, Danmeng

    Pd-based catalytic reduction has emerged as an advanced treatment technology for drinking water decontamination, and a suite of persistent contaminants including oxyanions, N-nitrosoamines, and halogenated compounds are amenable to catalytic reduction. The primary goal of this study is to develop novel Pd-based catalysts with enhanced performance (i.e., activity, selectivity, and sustainability) to remove contaminants from drinking water. The effects of water quality (i.e., co-contaminants in water matrix), catalyst support, and catalyst metal were explored, and they provide insights for preparing catalysts with faster kinetics, higher selectivity, and extended lifetime. Azo dyes are wide-spread contaminants, and they are potentially co-exisiting with target contaminants amenable for catalytic removal. The probe azo dye methyl orange (MO) enhanced catalytic reduction kinetics of a suite of oxyanions (i.e., nitrate, nitrite, bromate, chlorate, and perchlorate) and diatrizoate significantly but not N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) with a variety of Pd-based catalysts. Nitrate was selected as a probe contaminant, and several different azo dyes (i.e., (methyl orange, methyl red, fast yellow AB, metanil yellow, acid orange 7, congo red, eriochrome black T, acid red 27, acid yellow 11, and acid yellow 17) were evaluated for their ability to enhance reduction. A hydrogen atom shuttling mechanism was proposed and a kinetic model was proposed based on Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) theory, and they suggest sorbed azo dyes and reduced hydrazo dyes shuttle hydrogen atoms to oxyanions or diatrizoate to enhance their reduction kinetics. Next, vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports were used to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). In order to evaluate the amount of interior versus exterior loading of Pd nanoparticles, a fast and accurate geometric

  17. Structure Sensitivity Study of Waterborne Contaminant Hydrogenation Using Shape- and Size-Controlled Pd Nanoparticles

    Shuai, Danmeng


    Catalytic reduction with Pd has emerged as a promising technology to remove a suite of contaminants from drinking water, such as oxyanions, disinfection byproducts, and halogenated pollutants, but low activity is a major challenge for application. To address this challenge, we synthesized a set of shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles and evaluated the activity of three probe contaminants (i.e., nitrite, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and diatrizoate) as a function of facet type (e.g., (100), (110), (111)), ratios of low- to high-coordination sites, and ratios of surface sites to total Pd (i.e., dispersion). Reduction results for an initial contaminant concentration of 100 μM show that initial turnover frequency (TOF0) for nitrite increases 4.7-fold with increasing percent of (100) surface Pd sites (from 0% to 95.3%), whereas the TOF0 for NDMA and for diatrizoate increases 4.5- and 3.6-fold, respectively, with an increasing percent of terrace surface Pd sites (from 79.8% to 95.3%). Results for an initial nitrite concentration of 2 mM show that TOF0 is the same for all shape- and size-controlled Pd nanoparticles. Trends for TOF0 were supported by results showing that all catalysts but one were stable in shape and size up to 12 days; for the exception, iodide liberation in diatrizoate reduction appeared to be responsible for a shape change of 4 nm octahedral Pd nanoparticles. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations for the free energy change of hydrogen (H2), nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO) adsorption and a two-site model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism suggest that competition of adsorbates for different Pd sites can explain the TOF0 results. Our study shows for the first time that catalytic reduction activity for waterborne contaminant removal varies with the Pd shape and size, and it suggests that Pd catalysts can be tailored for optimal performance to treat a variety of contaminants for drinking water. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Animal experimental model for evaluating endothelial damage caused by various angiographic contrast media

    Gottlob, R.


    The endothelial damage caused by X-ray contrast media is tested on en face preparations of the rat aorta after silver staining. Hypertonic contrast media cause dehydration of the vessels so that solutions of silver nitrate penetrate into the media during the phase of rehydration whereby medial transverse lines are stained. These artifacts can be avoided by 3 minute rehydration of the vessels by Ringer solution prior to silver staining. In addition it is recommended to add highly diluted silver nitrate to the fixing media in order to intensify the pattern of the endothelial silver lines. Modern contrast media may cause very little endothelial damage, however, significant differences can be detected when in addition to the evaluation of larger foci damages of single endothelial cells ( brown cells with sparing of the nuclei and pseudonuclei ) are evaluated as well. No significant differences were found between the endothelial toxicity of meglumin diatrizoate and meglumin iothalamate.

  19. Iodinated contrast media induce neutrophil apoptosis through a mitochondrial and caspase mediated pathway.

    Fanning, N F


    Iodinated contrast media (ICM) can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in renal, myocardial and endothelial cells. Following intravascular injection, circulating immune cells are exposed to high concentrations of ICM. As neutrophils constitutively undergo apoptosis we hypothesized that ICM may adversely affect neutrophil survival. Our aim was to investigate the effect of ICM on neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophils were isolated from healthy subjects and cultured in vitro with ionic (diatrizoate and ioxaglate) and non-ionic (iohexol and iotrolan) ICM. The effect of ICM on neutrophil apoptosis in both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils was determined by annexin V flow cytometry. The influence of physicochemical properties of the different ICM on apoptosis of neutrophils was also studied. We further investigated the effects of ICM on key intracellular signal pathways, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by Western blotting, and mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activity by flow cytometry. Isoiodine concentrations (20 mg ml(-1)) of ionic (diatrizoate 69.6+\\/-2.9%; ioxaglate 58.9+\\/-2.0%) and non-ionic (iohexol 57.3+\\/-2.9%; iotrolan 57.1+\\/-2.6%) ICM significantly induced neutrophil apoptosis over control levels (47.7+\\/-1.4%). The apoptotic effect of ICM was influenced by their chemical structure, with ionic ICM having a more significant (p<0.01) apoptotic effect than non-ionic ICM (p<0.05). Furthermore, ICM reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of lipopolysaccharide (1000 ng ml(-1)) treated neutrophils to control levels (23.0+\\/-3.5% to 61.2+\\/-5.3%; n=4; p<0.05). These agents induce apoptosis through a p38 MAPK independent pathway that results in mitochondrial depolarization, and is dependent on caspase activation. As neutrophils play a central role in host response to infection and injury, ICM, through induction of neutrophil apoptosis, could have a significant deleterious effect on host immune defence and

  20. Ionic radiocontrast inhibits endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the canine renal artery in vitro: possible mechanism of renal failure following contrast medium infusion

    B. Discigil


    Full Text Available To determine if radiocontrast impairs vascular relaxation of the renal artery, segments (4-5 mm in length of canine renal artery were suspended in vitro in organ chambers to measure isometric force (95% O2/5% CO2, at 37ºC. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were placed at the optimal point of their length-tension relation and incubated with 10 µM indomethacin to prevent synthesis of endogenous prostanoids. The presence of nonionic radiocontrast (iohexol, Omnipaque 350, 1 ml in 25 ml control solution, 4% (v/v did not alter endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in rings precontracted with both norepinephrine and prostaglandin F2alpha (N = 6. When the rings were precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha, the presence of ionic contrast did not inhibit the relaxation of the arteries. However, in canine renal arteries contracted with norepinephrine, the presence of ionic radiocontrast (diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium, MD-76, 1 ml in 25 ml control solution, 4% (v/v inhibited relaxation in response to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside (N = 6 in each group, and isoproterenol (N = 5; P < 0.05. Rings were relaxed less than 50% of norepinephrine contraction. Following removal of the contrast, vascular relaxation in response to the agonists returned to normal. These results indicate that ionic radiocontrast nonspecifically inhibits vasodilation (both cAMP-mediated and cGMP-mediated of canine renal arteries contracted with norepinephrine. This reversible impairment of vasodilation could inhibit normal renal perfusion and act as a mechanism of renal failure following radiocontrast infusion. In the adopted experimental protocol the isoproterenol-induced relaxation of renal arteries precontracted with norepinephrine was more affected, suggesting a pivotal role of the cAMP system.

  1. Effect of oxidation and catalytic reduction of trace organic contaminants on their activated carbon adsorption.

    Schoutteten, Klaas V K M; Hennebel, Tom; Dheere, Ellen; Bertelkamp, Cheryl; De Ridder, David J; Maes, Synthia; Chys, Michael; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verliefde, Arne R D


    The combination of ozonation and activated carbon (AC) adsorption is an established technology for removal of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs). In contrast to oxidation, reduction of TrOCs has recently gained attention as well, however less attention has gone to the combination of reduction with AC adsorption. In addition, no literature has compared the removal behavior of reduction vs. ozonation by-products by AC. In this study, the effect of pre-ozonation vs pre-catalytic reduction on the AC adsorption efficiency of five TrOCs and their by-products was compared. All compounds were susceptible to oxidation and reduction, however the catalytic reductive treatment proved to be a slower reaction than ozonation. New oxidation products were identified for dinoseb and new reduction products were identified for carbamazepine, bromoxynil and dinoseb. In terms of compatibility with AC adsorption, the influence of the oxidative and reductive pretreatments proved to be compound dependent. Oxidation products of bromoxynil and diatrizoic acid adsorbed better than their parent TrOCs, but oxidation products of atrazine, carbamazepine and dinoseb showed a decreased adsorption. The reductive pre-treatment showed an enhanced AC adsorption for dinoseb and a major enhancement for diatrizoic acid. For atrazine and bromoxynil, no clear influence on adsorption was noted, while for carbamazepine, the reductive pretreatment resulted in a decreased AC affinity. It may thus be concluded that when targeting mixtures of TrOCs, a trade-off will undoubtedly have to be made towards overall reactivity and removal of the different constituents, since no single treatment proves to be superior to the other.

  2. Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water.

    Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Götz


    A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90 ± 6 %) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10 ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40 % during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80 % elimination) and acesulfame (85 % elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20 ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method.

  3. SU-F-P-29: Impact of Oral Contrast Agent for Assisting in Outlining Small Intestine On Pelvic IMAT Dose in Patients with Cervical Cancer

    Zhang, R; Bai, W; Fan, X [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)


    Purpose: As the advanced intensity modulated arc therapy(IMAT) delivery systems becoming a main role of treatment ways, which places even greater demands on delivering accuracy. The impact of oral contrast agent (meglumine diatrizoate) for assisting in outlining the small intestine on pelvic IMAT dose in patients with cervical cancer was investigated. Methods: Ten cervical cancer patients for postoperative radiotherapy underwent CT scans, and the planning target volumes (PTV) and organs at risk (including the small intestine, rectum, bladder, colon and the left and right femoral head) were contoured. The IMAT plans were generated on Oncentra v4.1 planning system for each case, PTV was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Then another plan was generated by re-calculating the radiation dose after changing the electron density of the small bowel. The first plan (plan A) was the conventional IMAT plan (with oral contrast agent), and the second one (plan B) specified the electron density of the small bowel (without oral contrast agent). Paired t-test was used to compare the dose distribution between the two plans. Results: The PTV’s D2, D50, D95, V110, conformity index, and homogeneity index of plans A and B were 5610.5 vs. 5611.4 cGy (P=0.175), 5348.5 vs. 5348.0 cGy (P=0.869), 5039 vs. 5042.3 (P=0.518), 6.0% vs. 6.1 %( P=0.886), 0.1269 vs. 0.1271 (P=0.34) and 0.8421 vs. 0.8416 (P=0.598), respectively. The volumes of the small bowel receiving at least 30 Gy (V30) and the minimum dose of 2% volume accepted (D2) for plans A and B were 31.6% vs. 31.9% (P=0.371) and 5067.8 vs. 5085.4 cGy (P=0.377), while rectum V50 of the two plans was 12.4% vs. 12.1% (P=0.489). Conclusion: The oral contrast agent (meglumine diatrizoate) filling the small intestine does not lead to a significant increase in the pelvic IMAT dose in patients with cervical cancer.

  4. [Hemodynamic effects of intracardiac diatritoic acid and their dependance on left ventricular function and severity of coronary sclerosis (author's transl)].

    Kober, G; Schröder, W; Kaltenbach, M


    In 16 patients with coronary heart disease (n = 13) and cardiomyopathy (n = 3) heart rate, left ventricular pressure and contractility (max dp/dt, min dp/dt and Vpm) were measured prior during and after three consecutive left ventricular angiograms. Heart rate decreased during angiography and increased slightly but significantly after angiography. Systolic and diastolic left ventricular pressure, max dp/dt and min dp/dt increased after angiography, whereas Vpm remained unchanged. Any hemodynamic changes occuring were moderate and only of short duration. No significant differences were found a) between patients with angiographically proven normal and reduced left ventricular function, b) between patients with normal or increased left ventricular filling pressure or c) between those with slight or severe coronary heart disease. The investigations point to a good tolerance for the sodium methyl glucamine salt of diatrizoic acid (Urografin 76) even in patients with progressed coronary heart disease. Severe side-effects described in animal experiments indicate a poor comparibility between animal models and human studies. Moreover animal experiments are mostly done with high doses not used clinically.

  5. The use of dilute calogen[reg] as a fat density oral contrast medium in upper abdominal computed tomography, compared with the use of water and positive oral contrast media

    Ramsay, Duncan W.; Markham, Derrian H.; Morgan, Bruno; Rodgers, Peter M.; Liddicoat, Amanda J


    AIM: Oral contrast media are commonly given prior to computed tomography (CT) examination of the upper abdomen. Although positive oral contrast media are normally used, there is increasing interest in using negative agents such as water and less commonly fat density products. The aim of this study was to compare a positive oral contrast medium, water, and a diluted emulsion of arachis oil (Calogen[reg], a fat density food supplement) for assessment of the upper abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients referred for upper abdominal CT were randomized to receive either 500 ml water, 2% sodium diatrizoate or a dilute suspension of Calogen[reg]. The CT images were scored independently by three radiologists. Distension and anatomical identification was assessed for the stomach, duodenum and jejunum; with anatomical identification recorded for the pancreas, retroperitoneum, liver, gallbladder and spleen. RESULTS: Dilute Calogen[reg] produced a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in distension and anatomical visualization of the stomach and proximal duodenum. Only minimal differences were demonstrated between the three contrast media for visualization of more distal small bowel or identification of the other upper abdominal viscera. Significantly more artifacts were caused by positive contrast media than with the Calogen[reg] mixture. CONCLUSION: A dilute suspension of Calogen[reg] as an oral contrast medium is recommended when disease is suspected within the stomach or proximal duodenum. Ramsay, D.W. et al. (2001)

  6. Potential of pulsed corona discharges generated in water for the degradation of persistent pharmaceutical residues.

    Banaschik, Robert; Lukes, Petr; Jablonowski, Helena; Hammer, Malte U; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Kolb, Juergen F


    Anthropogenic pollutants and in particular pharmaceutical residues are a potential risk for potable water where they are found in increasing concentrations. Different environmental effects could already be linked to the presence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters even for low concentrations. Many pharmaceuticals withstand conventional water treatment technologies. Consequently, there is a need for new water purification techniques. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP), and especially plasmas with their ability to create reactive species directly in water, may offer a promising solution. We developed a plasma reactor with a coaxial geometry to generate large volume corona discharges directly in water and investigated the degradation of seven recalcitrant pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diatrizoate, diazepam, diclofenac, ibuprofen, 17α-ethinylestradiol, trimethoprim). For most substances we observed decomposition rates from 45% to 99% for treatment times of 15-66 min. Especially ethinylestradiol and diclofenac were readily decomposed. As an inherent advantage of the method, we found no acidification and only an insignificant increase in nitrate/nitrite concentrations below legal limits for the treatment. Studies on the basic plasma chemical processes for the model system of phenol showed that the degradation is primarily caused by hydroxyl radicals.

  7. Photocatalytic performance of crystalline titania polymorphs in the degradation of hazardous pharmaceuticals and dyes

    Thuong Huyen Tran, Thi; Kosslick, Hendrik; Schulz, Axel; Liem Nguyen, Quang


    In the present work, nano-sized TiO2 polymorphs (anatase, brookite, and rutile) were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment of an amorphous titania. Three polymorphs were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, UV–Vis DRS, and N2-sorption measurements. The photocatalytic degradation experiments were performed with low catalyst concentration, high organic loading under a 60 W UV–Vis solarium lamp irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation was monitored by UV–Vis spectroscopy and TOC measurements. Cinnamic acid, ibuprofen, phenol, diatrizoic acid and the dyes rhodamine B and rose bengal were used as model pollutants. The formation of intermediates was studied by ESI-TOF-MS measurements. The presence of active species was checked by quenching the activity by addition of scavengers. The photocatalytic activity decreased in the order: anatase  ⩾  brookite  >  rutile, with growing recalcitrance of organic compounds. The differences in the activity are more pronounced in the degree of mineralization. The valence band holes and superoxide radicals were the major active species in the photocatalytic treatment with anatase and brookite, whereas hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals contributed mainly in the treatment with rutile explaining the lower activity of rutile. The complementary use of UV–Vis spectroscopy and TOC measurements was required to obtain a comprehensive realistic assessment on the photocatalytic performance of catalyst. Invited talk at 8th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (IWAMSN2016), 8–12 November 2016, Ha Long City, Vietnam.

  8. Clinical cardiovascular experiences with iopamidol: a new non-ionic contrast medium.

    Partridge, J B; Robinson, P J; Turnbull, C M; Stoker, J B; Boyle, R M; Morrison, G W


    Iopamidol, a new non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium, has been compared with standard ionic media in a number of cardiovascular applications. It is stable in aqueous solution, is much less viscous and only slightly more osmolar than metrizamide. Compared to sodium meglumine diatrizoate in a series of 40 coronary arteriograms, it produced a consistent and highly significant decrease in the incidence and severity of hypotension and bradycardia following intracoronary injection. In the same group and in 62 children undergoing ventricular or great vessel angiocardiography, a subjective assessment of patient reaction showed that iopamidol was better tolerated than the ionic medium. There was a very strong patient preference for iopamidol in a group of 20 of the adult patients who had also consented to femoral artery injections of both media. Throughout these series there was no detectable difference in arterial image quality between the media. Venous phase opacification during arterioportography was assessed in 11 cases comparing iopamidol with sodium meglumine iothalamate. No significant difference was found. We conclude that iopamidol is clearly preferable to ionic media for routine cardiovascular applications.

  9. Is intraoperative cholangiography necessary during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis?

    Ding, Guo-Qian; Cai, Wang; Qin, Ming-Fang


    To determine the efficacy and safety benefits of performing intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) to treat symptomatic cholelithiasis. Patients admitted to the Minimally Invasive Surgery Center of Tianjin Nankai Hospital between January 2012 and January 2014 for management of symptomatic cholelithiasis were recruited for this prospective randomized trial. Study enrollment was offered to patients with clinical presentation of biliary colic symptoms, radiological findings suggestive of gallstones, and normal serum biochemistry results. Study participants were randomized to receive either routine LC treatment or LC+IOC treatment. The routine LC procedure was carried out using the standard four-port technique; the LC+IOC procedure was carried out with the addition of meglumine diatrizoate (1:1 dilution with normal saline) injection via a catheter introduced through a small incision in the cystic duct made by laparoscopic scissors. Operative data and postoperative outcomes, including operative time, retained common bile duct (CBD) stones, CBD injury, other complications and length of hospital stay, were recorded for comparative analysis. Inter-group differences were statistically assessed by the χ2 test (categorical variables) and Fisher's exact test (binary variables), with the threshold for statistical significance set at Pcholelithiasis does not improve rates of CBD stone retainment or bile duct injury but lengthens operative time.

  10. The use of dilute Calogen as a fat density oral contrast medium in upper abdominal computed tomography, compared with the use of water and positive oral contrast media.

    Ramsay, D W; Markham, D H; Morgan, B; Rodgers, P M; Liddicoat, A J


    Oral contrast media are commonly given prior to computed tomography (CT) examination of the upper abdomen. Although positive oral contrast media are normally used, there is increasing interest in using negative agents such as water and less commonly fat density products. The aim of this study was to compare a positive oral contrast medium, water, and a diluted emulsion of arachis oil Calogen, a fat density food supplement) for assessment of the upper abdomen. Seventy-one patients referred for upper abdominal CT were randomized to receive either 500 ml water, 2% sodium diatrizoate or a dilute suspension of Calogen. The CT images were scored independently by three radiologists. Distension and anatomical identification was assessed for the stomach, duodenum and jejunum; with anatomical identification recorded for the pancreas, retroperitoneum, liver, gallbladder and spleen. Dilute Calogen produced a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in distension and anatomical visualization of the stomach and proximal duodenum. Only minimal differences were demonstrated between the three contrast media for visualization of more distal small bowel or identification of the other upper abdominal viscera. Significantly more artifacts were caused by positive contrast media than with the Calogen mixture. A dilute suspension of Calogen as an oral contrast medium is recommended when disease is suspected within the stomach or proximal duodenum.

  11. The effect of palatability of oral contrast media on compliance with drinking protocols, and on bowel opacification, in abdominal CT

    Morgan, Bruno [Department of Radiology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Infirmary Square, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Basu, Avi; Kithoray, Surjinder; Tyagi, Raman; Campbell, Shona; Liddicoat, Amanda [Department of Radiology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Infirmary Square, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: To assess whether palatability of oral contrast in CT has an impact on adherence to oral contrast media drinking protocols; and whether such variation has an impact on bowel opacification. Three different types of contrast media were compared; ionic and non-ionic iodinated oral contrast (Gastrografin, Diatrizoate, Schering AG), Gastromiro (Iopamidol, Bracco SpA) and the barium based contrast E-Z-Cat (E-Z-EM). Materials and methods: In the first stage of the study 101 prospective patients were randomly given 1 L of a {approx}2% solution of Gastrografin or Gastromiro prior to a body CT scan. Data was recorded concerning the palatability of the oral contrast, drinking protocol compliance and bowel opacification. The second stage involved 66 prospective patients given Gastromiro or E-Z-Cat (again 1 L of {approx}2% solution). Results: Gastromiro had better palatability than Gastrografin (p = 0.001) and improved protocol compliance. E-Z-Cat had similar palatability to Gastromiro . Patients who found the oral contrast more palatable had improved drinking protocol compliance (p = 0.007) and improved small bowel opacification (p = 0.03). E-Z-Cat had similar palatability and protocol compliance to Gastromiro but better overall small bowel opacification (p = 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion we suggest that the palatability of oral contrast is not only important to the patients overall experience of body CT, but that it is also linked to adherence with oral contrast drinking protocols leading to better bowel opacification.

  12. Fluorescence-Guided Probes of Aptamer-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles with Computed Tomography Imaging Accesses for in Vivo Tumor Resection

    Li, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Su, Hsin-Jan; Lai, Wei-Yun; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Wang, Di-Yan; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chia-Chun


    Recent development of molecular imaging probes for fluorescence-guided surgery has shown great progresses for determining tumor margin to execute the tissue resection. Here we synthesize the fluorescent gold nanoparticles conjugated with diatrizoic acid and nucleolin-targeted AS1411 aptamer. The nanoparticle conjugates exhibit high water-solubility, good biocompatibility, visible fluorescence and strong X-ray attenuation for computed tomography (CT) contrast enhancement. The fluorescent nanoparticle conjugates are applied as a molecular contrast agent to reveal the tumor location in CL1-5 tumor-bearing mice by CT imaging. Furthermore, the orange-red fluorescence emitting from the conjugates in the CL1-5 tumor can be easily visualized by the naked eyes. After the resection, the IVIS measurements show that the fluorescence signal of the nanoparticle conjugates in the tumor is greatly enhanced in comparison to that in the controlled experiment. Our work has shown potential application of functionalized nanoparticles as a dual-function imaging agent in clinical fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:26507179

  13. The contribution of pharmaceutically active compounds from healthcare facilities to a receiving sewage treatment plant in Canada.

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince; Lam, Yuet Ming; Elises, Alan; Puddicomb, Aaron; Purba, Gurminder; Di Caro, Joanne; Fletcher, Tim


    Concentrations and percent loadings of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and other emerging contaminants released from healthcare facilities (2 hospitals and a long-term care facility) to a sewage treatment plant (STP) in a large urban sewershed were evaluated. An additional hospital outside the sewershed was also monitored. Fourteen of the 24 steroids/hormones and 88 of the 117 PhACs and emerging contaminants were detected at least once. Commonly used substances, including cotinine, caffeine and its metabolite 1,7-dimethylxanthine, ibuprofen and naproxen (analgesics), venlafaxine (antidepressant), and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (insect repellant), were detected in all samples at all sites. Concentrations detected in the large specialty hospital outside the sewershed were similar to those within the sewershed. Cytotoxic drugs (tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide) and x-ray contrast media (iopamidol and diatrizoic acid) were infrequently detected in hospital effluents. Analysis for antibiotics indicated that azithromycin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were consistently detected in hospital wastewaters, as was triclosan (antibacterial agent). Fifteen compounds individually contributed greater than 1% to the total PhAC and emerging contaminant load to the STP from the 2 hospitals in the sewershed, and 9 compounds in the STP effluent exceeded ecotoxicological criteria. The present survey demonstrates that point source discharges from healthcare facilities in this sewershed make a small contribution to the overall PhAC and emerging contaminant loading compared with the total concentrations entering the receiving STP.

  14. CT colonography with limited bowel preparation: prospective assessment of patient experience and preference in comparison to optical colonoscopy with cathartic bowel preparation

    Jensch, Sebastiaan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra; Vries, Ayso H. de; Heutinck, Anneke; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peringa, Jan; Montauban van Swijndregt, Alexander D. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dekker, Evelien [University of Amsterdam, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baak, Lubbertus C. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Gastroenterology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare participant experience and preference of limited preparation computed tomography colonography (CTC) with full-preparation colonoscopy in a consecutive series of patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer. CTC preparation comprised 180 ml diatrizoate meglumine, 80 ml barium and 30 mg bisacodyl. For the colonoscopy preparation 4 l of polyethylene glycol solution was used. Participants' experience and preference were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the chi-squared test, respectively. Associations between preference and experience parameters for the 173 participants were determined by logistic regression. Diarrhoea occurred in 94% of participants during CTC preparation. This side effect was perceived as severely or extremely burdensome by 29%. Nonetheless, the total burden was significantly lower for the CTC preparation than for colonoscopy (9% rated the CTC preparation as severely or extremely burdensome compared with 59% for colonoscopy; p<0.001). Participants experienced significantly more pain, discomfort and total burden with the colonoscopy procedure than with CTC (p<0.001). After 5 weeks, 69% preferred CTC, 8% were indifferent and 23% preferred colonoscopy (p<0.001). A burdensome colonoscopy preparation and pain at colonoscopy were associated with CTC preference (p<0.04). In conclusion, participants' experience and preference were rated in favour of CTC with limited bowel preparation compared with full-preparation colonoscopy. (orig.)

  15. Transformation of iopamidol during chlorination.

    Wendel, Friedrich M; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Machek, Edward J; Duirk, Stephen E; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D; Ternes, Thomas A


    The transformation of the iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol, and diatrizoate was examined in purified water over the pH range from 6.5 to 8.5 in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, only iopamidol was transformed. All other ICM did not show significant reactivity, regardless of the oxidant used. Chlorination of iopamidol followed a second order reaction, with an observed rate constant of up to 0.87 M(-1) s(-1) (±0.021 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8.5. The hypochlorite anion was identified to be the reactive chlorine species. Iodine was released during the transformation of iopamidol, and was mainly oxidized to iodate. Only a small percentage (less than 2% after 24 h) was transformed to known organic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of low molecular weight. Some of the iodine was still present in high-molecular weight DBPs. The chemical structures of these DBPs were elucidated via MSn fragmentation and NMR. Side chain cleavage was observed as well as the exchange of iodine by chlorine. An overall transformation pathway was proposed for the degradation of iopamidol. CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity tests indicate that chlorination of iopamidol generates a toxic mixture of high molecular weight DBPs (LC50 332 ng/μL).

  16. Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: a prospective study

    Dhruv J. Modi


    Full Text Available Background: Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media may be classified as general and organ-specific, such as contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. General adverse reactions may be sub classified into acute and delayed types. Acute general adverse reactions can range from transient minor reactions to life-threatening severe reactions. This study was done to determine clinical adverse effects of the iodinated contrast media. Methods: Data of 899 consecutive patients at C.U. Shah Medical College and Hospital, Surendranagar, who received sodium meglumine diatrizoate intravenous iodinated contrast media during the period of May 2011 to April 2012, were collected for any adverse drug reactions. Results: Out of 899, 189 patients developed adverse contrast reactions. The incidences of mild, moderate and severe adverse reactions were 19.47%, 1.33% and 0.28%, respectively. There were no differences in the incidence of adverse reactions according to gender (males 21.1%; females 20.7%; p= >0.05 or age (p= >0.05. The incidence of adverse reactions was significantly higher in patients with a history of previous reactions (50% than in those with no history (21.25%; p= <0.05. Conclusions: The skin was the most commonly affected site of reactions. In reactions, mild forms were more common compared to moderate and severe. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 211-215

  17. Addition of lacal anesthetics to contrast media. Pt. 2. Increase of acute mortality in mice with intravenous contrast administration

    Nilsson, P.; Almen, T.; Golman, K.; Jonsson, K.; Nyman, U.

    The acute intravenous toxicity (i.v. LD/sub 50/) of solutions of the ratio 1.5 contrast media metrizoate or diatrizoate and the ratio 3.0 contrast medium metrizamide was determined in mice with and without the addition of local anesthetics to the solutions. The two local anesthetics mepivacaine or lidocaine were added to final concentrations up to 2.0 mg/ml of the contrast medium solutions. This corresponds to clinically used concentrations. All additions of local anesthetics to the solutions increased the mortalities caused by the contrast medium solutions. Addition of local anesthetics to a final concentration of 2 mg/ml approximately doubled the acute intravenous toxicity of the contrast media. The ratio 3 contrast media produce less hypertonic solutions than the ratio 1.5 contrast media and should be preferred for angiography because they cause less pain and do not require the addition of local anesthetics which increase the acute toxicity of the solutions.

  18. Comparative Analysis on Two Intestinal Preparation Methods in Multi-Slice Spiral CT Enterography%两种肠道准备方法在多层螺旋CT小肠造影中的对比分析



    目的:探讨两种肠道准备方法在多层螺旋CT小肠造影中的对比效果.方法选取行多层螺旋CT小肠造影的患者152例,根据肠道准备方法分为两组,76例患者先行肥皂水清洁灌肠后口服泛影葡胺充盈肠道为对照组,76例患者口服甘露醇和泛影葡胺混合水溶液充盈肠道为观察组,比较两组患者的服药依从性、检查舒适度、肠道充盈效果、造影图像质量、不良反应情况.结果观察组患者的服药依从性、检查舒适度、肠道充盈效果的有效性均明显好于对照组,观察组患者造影图像质量的优良率明显高于对照组,观察组患者不良反应发生率明显低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论甘露醇和泛影葡胺混合水溶液充盈肠道是多层螺旋CT小肠造影的有效肠道准备方法,可显著提高患者的服药依从性和检查舒适度,明显改善患者的肠道充盈效果和造影图像质量,引发的不良反应较少,具有较高的操作安全性,值得临床推广使用.%Objective To investigate the comparative effect of two intestinal preparation methods used in multi-slice spiral CT enterography. Method 152 patients who underwent multi-slice CT enterography were divided into two groups. 76 patients treated with oral urografin intestinal tract filling after the cleaning enema by soap solution were taken as control group. 76 patients treated with oral mixed mannitol and meglumine diatrizoate water solution intestinal tract filling gut were taken as observation group. The compliance,degree of comfort,intestinal tract filling effect, image quality and adverse reactions of patients in two groups were compared. Results The compliance,degree of comfort and effect of intestinal tract filling in the observation group were significantly better than those in the control group. The excellent and good rates of angiography image quality in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the

  19. Evaluation of brain and kidney energy metabolism in an animal model of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    Roza, Clarissa A; Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Rochi, Natalia; Benedet, Joana; Rezin, Gislaine T; Vuolo, Francieli; Constantino, Larissa S; Petronilho, Fabricia C; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L


    Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common cause of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients, occurring from 24 to 48 h and up to 5 days after the administration of iodinated contrast media. Encephalopathy may accompany acute renal failure and presents with a complex of symptoms progressing from mild sensorial clouding to delirium and coma. The mechanisms responsible for neurological complications in patients with acute renal failure are still poorly known, but several studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of uremic encephalopathy. Thus, we measured mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and creatine kinase activities in rat brain and kidney after administration of contrast media. Wistar rats were submitted to 6.0 ml/kg meglumine/sodium diatrizoate administration via the tail vein (acute renal failure induced by contrast media) and saline in an equal volume with the radiocontrast material (control group); 6 days after, the animals were killed and kidney and brain were obtained. The results showed that contrast media administration decreased complexes I and IV activities in cerebral cortex; in prefrontal cortex, complex I activity was inhibited. On the other hand, contrast media administration increased complexes I and II-III activities in hippocampus and striatum and complex IV activity in hippocampus. Moreover, that administration of contrast media also decreased creatine kinase activity in the cerebral cortex. The present findings suggest that the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and creatine kinase caused by the acute renal failure induced by contrast media administration may be involved in the neurological complications reported in patients and might play a role in the pathogenesis of the encephalopathy caused by acute renal failure.

  20. Advancing Sequential Managed Aquifer Recharge Technology (SMART Using Different Intermediate Oxidation Processes

    Karin Hellauer


    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR systems are an efficient barrier for many contaminants. The biotransformation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs strongly depends on the redox conditions as well as on the dissolved organic carbon availability. Oxic and oligotrophic conditions are favored for enhanced TOrCs removal which is obtained by combining two filtration systems with an intermediate aeration step. In this study, four parallel laboratory-scale soil column experiments using different intermittent aeration techniques were selected to further optimize TOrCs transformation during MAR: no aeration, aeration with air, pure oxygen and ozone. Rapid oxygen consumption, nitrate reduction and dissolution of manganese confirmed anoxic conditions within the first filtration step, mimicking traditional bank filtration. Aeration with air led to suboxic conditions, whereas oxidation by pure oxygen and ozone led to fully oxic conditions throughout the second system. The sequential system resulted in an equal or better transformation of most TOrCs compared to the single step bank filtration system. Despite the fast oxygen consumption, acesulfame, iopromide, iomeprol and valsartan were degraded within the first infiltration step. The compounds benzotriazole, diclofenac, 4-Formylaminoantipyrine, gabapentin, metoprolol, valsartan acid and venlafaxine revealed a significantly enhanced removal in the systems with intermittent oxidation compared to the conventional treatment without aeration. Further improvement of benzotriazole and gabapentin removal by using pure oxygen confirmed potential oxygen limitation in the second column after aeration with air. Ozonation resulted in an enhanced removal of persistent compounds (i.e., carbamazepine, candesartan, olmesartan and further increased the attenuation of gabapentin, methylbenzotriazole, benzotriazole, and venlafaxine. Diatrizoic acid revealed little degradation in an ozone–MAR hybrid system.

  1. Effects of contrast media on the hepato-pancreato-biliary system

    Omer Topcu; Atilla Kurt; Isilay Nadir; Sema Arici; Ayhan Koyuncu; Cengiz Aydin


    AIM: To determine the effects of high osmolarity contrast media (HOCM) and iso-osmolar contrast media (CM) application, with or without pressure, on hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) system. METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into six equal groups as follows: Group 1: (0.9% NaCl, control), Group 2: (diatrizoate meglumine Na, ionic HOCM, Urographin~(R)), Group 3: (iodixanol, iso-osmolar nonionic CM, Visipaque~(R)); each of which was applied without pressure, whereas the animals of the remaining three groups (1p, 2p, 3p) were subjected to the same CM with pressure. We performed a duodenal puncture and introduced a catheter into the ampulla. After the catheterization, 0.2 mL CM or 0.9%NaCl was injected with or without pressure. Blood samples were taken for biochemical evaluations. The histopathological examinations of liver, common bile duct, and pancreas were performed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the six groups for blood amylase, alanine aminotransferases, aspartate aminotransferases, bilirubin levels ( P > 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase and γ glutamyl transaminase levels were higher ( P 0.05) between HOCM (2, 2p) and iso-osmolar CM (3, 3p) groups. Bile duct proliferation and regeneration in the Urographin(R) Groups (2, 2p) were significantly higher ( P 0.05) between the groups. Application of the CM with pressure did not cause additional damage to the HPB system. CONCLUSION: Iso-osmolar, non-ionic CM could be more reliable than the ionic HOCM, whereas the application of pressure during the CM application had no effect on the HPB system.

  2. Adverse reactions to contrast media: an analysis of spontaneous reports in the database of the pharmacovigilance programme of India.

    Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Sharma, Surbhi; Singh, Gyanendra Nath


    Contrast media are used widely to improve medical imaging. Like all other pharmaceuticals, these agents are not completely devoid of risk, and continuous monitoring of adverse reactions with these agents is important. Spontaneous reporting is the simplest method for understanding the safety profile of pharmaceutical products after their approval. Our objective was to identify the pattern and characteristics of adverse reactions attributed to contrast media in the Indian population reported to the National Coordination Centre for the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (NCC-PvPI). Individual case safety reports (ICSRs) attributed to contrast media submitted spontaneously to the NCC-PvPI were extracted from the database for July 2010 to September 2013. We analysed these reports for information related to reporter's professional category, patient's age and sex, reporter's diagnosis of the reaction, seriousness of the reaction, type of contrast media exposure, system organ class (SOC) affected (as described in World Health Organization Adverse Reaction Terminology [WHO-ART]) and outcome. Of the total 59,915 ICSRs in the database, 415 (0.7%) were suspected adverse reactions to contrast media; 44 reports were serious, including three fatal cases. The most affected SOCs were skin and appendage disorders, body as a whole-general disorders, gastrointestinal system disorders and respiratory system disorders. Hypersensitivity reactions were reported in the majority of ICSRs. The contrast media with the highest number of reports were iohexol (40.7%), iomeprol (17.8%), iopamidol (12%) and diatrizoate (12%). Most of the reactions to contrast media were allergic-like, and no previously unrecognised adverse reactions were observed in the Indian population. Further data and increased awareness among healthcare professionals is required to signal and prevent the consequences of adverse reactions attributed to contrast media.

  3. Elimination of micropollutants during post-treatment of hospital wastewater with powdered activated carbon, ozone, and UV.

    Kovalova, Lubomira; Siegrist, Hansruedi; von Gunten, Urs; Eugster, Jakob; Hagenbuch, Martina; Wittmer, Anita; Moser, Ruedi; McArdell, Christa S


    A pilot-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant consisting of a primary clarifier, membrane bioreactor, and five post-treatment technologies including ozone (O3), O3/H2O2, powdered activated carbon (PAC), and low pressure UV light with and without TiO2 was operated to test the elimination efficiencies for 56 micropollutants. The extent of the elimination of the selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, metabolites and industrial chemicals) was successfully correlated to physical-chemical properties or molecular structure. By mass loading, 95% of all measured micropollutants in the biologically treated hospital wastewater feeding the post-treatments consisted of iodinated contrast media (ICM). The elimination of ICM by the tested post-treatment technologies was 50-65% when using 1.08 g O3/gDOC, 23 mg/L PAC, or a UV dose of 2400 J/m(2) (254 nm). For the total load of analyzed pharmaceuticals and metabolites excluding ICM the elimination by ozonation, PAC, and UV at the same conditions was 90%, 86%, and 33%, respectively. Thus, the majority of analyzed substances can be efficiently eliminated by ozonation (which also provides disinfection) or PAC (which provides micropollutants removal, not only transformation). Some micropollutants recalcitrant to those two post-treatments, such as the ICM diatrizoate, can be substantially removed only by high doses of UV (96% at 7200 J/m(2)). The tested combined treatments (O3/H2O2 and UV/TiO2) did not improve the elimination compared to the single treatments (O3 and UV).

  4. Deep learning of contrast-coated serrated polyps for computer-aided detection in CT colonography

    Näppi, Janne J.; Pickhardt, Perry; Kim, David H.; Hironaka, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki


    Serrated polyps were previously believed to be benign lesions with no cancer potential. However, recent studies have revealed a novel molecular pathway where also serrated polyps can develop into colorectal cancer. CT colonography (CTC) can detect serrated polyps using the radiomic biomarker of contrast coating, but this requires expertise from the reader and current computer-aided detection (CADe) systems have not been designed to detect the contrast coating. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel CADe method that makes use of deep learning to detect serrated polyps based on their contrast-coating biomarker in CTC. In the method, volumetric shape-based features are used to detect polyp sites over soft-tissue and fecal-tagging surfaces of the colon. The detected sites are imaged using multi-angular 2D image patches. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is used to review the image patches for the presence of polyps. The DCNN-based polyp-likelihood estimates are merged into an aggregate likelihood index where highest values indicate the presence of a polyp. For pilot evaluation, the proposed DCNN-CADe method was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation scheme using 101 colonoscopy-confirmed cases with 144 biopsy-confirmed serrated polyps from a CTC screening program, where the patients had been prepared for CTC with saline laxative and fecal tagging by barium and iodine-based diatrizoate. The average per-polyp sensitivity for serrated polyps >=6 mm in size was 93+/-7% at 0:8+/-1:8 false positives per patient on average. The detection accuracy was substantially higher that of a conventional CADe system. Our results indicate that serrated polyps can be detected automatically at high accuracy in CTC.

  5. Clinical superiority of a new nonionic contrast agent (iopamidol) for cardiac angiography.

    Gertz, E W; Wisneski, J A; Chiu, D; Akin, J R; Hu, C


    The hemodynamic and electrophysiologic alterations induced by ionic contrast agents during cardiac angiography are well described. Recently nonionic contrast agents have become available for cardiac angiography. To evaluate the safety of these new agents, a double-blind randomized study was performed comparing a new nonionic agent (iopamidol) with a commonly used ionic contrast agent (Renografin-76). Eighty-one patients undergoing left ventriculography and coronary angiography were included; 41 received iopamidol and 40 received sodium meglumine diatrizoate (Renografin-76). After left ventriculography, there was a decrease in the arterial pressure with both contrast agents. However, the severity and the duration of hypotension were both significantly greater with Renografin-76 compared with the new nonionic agent (p less than 0.001). After selective injections of the coronary arteries, electrocardiographic analysis demonstrated that the increase in the QT interval (p less than 0.0002) and the changes in both the ST segment and T wave amplitude (p less than 0.001) were significantly greater in the Renografin-76 group compared with the iopamidol group. During coronary angiography, 8 of the 40 patients receiving Renografin-76 required temporary pacing for sinus pauses of 2.5 seconds or more, and 2 of the 40 also developed ventricular fibrillation. None of the 41 patients receiving iopamidol had these complications. This report demonstrates that the electrocardiographic changes, the severity and duration of hypotension and the incidence of serious arrhythmias are significantly greater with Renografin-76 than with iopamidol. Thus, this new nonionic agent appears to enhance the safety of cardiac angiography.

  6. Role of activated carbon on micropollutans degradation by different radiation processes

    Inmaculada Velo Gala


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of the presence of activated carbon on radiation processes. The triiodinated contrast medium diatrizoate was chosen as the contaminant model. We selected four commercial activated carbons and sixteen gamma radiation-modified carbons derived from these. The different advanced oxidation/reduction processes that have been studied were improved through the addition of activated carbon in the UV light and gamma radiating processes. In the UV/activated carbon process, the synergic activity of the activated carbon is enhanced in the samples with higher percentages of surface oxygen, ester/anhydride groups and carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization. Band gap determination of activated carbons revealed that they behave as semiconductor materials and, therefore, as photoactive materials in the presence of UV radiation, given that all band gap values are <4 eV. We also observed that the gamma radiation treatment reduces the band gap values of the activated carbons and that, in a single series of commercial carbons, lower band gap values correspond to higher contaminant removal rate values. We observed that the activity of the reutilized activated carbons is similar to that of the original carbons. Based on these results, we proposed that the activated carbon acts as a photocatalyst, promoting electrons of the valence band to the conduction band and increasing the generation of HO• radicals in the medium. Similarly, there was a synergic effect made by the presence of activated carbon in gamma radiation system, which favours pollutant removal. This synergic effect is independent of the textural but not the chemical characteristics of the activated carbon, observing a higher synergic activity for carbons with a higher surface content of oxygen, specifically quinone groups. We highlight that the synergic effect of the activated carbon requires adsorbent–adsorbate electrostatic interaction and is absent

  7. Dietary hypercholesterolemia aggravates contrast media-induced nephropathy

    杨定位; 贾汝汉; 杨定平; 丁国华; 黄从新


    Background Contrast media administration can result in severe nephrotoxicity under pathological conditions such as diabetic nephropathy, congestive heart failure, dehydration, et al. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary hypercholesterolemia on contrast media-induced changes in renal function, blood flow, and histopathology.Methods Rats were fed either on a normal rodent diet (group N) or a high-cholesterol supplemented diet (group H; 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid) for 8 weeks. Half of the animals (n =6) from each diet group were then given a tail vein injection of 60% diatrizoate (6 ml/kg; group NC and group HC)and the other half were administered saline. Total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, serum creatinine,creatinine clearance rate, fractional excretion of sodium and potassium, and cortical nitric oxide production were determined one day following contrast media administration. Renal blood flow was determined by color Doppler flow imaging and pulsed-mode Doppler. Renal histopathology was observed by light microscopy.Results Total serum cholesterol and resistance indices of renal blood vessels increased significantly,while creatinine clearance rate and production of nitric oxide in the renal cortex decreased markedly in group HC and group H when compared to group N and group NC. The creatinine clearance rate decreased significantly in group HC compared to group H. Serum creatinine levels and fractional excretion of sodium and potassium in group HC were significantly higher than those in the other three groups. Severe tubular degeneration and necrosis, protein cast accumulation, and medullary congestion were found in group HC.Conclusion Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for contrast media-induced nephropathy.Hypercholesterolemia aggravates contrast media-induced nephrotoxicity through the reduced production of nitric oxide.

  8. Comparison of the effect of positive and negative oral contrast agents on delineation and 18F-FDG uptake of gastrointestinal tract%口服不同对比剂对PET/CT胃肠道充盈及FDG摄取影响

    孟德刚; 孙晓光; 黄钢; 刘建军; 宋少莉; 万良荣


    目的 比较PET/CT显像前口服泛影葡胺、甘露醇和清水对胃肠道显示和脱氧葡萄糖(FDG)摄取的差异.方法 将61例无胃肠道疾病行PET/CT显像的患者按随机数字法分成3组,组1(25例)显像前口服质量分数1%泛影葡胺1 L;组2(20例)显像前口服质量分数2.5%甘露醇1 L;组3(16例)显像前口服清水1 L.患者注射18F-FDG(按体质量5.55 MBq/kg)后50 min应用二维(2D)模式进行PET/CT显像.由3位核医学科医师分别应用目测分析法将胃肠道充盈状态和FDG摄取情况分为4类:无、轻度、中度和重度.应用秩和检验、配对t检验对相关数据进行统计学分析.结果 组2患者口服甘露醇前后血糖和血胰岛素水平差异无统计学意义.组2患者胃肠道充盈好于组1;除直肠外,其余部位充盈状态好于组3.组1患者胃、空肠、升结肠和横结肠充盈状态好于组3患者.组3患者胃、空肠和回肠FDG摄取程度高于组2患者(z=-3.192,-3.290,-3.290,P<0.05);空肠FDG摄取高于组1(z=-3.603,P<0.05),升结肠FDG摄取低于组1(z=-2.706,P<0.05),横结肠和降结肠FDG摄取均明显低于其他2组(z=-3.503,-2.403,-4.223,-4.027,P<0.05),直肠FDG摄取明显低于组2(z=-4.128,P<0.01).组1患者胃、空肠、回肠和升结肠最大CT值分别为(132±23),(191±31),(313±47)和(374±53)HU,差异有统计学意义(t=-7.088~-1.781,P<0.01).结论 口服甘露醇作为增强剂胃肠道充盈好,FDG生理性摄取相对较低.%Objective To compare the different effects of 1% diatrizoate meglumine,2.5% mannitol and water as oral contrasts in PET/CT scan in gastrointestinal tract delineation and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Methods Sixty-one patients referred for PET/CT scan without gastrointestinal diseases were divided into three groups randomly ( random number method). One liter of 1% diatrizoate meglumine,2.5% mannitol,or water was orally taken by groups 1 (25 cases),2 (20 cases) and 3 ( 16 cases

  9. 食管癌及贲门癌术后隐匿胸腔瘘的诊断与治疗%Diagnosis and management of concealed thoracic cavity fistula in postoperative patients with esophageal or cardia carcinoma



    目的 探讨食管癌及贲门癌术后隐匿胸腔瘘的诊断、治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月至2013年9月40例行胸内胃食管吻合术的食管癌、贲门癌患者资料.40例患者出现高热、白细胞升高等脓毒血症表现,早期均无造影剂渗漏,但CT显示吻合口或胃残端周围出现散在小气泡、少量包裹性积液,存在吻合口或胃残端早期微小瘘口的可能,定义为隐匿胸腔瘘.20例按隐匿胸腔瘘处理,给予禁食、抗感染治疗、保持胃肠减压通畅、鼻肠管肠内营养等治疗;另20例按术后未出现胸腔瘘进行常规治疗,给予降温及抗生素治疗.比较两组胸腔瘘发生情况,总结泛影葡胺食管造影及胸部CT扫描隐匿胸腔瘘的特点.结果 按吻合口瘘处理的20例患者泛影葡胺食管造影及胸部CT扫描显示,有2例(10%)发展为较小的吻合口瘘,未按胸腔瘘处理的20例患者中有17例(85%)发展为胸腔瘘,6例并发多器官衰竭死亡.结论 食管癌、贲门癌术后出现脓毒血症表现,泛影葡胺食管造影及胸部CT扫描显示吻合口或胃残端周围有小气泡、不规则包裹性积液为隐匿胸腔瘘的特异性征象,应按胸腔瘘处理.%Objective To investigate diagnosis and treatment of concealed thoracic cavity fistula in the postoperative patients of esophagus or cardia carcinoma.Methods The clinical data of 40 patients were analyzed who presented with unexplained sepsis (elevated white blood cell count and temperature>38 ℃) after esophagectomy and intrathoracic anastomosis from January 2010 to September 2013.All patients underwent oral meglumine diatrizoate esophageal imaging and computerized tomography scan of the chest.None of the patients had any sign of contrast leak in the early in these diagnostic examinations,but their chest CT scan all showed peri-anastomotic or the gastric remnant diffuse bubble and bit encapsulated effusion.Twenty patients were treated as concealed

  10. The effects of atorvastatin on the expression of urine LFABP and MBL in rats suffering from contrast-induced nephropathy%阿托伐他汀对对比剂肾病大鼠尿液L型脂肪酸结合蛋白和甘露糖结合凝集素含量的影响

    柳青; 戴春


    Objective To investigate the effects of atorvastatin on the expression of urine liver - fatty acid binding protein( LFABP) and annan - binding lectin ( MBL) in rats that suffering from contrast - induced nephropathy. Methods 32 clean male Sprasue - Dawle rats were randomly divided into normal group, experimental control group, contrast induced nephropathy group and atorvastatin intervention group,8 rats in each group. The rat model of the contrast - in duced nephropathy was established. Indomethacin, N - nitro - L - arginine methyl ester and diatrizoate were all injected in contrast - induced nephropathy group and atorvastatin intervention group, while the experimental control group with sa line instead of diatrizoate, the normal group only injected with saline. In atorvastatin intervention group, atorvastatin was gavaged from 3 days before modeling to 3 days after it, and the remaining group was given an equal volume of normal sa line. The blood was collected before modeling and 48 h after modeling. Serum creatinine ( SCr) was detected by automat ic biochemistry analyzer. 24 hours urine was collected before and after modeling, in order to detect the level of LFABP and MBL by enzyme - linked immune - osorbent assay ( ELISA). The changes before and after the modeling in SCr, LFABP and MBL in each group were observed. Results After modeling, the levels of SCr, LFABP and MBL increased significantly in contrast - induced nephropathy group( P < 0.05), as well as compared with the other three groups(P < 0. 05). In atorvastatin intervention group, the levels of SCr , LFABP and MBL showed a significant decrease compared with the model group (P<0.05) after modeling. Conclusion Atorvastatin can down -regulate the expression of urine LFABP and MBL in rats suffering from contrast - induced nephropathy. Its protection mechanism may be related to the antioxidant stress function and immune regulation.%目的 通过研究阿托伐他汀对对比剂肾病大鼠尿液中L型脂肪

  11. Investigation on the optical scan condition for imaging of multi-slice spiral CT liver perfusion in rats

    BAI Rong-jie; WANG Jin-e; JIANG Hui-jie; HAO Xue-jia; DONG Xu-peng; HUANG Ya-hua; WEI Lai


    Background Multi-slice CT liver perfusion has been widely used in experimental studies of hemodynamic changes in liver lesions,and is usually performed as an adjunct to a conventional CT examination because of its high temporal and spatial resolution,simple protocol,good reproducibility,and ability to measure hemodynamic changes of liver tissues at the capillary level.Experimental rat models,especially those of induced liver cancer,are often used in studies of hemodynamic changes in liver cancer.Carcinogenesis in rats has a similar pathological progression and characteristics resembling those in human liver cancer; as a result,rat models are often used as ideal animal models in the study of human liver cancer.However,liver perfusion imaging in rats is difficult to perform,because rats' livers are so small that different concentrations,flow rates,and dose of contrast agents during the CT perfusion scanning can influence the quality of liver perfusion images in rats.The purpose of this study,therefore,was to investigate the optimal scan protocol for the imaging of hepatic perfusion using a deconvolution mathematical method in rats by comparing the results of rats in different injection conditions of the contrast agent,including concentration,rate and time.Methods Plain CT scan conditions in eighty 2-month-old male Wistar rats were 5.0 mm slice thickness,5.0 mm interval,1.0 pitch,120 kV tube voltage,60 mA tube current,512×512 matrix,and FOV 9.6 cm.Perfusion scanning was carried out with different concentrations of diatrizoate (19%,38%,57%,and 76%),different injection rates (0.3 and 0.5 mi/s),and different injection times (1,2-3,4-5,and 6 seconds).The above conditions were randomly matched and adjusted to determine the best perfusion scan protocol.Thrae-phase contrast-enhanced scanning was performed after CT perfusion.Histological examination of the liver tissues with hematoxylin and eosin stains was done after CT scanning.Results When the concentration of the

  12. Tips and Tricks of Percutaneous Gastrostomy Under Image Guidance in Patients with Limited Access

    Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Figl, Andrea; Thariat, Juliette [Sophia Antipolis University, Nice cedex (France); Lacout, Alexis [Centre Me' dico-Chirurgical, Aurillac (France)


    We read with great interest the article by Chan et al. (1) in the March issue of Korean Journal of Radiology on their experience of modified radiology-guided percutaneous gastrostomy (MRPG). The authors proposed a technique to access the stomach in patients with upper digestive tract obstruction (UDTO). Following marking a patient's left liver inferior margin and room air-colonography, the authors punctured the gastric area using a 21G fine needle under X-ray guidance and withdrew their syringe gradually while injecting contrast medium. We noted that the gastrostomy may be performed using a 0.0035-inch hydrophilic guide wire and a 6.5-Fr angled catheter in almost 100% of patients contraindicated for endoscopy gastrostomy, including those with tortuous or tight cervical stenosis (2). In patients with a collapsed stomach, orally administered effervescent sodium bicarbonate powder can produce sufficient gas in the stomach to allow for a percutaneous needle puncture. In UDTO patients, diatrizoate meglumine can be directly injected into the gastric lumen under ultrasound (US) guidance, as reported by Pugash et al. (3) in 1995. Since the stomach appears collapsed with apposed multi-layer walls and virtual lumen on US, the needle tip is hardly seen. In such circumstances, after having transfixed the stomach with a 21G Chiba needle, further gradual needle withdrawing is performed under fluoroscopic guidance while injecting small amounts of diatrizoate meglumine until a ruga pattern is seen. Moreover, a cancer patient's subcutaneous fat is often absent and the anterior gastric wall is close to the abdominal wall. High frequency US monitoring does improve needle visualization in such a circumstance. Conversely, in obese patients, back- and forth motions of the needle stylet under Doppler color US guidance clearly improves needle visualization. We noted that by using this technique we successfully performed percutaneous fluoroscopy gastrostomy (PFG) in two partially

  13. Application of gastrografin contrast in diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract perforation%泛影葡胺造影在诊断上消化道穿孔中的应用

    陈秋文; 黄党生; 郑吉仁; 章育盛; 林旭群; 张高耀; 黄晓平


    目的:探讨泛影葡胺造影对上消化道穿孔者的诊断价值.方法:对临床上怀疑上消化道穿孔的112例患者,术前使用泛影葡胺造影,并对该组的临床资料进行同顾性分析.患者在透视下动态观察有无造影剂经胃、十二指肠漏出并摄片分析,有造影剂漏出为阳性,无则为阴性.结果:112例患者行泛影葡胺造影,阳性者72例:胃穿孔31例,其中胃溃疡穿孔27例,胃癌穿孔4例;十二指肠球部穿孔41例.阴性者40例,其中39例经CT、急诊胃镜检查及剖腹探查确诊为其他疾病,但有1例阴性者行剖腹探查诊断为胃后壁穿孔.该法的诊断符合率99.1%,敏感性98.6%,特异性100%,全组假阴性1例,无假阳性.结论:泛影葡胺在诊断上消化道穿孔中安全、有效、方便、价廉,有其重要应用价值.%Objective: To assess the value of gastrografin (meglumine diatrizoate) contrast in diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforation.Methods: The clinical data of 112 patients with clinically suspected upper GI tract perforation who underwent gastrografin contrast examination were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were dynamically observed by fluoroscopy to determine whether there was leakage of the contrast agent from the stomach or duodenum and x-ray films were taken for analysis. The result was positive for upper GI tract perforation if contrast agent leakage was present and vice versa. Results: All the 112 patients underwent gastrografin contrast examination, of whom 72 cases had positivefindings that included 31 cases of stomach perforation (27 cases of perforated gastric ulcer and 4 cases of perforated gastric cancer) and 41 cases of duodenal bulb perforation due to peptic ulcer. Of the remaining 40 patients with negative finding, 39 cases were identified to have other diseases by CT, emergency gastroscopy examination or exploratory laparotomy, but one case was found to be perforation of the posterior gastric wall on

  14. Evidence of Hydrogeological Connection between the Mountain and Plio-Plistocene Aquifer Systems, Using Pharmaceutical Residual- case study Jericho area/Lower Jordan Valley

    Marei, Amer; Schmidt, Natali; Tiehm, Andreas


    as from flooding water. The groundwater samples present the Mountain and the Shallow aquifer systems. The Pharmaceutical residuals were analyzed using the HPLC-ESI-MS-MS method. The result show that six pharmaceutical residuals were detected in groundwater samples from the two aquifer systems in addition to the waste water. These are Anti-Epileptic Carbamazepine, the lipid lowering agent Fenofibrate, and the X-ray contrast agents Diatrizoic acid, Iohexol, Iopromide and Iopamidol. Source of these compounds is waste water from Al Bereh Treatment plant and raw waste water from different communities. These compounds are found in springs water drain from the Mountain Aquifer as wells as in boreholes from the shallow aquifer system. The areal distribution of these compounds in groundwater extends about 4 km from wadi Al Quilt drainage system northwards to north of wadi Nueimah. The result of this study confirm the hypotheses that there is an indirect recharge from the Mountain aquifer into the shallow Plio-Plistocene aquifer system in Jericho area. It is expected that S-N- major fault system, and the 80 m thick Chalk-Chalky limestone of Senonian age does not act as barrier between the two groundwater systems. Key words: Jericho, Shallow Plio-Plistoces and Mountain aquifer systems, Pharmaceutical Residuals, indirect replenishments

  15. Intratubal Methotrexate Injection Combined with Chinese Herbal Medicine for Tubal Pregnancy and Following Pregnancy Prognosis

    WANG Yu-dong(王玉东); LI Da-Jin(李大金); LIAN Fang(连方); ZHANG Jian-wei(张建伟)


    Objective: To observe the effect and mechanism of Garlicin in treating coronary heart disease (CHD) with angina pectoris. Methods: Clinical study: 55 patients were selected and randomized into the Garlicin group and the nitroglycerin group. To Garlicin group, 60 mg of Garlicin was given by adding in 5% glucose solution for intravenous dripping once per day, the therapeutic course was 10 days. The symptoms, taking of nitroglycerin, ECG, granular membrane protein-140 (GMP-140, by ELISA) in activated platelet, plasma endothelin (ET, by RIA),and microcirculation before and after treatment were observed. Experimental study: (1) Contrast examination of coronary artery was conducted with meglucamine diatrizoate before and after administration of Garlicin to measure the diameter of the left anterior descending branch and the left circumflex branch of coronary artery and the dilatation rate of them were calculated. Moreover, to the coronary spasm model made by iv dripping of pituitrin, the normal saline, garlicin, puerarin and nitroglycerin were administered separately, and the coronary dilatation rate after administration were measured. (2) Ischemia/reperfusion model of isolated rabbits' heart was established and divided into the blank control, pre-treated, Garlicin, polymyxin B, and Garlicin plus polymyxin B groups, the size of infarcted myocardium in each groups was measured. Results: The effective rate in Garlicin group on anginal symptom and ECG was 82.4% and 59.3% respectively and those in the nitroglycerin group was 69.3% and 38.5% respectively. The CMP-140 level lowered significantly after Garlicin administration. And Garlicin showed a significant dilating effect on coronary artery of dog with no significant difference to that of nitroglycerin. Conclusion: Garlicin has obvious prevention on coronary ischemia, can reduce the scope of myocardial infarction, the effective condition of relapse. Results: The treatment of all the 35 women was successful. The recovery

  16. 肾移植联合成人胰岛细胞移植治疗糖尿病肾病七例报告%Simultaneous adult islet-kidney transplantation in 7 patients of type 1 diabetes mellitus with end-stage renal failure

    谭建明; 蔡锦全; 杨顺良; 吴卫真; 郭君其; 黄梁浒; 王庆华; 吴志贤; 陈津


    Objective To establish a new technique of isolating pancreatic islet of langerhans and glueoeortieoid-free immunosuppressive regimen and to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of simultaneous adult islet-kidney transplantation in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus with endstage renal failure.Methods Pancreases were stored using the"2-layer method"of the oxygenated perfluoroehemieal and UW solution.The pancreases were digested by Liberase collagenase enzyme and purified using continuous gradients of Ficoll-diatrizoic acid on a refrigerated COBE 2991 centrifuge to separate the islets.Cadaver kidney was transplanted by conventional method and cultured islets were infused by surgical approach to the liver via portal vaseulature using glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen.Clinical metabolic data such as blood glucose,dose of insulin,C-peptide,HbAlc,liver function and renal function,were determined and compared with the pre-transplant data.ResuitsIslets of langerhans were isolated successfully in 23 pancreases.The average islet yield was 300000 islet equivalents(IEQ).Islet purity and viability were 91.6%,94.6%,respectively.The stimulation index as assessing function of human islet was 3.16 and etiology results in vivo were negative.Twelve islet transplant infusions were carried out in 7 patients after kidney transplantation.Three recipients received 2 islet infusions,1 patient had 3 transplants,and 3 patients received 1 transplant only.The average islet mass for infusion was 1 1 820 IEQ/kg.The immunosuppressive regimen glucocorticoid.During 18 months to 3 yearg follow-up,4 recipients had insulin independence,the dosage of insulin decreased by 70%in 3 patients.The level of blood glucose and H bAlc,liver and renal function were normal throughout follow-up period.C-peptide of all patients was positive after islet transplantation.No adverse effects and complications related to islet infusion procedure were found.Conclusions New technique has proved tO be

  17. 三种器械预备弯曲根管成形效果的比较%Shaping efficacy of three instruments in curved root canal preparation

    庄沛林; 叶剑涛; 黄卓珊; 余艳崧; 伍虹


    Objective To evaluate the shaping efficacy of K files , Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files in curved root canal preparation of human teeth in vitro. Methods Sixty mandibular premolars with curved root canal were divided into three groups randomly, and prepared by K files, Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files respectively. Compound meglumine diatrizoate was injected into root canals and X-ray graphs of teeth were taken before and after instrumentation . The amount of dentin removed from inner and outer walls , centering ability and degree of straightening of root canal after preparation were analyzed. Results Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files removed less dentin from inner and outer walls than K files at all measuring points (P 0.05). The use of K files resulted in more straightening of root canal after instrumentation compared to other instruments (P 0.05). Conclusions K files, Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files caused transportation when preparing curved root canals . Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files showed less transportation and better shaping efficacy .%目的:评价K锉、Safesiders锉和HERO Shaper锉预备离体牙弯曲根管的成形效果。方法60颗根管弯曲的离体下颌前磨牙随机分为3组,分别用K锉、Safesiders锉和HERO Shaper锉进行根管预备,根管预备前后分别往根管内注入复方泛影葡胺并拍摄X线片,分析根管预备后根管弯曲内外侧壁牙本质去除量、中心定位能力及根管直化角度。结果在根管弯曲内外侧壁所有观测点,Safesiders锉组和HERO Shaper锉组牙本质去除量均少于K锉组(P均>0.05)。 Safesiders锉组牙本质去除量多于HERO Shaper锉组,但仅在根管弯曲内侧壁3和4 mm观测点处差异有统计学意义(3 mm:t=3.72,P<0.05;4 mm:t=7.62,P<0.05)。在距根尖孔5 mm以下观测点,Safesiders锉组和HERO Shaper锉组中心定位能力优于K锉组(1 mm:F=7.45,P<0.05;2 mm