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Sample records for diarrea viral bovina

  1. DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA: PATOGÉNESIS E INMUNOPATOLOGÍA

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    Iang Rondón

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea viral bovina (DVB representa un problema de ámbito mundial que causa considerables pérdidastanto en ganado de carne como lechero, afectándolo de diversas formas las cuales están supeditadas ala edad del animal, estado inmunológico y momento de la gestación en el que se produce la infección.La DVB es causada por un virus ARN, género Pestivirus, familia Flaviviridae, el cual ha sido clasificado en2 biotipos (citopático y no citopático según su comportamiento en células de cultivo y en 2 genotipos (Iy II basados en su secuencia genética. Dependiendo de las cepas infectantes se presenta un cuadroclínico particular variando en severidad desde una forma subclínica, pasando por la forma clínica eincluso produciendo la fatal enfermedad de las mucosas o causando efectos deletéreos sobre el feto. Apesar de que en nuestro medio ya existen estudios sobre esta entidad, la implementación de metodologíasdiagnósticas constituye una limitante para el manejo de la misma. La presente revisión se enfoca en lapatogenia e inmunopatología de la DVB.

  2. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra diarrea viral bovina, virus sincitial bovino, rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina, leucosis bovina, Neospora caninum, parainfluenza bovina (PI3 y paratuberculosis, en ganadería bovina de fincas ubicadas en Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar

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    Tatiana Gálvis García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el área de la ganadería los problemas caracterizados por infertilidad, abortos, muerte embrionaria, crías con malformaciones neurológicas y físicas son de gran importancia, ya que hay múltiples etiologías y se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos a nivel mundial. Lo anterior ocasiona serias pérdidas económicas y afectando la exportación de carne de los bovinos debido a la restricción de normas de sanidad, donde se encuentran las enfermedades como diarrea viral bovina, rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina, leucosis bovina y Neospora caninum. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra diarrea viral bovina (DVB, virus sincitial respiratorio bovino (BRSV, virus de la rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina (IBR, leucosis enzoótica bovina (BLV, N. caninum, Parainfluenza bovina (PI3 y paratuberculosis (ParaTBC, en bovinos de Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar. Materiales y métodos: Tipo de estudio: Descriptivo de corte transversal, se realizó en 27 fincas ubicadas en zona rural de los municipios de Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar. El Tamaño de la muestra se estimó en 905 bovinos. De cada animal se tomó sangre por punción venosa de la vena coccígea en tubos sin anticoagulante mediante el uso de sistema de vacío Vacutainer®. Cada muestra fue etiquetada adecuadamente con los códigos de identificación asignada, las muestras se centrifugaron a 1500 rpm y se transportó al laboratorio en recipientes con hielo. Se realizó alícuotas en viales de 1,5 ml y se almacenaron a -20 ° C para su posterior procesamiento. Determinación de anticuerpos específicos: Las pruebas para detectar anticuerpos específicos fue mediante ensayo de inmunoabsorción enzimática (ELISA, de las casas comerciales INGEZIM (BRSV, DBV, BLV, N. caninum, IBR, PARACHEK 2 (ParaTBC y BIO-X DIAGNOSTIC (PI3. La validación de las pruebas se realizó mediante los respectivos controles positivos y negativos los cuales se procesaron por duplicado. Resultados

  3. Epidemiología y caracterización de los factores de riesgo de diarrea viral bovina y neosporosis en bovinos del valle del Mantaro – región Junín

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    Arauco Villar, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico de Diarrea viral bovina (DVB) y neosporosis en 425 vacas en producción de 37 hatos del Valle del Mantaro-Región Junín, Perú, mediante ELISA e identificando sus factores de riesgo aplicando una encuesta. Para DVB se encontraron prevalencias: muestral 66.33%, predial 97.3% (36/37) y promedio/hato 64.78%, Concepción tuvo las prevalencias promedio/hato y muestral más altas, luego Jauja, Chupaca y Huancayo; la prevalencia de animales persistentement...

  4. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs Evaluación de vacunas experimentales para la diarrea viral bovina en bovinos, ovinos y cobayos

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    F. Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines.El control del virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB se basa en la eliminación de animales persistentemente infectados, y la inmunización de hembras para prevenir infecciones fetales. La eficiencia de estas vacunas es variable por su baja inmunogenicidad. Se evaluó la respuesta inmune humoral contra virus homólogos y heterólogos de 7 vacunas experimentales inactivadas del VDVB en bovinos y en dos modelos experimentales (ovinos y cobayos. Las vacunas conteniendo VDVB Singer, Oregon, NADL y polivalentes indujeron seroconversión en

  5. In vitro amplification of BVDV field strains isolated in Argentina: effect of cell line and culture conditions Amplificación in vitro de cepas de campo de virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB aisladas en Argentina: efecto de la línea celular y las condicioes de cultivo

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    A. C. Odeón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the in vitro amplification of BVDV (Pestivirus, Flaviridae field isolates from Argentina in MDBK, BoTur and BHK-21 continuous cell lines. Field isolates 99/134 (mucosal disease, 00/693 (mucosal disease, 04P7016 (respiratory disease and 04/89 (mucosal disease, genotype 1b, were used and compared with the Singer and NADL reference strains, genotype 1a. Additionally, cell lines derived from explants of bovine testis (RD- 420, bovine uterus (NCL-1 and porcine kidney (PKZ were tested as alternative substrates for BVDV propagation in vitro. The effect of cell line, harvest time and infection protocol was evaluated. The viral titers observed depended on the virus and harvest time but not on the infection protocol. We found that MDBK and BoTur cell lines were susceptible to the infection whereas BHK-21 and PKZ were not. NADL viral titers, 00/693 and 04/89, increased from 24 to 48 h p.i. in BoTur cells and then reached a plateau, whereas those of 99/134 and 04P7016 remained constant between 24 and 72 h p.i. BVDV Singer, on the other hand, presented a maximum titer at 24 h p.i. and then decreased. BVDV-NADL titers increased in MDBK and NCL-1 but not in RD-420 between 24 and 48 h p.i., and then decreased at 72 h p.i. These facts lead us to conclude that neither the subgenotypes (1a, 1b nor the clinical symptoms of the animal from the virus had been isolated seem to affect the virus cell line kinetics of viral replication in vitro. On the other hand, the most homogenous behavior, the most similar replication curves, and highest titers observed in MDBK and NCL-1 seem to indicate that these lines are generally more susceptible to BVDV replication.Se estudió la interacción de aislamientos de campo de Argentina del VDVB (Pestivirus, Flaviridae en las líneas celulares continuas MDBK, BoTur y BHK-21. Se utilizaron los virus de campo genotipo 1b, 99/134, 00/693 (casos compatibles con enfermedad de las mucosas y 04P7016 (cuadro

  6. SEROPREVALENCIA DEL VIRUS DE LA LEUCOSIS VIRAL BOVINA EN ANIMALES CON TRASTORNOS REPRODUCTIVOS DE MONTERÍA

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    César Betancur H

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la seroprevalencia de Leucosis Viral Bovina (LVB en animales con trastornos reproductivos. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 137 muestras de sangre de hembras con antecedentes de infertilidad, pertenecientes a 28 fincas distribuidas en el municipio de Montería; adicionalmente, se obtuvieron muestras al azar de 26 toros pertenecientes a las mismas fincas que fueron analizadas para anticuerpos contra LVB. La técnica serológica empleada fue la prueba de ELISA. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo tabulando la información con datos de seropositividad y seronegatividad obtenidos de cada animal; los resultados se interpretaron de acuerdo a las variables: raza, edad, sexo, zona, tipo de explotación y evento o problema reproductivo detectado. Para determinar la asociación entre seropositividad y cada una de las variables se utilizó la prueba de c2. Resultados. Las pruebas arrojaron una seroprevalencia del 21% para LVB. No se encontraron diferencias significativas de prevalencia asociadas a las variables raza, edad o estado reproductivo de los animales (p³0.05, pero si entre la presencia de anticuerpos contra LVB y las variables zona, tipo de explotación y sexo. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la circulación del virus de la LVB en Montería, (Colombia. Se confirma la importancia de implementar un programa de control y prevención de la diseminación de la infección, con el fin de evitar las pérdidas económicas asociadas, y dentro de lo posible, la eliminación de los especímenes seropositivos para lograr la erradicación de la infección en esta zona del país.

  7. Diarrea y micronutrientes

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    Alonso Zea; Theresa Ochoa

    2013-01-01

    La diarrea continúa siendo una causa importante de morbi-mortalidad en niños pequeños. Si bien el uso de las sales de rehidratación oral ha sido de gran ayuda para disminuir la mortalidad asociada a deshidratación, aún se requieren de estrategias efectivas para disminuir la morbilidad asociada a esta enfermedad. El zinc y la vitamina A son dos micronutrientes que han demostrado ser útiles en la prevención y tratamiento de la diarrea en niños. La suplementación de zinc actualmente es recomenda...

  8. Identificación y caracterización genética de agentes virales diarreagénicos en niños menores de cinco años de edad con o sin diarrea en Bucaramanga

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    Nayibe Tatiana Sánchez Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    59 meses. Se observó mayor asociación entre los casos con síntomas de diarrea, vómito, fiebre o dolor abdominal. El genotipo de norovirus G1 más frecuente fue GI.2 y de norovirus GII fue GII.4. Los serotipos más prevalentes de rotavirus fueron G12P8 seguido de G9P8. Conclusiones: Se logró la identificación de 6 virus (norovirus GI, norovirus GII, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus y rotavirus, en muestras de materia fecal de pacientes menores de cinco años de Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana. El mayor porcentaje de aislamiento se obtuvo para el género norovirus en especial norovirus GII. Rotavirus fue el agente viral que tuvo mayor relación con los síntomas de diarrea, vómito, fiebre y dolor abdominal. Este estudio muestra la importancia de los virus en la epidemiología de EDA en la infancia y la alta diversidad genética de los norovirus y rotavirus dentro de la población pediátrica en Bucaramanga, Colombia.

  9. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV from Peru and Chile Diversidade genética de vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV do Peru e Chile

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    Karl Ståhl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five BVDV strains, detected in serum from persistently infected cattle from Peru (n=15 and Chile (n=10 were genetically characterized. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 5' UTR showed that all 25 strains belonged to genotype 1. Twenty-three of the strains could further be subdivided into subtype 1b, and two out of ten Chilean strains into subtype 1a. In conclusion, in total 23 out of 25 strains analyzed were of genotype 1, subtype 1b. This is the predominant BVDV subtype in many countries all over the world, including USA. The close homology with previously described strains reflects the influence of livestock trade on the diversity of BVDV circulating within and between countries and continents. Peru and Chile have imported large numbers of cattle from USA and Europe, mostly with insufficient or lacking health documentation.Um total de 25 isolados do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV, sendo 15 originarias do Peru e 10 do Chile foram sujeitas a caracterização genética. A árvore filogenética baseada na análise da região proximal não-codificante (5'UTR do genoma viral demonstrou que as 25 estirpes pertencem ao genótipo 1 do vírus BVD. Vinte e três destas estirpes puderam adicionalmente ser subdivididas no subtipo 1b, enquanto duas das 10 estirpes isolados provenientes do Chile foram identificadas como pertencentes ao subtipo 1a. Em conclusão, 23 de um total de 25 isolados analisados pertencem ao genótipo 1, subtipo 1b. Este é o subtipo de BVDV predominante em muitos países do mundo, incluindo os EUA. A elevada similaridade genética com isolados descritos anteriormente em outras regiões do mundo realça o papel do comércio internacional de gado no estabelecimento de diversidade genética do vírus BVD. Tanto o Peru como o Chile têm historia de importação de grandes quantidades de gado dos Estados Unidos e da Europa, no entanto sem suficiente documentação comprovativa do estado sanitário no que concerne a esta

  10. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile

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    Felmer, R; Zúñiga, J; López, A; Miranda, H

    2009-01-01

    Chile es reconocido internacionalmente por poseer una buena situación sanitaria pues el país ha podido alcanzar y mantener el estado de oficialmente libre de las principales enfermedades de la lista de la OIE. Sin embargo, aún coexisten en nuestros rebaños bovinos una serie de enfermedades, las cuales tienen un directo impacto en la producción, por cuanto disminuyen la fertilidad, producen pérdidas por aborto, alargan el lapso interparto y fundamentalmente constituyen barreras sanitarias para...

  11. Caracterização preliminar de amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil Preliminary characterization of brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV

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    Sônia A. Botton

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata a caracterização inicial de 19 amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil, com relação a aspectos biológicos, antigênicos e moleculares. Onze amostras foram isoladas de fetos bovinos, seis foram obtidas do sangue de animais clinicamente saudáveis de rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos e duas amostras foram isoladas de casos clínicos de enfermidade gastrentérica. Os casos de doença entérica afetaram animais jovens e cursaram com diarréia, às vezes sanguinolenta, erosões e ulcerações na mucosa oronasal e do trato digestivo, e eventualmente hemorragias digestivas e petéquias na vulva. Dezesseis amostras (84,2%, incluindo aquelas isoladas de fetos e dos casos clínicos, pertencem ao biotipo não-citopático (ncp. A replicação de outras três amostras (15,8%, foi caracterizada pelo aparecimento de vacuolização e destruição progressiva do tapete celular. A análise das amostras que produziram citopatologia, após clonagem, revelou tratar-se de populações mistas composta de vírus citopáticos (cp e não-citopáticos. A análise de polipeptídeos virais através de SDS-PAGE seguida de "Western-immunoblot" revelou a produção da proteína não-estrutural NS3/p80 em células infectadas com as amostras cp. Em contraste, não se evidenciou a geração da NS3/p80 em células infectadas com as amostras ncp que produziram apenas o polipeptídeo precursor NS23/p125. A subsequente análise de reatividade frente a um painel de 15 anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs revelou uma diversidade antigênica marcante entre os isolados, sobretudo na glicoproteína E2/gp53. Embora um AcM contra essa glicoproteína reagiu com 18 isolados (94,7%, outros nove AcMs anti-E2/gp53 reconheceram entre zero e 57,9% das amostras brasileiras. A grande variabilidade antigênica detectada entre as amostras brasileiras do BVDV pode ter importantes implicações para o diagnóstico e estratégias de controle e imuniza

  12. Perfil genotípico e antigênico de amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul (2000-2010

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    Eloisa Bianchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolados do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV apresentam grande diversidade genética e antigênica, o que pode dificultar o diagnóstico e a formulação de vacinas. O presente trabalho apresenta um perfil genotípico e antigênico de 20 amostras do BVDV isoladas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul entre 2000 e 2010. As amostras foram oriundas de uma variedade de condições clínicas, que incluíam doença respiratória ou gastroentérica aguda ou crônica, lesões cutâneas, abortos, animais com crescimento retardado, além de animais persistentemente infectados (PI. A maioria das amostras (19 ou 95% pertence ao biótipo não-citopático (NCP; enquanto um isolado apresentou uma mistura de vírus NCP e citopático (CP. O sequenciamento e análise filogenética de uma região de 270 nucleotídeos da região 5' não-traduzida do genoma viral permitiu identificar 9 isolados de BVDV-2 (45% e 8 isolados de BVDV-2 (40%. Três amostras não agruparam filogeneticamente com nenhum dos genótipos, sendo classificados como pestivírus atípicos. Não foi possível associar os genótipos ou subgenótipos com as condições clínicas e, tanto os BVDV-1 quanto os BVDV-2 estavam envolvidos em diferentes síndromes clínico-patológicas. Análise de reatividade com um painel de 19 anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs revelou uma variabilidade marcante na glicoproteína principal do envelope (E2 entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e sobretudo, entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Testes de neutralização viral (SN com anti-soro de cepas de referência de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 frente às amostras isoladas revelaram níveis variáveis de reatividade cruzada entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e reatividade muito baixa ou ausente entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Esses resultados indicam uma frequência semelhante de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 na população estudada, confirmam a marcante variabilidade antigênica e reforçam a necessidade de se incluir vírus dos dois genótipos nas

  13. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile Prevalence and space distribution of brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by using bulk milk ELISA test in dairy herds of the IX Region, Chile

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    R Felmer; J Zúñiga; A López; H Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Chile es reconocido internacionalmente por poseer una buena situación sanitaria pues el país ha podido alcanzar y mantener el estado de oficialmente libre de las principales enfermedades de la lista de la OIE. Sin embargo, aún coexisten en nuestros rebaños bovinos una serie de enfermedades, las cuales tienen un directo impacto en la producción, por cuanto disminuyen la fertilidad, producen pérdidas por aborto, alargan el lapso interparto y fundamentalmente constituyen barreras sanitarias para...

  14. Testes de ELISA e vírus-neutralização na detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da diarréia viral bovina no leite

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    Diego A.F. Sturza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso na estratégia de controle e erradicação do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV, passa necessariamente pela identificação e eliminação dos animais persistentemente infectados (PI. Como esses animais excretam continuamente o vírus em suas secreções e excreções, a prevalência de anticorpos no rebanho, frequentemente é alta e com altos títulos. Devido a essas características, amostras de tanques coletivos de leite, foram submetidas a duas técnicas sorológicas, a fim de estabelecer a mais adequada na realização de triagem de rebanhos. Para isso, 767 amostras coletivas de leite foram submetidas à análise por um kit ELISA indireto (teste referência e pela técnica de vírus-neutralização (VNT adaptada (teste proposto. Devido aos efeitos tóxicos do leite sobre o cultivo celular, a adaptação consistiu no aumento do volume final na etapa de incubação celular. Foram positivas, 177 e 139 amostras no ELISA e na VNT, respectivamente. Com isso, a VNT adaptada apresentou uma sensibilidade de 76,8% e uma especificidade de 99,5%. O índice Kappa (k foi de 0,82, demonstrando uma ótima concordância entre as duas técnicas. A análise do coeficiente de correlação entre os valores de absorbância no ELISA (OD e os títulos de anticorpos na VNT nas amostras positivas, demonstrou uma positividade moderada (r = 0,57 com p < 0,05. No entanto, várias amostras com títulos altos na VNT apresentaram ODs moderadas ou baixas. Por outro lado, algumas amostras com títulos neutralizantes baixos apresentaram ODs altas. Como a presença de animais PI é sugerida por títulos neutralizantes ≥ 80, conclui-se que a técnica de VNT adaptada é mais adequada para a realização de triagem em amostras coletivas de leite quando objetiva-se detectar rebanhos com altos títulos de anticorpos.

  15. Genetic characterization of Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates by partial nucleotide sequencing of the 5'-UTR region Caracterização genética de amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina através do seqüenciamento parcial da Região 5'UTR

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    Adriana Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV from Brazil were genetically characterized through partial nucleotide sequencing and analysis of the 5'UTR region. The isolates were grouped as BVDV-1 (11/19, BVDV-2 (6/19 or "atypical" pestivirus (2/19. Among the BVDV-1, eight isolates were classified as subgenotype BVDV-1a, whereas most (4 out of 6 BVDV-2 belonged to subgenotype 2b. Two isolates from aborted fetuses were not classified into any genetic group, being considered atypical BVDVs. Genetic diversity among Brazilian BVDV isolates may be responsible for vaccination and diag-nostic failure and therefore may influence the control strategies for BVDV infection in the country.Dezenove amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV foram caracterizadas geneticamente através do seqüenciamento parcial de nucleotídeos da Região 5'UTR. As amostras foram agrupadas em BVDV-1 (11/19, BVDV-2 (6/19 e num terceiro grupo de amostras denominadas "atípicas" (2/19. Das onze amostras genotipadas como BVDV-1, oito amostras foram sub-genotipadas como BVDV-1a, enquanto que a maioria (4/6 das amostras de BVDV-2 foi agrupada como BVDV-2b. Duas amostras provenientes de fetos bovinos abortados foram classificadas como atípicas, não BVDV-1 e 2. A presença da diversidade genética de BVDV detectada nas amostras estudadas pode ser responsável por falhas vacinais e de diagnóstico e deve influenciar nas estratégias de controle do BVDV aplicadas nas diferentes regiões brasileiras.

  16. MACIEZ DA CARNE BOVINA

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    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as características de qualidade da carne bovina, a maciez assume posição de destaque, sendo considerada a característica organoléptica de maior influência na aceitação da carne por parte dos consumidores. A dureza da carne pode ser dividida em dureza residual, causada pelo tecido conjuntivo e outras proteínas do estroma, e dureza de actomiosina, causada pelas proteínas miofibrilares. Dentre os fatores que influenciam a maciez da carne, podem ser destacados a genética, a raça, a idade ao abate, o sexo, a alimentação, o uso de agentes hormonais (?-adrenérgicos e os tratamentos post-mortem. A qualidade final da carne é resultante de tudo o que aconteceu com o animal durante toda a cadeia produtiva. Devem-se assegurar procedimentos adequados de transporte, armazenamento, manipulação, exposição e preparo da carne, a fim de se obter um produto de melhor qualidade. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Calpaínas, calpastatina, qualidade da carne, rigor mortis, tecido muscular.

  17. Atividade antiviral do extrato de própolis contra o calicivírus felino, adenovírus canino 2 e vírus da diarréia viral bovina Antiviral activity of propolis extracts against feline calicivirus, canine adenovirus 2, and bovine viral diarrhea virus

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    Ana Paula Cueto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as propriedades biológicas da própolis, a atividade antimicrobiana tem merecido destacada atenção. Neste artigo, descreve-se a atividade antiviral de dois extratos etanólicos de própolis (EP1 e EP2 frente aos vírus: calicivírus felino (FCV, adenovírus canino tipo 2 (CAV-2 e vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV. Um dos extratos (EP1 foi obtido por extração etanólica de própolis obtida da região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e o segundo (EP2, obtido comercialmente de uma empresa de Minas Gerais. A análise dos extratos de própolis através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE identificou a presença de flavonóides como: rutina, quercetina e ácido gálico. A atividade antiviral bem como a citotoxicidade dos extratos aos cultivos celulares foram avaliadas através do MTT [3- (4,5 dimetiltiazol-2yl-2-5-difenil-2H tetrazolato de bromo]. Ambos os extratos evidenciaram atividade antiviral frente ao BVDV e CAV-2 quando acrescidos ao cultivo celular anteriormente à inoculação viral. Os extratos foram menos efetivos contra o FCV em comparação aos resultados obtidos com os outros vírus, e a atividade antiviral neste caso foi observada apenas quando a própolis estava presente após a inoculação viral. O extrato obtido no laboratório (EP1 apresentou valores mais altos de índice de seletividade (IS=CC50/ CE50, quando comparado à outra amostra (EP2. Em resumo, a própolis apresentou atividade antiviral frente a três diferentes vírus, o que a torna alvo para o desenvolvimento de novos compostos naturais com atividade antiviral.Propolis is a resinous substance produced by bees for which several biological activities have been attributed. In this article, the antiviral activity of two propolis extracts was tested against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, and feline calicivirus (FCV. One of the extracts was obtained by ethanolic extraction of propolis from the Santa

  18. Diarrea persistente: algunos factores de riesgo

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    Lyliam Díaz Fernández

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-longitudinal, con el propósito de evaluar algunos aspectos socioculturales en 75 niños menores de 2 años, que con diagnóstico de diarrea persistente, ingresaron en el Servicio de Enfermedades Diarreicas del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Dr. Angel A. Aballí" de Ciudad de La Habana, de julio de 1995 a marzo de 1996, ambos inclusive. Los resultados permiten afirmar que la mayoría de estos episodios acontecieron en lactantes y que el elevado índice de hacinamiento, malas condiciones higiénico-sanitarias de la vivienda y padres con nivel escolar medio, dominaron los antecedentes sociales de los niños estudiados.A descriptive-longitudinal study was conducted aimed at evaluating some sociocultural aspects in 75 children under 2 that due to persistent diarrhea were admitted in the Service of Diarrheal Diseases of the «Dr. Angel A. Aballí» Pediatric Teaching Hospital, in Havana City, from July, 1995, to March, 1996, including both. The results allow to assure that most of these episodes occurred in infants and that the high index of heaping, bad hygienic and sanitary conditions of the houses and parents with middle educational level predominated in the social background of the studied children.

  19. Relevamiento serológico de anticuerpos contra enfermedades virales de interés sanitario en llamas (Lama glama de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina

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    Elena S Barbieri

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones de llamas de Argentina se concentran principalmente en la provincia de Jujuy; su explotación representa un importante recurso económico de las comunidades altoandinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra algunos agentes virales asociados a enfermedades de impacto productivo en rodeos de llamas de Jujuy. Se analizaron 349 sueros de llamas adultas de 6 departamentos de la puna jujeña ubicados por encima de los 3300 msnm. Se obtuvo una prevalencia del 100 % para rotavirus grupo A y del 70 % para el virus parainfluenza-3 bovino, mientras que no se detectaron reactores para herpesvirus bovino 1, virus de la diarrea viral bovina, influenza A humana (H1N1 e influenza equina (H3N8. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la amplia distribución de rotavirus y virus parainfluenza y la baja susceptibilidad a herpesvirus y pestivirus en las tropas de llamas de la puna jujeña.

  20. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila

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    M. Martín Delgado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.

  1. Aspectos clínicos, patológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e virológicos em cinco bezerros persistentemente infectados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina em uma propriedade do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Adriana S Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV é responsável por diferentes síndromes que afetam bovinos em todo o mundo, causando grandes perdas econômicas. O presente trabalho analisou as características clínicas, patológicas e imuno-histoquímicas e virais de cinco bovinos persistentemente infectados pelo BVDV de uma mesma propriedade, localizada no Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. Dentre os sinais clínicos verificados destacaram-se subdesenvolvimento, secreções nasais e oculares, além de catarata congênita unilateral em dois bovinos. As principais lesões observadas durante a necropsia consistiram de aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos, evidenciação das placas de Peyer e pododermatite e lesões crostosas no plano nasal e na região periocular em um animal. Os achados microscópicos caracterizavam-se, principalmente, por infiltrado mononuclear na lâmina do intestino delgado e rarefação linfoide com infiltrado histiocitário nos centrofoliculares de linfonodos e nas placas de Peyer. Antígenos virais foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica principalmente em queratinócitos da epiderme, no epitélio de folículos pilosos e células mononucleares da derme de orelhas e pele; histiócitos e em linfócitos dos linfonodos; células foliculares da tireoide; no citoplasma de neurônios e, em menor escala, em células da micróglia no córtex cerebral e no hipocampo. O isolamento viral de amostras de sangue e órgãos dos animais confirmou a presença de BVDV não citopático. Também foi possível detectar a presença do genoma viral por RT-PCR no soro dos animais. A análise filogenética do fragmento parcial da região 5' não traduzida do genoma viral permitiu a classificação da amostra viral como BVDV tipo 2b. O presente estudo reforça a necessidade de investigar e caracterizar surtos de BVD e descrever suas diferentes for-mas de apresentação.

  2. In vitro amplification of BVDV field strains isolated in Argentina: effect of cell line and culture conditions Amplificación in vitro de cepas de campo de virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB) aisladas en Argentina: efecto de la línea celular y las condicioes de cultivo

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    A. C. Odeón; M. R. Leunda; C. Faverín; N. Boynak; M. M. Vena; O. Zabal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the in vitro amplification of BVDV (Pestivirus, Flaviridae) field isolates from Argentina in MDBK, BoTur and BHK-21 continuous cell lines. Field isolates 99/134 (mucosal disease), 00/693 (mucosal disease), 04P7016 (respiratory disease) and 04/89 (mucosal disease), genotype 1b, were used and compared with the Singer and NADL reference strains, genotype 1a. Additionally, cell lines derived from explants of bovine testis (RD- 420), bovine uterus (NCL-1) and porc...

  3. Proteção fetal frente a desafio com o vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV em ovelhas imunizadas com duas amostras de vírus modificadas experimentalmente Fetal protection against challenge with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in pregnant ewes immunized with two strains experimentally attenuated

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    Mário C.S. Brum

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Duas amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV submetidas a múltiplas passagens em cultivo celular e exposição à radiação ultravioleta (UV a cada passagem foram avaliadas como candidatos a vírus vacinais. As amostras foram testadas quanto à sua atenuação para bezerros e fetos ovinos, reatividade antigênica contra isolados de campo, e capacidade de induzir proteção fetal em ovelhas prenhes. Inoculação intramuscular (IM dos vírus modificados em quatro bezerros produziu apenas uma elevação discreta e passageira da temperatura corporal, seguida de produção de altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes. O vírus não foi detectado em secreções nasais ou sangue nos dias seguintes à inoculação. Porém, a inoculação IM desses vírus em quatro ovelhas prenhes foi seguida de transmissão transplacentária e infecção em todos os fetos. Para os testes de proteção fetal, ovelhas prenhes previamente imunizadas com duas doses vacinais, foram inoculadas por via intranasal com amostras de BVDV-1 (SV-126.8, n=6 ou BVDV-2 (SV-260, n=5. No dia do desafio (134 dias após a segunda dose, todos os animais apresentavam altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes (256 a >4096 contra os vírus vacinais; além de títulos variados (8 a >4096 contra várias isolados brasileiros de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2. Quinze dias após o desafio, as ovelhas foram sacrificadas e os tecidos fetais foram examinados para a presença de vírus. Todos os fetos das ovelhas controle não-vacinadas apresentaram-se (n=4 positivos para os vírus utilizados no desafio. Em contraste, nenhum feto das ovelhas imunizadas (n=11 foi positivo para vírus, indicando que a resposta imunológica induzida pela vacinação com os vírus modificados foi capaz de prevenir a infecção fetal. Estes resultados indicam que é possível obter-se forte resposta imunológica e proteção fetal contra o BVDV com o uso de vacinas vivas modificadas.Two isolates of bovine viral diarrhea

  4. Pronóstico de la diarrea por rotavirus

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    Mota-Hernández Felipe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la gravedad de la diarrea por rotavirus (RV y por no rotavirus. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal en 520 lactantes con diarrea aguda, efectuado entre octubre de 1994 y marzo de 1995 en siete centros del primer nivel de atención en cinco estados de México. El diagnóstico de RV se realizó con ensayo inmunoenzimático o por electroforesis. El análisis se hizo a través de medidas de tendencia central. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana o variación. Resultados. Se aisló RV en 264 lactantes (50.7% con predominio en varones de 6 meses a un año. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron significativamente diferentes entre el grupo rotavirus positivo y el grupo rotavirus negativo en mediana de evacuaciones por 24 horas, frecuencia de vómitos, temperatura > 38° C, deshidratación y calificación de gravedad, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Estos resultados mostraron peor pronóstico por mayor gravedad de la diarrea por RV en lactantes, con relación a otra etiología. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  5. Fisiopatología de la diarrea aguda

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    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Es un artículo de revisión de los aspectos importantes de la fisiopatología de la diarrea. Se hace una descripción de la fisiopatología intestinal que incluye la anatomía del intestino y de su superficie de absorción y la estructura funcional de la mucosa intestinal. La fisiopatología normal de los líquidos intestinales. Mecanismo de absorción del agua y los electrólitos. Absorción de sodio por difusión electrogénica, unido al ion cloro, intercambio con el ion hidrógeno y unido a sustancias orgánicas como glucosa, aminoácidos y algunos oligopéptidos; secreción intestinal de agua y electrólitos. Control intracelular de la secreción. Mediadores y moduladores extracelulares del transporte intestinal. Factores que aumentan la absorción y reducen la secreción. Factores que estimulan la secreción y reducen la absorción Mecanismo fisiopatológico de la diarrea. Clasificación de la diarrea infecciosa aguda: acuosa secretoria y osmótica; diarrea con sangre invasiva y no invasiva.This a review of some important aspects of the physiopathology of diarrhea. A description is made of the intestinal physiopathology, including the anatomy of the intestine and of its surface of absorption, as well as the functional structure of the intestinal mucosa: the normal physiopathology of the intestinal fluids; the mechanism of absorption of water and electrolites; the absorption of sodium by electrogenic difussion, joined to the chloride ion; the interchange with the hydrogen ion and attached to organic substances, such as glucose, aminoacids and some oligopeptides; the intestinal secretion of water and electrolites; the intracellular control of secretion, the extracellular mediators and modulators of intestinal transport; the factors that increase absorption and reduce secretion; the factors that stimulate secretion and absorption; and the physiopathological mechanism of diarrhea. The classification of acute infectious diarrhea in aqueous

  6. Atividade antiviral e virucida de extratos hidroalcoólicos de própolis marrom, verde e de abelhas Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula frente ao herpersvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 e ao vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV

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    Cristina Mendes Peter

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Dentre as propriedades biológicas da própolis, a atividade antimicrobiana tem merecido destacada atenção. No presente trabalho, descreve-se a ação antiviral e virucida de três extratos hidroalcoólicos de própolis (marrom, verde e de abelhas jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, frente ao Herpesvírus Bovino tipo (BoHV-1 e ao Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina (BVDV. Os três extratos hidroalcoólicos foram obtidos de extração etanólica e são oriundos do sul do Brasil. A composição química dos extratos de própolis foi determinada pela cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a espectrômetro de massas (UFLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS que identificou e quantificou compostos como: ácido cafeico e ácido p-cumárico, ácido clorogênico, ácido ferúlico, além de flavonoides como a rutina. A toxicidade celular bem como a atividade antiviral dos extratos de própolis em monocamadas de células MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney foi avaliada através de observação microscópica e quantificada pelo teste de MTT (3-(4,5 dimetiltiazol-2yl-2-5-difenil-2H tetrazolato de bromo. O extrato de própolis de abelhas jataí demonstrou ser menos citotóxico (1,57μg/mL, quando comparado aos extratos verde (0,78μg/mL e marrom (0,39μg/mL. Quanto a atividade antiviral, a própolis verde demostrou maior eficácia em ambos os tratamentos celulares (pós e pré-exposição frente ao BoHV-1 em relação aos outros extratos, ou seja, houve maior viabilidade celular quando comparada aos controles de células e vírus. Já a de jataí apresentou atividade frente aos dois vírus (BoHV-1 e BVDV no método pré-infecção, enquanto a própolis marrom demonstrou ação apenas frente ao BoHV-1 também no método pré-infecção. Para determinação da atividade virucida foram utilizadas diferentes diluições dos vírus, bem como temperaturas e tempos distintos de incubação. A própolis verde a 37°C propiciou a maior redução no título viral (4,33log em

  7. Campilobacteriose genital bovina e tricomonose genital bovina: epidemiologia, diagnóstico e controle

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    T.M. Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente atualização trata de duas das mais importantes doenças sexualmente transmitidas de bovinos, a campilobacteriose genital bovina e a tricomonose genital bovina. São abordados aspectos relacionados à epidemiologia destas doenças, principalmente em relação a sua distribuição no Brasil. Também são revisados aspectos importantes de diagnóstico, incluindo as técnicas e interpretação dos resultados, além de medidas de controle para ambas as doenças.

  8. Diarrea funcional como causa de diarrea crónica Functional diarrhea as cause of chronic diarrhea

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    Trini Fragoso Arbelo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea funcional se presenta con frecuencia en la práctica pediátrica, y generalmente no se asocia a alteraciones nutricionales, pero sí a esquemas dietéticos incorrectos. Se actualiza su importancia clínica, se hace énfasis en la patogenia, diagnóstico y en los métodos de tratamiento. Consideramos que es la causa más frecuente de diarrea crónica inespecífica, y que el interrogatorio dirigido según los criterios de Roma es útil para su diagnóstico. La mayoría de los pacientes con esta enfermedad en la infancia deben ser tratados en la atención primaria.The functional diarrhea is frequent in the pediatric practice and in general it is not associated with nutritional alterations, but to incorrect dietary schemes. Its clinical significance is updated and its pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods are emphasized. Authors considered that the functional diarrhea is the more frequent cause of unspecific chronic diarrhea and the questioning directed according the Rome criteria is very useful for its diagnosis. Most of patients presenting with this disease during childhood must to be treated in primary care services.

  9. Middleware Cerberus usando RFID para rastreabilidade bovina

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    Silva, Márcio Roberto

    2009-01-01

    A gerência na zootecnia de precisão é cada vez mais necessária para garantia de lucros e a conquista de novos mercados os quais exigem qualidade e certificação. Nesta dissertação é abordado um sistema de rastreabilidade para o controle na bovinocultura utilizando chips RFID. Sendo que a identificação segura dos animais é a base para a rastreabilidade bovina e bubalina. Em vista as exigências do mercado consumidor o governo brasileiro instituiu o Sistema Brasileiro de Identificação e Certifica...

  10. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas maternas frente a la diarrea infantil aguda

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    Ocampo Montero, María Belén

    2014-01-01

    Entre las enfermedades más predominantes de la primera infancia las diarreas explican el 18% de las muertes de niños a nivel mundial. Particularmente en Argentina las diarreas y las infecciones gastrointestinales están dentro de las doce causas de muerte más importantes entre los niños menores de 5 años, lo que genera un gran problema de salud pública en los países en desarrollo, por su alta carga de morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Indagar sobre los conocimientos, actitudes,...

  11. Mastitis bovina causada por Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos

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    Bonetto, César C.

    2014-01-01

    El presente Trabajo de Tesis se desprende como una línea de investigación del grupo de la UNRC dedicado al estudio de la problemática de la mastitis bovina tanto en aspectos básicos como aplicados con estudios genéticos, epidemiológicos y de virulencia de los principales microorganismos involucrados en la mastitis bovina. Staphylococccus coagulasa negativo (SCN) es un grupo bacteriano formado por varias especies que por lo general eran considerados flora oportunista de la piel y age...

  12. Escherichia coli enteroagregativa en niños con diarrea de un hospital de Lima

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    Isabel Arias B

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre las Escherichia coli diarreogénicas la categoría E. coli enteroagregativa (ECEA es una de las más importantes y frecuentemente asociada a diarreas infantiles. El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de detectar los factores de virulencia que caracterizan a esta categoría patogénica mediante hibridación por colony blot usando sondas de ADN específicas. Se evaluaron 233 cepas aisladas en el laboratorio del Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas durante los meses de diciembre 1998 y abril de 1999. Del total de muestras analizadas, se encontró que 17,16% de las cepas poseen el factor de virulencia característico de esta categoría. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que un importante número de aislamientos de niños con diarrea presentan E. coli enteroagregativa.

  13. Enterobacterias como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea en la comunidad

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    Carlos Agudelo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar, a nivel de la comunidad, los enteropatógenos bacterianos que producen diarrea en niños menores de 10 años, tomamos muestras de heces de 204 pacientes con cuadro diarreico de 1 a 7 días de evolución y de un grupo control, sin diarrea, conformado por 48 niños. Evaluamos también la recuperación de los microorganismos empleando o no medio de Cary-Blair como medio de transporte e identificamos las categorías de Escherichia coli aisladas empleando pruebas biológicas e inmunológicas. Se destacaron como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea E. coli (58,8%, E. coli enterotoxigénica, productora de toxina labil (ECET-TL (5,1%, Salmonella enteritidis (6,9% y Shigella sonnei (5,9%. Cuando no se usó el medio de transporte de Cary-Blair la sensibilidad en la recuperación de los microorganismos fue del 37%. Se destaca la importancia de determinar la frecuencia real de las categorías de E. coli en nuestro medio.

  14. Saneamiento, educación, medio ambiente y diarreas: el caso del Conurbano Bonaerense

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    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio es analizar los efectos del déficit en servicios de saneamiento, factores socio-económicos y factores ambientales que, por sí mismos o en combinación, incrementan el riesgo de padecimiento de diarreas entre la población del Conurbano Bonaerense, una de las áreas mas densamente pobladas de la Argentina y uno de los once conglomerados urbanos más grandes del mundo. Para la medición de los efectos se utilizan datos primarios obtenidos mediante una encuesta ad-hoc y se est...

  15. Diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico de paratuberculosis bovina en un hato lechero en Colombia

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    Nicolás Ramírez V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar retrospectiva y sistemáticamente los hallazgos clínicos e histopatológicos de paratuberculosis bovina Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP. Los datos fueron obtenidos en diferentes momentos durante un periodo de 8 años (2000-2008 en unhato lechero en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la información documental en 5 casos compatibles con paratuberculisis bovina, así como la información procedente de otros estudios efectuados en el hato sobre la enfermedad realizados paralelamente enel periodo 2000-2008. Resultados. Los 5 animales afectados, presentaron diarrea crónica intermitente, disminución en la producción de leche, enflaquecimiento progresivo, apetito normal, consumo aumentado de agua y constantes fisiológicas normales. A la necropsia se observó engrosamiento de la mucosa intestinal del íleon y de la porción proximal del intestino grueso con múltiples levantamientos y depresiones, que no desaparecían al estirarel tejido. Los vasos sanguíneos mesentéricos se encontraron dilatados y congestivos. Los ganglios linfáticos mesentéricos se encontraron aumentados hasta tres veces, sin clara delimitación de la corteza y de la médula. Las alteraciones histológicas fueron enteritis ylinfadenitis granulomatosa. En tres de los animales se evidenciaron abundantes bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes (BAAR intracelulares en macrófagos, células gigantes y en el intersticio a la coloración de Ziehl-Neelsen. En otros tejidos evaluados no se encontró inflamación de tipo granulomatoso. Conclusiones. Los criterios diagnósticos empleados, así como el análisis de la información diagnóstica generada en otros estudios, permiten confirmar la presencia, circulación y mantenimiento del Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis en el hato con un aparente número elevado de animales infectados.

  16. Uso de las enzimas digestivas en el tratamiento de la diarrea persistente

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    Arnaldo Izquierdo Estévez

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de corte transversal, con el propósito de conocer la medida en que los fermentos pancreáticos totales administrados oralmente, favorecen la evolución de la enfermedad, en los niños menores de 1 año con diarrea persistente, ingresados en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Ángel A. Aballí" en el período de enero a abril de 1996. Los resultados permiten afirmar la reducción del número de deposiciones y el incremento efectivo de peso al 3er. día de tratamiento, así como la mejoría de los síntomas asociados con la diarrea, sin efectos secundarios.A prospective cross-sectional study aimed at finding out to what extent the orally-administered total pancreatic fermets influence over the development of diarrhea disease in under one-year old children admitted with persistent diarrhea to the Gastroenterology Service Unit of «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital from January to April 1996 was performed. Results showed the reduction in the number of stools, the effective weight gain on the 3rd day of treatment as well as the improvement of diarrhea-related symptoms without side effects.

  17. Varón de 48 años con diarrea y colestasis

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    A. Jímenez Jurado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de un varón de 48 años derivado a la consulta por un cuadro clínico de diarrea crónica (> 6 semanas junto con alteración de las pruebas de función hepática consistente en un patrón de colestasis. La presencia de diarrea crónica y colestasis nos obligaron al diagnóstico diferencial entre las siguientes entidades: enfermedad celíaca, enferme-dad inflamatoria intestinal, enfermedades infecciosas crónicas (tuber-culosis intestinal, micobacterium avium en inmunodeprimidos, causas metabólicas como la amiloidosis, obstrucción de la vía biliar intrahepatica (ductopenia del adulto, colangitis esclerosante primaria o secundaria, toma de fármacos y finalmente causas tumorales (colangiocarcinoma, linfoma de Hodgkin, adenocarcinoma colon. En el caso que presentamos, la colangio resonancia magnética nuclear fue la herramienta diagnóstica fundamental para el diagnóstico de la entidad

  18. Incidencia y factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea aguda en una comunidad rural de la selva peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Henríquez Camacho

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia y factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea aguda en una comunidad rural localizada en la selva del departamento de San Martín, Perú. Material y métodos: Una cohorte de 119 personas fue seleccionada al azar entre la población de 446 habitantes y seguida diariamente por un mes entre enero y febrero de 1999, buscando casos de diarrea aguda, definida como tres ó más cámaras de deposiciones al día por no más de 3 días. Un estudio caso control pareado fue diseñado para determinar los factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea. Resultados: Fueron observados 18 casos de diarrea aguda; la incidencia fue 15.1 casos por 100 personas-mes (IC 95%: 9.45-23.12. La edad media de los casos fue de 10.7 años (rango: 1-34 años y 66% de los casos fueron niños menores de 10 años de edad. Los factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea fueron: consumo de alimentos crudos, RR: 2.2 (IC 95%: 1.12-4.33, consumo de alimentos no lavados, RR: 4.47 (IC 95%: 1.56-12.82, falta de lavado de manos antes de alimentarse, RR: 9.61 (95% IC: 1.44-64.16, consumo de agua no hervida, RR: 4.52 (IC 95%: 1.23-16.65 y alimentación fuera de casa, RR: 2.2 (IC 95%: 1.51-3.20. La diferencia en el número promedio (DE de personas que vivían por casa entre casos y controles fue de 4.38 (1.03 vs. 3.22 (0.54, p=0.0003, respectivamente. No hubo diferencia en el tiempo de residencia en la comunidad entre casos y controles, media de 5.61 ( 5.04 años vs. 8.83 (9.79, p=0.5747. Conclusiones: Diarrea aguda es un problema de salud pública en la selva de San Martín. Hacinamiento, carencia de saneamiento y pobres prácticas higiénicas son los responsables para adquirir diarrea aguda en esta comunidad de bajo nivel socioeconómico. Campañas educativas y mejora en las condiciones sanitarias son claramente necesarias para superar este problema.

  19. Detección del virus de la leucosis bovina en ganado criollo colombiano mediante PCR-anidado

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    Darwin Yovanny Hernández-Herrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia del virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB en 360 muestras de ADN de ocho razas bovinas criollas: Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Casanareño (CAS, Costeño con Cuernos (CCC, Chino Santandereano (ChS, Caqueteño (CQT, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS y San Martinero (SM, dos Razas Sintéticas Colombianas: Lucerna (LUC y Velásquez (VEL y dos razas foráneas: Brahmán (B y Holstein (H. Para la detección del pro-virus se amplificó una región del gen env viral, mediante PCR anidada. La presencia del VLB fue mayor en la raza HV seguido por ChS (83.3% y 60% respectivamente, VEL y LUC tuvieron el mismo porcentaje (50%, en CAS, CCC y CQT la presencia del virus fue de 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectivamente; no se encontró el virus en BON, SM y RS. En las razas foráneas la presencia fue de 83.3% para H y 6.7% para B. Se encontró dependencia altamente significativa entre la presencia del VLB y la raza, el sexo y región de origen de la muestra. El promedio de presencia en las razas criollas fue menor que en las foráneas, menor en los machos que en las hembras y en la región norte que en el suroccidente y el centro del país.

  20. La prevenzione dell'influenza, della malattia da meningococco C e della diarrea da colera

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    R. Trivello

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza, meningococco C e colera: tre differenti agenti infettivi che causano malattie molto diverse tra loro, tutte però con un denominatore comune: sono prevenibili con la vaccinazione. La vaccinazione influenzale nei bambini è un argomento di grande attualità e dibattito: i vari aspetti verranno messi a confronto sulla base delle esperienze internazionali e nazionali. La vaccinazione contro il meningococco C: saranno riportati i risultati di una esperienza di collaborazione tra Pediatria di Famiglia e Sanità Pubblica. La diarrea da colera e la sua prevenzione: molti Paesi considerati ad alto rischio per il colera stanno trasformandosi in destinazioni turistiche popolari e la possibilità di contrarne le forme più lievi è molto elevata; la vaccinazione consente efficacemente di eliminare questo rischio.

  1. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  2. Sexagem de carcaça bovina pelo método de PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia que permitisse a sexagem de carne bovina pronta para comercialização. Para tanto, utilizou-se primers seqüência macho-específica e posterior análise do produto amplificado. O método proposto mostrou-se eficiente para verificar o sexo, bem como sua utilização prática, a fim de evitar fraudes na comercialização de carne bovina.

  3. Viral Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better from treatment such as an antiviral medicine. Antibiotics do not help viral infections, so they are not useful in the treatment of viral meningitis. However, antibiotics do fight bacteria, so they are very important ...

  4. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to treat viral infections helps bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. With some sore throats (such as those caused ...

  5. Efecto de lactoferrina bovina en la formación de biofilms en cepas clínicas de E. coli enteroagregativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Coveñas

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el efecto de lactoferrina bovina (bLf en la formación de biofilms en cepas clínicas de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC, y si este efecto es independiente del hierro. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron dos métodos: (a cualitativo, mediante observación directa por microscopia óptica, y (b cuantitativo, lecturas de los valores de absorbancia mediante lector de ELISA en presencia de bLf en concentraciones de 0,01mg/mL y 1mg/mL, con y sin hierro, y no bLf (control, en 122 cepas de EAEC para el método cuantitativo (60 cepas de niños con diarrea y 62 de niños sanos y 31 cepas para el método cualitativo. Resultados. (a Método cualitativo: se evaluaron 31 cepas, con y sin hierro. Sin hierro la formación de biofilms fue de 77% (24/31 en el grupo control versus 58% (14/31 con bLf de 0,01 mg/mL y 4% (1/31 con 1 mg/mL. Con hierro la formación de biofilms fue 90% (28/31 en el grupo control versus 55% (17/31 con bLf de 0,01 mg/mL y 4% (1/31 a 1 mg/mL. (b Método cuantitativo: sin hierro la absorbancia medida a OD 560 nm del grupo control fue 0,7 ± 0,5 versus 0,4 ± 0,3 con bLf 0,01mg/mL y 0,3 ± 0,2 con bLf de 1 mg/mL (p<0,0001. Esta disminución en presencia de bLf incluso se dio con hierro. Conclusiones. La bLf tiende a disminuir la formación de biofilms, mostrando un efecto inhibitorio en las cepas clínicas de EAEC, este efecto no es hierro-dependiente

  6. Uso de la inmunohistoquímica como herramienta epidemiológica para el diagnóstico de rabia bovina a partir de casos no conclusivos

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    Gloria Jurado G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar el virus de la rabia en casos de encefalitis bovina a partir de muestras archivadas en el laboratorio sin diagnóstico conclusivo. Materiales y métodos. Doce muestras de cerebro bovino sospechosas de rabia, fueron procesadas por la técnica de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta, usando anticuerpos policlonales contra el agente viral. Resultados. Se demostró la presencia de antígenos virales en tres casos en forma de agregados pequeños en el citoplasma de las neuronas, con un patrón de forma redonda u oval y un número variable de corpúsculos de inclusión viral. Se discute sobre la importancia de los resultados en Colombia, la utilidad de la técnica en las difíciles condiciones de envío de muestras al laboratorio, además la posible relación de los casos negativos con herpesvirus bovino 5. Conclusiones. La utilización de la técnica de inmunohistoquímica para demostrar antígenos del virus rábico en encéfalos bovinos fijados en formol, puede ayudar en el perfeccionamiento del mapa epidemiológico de la enfermedad de la rabia en Colombia y puede disminuir el alto subdiagnóstico de otras enfermedades que afectan el sistema nervioso de los bovinos.

  7. Effective treatment of common variable immunodeficiency associated diarrhea Diarrea asociada a inmunodeficiencia común variable tratada con budesonida

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    H. Córdova Guevara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID, the commonest symptomatic primary antibody deficiency syndrome, is characterised by recurrent bacterial infections, particularly of the upper and lower airways; it is also associated with an increased incidence of autoimmune and neoplastic disorders. CVID has a high prevalence of infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases. Up to 60% of the patients with non-treated CVID develop diarrhea and 10% associated idiopathic malabsorption with weight loss. The case of a 50-year-old woman with CVID-associated diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating of one year's duration is reported. An exhaustive evaluation made for secondary causes of her symptoms was unrevealing; she was treated with loperamide and diet, without improvement. She later followed a course of oral budesonide for 3 months; her clinical symptoms disappeared and her quality of life improved. In conclusion, we report the case of a patient with CVID-related chronic diarrhea who responded well to oral budesonide treatment. This outcome provides the gastroenterologist with a new therapeutic option in this difficult group of patients.La inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV es la deficiencia primaria de anticuerpos sintomática más frecuente y está caracterizada por infecciones bacterianas recurrentes, especialmente de las vías aéreas superiores e inferiores, y también asociada a incremento de enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias. Presenta alta prevalencia de enfermedades gastrointestinales infecciosas, inflamatorias y neoplásicas. Hasta el 60% de los pacientes con IDCV no tratados desarrollan diarrea y el 10% desarrollan malabsorción idiopática asociado a pérdida de peso. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 50 años con IDCV que presenta diarrea crónica, con dolor y distensión abdominal desde hace 1 año. Realizándose múltiples exploraciones y descartando causas secundarias de diarrea crónica, se inicia

  8. Consenso chileno de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Rocha, Cristian; Pidal, Paola; Ajenjo, M. Cristina; Quera, Rodrigo; Quintanilla, Marcela; Lubascher, Jaime; Jemenao, M. Irene; Ibáñez, Patricio; Álvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Diomedi, Alexis; Marcotti, Alejandra; Acuña, Mirta; Arab, Juan P; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Candía, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile (DACD) ha adquirido gran relevancia debido al aumento en su incidencia, gravedad, capacidad de recurrencia y carga económica asociada. Contar con una guía de consenso local es fundamental para mejorar su manejo. Objetivo: Elaborar un consenso multidisciplinara y basado en la evidencia en la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la DACD. Métodos: Se convocó a un panel de expertos en el área de enfermedades infecciosas, gastroenterolo...

  9. Identificación de Arcobacter en heces de niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en reservorios animales

    OpenAIRE

    Rito Zerpa Larrauri; Jorge O Alarcón Villaverde; Percy E Lezama Vigo; Lilian Patiño Gabriel; Alberto Reyes Dioses; Augusto M Valencia Ramírez; Jorge Velásquez; Carlos R Sevilla Andrade; Miriam J Alarcón León

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Los microorganismos del género Arcobacter, considerados patógenos zoonóticos emergentes, son morfológicamente similares a Campylobacter. Los reportes de Arcobacter como agente etiológico de diarrea en humanos en América Latina son escasos. En el Perú no se ha comunicado su aislamiento en heces de humanos o en animales. Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de Arcobacter en heces de niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en animales: aves, ganado vacuno, porcino, peces y mariscos. Diseño:...

  10. Comportamiento epidemiológico de la rabia paralítica bovina en la región central de México, 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bárcenas-Reyes

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Determinar la distribución geoespacial de los casos de rabia paralítica bovina transmitida por Desmodus rotundus en los estados de Guanajuato, Querétaro y San Luis Potosí, México. MÉTODOS: Estudio epidemiológico transversal a partir de los casos notificados por las campañas estatales de control de la rabia paralítica bovina en Guanajuato (2008-2013, Querétaro (2005-2013 y San Luis Potosí (2001-2013. Se confirmaron los casos por inmunofluorescencia directa. Se elaboraron mapas de distribución de los casos por año y por especie, mediante el software ArcMap versión 10.1. Para identificar áreas con condiciones apropiadas para la presencia de casos se combinaron las variables bioclimáticas con los casos georreferenciados, mediante el programa MaxEnt versión 3.3.3. RESULTADOS: Se registraron 1 037 casos, de los cuales, 911 (87,9% ocurrieron en San Luis Potosí, 82 (7,9% en Querétaro y 44 (4,2% en Guanajuato. Del total, 87,4% ocurrió en alturas menores de 1 500 msnm. En Guanajuato y Querétaro, 77,3% y 42,3% de los casos, respectivamente, ocurrieron en alturas mayores de 1 500 msnm. Los meses de mayor incidencia fueron de diciembre a marzo. La variante antigénica viral V11 fue la más frecuente (173 casos, presente en los tres estados estudiados. En el canal endémico, el promedio de casos se mantiene en la zona de seguridad de enero a marzo, pero de abril a junio excede la mediana. La distribución espacial de los casos muestra la diseminación reciente de la enfermedad, lo que coincide con la presencia del murciélago vampiro. CONCLUSIONES: La rabia paralítica bovina se ha extendido a regiones anteriormente libres de esta enfermedad. Las características ambientales y la altura sobre el nivel del mar no limitan la presentación de casos. Se debe mantener un monitoreo constante para la detección oportuna de casos. La vacunación se debe realizar antes del comienzo de las lluvias, sin esperar la aparición de brotes.

  11. Determinación serológica de leucosis bovina enzoótica en novillas de levante y vacas adultas de la vereda Morichal, Yopal, Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Andrea Bautista-R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se llevó a cabo con el objetivo de realizar una determinación serológica de leucosis bovina enzoótica en novillas de levante y vacas adultas. Se recolectaron 100 muestras de sangre de hembras escogidas al azar, pertenecientes a tres fincas del sector La Guafilla, de la vereda Morichal, en Yopal, Casanare, las cuales fueron analizadas para anticuerpos contra el LVB (virus de la Leucosis Viral Bovina; adicionalmente, se obtuvieron 100 muestras de los mismos animales para realización de hemograma, con el fin de observar cambios a nivel sanguíneo de aquellos que resultaran positivos. La técnica serológica empleada fue la prueba de ELISA indirecta. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo tabulando la información con datos de seropositividad y seronegatividad obtenidos de cada animal; los resultados se interpretaron de acuerdo con las variables raza, edad y variaciones del cuadro hemático. Para determinar la relación entre seropositividad y cada una de las variables se utilizó la prueba de Probabilidad de Fisher. Las pruebas arrojaron una seroprevalencia del 15% para LVB. No se encontraron diferencias significativas de prevalencia asociadas a las variables raza, edad o resultados del hemograma (p>=0.05. Se demuestra la presencia del virus LBE en La Guafilla. Se confirma la importancia de implementar un programa de control y prevención de la diseminación de la infección, con el fin de evitar las pérdidas económicas asociadas, y, dentro de lo posible, la eliminación de los animales seropositivos para lograr la erradicación de la infección en esta zona del país.

  12. COSTE DE LA DIARREA ASOCIADA A CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE EN ESPAÑA

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    Ángel Asensio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: No se dispone de estudios adecuados del coste de las diarreas asociadas a Clostridium difficile (DACD en España. El objetivo del estudio es estimar el coste de las DACD para el Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS. Métodos: Se realizó un modelo económico para calcular el coste por episodio de DACD (por antibióticos, prolongación del ingreso hospitalario, procedimientos quirúrgicos, medidas de control de la infección, recurrencias de las infecciones tratadas y el coste anual de la DACD. El uso de recursos en la práctica clínica se obtuvo mediante un panel Delphi de clínicos españoles con experiencia en la DACD y los costes unitarios (€ 2012 de fuentes españolas. Resultados: Se estimó que anualmente se produjeron 7.601 episodios de DACD en España (incidencia de 17,1 episodios/año/10.000 altas hospitalarias con un gasto anual para el SNS de 32.157.093 €. Coste por episodio de DACD: 3.901 € (infección inicial, 4.875 € (primera recurrencia y 5.916 € (segunda recurrencia. Coste total de las recurrencias: 10.426.750 € anuales. El 95,6% del gasto se debería a la prolongación de la duración de la estancia hospitalaria, el 0,5% a tratamientos antibióticos, el 2,8% a intervenciones quirúrgicas y el 1,1% a las medidas de control de la infección. Los resultados del estudio fueron sensibles a la incidencia y tasa de letalidad de la DACD en España y a la duración de la prolongación de la duración de la estancia hospitalaria debida a la DACD. Conclusiones: Según este estudio, el gasto asociado a la DACD se debe fundamentalmente a la prolongación de los ingresos hospitalarios y tiene un gran impacto económico en el SNS.

  13. MODELO EXPERIMENTAL DE GLOMERULONEFRITIS MEMBRANOSA INDUCIDA CON ALBUMINA BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontenla M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue diseñar un modelo experimental de Glomerulonefritis Membranosa (GM en ratas Wistar, inducida con Seroalbúmina Bovina (BSA, y validarlo mediante la determinación de parámetros bioquímicos, histológicos, ultraestructurales y detección de inmunocomplejos por inmunofluorescencia (IF. Los animales del grupo experimental fueron inmunizados por vía subcutánea, con dosis de 3 mg c/u de BSA/PBS con adyuvante de Freund. Se efectuaron diferentes esquemas de inmunización. Cuando el título de anticuerpos fue ≥1/2, comenzó la administración diaria de 2 mg, por vía endovenosa de BSA/PBS, durante 15 días. Se evaluó la funcionalidad renal por la proteinuria; después de la 5° semana, desde su aparición, se determinó: depuración (clearance de creatinina, uremia, proteinemia y perfil lipídico. Los dos riñones se usaron para estudios histológicos, ultraestructurales y detección de inmunocomplejos por IF. Los resultados mostraron que la inmunización fue efectiva con 5 R E S U M E N inoculaciones c/15 días. En los animales nefróticos la proteinuria, depuración (clearance de creatinina, proteinemia , uremia y el perfil lipídico presentaron alteraciones significativas (p<0.0001. Al microscopio óptico se observó hipercelularidad, engrosamiento difuso de las membranas basales de los capilares glomerulares y diferentes grados de atrofia, esclerosis e hialinización de los glomérulos. Por IF se detectó inmunocomplejos IgG en el 100 % de los glomérulos. Ultraestructuralmente, se observaron depósitos subepiteliales electrodensos en la membrana basal engrosada, compatibles con inmunocomplejos . Se encontraron alteraciones en la estructura de los podocitos. En conclusión, los estudios bioquímicos, estructurales y ultraestructurales permitieron inferir la inducción de un síndrome nefrótico experimental. Concluimos que el protocolo utilizado tiene validez para la inducción de una glomerulonefritis

  14. Probióticos para la prevención de la diarrea asociada al clostridium difficile en adultos y niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-05-01

    Resultados principales: Sobre la base de esta revisión sistemática y del metanálisis de 23 ensayos controlados aleatorios con 4213 pacientes, las pruebas de calidad moderada indican que los probióticos son tanto seguros como efectivos para prevenir la diarrea asociada al Clostridium difficile.

  15. INFORMAÃÃO E QUALIDADE NA COMPRA DE CARNE BOVINA

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    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As transformações ocorridas na economia mundial nos últimos anos têm se refletido no comportamento do consumidor de alimentos, particularmente em relação ao seu processo decisório de compra. A crescente preocupação com o consumo de produtos de origem animal, em especial de carne bovina, posicionou a qualidade como um diferencial competitivo. Nesse sentido, informar ao consumidor sobre a qualidade do produto torna-se um desafio. Em carne bovina, a qualidade pode ser inferida pelas características intrínsecas do produto (cor, sabor, aroma, mas também pelas informações disponibilizadas. Este artigo objetiva, então, identificar o grau de importância de informações diretamente relacionadas à qualidade de carne bovina, a partir de uma amostra de 400 consumidores. Além disso, utilizando-se a estatística multivariada através da análise fatorial, foram identificados fatores relacionados à informação como indicadores de qualidade. Os resultados sugerem que os consumidores em Porto Alegre apresentam interesse por informações ainda não disponibilizadas pelos fornecedores de carne bovina, sinalizando que a oferta não está em acordo com a demanda. Assim, o produto oferecido no mercado não fornece elementos suficientes para que o consumidor possa inferir sobre sua qualidade, com base nas informações disponíveis.

  16. INFORMAÇÃO E QUALIDADE NA COMPRA DE CARNE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As transformações ocorridas na economia mundial nos últimos anos têm se refletido no comportamento do consumidor de alimentos, particularmente em relação ao seu processo decisório de compra. A crescente preocupação com o consumo de produtos de origem animal, em especial de carne bovina, posicionou a qualidade como um diferencial competitivo. Nesse sentido, informar ao consumidor sobre a qualidade do produto torna-se um desafio. Em carne bovina, a qualidade pode ser inferida pelas características intrínsecas do produto (cor, sabor, aroma, mas também pelas informações disponibilizadas. Este artigo objetiva, então, identificar o grau de importância de informações diretamente relacionadas à qualidade de carne bovina, a partir de uma amostra de 400 consumidores. Além disso, utilizando-se a estatística multivariada através da análise fatorial, foram identificados fatores relacionados à informação como indicadores de qualidade. Os resultados sugerem que os consumidores em Porto Alegre apresentam interesse por informações ainda não disponibilizadas pelos fornecedores de carne bovina, sinalizando que a oferta não está em acordo com a demanda. Assim, o produto oferecido no mercado não fornece elementos suficientes para que o consumidor possa inferir sobre sua qualidade, com base nas informações disponíveis.

  17. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  18. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  19. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota-Hernández Felipe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.

  20. Burden of diarrhea among children in Honduras, 2000-2004: estimates of the role of rotavirus La diarrea infantil en Honduras, 2000-2004: estimados del papel desempeñado por el rotavirus

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    José Orlando Solórzano Girón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the annual burden of diarrhea and of diarrhea that is associated with rotavirus (RV in children who are treated at public clinics and hospitals in Honduras. METHODS: Data were collected from computerized records of all children OBJETIVOS: Estimar la carga anual por diarrea y por diarrea asociada con la infección por rotavirus (RV en niños atendidos en clínicas y hospitales públicos de Honduras. MÉTODOS: Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de los registros computarizados de todos los niños menores de 5 años atendidos por diarrea en clínicas y hospitales operados por la Secretaría de Salud de Honduras durante el período 2000-2004. Una revisión de los estudios realizados sobre RV en Honduras y los países vecinos ofreció estimados de las tasas de detección de RV en niños tratados por diarrea aguda hospitalizados o de forma ambulatoria. Con estos datos se estimó el número anual de casos de diarrea y de diarrea asociada con la infección por RV en Honduras, la incidencia acumulativa de diarrea y de diarrea asociada con la infección por RV en niños menores de 5 años y el número de muertes debido a RV en niños hospitalizados por diarrea. RESULTADOS: Entre los años 2000 y 2004 se registraron medias anuales de 222 000 visitas médicas, 4 390 hospitalizaciones y 162 muertes hospitalarias por diarrea en niños menores de 5 años en instalaciones sanitarias públicas de Honduras. A partir de la revisión de la literatura científica relativa a Honduras y los países vecinos se estimó que 30% de los casos de diarrea atendidos ambulatoriamente y 43% de los hospitalizados podrían deberse a RV. En consecuencia, se estimó que 66 600 visitas médicas ambulatorias, 1 888 hospitalizaciones y 70 muertes hospitalarias de niños menores de 5 años pueden atribuirse a la infección por RV anualmente en Honduras. Por lo tanto, los riesgos de un niño en sus primeros 5 años de vida de asistir a una consulta, de ser

  1. Prevalencia de brucelosis bovina en el periodo 2004-2012 y tuberculosis bovina en el periodo 2006-2012 en hatos lecheros del Cantón Mejía

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Quisiguano, O.; Paredes Muñoz, J.; Mosquera, J.; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2015-01-01

    Brucelosis y tuberculosis bovina son dos enfermedades que causan importantes pérdidas productivas y reproductivas en la ganadería local, nacional e internacional. En el Ecuador, desde hace varios años se viene trabajando en un programa para el control y erradicación de estas dos enfermedades. En el año 2006, por primera vez, siete predios de producción lechera consiguieron la certificación de predio libre de Brucelosis bovina, otorgada por el Servicio Ecuatoriano de Sanidad Animal (SESA) de e...

  2. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  3. Evaluación nutricional del niño con diarrea funcional Nutritional evaluation of the child with functional diarrhea

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    Tamara Díaz Lorenzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea funcional se presenta con frecuencia en la práctica pediátrica y generalmente no se asocia a alteraciones nutricionales, pero sí a esquemas dietéticos incorrectos. Con el objetivo de determinar la evaluación nutricional de los niños con este tipo de afección, y la influencia de la dieta en la aparición de la enfermedad, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 44 niños menores de 36 meses de edad, que fueron atendidos entre el 2003 y el 2005 en la consulta de gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario Pedro Borrás Astorga. Según los Criterios de Roma II, el diagnóstico correspondiente fue el de diarrea funcional. No hubo afectación nutricional relevante. La evaluación dietética demostró una alimentación no saludable, debida fundamentalmente al consumo poco variado, no equilibrado ni adecuado de los alimentos, que contribuyó a la génesis de las diarreas.Functional diarrhea appears frequently in the pediatric practice and it is not generally associated with nutritional disorders, but with inappropriate diet schemes. In order to determine the nutritional evaluation of the children with this type of affection, and the influence of the diet on the appearance of the disease, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 44 children under 36 months old that received attention at the gastroenterology office of “Pedro Borras Astorga” University Pediatric Hospital between 2003 and 2005. According to the criteria of Rome II, they were diagnosed functional diarrhea. No significant nutritional affection was observed. The dietetic evaluation showed an unhealthy nutrition that contributed to the genesis of the diarrea.

  4. Bienestar animal durante el transporte y su relación con la calidad de la carne bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Marlyn Romero P.; Jorge Sánchez V.

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENEl bienestar animal (BA) es un elemento diferenciador en la comercialización de la carne bovina a nivel internacional, aunque no forma parte de los acuerdos comerciales, se pueden citar ejemplos de las experiencias de Chile, Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay con la Unión Europea, que los ha privilegiado para la exportación de carne fresca bovina con este valor agregado. Durante el transporte, cargue y descargue los bovinos son sometidos a factores estresantes que afectan su bienestar y la ca...

  5. Análise comparativa da competividade do Brasil e EUA no mercado internacional da carne bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Dhein Dill; Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte; Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos; Maria Eugênia Andrighetto Canozzi; Tamara Esteves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    O Brasil e os EUA estão entre os principais produtores mundiais de carne bovina. Entretanto, distorções no mercado alimentar decorrentes da presença de barreiras comerciais podem comprometer a competitividade desses países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a competitividade da carne bovina brasileira e norte-americana, no mercado internacional, entre 1990 e 2008. Para isso, foi utilizado o Índice de Competitividade Revelada (CR) para inferir sobre os efeitos que subsídios, acordos come...

  6. Análisis del potencial exportador colombiano de carne bovina y porcina a la Federación Rusa

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Díaz, Camilo Andrés; Rojas Mesa, Camilo Andrés

    2017-01-01

    El estudio del potencial exportador colombiano de carne bovina y porcina a la Federación Rusa en función de su oferta y demanda es un proyecto que pertenece a la línea de realidad dentro del área de investigación de la Universidad del Rosario. Es una investigación tipo exploratoria con un enfoque cualitativo que buscará dar respuesta a si Colombia cuenta con el potencial exportador de carne bovina y porcina al mercado de la Federación Rusa. El marco teórico que justifica el proyecto de inv...

  7. Acceso a la educación en salud y su potencial en la disminución de la incidencia de diarrea infantil en las poblaciones costeras de Yucatán, México

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    Rubén Solís

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación en salud o pláticas en el ámbito institucional mitiga la incidencia de diarrea infantil. Yucatán es el estado con las mayores tasas de incidencia de diarreas a nivel nacional; el impacto de las pláticas, como parte de un programa de salud, en la incidencia de diarreas ha sido insuficientemente estudiado. Objetivo: Analizar el rol del acceso a las pláticas para prevenir la incidencia de diarreas infantiles. Metodología: Se utilizó el muestreo de encuestas en 151 hogares, se encontró a 187 niños menores de cinco años de edad. El estudio se realizó en tres segmentos muestrales de la zona costera, con diferentes condiciones ambientales: Progreso (puerto urbano concentrado, Celestún (reserva biosfera, turismo, urbanizada y Río Lagartos (turismo, reserva biosfera rural. Se estimó la tasa de prevalencia lápsica de diarrea, los casos fueron las diarreas ocurridas en los 15 días inmediatos previos a la encuesta. Se hizo análisis descriptivos, bivariados, estratificados y la regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Se registró una tasa de prevalencia lápsica de 13.37% (n=25 casos. El análisis logístico multivariado mostró el impacto protector significativo de las pláticas (=-2.105; RM=0.163; y = 0.018 con un efecto que equivale a 6.25 veces menos riesgo de presentar episodios diarreicos. Conclusión: Las pláticas, como política de salud, tienen impacto en la disminución de las diarreas; esto sucede en especial si se llevan a cabo entre los beneficiarios de los programas sociales.

  8. Acceso a la educación en salud y su potencial en la disminución de la incidencia de diarrea infantil en las poblaciones costeras de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación en salud o pláticas en el ámbito institucional mitiga la incidencia de diarrea infantil. Yucatán es el estado con las mayores tasas de incidencia de diarreas a nivel nacional; el impacto de las pláticas, como parte de un programa de salud, en la incidencia de diarreas ha sido insuficientemente estudiado. Objetivo: Analizar el rol del acceso a las pláticas para prevenir la incidencia de diarreas infantiles. Metodología: Se utilizó el muestreo de encuestas en 151 hogares, se encontró a 187 niños menores de cinco años de edad. El estudio se realizó en tres segmentos muestrales de la zona costera, con diferentes condiciones ambientales: Progreso (puerto urbano concentrado, Celestún (reserva biosfera, turismo, urbanizada y Río Lagartos (turismo, reserva biosfera rural. Se estimó la tasa de prevalencia lápsica de diarrea, los casos fueron las diarreas ocurridas en los 15 días inmediatos previos a la encuesta. Se hizo análisis descriptivos, bivariados, estratificados y la regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Se registró una tasa de prevalencia lápsica de 13.37% (n=25 casos. El análisis logístico multivariado mostró el impacto protector significativo de las pláticas (B=-2.105; RM=0.163; y p= 0.018 con un efecto que equivale a 6.25 veces menos riesgo de presentar episodios diarreicos. Conclusión: Las pláticas, como política de salud, tienen impacto en la disminución de las diarreas; esto sucede en especial si se llevan a cabo entre los beneficiarios de los programas sociales.

  9. Somatotropina bovina recombinante en sincronización de estros y prolificidad de ovejas Pelibuey

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa-Pérez, G; Pérez-Hernández, P.; Vaquera-Huerta, H.; Salazar-Ortiz, J.; Sánchez-del-Real, C.; Cadena-Villegas, S.; Gallegos-Sánchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Con la finalidad de estudiar si la administración de la Somatotropina Bovina Recombinante (bST) dos días antes del retiro del progestágeno, tiene efecto en la sincronización de estros, inicio del estro, fertilidad, prolificidad y tipo de parto en ovejas Pelibuey, a 180 ovejas de 4,0 ± 0,32 años de edad, se les inserto un dispositivo intravaginal impregnado con progesterona (CIDR P4 0,3 g), por nueve días. Dos días antes del retiro del dispositivo, las ovejas se asignaron aleatoriamente a uno ...

  10. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro e in vivo de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi no controle da mastite bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Faccin, ângela

    2013-01-01

    O interesse científico pela fitoterapia levou ao desenvolvimento de pesquisas baseadas nas práticas populares. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato hidroalcoólico e óleo essencial das folhas e frutos de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi em dois estádios fenológicos frente a bactérias relacionadas a mastite bovina, além de testar um extrato da planta, com ação antibacteriana, para ser utilizado na antissepsia da ordenha. A dissertação está apresentada em ...

  11. Determinantes da demanda internacional de carne bovina brasileira: evidências de quebras estruturais

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    Laércio Juarez Melz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é verificar as variáveis de impacto na demanda internacional por carne bovina entre janeiro de 1995 e junho de 2013. O método utilizado foi de Mínimos Quadrados Ordinários com Quebras, obtendo-se quatro quebras, cinco regimes. As variáveis independentes na regressão foram os preços de exportação e internos das carnes de bovinos, frangos e suínos, além da renda e da taxa de câmbio. No primeiro regime, a demanda por carne bovina foi elástica em relação aos preços, tanto interno quanto externo, da carne de frango e preço interno da carne bovina. Porém, a elasticidade-renda foi mais significativa. No segundo regime, a relação de preços externos foi inelástica. A elasticidade-renda foi significativa neste regime e houve impacto da taxa de câmbio. No terceiro regime, a demanda foi inelástica em relação aos preços externos das carnes de frango e bovina e elástica aos preços internos das mesmas carnes. A taxa de câmbio também teve impacto significativo. No quarto regime, a demanda foi elástica em relação ao preço interno e inelástica em relação aos preços externos e internos do frango. A renda passa a ser novamente significativa. No quinto regime, a demanda é elástica em relação ao preço externo dos suínos, interno do bovino e à renda. Houve tendência significativa de crescimento no segundo regime e de recessão no primeiro e terceiro regimes.

  12. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años

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    MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO HOMERO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.

  13. Validação de radioimunoensaio para quantificação de leptina plasmática bovina

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    Maria Paula Beltran

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Devido à necessidade de compreender melhor as interações entre leptina e reprodução, um RIA específico para a leptina bovina foi validado. Primeiro, um protocolo para produção de anticorpos foi desenvolvido por meio da inoculação de leptina recombinante equina em um coelho, que resultou em 28,05% de ligação máxima (MB 105 dias após o inicio do protocolo. Os testes de validação verificaram paralelismo entre a curva-padrão e as diluições dos controles alto e baixo (p; 0,2, no entanto, temperaturas acima de 37 °C interferiram negativamente na recuperação da leptina bovina. O uso do tampão de ensaio com ou sem a adição de plasma não apresentou diferenças (p >; 0,3. Esses resultados demonstraram que o anticorpo produzido em coelho contra leptina equina foi capaz de detectar a leptina plasmática bovina, e que o RIA para a quantificação da leptina bovina apresentou características adequadas para o desenvolvimento de um ensaio válido.

  14. Análise comparativa da competividade do Brasil e EUA no mercado internacional da carne bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Dhein Dill

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil e os EUA estão entre os principais produtores mundiais de carne bovina. Entretanto, distorções no mercado alimentar decorrentes da presença de barreiras comerciais podem comprometer a competitividade desses países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a competitividade da carne bovina brasileira e norte-americana, no mercado internacional, entre 1990 e 2008. Para isso, foi utilizado o Índice de Competitividade Revelada (CR para inferir sobre os efeitos que subsídios, acordos comercias e barreiras sanitárias exercem sobre a competitividade da carne bovina dos respectivos países. Os resultados indicaram que o Brasil obteve vantagens competitivas no período de 1991 a 2008, enquanto que os EUA apresentaram vantagens entre 1993 e 2003. Os acordos comerciais elevaram a competitividade dos países envolvidos, contudo ocorreram diminuições dos índices quando problemas sanitários foram identificados. Em suma, os EUA, mesmo com os altos subsídios fornecidos aos produtores rurais, apresentou desempenho inferior em comparação ao Brasil no mercado mundial da carne bovina.

  15. Evaluación nutricional, lactancia, alimentación complementaria y factores socioambietales en niños con diarrea crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Bottarelli, Josela

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar cual es el estado nutricional, el tipo de la lactancia materna, alimentación complementaria y factores socioambientales en niños de 6 a 12 meses de edad que presentan diarrea crónica. Material y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo, en una muestra de 40 niños lactantes, atendidos en un consultorio de gastroenterología de un Hospital público de la ciudad de Mar del Plata. Se evalúo el estado nutricional a través de los indicadores de crecimiento in...

  16. Infección por Campylobacter y Shigella como causa de Diarrea Aguda Infecciosa en niños menores de dos años en el Distrito de la Victoria, Lima-Perú

    OpenAIRE

    María Perales D; Máximo Camiña; Carmen Quiñones

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Campylobacter y Shigella como agentes etiológicos en diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años atendidos en 4 centros de salud del distrito de La Victoria (Lima, Perú) Materiales y métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico se realizaron coprocultivos bajo técnica microbiológica estándar a los niños menores de dos años con diarrea aguda acuosa atendidos en 4 centros de salud de La Victoria entre abril y octubre de 2001. Fueron excluidos aquell...

  17. DERMATITE DIGITAL BOVINA: ASPECTOS RELACIONADOS À EVOLUÇÃO CLÍNICA

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    Olízio Claudino da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A dermatite digital bovina é uma enfermidade de etiologia multifatorial e patogenia complexa que representa grande entrave produtivo e econômico à pecuária mundial.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar aspectos relacionados à evolução clínica da enfermidade após antibioticoterapia parenteral. Foram utilizadas 28 fêmeas bovinas, da raça Girolando, com idade entre quatro a dez anos, portadoras de lesões digitais clinicamente caracterizadas como dermatite digital. Os bovinos enfermos foram distribuídos em dois grupos (I e II de quatorze animais. Aqueles pertencentes ao grupo I constituíram o grupo-controle, em que,portanto, não foi utilizada antibioticoterapia. Nas vacas que compuseram o grupo II, aplicaram-se, por via intramuscular,20 mg/kg de peso corporal de oxitetraciclina, em intervalos de 48 horas, até completar quatro aplicações. Ao final de um ano de observação, a maioria das lesões na pele do espaço interdigital entre os talões evoluiu para a forma clínica erosiva e aquelas localizadas nos pontos limítrofes entre apele e o cório coronário dos talões, na parede abaxial do estojo córneo ou no espaço interdigital dorsal, evoluíram para a forma proliferativa. Não houve cura de nenhum animal em ambos os grupos, porém a antibioticoterapia parenteral reduziu a gravidade das lesões. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Antibioticoterapia, bovinos, dermatite digital, evolução clínica.

  18. Presencia de rotavirus en adultos con diarrea en Asunción, Paraguay Incidence of rotavirus in adults with diarrhea in Asunción, Paraguay

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    M. Martínez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde octubre de 2001 a marzo de 2004 se analizaron 533 heces de individuos mayores de 18 años con cuadros de diarrea, identificándose rotavirus en 92 (17,3% de ellas. La infección por rotavirus en adultos no mostró un grupo etáreo más afectado y se presentó a lo largo de todo el año sin diferencias significativas en las frecuencias trimestrales. En Paraguay, en los niños menores de 5 años, presenta un pico estacional entre los meses de junio y octubre. Los datos presentados refuerzan la necesidad de tener en cuenta a rotavirus en el diagnóstico diferencial de las diarreas en adultos.From October 2001 to March 2004, 92 out of 533 (17.3% fecal samples of patients over 18 years of age were positive for rotavirus. There were not differences of rotavirus incidence between age groups. Although in Paraguay, rotavirus infections in children less than 5 years old present a seasonal peak pattern (since June to October, in adults rotavirus was present throughout the year with the same frequency. Results presented here reinforce the notion that rotavirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diarrhea in adults.

  19. Situation of bovine tuberculosis in Ecuador Situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Proaño-Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is a chronic and contagious disease that affects domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Caused by Mycobacterium bovis, BTB causes major economic losses and poses a serious constraint to international livestock trade. Moreover, in developing countries where BTB controls are lacking, M. bovis is a public health concern. In most developing countries, the prevalence of BTB in livestock is unknown because the information is either not reported or not available. In Ecuador, there is no national BTB control program. This article reviews the BTB situation in Ecuador by examining exhaustive data from tuberculin testing surveys and slaughterhouse surveillance studies conducted in 1972-2008 in a variety of the country's geographic areas. In Ecuador, several factors, including the dairy industry's expansion (preempted by the high demand for milk and its by-products, intensified efforts to increase the cattle population, the presence of M. bovis, and a lack of BTB controls, have caused a rise in BTB prevalence, and consequently, a growing push for the implementation of a national BTB control program.La tuberculosis bovina es una enfermedad contagiosa crónica que afecta a los animales domésticos, los animales salvajes y los seres humanos. Es producida por Mycobacterium bovis; causa grandes pérdidas económicas y plantea una grave limitación para el comercio ganadero internacional. Por otro lado, en los países en desarrollo donde no hay controles de la tuberculosis bovina, la infección por M. bovis representa un problema de salud pública. En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo, la prevalencia de tuberculosis en el ganado se desconoce porque la información no se comunica o no se consigue. En el Ecuador no hay un programa nacional de control de la tuberculosis bovina. En este artículo se revisa la situación de la tuberculosis bovina en el Ecuador, sobre la base de un análisis de los datos exhaustivos obtenidos de

  20. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachern Sean

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these

  1. Mastite bovina causada por Staphylococcus spp. resistentes à meticilina: revisão de literatura

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    José Givanildo Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Staphylococcus spp. são os micro-organismos mais relacionados a casos de mastite bovina. Algumas cepas destes micro-organismos têm apresentado fatores de virulência como genes de resistência a antimicrobianos com destaque para a resistência à meticilina que é um problema de saúde pública. Esta revisão de literatura tem o objetivo de compilar dados sobre a mastite bovina causada por Staphylococcus spp. resistente à meticilina (MRS. Apesar desse antimicrobiano não ser comumente utilizado no tratamento das mastites, a frequência de casos de infecção da glândula mamária causada por MRS tem variado entre 1,34 a 47,6%. Acredita-se que o contato dos humanos com animais positivos para MRS e vice-versa favoreça a transmissão deste patógeno entre as espécies, contribuindo para a variação nas taxas de infecção. A detecção de MRS pode ser realizada por meio de provas fenotípicas, moleculares ou sorológicas e as medidas de controle devem contemplar a identificação dos casos, segregação dos animais, estudo epidemiológico da fonte de infecção do rebanho, além da constante limpeza e higienização do ambiente de confinamento, equipamentos e utensílios de ordenha. Casos de mastite ocasionados por esse patógeno assumem relevância para a saúde pública, pois a ingestão de leite e/ou derivados contaminados podem desencadear a transferência de MRS para seres humanos. Com isso, é necessário um alerta constante quanto à vigilância epidemiológica em fazendas leiteiras.

  2. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sean; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike

    2009-04-24

    The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae) from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1) Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species) and a more recent divergence leading to the (2) Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3) Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5-8 million years ago (MYA). Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting) and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these aberrant sites are in coding sections of the genome

  3. Bacterial pathogens associated with bloody diarrhea in Uruguayan children Patógenos bacterianos asociados a diarrea con sangre en niños uruguayos

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    M. I. Mota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease continues to be a serious health problem, especially in developing countries. Bloody diarrhea represents approximately 20-30% of all cases and has higher morbidity and mortality. Treatment with antibiotics is beneficial in cases of Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia and Salmonella infection, principally in those children with a higher risk of invasive disease. The aims of this study were to detect the bacterial agents associated with bloody diarrhea in children and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Between June 2001 and January 2008, 249 children with bloody diarrhea were studied. Shigella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC were recovered from 48 (19.3% and 3 (1.2% of the total of cases, respectively. In 49 out of 249 children, in whom other enteropathogens were investigated, we recovered Campylobacter jejuni from 7 children (14.3%, Salmonella spp. from 2 (4.1% and Aeromonas spp. from 1 (2% in addition to Shigella from 7 children (14.3%. Thirty-four (70% Shigella isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and 13 (27% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All Shigella isolates were susceptible to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Salmonella and STEC isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics assayed. Thus, the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin would not be appropriate for the empirical treatment of Shigella - associated diarrhea.La enfermedad diarreica es un problema de salud importante, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. La diarrea sanguinolenta representa el 20-30% del total de casos y determina una mayor morbimortalidad. La antibioticoterapia es beneficiosa en casos de infección por Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia y Salmonella, principalmente en niños con riesgo elevado de enfermedad invasora. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron conocer las bacterias asociadas a diarrea sanguinolenta y determinar su patrón de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos

  4. Creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos sobre el manejo de la alimentación del niño con diarrea aguda

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    Corral-Terrazas Martha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar las creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos rurales sobre el manejo de alimentación en los casos de diarrea aguda de los menores de cinco años y compararlos con la recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de antropología cognitiva con los 10 médicos que brindan atención a la población infantil en el Hospital Rural del IMSS-Solidaridad de San Juanito, Bocoyna, Chihuahua, México, de julio a diciembre de 1998. Se trianguló la información obtenida por las técnicas de grupos focales, viñetas, listado libre, sorteo de montones y cuestionario semiestructurado. Resultados. Los médicos reconocieron el impacto negativo de la diarrea sobre el estado nutricio del niño, pero no todos evaluaron su estado de nutrición. Como tratamientos predominaron los antimicrobianos, el manejo con líquidos y las recomendaciones sobre alimentación. De éstas, las más consistentes fueron la lactancia materna, la alimentación tardía y la dieta "escalonada". Conclusiones. La información obtenida contrasta con la recomendación de la OMS, en especial con la de alimentación sostenida.

  5. CONSUMO DE PRODUTOS LÁCTEOS DE ORIGEM NÃO BOVINA NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Andrea Polidori Celia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AAs cadeias de produção de leites de origem não bovina estão em crescimento no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os tipos de produtos lácteos não bovinos mais consumidos e sua origem (se caprina, ovina ou bubalina, bem como avaliar as características do consumidor que adquire esses produtos. Verificou-se, ainda, a frequência de consumo de leite bovino e derivados. Realizou-se uma pesquisa tipo survey, pela internet, com 636 respondentes. O produto derivado de leite não bovino mais citado é o queijo, seguido do leite e do iogurte. A espécie mais citada é a cabra, seguida pela búfala e a ovelha. Os consumidores que mais tendem a já ter consumido esses tipos de produtos são pessoas com mais de 45 anos, renda superior a três salários mínimos e formação superior. Os consumidores diários de queijo bovino demonstram já ter consumido produtos de leite de outra espécie. Os resultados obtidos poderão subsidiar decisões de marketing das cadeias de produção de

  6. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA RINOTRAQUEITIS INFECCIOSA BOVINA EN EL MUNICIPIO DE MONTERÍA, COLOMBIA

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    César Betancur H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la sero prevalencia de IBR en ganado bovino con antecedentes de infertilidad.Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 150 muestras de sangre de hembras con antecedentes deinfertilidad y sin historia de vacunación contra IBR, pertenecientes a 32 fincas distribuidas en elmunicipio de Montería. Adicionalmente, se obtuvieron muestras al azar de 20 toros pertenecientesa las mismas fincas. Se analizaron anticuerpos contra IBR mediante la prueba de ELISA. Resultados.Los resultados mostraron una seroprevalencia de 74.7% para rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina. Seencontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a prevalencía para las variables sexo y edad de losanimales (p0.05. Conclusión. La alta prevalencia de lainfección por IBR en vacas podrían correlacionarse con la infección en toros, lo cual tiene unsignificado relevante, ya que la infección es de transmisión venérea. Estos resultados deben alertara las autoridades sanitarias para que implementen estrategias de prevención y control.

  7. Factores determinantes de la oferta regional de carne bovina en México, 1994-2013

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    Sergio Puebla Albiter

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las variables que determinan la oferta regional de carne bovina en México, en el periodo 1994-2013, en las regiones centro-occidente, oriente, norte, noroeste y sur. Para hacerlo se utilizaron cinco modelos lineales multivariables, y los resultados indican que en cada región la oferta fue inelástica al precio de la carne; inversa e inelástica al precio del maíz y al del sorgo; directa e inelástica a la tasa de extracción; positiva e inelástica en cuanto a la precipitación pluvial y los subsidios. Tales resultados predicen que los aumentos en los precios de la carne reflejan un incremento en la producción; pero que ésta se restringe si aumenta el costo de los insumos. La conclusión es que los subsidios gubernamentales y la precipitación pluvial incidieron en que la inelasticidad fuera menor, y que su papel es importante para contrarrestar el efecto del precio de los insumos sobre la producción de esta carne.

  8. Processo Decisório e Rastreabilidade para a Carne Bovina Brasileira

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    Fernanda Scharnberg Brandão

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação com a segurança do alimento criou mercados promissores para produtos certificados. Partindo desta premissa o estudo teve por objetivo – fundamentado nas teorias de tomada de decisão e da informação – apresentar e discutir as possibilidades de adequação dos produtores de carne bovina no Brasil às novas exigências como a rastreabilidade, incluindo a transmissão da informação deste processo aos consumidores. Utilizando uma metodologia qualitativa exploratória e bibliográfica, são apresentados resultados que demonstram a complexidade envolvida na tomada de decisão e os diversos fatores (econômicos e não econômicos que interferem nessas decisões, haja vista que os produtores sofrem influências internas e externas, referentes ao mercado e ao sistema produtivo.

  9. Agripec : um modelo para estimar custos economicos e emissões de gases efeito-estufa para a pecuaria bovina brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Thelmo Vergara de Almeida Martins

    2011-01-01

    A criação bovina é um importante emissor de Gases Efeito Estufa (GEE) do Brasil. A maior parte das emissões de metano vem da fermentação entérica, resultado normal do processo digestivo dos animais ruminantes como os bovinos. No entanto, a tarefa de analisar a contribuição da pecuária bovina nas emissões de GEEs necessita da identificação dos contextos regionais em que ocorrem os diferentes sistemas de produção no Brasil. Assim, para se comparar diferentes sistemas produtivos, é necessário se...

  10. El virus de la D.V.B. como agente contaminante en cultivo de tejidos animales

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor J. Vera A.; Jorge L. Parra A.; Gloria C. Ramírez N.; Luis C. Villamil

    1992-01-01

    El Pestisvirus que produce la Diarrea Viral Bovina (V.D.V.B.), ocasiona problemas reproductivos en el ganado vacuno y se encuentra ampliamente difundido en el país. La presencia de cepas no citopatogénicas del mismo, las cuales normalmente no se evidencian en los cultivos celulares contaminados con éste virus, han constituido un Iimitante para el establecimiento y mantenimiento de cultivos primarios y líneas celulares libres del V.D.V.B., para uso rutinario en actividades diagnósticas o inves...

  11. Factores asociados con la mastitis subclínica bovina en fincas lecheras de Zipaquirá, Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rodríguez, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: Una de las enfermedades que más afecta el ganado a nivel mundial es la mastitis. Objetivo: Identificar la asociación entre la presentación de mastitis subclínica bovina con factores del hato, factores intrínsecos del sistema productivo y prácticas de manejo en fincas lecheras de Zipaquirá, Cundinamarca. Métodos: Estudio observacional analítico transversal a partir de fuente de información secundaria. Se analizaron variables relacionadas con el manejo de la mastitis clínica y sub...

  12. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  13. Estrategias genómicas y moleculares para el control de la babesiosis bovina

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    Juan Joel Mosqueda Gualito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El control de la babesiosis bovina en muchas partes del mundo está restringido al tratamiento quimioterapéutico y al control de la población de garrapatas con agentes acaricidas. No hay programas de control basados en estudios de inmunidad de hato, control integral de la garrapata y las enfermedades que transmite, ni vacunas contra la babesiosis disponibles comercialmente. Para poder desarrollar estas herramientas es necesario utilizar tecnologías que incluyan conocimientos de genómica, proteómica y bioinformática, apoyadas en la investigación de genes con potencial diagnóstico o vacunal. El estudio de la función de los genes, y de la conservación o variabilidad son indispensables para determinar su utilidad. Es necesario, primero identificar los genes con potencial a incluirse en el desarrollo de estas herramientas, y después, evaluar su variabilidad o conservación en distintas poblaciones de parásitos. En segundo término, es necesario seleccionar regiones específicas de estos genes, que cumplan la función deseada, ya sean regiones conservadas o diferentes entre cepas. Finalmente, es necesario utilizar el método adecuado de evaluación de estos candidatos para el desarrollo de métodos de control adecuados. A pesar de que hay ciertos avances en el estudio de genes de B. bovis, hay prácticamente nula información respecto a B. bigemina. Es necesario aprovechar las nuevas estrategias genómicas y de bioinformática para identificar nuevos genes con potencial diagnóstico y de vacunación. El desarrollo de la ganadería mexicana está supeditado al establecimiento e implementación de estas herramientas.

  14. Tristeza parasitária bovina no Sertão da Paraíba

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    V.M.M. Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se 24 surtos de tristeza parasitária bovina no sertão paraibano, sendo 18 de anaplasmose por Anaplasma margimale, dois de babesiose por Babesia bigemina, dois por Babesia não identificada e dois por infecção mista de A. marginale e Babesia sp. Os surtos ocorreram entre agosto de 2007 a outubro de 2009, porém, com uma concentração dos surtos no final do período chuvoso e início do período seco de cada ano, sendo 22 em animais adultos e dois em bezerros de aproximadamente 11 meses. Dois surtos ocorreram em bovinos da raça Nelore, um em animais da raça Gir e os 21 restantes ocorreram em animais das raças Holandês, Pardo Suiço e mestiços das mesmas com zebuínos. Conclui-se que no sertão da Paraíba há áreas de instabilidade enzoótica, ocorrendo surtos de tristeza no final da época de chuvas, principalmente nas áreas de planaltos e serras da região da Borborema e em áreas úmidas como a Bacia do Rio do Peixe, Rio Piranhas e Rio Espinharas em que há a formação de microclimas favoráveis à sobrevivência do carrapato.

  15. En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

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    Jorge A. Gómez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6 587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos de encuestas comunitarias. Los datos hospitalarios muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea dieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (1 de cada 8 nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (1 de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$27,7 millones. Estos datos preliminares muestran que la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en los niños argentinos es muy pesada y podría disminuirse con una vacuna segura y efectiva. Además se necesita ampliar la

  16. En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

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    Gómez Jorge A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6 587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos de encuestas comunitarias. Los datos hospitalarios muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea dieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (1 de cada 8 nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (1 de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$27,7 millones. Estos datos preliminares muestran que la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en los niños argentinos es muy pesada y podría disminuirse con una vacuna segura y efectiva. Además se necesita ampliar la

  17. ESTUDO RETROSPECTIVO DA BRUCELOSE BOVINA NA MICRORREGIÃO DE PAU DOS FERROS, ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

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    Francisco Ariclenes Olinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A brucelose bovina é uma doença bacteriana causada pela Brucella abortus, como também é uma zoonose e enfermidade infecto-contagiosa de importância econômica e em saúde pública, estando presente na lista da Organização Mundial de Saúde Animal (OIE, sendo de notificação obrigatória. Com o objetivo de avaliar essa enfermidade na Microrregião de Pau dos Ferros, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, foi realizado um Estudo Retrospectivo compreendendo os municípios de Alexandria, Antonio Martins, Encanto, José da Penha, Major Sales, Marcelino Vieira, Paraná, Pilões, Riacho de Santana e Tenente Ananias. Analisando os dados dos relatórios mensais de exames realizados por médicos veterinários habilitados pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, no que diz respeito ao Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose Animal (PNCEBT. Foram analisados os resultados dos exames de brucelose bovina de 1077 animais de 189 propriedades, destas, quatro apresentaram animais positivos (2,12%, realizados durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2009.

  18. Mobil Viral Pazarlama

    OpenAIRE

    Barutçu, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mobile Viral Marketing, with using mobile phones, is one of the most importantinnovations after Word of Mouth Marketing performed by face to face amongpeople and Viral Marketing performed in the İnternet. The main objective of thisstudy is to call marketing communicators’ and academicians’ attentions whowant to increase the recognition of companies’ products, services and brands tobecome a current issue in the marketplace using Mobile Viral Marketingapplications by reason of techno...

  19. PREVALÊNCIA DE LEUCOSE ENZOÓTICA BOVINA, DIARRÉIA VIRAL BOVINA RINOTRAQUEÍTE INFECCIOSA BOVINA E NEOSPOROSE BOVINA EM 26 PROPRIEDADES LEITEIRAS DA REGIÃO NORDESTE DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL PREVALENCE OF ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS AND BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN 26 DAIRY CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL , BRAZIL

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    Cleber Fiori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a freqüência de aglutininas anti-Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos do Sertão do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram processadas 700 amostras de soros sangüíneos, das quais 340 eram da espécie caprina (115 machos e 225 fêmeas e 360 (136 machos e 224 fêmeas ovina. Empregou-se a técnica do antígeno acidificado tamponado (AAT corado com rosa bengala (RB. Das 340 amostras de caprinos avaliadas, duas (0,6% foram reagentes ao AAT. Não se observaram associações significativas para as variáveis faixa etária (p= 0,430, raça (p= 0,936 e sexo (p= 0,562. Das 360 amostras de ovinos, nove (2,5% foram reagentes. Também não houve associação significativa entre as variáveis analisadas e a soropositividade para brucelose: faixa etária (p= 0,522; raça (p= 0,576 e sexo (p= 0,461. Verificou-se associação significativa (p= 0,042 entre as espécies estudadas e soropositividade para brucelose nos animais investigados. A soropositividade para Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos foi descrita pela primeira vez no Sertão de Pernambuco, fato que pode dificultar o sucesso do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose, tendo em vista que nessa região é comum a criação consorciada de pequenos ruminantes com bovinos, além de representar riscos à Saúde Pública.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Brucelose, ovinos, caprinos, pequenos ruminantes, sorodiagnóstico. The objective was to investigate the frequency of anti-Brucella abortus agglutinins in goats and sheep of the backlands of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. 700 samples of sanguine serums were processed, of which 340 were of the goat (115 males and 225 females and 360 (136 males and 224 females sheep. The technique of the Tamponed Acidified Antigen (AAT dyed with Bengalese Rose (BR was used. Of the 340 samples of goat evaluated two (0.6% were reactive to AAT. Significant associations were not observed for the variable age group (p = 0.430; race (p = 0.936 and sex (p = 0.562. Of the 360 sheep samples, nine (2.5% were reactive. There also was no significant association between the analyzed variables and the seropositiveness for brucellosis: age group (p = 0.522; race (p = 0.576 and sex (p = 0.461. Significant association was observed (p = 0.042 among the studied species and seropositiveness for brucellosis in the investigated animals. The seropositiveness for Brucella abortus in goats and sheep was traced for the first time in the “Sertão” (dry interior region, backlands of Pernambuco, fact that can hinder the success of the National Program of Control and Erradication of Brucellosis, due to the fact that it is common to raise small ruminants with bovines in this area, besides representing risks to Public Health.
     
    KEY WORDS: Brucellosis, ovines, caprines, small ruminants, serodiagnosis.

  20. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  1. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  2. Viral Disease Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  3. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA ENTRE SUBPOBLACIONES RACIALES BOVINAS DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue cuantificar la diversidad genética entre 16 subpoblaciones raciales bovinas de Costa Rica, con base en 1412 muestras de ADN bovino de todo el país, evaluadas mediante 18 marcadores microsatélites. El número promedio de alelos (Na por locus dentro de raza fue de 10,3, que varían entre 8 (Holstein×Jersey y 13 (Criolla para doble propósito. El número promedio de alelos efectivo (Ne fue de 5,04, con cambios entre 4,18 (Jersey y 5,64 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus. La heterocigosidad observada promedio fue de 0,77, variando entre 0,73 (Jersey y 0,81 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus. La heterocigosidad esperada (He promedio fue de 0,78, que oscilan entre 0,74 (Jersey y Holstein×Jersey y 0,81 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus, Criolla para doble propósito y Cruces para doble propósito. El contenido de información polimórfica (PIC fue de 0,76, con variaciones entre 0,71 (Jersey y Holstein×Jersey y 0,79 (Criollas para doble propósito y Cruces para doble propósito. El FIS promedio fue de 0,02, con oscilaciones entre -0,03 (Holstein×Jersey a 0,04 (Brahman, Criolla para carne y Cruces para leche. La desviación del equilibrio Hardy Weinberg no fue significativa (p>0,05 en la mayoría de los loci para las subpoblaciones raciales. El subgrupo con mayor número de loci en desequilibrio fue Jersey (8 loci, mientras que los subgrupos Bos taurus×Bos indicus, Criolla para leche y Holstein×Jersey presentaron solo 1 locus en desequilibrio. Los índices de fijación FIS (0,02, FIT (0,05 y FST (0,03 indicaron cierta tendencia hacia la homocigosidad. Los dendrogramas mostraron 3 agrupaciones raciales claramente diferenciadas que coinciden con las razas de origen Bos taurus, Bos indicus y sus respectivos cruces. Los resultados del análisis indicaron que el número de microsatélites empleados sí permitió establecer una discriminación clara a nivel de las frecuencias alélicas y en la distribución del tamaño de los alelos entre las

  4. Distribuição e identificação das regiões de risco para a cisticercose bovina no estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella P.M. Guimarães-Peixoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose bovina é um problema de saúde pública e animal amplamente difundido no Brasil, que repercute negativamente na produção de carne em diversos estados do país. Trata-se de uma das afecções mais ocorrentes nos abates sob inspeção sanitária tornando-se motivo de preocupação para frigoríficos e produtores, devido os prejuízos que acarreta. Pouco se conhece sobre a distribuição e a evolução do número de casos de cisticercose bovina no estado do Paraná. Diante do exposto este trabalho teve o objetivo realizar um levantamento retrospectivo sobre a ocorrência da cisticercose bovina, diagnosticada através do exame post-mortem pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal do Estado do Paraná entre os anos de 2004 a 2008, além de determinar a distribuição dos casos no Estado, identificar as regiões com maiores chances de apresentarem casos da doença e analisar a perda econômica do Estado por conta das condenações por esta parasitose. Foi constatada prevalência de 2,23% cisticercose bovina no estado do Paraná. Durante o período analisado ocorreu uma redução estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 da prevalência de cisticercose bovina no estado. Nos anos de 2004-2008 foram condenadas 29.708.550 kg de carne bovina por cisticercose, acarretando prejuízos de ordem econômica. O estado do Paraná está conseguindo através da implantação do programa de controle do complexo teníase-cisticercose, uma evolução positiva já que conseguiu durante o período analisado diminuir a prevalência desta parasitose nos bovinos e consequentemente diminuir as perdas econômicas.

  5. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  6. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  7. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  8. Wastewater viral community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the information used to generate the figures in the manuscript. The data describes the viral loss measured at all steps of sample processing,...

  9. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  10. Metabolism goes viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2014-04-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detección del virus de la leucosis bovina en ganado criollo colombiano mediante PCR-anidado Bovine leukemia virus detection in Creole Colombian breeds using nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Yovanny Hernández-Herrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia del virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB en 360 muestras de ADN de ocho razas bovinas criollas: Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Casanareño (CAS, Costeño con Cuernos (CCC, Chino Santandereano (ChS, Caqueteño (CQT, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS y San Martinero (SM, dos Razas Sintéticas Colombianas: Lucerna (LUC y Velásquez (VEL y dos razas foráneas: Brahmán (B y Holstein (H. Para la detección del pro-virus se amplificó una región del gen env viral, mediante PCR anidada. La presencia del VLB fue mayor en la raza HV seguido por ChS (83.3% y 60% respectivamente, VEL y LUC tuvieron el mismo porcentaje (50%, en CAS, CCC y CQT la presencia del virus fue de 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectivamente; no se encontró el virus en BON, SM y RS. En las razas foráneas la presencia fue de 83.3% para H y 6.7% para B. Se encontró dependencia altamente significativa entre la presencia del VLB y la raza, el sexo y región de origen de la muestra. El promedio de presencia en las razas criollas fue menor que en las foráneas, menor en los machos que en las hembras y en la región norte que en el suroccidente y el centro del país.Using 360 DNA samples from eight Creole bovine breeds Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Casanareño (CAS, Costeño con Cuernos (CCC, Chino Santandereano (ChS, Caqueteño (CQT, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS and San Martinero (SM, two synthetic Colombian breeds: Lucerna (LUC and Velásquez (VEL and two introduced breeds Brahmán (B and Holstein (H; the presence of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV was evaluated through the amplification of a viral gene region env (provirus detection - nested-PCR. The percentage of presence and independence test were calculated (X². Presence of BLV was higher in HV breed, followed by ChS (83.3% and 60% respectively; VEL and LUC breeds showed the same percentage (50%. In CAS, CCC and CQT the presence of virus was 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectively. On the other hand, no virus presence was

  12. Frecuencia y patotipos de Escherichia coli diarrogénicas en niños peruanos con y sin diarrea Frequency and pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in peruvian children with and without diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Ochoa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las E. coli diarrogénicas (DEC son una de las principales causas de diarrea en niños en países en vías de desarrollo. Sin embargo, no son rutinariamente diagnosticadas en los laboratorios clínicos. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de las DEC en niños peruanos y describir la variabilidad genética de estas cepas. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 8 003 cepas de E. coli previamente aisladas de ocho estudios previos de diarrea en niños, mayormente en zonas periurbanas de Lima. El diagnóstico de las DEC fue a través de un PCR múltiple a tiempo real para los seis grupos de DEC. Se empleó PCR para la determinación de genes adicionales de virulencia. Resultados. La prevalencia promedio global en muestras de diarrea (n=4 243 fue: E. coli enteroagregativa (EAEC 9,9%, enteropatogénica (EPEC 8,5%, enterotoxigénica (ETEC 6,9%, difusamente adherente (DAEC 4,8%, productora de toxina shiga (STEC 0,8% y enteroinvasiva (EIEC 0,6%. La frecuencia relativa de cada patógeno varía según la edad y tipo de estudio. Los principales patotipos en muestras control (n=3 760 fueron EPEC (10,9% y EAEC (10,4%. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la frecuencia de genes de virulencia para cada patotipo, así como en los mecanismos moleculares de resistencia, sin diferencias significativas entre muestras de diarrea y control. Conclusiones. Las DEC son causa importante de diarrea en niños peruanos. Estos patógenos son altamente heterogéneos. Se requieren estudios adicionales para determinar la prevalencia en zonas rurales del Perú, así como en casos graves de diarrea.Introduction. Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC are a major cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. However, they are not part of routine diagnosis in clinical laboratories. Objectives. To determine the DEC prevalence in Peruvian children and to describe the genetic variability of these strains. Materials and methods. A total of 8 003 E. coli strains previously

  13. Infección por Campylobacter y Shigella como causa de Diarrea Aguda Infecciosa en niños menores de dos años en el Distrito de la Victoria, Lima-Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Perales D

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Campylobacter y Shigella como agentes etiológicos en diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años atendidos en 4 centros de salud del distrito de La Victoria (Lima, Perú Materiales y métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico se realizaron coprocultivos bajo técnica microbiológica estándar a los niños menores de dos años con diarrea aguda acuosa atendidos en 4 centros de salud de La Victoria entre abril y octubre de 2001. Fueron excluidos aquellos niños con disentería y aquellos que habían recibido tratamiento antibiótico previo a la atención. Resultados: se estudiaron un total de 248 casos, de los cuales 48 (19,4% coprocultivos fueron positivos: 33 (13.3% a Campylobacter, 12 (4,8% a Shigella y 3 (1,2% a Salmonella. No se identificaron otros patógenos. Las especies de Shigella identificadas fueron: Shigella flexneri en 9 (75,0% casos y Shigella sonnei en 3 (25,0% La única especie de Campylobacter identificada fue Campylobacter jejuni siendo el biotipo I el más frecuente (84,6% Conclusiones: Campylobacter y Shigella juegan un importante papel como agentes etiológicos causantes de diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años.

  14. Identificación de Arcobacter en niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en reservorios animales: aves, ganado vacuno y porcino, peces y mariscos

    OpenAIRE

    Zerpa, Rito; Alarcón, Jorge; Lezama, Percy; Patiño, Lilian; Reyes, Alberto; Valencia, Augusto; Velásquez, Jorge; Alarcón, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de Arcobacter en niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en animales: aves, ganado vacuno y porcino, peces y mariscos. Diseño: Estudio transversal descriptivo. Institución: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrión, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Instituto Materno Infantil de San Bartolomé y Hospital Arzobispo Loayza. Material biológico: Aislamientos bacterianos de humanos y animales. Intervenciones: Búsqueda activa de Arc...

  15. EDUCACIÓN SANITARIA SOBRE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES ADOLESCENTES PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DE DIARREAS AGUDAS EN LACTANTES DEL HOSPITAL HERMILIO VALDIZÁN – HUÁNUCO 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Zevallos, Julia Marina

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVO. Determinar el efecto de la educación sanitaria sobre lactancia materna en madres adolescentes para la prevención de diarreas agudas. MÉTODOS. Se llevó a cabo un estudio cuasi-experimental con pre y post test para 24 lactantes que conformaron el grupo experimental y 24 lactantes el grupo control, procedentes del hospital Regional Hermilio Valdizán, Huánuco 2015. Se utilizó un cuestionario de conocimiento, una guía de observación y una ficha de registros. Para el aná...

  16. Características etiológicas, clínicas y sociodemográficas de la diarrea aguda en Venezuela Etiological, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics of acute diarrhea in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Urrestarazu

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro ciudades de Venezuela se llevó a cabo un estudio para evaluar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y etiológicas de la diarrea aguda en niños menores de 5 años. Entre junio de 1993 y mayo de 1995 se estudiaron 2 552 niños con diarrea y 793 controles que fueron atendidos en el hospital. Para el análisis estadístico de los resultados se empleó la prueba exacta de Fisher. Los rotavirus fueron los agentes más importantes, tanto por su frecuencia (30% como por su asociación con la deshidratación (58%. Le siguieron en importancia Campylobacter spp. (13% y Escherichia coli serogrupos O clásicos (9%, pero su asociación con la diarrea solo fue estadísticamente significativa en los niños menores de 3 meses, hecho de particular importancia desde el punto de vista del tratamiento. Se confirmó la importancia de la edad como factor determinante de la prevalencia y gravedad de la diarrea.In four cities of Venezuela a study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. The study was done between June 1993 and May 1995 and involved children who were seen in a hospital, 2 552 with diarrhea and 793 controls. The Fisher exact test was used for the statistical analysis of the results. Rotaviruses were the most important agents, both in terms of their frequency (30% and their association with dehydration (58%. Following in importance were Campylobacter spp. (13% and Escherichia coli classical O serogroups (9%, but their association with diarrhea was only statistically significant among children less than 3 months old, a fact that is particularly important from the standpoint of treatment. The importance of age was confirmed as a determining factor in the prevalence and severity of diarrhea.

  17. Efecto del zinc aminoquelado y el sulfato de zinc en la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea en niños preescolares de centros infantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El déficit de zinc es común en niños de poblaciones en desarrollo. La deficiencia de zinc altera el sistema inmunológico y la resistencia a las infecciones. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos compuestos de zinc en la prevención de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo comunitario triple ciego en 301 niños entre dos y cinco años de edad de centros infantiles de Medellín. Fueron seis conglomerados distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de intervención que recibieron zinc aminoquelado, sulfato de zinc y placebo durante cinco días de la semana a lo largo de 16 semanas. Se evaluaron diariamente los síntomas de infección respiratoria, diarrea aguda y efectos secundarios. Resultados. La incidencia de la infección respiratoria fue menor con el zinc aminoquelado (1,42 por 1.000 días-niño comparado con el sulfato de zinc (1,57 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,90, IC95%: 0,382 a 2,153, p=0,999 y con el placebo (3,3 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,43, IC95%: 0,196 a 0,950, p=0,049. La incidencia de diarrea aguda con el zinc aminoquelado (0,15 por 1.000 días-niño fue menor que con el sulfato de zinc (1,18 0,78 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,20, IC95%: 0,0043 a 1,662, p=0,361 y que la del grupo placebo (0,49 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,32, IC95%: 0,006 a 3,990, p=0,346. Conclusiones. El zinc aminoquelado tuvo mejor efecto en la disminución de la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas en niños preescolares comparado con los otros grupos de estudio. Identificador en clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01791608

  18. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  19. PROCESSO DE ALTERAÇÃO ENZIMÁTICA DA MATRIZ PROTÉICA DE CARNE BOVINA, INFLUÊNCIA SOBRE A VISCOSIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARICê NOGUEIRA DE OLIVEIRA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: A matriz protéica da carne bovina foi enzimaticamente alterada visando seu uso potencial em formulações de dietas especiais ou por sonda. Determinou-se a viscosidade de amostras de hidrolisado em diferentes tempos de processo e testou-se a aplicabilidade do modelo de Ostwald-de-Waele no tratamento dos resultados. Na faixa de velocidades angulares ensaiadas o hidrolisado protéico de carne bovina comportou-se como um fluído não-newtoniano, pseudoplástico. A viscosidade média do hidrolisado é de 1,7 a –52,7 poise. Os valores máximos para a viscosidade são alcançados aos 90 minutos de processo. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Carne Bovina; hidrolisados protéicos; viscosidade.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE HAMBÚRGUER DE CARNE BOVINA E DE FRANGO SUBMETIDOS A DIFERENTES PROCESSAMENTOS TÉRMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria de BORBA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade físico-química de hambúrgueres de carne bovina e de frango submetidos a diferentes tratamentos térmicos: cozimento em micro-ondas, forno convencional e fritura. Composição centesimal e rendimento, percentual de perda de peso e grau de encolhimento (retração, foram avaliados. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata. O método micro-ondas foi o que apresentou as maiores perdas de umidade, peso e maior grau de retração para os dois tipos de carne estudados. Tanto para hambúrguer de carne bovina como de frango o maior percentual de proteínas e cinzas foi encontrado no método micro-ondas, no entanto o percentual de lipídios foi maior no método micro-ondas para hambúrguer de frango e no frito para hambúrguer de carne bovina.

  1. A rapid and sensitive diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection using the nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction Diagnóstico rápido e sensível da infecção com o vírus da Leucemia Bovina através de Shuttle Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester T. González

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL. In Argentina, where a program to eradicate EBL has been introduced, sensitive and reliable diagnosis has attained high priority. Although the importance of the agar gel immunodiffusion test remains unchanged for routine work, an additional diagnostic technique is necessary to confirm cases of sera with equivocal results or of calves carrying maternal antibodies.Utilizing a nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction, the proviral DNA was detected from cows experimentally infected with as little as 5 ml of whole blood from BLV seropositive cows that were nonetheless normal in haematological terms. It proved to be a very sensitive technique, since it rapidly revealed the presence of the provirus, frequently at 2 weeks postinoculation and using a two-round procedure of nested PCR taking only 3 hours. Additionally, the primers used flanked a portion of the viral genome often employed to differentiate BLV type applying BamHI digestion. It is concluded that this method might offer a highly promising diagnostic tool for BLV infection.O Vírus da leucemia bovina (BLV é o agente causal da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (EBL. Na Argentina, iniciou-se um programa de erradicação da EBL. Neste estágio, é prioritário possuir uma ferramenta de diagnóstico confiável. Embora seja indiscutível a importância do teste de agar gel imunodifusão, empregado rotineiramente no diagnóstico serológico da EBL, faz-se necessária uma técnica de diagnóstico adicional capaz de confirmar os resultados duvidosos. Foi possivel detectar ADN proviral aplicando Nested-PCR em novilhos experimentalmente infectados com pequenas doses de sangue total (5ml obtidas de um bovino BLV soropositivo. Esta técnica, cujo procedimento leva 3 horas, demonstrou ser muito sensível, uma vez que foi capaz de detectar a presença do provirus duas semanas após a inoculação. Os primers utilizados são os que

  2. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  3. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings Carga de morbilidad de la diarrea por rotavirus en Perú: la necesidad de una vacuna y su potencial de ahorro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ehrenkranz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. Methods. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Results. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384 000 cases, 64 000 clinic visits, 30 000 hospitalizations, and 1 600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Conclusions. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.Objetivos. Evaluar la carga de morbilidad de la diarrea por rotavirus en Perú, la necesidad de una vacuna y el ahorro que esta podría proporcionar en este país. M

  4. Determinantes dos arranjos contratuais: o caso da transação produtor-processador de carne bovina no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mondelli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Quais os determinantes da escolha do arranjo contratual nas transações entre produtores e processadores de carne bovina? A pergunta problema se insere no estudo dos mecanismos associados à coordenação da produção para dar respostas às preocupações dos consumidores. Observa-se a coexistência de arranjos contratuais nos sistemas produtivos de carne bovina, entre os quais a transação direta entre o pecuarista e o frigorífico, ou via intermediário especializado. A Economia dos Custos de Transação (ECT pode ser utilizada para explicar a escolha dos arranjos contratuais observados, como resposta aos desafios de ganhos de eficiência "economizando" nos custos das transações. O presente estudo focaliza o sistema agroindustrial de carne bovina uruguaio, sendo estruturado em três partes. Primeiro a análise do histórico das relações entre produtores e processadores, e mudanças do ambiente institucional. A seguir, a partir das dimensões da transação (freqüência, especificidade de ativo e incerteza geram-se hipóteses a respeito dos determinantes da escolha dos arranjos contratuais. Finalmente as hipóteses são testadas a partir de um modelo logit. Utiliza-se um painel de dados com a totalidade de transações realizadas entre produtores e processadores fornecidos pelo Ministério de Agricultura do Uruguai (77.000 transações. Os resultados validam estatisticamente as hipóteses levantadas a respeito dos determinantes da escolha do arranjo contratual entre produtores e processadores. Uma transação tem maior probabilidade de se alinhar com o arranjo contratual direto (mais coordenado quanto maior o grau de ativos específicos envolvidos no produto, quanto menor a distância entre o produtor e o processador e quanto maior a freqüência de transações entre as partes envolvidas, corroborando a teoria de ECT.What are the determinants of the commercial channel choice in the beef producers-processors transactions? The question

  5. Treating viral hemorrhagic fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are illnesses associated with a number of geographically restricted, mostly tropical areas. Over recent decades a number of new hemorrhagic fever viruses have emerged. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases have improved our initial supportive

  6. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  7. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  8. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  9. Patrones de adherencia de cepas de Escherichia coli Difusamente adherente (DAEC provenientes de niños con y sin diarrea Adhesion patterns in diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC strains isolated from children With and without diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Riveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las E. coli de adherencia difusa (DAEC son el sexto grupo de E. coli diarrogénicas reconocidas. Su asociación con diarrea es controversial. No se conoce la variabilidad en los patrones de adherencia de cepas clínicas. Objetivos. Comparar los patrones de adherencia entre cepas aisladas de niños con y sin diarrea. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 31 cepas DAEC, 25 de diarrea y 6 de niños asintomáticos (control aislados de un estudio de cohorte de niños menores de 12 meses en el cono sur de Lima. Las DAEC fueron identificadas por PCR (gen daaD. Se evaluó el patrón y grado de adherencia en cultivos de células HEp-2; la polimerización de actina se evaluó por la prueba de coloración de fluorescencia de actina (FAS; y la motilidad se evaluó por métodos convencionales microbiológicos. Resultados. El patrón de adherencia difusa se encontró en el 88% de muestras de diarrea y en el 100% de muestras control. La cantidad de bacterias adheridas por célula fue significativamente menor en las muestras de diarrea (pIntroduction. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC is the sixth recognized group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, its association with diarrhea remains controversial. Variability in the adherence patterns of clinical strains is unknown. Objectives. To compare the adherence patterns between strains isolated from children with and without diarrhea. Materials and methods. A total of 31 DAEC strains were analyzed, 25 from children with diarrhea and 6 from asymptomatic (control children, isolated from a cohort study of children under one year of age in the southern districts of Lima. DAEC were identified by PCR (daaD gene. The pattern and adherence score in HEp-2 cell culture were evaluated, Actin polimerization was determined by fluorescence actin staining (FAS and motility was evaluated by conventional microbiology methods. Results. Diffuse adherence pattern was found in 88% of diarrhea samples and in the total of

  10. Brotes de babesiosis y anaplasmosis bovina diagnosticados en el INTA Salta, Argentina: período 2006-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAOZ V

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de brotes de babesiosis y anaplasmosis (tristeza parasitaria bovina, TPB ocurridos entre 2006 y 2016 en el Noroeste argentino (NOA para evaluar algunos aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos de estas enfermedades. De 4.398 muestras para diagnóstico, 238 (5,4% tuvieron sospechas de TPB, las cuales se confirmaron en 106 (44,3% casos por observación microscópica de los agentes causales. Cuarenta y siete (44,3% brotes se debieron a Anaplasma marginale, 40 (37,7% a Babesia bovis y 14 (13,2% a Babesia bigemina. En cinco (4,7% focos de babesiosis no se determinó la especie causal de Babesia. Los brotes se diagnosticaron en 62 establecimientos ganaderos de cuatro provincias (Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero y Chaco. La mayoría ocurrieron en verano y otoño, con máxima incidencia en abril y nula en setiembre para ambas noxas. Las vacas adultas fueron la categoría de ganado más afectada. En 58% (61/106 de los brotes murió al menos un bovino, con un número promedio de cuatro muertes por brote. Se concluye que la TPB continúa incidiendo negativamente en la producción bovina del NOA. SUMMARY. Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis outbreaks diagnosed at INTA Salta, Argentina: 2006-2016. A retrospective study of babesiosis and anaplasmosis outbreaks (tick fever, TF was made, which occurred from 2006 to 2016 in Northwest Argentina (NWA, to evaluate clinical and epidemiological aspects of these diseases. From 4,398 specimens, 238 (5.4% were associated with suspicions of TF and 106 of these cases (44.3% were confirmed as TF outbreaks by microscopic observation of causal agents. Forty seven (44.3% were due to Anaplasma marginale, 40 (37.7% to Babesia bovis and 14 (13.2% to Babesia bigemina. In five (4.7% outbreaks of babesiosis, Babesia species were not determined. Outbreaks were diagnosed at 62 different cattle ranches in four provinces (Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero and Chaco. The outbreaks occurred mostly during

  11. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  12. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  13. Viroses confundíveis com febre aftosa Viral diseases to be differentiated from foot-and-mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Revisam-se as doenças que devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de febre aftosa. Dentre as doenças vesiculares ou erosivas, descrevem-se os principais aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico da estomatite vesicular, diarréia viral bovina, febre catarral maligna, infecções por herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5, e uma estomatite ulcerativa associada a parvovírus bovino, que ocorreu no Rio Grande do Sul; língua azul, para a qual tem sido detectados anticorpos em bovinos e ovinos do Rio Grande do Sul; mamilite herpética que ocorre em outros Estados do País;peste bovina, que foi diagnosticada e erradicada no Estado de São Paulo em 1921; estomatite popular; e duas doenças exóticas:exantema vesicular e doença vesicular do suíno.Diseases to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease are reviewed. The main aspects relating to the diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis, bovine virus diarrhea, malignant catarrhal fever, bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5, andem ulcerative stomatitis associated with bovine parvovirus are described. Bluetongue, that probably occurs in Rio Grande do Sul because antibodies to the virus have been detected in cattle and sheep; is refered. Bovine ulcerative mammilitis, reported in other Brazilian States, rinderpest, reported and eradicated in the State of São Paulo in 1921, and popular stomatitis are also cited, and so are two exotic diseases: vesicular exanthema and swine vesicular disease.

  14. Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Aydın; Aşina Gülerarslan; Süleyman Karaçor; Tarık Doğan

    2013-01-01

    Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertise...

  15. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  16. Lactancia materna y diarrea aguda en los primeros tres meses de vida Breast feeding and the incidence of acute diarrhea during the first three months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Macías-Carrillo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la lactancia materna exclusiva y sus interacciones con algunos factores socioeconómicos, en relación con la incidencia de diarrea aguda durante los primeros tres meses de la vida. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En la ciudad de Durango, México, en 1994 se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte con tres meses de seguimiento; la muestra estuvo compuesta por 327 parejas de madre y recién nacido, residentes de la ciudad de Durango, durante el periodo abril-junio de 1994. Para el análisis se utilizaron técnicas descriptivas, análisis bivariados y modelos multivariados de regresión logística con efectos aleatorios. RESULTADOS: Los niños que no reciben lactancia exclusiva al seno materno tienen un riesgo significativamente elevado de padecer diarrea aguda desde el inicio de la vida (RMlactancia mixta= 3.23; IC 95% 1.84-5.68 y RMlactancia artificial=4.36; IC 95% 2.32-8.19. Además, el efecto protector de la lactancia al seno materno es independiente del que tienen factores de riesgo tales como la educación materna deficiente, la falta de apoyo social y el hecho de que la madre sea adolescente. Sin embargo, en el caso especial del saneamiento ambiental encontramos evidencia de una posible modificación del efecto respecto al tipo de lactancia (deltaG=9.26; p=0.09, que se traduce en una razón de momios para la carencia de agua y drenaje mayor que la suma de las RM para cada condición por separado (RMno agua/no drenaje = 2.58; IC 95% 1.10-6.03, en el modelo multivariante final. CONCLUSIONES: Al igual que estudios previos encontramos que la lactancia exclusiva al seno materno tiene una gran importancia, a pesar de que en el entorno persistan condiciones adversas ligadas a la pobreza y al subdesarrollo socioeconómico. En especial, parece que la protección que confiere la lactancia al seno es todavía mayor cuando se carece de las condiciones básicas de saneamiento, lo cual, a su vez, se traduce en oportunidades de intervenci

  17. Uso de inóculo padronizado de Anaplasma marginale e da quimioprofilaxia no controle da anaplasmose bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro M.F.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de inóculo homólogo padronizado de Anaplasma marginale foi comparado à prática de quimioprofilaxia com diidrato de oxitetraciclina na redução da riquetsemia e do volume globular (VG causada pela anaplasmose bovina. Os animais que receberam o inóculo (10(7 hemácias com Anaplasma marginaleapresentaram, ao serem desafiados em campo, riquetsemia média de 1,2% e redução média de VG de 23,0%, significativamente inferiores às do grupo-controle (P<0,05. No experimento de quimioprofilaxia os animais que receberam três doses de diidrato de oxitetraciclina (20mg/kg, com intervalos de 25 dias, apresentaram riquetsemia de 2,7% e redução de 36,3% no VG, significativamente inferiores às do grupo-controle (P<0,05. Ambas as medidas preventivas testadas foram eficientes na redução da intensidade da riquetsemia e na queda do VG.

  18. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  19. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  20. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  1. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  2. Nucleocapsid-Independent Specific Viral RNA Packaging via Viral Envelope Protein and Viral RNA Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Krishna; Chen, Chun-Jen; Maeda, Junko; Makino, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    For any of the enveloped RNA viruses studied to date, recognition of a specific RNA packaging signal by the virus's nucleocapsid (N) protein is the first step described in the process of viral RNA packaging. In the murine coronavirus a selective interaction between the viral transmembrane envelope protein M and the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, composed of N protein and viral RNA containing a short cis-acting RNA element, the packaging signal, determines the selective RNA packaging into vi...

  3. El mecanismo de muerte celular programada y su importancia en el proceso de maduración de la carne bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Ortega Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar el mecanismo de muerte celular programada y las evidencias que apoyan su relación con el proceso de maduración de la carne bovina. La terneza de la carne bovina es quizá una de las características más importantes para los consumidores, pues hace de la carne un producto deseable en los mercados mundiales e influye en su precio y calidad. Estas características dependen de factores genéticos, nutricionales y ambientales. Aunque en Colombia aún no existe la cultura de la trazabilidad de los productos cárnicos en los supermercados, se prevé que en un futuro cercano aumente el número de consumidores en América Latina y que ellos tendrán también la posibilidad de exigir las mejores carnes. Descifrar los factores bioquímicos y moleculares que influyen en la maduración de la carne bovina es una tarea amplia que está en sus primeras etapas. Se han descifrado algunas vías implicadas, como la de la calpaína-calpastatina, la proteosómica y la de las catepsinas, proteínas que han sido reconocidas como de influencia positiva en el proceso de degradación de la fibra muscular durante su proceso de maduración. La conversión del músculo en carne es un proceso que comienza una vez el animal ha sido sacrificado y, por lo tanto, está asociado a los procesos de necrosis y muerte celular. En los últimos años muchos estudios se han orientado hacia la importancia y el aporte del mecanismo de muerte celular programada o apoptosis sobre la terneza de la carne.

  4. Efectividad del Caldo Lactosado con Azul de Bromotimol en el control bacteriológico de las desinfecciones profilácticas en instalaciones bovinas

    OpenAIRE

    Cepero Rodríguez, Omelio:; Silveira Prado, Enrique A.:; Suárez Fernández, Yolanda E.:; González García, Oraida:

    2008-01-01

    Con la finalidad de evaluar la efectividad del medio de cultivo CaldoLactosado con Azul de Bromotimol (CLAB) en el control bacteriológico de las desinfecciones profilácticas se realizó un estudio en unidades bovinas cuyos resultados se compararon en paralelo con los obtenidos con el medio de Heifetz Modificado (HM), establecido en Cuba para esta actividad. Previa limpieza mecánica se aplicaron las soluciones desinfectantes mediante una unidad móvil y después de tres horas de exposición se rea...

  5. Empezando a conocer el mercado doméstico: Análisis de la oferta de productos de carne bovina.

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Reyes, Maria L.; Risso, Juan M.

    2004-01-01

    El presente estudio procura conocer mejor la demanda de productos de carne bovina para tres áreas geográficas de Montevideo que representan diferentes niveles socioeconómicos de la población, a través de la oferta observada en los dos principales formatos de comercialización: supermercados y carnicerías. En la zona de mayor nivel socioeconómico (AG1) se comercializa el 21% del volumen total de estos productos mientras que en la de nivel medio (AG2), con mayor concentración poblacional, se com...

  6. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  7. The epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in Latin America: anticipating rotavirus vaccines La epidemiología de la diarrea por rotavirus en América Latina: perspectivas de vacunación frente al rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Kane

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the disease burden and characterize the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in Latin America. METHODS: We conducted a literature review of studies of children OBJETIVO: Valorar la carga de enfermedad e identificar las características epidemiológicas de la diarrea causada por rotavirus en América Latina. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una revisión de la literatura que abarcaba los estudios de niños menores de 5 años que fueron hospitalizados o atendidos como pacientes ambulatorios a causa de la diarrea, y en los cuales se buscó al rotavirus como agente etiológico de la diarrea. Nuestro trabajo de revisión incluye los estudios publicados desde el año 1998 sobre pacientes ingresados y ambulatorios, que incluyeron a 100 niños o más, y que informaron sobre actividades de vigilancia que se prolongaron durante al menos 12 meses consecutivos. RESULTADOS: Un total de 18 estudios de pacientes ingresados y 10 estudios de pacientes ambulatorios satisficieron los criterios de inclusión de nuestro trabajo de revisión. Se detectó el rotavirus en el 31% (mediano de los pacientes ingresados (intervalo del 16% al 52% y en el 30.5% de los pacientes ambulatorios (intervalo del 4% al 42%. La tasa mediana de detección fue mayor en los estudios que emplearon un ensayo de encimoinmunoanálisis (ELISA (pacientes ingresados: 38%, pacientes ambulatorios: 33% frente a otros métodos de detección menos sensibles. La distribución de la enfermedad rotavírica según la edad difería entre países, aunque la proporción de niños hospitalizados durante el primer año de vida fue del 65% al 85%. En la mayoría de los países se produjeron ingresos hospitalarios por rotavirus durante todo el año, y el rotavirus normalmente mostraba un máximo estacional en el invierno tanto en las zonas de clima tropical como en aquellas de clima templado. CONCLUSIONES: La importante carga de enfermedad que se atribuye al rotavirus en América Latina sugiere que las

  8. Seroprevalencia de babesiosis bovina en la hacienda Vegas de la Clara, Gómez Plata (Antioquia, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zapata Salas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La babesiosis es una enfermedad del ganado bovino transmitida por la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y causada por los parásitos protozoarios Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. Una zona se considera epizootiológicamente estable frente a Babesia spp, cuando el 75% de los bovinos entre las edades de 3 a 9 meses son serorreactivos (IgG frente a Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina y no hay evidencia de signos clínicos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la seroprevalencia de Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina en el ganado bovino de la hacienda Vegas de la Clara (Universidad de Antioquia, Gómez Plata, Antioquia, por medio de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo con análisis de corte transversal. Fue evaluada toda la población bovina de la hacienda Vegas de la Clara (n = 118. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por inmunofluorescencia indirecta para la detección de anticuerpos tipo IgG específicos contra Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. La serorreactividad obtenida en los bovinos evaluados, para al menos una especie de Babesia fue del 89,8%, para Babesia bovis del 83,8%, mientras que para B. bigemina del 61%. Se obtuvo una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la serorreactividad para B. bigemina y la frecuencia del tratamiento garrapaticida. La serorreactividad indica estabilidad enzoótica en el hato para B. bovis, mientras que para B. bigemina se encontró que la frecuencia del tratamiento garrapaticida interrumpe su ciclo de transmisión.

  9. RECUENTO DE COLIFORMES Y Escherichia coli EN CANALES BOVINAS SOMETIDAS A TRATAMIENTOS FÍSICOS Y QUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JAVID CORPAS-IGUARÁN

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el recuento de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli en canales bovinas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos que incluyeron combinaciones de los métodos de lavado, desinfección y vaporización, utilizando el diseño completamente aleatorizado de un factor con 3 repeticiones. El muestreo se realizó mediante frotis de superficie en tres áreas diferentes de la muestra (espalda, pecho y anca, que fueron posteriormente analizadas mediante el método de recuento en placa. Al aplicar secuencialmente los métodos de remoción microbiana se apreció la disminución progresiva en el recuento de coliformes totales y E. coli, y en la variabilidad de los datos, principalmente en los tratamientos C, D y E. La prueba de contrastes múltiples de Friedman mostró la inexistencia de diferencias estadísticas entre los recuentos de los tratamientos C y E en la muestra 2, indicando la ineficacia de la vaporización como coadyuvante de la acidificación para disminuir el recuento de los microorganismos de estudio. Las pruebas de comparación en muestras independientes mostraron resultados idénticos a la prueba de Friedman, excepto para el recuento de E. coli entre los tratamientos D y E, sugiriendo que la vaporización tiene efecto significativo para potenciar la disminución del recuento del microorganismo en las canales.

  10. O comércio potencial brasileiro de carne bovina no contexto de integração regional

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    Luciane da Silva Rubin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa o potencial exportador do setor brasileiro de carne bovina frente à suposição de futuros acordos de integração regional. Os países ou blocos escolhidos são: União Européia (UE, Acordo de Livre Comércio da América do Norte (Nafta, Comunidade dos Estados Independentes (CEI, República Popular da China (RPC e Japão. Para analisar o potencial exportador do setor de carnes, foram desenvolvidos quatro generalizações metodológicas: o potencial importador dos países, o cálculo da evolução do Índice de Vantagem Revelada das Exportações do Brasil e de seus principais concorrentes, pesquisa bibliográfica das principais barreiras existentes e cálculo do Índice de Orientação Regional. Os resultados, quanto ao potencial importador, indicam que a União Européia (UE constitui-se altamente atrativo para a carne bovina. Os resultados do cálculo das vantagens comparativas revelaram que o Brasil tem alta e crescente competitividade no setor de carnes para o período 1990 a 2003. Quanto aos concorrentes no interior de cada bloco ou país, a União Européia é que apresentou o maior concorrente. Quanto às barreiras impostas, estas revelaram ser, de modo geral, extremamente elevadas e, em alguns casos, impeditivas. Portanto, o setor brasileiro de carnes teria muito a ganhar caso fossem eliminadas tais barreiras. Enfim, na última relação, constata-se alto grau de aceitação das exportações brasileiras de carne bovina àqueles blocos que não têm barreiras sanitárias impeditivas. Contudo, ao cruzar os resultados para o setor, observa-se que, a partir da efetivação de acordos de livre comércio inter-regionais, via Mercosul, ou por acordos bilaterais, com os blocos ou países em estudo, estes trarão ganhos efetivos para o setor brasileiro de carnes.This study analyses the Brazilian beef exportation potential considering the supposition of future agreements of regional integration. The countries or blocks that

  11. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  12. Equine viral arteritis

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    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  13. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  14. Detección, identificación y cuantificación de residuos de cuatro antimicrobianos en carne bovina destinada al consumo humano como contribución al sistema de gestión de inocuidad alimentaria en el marco de aplicación de medidas sanitarias y fitosanitarias

    OpenAIRE

    Vela Perdomo, Karen Lorena

    2014-01-01

    El control de residuos de sustancias antimicrobianas en productos de origen animal como la carne bovina, es de gran importancia porque los residuos pueden generar en las personas que los consumen problemas de salud como alergias, cambios en la flora intestinal y resistencia antimicrobiana en bacterias. En Colombia, la vigilancia del cumplimiento de los Límites Máximos de Residuos LMRs de antimicrobianos veterinarios en carne bovina es limitada, debido a que la capacidad analítica es insuficie...

  15. Zinc supplementation for treating diarrhea in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis Administración de suplementos de zinc para tratar la diarrea infantil: revisión sistemática y metanálisis

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    Tais Freire Galvao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To update the available evidence about zinc use for treating diarrhea in children and to assess its effect on the malnourished population, a subgroup that has not been fully explored in previous analyses. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of randomized clinical trials that assessed children up to 5 years old with acute diarrhea who received zinc supplementation. Controls received a placebo or oral rehydration therapy. After searching the main databases, without language restrictions, two independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Meta-analyses were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance random effects. RESULTS: Eighteen of 1 041 studies retrieved were included in the review (n = 7 314 children. Zinc was beneficial for reducing the duration of diarrhea in hours (mean difference [MD] = -20.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -29.15 to -11.09, I² = 91%. The effect was greater in malnourished children (MD = -33.17, 95% CI = -33.55 to -27.79, I² = 0%. Diarrhea prevalence on days 3, 5, and 7 was lower in the zinc group. The incidence of vomiting was significantly greater in the group that received zinc than in the control group. Included randomized controlled trials were of low risk of bias in most domains assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies.OBJETIVO: Actualizar los datos probatorios disponibles acerca del uso del zinc en el tratamiento de la diarrea infantil y evaluar su efecto en la población malnutrida, un subgrupo no plenamente estudiado en análisis anteriores. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaban a niños de hasta 5 años de edad con diarrea aguda y a los

  16. Caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in Kingston, Jamaica Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los cuidadores hacia la diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica

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    Lela Rose Bachrach

    2002-07-01

    diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica, con el fin de determinar si sus escasos conocimientos sobre la prevención y el tratamiento de la diarrea y la deshidratación hacen que los niños corran mayor riesgo de hospitalización por estos problemas. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional de casos y controles entre febrero y mayo de 1997 en el Hospital Infantil Bustamante de Kingston. Se usó una muestra de conveniencia de niños de menos de 5 años y los datos fueron recogidos mediante entrevistas personales con los cuidadores de los dos grupos de niños. Un grupo estaba formado por 117 niños con gastroenteritis aguda, y el otro por 98 niños con problemas agudos no relacionados con la gastroenteritis. De los 215 cuidadores entrevistados, 197 eran las madres, 9 eran tutores, 5 eran los padres y 4 eran las abuelas. Resultados. La media etaria de los cuidadores, su nivel educacional y su estatus socioeconómico eran similares en los dos grupos. Los cuidadores del grupo de niños con gastroenteritis tenían niños más pequeños y menos acceso al agua corriente y a frigoríficos. Los niños cuyos cuidadores nunca habían oído hablar de la rehidratación oral tenían mayor riesgo de presentar gastroenteritis y deshidratación [razón de posibilidades (odds ratio: OR: 4,6; intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95: 1,8-11,7], al igual que los niños cuyos cuidadores tenían escasos conocimientos sobre la prevención y el tratamiento de la diarrea y la deshidratación (OR: 3,7; IC95: 1,6-8,8. Otro factor de riesgo independiente fue la poca confianza del cuidador en su propia capacidad para tratar la diarrea del niño (OR: 2,3; IC95: 1,1-4,9. Conclusiones. Estos resultados destacan la necesidad de incrementar los esfuerzos informativos que les permitan a los cuidadores proteger a los niños de la morbilidad y la mortalidad relacionadas con la diarrea.

  17. Actividad biológica e inmunológica de las isoformas de carga de la hormona luteinizante bovina

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    Álvaro Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La hormona luteinizante (LH sufre modificaciones postraduccionales que dan origen a isoformas de carga. El estudio determinó la actividad biológica (B e inmunológica (I de distintas isoformas de LH bovina. Las isoformas se aislaron mediante el cromatoenfoque a partir del extracto glicoprotéico obtenido de lóbulos anteriores de hipófisis de bovino. La actividad biológica se evaluó en un bioensayo in vitro midiendo la producción de AMPc. La actividad inmunológica se midió con un radioinmunoensayo (RIA específico para LH. El USDA-bLH-B5 se utilizó como referencia. Las isoformas se agruparon tomando como referencia el rango de pH de elución, en básicas (A, pH, 10.75-9.75; B, pH, 9.58-8.41, neutras (C, pH, 7.98-6.89 y ácidas (D, pH, 6.88-5.41; E, pH, 5.36-3.46. El peso molecular del heterodímero de cada isoforma y del estándar fue similar, estimado en 36.5 kDa. La actividad inmunológica y biológica se comportó de forma dosis-dependiente. Con respecto al estándar, se requirió una mayor concentración de proteína de cada isoforma para obtener el IC50 en la curva de inhibición. En el bioensayo, el valor EC50 para la producción de AMPc fue significativamente diferente entre isoformas; la isoforma neutra mostró un EC50 inferior lo que se interpretó como la proteína más bioactiva, en contraste, la isoforma ácida, mostró un valor de EC50 superior y resultó ser la menos bioactiva; la básica tuvo un comportamiento intermedio (P<0.05. En conclusión, los resultados sugieren un efecto diferenciado de las isoformas de carga, sobre la producción cuantitativa de AMPc por unidad de LH inmunoreactiva.

  18. Viral myositis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Haley; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-05-01

    Question I recently evaluated a child in my clinic after an emergency department visit where she presented having woken up that morning refusing to walk and was crawling around the house. The parents reported she was getting over a cold, and I recall similar cases of myositis during the H1N1 influenza epidemic a few years ago. What are the key features of myositis that I should recognize? Which investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis and how should affected patients be managed? Answer Benign acute childhood myositis is a mild and self-limited sudden onset of lower extremity pain during or following recovery from a viral illness. Presentation can include tiptoe gait or refusal to walk, secondary to symmetric bilateral lower extremity pain that resolves quickly, usually within 3 days. In general, no investigation is needed except in severe cases for which screening bloodwork and a urine myoglobin test can confirm the diagnosis and rule out complications. Myoglobinuria and highly elevated creatine phosphokinase levels are rare but should be a consideration for admission to hospital. Prognosis is excellent and management might include rest and analgesia. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  19. Dengue viral infections

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    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  20. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  1. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  2. Caracterización genotípica y fenotípica de cepas emergentes de Escherichia coli aisladas de niños con diarrea en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yurley Arias Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA sigue siendo uno de los principales problemas en salud pública en países en desarrollo. Dentro de los agentes infecciosos que causan esta enfermedad se encuentran bacterias, virus y parásitos. Los agentes bacterianos ocupan un segundo lugar destacándose Escherichia coli enteropatógenas entre las más importantes. Actualmente, seis cepas con diferentes mecanismos de patogenicidad están asociados a diarrea  E. coli enteropatógena (ECEP, productora de toxina-shiga (ECTS, enterotoxigénica (ECET, enteroinvasiva (ECEI, enteroagregativa (ECEA y adherente difusa (ECAD, cada una con un set específico de genes de virulencia. No obstante, se han reportado brotes de EDA ocasionados por cepas de E. coli diferentes a los patotipos conocidos, denominadas cepas emergentes. Estos brotes han sido reportados en Alemania, Europa y recientemente en Cartagena Colombia, lo que sugiere que en nuestro medio circulan estas cepas. Por lo cual, es necesario caracterizar estas cepas emergentes. Objetivo: Caracterizar genotípicamente y fenotípicamente dos cepas emergentes de E. coli aisladas de muestras diarreicas en niños menores de cinco años en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: De un estudio de casos y controles realizado entre Julio del 2013 y diciembre del 2014 en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia a 860 niños menores de 5 años con diarrea (casos y sin diarrea (controles. Se aislaron a partir de coprocultivos cepas de E. coli mediante pruebas bioquímicas. A estas cepas previamente almacenadas a -80°C se les determino mediante PCR multiplex los patotipos de E. coli, los cuales posteriormente fueron confirmados mediante PCR simple. Muestras positivas para dos patotipos u otra característica fueron clasificadas como cepas emergentes. Finalmente, estas cepas se caracterizaron fenotípica y genotípicamente. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo pruebas como secuenciación de genes de

  3. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  4. Creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos sobre el manejo de la alimentación del niño con diarrea aguda Physicians' beliefs and knowledge on dietary management of children with acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Corral-Terrazas

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar las creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos rurales sobre el manejo de alimentación en los casos de diarrea aguda de los menores de cinco años y compararlos con la recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de antropología cognitiva con los 10 médicos que brindan atención a la población infantil en el Hospital Rural del IMSS-Solidaridad de San Juanito, Bocoyna, Chihuahua, México, de julio a diciembre de 1998. Se trianguló la información obtenida por las técnicas de grupos focales, viñetas, listado libre, sorteo de montones y cuestionario semiestructurado. Resultados. Los médicos reconocieron el impacto negativo de la diarrea sobre el estado nutricio del niño, pero no todos evaluaron su estado de nutrición. Como tratamientos predominaron los antimicrobianos, el manejo con líquidos y las recomendaciones sobre alimentación. De éstas, las más consistentes fueron la lactancia materna, la alimentación tardía y la dieta "escalonada". Conclusiones. La información obtenida contrasta con la recomendación de la OMS, en especial con la de alimentación sostenida.Objective. To identify the beliefs and knowledge of a group of rural physicians on the dietary management of children under five years of age, with acute diarrhea. Physicians' dietary management was compared with that recommended by the World Health Organization. Material and Methods. A cognitive anthropology study was carried out from July to December 1998, on ten physicians that care for the infant population ascribed to Hospital Rural IMSS-Solidaridad of San Juanito Bocoyna, Chihuahua, Mexico. Data were collected through focus groups, case vignettes, free listing, pile sorting, and a semi-structured questionnaire, and then cross-referred. Results. The physicians recognized the negative impact of diarrhea on the nutritional state of the child, but not all of them evaluated this state

  5. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  6. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  7. Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pinto Loguercio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

  8. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  9. Viral infections in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razonable, R R; Eid, A J

    2009-12-01

    Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to develop clinical illness, often with increased severity, due to a variety of common and opportunistic viruses. Patients may acquire viral infections from the donor (donor-derived infections), from reactivation of endogenous latent virus, or from the community. Herpes viruses, most notably cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus, are the most common among opportunistic viral pathogens that cause infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The polyoma BK virus causes opportunistic clinical syndromes predominantly in kidney and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The agents of viral hepatitis B and C present unique challenges particularly among liver transplant recipients. Respiratory viral illnesses due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus may affect all types of transplant recipients, although severe clinical disease is observed more commonly among lung and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Less common viral infections affecting transplant recipients include those caused by adenoviruses, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus. Treatment for viruses with proven effective antiviral drug therapies should be complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. For others with no proven antiviral drugs for therapy, reduction in the degree of immunosuppression remains as the sole effective strategy for management. Prevention of viral infections is therefore of utmost importance, and this may be accomplished through vaccination, antiviral strategies, and aggressive infection control measures.

  10. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST PATHOGENIC AGENT CAUSING OF BOVINE MASTITIS BACTERIAS ACIDO LACTICAS CON ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA CONTRA PATÓGENOS CAUSANTES DE MASTITIS BOVINA OUT BACTÉRIAS LÁTICAS COM ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA CONTRA OUT PATÓGENOS DA MASTITE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics to treat bovine mastitis, produces antibiotic residues in milk and decreased quality of dairy products. Lactic acid bacteria have been proposed as an alternative to avoid the use of antibiotics. This paper reports the antimicrobial activity against pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis, of 4 lactic acid strains isolated from cattle in a state of acidosis ruminal. It also evaluated the specific growth rate (m and antimicrobial activity of one of the strains, using two concentrations of carbon source (20 and 60 gl-1 in the commercial substrate MRS. The strains were biochemically identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermen-tum and Weissella confusa. Weissella confusa showed the best antimicrobial activity against the major pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis. When has been used 60 gl-1 of total sugars in the fermentation substrate, was obtained diameter of inhibition of 31 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and 36 mm for Streptococcus agalactiae. The antimicrobial activity of Weissella confusa is superior antimicrobial activity reported by many other lactic acid bacteria, therefore Weissella confusa could potentially be used to prevent bovine mastitis.El uso de antibióticos para el tratamiento de mastitis bovina, genera residuos de antibióticos en la leche y disminuye la calidad de los subproductos lácteos. Las bacterias ácido lácticas se han propuesto como una alternativa para evitar el uso de antibióticos. En este artículo se reporta la actividad antimicrobiana contra patógenos productores de mastitis bovina, de 4 cepas acido lácticas aisladas de bovinos en estado de acidosis ruminal. Se evaluó además la velocidad especifica de crecimiento (m y la actividad antimicrobiana de una de las cepas, utilizando dos concentraciones de fuente de carbono (20 y 60 gl-1 en el sustrato comercial MRS. Las cepas se identificaron bioquímicamente como Lactobacillus acidophilus

  11. Experiencia con pacientes hospitalizados en la unidad de capacitación para el tratamiento de la diarrea del Hospital Univertario San Vicente de Paúl de Medellín Experience with hospitalized children at a training unit for diarrhea treatment, in Medellín, Colombia

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    Carlos A. Bernal Parra

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre 1988 y 1994 se atendieron 1.755 niños en la sala de hospitalización de la Unidad de Capacitación para el Tratamiento de la Diarrea, del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín; 1.022 (58.2% fueron hombres y 733 (41.8% mujeres; mil setenta y ocho eran menores de un año (61.4% y 677 (38.6% tenían más de un año. Eran desnutridos 888 (50.6%. Presentaban diarrea persistente 418 (23.8%; 1.056 (82.2% diarrea acuosa, 213 (16.6% diarrea disentérica y 16 (1.2% solamente vómitos. Novecientos trece pacientes (52% consultaron o estuvieron en la sala de hidratación oral y 276 (15.7% habían estado hospitalizados por diarrea durante el último mes. Al ingreso 670 (38.2% se encontraban hidratados, 151 (8.6% tenían deshidratación grave y 934 (53.2% presentaban otros grados de deshidratación. La bacteria más frecuentemente identificada fue Salmonella enteritidis (258 casos; 23.9%. Setecientos ochenta y seis pacientes (44.8% recibieron los líquidos solamente por vía oral o por sonda nasogástrica y 969 (55.2% por vía intravenosa. Al egreso 1.088 (62% tuvieron el diagnóstico de diarrea aguda y 667 (38% el de diarrea persistente. La mortalidad fue de 1.5% (27 pacientes.

    We present the results of our experience in the in-patient treatment of children with diarrhea. Between 1988 and 1994,1.755 children were hospitalized for this purpose at the Training Unit for Diarrhea Treatment, Hospital San Vicente, in Medellín, Colombia; 1.022 (58.2% were males and 733 (41.8% females; 1.078 (61.4% were younger than one year and 677 (38.6% were above this age. Eight hundred and eighty eight (50.6% were undernourished. At admission, persistent diarrhea was found in 418 (23.8%; stools were watery in 1.056 (82.2% and dysenteric in 213 (16.6%; 16

  12. CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES DE NIÑOS DE COMUNIDAD RURAL PERUANA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LA DIARREA AGUDA INFECCIOSA

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    LE Veramendi-Espinoza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:  Asociar los Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas (CAP sobre la lactancia materna de las madres con la frecuencia de DAI en los últimos seis  meses del niño menor de dos  años. Metodología: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Lugar: Centro poblado Huaylas, Ancash-Perú, durante febrero de 2011. Participantes:  34 madres de niños menores de 2 años. Intervenciones: Encuesta CAP mediante entrevista a domicilio y revisión de las historias clínicas para confirmar DAI. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntaje obtenido en la encuesta para las distintas variables CAP. Resultados: Se halló conocimiento de medio a bajo en 76,5% de las madres encuestadas, actitudes neutras en 58,8% y favorables en 20,6 y prácticas neutras en 64,7% e inadecuadas en 23,5%. No se encontró correlación entre estos. Conclusión: No se logró establecer ningún tipo de asociación estadísticamente significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna con diarreas agudas infecciosas.

  13. CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES DE NIÑOS DE COMUNIDAD RURAL PERUANA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LA DIARREA AGUDA INFECCIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Veramendi-Espinoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Asociar los Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas (CAP sobre la lactancia materna de las madres con la frecuencia de DAI en los últimos seis me- ses del niño menor de dos años. Metodología: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Lugar: Centro poblado Huaylas, Ancash-Perú, durante febrero de 2011. Participantes: 34 madres de niños menores de 2 años. Intervenciones: Encuesta CAP mediante entrevista a domicilio y revisión de las historias clínicas para confirmar DAI. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntaje obtenido en la encuesta para las distintas variables CAP. Resultados: Se halló conocimiento de medio a bajo en 76,5% de las madres encuestadas, actitudes neutras en 58,8% y favorables en 20,6 y prácticas neutras en 64,7% e inadecuadas en 23,5%. No se encontró correlación entre estos. Conclusión: No se logró establecer ningún tipo de asociación estadísticamente significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna con diarreas agudas infecciosas.

  14. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and eland (Taurotragus oryx

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    Terence P. Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros. A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data.

  15. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  16. Bovine S protein (vitronectin increases phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae Aumento na fagocitose de Streptococcus dysgalactiae pela ação da proteína S bovina (vitronectina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bovine S protein (vitronectin on phagocytosis of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from cattle with mastitis were investigated. Phagocytized streptococci were determined by a fluorometric microassay using glass adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. Preincubation of S. dysgalactiae with bovine S protein significantly increased their phagocytosis by PMN. Bovine S protein had no effect on phagocytic killing of non-S protein binding S. pyogenes cultures. Enzymatic digestion of the bovine S protein binding sites on S. dysgalactiae with pronase resulted in a significative reduction of the effects of S protein on phagocytosis. It could thus be concluded that in addition to its role as a promoter of cellular adhesion and complement inhibitor, bovine S protein may also influence the phagocytosis of S. dysgalactiae during inflammatory processes.Foram investigados os efeitos da proteína S bovina (vitronectina na fagocitose de amostras de Streptococcus dysgalactiae isoladas de bovinos com mastite. A determinação do número de estreptococos fagocitados foi realizada pelo método fluorométrico utilizando neutrófilos polimorfonucleares (NPM aderidos em lâminas de vidro. A pré-incubação do S. dysgalactiae com a proteína S bovina aumentou significativamente a sua fagocitose por NPM. A proteína S bovina não causou efeito na fagocitose de culturas de S. pyogenes, já que não apresentam sítios de ligação para esta proteína. A digestão enzimática com pronase dos sítios de ligação S. dysgalactiae para a proteína S bovina resultou numa significativa redução do efeito da proteína S na fagocitose. Pode-se concluir que além do papel como promotor da adesão celular e inibidor do complemento, a proteína S bovina pode também influir na fagocitose do S. dysgalactiae durante os processos inflamatórios.

  17. EFECTO REOLÓGICO DE HIDROCOLOIDES SOBRE LA SALMUERA DE MARINADO DE CARNE BOVINA EFEITO REOLÓGICO DE HIDROCOLOIDES NA SALMOURA DE MARINADO DE CARNE BOVINA EFFECT OF HYDROCOLLOIDS ON RHEOLOGICAL BRINE MARINATED MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOMAIRA TAPASCO Z

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En algunos países la práctica del marinado en carnes ha sido convertida en práctica rutinaria, sin embargo las pérdidas por cocción son considerables. El objetivo de esta investigación fue valorar el comportamiento tixotrópico de hidrocoloides como agentes espesantes en la salmuera utilizada para el marinado de carnes. Los hidrocoloides utilizados fueron: xantan, guar y carragenina I; Inicialmente fue propuesto un diseño de mezclas para elegir la mejor mezcla de hidrocoloides. Posteriormente fue evaluado el efecto que sobre la tixotropía presentó la mezcla óptima de hidrocoloides incluidas en una salmuera estándar para marinado de carnes rojas. La mezcla óptima de hidrocoloides encontrada fue de 87% de xantan y 13% de carragenina, utilizada en la salmuera en tres concentraciones 0,5%, 1,0% y 7,5%. Esta salmuera fue utilizada para marinar muestras de carne bovina de músculo semitendinoso. Las muestras de los tratamientos fueron refrigeradas en cava durante 3 días. Fueron determinadas pérdidas de peso antes y después de cocción a80°C de temperatura interna y realizados los análisis de perfil de textura. Los resultados indican que la mejor concentración de hidrocoloides fue para el tratamiento con 1,5%. Solamente fue encontrada diferencia significativa (pEm alguns países, a pràtica de carnes marinadas transformou-se em pràtica rotineira, entretanto as perdas de cozimento são consideráveis. 0 objetivo desta pesquisa foi avallar o comportamento tixotrópico de très hidrocolóides como espessantes na salmoura usado para marinara carne. Os hidrocolóides utilizados foram: goma xantana, goma guar e goma carragena I, foi inicialmente proposto um projeto de mistura de escolhera melhor combinaçáo de hidrocolóides. Foi entáo avallado o efeito da tixotropia que apresentou a mistura ideal de hidrocolóides incluídos em urna salmoura carnes marinadas. A combinaçáo óptima de hidrocolóides encontrada foi de 87% e 13% xantana e

  18. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  19. Ventilator and viral induced inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennus, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis expands current knowledge on ventilator induced lung injury and provides insights on the immunological effects of mechanical ventilation during viral respiratory infections. The experimental studies in the first part of this thesis improve our understanding of how mechanical ventilation

  20. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides to their corresponding monophosphate compounds. dNks also phosphorylate deoxyribonucleoside analogues that are used in the treatment of cancer or viral infections. The study of the mammalian dNKs has therefore always been of gr...

  1. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juei-Low, Sung [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Department of Internal Medicine; Ding-Shinn, Chen [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Hepatitis Research Center National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of {sup 131}I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  2. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Juei-Low; Chen Ding-Shinn

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131 I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. QUALIDADE BACTERIOLÓGICA DE MEIAS-CARCAÇAS BOVINAS ORIUNDAS DE MATADOUROS-FRIGORÍFICOS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS HABILITADOS PARA EXPORTAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Holanda Lopes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o incremento das exportações, estimulado pela globalização da economia, o Brasil vem conseguindo aumentar expressivamente a comercialização de produtos cárneos para o exterior. Os órgãos de fiscalização e regulamentação têm a necessidade de estabelecer padrões bacteriológicos para esses produtos, visando garantir que eles cheguem à prateleira sem risco à saúde de consumidor ou mesmo com aspecto repugnante. Muitos são os padrões bacteriológicos adotados pelos países importadores com o intuito de verificar a qualidade da carne bovina importada.Dentre esses padrões, em boa parte desses países, estão incluídas análises bacteriológicas, tais como contagens e determinações do número mais provável (NMP dos microrganismos indicadores, além de contagens e pesquisa de patógenos. O presente estudo buscou avaliar a qualidade bacteriológica das meias-carcaças oriundas de matadouros-frigoríficos do Estado de Goiás, habilitados à exportação, e oferecer informações para que os órgãos federais de regulamentação e fiscalização possam especificar padrões para essas carnes. Foram avaliadas 160 meias-carcaças bovinas, quentes e refrigeradas, no período de junho a setembro de 2004. Realizaram-se as seguintes análises: determinação do NMP de coliformes totais, coliformes fecais e Escherichia coli; contagem padrão de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos, estritos ou facultativos viáveis, contagem de microrganismos psicrófilos, contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase-positivo e contagem de Clostridia sulfito-redutor. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que a qualidade bacteriológica das meias-carcaças é aceitável, mostraram os microrganismos eleitos importantes para a avaliação do “status bacteriológico” e também que não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os resultados das análises bacteriológicas das meias-carcaças quentes e refrigeradas. Contudo, há necessidade de vigil

  4. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  5. Caracterización de aislamientos de Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 asociados a cuadros de diarrea Characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 isolates associated with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. González Fraga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Vibrio cholerae, el agente causal del cólera, se trasmite al hombre por ingestión de agua y alimentos contaminados. Aunque son los serogrupos O1 y O139 los que habitualmente se asocian al cólera epidémico, los aislamientos de otros serogrupos también son causales de gastroenteritis e infecciones extra-intestinales. Durante el período 2003-2005, se investigó la presencia de V. cholerae en la materia fecal de niños con diarrea atendidos en el Hospital del Niño Jesús, Tucumán. Se recuperaron 34 aislamientos de V. cholerae no-O1, no-O139. Se determinaron sus perfiles de virulencia por PCR, la sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos y la diversidad genética por electroforesis en campo pulsado. Se obtuvieron ocho perfiles de virulencia, aunque ningún aislamiento fue positivo para la toxina colérica ni para la toxina termoestable. Cuatro aislamientos fueron positivos para el sistema de secreción de tipo tres. El 17,6% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes o de sensibilidad intermedia a ampicilina y el 5,9% fueron resistentes a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Los aislamientos resultaron muy diversos: se hallaron 27 patrones distintos en 29 aislamientos tipificables por electroforesis en campo pulsado. A pesar de su baja incidencia, V. cholerae continúa siendo un agente causal de diarrea en niños, los que se ven afectados por una amplia variedad de cepas circulantes.Vibrio cholerae, etiologic agent of cholera, is transmitted to humans by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Even though serogroups O1 and O139 are the ones usually associated to epidemic cholera, isolates from other serogroups also cause gastroenteritis and extraintestinal infections. During the period 2003-2005, presence of V. cholerae in stools was investigated in children with diarrhea that seaked assistance at the Niño Jesús Hospital in Tucumán. Thirty four isolates of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 were recovered. We characterized the isolates studying

  6. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda Oral rehydration in continuous administration or in fractionated doses in dehydrated children with acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mota-Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.Objective. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two oral rehydration techniques. Material and Methods. A randomized clinical trial was conducted at the oral rehydration unit of Hospital Infantil de Mexico "Federico Gomez", between September 1998 and June 1999. Forty patients five-year old and younger children, dehydrated due to acute diarrhea, were given oral rehydration solution (ORS ad libitum (AL group; another forty patients received ORS in fractionated doses (FD group. Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Results are presented as

  7. SHELF LIFE OF BOVINE MEAT TREATED WITH FOOD GRADE TRISSODIC PHOSPHATE VIDA DE PRATELEIRA DA CARNE BOVINA TRATADA PELO FOSFATO TRISSÓDICO GRAU ALIMENTÍCIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    To the present study, the capacity of food grade trissodic phosphate to reduce bacterial spoiling and pathogenic effect on bovine meat from three different categories of abattoirs was estimated, as well as shelf life of bovine meat kept under refrigeration. Trissodic phosphate was efficient to reduce bacterial spoiling and pathogenic effect, represented by mesophils and psychrotrophs, indicator microorganisms, fecal coliforms and pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella. The shelf life of treated bovine meat was influenced by the abattoir category and by the treatment with 10% solution of trissodic phosphate which represented an increase of 26.66%, 27.77% and 31.03% in the durability of meat coming from abattoirs A, B and C, respectively.

    KEY-WORDS: Trissodic phosphate; shelf life; bovine meat.

    No presente estudo verificou-se a capacidade do fosfato trissódico grau alimentício de reduzir a carga bacteriana deteriorante e patogênica da carne bovina proveniente de três categorias diferentes de estabelecimentos de abate, bem como estimou-se a vida do produto mantido sob refrigeração. O fosfato trissódico mostrou-se eficiente na redução da carga bacteriana deteriorante, representada por mesófilos e psicrotróficos, microrganismos indicadores, coliformes fecais e patogênicos como o Staphylococcus aureus e a Salmonella. A vida de prateleira da carne tratada foi influenciada pela categoria do estabelecimento e pelo tratamento com fosfato trissódico em solução a 10% que representou um acréscimo de 26,66%, 27,77% e 31,03% na durabilidade das carnes oriundas dos

  8. Caracterização de biótipos de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina Biotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos e dezoito amostras de Staphylococcus aureus, isoladas de infecção intramamária de vacas de 44 rebanhos leiteiros, foram classificadas em biótipos de acordo com os testes de produção de estafiloquinase (K, beta-hemolisina (beta , coagulação do plasma bovino (Pl e crescimento na presença de cristal violeta (CV. As amostras foram distribuídas em 10 biótipos e 63 delas foram classificadas nas ecovariedades bovina (35, ovina (17, aviária (10 e humana (1 e 155 não apresentaram características específicas de hospedeiro. Estas últimas podem ser isoladas de homem, cabra, coelho, suíno, alimentos e de mastite bovina. O biótipo 1, encontrado com maior freqüência (37,2%, apresentou o padrão K (-, beta (+, Pl (- e CV (azul. Em sete rebanhos nos quais se examinaram 10 ou mais amostras, verificou-se que, apesar da ocorrência simultânea de mais de um biótipo por rebanho, houve predominância de um sobre os demais.Two hundred and eighteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections, obtained from 44 different dairy herds, were classified in biotypes based on staphylokinase (K and beta-haemolysin (beta production, bovine plasma coagulation (Pl and growth on crystal violet agar (CV. The strains were assigned to 10 different types, with 63 in the bovine (35, ovine (17, poultry (10 and human (1 ecovars and 155 in non-host specific biotypes. The latter can be isolated from man, goat, rabbit, pig, food, and bovine mastitis. The biotype 1, with reaction pattern K (-, beta (+, Pl (- and CV (blue, was the most frequently found (37,2%. From seven herds ten or more strains were examined. It was found that in spite of the presence of different biotypes per herd, there was always one prevalent biotype.

  9. ETIOLOGY OF THE BOVINE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN GOIÂNIA ETIOLOGIA DA MASTITE CLÍNICA BOVINA NA BACIA LEITEIRA DE GOIÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Moreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    There is an estimate that the mastitis in dairy herds causes production losses between 5 and 35%, equivalent from 85 to 500 million dollars per year. 231 milk samples from 231 cows on different stages of lactation, with clinic mastitis, from 35 farms of Goiânia, were analyzed in order to map the pathogens implicated in these process and to discover the microorganisms with major prevalence. All the samples had positive growth. The principal agents were Staphylococcus coagulase positive (32.90%, Streptococcus sp. (22.07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12.12%, Enterobacter sp. (10.38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8.65%, Escherichia coli (8.22%, Bacillus sp. (8.22%, Proteus sp. (6.49%, Klebsiella sp. (4.32% and Staphylococcus coagulase negative (3.46%. The Nocardia genus was isolated in 0.86% of the cases.

    KEY-WORDS: Bovine mastitis; etiology; isolated microorganisms.

    Estima-se que a presença de mastite bovina em rebanhos produtores provoque perdas de produção entre 5 e 35%, o que equivale de 85 a 500 milhões de dólares ao ano. Com o objetivo de mapear os patógenos envolvidos nesse processo e evidenciar os microrganismos com maior freqüência foram examinadas amostras de leite de 231 vacas, em diferentes estágios de lactação, que apresentaram sinais de mastite clínica e eram pertencentes a 35 propriedades rurais da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. Todas as amostras tiveram crescimento bacteriano positivo. Os principais agentes isolados foram o Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (32,90%, Streptococcus sp. (22,07%, Pseudomonas sp. (12,12%, Enterobacter sp. (10,38%, Corynebacterium sp. (8,65%, Escherichia coli (8,22%, Bacillus sp. (8,22%,

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis in Argentine dairy herds Sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus aureus causantes de mastitis bovina en rodeos lecheros de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Russi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the in vitro activity of selected antimicrobial agents against 95 Staphylococcus aureus strains causing both clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis belonging to 61 dairy farms from the Central dairy area of Argentina. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of penicillin, oxacillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, enrofloxacin and florfenicol were estimated. In addition, the agar diffusion test was performed. MIC50 and MIC90 were as follows: penicillin, 0.05 and 4 µg/ml; oxacillin, 0.25 and 0.25 µg/ml; gentamicin, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml; erythromycin 0.125 and 0.25 µg/ml; enrofloxacin 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml, and florfenicol 4 and 8 µg/ml. b-lactamase activity was detected in 89% of 46 penicillin- resistant strains. Apart from penicillin, antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus causing bovine mastitis remains rare in Argentine dairy farms.Se evaluó la actividad in vitro de un grupo seleccionado de antimicrobianos contra 95 aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus obtenidos de casos de mastitis bovina clínica y subclínica, en 61 rodeos lecheros de la cuenca central de Argentina. Fueron estimadas las concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (CIM de penicilina, oxacilina, gentamicina, eritromicina, enrofloxacina y florfenicol. Además se realizó la prueba de difusión en agar. Las CIM50 y CIM90 obtenidas fueron: penicilina 0,05 y 4 µg/ml; oxacilina 0,25 y 0,25 µg/ml; gentamicina 0,25 y 0,5 µg/ml; eritromicina 0,125 y 0,25 µg/ml; enrofloxacina 0,25 y 0,5 µg/ml y florfenicol 4 y 8 µg/ml. Se detectó actividad de b-lactamasa en el 89% de las cepas resistentes a la penicilina. A excepción de lo observado para penicilina, la resistencia a los antimicrobianos en S. aureus causantes de mastitis bovina en Argentina parece ser un fenómeno poco frecuente.

  11. Efecto citotóxico en colon humano de Escherichia coli enterohemorrágico aislado de terneros con diarrea sanguinolenta Cytotoxic effect in human colon of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from calves with bloody diarrhea

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    V. Pistone Creydt

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga (STEC es el patógeno emergente en alimentos de mayor impacto, siendo su principal reservorio el ganado bovino. STEC puede causar diarrea, colitis hemorrágica y síndrome urémico hemolítico. El presente trabajo estudió la acción citotóxica de dos cepas de STEC aisladas de heces de terneros diarreicos en colon humano in vitro. Los fragmentos se montaron como un diafragma en una cámara de Ussing y se incubaron con las cepas patógenas. El flujo neto absortivo de agua (Jw disminuyó y la corriente de cortocircuito (Isc aumentó significativamente (P Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC is one of the most important emergent pathogen in foods, being its main reservoir bovine cattle. STEC can cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The present work have studied the cytotoxic action in human colon of cultures of two STEC strains isolated from faeces of calves with bloody diarrhea. Colonic mucosa was mounted as a diaphragm in a Ussing chamber and incubated with the cultures of pathogenic strains. Net water flow (Jw decreased and the short-circuit current (Isc increased significantly (p < 0,01 compared to negative control. Tissues showed an erosion of the mucose, epithelial exfoliation, and presence of pseudo-membranes in the lumen. Mild circulatory lesions were observed in the lamina propia. A moderate neutrophils infiltration was observed in the lumen and into the epithelial cells. Colonic crypts were not disrupted. Both experimental strains caused a similar lesion on colon tissues. This is the first study that shows that cultures of STEC strains isolated from bovine cattle produce cytotoxic effects in vitro in human colon.

  12. Anticipating rotavirus vaccines: review of epidemiologic studies of rotavirus diarrhea in Argentina En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Gómez

    1998-02-01

    , to more accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine program, and to indicate what methods might best be used to monitor such a program's impact.En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos sometidos a encuestas comunitarias. Los datos correspondientes a hospitales muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea tuvieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G a 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados, seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (uno de cada ocho nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (uno de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$ 27,7 millones. Estos datos

  13. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  14. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

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    Sukri Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  15. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); A. Ruiz-Gonzalez (Aritz); V. Baumgärtner (Volkmar); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Schürch (Anita)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractViral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow

  16. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted o...

  17. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  18. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  19. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

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    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  20. Innovación en valor en la industria cárnica bovina mexicana: estrategias que adoptan los líderes de mercado

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    María Guadalupe López Palacios

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados del análisis de las estrategias de innovación en valor que permiten el posicionamiento competitivo de las empresas cárnicas mexicanas líderes de mercado en carne de bovino. Con base en la metodología propuesta por W. C. Kim y R. Mauborgne (2005, conocida como la estrategia del océano azul, se diseñaron nueve categorías con sus respectivas variables para la construcción de los mapas estratégicos de diez empresas seleccionadas. En los mapas se muestran los rubros en que más invierte la industria cárnica bovina en México: los factores de la producción animal que inciden directamente en la calidad de la carne (raza, edad, peso, finalización, la presentación del producto y la diversificación de mercados. Sin embargo, lo que distingue a estas empresas es la forma en que integran su cadena productiva, la gama de productos que ofrecen, los programas y certificaciones en materia de inocuidad que han aplicado u obtenido, los servicios que ofrecen a sus clientes, y las estrategias de mercado que emplean.

  1. Neoplasmas da bexiga associados à hematúria enzoótica bovina Urinary bladder neoplasms associated with bovine enzootic hematuria

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    Marione de Albuquerque Moreira Souto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se três casos de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB em animais provenientes do município de Jaguari, RS, Brasil. As pastagens de todas as propriedades de origem estavam altamente infestadas por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. Três bovinos, com idades entre 4 e 7 anos, apresentaram sinais clínicos que incluíam emagrecimento progressivo, hematúria intermitente e palidez das mucosas. As principais lesões foram observadas na bexiga e consistiam de três tipos de neoplasmas: hemangioma capilar, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma de células escamosas. A epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas nos três bovinos são consistentes com o diagnóstico de HEB.Three cases of bovine enzootic hematuria (BHE are described in cattle from the municipality of Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The pastures of all affected farms were highly infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum. Three 4-7-year-old bovine had clinical signs of progressive weight loss, intermittent hematuria, and mucosal pallor. The main lesions were observed in the urinary bladder and consisted of three types of neoplasms: capillary hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology, the clinical signs, and the gross and microscopic lesions observed in all three bovine were of BHE.

  2. SÍNTESIS, COMPOSICIÓN Y MODIFICACIÓN DE LA GRASA DE LA LECHE BOVINA: Un nutriente valioso para la salud humana

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    Joaquín Angulo A, M.Sc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión sobre la composición, estructura y mecanismo de síntesis de la grasa de la leche en la glándula mamaria bovina y del efecto de la suplementación con ácidos grasos insaturados (AGI sobre la cantidad y calidad de la grasa. Se resalta la importancia de la suplementación con aceites vegetales más aceite de pescado; se sugiere no generalizar el efecto de AGI como negativo sobre la cantidad de grasa de la leche; se muestra la necesidad de relacionar diferentes AGI con la vía regulatoria SREBP y con diferentes enzimas lipogénicas; y se incentiva la investigación del efecto de AGI sobre la composición de ácidos grasos de la leche y su distribución posicional dentro de la estructura lipídica.

  3. Principios generados a partir de la evolución del manejo en pastoreo para la producción de leche bovina en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros de la C Milera

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la evolución de los resultados científicos más importantes durante los últimos 40 años de investigación, obtenidos en estudios sobre sistemas de manejo con pastos para la producción de leche bovina en Cuba. La recopilación realizada permitió generar un grupo de principios que rigen el manejo con gramíneas mejoradas, leguminosas volubles y árboles para ramoneo. Se analizaron los retos en la concepción de los sistemas para la producción de leche en Cuba, que constituyen el nuevo paradigma: la producción de alimento y de energía a partir de gramíneas mejoradas, en pastoreo o en asociación con árboles forrajeros, energéticos, maderables y otros, que cubran el 80 % de los requerimientos de los animales.

  4. Avaliação da transferência de citocinas para bezerros neonatos via ingestão de colostro de fêmeas bovinas Holandesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L. Shecaira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Para a avaliação da transferência de citocinas para o sangue de bezerros neonatos via ingestão de colostro de fêmeas bovinas holandesas, foram utilizados 15 bezerros nascidos de parto eutócico, distribuídos igualmente por três grupos experimentais (n=5: G1- receberam dois litros de colostro fresco provenientes de suas próprias mães; G2- receberam dois litros de colostro provenientes de "pool" de colostro congelado e o G3- foram alimentados apenas com leite. Nestes grupos foram coletadas amostras de sangue em cinco tempos durante os primeiros quinze dias de vida e mensuradas as concentrações das citocinas Interleucina-1 β (IL-1b, Interleucina-6 (IL-6, Fator de necrose tumoral- α (TNF-a e Interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Também se mensurou tais citocinas (IL-1 β, IL-6 e TNF-α nos sobrenadantes do colostro de do "pool" de colostro fornecidos aos bezerros dos grupos G1 e G2 respectivamente. Verificou-se a transferência das citocinas IL-1b, IL-6, TNF-a e IFN-γ pela presença no soro dos bezerros do grupo G1, enquanto que nos demais grupos (G2 e G3 não foram detectadas.

  5. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in traceability of retail beef samples Marcadores de DNA nuclear e mitocondrial para rastreabilidade da carne bovina comercializada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S.M. Cesar

    2010-09-01

    ém de dados da cadeia produtiva. Em geral, a empresa certificadora dispõe das informações do animal que está sendo abatido, porém não tem condições de garantir se houve erro entre abate, desossa, processamento e a distribuição dos produtos. Existe diferenciação no custo e na qualidade dos produtos cárneos, especialmente no mercado internacional, em virtude do sexo e composição racial dos animais. Os marcadores genéticos permitem identificar as características que são controladas num programa de rastreabilidade bovina tais como sexo e composição racial, permitindo identificar e avaliar corretamente para o consumidor, o produto final. A hipótese deste estudo foi que a maioria das amostras de carne bovina vendida no mercado local seria proveniente de fêmeas e com grande participação de raças Zebu. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar amostras de carne bovina com marcadores de DNA para identificar o sexo e a composição racial. Em dez pontos comerciais da cidade de Pirasssununga, SP, Brasil, foram coletadas 61 amostras e todas foram genotipadas como possuindo DNA mitocondrial Bos taurus e 18 foram positivos para amplificação do cromossomo Y (macho. Para o marcador sat1711b-Msp I a frequência alélica do A foi 0.278 e para o marcador Lhr-Hha I a frequência alélica do T foi 0.417. Os resultados das frequências alélicas do sat1711b-Msp I e Lhr-Hha I apresentaram menor proporção do genoma Bos indicus em relação ao Bos taurus quando comparado ao rebanho Nelore. Com a metodologia descrita neste trabalho foi possível avaliar o sexo e as características de subespécie das amostras de carne bovina, tendo uma importante aplicação para a certificação de produtos cárneos especialmente, em programas de rastreabilidade animal.

  6. MÉTODO SIMPLES PARA ESTIMAR ENCURTAMENTO PELO FRIO EM CARNE BOVINA A SIMPLE METHOD TO ESTIMATE COLD SHORTENING IN BEEF

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    Riana Jordão Barrozo Heinemann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available É bem conhecido o fato de que o encurtamento pelo frio pode influenciar negativamente a textura da carne. Por isso, a determinação do grau de contração do tecido muscular é um recurso analítico de grande importância quando se estuda a otimização dos procedimentos industriais. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas comparativamente duas metodologias de microscopia. Para isso, os músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus obtidos de nove carcaças bovinas com três diferentes graus de acabamento foram analisados de forma pareada por ambos os métodos. O músculo Longissimus dorsi apresentou menor comprimento de sarcômero e o m. Semimembranosus o maior (p0,05, revelando a possibilidade de emprego do método mais simples.The negative influence of cold shortening on meat texture is well known. Because of that, the determination of the muscle contraction extent represents an important analytical tool for the optimization of the industrial procedures. In this work, two methodologies to evaluate cold shortening were compared. Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles from 9 cattle carcasses with three different fat thickness grades were paired analyzed by both methodologies. Longissimus dorsi muscle showed the shortest sarcomere length while Semimembranosus m. showed the longest one (p0.05, which suggests the possibility of using the simpler method for cold shortening evaluation.

  7. EnBovinOs: Diseño de una red de ontologías en el dominio de las enfermedades bovinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Antonio Ballesteros-Ricaurte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el proceso de desarrollo de la red de ontologías: especificación de requisitos, la aplicación de la Metodología NeOn, la reutilización de recursos ontológicos y no ontológicos, aplicado al conocimiento de enfermedades en bovinos. Para el proceso de desarrollo de la red de ontologías, se contó con el apoyo de médicos veterinarios, expertos en Mastitis Bovina que aportan su conocimiento; utilizando herramientas informáticas y tecnologías, teniendo en cuenta que el desarrollo cumpla con las características, y que de la integración de los diferentes recursos se obtenga EnBovinos. Aplicando diferentes escenarios de la metodología, se encuentran recursos que se pueden reutilizar y de la misma forma entregar una red de ontologías que se pueda utilizar en otros proyectos.

  8. Evaluación de la tasa de concepción de tres razas bovinas receptoras de embriones en el Trópico Alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Farfan-Rojas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar la eficiencia reproductiva, medida en porcentaje de novillas preñadas, de tres razas bovinas, como receptoras de embriones. En el altiplano Cundiboyacense se han realizado pocos estudios tendientes a determinar cuáles razas, aptas para el medio, son las que pueden brindar mejores tasas de concepción, como receptoras, en transferencia de embriones. Los resultados se sometieron a un análisis estadístico descriptivo, utilizando los programas Excel y Minitab (Chi cuadrado x2, con variables de tipo cuantitativo. La selección de receptoras se hizo con base en la calidad de cuerpo lúteo, normalidad del tracto reproductivo, CC entre 2 y 3 en una escala de 1 (muy flaca a 5 (cebada. La transferencia de embriones se realizó por el método no quirúrgico y se obtuvo un porcentaje de gestación en la raza Normando de 63%; en la Holstein, de 55.5%, y en la raza Brangus, de 44.4%. El protocolo utilizado fue Ovisynch, y los embriones transferidos fueron congelados y descongelados para el momento de transferirlos.

  9. [Immunotherapy for refractory viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Tomohiro; Fujita, Yuriko; Takahashi, Satoshi

    Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC can be transduced with virus-antigen coding plasmid or pulsed with overlapping peptides. VST therapy has been studied in drug non-responsive viral infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of VST therapy without significant severe GVHD. In addition, VSTs from a third-party donor have been prepared and administered for post-HCT viral infection. Although target viruses of VSTs include herpes virus species and polyomavirus species, a wide variety of pathogens, such as papillomavirus, intracellular bacteria, and fungi, can be treated by pathogen-specific T-cells. Perhaps, these specific T-cells could be used for opportunistic infections in other immunocompromised hosts in the near future.

  10. Laboratory procedures to generate viral metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Rebecca V; Haynes, Matthew; Breitbart, Mya; Wegley, Linda; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-01-01

    This collection of laboratory protocols describes the steps to collect viruses from various samples with the specific aim of generating viral metagenome sequence libraries (viromes). Viral metagenomics, the study of uncultured viral nucleic acid sequences from different biomes, relies on several concentration, purification, extraction, sequencing and heuristic bioinformatic methods. No single technique can provide an all-inclusive approach, and therefore the protocols presented here will be discussed in terms of hypothetical projects. However, care must be taken to individualize each step depending on the source and type of viral-particles. This protocol is a description of the processes we have successfully used to: (i) concentrate viral particles from various types of samples, (ii) eliminate contaminating cells and free nucleic acids and (iii) extract, amplify and purify viral nucleic acids. Overall, a sample can be processed to isolate viral nucleic acids suitable for high-throughput sequencing in approximately 1 week.

  11. Fatores associados à percepção e atitude de consumidores de carne bovina com certificação de origem em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os fatores socioeconômicos relacionados com a decisão de compra de carne com certificação de origem, além de levantar os perfis de percepção e de atitude dos consumidores de carne bovina, em Uberlândia, MG. Foi realizada a descrição das variáveis e construído um modelo múltiplo Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE de regressão logística, para testar as possíveis associações entre as características socioeconômicas dos consumidores e os principais atributos da carne que influenciam a decisão sobre sua compra. As informações foram levantadas por meio de entrevistas com 213 consumidores, de abril a maio de 2012. A presença do carimbo do serviço de inspeção federal (SIF ou estadual é o atributo que mais influencia a decisão de compra dos consumidores. A maioria dos entrevistados já ouviu falar sobre rastreabilidade bovina. Dentre estes, a maior parte está disposta a pagar mais pela carne com certificação de origem. Apesar disso, muitos consideram que o aumento do preço da carne é uma desvantagem da rastreabilidade. Consumidores com maior grau de escolaridade e renda apresentaram melhor conhecimento sobre este tipo de certificação, sendo esses fatores os de grande influência sobre a aceitação dos consumidores em pagar mais caro pela carne bovina rastreada.

  12. EFEITO DO TEOR DE GORDURA, VÁCUO E DOSE DE RADIAÇÃO GAMA NA SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE Salmonella TYPHIMURIUM ATCC 14028 EM CARNE BOVINA MOÍDA RESFRIADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. COSTA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho avaliou a sobrevivência de Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 em carnes bovinas, moída crua e resfriada (2 ºC, através do tratamento com radiação gama (Co60, utilizando doses de 0; 1,5; 2,5 e 3,5 kGy. Além do fator dose de radiação foram avaliadas as influências do emprego de vácuo e de dois teores de gordura da carne bovina moída: baixo (2-4% e alto (11-13%, bem como a interação dos fatores, na redução ou eliminação da bactéria patogênica inoculada. Os resultados demonstraram que os teores de gordura da carne e o emprego de vácuo não influenciaram significativamente a sobrevivência da Salmonella. A dose de radiação gama influenciou a inativação de Salmonella de forma dose dependente até 2,5 kGy, com reduções de 4 ciclos logarítmicos. A dose de 2,5 kGy é suficiente para exercer um controle efetivo de Salmonella em carne bovina moída independentemente do seu teor de gordura e da presença de oxigênio.

  13. Efeito da idade, sexo, altura do cupim e tipos de carcaça sobre características quantitativas e qualitativas da carcaça e da carne bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Correia Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da idade, sexo, altura de cupim e tipificação de carcaças sobre as características quantitativas e qualitativas da carcaça e da carne bovina. Foram avaliados os pesos de carcaça quente, peso do quarto traseiro resfriado, área de olho de lombo, espessura de gordura de cobertura e grau de acabamento de 36 bovinos machos castrados de diferentes idades, avaliadas pela cronologia dentária, e 10 fêmeas adultas, escolhidos ao acaso na linha de matan...

  14. Nuevos enfoques en el diagnóstico, prevención y tratamiento de la mastitis bovina a través del uso de moléculas con acción antimicrobiana

    OpenAIRE

    Chaneton, Luciano

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis fue caracterizar el papel de lactoferrina (LF) y otros factores solubles endógenos, en la defensa de la glándula mamaria contra la infección. También, se buscó analizar la potencial aplicación de estos elementos para el diagnóstico y la predicción de la mastitis bovina y para la generación de ganado resistente a esta enfermedad. Para abordar estos objetivos se realizaron estudios bioquímicos, microbiológicos y epidemiológicos que se presentan en 4 apartados de result...

  15. Balance energético y capacidad gluconeogénica de vacas lecheras a pastoreo tratadas con una baja dosis de somatotropina recombinante bovina en el período de transición

    OpenAIRE

    JL Sánchez; CA Wagemann; C Strieder-Barboza; M Noro

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto de la dosis baja (250 mg/vaca) de somatotropina recombinante bovina (rbST) en vacas lecheras a pastoreo en período de transición sobre los indicadores energético-proteínicos y capacidad gluconeogénica. Se realizaron 3 ensayos: Preparto, se utilizaron 10 vacas preparto, grupo bST (n = 5): dosis única de rbST el día (d) 26 preparto, y control (n = 5); se obtuvieron muestras de sangre y se registró la condición corporal (CC) cada 3 d desde el 26 d...

  16. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  17. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  18. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  19. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  20. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años Sustained feeding during acute diarrhea in children younger than five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOMERO MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.Objective. To identify locally available and culturally acceptable foods for children with acute diarrhea, and test their acceptance and effect on the childís weight. Material and methods. 142 mothers of children younger than five years of age living in rural communities were interviewed to indentify culturally accepted diets by means of group sorting. These were displayed in a multidimensional scale. A descriptive study was performed of the clinical course of 54 children, ages 4 to 50 months who received the designed diets during the first 48 hours of diarrhea. Results. The designed diets considered age of the child, and stage of the disease. Children spent 47.6 ± 22.2 h in the hospital during which they consumed 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/day (additional to breast milk and they gained 70.6 ± 179.7 g. A direct relationship was observed between increasing age and

  1. Caracterización genotipica de aislamientos de Escherichia coli obtenidos de cerdos con diarrea posdestete y enfermedad de los edemas Genotypic characterization of toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhea (PWD and edema disease (ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A Moredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar mediante PCR 47 aislamientos de Escheríchia coli recuperados de 32 cerdos con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea posdestete (DPD y de 3 cerdos con enfermedad de los edemas (ED. Sobre 44 aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con DPD, 42 (95,5 % fueron caracterizados como E. coli enterotoxigénicos (ETEC y 2 (4,5 % como E. coli productores de toxina Shiga (STEC. Catorce aislamientos de ETEC (33,3 % fueron positivos para los genes estl/estlI/fedA. El genotipo más complejo fue eltA/estll/east1/faeG/aidA. Los aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con ED se clasificaron como STEC porcinos y fueron portadores de stxJaidA. Once aislamientos (25 % fueron portadores del gen que codifica la expresión de la adhesina AIDA-I. Sin embargo, en ningún aislamiento se detectaron los genes que codifican la expresión de las adhesinas F5, F6, F41, de intimina y de "Paa". La prevención de la DPD y de la ED podría realizarse mediante el desarrollo de vacunas que generen anticuerpos contra las adhesinas de las cepas de E. coli prevalentes en la Argentina.The purpose of this work was to characterize 47 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 32 pigs diagnosed with postweaning diarrhea and tree pigs with edema disease by PCR. Forty two (95.5 % of the strains isolated from diarrheic pigs were characterized as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and 2 (4.5 % as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Fourteen (33.3 % ETEC strains were positive for est/estll/fedA genes. The most complex genotype was eltA/estl/faeG/aidA. Strains isolated from pigs with ED were classified as porcine STEC and were stxjaidA carriers. Eleven (25 % strains carried the gene encoding adhesln protein AIDA-I. However, genes coding for F5, F6, F41, intimin and Paa were not detected. The development of vaccines generating antibodies against prevalent E. coli adhesins in Argentina could be useful for the prevention of PWD and ED.

  2. Viral Organization of Human Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Siwo, Geoffrey; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF) allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus. PMID:20827298

  3. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  4. Caracterização das áreas hemófagas da placenta bovina Characterization of hemophagous areas of the bovine placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M.M. Cazerta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A região específica da interface materno-fetal corresponde à zona arcada do placentônio ovino e caprino. Em pequenos ruminantes esta área é também caracterizada por sangue materno extravasado (áreas hemófagas. É possível que o ferro seja transferido para o feto por eritrofagocitose trofoblástica nestas áreas. Para investigar as áreas hemófagas na placenta bovina, foram analisados placentônios de 34 vacas zebuínas gestantes (dois a três, quatro a seis, sete a oito, e nove meses de prenhez. O material foi fixado com solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10% e paraformaldeído a 4%, em tampão fosfato, pH 7,4, 0,1M, sendo processado e corado para microscopia de luz e histoquímica. Os hematomas placentários foram observados entre o epitélio uterino e trofoblástico, a partir de três meses de prenhez. A presença de eritrócitos nas células trofoblásticas elucidou a eritrofago-citose. A reação histoquímica de Perl's permitiu provar a existência de ferro férrico no trofoblasto. A reação de PAS foi po-sitiva, marcando substância mucóide nas células epiteliais e, principalmente, nas células binucleadas do epitélio fetal. Baseando-se nas características histológicas e histoquímicas, inferimos que as áreas hemófagas são sítios importantes para a transferência de ferro na placenta bovina.The specific region of maternal fetal interface needs to be clarified and corresponds to the "arcade zone" of sheep and goat placentomes. In small ruminants that area is also characterized by macroscopic blood extravasation (hemophagous areas. This occurs possibly because the iron is transferred to the embryo by trophoblastic erytrophagocytosis in these hemophagous placental areas. In order to investigate the hemophagous placental areas in cattle, placentomes of 34 pregnant Bos indicus cows (2-3, 4-6, 7-8 and 9 months of gestation were analyzed. They were fixed by perfusion with 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and 4

  5. Viral Advertising: Branding Effects from Consumers’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...

  6. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  7. Repetibilidade de variáveis produtivas e qualitativas da forragem e da excreta bovina em pastagem de braquiária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Imbroisi Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a repetibilidade e o número de avaliações necessárias para se obter coeficiente de determinação superior a 90% em variáveis produtivas e qualitativas de forragem e de excreta bovina, em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Urochloa decumbens. As variáveis avaliadas foram: produção fecal, composição mineral das fezes e da forragem ao redor, biometria das fezes, massa e rejeição de forragem ao redor das fezes, volume urinário e composição mineral da urina. Utilizou-se lotação intermitente fixa, com três dias de ocupação e 32 ou 67 de descanso, nas épocas chuvosa e seca, respectivamente. As análises de repetibilidade foram obtidas pelo programa Genes, com o método dos componentes principais baseado na matriz de covariância. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade (r foram elevados, e os R² iguais ou superiores a 90%, exceto quanto à massa de forragem (20-40 cm, diferença de altura da forragem com fezes entre o pré e pós-pastejo e teor de N na urina, no tratamento com 3,2 unidades animais por hectare (r90%, seriam necessárias 11, 9 e 9 avaliações para as variáveis forragem, fezes e urina, respectivamente.

  8. Internacionalização de empresas russas no Brasil: configurações de transação para o fornecimento de carne bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Marini Thomé

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é um estudo exploratório, em que as variáveis estudadas têm natureza qualitativa. O objetivo é caracterizar como firmas russas atuantes no comércio de carne bovina internacionalizaram seus negócios em direção ao mercado produtor brasileiro. Com a aplicação de 14 entrevistas,chegou-se à construção de quatro configurações de transações que são realizadas por organizações russas no mercado brasileiro. A primeira configuração discutida é a que apresenta o maior número de organizações envolvidas, tem a vantagem de permitir alta especialização das mesmas e de possibilitar as transações com empresas atacadistas e varejistas russas por meio da internacionalização de terceiros (trading companies em negócios internacionais. Na segunda configuração, observa-se uma maior responsabilidade por parte da empresa atacadista russa, o que se deve ao fato de que esta categoriade organização conseguiu internalizar operações inicialmente atribuídas à trading company. A terceira configuração observada é uma situação transitória em que a trading company com habilitação para varejo russo toma a frente e é o elo entre a organização de varejo russo e a empresa frigorífica exportadora brasileira. A quarta configuração de transação mostrou-se muito eficiente, vez que permite uma grande integração de atividades, eliminando assim intermediários.

  9. Sistemas de terminação em confinamento: perspectivas para dinamização da cadeia produtiva da carne bovina em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Andrade Resende Filho

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A terminação de bovinos em confinamento vem-se apresentando como meio de expandir a oferta de carne bovina na entressafra, incrementando a produtividade do rebanho no estado de Minas Gerais. Este artigo se propõe a avaliar a viabilidade financeira de se intensificar a utilização da infra-estrutura disponivel para confinar, considerando a atual forma de comercialização. São contrastados três projetos de confinamento mutuamente exclusivos, considerando uma mesma instalação, épocas distintas de venda e o nivel de utilização da capacidade instalada. Utiliza-se a análise de fluxo de caixa associada à técnica de simulação de Monte Carlo, visando quantificar a rentabilidade e o risco associados a cada um dos projetos. Apesar da viabilidade financeira observada para a alternativa de intensificação do uso da capacidade instalada para confinar, não se verifica dominância estocástica desta em relação à estratégia de uso menos intensiva.The finishing of cattle in feedlots has been presented as a way to increase the beef meat supply in the inter-harvest as well as the cattle productivity in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This paper appraises the financial possibility of enhancing the use of the available feedlot infrastructure, considering the current commercialization form. Three mutually exclusive projects are contrasted, taking into account the same facilities, different months of sales and the level of use of the infrastructure. The cash flow analysis associated with the Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to quantify the projects' revenue and risk. Despite the financial viability observed in the intensive infrastructure use strategy, its stochastic dominance with respect to the less intensive strategy is not observed.

  10. Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil Impacto do aquecimento global no custo de produção de carne bovina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is affecting agribusiness in its economic aspects. Therefore, the prediction of the evolution of Brazilian beef cattle production cost was made using the IPCC forecast scenario for global warming. The methodology consisted of two steps: (i the development of a fuzzy model that estimated the grazing land capacity (RP decrease risk as a function of the changes in the average total rain index, air temperature and increase in extension of the dry season; and (ii the design of an algorithm for predicting the decrease in production as function of the RPfuzzy model, that results in the impact in beef cattle productivity, and consequent increase in production costs. Historical environmental data from important producing counties in the Cerrado were organized and a set of fuzzy Gaussian functions were developed, and three possible settings (optimistic, medium and pessimistic were considered. The decrease in beef cattle productivity was estimated using the losses in production due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity. The boundary settings for the total increase of production cost scenario used the number of animals per area of grazing land, the adoption of grain supplement and its future scenario; and the result output function pointed to a threshold within a variation from an increase in production cost of 80% (optimistic to 160% (pessimistic. Under the optimistic scenario the total cost of Brazilian beef cattle production in the Cerrado became near to US$ 2.88 kg-1, while in the pessimistic scenario this cost reached US$ 4.16 kg-1, challenging the international competitiveness of this economic segment.O aquecimento global afeta o agronegócio em seus aspectos econômicos. Foi feita previsão daevolução do custo de produção de carne bovina brasileira usando a predição de aquecimento global do IPCC. A metodologia consistiu de duas etapas: (i o desenvolvimento de modelo fuzzy que estimou o risco de

  11. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

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    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  12. Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil

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    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

  13. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  14. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  15. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  16. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

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    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  17. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

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    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  18. Viral marketing: the use of surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J.; Clarke, I.; Flaherty, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Viral marketing involves consumers passing along a company's marketing message to their friends, family, and colleagues. This chapter reviews viral marketing campaigns and argues that the emotion of surprise often is at work and that this mechanism resembles that of word-of-mouth marketing.

  19. Emerging Viral Diseases of Tomato Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Lapidot, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing

  20. Origins and challenges of viral dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Siddharth R; Wang, David

    2017-07-15

    The accurate classification of viral dark matter - metagenomic sequences that originate from viruses but do not align to any reference virus sequences - is one of the major obstacles in comprehensively defining the virome. Depending on the sample, viral dark matter can make up from anywhere between 40 and 90% of sequences. This review focuses on the specific nature of dark matter as it relates to viral sequences. We identify three factors that contribute to the existence of viral dark matter: the divergence and length of virus sequences, the limitations of alignment based classification, and limited representation of viruses in reference sequence databases. We then discuss current methods that have been developed to at least partially circumvent these limitations and thereby reduce the extent of viral dark matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. HIV Viral Load: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hivviralload.html HIV Viral Load To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an HIV Viral Load? An HIV viral load is a ...

  3. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

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    Saskia L Smits

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow rapid phylogenetic characterization of these new viruses. Often, however, complete viral genomes are not recovered, but rather several distinct contigs derived from a single entity, some of which have no sequence homology to any known proteins. De novo assembly of single viruses from a metagenome is challenging, not only because of the lack of a reference genome, but also because of intrapopulation variation and uneven or insufficient coverage. Here we explored different assembly algorithms, remote homology searches, genome-specific sequence motifs, k-mer frequency ranking, and coverage profile binning to detect and obtain viral target genomes from metagenomes. All methods were tested on 454-generated sequencing datasets containing three recently described RNA viruses with a relatively large genome which were divergent to previously known viruses from the viral families Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae. Depending on specific characteristics of the target virus and the metagenomic community, different assembly and in silico gap closure strategies were successful in obtaining near complete viral genomes.

  4. Modelagem matemática do controle de brucelose bovina por vacinação Mathematical modeling of bovine brucellosis control by vaccination

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    M. Amaku

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As fêmeas bovinas, por sua importância na transmissão e na manutenção da brucelose, constituíram o alvo dos inquéritos do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e da Tuberculose Animal. Com base em informações obtidas em unidades federativas onde foram realizados inquéritos sorológicos e observadas prevalências de animais acima de 2%, elaborou-se um modelo para simular a dinâmica da brucelose em rebanhos bovinos formados exclusivamente por fêmeas, analisando o efeito de estratégias de vacinação. Para baixa cobertura vacinal, da ordem de 30%, o tempo para reduzir a prevalência a 2%, valor adotado como referência, pode ser longo, aproximando-se do dobro do tempo necessário para uma cobertura mais alta, de 90%. De acordo com o modelo, o tempo para reduzir a prevalência a 1% ou 2%, que permitam passar à fase de erradicação, pode chegar a uma década. Recomenda-se a intensificação do esforço para a vacinação de fêmeas, procurando atingir alta cobertura vacinal.Due to the important role played by female bovines in the transmission and maintenance of brucellosis, they were the target of the serological surveys of the Brazilian National Program for the Control and Eradication of Bovine Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. Based on the information obtained in Brazilian states, where the serological surveys were carried out and prevalences higher than 2% were observed, a model to simulate the dynamics of brucellosis in herds of female bovines was developed to analyze the effects of vaccination strategies. For low vaccination coverage (around 30%, the time to reduce the prevalence to 2%, adopted as a reference, may be long, approximately twice as long as the time observed for a higher coverage (90%. According to the model, the time to reduce the prevalence to levels of 1% or 2%, adequate to start the eradication phase, may reach a decade. It is recommended an intensification of the effort to vaccinate females

  5. Respuesta estral y tasa de preñez en cabras en anestro estacional tratadas con progestágenos y somatotropina bovina

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    Margarita Martínez Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probó si la administración de la hormona del crecimiento bovino (bST durante el tratamiento para inducir la ovulación en cabras en anestro mejora la fertilidad. A 109 cabras adultas de 1 a 5 partos se les insertó una esponja intravaginal de acetato de fluorogestona (FGA durante 12 días. Al retirar la esponja todas las cabras recibieron 300 UI de gonadotropina coriónica equina (eCG. Cinco días antes de retirar el progestágeno, las cabras fueron asignadas al azar a dos grupos, 1 125 mg de bST vía subcutánea (n=53, 2 Testigo (n=56 sin bST. En siete cabras de cada grupo se determinaron las concentraciones de factor de crecimiento parecido a la insulina tipo I (IGF-I y de insulina diariamente a partir de la inyección de bST hasta el día 7 post estro. Una proporción mayor (P<0.05 de animales del grupo bST (73.5 % mostraron estro (testigo, 51.7 %. El porcentaje de concepción fue similar (P=0.12 entre grupos (bST, 82.0 % vs testigo, 65.5 %. La tasa de preñez fue mayor (P<0.01 en el grupo bST (60.3 % que en el testigo (33.9 %. La proporción de partos múltiples fue igual (P=0.9 entre los grupos (bST, 59 % vs testigo, 63 %. Las concentraciones de IGF-I e insulina fueron más altas (P<0.01 en el grupo bST. Se concluye que la administración de la hormona del crecimiento bovina durante el tratamiento para inducir la ovulación en cabras en anestro aumentó la proporción de animales en estro y la tasa de preñez.

  6. Tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba: estudo retrospectivo Bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba: retrospective survey

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    Salomão M. Figueiredo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a frequência de propriedades positivas (focos e de animais positivos para a tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba. Foram utilizados dados da Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado, coletados de suas 23 microrregiões, durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a julho de 2009. Durante esse período, foram examinadas 10.963 propriedades e 54.472 bovinos foram submetidos ao teste de tuberculinização. Para o diagnóstico foi utilizada, como prova de triagem, a tuberculinização cervical simples para gado de leite e a tuberculinização na prega caudal para gado de corte; como prova confirmatória foi utilizada a tuberculinização cervical comparativa. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das propriedades investigadas, 62 (0,57% apresentaram pelo menos um animal positivo e dos animais analisados, 136 (0,25% foram positivos. Houve diferença significativa (pThe aim of this study was to determine the frequency of positive herds (foci and positive animals for bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba, Northeast region of Brazil. Data from the Agency of Agricultural Protection in the state, collected from its 23 microregions, during the January 2008 to July 2009 period, were used. During this period, 10,963 herds were examined and 54,472 cattle were submitted to the tuberculin test. For diagnosis the cervical and caudal-fold tuberculin tests were used as screening tests in dairy and beef cattle, respectively; as confirmatory test, comparative cervical test was used. A herd was considered focus when presented at least one positive animal. Of the herds investigated, 62 (0.57% had at least one positive animal, and of the animals examined, 136 (0.25% were positive. There was significant difference (p<0.001 in the proportion of positivity for females (0.32% and males (0.04%. Despite low frequency of foci of brucellosis and seropositive animals, it is

  7. Listeria spp. occurrence in equipments and processing plants of meat/ Listeria spp. ocorrência em equipamentos e ambientes de processamento de carne bovina

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    Luís Augusto Nero

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides, biopolymers or hydrosolubles gums, are produced by a great variety of microorganisms and possess physical, structural and chemical properties quite homogeneous, in relation to derived from algae and plants. The production is relatively independent on climatic conditions, faster obtaining of the finished product and need small space. Biopolymers have been studied thoroughly in the last years. Due to wide diversity in structure and physical properties, the microbial polysaccharides possess a lot of applications in food, pharmaceutical, oil, cosmetics, textile, inks and agricultural products among others industries. Some of those applications, include uses as emulsifying, stabilizing, binding, jellifying, clotting, lubricants, film coated, thickening and suspender agents. The parameters that have most influenced the process of exopolysaccharides biosyntheses have been the microorganism, the culture medium composition, pH and temperature of incubation. The exopolysaccharide production can be developed by species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, some microalgae and many moulds. This work discusses the influence of these parameters during the production process and exopolysaccharides biosyntheses by bacteria.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estabelecer a ocorrência de Listeria monocytogenes em diversos pontos de plantas de processamento de carne bovina em 01 abatedouro e 05 casas de carnes localizados na região norte do Paraná. Para a detecção de Listeria spp. em 124 amostras de equipamentos/utensílios e instalações, utilizou-se a metodologia preconizada pelo United States Departament of Agriculture (USDA, com identificação das espécies por testes bioquímicos e posterior confirmação pelo API Listeria (bioMérieux. Os resultados obtidos indicaram freqüências de 6,25% de L. monocytogenes; 68,75% de L. innocua; 18,75% de L. welshimeri; 4,17% de L. seeligeri e 2,08% de L. grayi. As amostras positivas para L

  8. Prevalência e etiologia da mastite bovina na bacia leiteira de Rondon do Pará, estado do Pará

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    Carlos Magno C. Oliveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi pesquisar a prevalência e a etiologia da mastite bovina na bacia leiteira do município de Rondon do Pará, bem como avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade e resistência dos agentes isolados frente aos antimicrobianos. Foram avaliadas 237 vacas mestiças de aptidão leiteira, pertencentes a nove propriedades, as quais utilizavam ordenha manual uma vez ao dia e sistema de criação extensivo em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, com fornecimento de sal mineral e água ad libitum. Realizou-se o exame clínico da glândula mamária, o teste da caneca telada e o California Mastitis Test. Dos 935 quartos mamários avaliados, 6,6% apresentaram mastite subclínica, 1,3% mastite clínica e 92,1% foram negativos. As bactérias isoladas na mastite clínica foram Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo (25%, Staphylococcus aureus (16,7%, Streptococcus spp. (8,3% e Corynebacterium spp. (8,3%. Na mastite subclínica foram Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo (32,3%, Staphylococcus aureus (17,7%, Staphylococcus intermedius (1,6%, Streptococcus spp. (4,8%, Corynebacterium spp. (4,8% e Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo/S. aureus (1,6%. Não houve crescimento microbiano em 41,7% das amostras com mastite clínica e 37,1% com mastite subclínica. No antibiograma, 100% dos isolados de Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo, S. aureus, S. intermedius, e Streptococcus spp. foram sensíveis ao sulfazotrim. Por outro lado Corynebacterium spp. foi 100% resistente ao mesmo antimicrobiano. A cefalotina, cefoxitina e gentamicina, apresentaram eficácia frente às bactérias isoladas do gênero Staphylococcus spp., as quais neste trabalho representam a grande maioria dos agentes causadores de mastite. A mastite foi diagnosticada em todos os rebanhos pesquisados, contudo o número de animais acometidos foi considerado baixo; isso provavelmente deve-se à baixa produção de leite dos animais e a permanência do bezerro ao pé após a

  9. RELACIÓN ENTRE EL ESTADO SEROLÓGICO A LEUCOSIS BOVINA ENZOÓTICA Y PARÁMETROS REPRODUCTIVOS EN HATOS LECHEROS ESPECIALIZADOS DE COSTA RICA

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    Juan José Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal y analítico para determinar la relación entre el estado serológico al virus de la leucosis bovina enzoótica (VLBE y los parámetros reproductivos, en 26 fincas lecheras de Costa Rica usuarias del programa VAMPP Bovino. Se realizó un primer muestreo en 2006-2007 en animales mayores de 6 meses de edad; luego, en 2009, se realizó el segundo muestreo en las vacas seronegativas del 2006-2007. Se calculó la incidencia acumulada (IA global y por finca y, mediante Chi-cuadrado, se realizó la comparación de IA, según raza y número de lactancia. La relación entre el estado serológico al VLBV y el intervalo entre partos (IEP, servicios por concepción (SPC y días abiertos (DA por grupos de lactancia y raza, se determinó con la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis. La incidencia global fue de 21,8% (173/794, con 38,5% de las fincas con incidencias mayores al 40%. La tasa de seroconversión en vacas con 1-2 lactancias (23,5% fue diferente a la de ≥ 6 lactancias (p=0,03. Las medias raza Holstein x Jersey (H4J4 presentaron la mayor incidencia (33,3%, seguidas por las Holstein (27,1%. Según los finqueros, en las 26 fincas (100% se utilizaba una aguja y un guante de palpación por animal; sin embargo, el 53,8% mostraron incidencias superiores al 15%. En general, hubo tendencia a menores IEP en seronegativas con respecto a seropositivas y seroconvertidas, especialmente en seropositivas de 1-2 lactancias (p=0,017 y de 3-5 lactancias (p=0,038. Sin clasificar por número de lactancia o raza, las seropositivas y seroconvertidas necesitan más SPC (p=0,03; esta misma tendencia (no significativa, se observó en DA. Así, se pudo comprobar alguna relación entre el estado a VLBE y el IEP y SPC, no así con DA, aunque no hubo significancia estadística en algunas de las diferencias encontradas, al ser mejores los parámetros en las seronegativas.

  10. CANALES Y MÁRGENES DE COMERCIALIZACIÓN DE LECHE BOVINA EN LA PARROQUIA GUASAGANDA, CANTÓN LA MANÁ, COTOPAXI-ECUADOR

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    Emma Danielly Torres Navarrete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue proporcionar información sobre las características del mercadeo de leche bovina en la parroquia Guasaganda, cantón La Maná, provincia de Cotopaxi, Ecuador. La metodología consistió en la identificación de los canales de comercialización y establecimiento de los márgenes de comercialización en la zona. Se inició con la identificación del origen del producto, sus características, y la observación sistemática de todos los procesos que incluyeron cambios en su forma y propiedad hasta llegar al consumidor final. Se diseñó y aplicó una encuesta a los diferentes agentes que realizan funciones de comercialización; productores (P, acopiadores (A, industria pasteurizadora (IP y artesanal (IA y, detallistas (D. Se obtuvo el margen bruto de comercialización (MBC, margen neto de comercialización (MNC y la participación del productor (PDP. Además, se obtuvieron costos de producción y rentabilidad de un litro de leche a nivel de productores. Los resultados muestran la comercialización de tres productos: leche cruda, fluida y queso. Se determinaron dos canales de comercialización: el canal corto 40% de pequeños productores: productor-consumidor final y el canal convencional (100% de medianos y grandes productores y 60% de pequeños productores: productor-acopiador rural - industria pasteurizadora – detallista - consumidor final (leche fluida; productor - acopiador rural - industria artesanal de queso – detallista - consumidor final. Los márgenes obtenidos en la comercialización de leche fluida, en promedio, son: MBC (60%, PDP (40%, y MNC (38.7% y los márgenes en la comercialización de queso en promedio son: MBC (40.34%, PDP (59.66%, y MNC (29.8%.

  11. Neosporosis bovina: conceptos generales, inmunidad y perspectivas para la vacunación Bovine neosporosis: general concepts, immunity and perspectives for vaccination

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    D.P. Moore

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum es agente causal de aborto en bovinos de regiones ganaderas de todo el mundo. Su ciclo de vida es heteroxeno siendo el perro (Canis familiaris y el coyote (Canis latrans los hospedadores definitivos reconocidos hasta el presente. La infección transplacentaria es un eficiente mecanismo de transmisión de la enfermedad pero existe evidencia que demuestra la transmisión postnatal en los bovinos. Debido a las pérdidas económicas que causa la neosporosis, diversas técnicas diagnósticas han sido desarrolladas. La fisiopatología del aborto causado por N. caninum no ha sido completamente esclarecida. La modulación del sistema inmune por efecto de la preñez ocasiona un período de susceptibilidad al aborto por N. caninum. Aunque la resistencia al parásito ha sido asociada con una respuesta de linfocitos T tipo 1, dicha respuesta inmune es incompatible con una preñez exitosa. Sin embargo, los mecanismos inmunes presentes en animales crónicamente infectados protegen del aborto ante una segunda exposición al protozoo. La comprensión de esa respuesta inmune adquirida constituye un desafío para el desarrollo de inmunógenos. Este trabajo menciona conceptos generales de la neosporosis bovina haciendo énfasis en los mecanismos inmunes y las perspectivas para la vacunación.Neospora caninum causes abortions in cattle worldwide. The Neospora-cycle of life is heteroxenous. Dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans are the definitive hosts known at present. Although, transplacental infection is an efficiently mode of transmission in cattle; there are also experimental and field data that prove horizontal transmission. Several techniques are available for diagnosis since neosporosis is recognized as a disease that causes economic losses in cattle. The mechanisms that produce the abortion are not completely understood. The immunomodulation observed during the pregnancy, is associated with a susceptible period where Neospora

  12. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-04-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  13. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  14. Uso da terra como determinante da distribuição da raiva bovina em Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of the land as determinant of the distribution of the bovine rabies in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Silva

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo observacional retrospectivo com o objetivo de avaliar variáveis do uso da terra como determinante da distribuição da raiva bovina em Minas Gerais. Foram analisadas 7.526 fichas de diagnóstico de raiva por imunofluorescência direta, de 1976 a 1997. Utilizaram-se os dados dos Censos Agropecuários de Minas Gerais- FIBGE, anos de 1970, 1985 e 1995-1996. Empregou-se o método da análise fatorial de componentes principais, com auxílio do programa Minitab versão 9.0. A raiva bovina apresentou-se mais associada às lavouras permanentes e temporárias, às pastagens naturais e plantadas e ao efetivo bovino, e menos associada às matas naturais e plantadas, às lavouras em descanso e às terras produtivas não utilizadas. Concluiu-se que as transformações antrópicas no espaço agrário, especialmente no uso da terra, influenciaram de modo determinante a distribuição espacial e temporal da raiva bovina em Minas Gerais.A retrospective observational study was performed to evaluate variables of the use of the land to determine space and time distribution of bovine rabies in Minas Gerais State - Brazil, from 1976 to 1997. The analysis of 7526 records for bovine rabies diagnosis used direct immunofluorescence was performed. For analysis of the use of the land the data of the Agricultural Censuses of Minas Gerais - FIBGE, years of 1970, 1985 and 1995-1996 were studied. Factorial analysis of the main components, with the aid of the Minitab Program version 9.0, was used to investigate the behavior of rabies and variables of the use of the land. This disease was more associated to the permanent and temporary crops, natural and artificial pastures, and size of the bovine herds. On the other hand, it was less associated to the artificial and natural forests, resting crop areas or unused productive land. It was concluded that anthropics transformations in agrarian space, especially related to the use of the land had a determinant

  15. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  16. Perfil lipídico da gordura intramuscular de cortes e marcas comerciais de carne bovina Lipid profile of intramuscular fat in meat cattle cuts of commercial brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Pereira dos Santos Pinho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para caracterizar a gordura intramuscular dos cortes contrafilé, picanha e costela de seis marcas comerciais (A, B, C, D, E e F de carne bovina comercializadas no município de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em uma rede de hipermercados. As marcas A e B foram associadas a animais de raças britânicas, as marcas C e D de animais de raças européias produzidos em sistema convencional e orgânico, respectivamente, e provenientes do Uruguai e as marcas E e F de animais sem raça definida e sistema de alimentação não identificado, obtidas em um frigorífico regional e em uma rede de hipermercados, respectivamente. As amostras foram desossadas, moídas, embaladas a vácuo e armazenadas em temperatura de resfriamento até o momento das análises. Em cada amostra foram realizadas a extração dos lipídios e a identificação dos ácidos graxos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com arranjo fatorial 6 × 3 e os dados analisados pelo procedimento GLM do aplicativo computacional SAS. Não houve interação significativa entre cortes e marcas para o perfil lipídico dos cortes comerciais. O percentual lipídico foi de 0,95; 3,01 e 0,97% nos cortes contrafilé, costela e picanha, respectivamente. A costela apresentou maior percentual de ácidos graxos (AG saturados e maior estimativa da D9 desaturase a partir do C16:0 e C18:0. O maior percentual de C18:2 cis-9, trans 11, ácido linoleico conjugado, CLA, n-6 e n-3 foi encontrado na picanha. A marca F apresentou maior grau de saturação e a marca D, maior valor de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, relação poliinsaturados/saturados e trans18 e menor valor de ácidos graxos saturados. Houve interação significativa entre corte e marca para o conteúdo de CLA, sendo o maior conteúdo encontrado no contrafilé da marca F. As características da gordura intramuscular da carne bovina dependem do corte e da marca comercial

  17. Modern marketing approach: Concept of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Lidija B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, viral marketing is one of the most effective forms of marketing and it can be used to raise awareness about the product/service of a specific company. This type of marketing thrives in a modern environment, where final users (buyers/clients dominate by spreading messages within themselves. Boosted by the advantages that modern technology brings, viral marketing is booming in the online world. For the first time, small brands have a chance to make their appearance in the global market ad challenge the dominating position of the historically top brands. All they need is content that draws attention and modern, digital culture will help spread their message. Viral marketing is the future. And with the growth of social media and other channels, marketing managers need to be careful, because it is a thin line between a good and a bad (backfired viral campaign.

  18. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-31

    with subsequent seroconversion or susceptibility to illness in a naturally occurring outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis among American teen ... anorexia , myalgia and malaise. It can be severe, indeed fatal, in the elderly, infant, debilitated or malnourished pa- tient. Viral gastroenteritis

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  3. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  5. Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    flash frozen brain tissue. Hoechst and CFSE labeled cells are readily visualized in fresh CSF. The brightest staining is achieved with Hoechst and is...viral infection in the meninges is in part due to reduction of the effects of suppressor macrophages. The work is complicated by the fact that...therapeutic effect of viral infection in the meninges is in part due to reduction of the effects of suppressor macrophages. • We found that mice cured

  6. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  7. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  8. Viral Metagenomics: MetaView Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Smith, J

    2007-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to design and develop a tool for analysis of raw sequence read data from viral metagenomics experiments. The tool should compare read sequences of known viral nucleic acid sequence data and enable a user to attempt to determine, with some degree of confidence, what virus groups may be present in the sample. This project was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 we surveyed the literature and examined existing metagenomics tools to educate ourselves and to more precisely define the problem of analyzing raw read data from viral metagenomic experiments. In phase 2 we devised an approach and built a prototype code and database. This code takes viral metagenomic read data in fasta format as input and accesses all complete viral genomes from Kpath for sequence comparison. The system executes at the UNIX command line, producing output that is stored in an Oracle relational database. We provide here a description of the approach we came up with for handling un-assembled, short read data sets from viral metagenomics experiments. We include a discussion of the current MetaView code capabilities and additional functionality that we believe should be added, should additional funding be acquired to continue the work.

  9. O efeito país de origem na comercialização da carne bovina brasileira na Europa: um estudo com estudantes e funcionários de universidades europeias, importador europeu e exportadores brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda de Tavares Canto Guina

    2011-01-01

    Estudos têm demonstrado que idéias pré-estabelecidas e estereotipadas dos indivíduos com relação a países podem afetar suas atitudes em relação a produtos oriundos dessas nações. Tal fato é conhecido como efeito país de origem. Nesse contexto, vale destacar que apesar de o Brasil ter assumido nesta década a posição de maior exportador de carne bovina do mundo, seu papel de liderança nesse campo é criticado por muitos europeus, que acreditam que a pecuária brasileira é responsável por grande p...

  10. Fatores associados à percepção e atitude de consumidores de carne bovina com certificação de origem em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Marcos Aurélio; Maia, Érica Mariz; Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Custódio, Izadora Alvarenga; Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Faria, Peter Bittencout

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os fatores socioeconômicos relacionados com a decisão de compra de carne com certificação de origem, além de levantar os perfis de percepção e de atitude dos consumidores de carne bovina, em Uberlândia, MG. Foi realizada a descrição das variáveis e construído um modelo múltiplo Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) de regressão logística, para testar as possíveis associações entre as características socioeconômicas dos consumidores e os principais...

  11. Nuevos casos de coccidiosis bovina en León. Denuncia de Eimeria bovis (Züblin,1908) Fiebiger, 1912, E. auburnensis Christensen y Porter, 1939 y E. ellipsoidalis Becker y Frye, 1929

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero del Campillo, Miguel

    1981-01-01

    P. 61-72 Se estudian nuevos focos de coccidiosis bovina en la provincia de León. En la zona montañosa del NE, se identifica, nuevamente Eimeria zürni más Eimeria auburnensis. En las cercanías de la ciudad de León se comprobó la existencia de Eimeria bovis, Eimeria auburnensis y Eimeria ellipsoidalis. La máxima frecuencia corre a cargo de Eimeria zürni y Eimeria bovis, dotadas también de mayor poder patógeno. Los datos morfológicos de Eimeria zürni concuerdan con los estudiados por el autor...

  12. Avaliação da estabilidade e da qualidade do patê de presunto, adicionado de globina bovina e de caseinato de sódio, como agente emulsionante

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Janaína Guernica; Morais Harriman Aley; Junqueira Roberto Gonçalves; Oliveira Afonso de Liguori; Silvestre Marialice Pinto Coelho

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da incorporação das globinas bovina extraída pelo método da acetona acidificada (GT) e pelo da carboximetilcelulose (GCMC) e do caseinato de sódio (CA) sobre a composição química e as qualidades microbiológica e sensorial do patê de presunto. Foi, ainda, avaliada a estabilidade do produto durante os 45 dias de estocagem sob refrigeração, por meio das determinações de pH e do grau de oxidação lipídica. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, pôde-...

  13. Redes, alianças estratégicas e intercooperação: o caso da cadeia produtiva de carne bovina Networks, strategic alliances and cooperation: the case of production chain of beef meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Braga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho é discutir a formação de parcerias, redes e alianças estratégicas na cadeia de produção de carne bovina brasileira. É apresentada discussão acerca dos conceitos básicos de rede, alianças estratégicas e intercooperação. São analisados quatro casos, baseados na literatura existente. Finalmente, conclui-se apontando as razões de sucesso em uma aliança na cadeia analisada.The objective of this paper is to discuss the formation of partnerships, networks and strategic alliances in the production chain of Brazilian beef. The basic concepts of networks, strategic alliances and, cooperation are discussed. Four cases of alliances are analyzed, based on the existent literature. Finally, the work is finished pointing the success reasons in an alliance.

  14. Primeiro relato no Brasil de mastite necrótica bovina por Clostridium perfringens tipo A First report in Brazil of bovine necrotic mastitis due to Clostridium perfringens type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aramuni Gonçalves

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso no Brasil de mastite bovina por Clostridium perfringens tipo A. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por necrose da papila mamária e porção ventral do quarto afetado. O agente foi isolado em cultura pura e identificado como tipo A por PCR a partir do leite do quarto mamário afetado.This report describes a case of bovine mastitis due to Clostridium perfringens type A for first time in Brazil. The unical case showed necrosis of papilla mammary and ventral portion of the affected quarter. The microorganism was isolated in pure culture and identified as type A by PCR from milk of the affected mammary quarter.

  15. Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis on nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A V; Osipov, N V; Yashchenko, S V; Kokotukha, Yu A; Baron, I J; Puzyr, A P; Olkhovskiy, I A; Bondar, V S

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis B and C on modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) was shown in the in vitro experiments. PCR method showed the treatment of plasma with MNDs leads to a decrease in the viral load by 2-3 orders of magnitude or more in both cases studied. These results make it possible to predict the applicability of MNDs for the development of new technologies of hemodialysis and plasmapheresis for binding and removal of viral particles from the blood of infected patients.

  16. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    polishing by Karl Habel (a superb senior virologist who left the National Institutes of Health and came to Scripps), and the gifted postdoctoral fellows who joined my laboratory over four decades form the log of my scientific voyage. The strong friendships and collaborations developed with other young but growing experimentalists like Bernie Fields and Abner Notkins are the fabric of the tale I will weave and were pivotal in the establishment of viral pathogenesis as a discipline.

  17. A Utilização da Informação Contábil na Gestão da Pecuária Bovina de Corte: Uma Pesquisa Empírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisio Candido Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pecuária bovina de corte representa uma atividade econômica de grande importância para a economia nacional e, como qualquer entidade, sua administração necessita de informações confiáveis e úteis para a tomada de decisão. Dessa forma, este trabalho aborda qual o estágio de utilização das informações contábeis pelo gestor pecuarista de gado de corte na Região de Nova Andradina, MS, bem como os benefícios passíveis de serem obtidos com o uso freqüente das informações geradas pela Contabilidade por esses gestores. Assim, o artigo explana conceitos básicos da pecuária bovina de corte e aborda o mercado dessa atividade, visando introduzir o leitor no assunto e também situá-lo quanto ao cenário do negócio. Posteriormente são evidenciados conceitos sobre Contabilidade Pecuária, e apresentada uma pesquisa realizada junto aos escritórios de contabilidade numa cidade do Mato Grosso do Sul, buscando entender qual o grau de utilização da Contabilidade pelos pecuaristas, finalizando com a argumentação da contribuição da Contabilidade como ferramenta de apoio à gestão do negócio pecuária de corte, bem como para o agronegócio de forma geral, visto que a Contabilidade, por suas informações e controles é fundamental para o processo de crescimento e manutenção de qualquer atividade econômica.

  18. DESCRIÇÃO DE DUAS TÉCNICAS CIRÚRGICAS PARA CASTRAÇÃO DE FÊMEAS BOVINAS E AVALIAÇÃO DO PÓS-OPERATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Elias Rabelo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição de duas técnicas cirúrgicas de castração de fêmeas bovinas, com análise das complicações pós-operatórias, em que se utilizaram 1.232 animais de diferentes raças e idades, procedentes de várias propriedades rurais do estado de Goiás. Os bovinos foram alocados em três grupos, assim constituídos: grupo I – 436 bezerras, com idade entre oito e 12 meses, castradas via flanco; grupo II –397 novilhas e vacas, que foram esterilizadas pelo mesmo método do grupo I; grupo III – 399 vacas ovariectomizadas por via vaginal, utilizando-se o emasculador de Chassaignac.Em avaliação das técnicas cirúrgicas, concluiu-se que a castração pelo flanco foi o método de mais fácil execução e que demandou o menor tempo de transoperatório. A análise pelo teste c2 indicou que a cirurgia via vaginal implicou menos complicações pós-operatórias que a via flanco, porém levou a um maior número de óbitos. A castração via flanco é,– portanto, a técnica mais apropriada para a esterilização de fêmeas bovinas PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ovariectomia, bovinos, pós-operatório.

  19. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one of several ... each virus is spread in different ways. Are gay and bisexual men at risk for viral hepatitis? ...

  20. Postdiarrheal Shiga Toxin-Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Similar to Septic Shock Síndrome urémico hemolítico símil shock séptico, posterior a diarrea mediada por toxina shiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Valles

    2005-10-01

    enterohemorrágica que deviene en Síndrome Urémico Hemolítico (SUH. Se evaluó en forma prospectiva, entre 1999 y 2003, la respuesta a un tratamiento no convencional, en doce pacientes, edad 2.8 ± 0.6 años, que desarrollaron SUH con presencia de diarrea sanguinolenta (SUH D+ y evidencia serológica de toxina Shiga, los cuales en fase inicial presentaron parámetros hemodinámicos compatibles con shock séptico y compromiso neurológico grave. El protocolo incluyó transfusión de plasma fresco, pulsos de metilprednisolona (10mg/k/día por tres días consecutivos y plasmaféresis por cinco días, iniciados en las primeras 48 horas. Los doce pacientes ingresaron en terapia intensiva, presentando una puntuación de riesgo de mortalidad pediátrica (PRISM: 18 ± 2, con requerimiento de diálisis por 17.4 ± 4 días, asistencia ventilatoria mecánica por 10 ± 1días y soporte temprano con drogas inotrópicas por un período de 10.5 ± 1 días. La disfunción neurológica se presentó con convulsiones tónico-clónicas generalizadas por 5.4 ± 1 días en 8 pacientes y con convulsiones focalizadas en los restantes. Seis pacientes desarrollaron miocardiopatía dilatada y 8 presentaron colitis hemorrágica. Sobrevivieron a la etapa aguda de la enfermedad 9 pacientes. Al finalizar el primer año de seguimiento, dos de ellos presentaban secuelas neurológicas (escala de seguimiento de Glasgow; GOS 3 y 4 respectivamente y uno, fallo renal crónico. La introducción temprana de este protocolo podría beneficiar a pacientes con SUH D+ con inestabilidad hemodinámica grave y disfunción neurológica al inicio. Los mecanismos involucrados en esta temprana presentación clínica adversa de SUH D+ permanecen aún sin dilucidar.

  1. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  2. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

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    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    target organ of the immune  response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure.

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis.

    Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  3. Caracterização fenogenotípica da resistência antimicrobiana em Staphylococcus spp. isolados de mastite bovina

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    Elaine C.L. Mendonça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de antibióticos no controle das infecções intramamárias e na eliminação de prováveis fontes de infecção nas fazendas leiteiras se constitui em importante medida de controle. No entanto, o uso inadequado de antibióticos no tratamento da doença pode selecionar cepas resistentes e comprometer a eficiência do tratamento. Bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus spp. estão entre os principais agentes etiológicos da mastite bovina e são freqüentemente resistentes aos antimicrobianos, em especial aos beta-lactâmicos, principalmente por dois mecanismos distintos: a produção da enzima extracelular beta-lactamase, codificada pelo gene blaZ, e a produção de PBP2a ou PBP2´, uma proteína ligante de penicilina de baixa afinidade, codificada pelo gene mecA. A expressão do gene mecA é constitutiva ou induzida por antibióticos betalactâmicos, como a oxacilina e cefoxitina. O gene mecA está inserido no cromossomo através de um elemento genético móvel, denominado cassete estafilocócico cromossômico mec (SCCmec. O presente estudo avaliou o perfil fenogenotípico de resistência aos beta-lactâmicos em 250 isolados de Staphylococcus spp., utilizando os marcadores oxacilina e cefoxitina, de modo a produzir dados que possam contribuir para o conhecimento da resistência antimicrobiana em algumas propriedades leiteiras das regiões Sul-Fluminense e Metropolitana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro com o objetivo de subsidiar a implementação de medidas de controle dessa enfermidade. A avaliação da resistência foi feita a partir de 8 diferentes testes fenotípicos, sendo obtidos 54 perfis. Os testes de difusão em disco simples e ágar screen com oxacilina foram utilizados como "padrão ouro" para os cálculos dos valores de sensibilidade, especificidade e predição por serem preconizados pelo CLSI veterinário. O teste de difusão em disco simples com cefoxitina foi o de melhor desempenho na predição da resistência a

  4. Títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes induzidos por vacinas comerciais contra leptospirose bovina Agglutinating antibody titers induced by commercial vaccines against bovine leptospirosis

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    Gabriela de Godoy Cravo Arduino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, 100 fêmeas bovinas foram divididas em cinco grupos de 20 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam quatro diferentes vacinas comerciais (B, C, D e E, e um grupo permaneceu como controle. Amostras foram colhidas no dia da aplicação da primeira dose e nos dias 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 e 180 pós-vacinação (PV. A triagem dos animais foi feita pela análise sorológica com 6 antígenos de leptospiras, escolhendo-se os animais não reagentes. Os títulos de anticorpos foram monitorados pela soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM com os sorovares Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona e Wolffi. Todas as vacinas induziram, aos 3 dias PV, títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes para os sorovares Hardjo e Wolffi, que persistiram até o 150º dia PV. Os sorovares Hardjo e Wolffi induziram os maiores títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes. A vacina D, apesar de não possuir o sorovar Wolffi em sua composição foi capaz de induzir anticorpos aglutinantes contra este sorovar. Somente foram detectados anticorpos contra o sorovar Canicola nos animais vacinados com a bacterina D. A vacina que induziu os maiores títulos médios de anticorpos, considerando todos os sorovares testados foi a D.In the investigation 100 heifers were used, divided into 5 groups of 20 animals each. The four experimental groups were vaccinated using distinct commercial polyvalent bacterines: B, C, D and E, and A group was the control. Samples were collected at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 and 180 from the first injection of the vaccine. The selection of the animals for the experimental groups was done based on a serological screening with 6 antigens of Leptospira sp. constituted by non-reagent animals. The vaccine titers were monitored using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Wolffi

  5. Fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii Risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii

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    Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and

  6. Qualidade da carcaça bovina comercializada no município de Assunção, Paraíba

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    Josineide de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a qualidade da carcaça bovina comercializada no município de Assunção na região do Cariri paraibano, onde se verificou os fatores que influenciam a qualidade da carne, desde as condições antes, durante e depois do abate, bem como a comercialização, e a higiene-sanitária, através dos procedimentos metodológicos: entrevistas com os comerciantes, visitas aos abatedouros e pontos comerciais, além de análise microbiológica das carnes, fazendo a comparação da carne comercializada na feira livre e no açougue. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que vários motivos levam os consumidores a adquirir a carne nesses pontos comerciais, como forma de pagamento, preço, conhecimento da origem e abate do animal, qualidade, falta de opção, entre outros, havendo destaque para o preço na feira livre (29% e a forma de pagamento no açougue (27%. Na entrevista com os consumidores, a carne foi classificada como boa, regular e ruim; sendo que 60% dos consumidores (açougue e 42% (feira livre consideraram a qualidade da carne como boa; 40% (açougue e 42% (feira livre, a consideraram regular, e 17% (feira livre classificou a mesma como ruim. A análise microbiológica efetuada comprovou que todas as amostras coletadas encontraram altos índices de contaminação, estando muito acima do limite permitido pela legislação vigente no país para os parâmetros pesquisados, especialmente na feira livre, onde foram evidenciados os maiores índices de contaminação, principalmente pela presença de Salmonella spp. Comprovando que se faz necessário um maior controle de qualidade da carne comercializada em ambos os estabelecimentos.Quality of bovine carcass marketed in the municipality of Assunção, ParaíbaAbstract: This work aimed to study the bovine carcass quality marketed in the city of Assunção in the region of Cariri Paraíba, where it was found the factors that influence the quality of meat from the conditions before, during

  7. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY KINETICS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST CINÉTICA DA ATIVIDADE ANTIBACTERIANA IN VITRO DE EXTRATOS NATURAIS FRENTE A MICRORGANISMOS RELACIONADOS À MASTITE BOVINA

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    Letícia De Toni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to test antimicrobials activities by medicinal plants extracts against more important contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Disinfectants solutions was made from Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteracea, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteracea plants by hidroalcoholic extraction (EHA or decoction (DEC. S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and P. aeruginosa were used. To test for in vitro efficacy, each solution disinfectant was mixed with bacterial suspension containing 105 CFU.mL-1, by 30 seconds, two, 10 ant 30 minutes, with and without 20% of integral milk. Viable bacteria were evaluated by directed plating of neutralized aliquots. The worked included chlorhexidine 0,18% by control and it was executed in duplicate. EHA Eucalytpus spp and EHA T. minuta were as effective as control chlorhexidine against S. aureus. This solutions plus EHA B. trimera, were as effective as control against S. agalactiae. DEC Eucalyptus and DEC B. trimera also inactivated S. agalactiae in more prolongated time. Chlorhexidine was the best against P. multocida in milk absence, although the EHA were effective at ten or thirty minutes. All solutions, inclusive control, it was sensibility to organic load. The observations from the in vitro studies presented here need to be substantiated by in vivo studies by to confirm the potentiality use of plants medicinal extracts as disinfectants/antisepsis in livestock health. O presente trabalho busca avaliar a cinética da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas medicinais frente a bactérias relacionadas com mastite bovina. Para tal, foram produzidas soluções desinfetantes a partir de folhas e talos de Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteraceae, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteraceae, através de extração hidroalcoólica (EHA e decocto (DEC. Os microrganismos utilizados foram S. aureus, S

  8. PCR em tempo real para diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina Enzootic bovine leukosis real time PCR

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    Natanael Lamas Dias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a validação de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real com o sistema Plexor® (qPCR para o diagnóstico da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB, por meio da comparação com testes de diagnóstico recomendados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde Animal (OIE. A qPCR foi comparada com duas outras técnicas: a PCR nested (nPCR e a imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA. Das 82 amostras analisadas pela qPCR e nPCR, 79 apresentaram resultados concordantes, sendo a concordância, classificada pelo Índice Kappa, como alta. Entre as PCRs e a IDGA, o número de resultados concordantes foi de 71 e 69, respectivamente, para qPCR e nPCR, sendo a concordância classificada como considerável. A qPCR apresentou altos valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. Os valores preditivos da qPCR observados demonstraram a alta capacidade de classificação dos casos positivos e negativos. A qPCR não foi capaz de detectar três amostras positivas e tem custo ligeiramente superior que a nPCR. Entretanto, a qPCR é uma técnica mais rápida, menos susceptível a contaminações, tem alta sensibilidade, não utiliza e não gera resíduos carcinogênicos. Concluímos que a qPCR pode substituir a nPCR recomendada pela OIE no diagnóstico de rotina em áreas em que a LEB é endêmica, como no Brasil.The goal of this research was to validate a Plexor® real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR for Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL diagnosis by comparison with methods recommend by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE. The qPCR was compared with two other techniques: the nested PCR (nPCR and to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID. Of 82 qPCR and nPCR analysed samples, 79 presented concordant results, being the concordance classified by Kappa Index as high. Between the PCRs and AGID, the number of concordant results was 71 and 69, out of 82, to qPCR and nPCR, respectively, being the concordance classified as considerable, in both

  9. Fatores de virulência em linhagens de Escherichia coli isoladas de mastite bovina Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    M.G. Ribeiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fatores de virulência e do sorotipo O157:H7 em 120 linhagens de Escherichia coli, isoladas de 80 casos de mastite clínica bovina e 40 de mastite subclínica. Verificou-se alfa-hemolisina em oito (6,7% linhagens, isoladas de cinco casos de mastite clínica e três de mastite subclínica e em nenhuma das estirpes detectou-se enteroemolisina. A presença de sideróforos foi encontrada em 11 (9,2% linhagens, sete de mastite clínica e quatro de subclínica. Em duas (1,7% estirpes isoladas de mastite subclínica, identificou-se enterotoxina STa. Observou-se efeito citopático em células vero compatível com a produção de verotoxina-VT em cinco (4,2% linhagens, duas de mastite clínica e três subclínicas. Em uma (0,8% linhagem isolada de mastite clínica, detectou-se efeito citopático compatível com o fator necrosante citotóxico. Nenhuma estirpe apresentou-se sorbitol-negativa no MacConkey-sorbitol, tampouco aglutinou com o sorotipo O157:H7. Os antimicrobianos mais efetivos foram polimixina B (97,5% e norfloxacina (95,8%. Observou-se multi-resistência a dois ou mais antimicrobianos em 24 (20% estirpes, principalmente com o uso de ampicilina e ceftiofur.The occurrence of different virulence factors and O157:H7 serotype investigation in 120 Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical (80 cases and subclinical (40 cases bovine mastitis was evaluated. Alpha-haemolysin was detected in 8 (6.7% strains (5 clinical and 3 subclinical cases. None strain showed enterohaemolysin production. E. coli growth under iron restriction conditions (siderophores production was observed in 11 (9.2% strains (7 clinical and 4 subclinical cases. STa enterotoxin was detected in 2 (1.7% strains from subclinical cases. Cytotoxic effect in vero cells compatible with verotoxin-VT production was observed in 5 (4.2% strains (2 clinical and 3 subclinical cases. One strain (0.8% isolated from clinical mastitis showed cytophatic effect in vero

  10. Situação epidemiológica da brucelose bovina no Estado de Sergipe Epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in the State of Sergipe, Brazil

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    V.G.S.O. Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo para caracterizar a situação epidemiológica da brucelose bovina no Estado de Sergipe. O Estado foi estratificado em dois circuitos produtores. Em cada circuito produtor foram amostradas aleatoriamente cerca de 300 propriedades e, dentro dessas foi escolhido de forma aleatória um número pré-estabelecido de animais, dos quais foi obtida uma amostra de sangue. No total foram amostrados 4.757 animais, provenientes de 590 propriedades. Em cada propriedade amostrada foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico para verificar o tipo de exploração da propriedade e as práticas zootécnicas e sanitárias que poderiam estar associadas ao risco de infecção pela doença. O protocolo de testes utilizado foi o da triagem com o teste do antígeno acidificado tamponado e a confirmação dos positivos com o teste do 2-mercaptoetanol. O rebanho foi considerado positivo, se pelo menos um animal foi reagente às duas provas sorológicas. A prevalência de focos e a de animais foram: 12,6% [9,2-16,0%] e 3,4% [2,3-4,4%], respectivamente. As prevalências de focos e de animais infectados para os circuitos pecuários foram: circuito 1, 11,1% [7,9-15,0%] e 2,6% [1,6-3,5%]; circuito 2, 12,9% [9,1-17,6%] e 6,2% [3,0-9,5%]. Os fatores de risco (odds ratio, OR associados à condição de foco foram: assistência veterinária (OR= 2,89 [1,15-7,23], tamanho do rebanho ≥30 fêmeas adultas (OR= 1,88 [1,07-3,28] e uso de inseminação artificial (OR= 1,92 [0,84-4,38].A study to characterize the epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in the State of Sergipe was carried out. The State was divided in two regions. Around three hundred herds were randomly sampled in each region and a pre-established number of animals were sampled in each of these herds. A total of 4,757 serum samples from 590 herds were collected. In each herd, it was applied an epidemiological questionnaire focused on herd traits as well as husbandry and sanitary practices

  11. View and review on viral oncology research

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    Parolin Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, almost one and a half million cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in the US and nearly 560,000 Americans are expected to die of cancer in the current year, more than 1,500 people a day (data from the American Cancer Society at http://www.cancer.org/. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, roughly 20% of all cancers worldwide results from chronic infections; in particular, up to 15% of human cancers is characterized by a viral aetiology with higher incidence in Developing Countries. The link between viruses and cancer was one of the pivotal discoveries in cancer research during the past Century. Indeed, the infectious nature of specific tumors has important implications in terms of their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be vigorous, with new significant and original studies on viral oncogenesis and translational research from basic virology to treatment of cancer. This review will cover different viral oncology aspects, starting from the history of viral oncology and moving to the peculiar features of oncogenic RNA and DNA viruses, with a special focus on human pathogens.

  12. Molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy

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    Dana Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have made their mark on the cancer world as a potential therapeutic option, with the possible advantages of reduced side effects and strengthened treatment efficacy due to higher tumor selectivity. Results have been so promising, that oncolytic viral treatments have now been approved for clinical trials in several countries. However, clinical studies may benefit from the ability to noninvasively and serially identify sites of viral targeting via molecular imaging in order to provide safety, efficacy, and toxicity information. Furthermore, molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy may provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic technique to detect tumor origin and, more importantly, presence of metastases. Several strategies have been investigated for molecular imaging of viral replication broadly categorized into optical and deep tissue imaging, utilizing several reporter genes encoding for fluorescence proteins, conditional enzymes, and membrane protein and transporters. Various imaging methods facilitate molecular imaging, including computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, gamma-scintigraphy, and photoacoustic imaging. In addition, several molecular probes are used for medical imaging, which act as targeting moieties or signaling agents. This review will explore the preclinical and clinical use of in vivo molecular imaging of replication-competent oncolytic viral therapy.

  13. Pediatric Viral Exanthema: A Review Article

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    Mohammed Jafar Saffar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Many diseases caused by viral agents are associated with fever and cutaneous manifestations. Viral exanthema is a widespread nonspecific skin rash, commonly characterized by generalized eruption of erythematous macules and papular lesions. Although these rashes are mostly benign and self-limited, some may be serious and life-threatening. Differentiation between severe and benign types is clinically important and life-saving. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, electronic databases, including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed (including Medline, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, and Scopus, were searched. We conducted a narrative review of papers published on pediatric viral exanthema during 2000 - 2016. The used keywords included “viral exanthema”, “fever”, and “skin rash”. Articles on skin rash, caused by drug reactions or nonviral exanthema, were excluded. Results Different viral agents can cause different types of skin reactions. Cutaneous manifestations and skin rashes can be categorized, based on the form of the rash (macular, papular, vesicular, blistery, petechial, and purpuric or the general term, which denotes illnesses such as measles-like morbilliform rash, rubella or rubelliform rash, and scarlatiniform rash, a scarlet-fever like infection. Conclusions Based on the findings, a systematic approach relying on accurate history-taking and analysis of epidemiological cues and rash characteristics is of great significance.

  14. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  15. CT images of infantile viral encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Tateo; Okazaki, Hitoshi; Woo, Man

    1985-01-01

    Cranial CT scanning was undertaken in 40 patients with infantile viral encephalitis seen from 1977 to 1983. According to the pathogenic viruses, abnormal CT findings were detected most frequently in cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), followed by non-eruptive viral encephalitis, measles encephalitis, and rubella encephalitis in that order, which coincided well with neurological prognosis. Although CT findings lay within a normal range in cases of measles encephalitis, except a case in which cerebral ventricle was slightly dilated, the degree of consciousness disturbance was unfavorable and it persisted long. This revealed that there is no distinct correlation between the degree of consciousness disturbance and CT findings. Normal CT findings were detected in 13% of patients aged less than 5 years and 76.5% of patients aged 5 years or more. In many patients who had an attack of viral encephalitis at the age of 5 years or more, epileptic seizures occurred frequently, even though CT findings were normal. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes

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    Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs, which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-12-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  19. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  20. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Gojobori, Takashi; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  1. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  2. Importance of viral diseases in irradiated persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.; Jebavy, L.; Merka, V.; Horacek, J.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed aimed at establishing the incidence of some viral diseases in radiation syndrome patients and the significance of the diseases for prognosis. In the study, 77 patients with syndromologically identical acute hematological forms of radiation sickness, mainly leukemic patients suffering from severe blood formation suppression and/or hematoblastosis were examined for concurrent herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus infections. Active viruses were isolated in almost 30% of the patients; nearly 90% of the patients were serologically positive, shedding antibodies. The findings thus confirmed the view that viral disease, especially in immunocompromised patients, has a critical effect on the survival of radiation sickness sufferers. (L.O.). 12 refs

  3. Viral pneumonias: Typical and atypical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westhoff-Bleck, M.; Bleck, J.S.; Schirg, E.

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and radiological features of viral pneumonias are summarized and discussed. Although viral infections of the lung belong to atypical pneumonias they demonstrate not always the radiographic pattern of an interstitial pneumonia. Characteristic radiographic findings are quite rare. In most cases the microbial etiology cannot be predicted from chest radiographs. The appearance varies depending on the virulence of the organism and the resistence of the host. In this regard knowledge of epidemiological data as well as patients condition and underlying disease is of utmost importance. Differentiation between community- and hospital-acquired infection may be very helpful. (orig.) [de

  4. Viral gastroenteritis in daily pediatric practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracmarova, R.; Plisek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is one of the most common causes of an acute examination and hospitalisation of a child. Portion of a viral etiology of intestinal diseases is increasing in connection with an improvement of social and economical conditions. The most common viral agents are rotaviruses, caliciviruses, adenoviruses and astroviruses, but also other viruses cause an intestinal disease. The most severe clinical course is expected from the rotaviral and noroviral infection. The dehydratation, which could be less or more severe, often complicated the infection. The treatment is symptomatic. The most important role for the prevention of rotavirus disease is played by the vaccination. (author)

  5. UGGT1 enhances enterovirus 71 pathogenicity by promoting viral RNA synthesis and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Nien Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71 utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1, a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood. Using EVA71 as a model, this study found that host UGGT1 and viral 3D polymerase co-precipitate along with other factors on membranous replication complexes to enhance viral replication. Increased UGGT1 levels elevated viral growth rates, while viral pathogenicity was observed to be lower in heterozygous knockout mice (Uggt1 +/- mice. These findings provide important insight on the role of UPR and host UGGT1 in regulating RNA virus replication and pathogenicity.

  6. ViralORFeome: an integrated database to generate a versatile collection of viral ORFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, J; Tafforeau, L; Lucas-Hourani, M; Navratil, V; Meyniel, L; Achaz, G; Guironnet-Paquet, A; Aublin-Gex, A; Caignard, G; Cassonnet, P; Chaboud, A; Chantier, T; Deloire, A; Demeret, C; Le Breton, M; Neveu, G; Jacotot, L; Vaglio, P; Delmotte, S; Gautier, C; Combet, C; Deleage, G; Favre, M; Tangy, F; Jacob, Y; Andre, P; Lotteau, V; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Vidalain, P O

    2010-01-01

    Large collections of protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) established in a versatile recombination-based cloning system have been instrumental to study protein functions in high-throughput assays. Such 'ORFeome' resources have been developed for several organisms but in virology, plasmid collections covering a significant fraction of the virosphere are still needed. In this perspective, we present ViralORFeome 1.0 (http://www.viralorfeome.com), an open-access database and management system that provides an integrated set of bioinformatic tools to clone viral ORFs in the Gateway(R) system. ViralORFeome provides a convenient interface to navigate through virus genome sequences, to design ORF-specific cloning primers, to validate the sequence of generated constructs and to browse established collections of virus ORFs. Most importantly, ViralORFeome has been designed to manage all possible variants or mutants of a given ORF so that the cloning procedure can be applied to any emerging virus strain. A subset of plasmid constructs generated with ViralORFeome platform has been tested with success for heterologous protein expression in different expression systems at proteome scale. ViralORFeome should provide our community with a framework to establish a large collection of virus ORF clones, an instrumental resource to determine functions, activities and binding partners of viral proteins.

  7. Good Friends, Bad News - Affect and Virality in Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Arvidsson, Adam; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2011-01-01

    The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. The basic measure of virality in Twitter is the prob......The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. The basic measure of virality in Twitter...

  8. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  9. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial oceanography: Viral strategies at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingstad, T. Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    The finding that marine environments with high levels of host microbes have fewer viruses per host than when host abundance is low challenges a theory on the relative roles of lysogenic and lytic viral-survival strategies. See Article p.466

  11. Viral immune evasion: a masterpiece of evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Mireille T. M.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cécilia; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Coexistence of viruses and their hosts imposes an evolutionary pressure on both the virus and the host immune system. On the one hand, the host has developed an immune system able to attack viruses and virally infected cells, whereas on the other hand, viruses have developed an array of immune

  12. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  13. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...

  14. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  15. Viral Hepatitis and Thrombosis: A Narrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multicausal disease. Among minor risk factors, acute infections in general are associated with a transient increased risk of VTE. However, acute hepatitis is usually not reported as a potential risk factor for VTE. Recent studies suggest a possible role of viral

  16. The laboratory diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    defined level and is thus indicative of recent infection as IgM anti-HBc may persist in low titres for a prolonged period. SAMJ. ARTICLES. Detection of HBeAg in the serum is important in the clinical evaluation of a patient with HBV infection as it usually correlates with viral replication, active liver damage and infectivity.3 ...

  17. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.

  18. KSHV Rta promoter specification and viral reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens whose biological success depends upon replication and packaging of viral genomes, and transmission of progeny viruses to new hosts. The biological success of herpesviruses is enhanced by their ability to reproduce their genomes without producing progeny viruses or killing the host cells, a process called latency. Latency permits a herpesvirus to remain undetected in its animal host for decades while maintaining the potential to reactivate, or switch, to a productive life cycle when host conditions are conducive to generating viral progeny. Direct interactions between many host and viral molecules are implicated in controlling herpesviral reactivation, suggesting complex biological networks that control the decision. One viral protein that is necessary and sufficient to switch latent KSHV into the lytic infection cycle is called K-Rta. Rta is a transcriptional activator that specifies promoters by binding direct DNA directly and interacting with cellular proteins. Among these cellular proteins, binding of K-Rta to RBP-Jk is essential for viral reactivation.. In contrast to the canonical model for Notch signaling, RBP-Jk is not uniformly and constitutively bound to the latent KSHV genome, but rather is recruited to DNA by interactions with K-Rta. Stimulation of RBP-Jk DNA binding requires high affinity binding of Rta to repetitive and palindromic CANT DNA repeats in promoters, and formation of ternary complexes with RBP-Jk. However, while K-Rta expression is necessary for initiating KSHV reactivation, K-Rta’s role as the switch is inefficient. Many factors modulate K-Rta’s function, suggesting that KSHV reactivation can be significantly regulated post-Rta expression and challenging the notion that herpesviral reactivation is bistable. This review analyzes rapidly evolving research on KSHV K-Rta to consider the role of K-Rta promoter specification in regulating the progression of KSHV reactivation.

  19. Emergência de Haematobia irritans em fezes bovinas no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro Emergence of Haematobia irritans in cattle dung pats in Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Marques de Macedo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a emergência de Haematobia irritans em fezes de bovinos mantidas a campo e em laboratório, além de observar a presença de outros dípteros associados às massas fecais. Foram utilizados dois grupos de fezes bovinas, um à campo e outro em laboratório, sendo cada grupo formado por cinco bolos fecais frescos de tamanho mediano (cerca de 30 cm de diâmetro, aparência opaca, cor esverdeada, presença de fina crosta externa e consistência firme. As fezes foram cobertas com gaiolas de emergência de formato piramidal, apresentando na parte superior um orifício onde foi acoplado um frasco removível; a substituição das fezes foi realizada quinzenalmente. Foram coletados um total de 355 espécimens de H. irritans, sendo 151 provenientes das gaiolas mantidas no campo e 204 em laboratório. Estas diferenças deveram-se provavelmente à menores oscilações de temperatura verificadas no laboratório do que àquelas ocorridas no campo, além da ação de artrópodes predadores, competidores e parasitóides que, provavelmente, interferiram na emergência de H. irritans nas fezes bovinas mantidas no campo. Foi observado maior número de fêmeas em comparação com machos em ambas as condições investigadas. Além de H. irritans, obteve-se outros dípteros associados às fezes bovinas, pertencentes as seguintes famílias: Aulacigastridae, Muscidae, Psychodidae, Sarcophagidae, Sepsidae, Tachinidae e Ulidiidae. Sepsidae foi a mais abundante, com 5.224 exemplares do total de 8.928 dípteros obtidos, seguida por Sarcophagidae com 2.235 espécimens coletados, Muscidae com 1.357, Aulacigastridae com 54, Psychodidae com 46, Ulidiidae com 6 e Tachinidae com 5 exemplares.This study was carried out in order to investigate the emergence of adult flies of Haematobia irritans in cattle dung maintained in the field and in the laboratory, as well as other flies associated with dung pats. Two groups of cattle dung were

  20. Contagious Content: Viral Video Ads Identification of Content Characteristics that Help Online Video Advertisements Go Viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yentl Knossenburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do some online video advertisements go viral while others remain unnoticed? What kind of video content keeps the viewer interested and motivated to share? Many companies have realized the need to innovate their marketing strategies and have embraced the newest ways of using technology, as the Internet, to their advantage as in the example of virality. Yet few marketers actually understand how, and academic literature on this topic is still in development. This study investigated which content characteristics distinguish successful from non-successful online viral video advertisements by analyzing 641 cases using Structural Equation Modeling. Results show that Engagement and Surprise are two main content characteristics that significantly increase the chance of online video advertisements to go viral.  

  1. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  2. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Zahir; Abulfaraj, Aala A.; Idris, Ali; Ali, Shawkat; Tashkandi, Manal; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2015-01-01

    These data establish the efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for viral interference in plants, thereby extending the utility of this technology and opening the possibility of producing plants resistant to multiple viral infections.

  3. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Call for ...

  4. Disposição dos consumidores porto-alegrenses à compra de carne bovina com certificação Willingness of consumers from Porto Alegre county, Rio Grande do Sul state, for purchasing beef meat with certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Velho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o perfil de consumidores de carne bovina e determinou-se o consumo de carne com certificação visando obter dados sobre a importância e o valor da certificação da carne na hora da compra. Avaliou-se ainda o conhecimento do consumidor de carne bovina quanto à certificação da carne e quanto esse consumidor paga por este processo. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma rede de supermercados, mediante a aplicação de questionários dirigidos às pessoas próximas aos balcões com carne, independentemente da espécie animal. Os consumidores exigem alimentos com qualidade e certificados confiáveis que demonstrem e garantam a qualidade dos alimentos, porém, estão dispostos a pagar somente um pouco a mais pela certificação, em comparação ao valor atual de mercado, provavelmente pelo fato de sua renda mensal não permitir maior valorização desse atributo.The profile of beef meat consumers was analyzed, as well as the consumption of certificated meat, with the objective of obtaining data on the importance the of certification value at the purchasing occasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beef meat consumers awareness regarding the meat certification and how much they are willing to pay for this process. The data survey was carried out in only one supermarket chain from the city of Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, which authorized the research interviewing people through questionnaires, close to refrigerator counters of any meat species. It was observed that consumers are demanding for food with quality attributes, with trustful certifications that testify these quality attributes. However, the data obtained from interviews with consumers showed that they are willing to pay only little more for certification than the current price, probably due to the fact that their average monthly income ranges from one to six minimum wages.

  5. Screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis Screening de plantas medicinais com atividade antimicrobiana contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa A. N. Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of bovine mastitis. The activity of several extracts from ten medicinal plants traditionally used in Brazil as antiseptic was investigated against fifteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis manifestation by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution assay. The interference of the extracts on cell in the form of adherent colonies was also evaluated. MIC values ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC were between 0.25 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL. Results revealed the potential of extracts of Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus and Baccharis dracunculifolia as antibacterial agents against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis and support the possible use of these phytotherapic agents in the clinical management of the disease.Staphylococcus aureus é o principal agente causador de mastite bovina. A atividade de diversos extratos de dez plantas medicinais tradicionalmente usadas no Brasil como anti-sépticas foi investigada contra quinze cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de animais com manifestação de mastite pelo método de difusão em ágar e ensaio de microdiluição. A interferência dos extratos na célula bacteriana em forma de colônias aderidas também foi avaliada. Os valores de MIC variaram de 0.5 mg/mL a 1.0 mg/mL e a concentração inibitória de biofilme (BIC variou de 0.25 mg/mL a 0.8 mg/mL. Os resultados revelaram o potencial dos extratos de Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus e Baccharis dracunculifolia como agentes antibacterianos contra cepas de S. aureus isolados de mastite bovina e suportam o possível uso destas plantas no manejo clínico da doença.

  6. Proliferação de linfócitos e apoptose de células CD5+ de bovinos infectados pelo vírus da leucose enzoótica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a proliferação de linfócitos e a apoptose de células CD5+ de bovinos naturalmente infectados pelo vírus da leucose enzoótica bovina. Para tal, 100 vacas da raça Holandesa, em lactação, foram triadas quanto ao sorodiagnóstico para a leucose enzoótica bovina e o perfil hematológico, e 15 foram escolhidos e distribuídos uniformemente entre os três grupos, a saber: animais negativos, animais positivos alinfocitóticos e animais positivos e que manifestaram linfocitose persistente (LP. Para a avaliação da proliferação de linfócitos, procedeu-se ao isolamento das células mononucleares por gradiente de centrifugação, em que 2x10(6 linfócitos por mL foram plaqueados por poço e analisados por citometria de fluxo utilizando-se o fluorocromo CFSE-DA. A apoptose do sangue periférico deu-se utilizando a anexina V-FITC, e para a identificação das células CD5+, utilizaram-se anticorpos monoclonais. Ocorreu menor proliferação de linfócitos nos animais infectados e que manifestavam LP, e menor apoptose de células CD5+ do sangue periférico. Pode-se sugerir que o desenvolvimento da LP, resultante do aumento de linfócitos B, deve-se à redução do processo apoptótico das células CD5+, principal população infectada, e que a maior proliferação linfocitária pode se restringir apenas ao estádio inicial do desenvolvimento da LP.

  7. Virale commercials: de consument als marketeer. Onderzoek naar de redenen waarom consumenten virale commercials doorsturen: hun motieven, de inhoudskenmerken van viral commercials en de mediumcontext waarin virale commercials verschijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  8. Viral subversion of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, L.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The continuous interactions between host and viruses during their co-evolution have shaped not only the immune system but also the countermeasures used by viruses. Studies in the last decade have described the diverse arrays of pathways and molecular targets that are used by viruses to elude immune detection or destruction, or both. These include targeting of pathways for major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigen presentation, natural killer cell recognition, apoptosis, cytokine signalling, and complement activation. This paper provides an overview of the viral immune-evasion mechanisms described to date. It highlights the contribution of this field to our understanding of the immune system, and the importance of understanding this aspect of the biology of viral infection to develop efficacious and safe vaccines. (author)

  9. ASTHMA AND VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most common pathogens of acute respiratory diseases — most often causing mild symptoms of common cold: cough, runny nose, temperature increases. At the same time, 1/3 of children have the following symptoms of lower respiratory tract disorders: shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, respiratory failure. Virus-induced wheezing are risk factors for development of asthma in childhood. Recent clinical and scientific data suggest: the more difficult are viral respiratory infections in young children, the higher their risk of asthma later on. Another feature is that children with allergic diseases are much more likely to have viral respiratory infections(and with longer clinical course, compared with children without atopy. The use of ibuprofen is safe for children over 3 months, including suffering from bronchial asthma.

  10. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, M; Lorenzon, G; Mesaglio, S

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed.

  11. Annotation of selection strengths in viral genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCauley, Stephen; de Groot, Saskia; Mailund, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Viral genomes tend to code in overlapping reading frames to maximize information content. This may result in atypical codon bias and particular evolutionary constraints. Due to the fast mutation rate of viruses, there is additional strong evidence for varying selection between intra......- and intergenomic regions. The presence of multiple coding regions complicates the concept of Ka/Ks ratio, and thus begs for an alternative approach when investigating selection strengths. Building on the paper by McCauley & Hein (2006), we develop a method for annotating a viral genome coding in overlapping...... may thus achieve an annotation both of coding regions as well as selection strengths, allowing us to investigate different selection patterns and hypotheses. Results: We illustrate our method by applying it to a multiple alignment of four HIV2 sequences, as well as four Hepatitis B sequences. We...

  12. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, M.; Lorenzon, G.; Mesaglio, S.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed

  13. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A; Williams, P L; Wagner, M; Colston, B W

    2008-06-26

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and for several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.

  14. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global issues related to enteric viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselberger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral gastroenteritis is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with high annual mortality, particularly in children of developing countries. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses are the main causes. Accurate diagnoses are possible by recently developed molecular techniques. In many setups, zoonotic transmission is an important epidemiological factor. Treatment consists of rehydration and is otherwise symptomatic. The worldwide introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination of infants has significantly reduced rotavirus disease and mortality.

  16. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  17. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyo...

  18. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  19. Biological species in the viral world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Ochman, Howard

    2018-06-05

    Due to their dependence on cellular organisms for metabolism and replication, viruses are typically named and assigned to species according to their genome structure and the original host that they infect. But because viruses often infect multiple hosts and the numbers of distinct lineages within a host can be vast, their delineation into species is often dictated by arbitrary sequence thresholds, which are highly inconsistent across lineages. Here we apply an approach to determine the boundaries of viral species based on the detection of gene flow within populations, thereby defining viral species according to the biological species concept (BSC). Despite the potential for gene transfer between highly divergent genomes, viruses, like the cellular organisms they infect, assort into reproductively isolated groups and can be organized into biological species. This approach revealed that BSC-defined viral species are often congruent with the taxonomic partitioning based on shared gene contents and host tropism, and that bacteriophages can similarly be classified in biological species. These results open the possibility to use a single, universal definition of species that is applicable across cellular and acellular lifeforms.

  20. Calidad de carnes bovinas. Aspectos nutritivos y organolépticos relacionados con sistemas de alimentación y prácticas de elaboración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Teira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas extensivos de alimentación ofrecen carnes bovinas con características físicas, químicas y nutritivas que presentan una mayor diferenciación con aquellas obtenidas bajo sistemas intensivos cuanto mayor resulta el período de terminación en confinamiento. En algunos aspectos como el color de la grasa, terneza, insaturación lipídica y velocidad de crecimiento, las dietas basadas en granos, altamente energéticas, resultan muy interesantes. Sin embargo, aparecen también algunos problemas que deberían ser considerados, tales como eventuales alteraciones organolépticas, disminución de su vida útil, menor concentración en isómeros del ácido linoleico conjugado y una mayor relación de ácidos grasos n6/n3. Además, la no aplicación o aplicación incorrecta de procedimientos tecnológicos por la industria frigorífica pueden conducir al desmejoramiento y aumento en la variabilidad de los atributos más apreciados por el consumidor. Éste debería disponer de información en relación al tipo de carne que adquiere y cómo debería ser preparada para obtener la máxima satisfacción.

  1. Role of viral coinfections in asthma development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Garcia-Garcia

    Full Text Available Viral respiratory infections, especially acute bronchiolitis, play a key role in the development of asthma in childhood. However, most studies have focused on respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infections and none of them have compared the long-term evolution of single versus double or multiple viral infections.Our aim was to compare the frequency of asthma development at 6-8 years in children with previous admission for bronchiolitis associated with single versus double or multiple viral infection.A cross-sectional study was performed in 244 children currently aged 6-8 years, previously admitted due to bronchiolitis between September 2008 and December 2011. A structured clinical interview and the ISAAC questionnaire for asthma symptoms for 6-7-year-old children, were answered by parents by telephone. Specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate for virological study (polymerase chain reaction and clinical data were prospectively taken during admission for bronchiolitis.Median current age at follow-up was 7.3 years (IQR: 6.7-8.1. The rate of recurrent wheezing was 82.7% in the coinfection group and 69.7% in the single-infection group, p = 0.06. The number of wheezing-related admissions was twice as high in coinfections than in single infections, p = 0.004. Regarding the ISAAC questionnaire, 30.8% of coinfections versus 15% of single infections, p = 0.01, presented "wheezing in the last 12 months", data that strongly correlate with current prevalence of asthma. "Dry cough at night" was also reported more frequently in coinfections than in single infections, p = 0.02. The strongest independent risk factors for asthma at 6-8 years of age were: age > 9 months at admission for bronchiolitis (OR: 3.484; CI95%: 1.459-8.317, p:0.005, allergic rhinitis (OR: 5.910; 95%CI: 2.622-13.318, p<0.001, and viral coinfection-bronchiolitis (OR: 3.374; CI95%: 1.542-7.386, p:0.01.Asthma at 6-8 years is more frequent and severe in those children previously hospitalized

  2. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  3. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil Inquérito epidemiológico sobre o complexo teníase-cisticercose bovina no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais

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    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; pApesar da importância do complexo teníase-cisticercose bovina para a saúde pública, animal e para a economia, a realidade epidemiológica da ocorrência dessas zoonoses no Brasil é pouco conhecida. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o perfil epidemiológico desta zoonose na zona rural do município de Viçosa, MG. A prevalência encontrada de cisticercose bovina foi de 0,42%, e nenhum caso de teníase humana foi diagnosticado. Foi verificada presença de fatores favoráveis a manutenção dessa zoonose, como fornecimento de água sem tratar aos animais, criação de animais destinados ao abate sem inspeção sanitária, criação de bovinos com baixa adoção de tecnologia, e utilização de água sem tratamento. O consumo de carne bovina oriunda da propriedade e da cidade foi caracterizado como variável de risco (OR=16,77; p<0,05 para a cisticercose bovina. Apesar disso, as famílias das propriedades pesquisadas possuíam hábitos favoráveis como medida de controle para o desenvolvimento desta parasitose, como a quase ausência de esgoto a céu aberto e a ingestão de carne bovina bem passada. A

  4. VIRAL ETIOLOGY OF RECURRENT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

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    H. S. Ibishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recurrent urinary tract infection is an actual problem of modern urology.Objective. Complex investigation of urinary tract infections including viral etiology for chronic recurrent cystitis in womenMaterials and methods. The study included 31 women with recurrent infection of urinary tract. Inclusion criteria were the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms caused by infection, severe recurrent course, the lack of anatomical and functional disorders of the urinary tract, the absence of bacterial pathogens during the study, taking into account the culture of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques.Results. The analysis of the clinical manifestations, the dominant in the study group were pain and urgency to urinate at 100% and 90% of women surveyed, respectively, and less frequent urination were recorded in 16.1% of patients. In general clinical examination of urine in all cases identified leukocyturia and 90% of the hematuria. By using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR in midstream urine of all examined was verified 10 types of human papilloma virus (HPV with the predominance of 16 and 18 types . Considering the presence of recurrent infectious and inflammatory processes of the urinary tract, cystoscopy with bladder biopsy was performed for all patients. When histomorphological biopsies of all patients surveyed noted the presence of the specific characteristics of HPV: papillary hyperplasia with squamous koilocytosis, pale cytoplasm and shrunken kernels. When analyzing the results of PCR biopsy data corresponded with the results of PCR in midstream urine in all biopsies was detected HPV.Conclusions. Human papillomavirus infection may be involved in the development of viral cystitis. In the etiological structure of viral cystitis, both highly oncogenic and low oncogenic HPV types can act.

  5. Zoonotic Viral Deseases and Virus Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel

    Viruses are the most abundant organisms on earth and are ubiquitous in all environments where life is present. They are capable of infecting all cellular forms of life, sometimes causing disease in the infected host. This thesis is broadly divided into two main sections with three projects...... program of wildlife, and with the purpose of preventing the next disease emerging from these animals. Numerous viruses were detected of which many were novel variants, thus reaffirming the notion that attention should be focused at these animals. Near-complete viral genome sequencing was performed...

  6. Flavonoids: promising natural compounds against viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Arabyan, Erik; Oo, Adrian; Zandi, Keivan

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed as secondary metabolites produced by plants and play important roles in plant physiology, having a variety of potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Different flavonoids have been investigated for their potential antiviral activities and several of them exhibited significant antiviral properties in in vitro and even in vivo studies. This review summarizes the evidence for antiviral activity of different flavonoids, highlighting, where investigated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action on viruses. We also present future perspectives on therapeutic applications of flavonoids against viral infections.

  7. [Decimeter-wave physiotherapy in viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kents, V V; Mavrodiĭ, V M

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness was evaluated of magnetotherapy, inductothermy, UNF electric field and electromagnetic waves of decimetric wave band (460 MHz) on the projection of the liver, adrenals and thyroid gland in controlled trials enrolling a total of 835 patients with viral hepatitis (type A, B, associated forms). A conclusion is reached that optimum effectiveness of decimetric field on the projection of the adrenals and thyroid gland can be achieved through the application of minimum power and everyday alternation of exposures. It has been estimated that as many as 69 percent of the patients derive benefit from the above treatment.

  8. Content Recommendation for Viral Social Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Sergei; Theocharidis, Konstantinos; Terrovitis, Manolis

    2017-01-01

    How do we create content that will become viral in a whole network after we share it with friends or followers? Significant research activity has been dedicated to the problem of strategically selecting a seed set of initial adopters so as to maximize a meme’s spread in a network. This line of work...... assumes that the success of such a campaign depends solely on the choice of a tunable seed set of adopters, while the way users perceive the propagated meme is fixed. Yet, in many real-world settings, the opposite holds: a meme’s propagation depends on users’ perceptions of its tunable characteristics...

  9. Diarréia aguda em crianças menores de um ano: subsídios para o delineamento do cuidar Diarrea aguda en niños menores de un año: subsidios para el delineamiento del cuidado Acute diarrhea in lesser Children of one year: subsidies for the delineation of taking care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Vieira Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo quantitativo observacional descritivo, teve como fonte de dados o inquérito epidemiológico, para determinar as razões da elevada prevalência de doenças diarréicas agudas em menores de um ano em Ananindeua, Pará. A amostra foi constituída pelas famílias cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família. Constatou-se que os fatores sócio-econômico-culturais influenciaram na ocorrência de diarréia, pois quanto menores a idade da mãe e a escolaridade maior a prevalência da doença. Esta população vive em área de ocupação, sem saneamento básico, com lixo e dejetos a céu aberto, estando abaixo da linha de pobreza. Quanto ao desmame precoce, observou-se introdução de água e chás nos primeiros 15 dias e de leite artificial no primeiro mês, havendo resistência para utilizar soro oral. Realizavam tratamento caseiro. Conclui-se que, além da reversão dos fatores estruturais, é necessário incluir questões culturais, educativas para uma política pública de cuidar.El estudio es cuantitativo del tipo observacional descriptivo tuvo como fuente de datos la pesquisa epidemiológica, para determinar las razones del elevado predominio de enfermedades diarreicas agudas en menores de un año en Ananindeua, Pará. La muestra fue constituida por las familias registradas en el Programa Salud de la Familia. Los factores socioeconómicos y culturales determinaron la presencia de diarrea, ya que cuanto menor la edad de la madre y la escolaridad mayor fue el predominio de diarrea. Esta población vive en área de ocupación, sin saneamiento básico, con basura y desechos al aire libre, estando abajo de la línea de pobreza. En cuanto a la precoz suspensión de amamantar, se observa la introducción de agua, en los primeros 15 días y leche artificial en el primer mes, teniendo resistencia para utilizar el suero oral y tratamientos llevados por los vigilantes. Se concluye que además de reversión de los factores estructurales, es necesario

  10. Escherichia coli enteroagregativa como agente provocador de diarreia persistente: modelo experimental utilizando microscopia óptica de luz Escherichia coli enteroagregativa como agente provocador de diarrea persistente: modelo experimental utilizando microscopia óptica de luz Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a cause of persistent diarrhea: an experimental model using light microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Alves B. de Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar interações de amostras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa com tecido intestinal humano, a fim de documentar potenciais alterações em diferentes regiões do trato digestivo. MÉTODOS: Amostras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa isoladas das fezes de crianças com diarreia persistente e a amostra protótipo 042, isolada de uma criança com diarreia em Lima, no Peru (controle positivo, foram analisadas por microscopia óptica de luz após semeadura em cultura de orgão in vitro de fragmentos de mucosa ileal e colônica. Foram analisadas as interações entre as diferentes cepas de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa e as mucosas ileal e colônica. RESULTADOS: A análise por microscopia óptica de luz indicou associação destes micro-organismos com o epitélio, provocando alterações. As cepas estudadas aderiram a ambas as regiões avaliadas (intestino delgado distal e grosso e causaram alterações, especialmente naquelas áreas onde interagiram diretamente com o epitélio. No íleo, algumas regiões mostraram internalização secundária. CONCLUSÕES: Esses agentes podem causar diarreia persistente por meio de alterações no intestino delgado, no qual ocorrem as funções digestivo-absortivas. As lesões inflamatórias descritas na mucosa colônica poderiam explicar a colite mostrada em algumas crianças infectadas por Escherichia coli enteroagregativa.OBJETIVO: Evaluar interacciones de muestras de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC con tejido intestinal humano, a fin de documentar potenciales alteraciones en distintas regiones del tracto digestivo (intestino delgado distal e intestino grueso y definir, con eso, su rol en la persistencia del proceso diarreico. MÉTODOS: Muestras de EAEC aislada de las heces de niños con diarrea persistente y la muestra prototipo 042, aislada de un niño con diarrea en Lima, Perú (control positivo fueron analizadas por microscopía óptica de luz (ML después de siembra en cultura

  11. Persistent viral infections and immune aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stefan; Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2011-07-01

    Immunosenescence comprises a set of dynamic changes occurring to both, the innate as well as the adaptive immune system that accompany human aging and result in complex manifestations of still poorly defined deficiencies in the elderly population. One of the most prominent alterations during aging is the continuous involution of the thymus gland which is almost complete by the age of 50. Consequently, the output of naïve T cells is greatly diminished in elderly individuals which puts pressure on homeostatic forces to maintain a steady T cell pool for most of adulthood. In a great proportion of the human population, this fragile balance is challenged by persistent viral infections, especially Cytomegalovirus (CMV), that oblige certain T cell clones to monoclonally expand repeatedly over a lifetime which then occupy space within the T cell pool. Eventually, these inflated memory T cell clones become exhausted and their extensive accumulation accelerates the age-dependent decline of the diversity of the T cell pool. As a consequence, infectious diseases are more frequent and severe in elderly persons and immunological protection following vaccination is reduced. This review therefore aims to shed light on how various types of persistent viral infections, especially CMV, influence the aging of the immune system and highlight potential measures to prevent the age-related decline in immune function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Viral encephalitis virus, a new bioterrorist menace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaudeau, Sophie; Micol, Romain; Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

    2005-01-29

    Often responsible for little known infections, today viral encephalitis viruses appear as a new bioterrorist menace, because of their easy production and their great pathogenic potential. Spraying is the best way to permit the rapid diffusion of certain encephalitis viruses. Diagnosis of viral encephalitis, predominating in tropical surroundings, is difficult. In the majority of cases, symptoms differ little from those of common flu. With supplementary examinations, the biological abnormalities are usually non-specific. There are no characteristic images on scans or MRI. Identification of the virus in the nasopharynx, blood or cerebrospinal fluid, in serology, PCR or RT-PCR permits confirmation of the virus. Treatment is essentially symptomatic and relies on appropriate reanimation measures. Ribavirin can be indicated in some cases such as the Rift Valley fever, but is formally contraindicated in West Nile encephalitis. The aim of terrorist groups who would use this type of weapon is more to provoke panic and disorganisation than to kill as many people as possible.

  13. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Katzourakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  14. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James; Kurath, Gael; Batts, William

    2007-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is considered to be one of the most important viral pathogens of finfish and is listed as reportable by many nations and international organizations (Office International des Epizooties 2006). Prior to 1988, VHSV was thought to be limited to Europe (Wolf 1988; Smail 1999). Subsequently, it was shown that the virus is endemic among many marine and anadromous fish species in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005). Genetic analysis reveals that isolates of VHSV can be divided into four genotypes that generally correlate with geographic location with the North American isolates generally falling into VHSV Genotype IV (Snow et al. 2004). In 2005-2006, reports from the Great Lakes region indicated that wild fish had experienced disease or, in some cases, very large die-offs from VHSV (Elsayed et al. 2006, Lumsden et al. 2007). The new strain from the Great Lakes, now identified as VHSV Genotype IVb, appears most closely related to isolates of VHSV from mortalities that occurred during 2000-2004 in rivers and near-shore areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada (Gagne et al. 2007). The type IVb isolate found in the Great Lakes region is the only strain outside of Europe that has been associated with significant mortality in freshwater species.

  15. Viral asthma: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Menendez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger Menendez1, Michael D Goldman21Allergy and Asthma Center of El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Pulmonary Division, UCLA Gaffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The natural history of asthma appears to be driven primarily by the timing and duration of viral respiratory infections. From the very high rate of infections in childhood, to the more sporadic pattern seen in adults, the cycle of acute injury followed by an inefficient repair process helps explain the clinical patterns of asthma severity currently recognized by asthma guidelines. Why the asthmatic host responds to viral injury in a particular way is largely a mystery and the subject of intense investigation. The role of viruses in asthma extends not just to intermittent but to persistent disease, and to both the atopic as well as nonatopic phenotypes. Future therapeutic strategies should include primary prevention via the development of antiviral innate immunity-enhancing vaccines, as well as secondary prevention via the use of antiviral agents, or immunomodulators designed to boost the antiviral response or interrupt the proinflammatory cascade.Keywords: asthma, rhinoviruses, exacerbations, epidemiology, phenotypes, clinical trials

  16. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  17. Modified E-test by the addition of EDTA-Tris and dimethyl sulfoxide on the potentiation of the effects of some antimicrobials in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bovine mastitis E-test modificado pela adição de Tris-EDTA e dimetilsulfóxido na potencialização do efeito de antimicrobianos em linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Ribeiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A concentração inibitória mínima-MIC em 30 estirpes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina foi avaliada utilizando o E-test padrão e o método modificado, pela adição de Tris-EDTA e DMSO. Os métodos modificados apresentaram redução significativa da MIC das estirpes utilizando a gentamicina, a ciprofloxacina e a norfloxacina.

  18. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara W. Bird

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed. The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference.

  19. APOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolution of viruses and their hosts has reached a fragile and dynamic equilibrium that allows viral persistence, replication and transmission. In response, infected hosts have developed strategies of defense that counteract the deleterious effects of viral infections. In particular, single-strand DNA editing by Apolipoprotein B Editing Catalytic subunits proteins 3 (APOBEC3s is a well-conserved mechanism of mammalian innate immunity that mutates and inactivates viral genomes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of APOBEC3 editing during viral replication, the viral strategies that prevent APOBEC3 activity and the consequences of APOBEC3 modulation on viral fitness and host genome integrity. Understanding the mechanisms involved reveals new prospects for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Sensitive detection of viral transcripts in human tumor transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Eric Schelhorn

    Full Text Available In excess of 12% of human cancer incidents have a viral cofactor. Epidemiological studies of idiopathic human cancers indicate that additional tumor viruses remain to be discovered. Recent advances in sequencing technology have enabled systematic screenings of human tumor transcriptomes for viral transcripts. However, technical problems such as low abundances of viral transcripts in large volumes of sequencing data, viral sequence divergence, and homology between viral and human factors significantly confound identification of tumor viruses. We have developed a novel computational approach for detecting viral transcripts in human cancers that takes the aforementioned confounding factors into account and is applicable to a wide variety of viruses and tumors. We apply the approach to conducting the first systematic search for viruses in neuroblastoma, the most common cancer in infancy. The diverse clinical progression of this disease as well as related epidemiological and virological findings are highly suggestive of a pathogenic cofactor. However, a viral etiology of neuroblastoma is currently contested. We mapped 14 transcriptomes of neuroblastoma as well as positive and negative controls to the human and all known viral genomes in order to detect both known and unknown viruses. Analysis of controls, comparisons with related methods, and statistical estimates demonstrate the high sensitivity of our approach. Detailed investigation of putative viral transcripts within neuroblastoma samples did not provide evidence for the existence of any known human viruses. Likewise, de-novo assembly and analysis of chimeric transcripts did not result in expression signatures associated with novel human pathogens. While confounding factors such as sample dilution or viral clearance in progressed tumors may mask viral cofactors in the data, in principle, this is rendered less likely by the high sensitivity of our approach and the number of biological replicates

  1. Viral Vectors for Use in the Development of Biodefense Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John S; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Parker, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    .... DNA vectors, live-attenuated viruses and bacteria, recombinant proteins combined with adjuvant, and viral- or bacterial-vectored vaccines have been developed as countermeasures against many potential...

  2. Polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis Reação em cadeia da polimerase para o diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.M. Groff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a common venereal disease of cattle; the prevalence of this disease can be underestimated mostly because of the nature of the etiological agent, the microaerobic Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the utilization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of genital campylobacteriosis in samples obtained from bull prepuce aspirate, cow cervical mucus, and abomasum contents of aborted fetuses, collected into enrichment medium. Five different DNA extraction protocols were tested: thermal extraction, lysis with proteinase K, lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate, lysis with DNAzol, and lysis with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. The specificity, sensitivity, and technical application of the PCR assay were also evaluated with clinical samples and compared to bacterial isolation by standard culture. DNA extraction by the CTAB protocol provided better results in PCR, and it was able to detect 63 colony-forming units per ml of C. fetus. Out of 277 clinical samples tested, 68 (24% were positive for Campylobacter fetus using PCR, while only 8 (2.8% of the samples were positive by bacterial isolation in solid medium, proving the superiority of the PCR technique when compared to the standard isolation method, and providing evidence for its usefulness as a better screening test in cattle for the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis.Campilobacteriose genital bovina é uma doença venérea comum em bovinos. A prevalência desta doença pode ser subestimada na maioria das vezes pela natureza microaeróbica do agente etiológico, Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis. O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização da reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR no diagnóstico de campilobacteriose genital em amostras obtidas de aspirado prepucial de touros, muco cervical de vacas e conteúdo abomasal de fetos abortados, coletados em

  3. Caracterização química e funcional do caseinato de sódio e da globina bovina Chemical and functional characterization of sodium caseinate and bovine globin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Guernica SILVA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando à aplicação industrial de proteínas do sangue bovino, foram testadas duas metodologias de extração da globina. Determinou-se, também, a composição química dessa proteína e o efeito da adição de NaCl sobre algumas propriedades fun-cionais, sendo os resultados obtidos comparados com os do caseinato de sódio comercial. O método de extração pela acetona acidificada apresentou maiores rendimentos e recuperação protéica do que o da carboximetilcelulose, entretanto, devido à presença de resíduos de solventes orgânicos na proteína obtida, seu uso não é recomendável em alimentos. Observaram-se, ainda, diferenças entre as composições químicas da globina bovina em função do procedimento de extração utilizado. Na avaliação das propriedades funcionais das proteínas, a adição de sal exerceu efeitos variados, tendo sido verificada uma redução da solubilidade da globina bovina, da capacidade emulsionante (EC e do índice de atividade emulsionante (EAI, sendo essa mais acentuada na concentração salina próxima à dos produtos cárneos (0,25mol/L. Para o caseinato de sódio, esse nível de sal prejudicou todas as propriedades funcionais estudadas, exceto a estabilidade da emulsão (ES. Por outro lado, o emprego de uma concentração de NaCl 10 vezes menor contribuiu para melhorar o EAI e a ES.With the aim of finding an industrial utilization for proteins from bovine blood, two methodologies for globin extraction were tested. Also, the chemical composition of this protein and the effect of the addition of NaCl on some functional properties were evaluated. The results were compared to those obtained for commercial sodium caseinate. The extraction method using acidified acetone showed a better yield and protein recuperation when compared to the carboxymethyl cellulose method. However, the former is not recommended for food use, due to the presence of organic solvent residues in the protein. Moreover, the

  4. Farinha de linhaça dourada como substituto de gordura animal em hambúrguer de carne bovina com redução de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Francielly De Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores costumam associar os produtos cárneos processados a uma imagem negativa em função dos teores de gordura saturada, sódio e aditivos químicos que apresentam. O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a influência da adição de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada (Linum usitatissimum L. como substituto de gordura suína e da utilização de sal com teor reduzido de sódio nas características físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais de hambúrgueres de carne bovina. Visando tornar o hambúrguer mais saudável, seis formulações foram desenvolvidas mudando as concentrações de sal light e de farinha de linhaça. Os resultados demonstraram que a adição de 10,0% de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada em substituição a 100,0% do toucinho contribuiu para o aumento (p < 0,05 do teor de proteínas. A adição de 5,0% de farinha de linhaça dourada em substituição a 50,0% do toucinho refletiu em boas notas para todos os atributos sensoriais avaliados. Houve aumento (p < 0,05 dos percentuais de ômega-3 e cinzas, e redução (p < 0,05 dos lipídios totais e valor calórico, independente dos níveis de adição da farinha. A substituição de toucinho por farinha de semente de linhaça contribuiu para o menor encolhimento e melhor rendimento, bem como para maior retenção de umidade e de gordura dos hambúrgueres. O sal light não interferiu negativamente nas características microbiológicas dos hambúrgueres e quando associado com a adição de 5,0% de farinha de linhaça contribuiu para melhor (p < 0,05 sabor e aroma. Os resultados sugeriram que a adição de 5,0% de farinha de semente de linhaça dourada como substituto de 50,0% da gordura suína, bem como a redução de 60,1% do sódio em hambúrgueres de carne bovina, se caracterizou alternativa viável do ponto de vista nutricional e sensorial, contribuindo ainda para o maior rendimento do produto após o cozimento.

  5. Implementation of a Molecular System for Traceability of Beef Based on Microsatellite Markers Implementación de un Sistema de Trazabilidad Molecular para la Carne Bovina Basado en Marcadores Microsatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Felmer D

    2008-12-01

    consumidores de países desarrollados. La aplicación práctica de un sistema de trazabilidad de la carne bovina basado en marcadores moleculares, requiere la elección de microsatélites y optimizar los métodos de muestreo y análisis de ADN. En este trabajo se implementó un sistema de trazabilidad de carne bovina basado en un panel de 10 marcadores microsatélites. Se evaluaron diferentes muestras biológicas como pelo, sangre, tejido y carne de la canal, encontrándose que las muestras de pelo fueron las más idóneas por su facilidad de obtención, manipulación y costo de almacenamiento, mientras que la carne de la canal fue la contramuestra más adecuada, pudiendo obtenerse fácilmente en el frigorífico. El sistema se evaluó en una planta de procesamiento de carne, confirmando con un 100% de certeza la trazabilidad de 150 muestras de pelo con sus respectivas canales, demostrando la confiabilidad del método desarrollado. El sistema evaluado puede ser un importante aporte al sector pecuario del país pues permite garantizar el origen de los productos bovinos y puede ser utilizado como herramienta certificadora de la trazabilidad convencional, aumentando la competitividad y generando mayor confianza en el consumidor.

  6. Comparación de la técnica de Dennis con los hallazgos hepáticos post - mortem para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Alvarez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio hace una comparación entre los resultados de la técnica de Dennis para diagnóstico de Fasciolosis bovina, frente a hallazgos post mortem, en hígados de bovinos faenados en la empresa Matadero de Tunja. Es un estudio experimental descriptivo, por cuanto expone los hallazgos en matadero frente a los arrojados por el método de Dennis. La población total de bovinos adultos fue de 2800, de los cuales se tomó una muestra de 139 animales. El muestreo se llevó a cabo durante el mes de febrero del año 2009. Los resultados indican que la técnica de Dennis no es lo suficientemente sensible para el diagnóstico de Fasciola hepática, por lo que se debe evaluar su uso rutinario.La técnica coprológica se fundamenta en el principio de sedimentación delos huevos, por lo tanto depende la salida de éstos en la materia fecal, lo que la hace poco efectiva para la detección del parásito. La razón de este estudiose sustenta en que la enfermedad se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la región y en el país. Su diagnóstico se realiza rutinariamente mediante técnicas coprológicas aplicadas a los animales en los que se sospecha la enfermedad.

  7. Eliminação de resistência a drogas por fluorquinolonas em Staphylococcus aureus de origem bovina Elimination of resistance to drugs by fluoroquinolones in bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S.V. Pereira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cepas de Staphylococcus aureus de origem bovina foram submetidas ao tratamento com quatro fluoquinolonas na concentração subinibitória (1/2 x CMI, para avaliar a influência desses agentes sobre plasmídios. A ciprofloxacina mostrou ser a fluorquinolona mais eficiente, eliminando marcas de resistência para estreptomicina, tetraciclina, penicilina e cádmio. A norfloxacina e a pefloxacina eliminaram resistência para penicilina e tetraciclina, respectivamente; no entanto, não foi evidenciada a eliminação de plasmídio com ofloxacina. Os resultados confirmam a eficácia das fluor-quinolonas em eliminar plasmídios de resistência mostrando a importância desses estudos como contribuição para o entendimento da prevenção de linhagens multiresistentes, uma vez que as quinolonas em concentrações subinibitórias podem aumentar a sensibilidade das linhagens a outros agentes antimicrobianos.Bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus were submitted to treatment with four fluoro-quinolones in subinhibitory concentrations (1/2 x MICs to evaluate their influence on the curing of plasmids. Ciprofloxacin showed to be the most efficient by eliminating resistance to streptomycin, tetracyclin, penicillin, and cadmium nitrate. Norfloxacin and pefloxacin eliminated penicillin- and tetracyclin-resistance respectively. Otherwise, plasmids elimination by ofloxacin was not evidenced. The results obtained in this study confirm the potential of fluoroquinolones to eliminate antibiotic-resistant plasmids, and showed to be a valuable contribution for the prevention of multi-resistant strains, and may even enhance their sensitivity to other chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Evaluación de un antígeno de Brucella abortus para aglutinación en placa como prueba tamiz en el diagnóstico de la brucelosis bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rajme-Manzur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo obtener y validar un antígeno buferado de Brucella abortus para la prueba de aglutinación en placa como prueba diagnóstica de base de la brucelosis bovina. Se formularon tres lotes de antígeno a partir de la multiplicación de la cepa 99 de Brucella abortus. Se realizaron los controles de calidad correspondientes (determinación de pH, volumen celular, esterilidad, capacidad buferante y las pruebas serológicas para la evaluación del desempeño. Se emplearon 1070 muestras de suero bovino (350 positivas y 720 negativas previamente controladas con las pruebas de diagnóstico establecidas. Se determinó la sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica y relativa, los valores predictivos positivos y negativos, la eficacia y la concordancia. En los tres lotes todas las características evaluadas resultaron estar dentro de los parámetros establecidos para este tipo de producto. La especificidad y sensibilidad diagnósticas fueron de 99,5% y 100% respectivamente. El valor predictivo positivo fue de 99,1%, el valor predictivo negativo fue de 100% y la eficacia de un 99,7%. El antígeno mostró una sensibilidad y especificidad relativas de un 100% y la concordancia resultó ser clasificada como muy buena. La evaluación del desempeño arrojó resultados satisfactorios, demostrando que el método de producción empleado es factible para la obtención de un producto con adecuada eficacia.

  9. Diferenciação por qualidade da carne bovina: a ótica do bem-estar animal Differentiation for beef cattle quality: the view of the animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Balbé de Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca enfatizar como o bem-estar animal pode influenciar nos sistemas produtivos pecuários e no produto final - a carne bovina. Surge da preocupação com as condições que os bovinos são manejados e chegam para abate nos frigoríficos, ocasionando prejuízos a todos os agentes da cadeia produtiva e da necessidade de obtenção de produtos seguros, com qualidade, e produzidos de forma sustentável e ambientalmente correta. Um bom manejo durante todo o sistema de criação se reflete na qualidade da carne. Ao se agregar qualidade, mesmo que por meio de características pouco identificáveis, promove-se a diferenciação do produto. Com certeza, assim como os prejuízos ocasionados pelo manejo inadequado, os ganhos da diferenciação, por meio de práticas de bem-estar animal, poderão ser compartilhados por todos os agentes da cadeia produtiva.This paper aims to emphasize how the animal welfare can influence the cattle productive systems and in the final beef product. The study emerges from the preoccupation with the conditions that the cattle is handled and arrive for slaughter in the cold storage room. Impairing all the productive chain agentes, and the necessity to obtain safe products, with quality and produced in a sustainable and environmentally correct way. A good handling during all the breeding systems reflects in the meat quality. Aggregating quality, though by means of not very identifiable characteristics, the product diferenciation is promoted. For sure, as well as the impairment caused by the inadequate handling, the profits of diferenciation, by means of animal welfare practices, could be shared by all the agents of the productive chain.

  10. Identificação espécie-específica de carnes e produtos cárneos de origem bubalina e bovina pela técnica de PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Teixeira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a viabilidade da metodologia da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase associada com o Polimorfismo de Fragmentos de DNA (PCR-RFLP na identificação de fraude intencional e contaminação acidental em produtos cárneos de origem bubalina, in natura e processados, foram testadas amostras puras e amostras de carnes com misturas controladas, produzidas em laboratório, com adição de 1%, 5%, 10% e 50% de carne bovina em carne de búfalo, homogeneizada crua e em amostras autoclavada. Foram comparados, ainda, diferentes métodos de extração, usando um kit comercial e a técnica clássica, utilizando fenol/clorofórmio. O resultado estatístico foi obtido por tabela de contingência, analisada pelo teste do qui-quadrado (χ2 e do exato de Fisher. A especificidade encontrada foi altamente significativa (P<0,0001. Observou-se também sensibilidade altamente significativa nas diluições a partir de 10% (P<0,0001. A técnica tem alta especificidade e sensibilidade para detectar até mesmo contaminação de 1%, mas a repetibilidade desse resultado impede a aplicação oficial desse método para a inspeção de contaminação acidental, sendo recomendada somente para inspeção de fraude a partir de 10% de substituição. Em carnes autoclavadas, a eficácia do teste é menor. A técnica pode ser empregada para certificação de produto específico (selo de identidade de espécie.

  11. Viral Contamination Source in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Ling; Song, Juan; Song, Qin Qin; Yu, Jie; Luo, Xiao Nuan; Wu, Gui Zhen; Han, Jun

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential causes of laboratory-acquired infections and to provide possible solutions that would protect laboratory personnel, samples from a viral laboratory were screened to determine the main sources of contamination with six subtypes of Rhinovirus. Rhinovirus contamination was found in the gloves, cuffs of protective wear, inner surface of biological safety cabinet (BSC) windows, and trash handles. Remarkably, high contamination was found on the inner walls of the centrifuge and the inner surface of centrifuge tube casing in the rotor. Spilling infectious medium on the surface of centrifuge tubes was found to contribute to contamination of centrifuge surfaces. Exposure to sodium hypochlorite containing no less than 0.2 g/L available chlorine decontaminated the surface of the centrifuge tubes from Rhinovirus after 2 min. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. Update on viral community-acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Neto, Ozéas Galeno da; Leite, Ricardo Ferreira; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

    2013-01-01

    A pneumonia de origem viral é uma causa prevalente de infecção respiratória em adultos imunocompetentes. Tem apresentação variada, ocasionando desde formas leves a quadros graves de insuficiência respiratória com necessidade de ventilação mecânica. Contudo, em nosso país, há poucos estudos a respeito da apresentação clínica e diagnóstico dessa infecção. Dessa forma, os autores do presente artigo têm por objetivo revisar os principais agentes virais causadores de pneumonia na comunidade e disc...

  13. Viral gastrointestinal syndrome in our environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patić A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral gastrointestinal syndrome is a cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Infection is spread through contact with an infected person, as well as through contaminated food and water. A lethal outcome is possible in infants and young children due to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. The study included 141 patients with gastroenteritis from Vojvodina. Real-Time PCR method in stool samples was used to determine the presence of rota-, noro-, and astrovirus nucleic acid. Out of 141 patients with gastroenteritis, 60.3% were confirmed to have one of the three viruses. Rotavirus was significantly more common in children up to 3 years of age (43.3%. Norovirus was more frequently detected in patients older than 20 (50%. These infections started in collectives. Astrovirus was detected in four patients (2.8%. The results confirm the necessity to implement PCR in routine diagnostics for the proper treatment of patients.

  14. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  15. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  16. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi; Ishii, Yasushi.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T 2 -weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author)

  17. Viral hepatitis in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Zaytsev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Ukraine, about 17 thousands of newborns are at risk of vertical infection with hepatitis B and C. Identification of infected women at the stage of family planning is the best way to prevent infection in newborns, and therefore it must be performed strictly in accordance with established norms. In case of detection of hepatitis, further tactics depend on the variant of the virus: in case of hepatitis C, pre-pregnancy treatment is preferable. In case of hepatitis B — pregnancy with subsequent simultaneous vaccination of the newborn. Antiviral therapy is possible in women with high viral load to prevent intrauterine infection. Similar tactics should be followed in case of in vitro fertilisation too. The text of the lecture is illustrated by clinical examples. The lecture is intended for infectious disease physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists.

  18. MR imaging of acute viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Toyohiko; Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Kitada, Masahisa; Saito, Masayuki; Ohshiro, Kennwa; Ishimori, Masatoshi [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Ishii, Yasushi

    1991-02-01

    Twenty-three MR studies of 19 patients with acute viral hepatitis were reviewed. The findings of MR imaging including peripotal high intensity (PHI) on T{sub 2}-weighted images and gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT) were compared with the level of serum GOT level and clinical phase which was determined by the interval between the peak of serum GOT level and MR study. PHI was found in 15 out of 23 studies (65%) and GBWT in 7 out of 22 studies (32%). The incidence of these findings were correlated well with the severity of serum GOT level and clinical phase. PHI became less prominent gradually as during the clinical recovery. While GBWT was found in the earlier phase and disappeared immediately. PHI seems to correspond to edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the periportal area of the liver. (author).

  19. Papillomaviruses: Viral evolution, cancer and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Ignacio G; Félez-Sánchez, Marta

    2015-01-28

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a numerous family of small dsDNA viruses infecting virtually all mammals. PVs cause infections without triggering a strong immune response, and natural infection provides only limited protection against reinfection. Most PVs are part and parcel of the skin microbiota. In some cases, infections by certain PVs take diverse clinical presentations from highly productive self-limited warts to invasive cancers. We propose PVs as an excellent model system to study the evolutionary interactions between the immune system and pathogens causing chronic infections: genotypically, PVs are very diverse, with hundreds of different genotypes infecting skin and mucosa; phenotypically, they display extremely broad gradients and trade-offs between key phenotypic traits, namely productivity, immunogenicity, prevalence, oncogenicity and clinical presentation. Public health interventions have been launched to decrease the burden of PV-associated cancers, including massive vaccination against the most oncogenic human PVs, as well as systematic screening for PV chronic anogenital infections. Anti-PVs vaccines elicit protection against infection, induce cross-protection against closely related viruses and result in herd immunity. However, our knowledge on the ecological and intrapatient dynamics of PV infections remains fragmentary. We still need to understand how the novel anthropogenic selection pressures posed by vaccination and screening will affect viral circulation and epidemiology. We present here an overview of PV evolution and the connection between PV genotypes and the phenotypic, clinical manifestations of the diseases they cause. This differential link between viral evolution and the gradient cancer-warts-asymptomatic infections makes PVs a privileged playground for evolutionary medicine research. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  20. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkady, A.A.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  1. Virus del dengue: estructura y ciclo viral Dengue virus: structure and viral cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam L Velandia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El virus del dengue (DENV es el agente causal de la enfermedad conocida como dengue, que es la principal enfermedad viral transmitida por artrópodos en el mundo. El DENV es un flavivirus que ingresa por endocitosis y se replica en el citoplasma de la célula infectada, originando tres proteínas estructurales y siete proteínas no estructurales, sobre las cuales se conocen sólo algunas de sus funciones en la replicación viral o en la infección. El ciclo viral que ocurre en las células infectadas hasta ahora está comenzando a aclararse y su conocimiento permitirá en el futuro próximo diseñar racionalmente moléculas que lo intervengan y eviten la replicación del virus. Durante la infección, el individuo puede presentar fiebre indiferenciada o, en otros casos, puede presentar un proceso generalizado de activación de la respuesta inmunitaria innata y adquirida, lo cual provoca la liberación de factores inflamatorios solubles que alteran la fisiología de los tejidos, principalmente el endotelio, conllevando al desarrollo de manifestaciones clínicas graves. Aunque se ha identificado un gran número de factores del individuo asociados al desarrollo de la enfermedad por DENV, queda por identificar el papel de las diferentes proteínas virales en la patogenia de la enfermedad. En la presente revisión, se presenta una breve actualización sobre la estructura y biología del DENV, de su ciclo viral intracelular y, finalmente, se introducen algunos conceptos sobre la inmunopatogenia de la enfermedad producida por este agente.Dengue virus (DENV is responsible for the clinical entity known as dengue that is a great concern for economy and public health of tropical countries. This flavivirus is a single strand RNA virus that after their translation and replication in host cells produces three structural and seven non-structural proteins with specific function in replication or cell binding process that we will describe here. Intracellular

  2. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  3. Plasma Viral miRNAs Indicate a High Prevalence of Occult Viral Infections

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    Enrique Fuentes-Mattei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8 varies greatly in different populations. We hypothesized that the actual prevalence of KSHV/HHV8 infection in humans is underestimated by the currently available serological tests. We analyzed four independent patient cohorts with post-surgical or post-chemotherapy sepsis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and post-surgical patients with abdominal surgical interventions. Levels of specific KSHV-encoded miRNAs were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, and KSHV/HHV-8 IgG were measured by immunoassay. We also measured specific miRNAs from Epstein Barr Virus (EBV, a virus closely related to KSHV/HHV-8, and determined the EBV serological status by ELISA for Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1 IgG. Finally, we identified the viral miRNAs by in situ hybridization (ISH in bone marrow cells. In training/validation settings using independent multi-institutional cohorts of 300 plasma samples, we identified in 78.50% of the samples detectable expression of at least one of the three tested KSHV-miRNAs by RT-qPCR, while only 27.57% of samples were found to be seropositive for KSHV/HHV-8 IgG (P < 0.001. The prevalence of KSHV infection based on miRNAs qPCR is significantly higher than the prevalence determined by seropositivity, and this is more obvious for immuno-depressed patients. Plasma viral miRNAs quantification proved that EBV infection is ubiquitous. Measurement of viral miRNAs by qPCR has the potential to become the “gold” standard method to detect certain viral infections in clinical practice.

  4. A Strong Case for Viral Genetic Factors in HIV Virulence

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    Joshua T. Herbeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important gap and has demonstrated a robust effect of the viral genotype on HIV virulence.

  5. Experience with Hepatitis B viral load testing in Nigeria | Okwuraiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV DNA levels, ...

  6. Core Gene Expression and Association of Genotypes with Viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine genotypic distribution, ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA viral load and express core gene from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1690 HCV RNA positive patients were included in the study. HCV genotyping was tested by type-specific genotyping assay, viral ...

  7. Anti-viral effect of herbal medicine Korean traditional Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. Material and Methods: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First ...

  8. Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobele, A.; Lindgreen, A.; Beverland, M.; Vanhamme, J.; Wijk, van R.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we identify that successful viral marketing campaigns trigger an emotional response in recipients. Working under this premise, we examine the effects of viral messages containing the six primary emotions (surprise, joy, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust) on recipients' emotional

  9. 101 . experience with hepatitis b viral load testing in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus. (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV ...

  10. Distribution, incidence and severity of viral diseases of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in major yam cultivation zones in Côte d'Ivoire in 2009 to determine the incidence, severity of viral diseases, and viruses associated with the infected plants. Incidence and severity of the viral diseases were estimated based on symptoms. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ...

  11. Short Report Challenges with targeted viral load testing for medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges with targeted viral load testing 179. Malawi Medical ... targeted viral load (VL) testing for patients who have been on ART for at least .... Tuberculosis. 32. Community-acquired pneumonia. 17. Non-typhoidal Salmonella sepsis. 5. Bacterial meningitis. 5. Disseminated Kaposi sarcoma. 4. Cryptococcal meningitis. 4.

  12. Analysis of host genetic diversity and viral entry as sources of between-host variation in viral load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kell, Alison M.; Scott, Robert J.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the high levels of between-host variation in pathogen burden that are frequently observed in viral infections. Here, two factors thought to impact viral load variability, host genetic diversity and stochastic processes linked with viral entry into the host, were examined. This work was conducted with the aquatic vertebrate virus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in its natural host, rainbow trout. It was found that in controlled in vivo infections of IHNV, a suggestive trend of reduced between-fish viral load variation was observed in a clonal population of isogenic trout compared to a genetically diverse population of out-bred trout. However, this trend was not statistically significant for any of the four viral genotypes examined, and high levels of fish-to-fish variation persisted even in the isogenic trout population. A decrease in fish-to-fish viral load variation was also observed in virus injection challenges that bypassed the host entry step, compared to fish exposed to the virus through the natural water-borne immersion route of infection. This trend was significant for three of the four virus genotypes examined and suggests host entry may play a role in viral load variability. However, high levels of viral load variation also remained in the injection challenges. Together, these results indicate that although host genetic diversity and viral entry may play some role in between-fish viral load variation, they are not major factors. Other biological and non-biological parameters that may influence viral load variation are discussed.

  13. Towards Sustainability in Viral Marketing with User Engaging Supporting Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Jankowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While viral marketing has captured substantial academic and professional interest, the processes that underpin successful viral marketing campaigns remain poorly understood. High competition and pressure for successful campaigns lead to strategies based on persuasion, unsolicited messages, and other techniques that negatively affect brand perception. The need for more sustainable strategies with a limited negative impact on web users is observed. Therefore, the current study examines the effectiveness of viral marketing and a supporting campaign, where the main goal was to increase user engagement and overall campaign performance. Supporting campaigns were evaluated, to determine whether they enhanced viral activity, but without the need for high persuasion or intrusive techniques. Results showed that supporting actions could be integrated with lower performing campaigns to increase their effectiveness. Apart from the main scientific goal that is presented, the study demonstrates how virtual worlds can provide a laboratory-like environment for identifying the processes that underpin viral marketing.

  14. Prevalencia de Neospora caninum y DVB en una finca con problemas reproductivos en Sopó (Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy García-Chaparro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la prevalencia de Neospora caninum y del virus de la diarrea viral bovina (DVB en bovinos de una finca con problemas reproductivos, en el municipio de Sopó (Cundinamarca, y su relación con la presentación de abortos. Se tomaron muestras de suero sanguíneo de 397 animales de alta producción lechera y con antecedentes reproductivos, seleccionados al azar.Se utilizó la inmunofluoresencia indirecta para la N. caninum, y seroneutralización para DVB, y los procedimientos se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Universidad de Parma (Italia. Se encontró una prevalencia de 10.37% para DVB con respecto a 21.26% para N. caninum, y estadísticamente no hubo relación directa con respecto a los problemas reproductivos. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, se reportó mayor presencia significativa de N. caninum con relación a la de DVB en el hato lechero objeto de estudio.

  15. Bovine paratuberculosis: a review of the advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic tests Paratuberculosis bovina: una revisión sobre las ventajas y desventajas de las diferentes pruebas diagnósticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana R. Gilardoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis (PTB, or Johne's disease, is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis of ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map. It is characterized by diarrhea and progressive cachexia, which may cause the death of the animal. Calves are the most susceptible to infection. Infected animals excrete Map mainly by the feces. PTB is endemic worldwide, with high prevalence levels, strong economic impact and public health relevance because of its possible association with Crohn's disease. Although the current reference diagnostic test is identification of Map in the bacterial culture, there are different diagnostic tests to identify infected individuals and/or herds. The sensitivity and specificity of these tests vary according to the stage of the disease in the animals to be evaluated. The correct choice and application of each of these diagnostic tests will ensure their success and may allow to establish a control program. The aim of this work is to review and discuss the different diagnostic tests used in the detection of Map-infected animals, focusing on their advantages and disadvantages.La paratuberculosis (PTBC o enfermedad de Johne es una enteritis granulomatosa crónica de rumiantes, causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Se caracteriza por producir diarrea y caquexia progresiva, la cual conduce a la muerte del animal. Los terneros son los animales más proclives a la infección. Los animales infectados excretan Map, principalmente por las heces. La PTBC es una enfermedad endémica a nivel mundial, con altos niveles de prevalencia, fuerte impacto económico e importancia en salud pública, debido a su posible asociación con la enfermedad de Crohn. Aunque la prueba de referencia diagnóstica es la identificación de Map en cultivo bacteriológico, existen diferentes pruebas diagnósticas para detectar animales o rodeos infectados. La sensibilidad y especificidad de estas pruebas

  16. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1-471 of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection.

  17. Campylobacter spp.: prevalencia y caracterización feno-genotípica de aislamientos de pacientes con diarrea y de sus mascotas en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Tamborini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la prevalencia de Campylobacter spp. en 327 pacientes con diarrea y en 36 animales (perros, gatos y pollos que convivían con pacientes en los que se detectó este patógeno; el estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Se aisló Campylobacter spp. en 50/327 pacientes y en 12/36 animales, Campylobacter jejuni fue la especie más frecuente. Se detectó resistencia a ciprofoxacina (65 % y a tetraciclina (32 % en una selección de 35 aislamientos de origen humano. En el análisis por electroforesis de campo pulsado de 13 aislamientos de C. jejuni se identificaron siete subtipos genéticos. Dos subtipos agruparon aislamientos de pacientes y de sus respectivos perros, y un tercer subtipo agrupó 1 aislamiento humano y 2 de pollos de ese paciente. Si bien las aves son reconocidas como el principal reservorio, es importante fortalecer la vigilancia de Campylobacter spp. en mascotas, las cuales pueden ser portadores asintomáticos del patógeno.The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofoxacin (65 % and tetracycline (32 % was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed feld gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient´s chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the

  18. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  19. Hemostatic System in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borisova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemostasis is balanced by pro- and anticoagulant and pro- and antifibrinolytic factors, most of these being synthesized by the liver. Advanced liver disease is associated with perturbations in the level of these factors due to secretory deficiencies. Thrombocytopenia, reduced levels of factor II-VII-X, and anti-fibrinolytic factors are all features of CHC infection, suggesting hypocoagulability. However, higher concentrations of VWF and factor VIII, as well as lower concentrations of anticoagulant factors including protein C and S, have also been reported in CHC infections, suggesting hypercoagulability. Thus, the hemostatic balance in the patient with liver disease is relatively unstable as evidenced by the occurrence of both bleeding and thrombotic complications in a significant proportion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. In patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, in whom extremely complex alterations of hemostasis occur, one cannot rely on levels of individual coagulation factors, or on simplified tests of hemostasis such as the PT or APTT to predict the hemostatic status. To determine the hemostatic status in these patients, more complex tests and a more comprehensive overview of the hemostatic changes are required. In connection with the latest studies, a revision of the methods for correction of hemostatic system disorders in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases becomes urgent.

  20. Packaging DNA Origami into Viral Protein Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Veikko; Mikkilä, Joona; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2018-01-01

    The DNA origami technique is a widely used method to create customized, complex, spatially well-defined two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) DNA nanostructures. These structures have huge potential to serve as smart drug-delivery vehicles and molecular devices in various nanomedical and biotechnological applications. However, so far only little is known about the behavior of these novel structures in living organisms or in cell culture/tissue models. Moreover, enhancing pharmacokinetic bioavailability and transfection properties of such structures still remains a challenge. One intriguing approach to overcome these issues is to coat DNA origami nanostructures with proteins or lipid membranes. Here, we show how cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid proteins (CPs) can be used for coating DNA origami nanostructures. We present a method for disassembling native CCMV particles and isolating the pure CP dimers, which can further bind and encapsulate a rectangular DNA origami shape. Owing to the highly programmable nature of DNA origami, packaging of DNA nanostructures into viral protein cages could find imminent uses in enhanced targeting and cellular delivery of various active nano-objects, such as enzymes and drug molecules.

  1. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into dengue virus encephalopathy, dengue virus encephalitis, immune-mediated syndromes (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuritis brachialis, acute cerebellitis, and others, neuromuscular complications (hypokalemic paralysis, transient benign muscle dysfunction and myositis, and dengue-associated stroke. Common neuro-ophthalmic complications are maculopathy and retinal vasculopathy. Pathogenic mechanisms include systemic complications and metabolic disturbances resulting in encephalopathy, direct effect of the virus provoking encephalitis, and postinfectious immune mechanisms causing immune-mediated syndromes. Dengue viruses should be considered as a cause of neurological disorders in endemic regions. Standardized case definitions for specific neurological complications are still needed. Keywords: encephalitis, encephalopathy, dengue fever, neurological complications

  2. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  3. Modeling of Viral Aerosol Transmission and Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Maryam; Amin, Osama; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the spread mechanism of diseases in the atmosphere as an engineering problem. Among the viral transmission mechanisms that do not include physical contact, aerosol transmission is the most significant mode of transmission where virus-laden droplets are carried over long distances by wind. In this work, we focus on aerosol transmission of virus and introduce the idea of viewing virus transmission through aerosols and their transport as a molecular communication problem, where one has no control over transmission source but a robust receiver can be designed using nano-biosensors. To investigate this idea, a complete system is presented and end-toend mathematical model for the aerosol transmission channel is derived under certain constraints and boundary conditions. In addition to transmitter and channel, a receiver architecture composed of air sampler and Silicon Nanowire field effect transistor is also discussed. Furthermore, a detection problem is formulated for which maximum likelihood decision rule and the corresponding missed detection probability is discussed. At the end, simulation results are presented to investigate the parameters that affect the performance and justify the feasibility of proposed setup in related applications.

  4. Markers of viral hepatitis in hemophiliacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.; Hussain, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Sero prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and anti-HCV IgG was determined in 100 persons with Hemophilia (PWH), registered with Hemophilia Patient Welfare Society (HPWS), Lahore Zone, Pakistan. The study shows that 4% were positive for HBsAg. However, there was a high level of anti-HCV sero positivity (56%) in our PWH, including many patients in younger age groups. When compared with figures from PWH in other regions of Asia like 23% in Western India, 33% in Sri Lanka and 15% of those in Iran, this figure is one of the highest. This rate is a reflection of the same rising trend in our population that is now exceeding 10%. The practice of unscreened blood/blood-products transfusions in the backdrop of high prevalence of HCV in our population is responsible for high figures seen in PWH. The need is to increase awareness amongst the patients, health care workers and policy makers about the transfusion associated viral infections in a group of patients who already had a hereditary disorder of severe nature. (author)

  5. Filovirus tropism: Cellular molecules for viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayato eTakada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In human and nonhuman primates, filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever.Recently, other animals such as pigs and some species of fruit bats have also been shown to be susceptible to these viruses. While having a preference for some cell types such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, filoviruses are known to be pantropic in infection of primates. The envelope glycoprotein (GP is responsible for both receptor binding and fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. It has been demonstrated that filovirus GP interacts with multiple molecules for entry into host cells, whereas none of the cellular molecules so far identified as a receptor/coreceptor fully explains filovirus tissue tropism and host range. Available data suggest that the mucin-like region (MLR on GP plays an important role in attachment to the preferred target cells, whose infection is likely involved in filovirus pathogenesis, whereas the MLR is not essential for the fundamental function of the GP in viral entry into cells in vitro. Further studies elucidating the mechanisms of cellular entry of filoviruses may shed light on the development of strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

  6. Leucopenia associated with abalone viral ganglioneuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, C; Slocombe, R; Day, R; Crawford, S

    2012-01-01

    To compare microscopic lesion severity with circulating total haemocyte counts (THC) in abalone affected by abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG). A herpes-like virus led to severe mortality in a number of Australian abalone farms in 2006. The infection was associated with severe necrotising ganglioneuritis. The microscopic lesions were well demarcated, affecting the neural tissue almost exclusively and were characterised by necrosis and increased cellularity in affected ganglia and nerves. On two farms, the presence or absence of typical AVG pathology was compared with THC. Those abalone with microscopic lesions of AVG had significantly lower haemocyte counts. The mean THC in abalone with no evidence of AVG from both farms was 4.6 × 10(6)/mL (±0.3 SE). The THC in AVG-affected abalone in farm 1 was 2.8 × 10(6)/mL (±0.5 SE) and farm 2 was 0.98 × 10(6)/mL (±0.4 SE). Severe AVG is associated with leucopenia in affected abalone. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Effect of oligonucleotide primers in determining viral variability within hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andrés

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the frequency of the corresponding template in the initial sample. Although bias in template-to-product ratios has been described before, its relevance in describing viral genetic variability at the intrapatient level has not been fully assessed yet. Results To investigate the role of oligonucleotide design in estimating viral variability within hosts, genetic diversity in hepatitis C virus (HCV populations from eight infected patients was characterised by two parallel PCR amplifications performed with two slightly different sets of primers, followed by cloning and sequencing (mean = 89 cloned sequences per patient. Population genetics analyses of viral populations recovered by pairs of amplifications revealed that in seven patients statistically significant differences were detected between populations sampled with different set of primers. Conclusions Genetic variability analyses demonstrates that PCR selection due to the choice of primers, differing in their degeneracy degree at some nucleotide positions, can eclipse totally or partially viral variants, hence yielding significant different estimates of viral variability within a single patient and therefore eventually producing quite different qualitative and quantitative descriptions of viral populations within each host.

  8. Effect of oligonucleotide primers in determining viral variability within hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Maria Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Jiménez, Nuria; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2004-12-09

    Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the frequency of the corresponding template in the initial sample. Although bias in template-to-product ratios has been described before, its relevance in describing viral genetic variability at the intrapatient level has not been fully assessed yet. To investigate the role of oligonucleotide design in estimating viral variability within hosts, genetic diversity in hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations from eight infected patients was characterised by two parallel PCR amplifications performed with two slightly different sets of primers, followed by cloning and sequencing (mean = 89 cloned sequences per patient). Population genetics analyses of viral populations recovered by pairs of amplifications revealed that in seven patients statistically significant differences were detected between populations sampled with different set of primers. Genetic variability analyses demonstrates that PCR selection due to the choice of primers, differing in their degeneracy degree at some nucleotide positions, can eclipse totally or partially viral variants, hence yielding significant different estimates of viral variability within a single patient and therefore eventually producing quite different qualitative and quantitative descriptions of viral populations within each host.

  9. 454-Pyrosequencing: A Molecular Battiscope for Freshwater Viral Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Rooks

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses, the most abundant biological entities on the planet, are capable of infecting organisms from all three branches of life, although the majority infect bacteria where the greatest degree of cellular diversity lies. However, the characterization and assessment of viral diversity in natural environments is only beginning to become a possibility. Through the development of a novel technique for the harvest of viral DNA and the application of 454 pyrosequencing, a snapshot of the diversity of the DNA viruses harvested from a standing pond on a cattle farm has been obtained. A high abundance of viral genotypes (785 were present within the virome. The absolute numbers of lambdoid and Shiga toxin (Stx encoding phages detected suggested that the depth of sequencing had enabled recovery of only ca. 8% of the total virus population, numbers that agreed within less than an order of magnitude with predictions made by rarefaction analysis. The most abundant viral genotypes in the pond were bacteriophages (93.7%. The predominant viral genotypes infecting higher life forms found in association with the farm were pathogens that cause disease in cattle and humans, e.g. members of the Herpesviridae. The techniques and analysis described here provide a fresh approach to the monitoring of viral populations in the aquatic environment, with the potential to become integral to the development of risk analysis tools for monitoring the dissemination of viral agents of animal, plant and human diseases.

  10. A comprehensive and quantitative exploration of thousands of viral genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabadi, Gita

    2018-01-01

    The complete assembly of viral genomes from metagenomic datasets (short genomic sequences gathered from environmental samples) has proven to be challenging, so there are significant blind spots when we view viral genomes through the lens of metagenomics. One approach to overcoming this problem is to leverage the thousands of complete viral genomes that are publicly available. Here we describe our efforts to assemble a comprehensive resource that provides a quantitative snapshot of viral genomic trends – such as gene density, noncoding percentage, and abundances of functional gene categories – across thousands of viral genomes. We have also developed a coarse-grained method for visualizing viral genome organization for hundreds of genomes at once, and have explored the extent of the overlap between bacterial and bacteriophage gene pools. Existing viral classification systems were developed prior to the sequencing era, so we present our analysis in a way that allows us to assess the utility of the different classification systems for capturing genomic trends. PMID:29624169

  11. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  12. [Atomic force microscopy: a tool to analyze the viral cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaud, Julien; Castelnovo, Martin; Muriaux, Delphine; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine

    2015-05-01

    Each step of the HIV-1 life cycle frequently involves a change in the morphology and/or mechanical properties of the viral particle or core. The atomic force microscope (AFM) constitutes a powerful tool for characterizing these physical changes at the scale of a single virus. Indeed, AFM enables the visualization of viral capsids in a controlled physiological environment and to probe their mechanical properties by nano-indentation. Finally, AFM force spectroscopy allows to characterize the affinities between viral envelope proteins and cell receptors at the single molecule level. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. Epidemiología molecular de las tuberculosis bovina y humana en una zona endémica de Querétaro, México Molecular epidemiology of cattle and human tuberculosis in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pérez-Guerrero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el papel de la tuberculosis bovina en la tuberculosis humana. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 255 muestras de pacientes sintomáticos, sembradas en medios de Stonebrink y Löwenstein-Jensen y analizadas por PCRMPB70 anidada y luego por spoligotyping. RESULTADOS: De las 255 muestras, 74 fueron positivas a la PCR y 20 al aislamiento: de las primeras, 58 (78% mostraron espoligotipo de M. tuberculosis y 5 (6.7% de M. bovis; de las segundas, 8 (47% revelaron espoligotipo de M. tuberculosis y 8 (47% de M. bovis. De las 94 muestras positivas al aislamiento o PCR, 66 (70% correspondieron a M. tuberculosis y 13 (13.8% a M. bovis. Los patrones moleculares de cuatro muestras de M. bovis de seres humanos fueron idénticos a los de las cepas de M. bovis de ganado. CONCLUSIONES: Se demuestra que M. bovis juega un papel importante en la epidemiología de la tuberculosis humana y representa un riesgo para la salud pública.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the role of bovine TB in cases of human TB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred and fifty-five samples from symptomatic patients were included in the study. All samples were cultured in Stonebrink and Lowënstein-Jensen media and analyzed using a nested PCRMPB70. The molecular analysis was performed by spoligotyping. RESULTS: From 255 samples, 74 were PCR-positive and 20 were culture-positive. From 94 samples positive to PCR or to isolation, 66 (70% showed a spoligotype compatible with M. tuberculosis, and 13 (13.8% with M. bovis. Four fingerprints of M. bovis from humans were identical to the fingerprints of M. bovis from cattle in the same region. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that M. bovis plays an important role in the epidemiology of TB in humans and that TB in cattle represents a risk to public health.

  14. Doenças priônicas: avaliação dos riscos envolvidos na utilização de produtos de origem bovina Prionic disease: evaluation of the risks involved in using products of bovine origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lupi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Os príons são proteínas que se mostram capazes de auto-replicação apesar de, para isso, alterar o metabolismo celular. São responsáveis por inúmeras doenças em animais e no ser humano (doenças priônicas, todas elas fatais. Essas moléstias apresentam enorme variabilidade quanto ao período de incubação, de alguns meses a 40 anos. Os príons acumulam-se e destroem os neurônios, provocando quadros conhecidos como encefalopatias espongiosiformes. Discute-se a apresentação clínica, epidemiológica e histórica das doenças priônicas. O foco maior de discussão recai, no entanto, na possibilidade teórica da transmissão iatrogênica dos príons por meio das formulações tópicas que utilizam ceramidas (cerebrosídeos ou placenta de origem bovina, assim como pelo risco representado por alguns procedimentos dermatológicos, como transplantes da pele e implantes de colágeno.A prion is a protein that is capable of self replication, thereby altering a cell's metabolism. It is responsible for a number of human and animal diseases (prionic diseases, all of which are always lethal. These diseases have enormous variability in their incubation periods, ranging from a few months to forty years. Prions accumulate and destroy nerve cells, causing spongiform encephalopathy. We discuss the clinical picture, epidemiology, and historical background of prionic diseases. The major focus of the discussion lies, however, on the theoretical possibility of iatrogenic transmission of prion infection due to topical formulations using ceramides (cerebrosides or placenta of bovine origin, as well as the risk represented by some dermatological procedures such as skin grafts and collagen implants.

  15. Ocorrência de mastite bovina em fazendas produtoras de leite B no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of bovine mastitis in grade B milk farms in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Laranja

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período compreendido entre os meses de Março/1991 e Fevereiro /1992 foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a prevalência da mastite bovina em 07 fazendas produtoras de leite tipo B de diferentes regiões do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas 1683 vacas que deram origem a 7695 resultados do CMT e das quais foram coletadas 983 amostras de leite para realização do exame microbiológico. A análise do CMT indicou 47,0% de vacas com CMT negativo, 15,1% CMT + e 37,5% CMT ++/+ + + . Os escores do CMT foram distribuidos segundo o número de lactação (1ª lactação, 2ª lactação e 3ª ou + lactações e segundo o estágio de lactação (1-30 dias de lactação, 31-90 dias, 91-250 dias e > 250 dias. A análise dos dados demonstrou que houve um efeito significativo (p From March/1991 to February/1992 1,683 cows from seven grade "B" milk producing dairy farms were used in a study on the prevalence of bovine mastitis. GMT tests (7,695 were 47.0% negative; 15.1% " +" and 37.5% "++/+ + +". CMT scores were grouped by number of lactation (1st, 2nd, 3rd or more and by stage of lactation (1-30 days in milk; 31-90 days; 91-250 and > 250 days. Both stage of lactation and number of lactation had significant effect on % of cows CMT "++/+ + + ". Microbiological results from 983 milk samples were 50.97% positive. From the positive samples were isolated Staphylococcus sp (44.6%, Corynebacteríum sp (15.0%, Streptococcus sp (8.2%, Yeast/Fungi (5.4%. Bacillus sp (4.4%, E. coli (3.2% and Klebsiella sp (0.2%. Considering both pure and mixed culture isolation, Staphylococcus sp represents 55.6%, Corynebacteríum sp, 18.6% and Streptococcus sp, 15.0%.

  16. Utilização da enrofloxacina (Baytril® no tratamento da mastite bovina estafilocócica Utilization of enrofloxacina (Baytril® on staphylococcal bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Langoni

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A ação da enrofloxacina pela administração via intramamária e sistêmica na mastite bovina subclínica por Staphylococcus aureus foi avaliada. Como tratamento local, infundiram-se, após as ordenhas da manhã e da tarde, 250mg do produto, diluídos em água estéril, a um volume final de 10ml, durante três dias. O tratamento sistêmico constituiu na aplicação de 5mg/kg do produto, pela via intramuscular, uma vez ao dia, durante o mesmo período. A estimativa de cura deu-se através da realização do California Mastitis Test (CMT e do cultivo bacteriano em agar sangue e MacConkey, três semanas após o término do tratamento. Dos 184 quartos acometidos por Staphylococcus aureus, a droga mostrou-se eficiente em 72,0% e 75,0%, pelas vias intramamária e sistêmica, respectivamente. A análise dos resultados mostrou não haver diferença estatística significante, com pThe activity of Enrofloxacina on bovine subclinical mastitis after systemic and intramammary administration was evaluated. As local treatment, 250mg of the product diluted in sterile distilled water to a final volume of 10ml, was infused into the teat during three days. The systemic treatment was performed with 5mg/kg of product administred intramuscularly, once a day, during the same period. The recovery was estimated three weeks after the treatment had finished through California Mastitis Test (CMT and milk culture on blood agar and MacConkey agar. The drug was effective in 72.0% and 75.0% of 184 quarters with Staphylococcus aureus after intramammary and systemic treatments, respectively. Statystical analysis showed no significant differences (p<0.50 between both forms of treatment.

  17. Avaliação de parâmetros indicativos da qualidade da carne bovina moída comercializada em diferentes supermercados em Erechin, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlice Salete Bonacina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Nas últimas décadas, os brasileiros, seguindo uma tendência mundial, vêm mudando os seus hábitos alimentares, preocupando-se com a origem dos alimentos. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos da carne bovina moída, comercializada em diferentes supermercados no município de Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul. Método: Foram realizadas três coletas, em quatro estabelecimentos diferentes, totalizando 12 amostras. A qualidade da carne foi avaliada através dos parâmetros temperatura, pH, determinação de bolores e leveduras, prova de cocção, de Nessler e de Éber; pesquisa de nitrato, nitrito e sulfito de sódio. Resultados: A partir dos resultados foi possível verificar que todas as amostras coletadas não atenderam a legislação em relação à temperatura de armazenamento, e apresentaram uma elevada contagem de bolores e leveduras. No entanto, todas as amostras encontraram-se dentro do padrão estabelecido para os valores de pH. Verificou-se a presença de odores desagradáveis em 25,0% das amostras, resultados positivos para a prova de Nessler e Éber, e negativos para 100,0% das amostras em relação as determinações de fraudes. Conclusões: A partir destes resultados, fica evidente a necessidade de condutas que visam a obtenção e a comercialização de carne moída com maior qualidade no município de Erechim. Por isso, é importante melhorar a educação sanitária e a conscientização dos empresários e colaboradores que atuam no setor, além da fiscalização mais ativa da Vigilância Sanitária do Município.

  18. How Can Viral Dynamics Models Inform Endpoint Measures in Clinical Trials of Therapies for Acute Viral Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available Acute viral infections pose many practical challenges for the accurate assessment of the impact of novel therapies on viral growth and decay. Using the example of influenza A, we illustrate how the measurement of infection-related quantities that determine the dynamics of viral load within the human host, can inform investigators on the course and severity of infection and the efficacy of a novel treatment. We estimated the values of key infection-related quantities that determine the course of natural infection from viral load data, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The data were placebo group viral load measurements collected during volunteer challenge studies, conducted by Roche, as part of the oseltamivir trials. We calculated the values of the quantities for each patient and the correlations between the quantities, symptom severity and body temperature. The greatest variation among individuals occurred in the viral load peak and area under the viral load curve. Total symptom severity correlated positively with the basic reproductive number. The most sensitive endpoint for therapeutic trials with the goal to cure patients is the duration of infection. We suggest laboratory experiments to obtain more precise estimates of virological quantities that can supplement clinical endpoint measurements.

  19. A comparative analysis of response to ORS (oral rehydration solution vs. ORS + gelatin tannate in two cohorts of pediatric patients with acute diarrhea Análisis comparativo de dos cohortes de pacientes pediátricos con diarrea aguda y respuesta a la solución de rehidratación oral (SRO frente a SRO + tanato de gelatina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esteban Carretero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the study aims to observe the response to treatment with ORS only or ORS + gelatin tannate in two cohorts of pediatric patients with acute diarrhea, with the primary efficacy endpoint being the number of stools at 12 hours from baseline. Methods: children aged 3 months to 12 years were included in the study. Only children with acute diarrhea, more than 3 liquid stools, and duration inferior to 72 h were included. Number of stools was recorded as absolute number, categorized as ≤ 3 and ≥ 4 stools over 12 hours, and as a stool decrease index (SDI. Other clinical variables were recorded, including weight, fever, vomiting, stool characteristics, and signs of peritonitis/sepsis. Results: baseline characteristics for the two populations included a mean age of 2.3 years in the ORS group and 2.6 years in the ORS + gelatin tannate group. Children younger than 2 years represented 59.8 and 54.3% in the ORS and ORS + gelatin tannate groups, respectively. Clinical variables such as vomiting, dehydration, weigth, and stool decrease index were used to compare the two groups. We found a statistical significant difference between the two groups (p Objetivo: el estudio tiene como objetivo observar la respuesta al tratamiento con SRO o SRO + tanato de gelatina en dos cohortes de pacientes pediátricos que presentan diarrea aguda, siendo el número de deposiciones a las 12 horas desde el tratamiento inicial el criterio principal de valoración de la eficacia. Métodos: en el estudio se incluyeron niños de entre 3 meses y 12 años de edad. Únicamente se incluyeron niños con diarrea aguda, con más de 3 deposiciones líquidas y menos de 72 horas de evolución. Se registró la variable principal del número de deposiciones y de análisis como número absoluto, categorizado como ≤ 3 y ≥ 4 deposiciones en 12 horas y como un índice de disminución de deposiciones (IDD. Se registraron otras variables clínicas como peso, fiebre, vómitos, caracter

  20. Changing haematological parameters in dengue viral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, T.; Mehmood, K.; Mujtaba, G.; Choudhry, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dengue Fever is the most common arboviral disease in the world, and presents cyclically in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The four serotypes of dengue virus, 1, 2, 3, and 4, form an antigenic subgroup of the flaviviruses (Group B arboviruses). Transmission to humans of any of these serotypes initiates a spectrum of host responses, from in apparent to severe and sometimes lethal infections. Complete Blood count (CBC) is an important part of the diagnostic workup of patients. Comparison of various finding in CBC including peripheral smear can help the physician in better management of the patient. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on a series of suspected patients of Dengue viral infection reporting in Ittefaq Hospital (Trust). All were investigated for serological markers of acute infection. Results Out of 341 acute cases 166 (48.7%) were confirmed by IgM against Dengue virus. IgG anti-dengue was used on 200 suspected re-infected patients. Seventy-one (39.5%) were positive and 118 (59%) were negative. Among 245 confirmed dengue fever patients 43 (17.6%) were considered having dengue hemorrhagic fever on the basis of lab and clinical findings. Raised haematocrit, Leukopenia with relative Lymphocytosis and presence atypical lymphocytes along with plasmacytoid cells was consistent finding at presentation in both the patterns of disease, i.e., Dengue Haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue fever (DF). Conclusion: Changes in relative percentage of cells appear with improvement in the symptoms and recovery from the disease. These findings indicate that in the course of the disease, there are major shifts within cellular component of blood. (author)

  1. Comparación de ácido láctico, ácido peroxiacético e hipoclorito de sodio en la desinfección de canales bovinas en un frigorífico de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Valencia Montero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de desinfección desempeñan un papel importante en la disminución de peligros microbiológicos en canales bovinas. La desinfección allí es utilizada en las plantas de beneficio con el objeto de disminuir el número de microorganismos patógenos presentes en la superficie del producto. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de tres desinfectantes: ácido láctico (0,9 ± 2 %, ácido peroxiacético (100 ± 20 ppm e hipoclorito de sodio (100 ± 20 ppm en la reducción de Escherichia coli y Salmonella spp. en la superficie de canales bovinas, dentro de las instalaciones de un frigorífico de la sabana de Bogotá. Se seleccionaron 78 canales bovinas visualmente contaminadas durante el proceso de faenado, ya fuera con materia fecal o con ingesta; se muestrearon antes e inmediatamente después de aplicado el desinfectante mediante aspersión con máquina dosificadora. En la reducción de E. coli no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tres tratamientos (p > 0,05. El ácido láctico, el ácido peroxiacético y el hipoclorito de sodio obtuvieron un promedio de reducción de E. coli de 1,05, 1,38 y 1,01 log10 UFC/cm2, respectivamente. De las muestras tomadas ninguna obtuvo resultados positivos para Salmonella spp. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de eficacia, el bajo costo a concentraciones de 0,9 ± 2 % y las ventajas de manipulación, se recomienda la implementación de ácido láctico como desinfectante de canales dentro de las instalaciones de frigoríficos de bovinos, y este tipo de prácticas se puede repetir en plantas de aves y porcinos.

  2. Prevalencia de Leptospirosis y su relación con la tasa de gestación en bovinos de la zona centro de Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Prisciliano Zárate Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La reproducción bovina es afectada por varias enfermedades infecciosas, entre las que se encuentran leptospirosis, brucelosis, campilobacteriosis, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueitis infecciosas bovina. Estas enfermedades infecciosas causan pérdidas económicas a la industria ganadera. El objetivo fue determinar la seroprevalencia de cinco especies de Leptospira: hardjo, inifap, paloalto, tarassovi y wolffi en siete unidades de producción (UP del estado de Veracruz, así como las razones de momios entre las seroprevalencias de las UP. Un objetivo adicional fue determinar si la presencia de Leptospira influye la tasa de gestación (TG. Método: Las UP fueron de los municipios de San Rafael, Medellín y Cotaxtla. Se tomaron muestras de sangre de vacas Bos taurus x Bos indicus. Los análisis serológicos para determinar la presencia de Leptospiras se realizaron con la prueba de microaglutinación en placa. Se consideraron como positivos los animales con títulos mayores que 1:100. Los análisis de seroprevalencia se realizaron con el procedimiento GENMOD de SAS, considerando un diseño completamente al azar, donde el factor de riesgo fue la UP, y asumiendo la función liga logit para una distribución binomial. El análisis de TG se realizó con el mismo procedimiento, asumiendo la misma función liga, pero el modelo incluyó los efectos de estatus zoosanitario (presencia/ausencia de Leptospiras y UP. Resultados: La variable UP fue significativa (P0.05 para la de L. inifap y L. wolffi. Las seroprevalencias promedio fueron: 89.3, 67.1, 40.0, 15.9 y 10.0% para L. inifap, L. hardjo, L. paloalto, L. tarassovi y L. wolffi, respectivamente. El estatus zoosanitario y UP no afectaron (P>0.05 la TG. La TG promedio de las siete UP fue 50.5% Discusión o Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en el presente trabajo muestran que las cinco especies de Leptospira estudiadas se encuentran presentes en todas las unidades de producci

  3. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

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    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  4. What makes a marketing campaing a viral success? : A descriptive model exploring the mechanisms of viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Stålnacke Larsson, Richard; Odén, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    What makes some marketing campaigns so immensely big and well known when they are marketed through social media or with a viral approach? How can a company reach out to customers through viral marketing and how can they make use of today’s social media to achieve it? In this article we will try to understand and further explore what a campaign have to accomplish in order to achieve a viral spread, using a descriptive model which uses a number of factors and terms necessary in order to properl...

  5. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  6. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensitivity, and high specificity. Nonetheless, the application of each diagnostic method is completely dependent on viral agent. Conclusions: Despite rapidity, automation, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, high sensitivity, and high specificity of molecular techniques, each type of molecular technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25789132

  7. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  9. Viral entry pathways: the example of common cold viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    For infection, viruses deliver their genomes into the host cell. These nucleic acids are usually tightly packed within the viral capsid, which, in turn, is often further enveloped within a lipid membrane. Both protect them against the hostile environment. Proteins and/or lipids on the viral particle promote attachment to the cell surface and internalization. They are likewise often involved in release of the genome inside the cell for its use as a blueprint for production of new viruses. In the following, I shall cursorily discuss the early more general steps of viral infection that include receptor recognition, uptake into the cell, and uncoating of the viral genome. The later sections will concentrate on human rhinoviruses, the main cause of the common cold, with respect to the above processes. Much of what is known on the underlying mechanisms has been worked out by Renate Fuchs at the Medical University of Vienna.

  10. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co‐detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  13. Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in West Africa- Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to contain the Ebola epidemic. Key words: Ebola, viral hemorrhagic fever, West Africa, lessons, Uganda .... the corresponding surveillance systems for detecting priority diseases. ... A major outbreak of Yellow Fe- ver was reported in five ...

  14. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp-a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  15. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  16. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J.; Forrest, M. Laird; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that “fits-all” cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications. PMID:23099792

  17. Economic and legal conceptual framework of viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Marija; Jovanović-Tončev Melita; Džamić Vladimir; Knežević Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and online communications are modern, and perhaps the most common form of communication between individuals and legal entities, and thus have become one of the most used ways of market communication. Viral marketing is evolving into the dominant form of marketing and exchange of information for the purpose of advertising, promoting, or achieving other goals. In this paper we present and analyse the phenomenon of viral marketing-its purpose, effects, and power of influence, and disc...

  18. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  19. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  20. The Impact Of Viral Marketing On Corporate Brand Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of viral marketing on corporate brand reputation. The study aimed to analyse and evaluate the use of viral marketing and the impact it has on the reputation of corporate branding of South African companies. The study was conducted in four South African provinces. The sample consisted of 75 companies, selected using a stratified sampling method, with respondents completing a five-point Likert scale questionnaire with the assistance of an interviewer. The result...

  1. Viral evasion of intracellular DNA and RNA sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U.

    2016-01-01

    The co-evolution of viruses with their hosts has led to the emergence of viral pathogens that are adept at evading or actively suppressing host immunity. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are key components of antiviral immunity that detect conserved molecular features of viral pathogens and initiate signalling that results in the expression of antiviral genes. In this Review, we discuss the strategies that viruses use to escape immune surveillance by key intracellular sensors of viral RNA or DNA, with a focus on RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Such viral strategies include the sequestration or modification of viral nucleic acids, interference with specific post-translational modifications of PRRs or their adaptor proteins, the degradation or cleavage of PRRs or their adaptors, and the sequestration or relocalization of PRRs. An understanding of viral immune-evasion mechanisms at the molecular level may guide the development of vaccines and antivirals. PMID:27174148

  2. The Immunoproteasome and Viral Infection: A Complex Regulator of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Katherine McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During viral infection, proper regulation of immune responses is necessary to ensure successful viral clearance with minimal host tissue damage. Proteasomes play a crucial role in the generation of antigenic peptides for presentation on MHC class I molecules, and thus activation of CD8 T cells, as well as activation of the NF-kB pathway. A specialized type of proteasome called the immunoproteasome is constitutively expressed in hematopoietic cells and induced in nonimmune cells during viral infection by interferon (IFN signaling. The immunoproteasome regulates CD8 T cell responses to many viral epitopes during infection. Accumulating evidence suggests that the immunoproteasome may also contribute to regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, activation of the NF-kB pathway, and management of oxidative stress. Many viruses have mechanisms of interfering with immunoproteasome function, including prevention of transcriptional upregulation of immunoproteasome components as well as direct interaction of viral proteins with immunoproteasome subunits. A better understanding of the role of the immunoproteasome in different cell types, tissues, and hosts has the potential to improve vaccine design and facilitate the development of effective treatment strategies for viral infections.

  3. Viral Infections in Pregnancy: A Focus on Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Nicole S

    2018-01-30

    During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier. Viral infections during pregnancy can also be spread through blood and vaginal secretions, and during the post-natal period, via breast milk. Thus, even in the absence of vertical transmission of viral infection to the fetus, maternal health can still be compromised and threaten the pregnancy. The most common viral DNA isolates found in gestation are adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and enterovirus. However, with the recent pandemic of Ebola virus, and the first documented case of a neonate to survive due to experimental therapies in 2017, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the changing roles and impacts of viral infection during pregnancy needs to be better understood, while strategies to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes need to be identified. This review focuses on the adverse impacts of viral infection during gestation, with an emphasis on Ebola virus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens 1-3 . In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects 3-5 . Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers 6-8 , allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  5. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-10

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip ('dendritic nanotip') with a single terminal nanotip ('single nanotip') for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10(4) particles ml(-1). The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  6. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip (‘dendritic nanotip’) with a single terminal nanotip (‘single nanotip’) for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4–5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10 4 particles ml −1 . The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles. (paper)

  7. Rituximab-related viral infections in lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Sercan; Harputluoglu, Hakan; Kilickap, Saadettin; Dede, Didem Sener; Dizdar, Omer; Altundag, Kadri; Barista, Ibrahim

    2007-07-01

    Recently, a human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody, rituximab, has been successfully used to treat cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some autoimmune diseases. However, several viral infections related to rituximab have been reported in the literature, but were not well characterized. To further investigate this topic, relevant English language studies were identified through Medline. There were 64 previously reported cases of serious viral infection after rituximab treatment. The median age of the cases was 61 years (range: 21 - 79). The median time period from the start of rituximab treatment to viral infection diagnosis was 5.0 months (range: 1 - 20). The most frequently experienced viral infections were hepatitis B virus (HBV) (39.1%, n = 25), cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) (23.4%, n = 15), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) (9.4%, n = 6), and others (28.1%, n = 18). Of the patients with HBV infections, 13 (52.0%) died due to hepatic failure. Among the 39 cases that had viral infections other than HBV, 13 died due to these specific infections. In this study, about 50% of the rituximab-related HBV infections resulted in death, whereas this was the case in only 33% of the cases with other infections. Close monitoring for viral infection, particularly HBV and CMV, in patients treated with rituximab should be recommended.

  8. Influence of bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BN in the shelf-life of refrigerated bovine meat Influência de bacteriocinas produzidas por Lactobacillus plantarum BN na vida útil de carne bovina refrigerada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela M. Fiorentini

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane molasses is a cheap by-product of the sugar cane industry. This product was used for growth and production of bacteriocins by Lactobacillus plantarum BN and evaluated for its potential application in the extension of the shelf-life of raw meat. Bovine meat cubes were dipped in the filtered and neutralized supernatant of the fermented broth (Treatment A and stored at 5ºC. Counts of psychrotrophic and mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, pH determination and total acidity were performed on meat cubes after 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. These determinations were also done in cubes dipped in a 6% lactic acid solution (treatment B and distilled water (treatment C. After 3 days, the counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms in cubes submitted to treatment A, B and C increased 0.38, 1.42 and 2.04 log cycles, respectively. The same happened with mesophilic microorganisms (0.31, 0.33 and 1.04 log cycles increases, respectively. On the sixth day, the psychrotrophic population in samples submitted to treatments A and B were 2.07 and 0.64 log cycles, respectively, lower than in the control samples (treatment C. Mesophilic microorganisms in these samples were 1.58 and 1.12 log cycles, respectively, lower than the controls. On the sixth day, only samples submitted to treatment A presented lower counts than those recommended by ICMSF as quality standards for raw meat (Melaço de cana de açúcar é um sub-produto barato da indústria açucareira. Esse produto foi empregado para o crescimento e produção de bacteriocina de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e avaliado quando a sua aplicação potencial no aumento da vida útil de carne crua. Cubos de carne bovina foram imersos por 5 minutos no sobrenadante filtrado e neutralizado dessa cultura (Tratamento A e mantidos a 5ºC. Contagens de microrganismos psicrotróficos e mesófilos, determinação de pH e de acidez total foram realizadas nas amostras após 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias. Essas determinações foram

  9. Infecção em humanos por varíola bovina na microrregião de Itajubá, Estado de Minas Gerais: relato de caso Human infection by the cowpox virus in the microregion of Itajubá, state of Minas Gerais: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carlos da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam três casos de varíola bovina em humanos, ordenhadores manuais em vacas infectadas, na microrregião de Itajubá, MG. As técnicas diagnósticas foram: isolamento de amostra semelhante ao vírus vaccinia de secreções das lesões cutâneas, reação em cadeia de polimerase, microscopia eletrônica e anticorpos para Orthopoxvirus no sangue dos pacientes.The authors report three human cases of cowpox infection, among farm workers who were manually milking infected cows, in the microregion of Itajubá, Minas Gerais. The diagnostic techniques used were: isolation of samples similar to the vaccinia virus, from skin lesion secretions; polymerase chain reaction; electronic microscopy; and antibodies for Orthopoxvirus in the patients' blood.

  10. Viral impacts on microbial carbon cycling in thawing permafrost soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubl, G. G.; Roux, S.; Bolduc, B.; Jang, H. B.; Emerson, J. B.; Solonenko, N.; Li, F.; Solden, L. M.; Vik, D. R.; Wrighton, K. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Sullivan, M. B.; Rich, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost contains 30-50% of global soil carbon (C) and is rapidly thawing. While the fate of this C is unknown, it will be shaped in part by microbes and their associated viruses, which modulate host activities via mortality and metabolic control. To date, viral research in soils has been outpaced by that in aquatic environments, due to the technical challenges of accessing viruses as well as the dramatic physicochemical heterogeneity in soils. Here, we describe advances in soil viromics from our research on permafrost-associated soils, and their implications for associated terrestrial C cycling. First, we optimized viral resuspension-DNA extraction methods for a range of soil types. Second, we applied cutting-edge viral-specific informatics methods to recover viral populations, define their gene content, connect them to potential hosts, and analyze their relationships to environmental parameters. A total of 781 viral populations were recovered from size-fractionated virus samples of three soils along a permafrost thaw gradient. Ecological analyses revealed endemism as recovered viral populations were largely unique to each habitat and unlike those in aquatic communities. Genome- and network-based classification assigned these viruses into 226 viral clusters (VCs; genus-level taxonomy), 55% of which were novel. This increases the number of VCs by a third and triples the number of soil viral populations in the RefSeq database (currently contains 256 VCs and 316 soil viral populations). Genomic analyses revealed 85% of the genes were functionally unknown, though 5% of the annotatable genes contained C-related auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs; e.g. glycoside hydrolases). Using sequence-based features and microbial population genomes, we were able to in silico predict hosts for 30% of the viral populations. The identified hosts spanned 3 phyla and 6 genera but suggested these viruses have species-specific host ranges as >80% of hosts for a given virus were in the same

  11. VirSorter: mining viral signal from microbial genomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Simon; Enault, Francois; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome), new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs) of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages). Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs) as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision) on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made available through the i

  12. VirSorter: mining viral signal from microbial genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome, new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages. Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made

  13. Evolution of approaches to viral safety issues for biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiniecki, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Approaches to viral safety issues for biological products have evolved during the past 50+ years. The first cell culture products (viral vaccines) relied largely on the use of in vitro and in vivo virus screening assays that were based upon infectivity of adventitious viral agents. The use of Cohn fractionation and pasteurization by manufacturers of plasma derivatives introduced the concepts that purification and treatment with physical and chemical agents could greatly reduce the risk of viral contamination of human albumin and immunoglobulin products. But the limitations of such approaches became clear for thermolabile products that were removed early in fractionation such as antihemophilic factors, which transmitted hepatitis viruses and HIV-1 to some product recipients. These successes and limitations were taken into account by the early developers of recombinant DNA (rDNA)-derived cell culture products and by regulatory agencies, leading to the utilization of cloning technology to reduce/eliminate contamination due to human viruses and purification technologies to physically remove and inactivate adventitious and endogenous viruses, along with cell banking and cell bank characterization for adventitious and endogenous viruses, viral screening of biological raw materials, and testing of cell culture harvests, to ensure virus safety. Later development and incorporation of nanofiltration technology in the manufacturing process provided additional assurance of viral clearance for safety of biotechnology products. These measures have proven very effective at preventing iatrogenic infection of recipients of biotechnology products; however, viral contamination of production cell cultures has

  14. The Pacific Ocean virome (POV: a marine viral metagenomic dataset and associated protein clusters for quantitative viral ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie L Hurwitz

    Full Text Available Bacteria and their viruses (phage are fundamental drivers of many ecosystem processes including global biogeochemistry and horizontal gene transfer. While databases and resources for studying function in uncultured bacterial communities are relatively advanced, many fewer exist for their viral counterparts. The issue is largely technical in that the majority (often 90% of viral sequences are functionally 'unknown' making viruses a virtually untapped resource of functional and physiological information. Here, we provide a community resource that organizes this unknown sequence space into 27 K high confidence protein clusters using 32 viral metagenomes from four biogeographic regions in the Pacific Ocean that vary by season, depth, and proximity to land, and include some of the first deep pelagic ocean viral metagenomes. These protein clusters more than double currently available viral protein clusters, including those from environmental datasets. Further, a protein cluster guided analysis of functional diversity revealed that richness decreased (i from deep to surface waters, (ii from winter to summer, (iii and with distance from shore in surface waters only. These data provide a framework from which to draw on for future metadata-enabled functional inquiries of the vast viral unknown.

  15. The Pacific Ocean virome (POV): a marine viral metagenomic dataset and associated protein clusters for quantitative viral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria and their viruses (phage) are fundamental drivers of many ecosystem processes including global biogeochemistry and horizontal gene transfer. While databases and resources for studying function in uncultured bacterial communities are relatively advanced, many fewer exist for their viral counterparts. The issue is largely technical in that the majority (often 90%) of viral sequences are functionally 'unknown' making viruses a virtually untapped resource of functional and physiological information. Here, we provide a community resource that organizes this unknown sequence space into 27 K high confidence protein clusters using 32 viral metagenomes from four biogeographic regions in the Pacific Ocean that vary by season, depth, and proximity to land, and include some of the first deep pelagic ocean viral metagenomes. These protein clusters more than double currently available viral protein clusters, including those from environmental datasets. Further, a protein cluster guided analysis of functional diversity revealed that richness decreased (i) from deep to surface waters, (ii) from winter to summer, (iii) and with distance from shore in surface waters only. These data provide a framework from which to draw on for future metadata-enabled functional inquiries of the vast viral unknown.

  16. Viral-specific T-cell transfer from HSCT donor for the treatment of viral infections or diseases after HSCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, C; Wang, Y; Reppel, L; D'aveni, M; Campidelli, A; Decot, V; Bensoussan, D

    2018-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative option for treatment of some malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. However, post-HSCT patients are severely immunocompromised and susceptible to viral infections, which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although antiviral agents are now available for most types of viral infections, they are not devoid of side effects and their efficacy is limited when there is no concomitant antiviral immune reconstitution. In recent decades, adoptive transfer of viral-specific T cells (VSTs) became an alternative treatment for viral infection after HSCT. However, two major issues are concerned in VST transfer: the risk of GVHD and antiviral efficacy. We report an exhaustive review of the published studies that focus on prophylactic and/or curative therapy by donor VST transfer for post-HSCT common viral infections. A low incidence of GVHD and a good antiviral efficacy was observed after adoptive transfer of VSTs from HSCT donor. Viral-specific T-cell transfer is a promising approach for a broad clinical application. Nevertheless, a randomized controlled study in a large cohort of patients comparing antiviral treatment alone to antiviral treatment combined with VSTs is still needed to demonstrate efficacy and safety.

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de erva-cidreira e manjericão frente a bactérias de carnes bovinas
    Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cidreira-herb and basil against bacteria from bovine meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. SANTOS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana, in vitro, dos óleos essenciais extraídos de Lippia alba (Mill N. E. Brown e Ocimum basilicum frente a microrganismos isolados de carnes bovinas. Os óleos foram extraídos por hidrodestilação e caracterizados quanto à composição por cromatografi a gasosa. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida mínima dos óleos (CBM foram determinadas pelo método de microplacas utilizando concentrações de óleos entre 0,39 e 25μg/mL. Foram utilizadas suspensões de diferentes cepas de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. na concentração de 0,5x104 UFC/mL. O óleo de Lippia alba N.E. Brown apresentou maior efi ciência como agente bacteriostático e bactericida frente às diferentes cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. isoladas de carnes bovinas do que o óleo essencial de Ocimum basilicum (cultivar “Maria Bonita”, o qual foi mais efetivo frente às cepas de Escherichia coli. Além disto, os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana em concentrações muito menores do que as obtidas por outros pesquisadores.

  18. Viral Genome DataBase: storing and analyzing genes and proteins from complete viral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, D; Upton, C

    2000-05-01

    The Viral Genome DataBase (VGDB) contains detailed information of the genes and predicted protein sequences from 15 completely sequenced genomes of large (&100 kb) viruses (2847 genes). The data that is stored includes DNA sequence, protein sequence, GenBank and user-entered notes, molecular weight (MW), isoelectric point (pI), amino acid content, A + T%, nucleotide frequency, dinucleotide frequency and codon use. The VGDB is a mySQL database with a user-friendly JAVA GUI. Results of queries can be easily sorted by any of the individual parameters. The software and additional figures and information are available at http://athena.bioc.uvic.ca/genomes/index.html .

  19. Virally encoded chemokines and chemokine receptors in the role of viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter J; Lüttichau, Hans R; Schwartz, Thue W

    2003-01-01

    of these or potent ways to alter an efficient antiviral response to a weak Th2-driven response. Examples here are the chemokine scavenging by US28, attractance of Th2 cells and regulatory cells by vMIP1-3 and the selective engaging of CCR8 by MC148. Important insights into viral pathology and possible targets...... for antiviral therapies have been provided by UL33, UL78 and in particular ORF74 and the chances are that many more will follow. In HHV8 vMIP-2 and the chemokine-binding proteins potent anti-inflammatory agents have been provided. These have already had their potential demonstrated in animal models and may...

  20. How to be good at being a virus : Biochemical constraints of viral life-history evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berngruber, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Viral reproduction depends on a careful balance of the viral life-cycle in time and magnitude. Maintenance of this balance is granted by the regulation of viral protein production and protein interactions. Viral evolution therefore hinges on the possibilities to optimize these protein interactions.

  1. Comparison of reproductive protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus provided by multivalent viral vaccines containing inactivated fractions of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare reproductive protection in cattle against the impacts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) provided by three different multivalent vaccines containing inactivated BVDV. Beef heifers and cows (n=122), seronegative and virus negative for BVDV, were randomly ...

  2. Life cycle synchronization is a viral drug resistance mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia A Neagu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections are one of the major causes of death worldwide, with HIV infection alone resulting in over 1.2 million casualties per year. Antiviral drugs are now being administered for a variety of viral infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and C, and influenza. These therapies target a specific phase of the virus's life cycle, yet their ultimate success depends on a variety of factors, such as adherence to a prescribed regimen and the emergence of viral drug resistance. The epidemiology and evolution of drug resistance have been extensively characterized, and it is generally assumed that drug resistance arises from mutations that alter the virus's susceptibility to the direct action of the drug. In this paper, we consider the possibility that a virus population can evolve towards synchronizing its life cycle with the pattern of drug therapy. The periodicity of the drug treatment could then allow for a virus strain whose life cycle length is a multiple of the dosing interval to replicate only when the concentration of the drug is lowest. This process, referred to as "drug tolerance by synchronization", could allow the virus population to maximize its overall fitness without having to alter drug binding or complete its life cycle in the drug's presence. We use mathematical models and stochastic simulations to show that life cycle synchronization can indeed be a mechanism of viral drug tolerance. We show that this effect is more likely to occur when the variability in both viral life cycle and drug dose timing are low. More generally, we find that in the presence of periodic drug levels, time-averaged calculations of viral fitness do not accurately predict drug levels needed to eradicate infection, even if there is no synchronization. We derive an analytical expression for viral fitness that is sufficient to explain the drug-pattern-dependent survival of strains with any life cycle length. We discuss the implications of these findings for

  3. Oxygen minimum zones harbour novel viral communities with low diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, Noriko; Prieto-Davó, Alejandra; Walsh, Kevin; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Angly, Florent; Akhter, Sajia; Barott, Katie; Busch, Julia; McDole, Tracey; Haggerty, J Matthew; Willner, Dana; Alarcón, Gadiel; Ulloa, Osvaldo; DeLong, Edward F; Dutilh, Bas E; Rohwer, Forest; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A

    2012-11-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are oceanographic features that affect ocean productivity and biodiversity, and contribute to ocean nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we describe the viral communities associated with the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) OMZ off Iquique, Chile for the first time through abundance estimates and viral metagenomic analysis. The viral-to-microbial ratio (VMR) in the ETSP OMZ fluctuated in the oxycline and declined in the anoxic core to below one on several occasions. The number of viral genotypes (unique genomes as defined by sequence assembly) ranged from 2040 at the surface to 98 in the oxycline, which is the lowest viral diversity recorded to date in the ocean. Within the ETSP OMZ viromes, only 4.95% of genotypes were shared between surface and anoxic core viromes using reciprocal BLASTn sequence comparison. ETSP virome comparison with surface marine viromes (Sargasso Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Kingman Reef, Chesapeake Bay) revealed a dissimilarity of ETSP OMZ viruses to those from other oceanic regions. From the 1.4 million non-redundant DNA sequences sampled within the altered oxygen conditions of the ETSP OMZ, more than 97.8% were novel. Of the average 3.2% of sequences that showed similarity to the SEED non-redundant database, phage sequences dominated the surface viromes, eukaryotic virus sequences dominated the oxycline viromes, and phage sequences dominated the anoxic core viromes. The viral community of the ETSP OMZ was characterized by fluctuations in abundance, taxa and diversity across the oxygen gradient. The ecological significance of these changes was difficult to predict; however, it appears that the reduction in oxygen coincides with an increased shedding of eukaryotic viruses in the oxycline, and a shift to unique viral genotypes in the anoxic core. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Mujer anciana con diarrea crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura González Vázquez

    2013-12-01

    Celiac disease is typically diagnosed in children and young adults with a history of diarrhea or malabsorption. However, this disease is increasingly detected in patients older than 55 years. For this reason, it seemed interesting to describe a new case in an elderly patient and to make a brief update

  5. Mujer joven con diarrea crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vares González

    2013-12-01

    Chronic diarrhea is frequent. The causes are multiple, so reaching the definitive diagnosis can be complex. The diagnostic delay can be deadly. We describe the case of a young woman who developed severe hypokalemia secondary to VIPoma, neuroendocrine tumor secreting vasoactive intestinal peptide, a hormone responsible for the clinical: watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria

  6. Viral kinetics of Enterovirus 71 in human abdomyosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; He, Ya-Qing; Yi, Li-Na; Zan, Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; He, Ming-Liang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To characterise the viral kinetics of enterovirus 71 (EV71). METHODS: In this study, human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells were infected with EV71 at different multiplicity of infection (MOI). After infection, the cytopathic effect (CPE) was monitored and recorded using a phase contrast microscope associated with a CCD camera at different time points post viral infection (0, 6, 12, 24 h post infection). Cell growth and viability were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in both EV71 infected and mock infected cells at each time point. EV71 replication kinetics in RD cells was determined by measuring the total intracellular viral RNA with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Also, the intracellular and extracellular virion RNA was isolated and quantified at different time points to analyze the viral package and secretion. The expression of viral protein was determined by analyze the levels of viral structure protein VP1 with Western blotting. RESULTS: EV71 infection induced a significant CPE as early as 6 h post infection (p.i.) in both RD cells infected with high ratio of virus (MOI 10) and low ratio of virus (MOI 1). In EV71 infected cells, the cell growth was inhibited and the number of viable cells was rapidly decreased in the later phase of infection. EV71 virions were uncoated immediately after entry. The intracellular viral RNA began to increase at as early as 3 h p.i. and the exponential increase was found between 3 h to 6 h p.i. in both infected groups. For viral structure protein synthesis, results from western-blot showed that intracellular viral protein VP1 could not be detected until 6 h p.i. in the cells infected at either MOI 1 or MOI 10; and reached the peak at 9 h p.i. in the cells infected with EV71 at both MOI 1 and MOI 10. Simultaneously, the viral package and secretion were also actively processed as the virus underwent rapid replication. The viral package kinetics

  7. Recent Advances in Non-viral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Huang, Leaf

    2011-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Non-viral vectors, typically based on cationic lipids or polymers, are preferred due to safety concerns with viral vectors. So far, non-viral vectors can proficiently transfect cells in culture, but obtaining efficient nanomedicines is far from evident. To overcome the hurdles associated with non-viral vectors is significant for improving delivery efficiency and therapeutic effect of nucleic acid. The drawbacks include the strong interaction of cationic delivery vehicles with blood components, uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), toxicity, targeting ability of the carriers to the cells of interest, and so on. PEGylation is the predominant method used to reduce the binding of plasma proteins with non-viral vectors and minimize the clearance by RES after intravenous administration. The nanoparticles that are not rapidly cleared from the circulation accumulate in the tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and the targeting ligands attached to the distal end of the PEGylated components allow binding to the receptors on the target cell surface. Neutral or anionic liposomes have been also developed for systemic delivery of nucleic acids in experimental animal model. Designing and synthesizing novel cationic lipids and polymers, and binding nucleic acid with peptides, targeting ligands, polymers, or environmentally sensitive moieties also attract many attentions for resolving the problems encountered by non-viral vectors. The application of inorganic nanoparticles in nucleic acid delivery is an emerging field, too. Recently, different classes of non-viral vectors appear to be converging and the features of different classes of non-viral vectors could be combined in one strategy. More hurdles associated with efficient nucleic acid delivery therefore might be expected to be overcome. In this account, we will focus on these novel non-viral vectors, which are classified into multifunctional hybrid nucleic acid vectors, novel

  8. Konjungtivitis Viral: Diagnosis dan Terapi di Pelayanan Kesehatan Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sitompul

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Konjungtiva adalah membran mukosa tipis transparan yang melapisi bagian anterior bola mata dan bagian dalam palpebral. Konjungtiva berfungsi sebagai salah satu komponen sistem perlindungan mata dari peradangan dan infeksi. Peradangan konjungtiva disebut konjungtivitis dan infeksi virus merupakan etiologi peradangan akut tersering pada konjungtiva. Virus yang menyebabkan konjungtivitis adalah adenovirus, herpes simpleks, herpes zoster, pox virus, myxovirus, paramyxovirus, dan arbovirus. Konjungtivitis sering terjadi bersama atau sesudah infeksi saluran napas dan umumnya terdapat riwayat kontak dengan pasien konjungtivitis viral. Gejala konjungtivitis viral berupa mata merah, sekret mata berair dan dapat disertai pembesaran kelenjar limfe. Gejala konjungtivitis viral biasanya ringan, dapat sembuh sendiri dan tidak disertai penurunan tajam penglihatan sehingga dapat ditatalaksana di pelayanan kesehatan primer. Meskipun demikian, terdapat kasus-kasus yang bersifat mengancam penglihatan sehingga perlu segera dirujuk ke rumah sakit atau dokter spesialis mata. Konjungtivitis viral sangat menular sehingga pasien perlu mendapat edukasi untuk mengurangi kontak langsung dan tidak langsung agar tidak menjadi sumber infeksi bagi lingkungannya. Konjungtivitis viral dapat sembuh sendiri, namun pemberian air mata buatan, antihistamin topikal, atau kompres dingin berguna untuk meredakan gejala. Terapi antiviral tidak diperlukan untuk konjungtivitis virus, kecuali untuk konjungtivitis herpetik. Kata kunci: epidemi, konjungtivitis, virus.     Viral Conjunctivitis: Diagnosis and Therapy in Primary Health Care   Abstract Conjunctivae is a transparent thin mucosal membrane covering the outer anterior eye and inner palpebrae. This structure is vital for eye defense from inflammation and infection. Inflammation occurring on the conjunctivae is called conjunctivitis and virus is one of the most common etiologic agent. Such viruses are adenovirus, herpes simplex virus

  9. ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCIRRHETINIC AND GLYCIRRHIZIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zarubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA and glycirrhizic (GA acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component

  10. The Impact of Viral Marketing Through Social Media on BCD's Consumer Brand Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Kusumadjaja, Levina

    2014-01-01

    Due to the continous increase in viral marketing's popularity phenomenon that causes viral marketing to later become a strategic requirement for marketers worldwide, a necessity to assess the effectiveness of viral marketing in achieveing its objectives in leveraging brand and products has emerged. This research was accomplished to study the impact of viral marketing through social media on consumer brand knowledge of a franchised Taiwanese bubble tea company, BCD. The company utilizes viral...

  11. Anti-viral RNA silencing: do we look like plants ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecellier Charles-Henri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anti-viral function of RNA silencing was first discovered in plants as a natural manifestation of the artificial 'co-suppression', which refers to the extinction of endogenous gene induced by homologous transgene. Because silencing components are conserved among most, if not all, eukaryotes, the question rapidly arose as to determine whether this process fulfils anti-viral functions in animals, such as insects and mammals. It appears that, whereas the anti-viral process seems to be similarly conserved from plants to insects, even in worms, RNA silencing does influence the replication of mammalian viruses but in a particular mode: micro(miRNAs, endogenous small RNAs naturally implicated in translational control, rather than virus-derived small interfering (siRNAs like in other organisms, are involved. In fact, these recent studies even suggest that RNA silencing may be beneficial for viral replication. Accordingly, several large DNA mammalian viruses have been shown to encode their own miRNAs. Here, we summarize the seminal studies that have implicated RNA silencing in viral infection and compare the different eukaryotic responses.

  12. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  13. Conditions for Viral Influence Spreading through Multiplex Correlated Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanqing; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up "new ideas." Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through "viral" influence spreading, producing cascades of followers and fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the rise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the rise of Facebook to the detriment of Myspace. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex-correlated graph with hidden "influence links." Analytical solutions predict percolation-phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers, as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of the local correlation function between multilayers, which we also confirm empirically. Ultimately, the theory predicts the conditions for viral cascading in a large class of multiplex networks ranging from social to financial systems and markets.

  14. Human viral pathogens are pervasive in wastewater treatment center aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisebois, Evelyne; Veillette, Marc; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Lavoie, Jacques; Corbeil, Jacques; Culley, Alexander; Duchaine, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater treatment center (WTC) workers may be vulnerable to diseases caused by viruses, such as the common cold, influenza and gastro-intestinal infections. Although there is a substantial body of literature characterizing the microbial community found in wastewater, only a few studies have characterized the viral component of WTC aerosols, despite the fact that most diseases affecting WTC workers are of viral origin and that some of these viruses are transmitted through the air. In this study, we evaluated in four WTCs the presence of 11 viral pathogens of particular concern in this milieu and used a metagenomic approach to characterize the total viral community in the air of one of those WTCs. The presence of viruses in aerosols in different locations of individual WTCs was evaluated and the results obtained with four commonly used air samplers were compared. We detected four of the eleven viruses tested, including human adenovirus (hAdV), rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV1). The results of the metagenomic assay uncovered very few viral RNA sequences in WTC aerosols, however sequences from human DNA viruses were in much greater relative abundance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Tissue viral load variability in chronic hepatitis C.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, L

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard for assessing disease activity in chronic hepatitis C, but sampling error is a potential limitation. Whether sampling variability applies equally to viral load assessment as it does to histology is uncertain. To examine this, we compared viral load between right- and left-lobe biopsy specimens from patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Bilobe biopsies were taken from 16 patients who were serum positive for HCV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype was identified by reverse line probe hybridization. There was an absence of competing risk factors for infectious and other liver diseases in this patient group. Histology and hepatic viral load were assessed blindly. None of the patients had received antiviral therapy at the time of study. RESULTS: Detection of HCV in right and left lobes was concordant with serum positivity in all cases. The viral load between lobes was highly correlated (p = 0.0003, r = 0.79). In contrast, the histological activity indices of inflammation and fibrosis\\/cirrhosis were poorly correlated between lobes (p = 0.038, r = 0.60, and p = 0.098, r = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hepatic viral load variability does not suffer from the same degree of heterogeneity of sampling variability as does histology.

  16. Qualidade físico-química da carne bovina in natura aprovada na recepção de restaurante industrial / Physical and chemical quality of vacuum packed beef approved at reception in industrial restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Oliveira de Mesquita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os parâmetros físico-químicos da carne bovina in na-tura, embalada a vácuo, por meio de métodos analíticos de rápida execução. O estudo ocorreu em restaurante universitário de uma Instituição Federal de Ensino Superior, du-rante maio e junho de 2012. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas logo após a recep-ção das amostras. Os cortes utilizados foram os músculos: Coxão duro (Bíceps femoris; Contrafilé (Longissimus dorsi; Coxão mole (Semimembranosus; Patinho (Quadriceps femoris; Lagarto (Semitendinosus, fornecidos por frigoríficos. Na análise dos dados utilizou-se estatística descritiva (frequência e média e o teste Exato de Fisher para comparação entre variáveis categóricas. O perfil bioquímico indicou 40,0% das amostras consideradas em bom estado de conservação de acordo com o teste de resazurina, 53,3% apresentaram resultado negativo para prova de cocção, 16,7% foram consideradas como carne fresca pela prova de filtração, 90% apresentaram resultado negativo na prova de Nessler e 13,3% com pH 5,8-6,2. Conclui-se que o perfil físico-químico das carnes rece-bidas neste serviço de alimentação não apresenta plena conformidade com as normas do Ministério da Agricultura para carne in natura (não embalada. Considerando que a estabilidade das moléculas em produtos embalados a vácuo é alterada, sugere-se o desenvolvimento de normas específicas. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of fresh beef, packaged under vacuum, through fast analytical methods. The study took place at a university restaurant of a Federal Institution of Higher Education, during May and June of 2012. Physical and chemical analyses were made upon receipt. The mus-cles cuts used were: Biceps femoris; Longissimus dorsi; Semimembranosus; Quadriceps femoris; Semitendinosus

  17. Caracterização genética da raça bovina Crioulo Lageano por marcadores moleculares RAPD Genetic characterization of Criollo Lageano cattle by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Spritze

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização genética da raça bovina Crioulo Lageano por marcadores RAPD em comparação com as raças Holandesa e Nelore. Foram selecionados 43 primers, que geraram 77 bandas polimórficas. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco subgrupos de Crioulo Lageano (I a V, e um subgrupo em cada uma das raças Holandesa (VI e Nelore (VII. A maior parte da variância genética total (65,05% foi causada pela diferença de indivíduos dentro dos grupos, e o restante pelas diferenças entre grupos. A análise conjunta dos grupos I a V apresentou variabilidade genética entre grupos de 25,28% e dentro dos grupos de 74,72%. A diversidade gênica vem se mantendo ao longo das gerações no núcleo de conservação do Crioulo Lageano. A raça Holandesa apresentou a menor diversidade gênica (0,1204, e a Crioulo Lageano a maior (0,3154. A maior distância genética (0,3747 foi entre as raças Nelore e Holandesa. Os grupos de Crioulo Lageano apresentaram diferenças entre si e apenas alguns indivíduos de cada grupo posicionaram-se junto a outros grupos. A técnica RAPD é capaz de estimar a distância genética entre raças ou populações e de auxiliar na escolha de indivíduos, visando aos trabalhos de conservação de recursos genéticos.The objective of this study was to characterize genetically the Crioulo Lageano cattle breed, using RAPD markers and compare it to the Holstein and Nelore breeds. Forty three primers were selected, and they generated 77 polymorphic bands. Seven groups were studied: 5 subgroups of Crioulo Lageano (I to V and one each Holstein (VI and Nellore (VII. Using all groups, the greater part of the genetic variance (65.05% was due to differences within groups and the rest due to differences between groups. Using five Crioulo Lageano groups (I to V the results showed 25.28% variation between groups and 74.72% within groups. Genetic diversity has been maintained throughout the generations in this

  18. Situação epidemiológica da brucelose bovina no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul Epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Chate

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo para caracterizar a situação epidemiológica da brucelose bovina no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram definidos três estratos (regiões: Pantanal-corte, Planalto-corte e Planalto-leite, este último subdividido em Bolsão, Campo Grande e Dourados. Em cada estrato foram amostradas aleatoriamente propriedades e, dentro dessas, foi escolhido, de forma aleatória, um número pré-estabelecido de animais, dos quais foi obtida uma amostra de sangue. No total, foram amostrados 14.849 animais, provenientes de 1.004 propriedades. Em cada propriedade amostrada foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico para verificar suas características e também para detectar transtornos reprodutivos que poderiam estar associados à infecção brucélica. O teste utilizado foi o do antígeno acidificado tamponado. O rebanho foi considerado positivo se pelo menos um animal foi reagente à prova sorológica. Para o Estado, a prevalência de focos foi de 41,5% [36,5-44,7%]. As prevalências de focos e de animais infectados por estrato foram, respectivamente, de: 59,0% [52,8-64,9%] e 12,6% [9,1-17,2%] para o estrato Pantanal-corte, e 40,6% [35,8-45,5%] e 4,5% [2,1-9,0%] para Planalto-corte. No estrato Planalto-leite, a prevalência de focos foi de 33,1% [28,4-38,1%]. Os fatores de risco (odds ratios, OR associados à condição de foco foram: ter ≥500 vacas (OR = 2,46 [1,81-3,34], ocorrência de bezerros fracos (OR = 1,20 [0,87-1,65] e uso da inseminação artificial (OR = 0,71 [0,50-1,01].A study to characterize the epidemiological status of bovine brucellosis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul was carried out. The State was divided in three regions: beef cattle Pantanal, beef cattle Plateau, and dairy cattle Plateau. Herds were randomly sampled in each region and a pre-established number of animals were sampled in each of these herds. A total of 14,849 serum samples from 1,004 herds were collected. In each herd, it was applied an

  19. Efeito do pH e da hidrólise tríptica sobre as propriedades emulsionantes da globina bovina The effect of the pH and the tryptic hydrolysis on the emulsifying properties of bovine globin

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    Cleia Batista Dias ORNELLAS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de estudar o efeito do pH e da ação da tripsina sobre as propriedades emulsionantes da globina bovina, extraída pelo método da acetona acidificada, foram determinados neste trabalho, a capacidade emulsionante (EC, o índice de atividade emulsionante (EAI e a estabilidade da emulsão (ES. Testaram-se os valores de pH de 3,0 a 8,0 e os tempos de hidrólise de 5,0 a 60 min. Os dados obtidos indicam que os maiores valores de EC e ES foram obtidos no pH 5,0 e 6,0, respectivamente, correspondente à faixa de alta solubilidade da proteína. Por outro lado, o EAI, além de apresentar um máximo no pH 3,0, foi igualmente elevado nos valores de pH 7,0 e 8,0, situados na zona onde a globina é praticamente insolúvel. A hidrólise tríptica, nas condições empregadas, contribuiu para melhorar a EC, em toda a faixa de pH estudada, enquanto que para o EAI somente foi benéfico em pH 4,0 e 5,0. No caso da ES, este tratamento enzimático não foi vantajoso, promovendo melhoras apenas no pH 7,0, onde a proteína é insolúvel, e somente após 60 min de hidrólise.The effect of the pH and of the trypsin on the emulsifying properties of bovine globin, extracted by the acidified acetone method, was studied. The emulsifying capacity (EC, the emulsifying activity index (EAI and the emulsion stability (ES were determined at pH varying from 3.0 to 8.0 and employing hydrolysis times from 5 to 60 min. The highest vaules for EC and ES were obtained at pH 5.0 and 6.0, respectively, corresponding to the range of large protein solubility. On the other hand, the EAI was higher at pH 3.0 and also at pH 7.0 and 8.0, where the protein is insoluble. The tryptic hydrolysis produced an increase in EC, in all pH ranges studied, while for the EAI the same effect was observed only in pH 4.0 and 5.0, and for ES at pH 7.0 after 60 min of hydrolysis.

  20. Estudo da resposta tissular à endoprótese recoberta de jugular bovina em veia cava inferior de suínos Bovine jugular covered stent-graft implanted in swine inferior vena cava - a study of tissue response

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    Cristina Ribeiro Riguetti Pinto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a resposta tissular a uma endoprótese, com cobertura biológica heteróloga, implantada em veia cava inferior de suínos. MÉTODO: Desenvolvemos uma endoprótese auto-expansível, revestida com um segmento de jugular bovina, conservada por processo L-hydro e suturada em um stent de aço inoxidável 316L. O dispositivo introdutor utilizado foi a bainha de liberação da endoprótese aórtica Taheri-Leonhardt (Flórida, EUA. Foram implantadas endopróteses em 10 suínos, todas na veia cava infra-renal. Os animais foram submetidos à flebografia peroperatória. À necropsia, após 2 meses, cada endoprótese foi retirada em bloco e analisada macroscopicamente, visando a avaliação da perviedade, aderência aos tecidos vizinhos e incorporação à parede venosa; e, histopatologicamente, visando a resposta histológica ao enxerto. RESULTADOS: Na análise macroscópica, todas as endopróteses encontravam-se pérvias e totalmente incorporadas à parede venosa, porém seis apresentavam trabeculações grosseiras no seu interior e quatro algum grau de fibrose perivascular. Três animais desenvolveram linfocele, uma retroperitoneal e as outras na parede abdominal. No estudo histopatológico, observamos reação inflamatória granulomatosa tipo corpo estranho em todos os casos, sendo predominante na camada média (80%. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo estudado apresentou baixa trombogenicidade, corroborando com a eficácia do meio de conservação e material escolhidos; porém, baixa biocompatibilidade, provavelmente pelo obstáculo imunológico dos xenoenxertos e resposta tissular exagerada do território venoso.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tissue response to a bovine jugular vein covered stent when implanted in the swine inferior vena cava. METHOD: We developed a self-expanding stent, using a segment of L-hydro conserved bovine jugular vein, which was trimmed and sutured to a 316L stainless steel stent. We used the Taheri-Leonhardt delivery system for

  1. Digital-image analysis to predict weight and yields of boneless subprimal beef cuts Análise de imagem digital para a previsão de pesos e rendimentos de cortes de carne bovina

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    Gustavo Adolfo Teira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, beef carcass evaluation for grading or research purposes has relied upon subjective visual scores, and manually taken measurements, but in recent times there has been a growing interest in new technologies capable of improving accuracy of estimates. Equations to predict weight and yield of beef pistol subprimal cuts were developed in this work using digital image analysis (VIA of the 12th rib steak. Equations to predict total pistol subprimal cuts weight (CUTS had coefficients of determination (CD of 0.84, or 0.87 to 0.88, when the independent variables were the VIA parameters and the half carcass weight (HC or the total pistol weight (TP, respectively. The predicted values for the total seven subprimal cuts, as a percentage of half carcass weight (CUTS%, presented CD values ranging from 0.37 to 0.47, or 0.21 to 0.31, using HC or TP as a principal independent variable. Likewise, the equation for weight of the individual subprimal cuts had CD values ranging from 0.40 to 0.72, or 0.43 to 0.74 using HC or TP, respectively. In this research, the developed VIA procedure has demonstrated good repeatability and accuracy to estimate the total pistol subprimal weights, and some individual subprimal weights.Por várias décadas, a avaliação de carcaça bovina em sistemas de tipificação ou em pesquisas tem dependido de escores subjetivos e medidas obtidas manualmente, mas ultimamente tem havido um crescente interesse por novas tecnologias capazes de aumentar a acurácia das estimativas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver equações para a previsão de pesos e rendimentos de cortes bovinos, através da análise de imagem digital (VIA de uma seção do contrafilé da 12ª costela. As equações de previsão do peso dos cortes do traseiro especial (CUTS apresentaram coeficientes de determinação (CD de 0,84 e de 0,87 – 0,88, quando as variáveis independentes usadas eram os parâmetros VIA e o peso da meia carcaça (HC ou

  2. Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis Detecção de resistência a meticilina e produção do fator slime por Staphylococcus aureus em mastite bovina

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    Alper Ciftci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect methicillin resistant and slime producing Staphylococcus aureus in cases of bovine mastitis. A triplex PCR was optimized targetting 16S rRNA, nuc and mecA genes for detection of Staphylococcus species, S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively. Furthermore, for detection of slime producing strains, a PCR assay targetting icaA and icaD genes was performed. In this study, 59 strains were detected as S. aureus by both conventional tests and PCR, and 13 of them were found to be methicillin resistant and 4 (30.7% were positive for mecA gene. Although 22 of 59 (37.2% S. aureus isolates were slime-producing in Congo Red Agar, in PCR analysis only 15 were positive for both icaA and icaD genes. Sixteen and 38 out of 59 strains were positive for icaA and icaD gene, respectively. Only 2 of 59 strains were positive for both methicillin resistance and slime producing, phenotypically, suggesting lack of correlation between methicillin resistance and slime production in these isolates. In conclusion, the optimized triplex PCR in this study was useful for rapid and reliable detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus. Furthermore, only PCR targetting icaA and icaD may not sufficient to detect slime production and further studies targetting other ica genes should be conducted for accurate evaluation of slime production characters of S. aureus strains.Este estudo objetivou a detecção de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina e produtor do fator slime em casos de mastite bovina. Um PCR triplex foi otimizado, com alvo no genes 16SrRNA, nuc e mecA para detecção de Staphylococcus spp, S. aureus e resistencia a meticilina, respectivamente. Para detecção das cepas produtoras do fator slime, empregou-se um PCR com alvo nos genes icaA e icaD. No estudo, 59 cepas foram identificadas como S. aureus por testes convencionais e PCR, sendo 13 resistentes a meticilina e quatro positivas para o gene mecA. Embora 22 das 59 cepas

  3. Variabilidades fenotípica e genotípica de estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em casos de mastite subclínica bovina Phenotypic and genotypic variabilities of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis

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    Luciano Menezes Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidas a PCR-Ribotipagem e aos testes de sensibilidade in vitro frente a 12 antimicrobianos 77 estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em amostras de leite procedentes de 40 vacas da raça holandesa que apresentaram mastite subclínica, em uma propriedade rural localizada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos revelaram quatro diferentes padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos, sendo observada a predominância de resistência à lincomicina entre 19 (24,7% estirpes de S.aureus. As 58 (75,3% estirpes restantes foram sensíveis aos 12 antimicrobianos testados. A PCR-ribotipagem revelou a ocorrência de nove padrões genotípicos distintos, além de apresentar uma capacidade discriminatória maior (D = 0,82 que a obtida nos antibiogramas (D = 0,42. Entre as 19 estirpes resistentes aos antimicrobianos, 14 (73,7% foram agrupadas em três padrões de ribotipagem e, destas, 13 (92,9% apresentaram resistência à eritromicina e à lincomicina, isoladamente ou em associação. O grande número de ribotipos e de padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos observados nesta propriedade demonstrou que há grande heterogeneidade genética em populações naturais de S. aureus, fato este que deve ser levado em consideração em programas de controle da mastite bovina.Seventy-seven S. aureus strains, isolated in milk samples obtained from 40 Holstein cows suffering from subclinical mastitis in a dairy herd in the state of São Paulo - Brazil, were undergone to PCR-ribotyping and in vitro susceptibility testing to 12 antimicrobial drugs. PCR-ribotyping revealed nine different patterns and presented a higher discriminatory power (D = 0.82 in comparison with the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility test (D = 0.42. Moreover,, the results showed four antibiotic resistance patterns, with the resistance to lincomycin being the most predominant and comprising 19 (24.7% S. aureus strains. The other 58 (75.3% isolates were sensitive to all

  4. Imunidade inata da glândula mamária bovina: resposta à infecção Innate immunity of the bovine mammary gland: response to infection

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    Deolinda Maria Vieira Filha Carneiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A imunidade na glândula mamária pode ser classificada, assim como em outros sistemas, em inata ou inespecífica e adaptativa ou específica. A imunidade inata é a defesa predominante durante os estágios iniciais da infecção. As respostas inespecíficas estão presentes no local da infecção ou são ativadas rapidamente por numerosos estímulos e não aumentam pela exposição repetida ao mesmo agente etiológico. O primeiro obstáculo enfrentado por um patógeno para adentrar o úbere é composto pela barreira formada pelo esfíncter do teto e pelo tampão de queratina formado pelo epitélio queratinizado. Uma vez que o microrganismo tenha atravessado o canal do teto e alcançado a cisterna mamária, passam a atuar diversos fatores solúveis e celulares. Dentre os fatores solúveis, estão presentes: lactoperoxidase, sistema complemento, citocinas, lactoferrina, lisozima e NAGase. As defesas celulares inespecíficas na glândula mamária são representadas pelos neutrófilos, pelos macrófagos e pelas células natural killer. Na medida em que esses mecanismos funcionam adequadamente, a maioria dos patógenos será rapidamente eliminada antes que o sistema imune específico seja ativado, sem resultar em alterações na quantidade ou qualidade do leite produzido. Uma melhor compreensão sobre os mecanismos de defesa da glândula mamária e suas alterações durante os períodos críticos da infecção é imprescindível para o desenvolvimento de métodos mais eficazes de profilaxia e controle da mastite, a principal doença dos ruminantes leiteiros. O presente estudo revisou os principais aspectos responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento da imunidade inata na glândula mamária bovina.The immunity in the mammary gland can be, as in other systems, classified in innate or adaptive immunity. The innate immunity is the predominant defense during the initial periods of infection. The non-specifics answers are present or are quickly activated in the

  5. Somatotropina Bovina Recombinante (rbST no desempenho e características corporais de bezerros mestiços alimentados em creep-feeding Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (Rbst on performance and body characteristics of creep-fed crossbred calves

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    Mário de Beni Arrigoni

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar o desempenho e características corpóreas de bezerros mestiços submetidos à somatotropina bovina recombinate, e alimentados em “creep-feeding”. Sessenta e quatro animais com 60 dias de idade foram divididos em quatro grupos: T1 (16 fêmeas com rbST, T2 (17 fêmeas controle, T3 (15 machos com rbST e T4 (16 machos controle. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado fatorial 2 X 2, sendo “A” o sexo e “B”, o rbST. Os animais foram alimentados a pasto “ad libitum” e em “creep-feeding”. A cada quatorze dias os animais receberam doses de rbST (0,15 mg kg/PV/dia de 60 até 210 dias. O peso vivo e o crescimento ósseo foram avaliados com pesagens e mensuração de perímetro de canela a cada 14 dias. Para se avaliar a área do músculo Longissimus dorsi (AOL e espessura de gordura (EGS foi realizada ultra-sonografia aos 150 e 210 dias. Os resultados demostram que não houve diferença signicativa (p > 0,05 entre os machos para o ganho de peso, mas para as fêmeas houve diferença (p 0,05 entre os animais rbST e controle, mas houve diferença entre os sexos. O uso de rbST (0,15 mg kg/Kg/dia aumentou em 9% o peso vivo das fêmeas alimentadas em creep-feeding.This study aimed to evaluate performance and body characteristics of crossbred calves submitted to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST and creep-feeding. Sixty-four animals aging 60 days were divided in four groups: T1 (16 heifers rbST, T2 (17 heifers control, T3 (15 steers rbST, T4 (16 steers control. Randomized factorial 2 x 2 design used as “A” sex and “B” rbST. The animals were fed in pasture “ad libitun” and creep. Every 14 days animals received rbST doses (0,15 mg kg/BW/day from 60 until 210 days. Body weight and bone development were evaluated by weighting and measurement of ankle perimeter every 14 days. For Longissimus dorsi muscle area and thickness fat, ultrasonography at 150 and 210 days was used. Results showed

  6. Struggle for space: viral extinction through competition for cells.

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    Cuesta, José A; Aguirre, Jacobo; Capitán, José A; Manrubia, Susanna C

    2011-01-14

    The design of protocols to suppress the propagation of viral infections is an enduring enterprise, especially hindered by limited knowledge of the mechanisms leading to viral extinction. Here we report on infection extinction due to intraspecific competition to infect susceptible hosts. Beneficial mutations increase the production of viral progeny, while the host cell may develop defenses against infection. For an unlimited number of host cells, a feedback runaway coevolution between host resistance and progeny production occurs. However, physical space limits the advantage that the virus obtains from increasing offspring numbers; thus, infection clearance may result from an increase in host defenses beyond a finite threshold. Our results might be relevant to devise improved control strategies in environments with mobility constraints or different geometrical properties.

  7. Zika Fetal Neuropathogenesis: Etiology of a Viral Syndrome.

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    Zachary A Klase

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing Zika virus epidemic in the Americas and the observed association with both fetal abnormalities (primary microcephaly and adult autoimmune pathology (Guillain-Barré syndrome has brought attention to this neglected pathogen. While initial case studies generated significant interest in the Zika virus outbreak, larger prospective epidemiology and basic virology studies examining the mechanisms of Zika viral infection and associated pathophysiology are only now starting to be published. In this review, we analyze Zika fetal neuropathogenesis from a comparative pathology perspective, using the historic metaphor of "TORCH" viral pathogenesis to provide context. By drawing parallels to other viral infections of the fetus, we identify common themes and mechanisms that may illuminate the observed pathology. The existing data on the susceptibility of various cells to both Zika and other flavivirus infections are summarized. Finally, we highlight relevant aspects of the known molecular mechanisms of flavivirus replication.

  8. Zika Fetal Neuropathogenesis: Etiology of a Viral Syndrome

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    Klase, Zachary A.; Khakhina, Svetlana; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus epidemic in the Americas and the observed association with both fetal abnormalities (primary microcephaly) and adult autoimmune pathology (Guillain–Barré syndrome) has brought attention to this neglected pathogen. While initial case studies generated significant interest in the Zika virus outbreak, larger prospective epidemiology and basic virology studies examining the mechanisms of Zika viral infection and associated pathophysiology are only now starting to be published. In this review, we analyze Zika fetal neuropathogenesis from a comparative pathology perspective, using the historic metaphor of “TORCH” viral pathogenesis to provide context. By drawing parallels to other viral infections of the fetus, we identify common themes and mechanisms that may illuminate the observed pathology. The existing data on the susceptibility of various cells to both Zika and other flavivirus infections are summarized. Finally, we highlight relevant aspects of the known molecular mechanisms of flavivirus replication. PMID:27560129

  9. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Dolores Limongi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson’s disease (PD, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.

  10. Viral Interference and Persistence in Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses

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    Juan Santiago Salas-Benito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. However, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through Aedes and Culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. This establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the antiviral host response. Viral interference is a phenomenon whereby one virus inhibits the replication of other viruses, and this condition is frequently associated with persistent infections. Viral interference and persistent infection are determined by several factors, such as defective interfering particles, competition for cellular factors required for translation/replication, and the host antiviral response. The interaction between two flaviviruses typically results in viral interference, indicating that these viruses share common features during the replicative cycle in the vector. The potential mechanisms involved in these processes are reviewed here.

  11. Influenza A Virus-Host Protein Interactions Control Viral Pathogenesis.

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    Zhao, Mengmeng; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Shitao

    2017-08-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is a highly transmissible respiratory pathogen and represents a continued threat to global health with considerable economic and social impact. IAV is a zoonotic virus that comprises a plethora of strains with different pathogenic profiles. The different outcomes of viral pathogenesis are dependent on the engagement between the virus and the host cellular protein interaction network. The interactions may facilitate virus hijacking of host molecular machinery to fulfill the viral life cycle or trigger host immune defense to eliminate the virus. In recent years, much effort has been made to discover the virus-host protein interactions and understand the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we review the recent advances in our understanding of IAV-host interactions and how these interactions contribute to host defense and viral pathogenesis.

  12. Emmprin and KSHV: new partners in viral cancer pathogenesis.

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    Dai, Lu; Bai, Lihua; Lu, Ying; Xu, Zengguang; Reiss, Krys; Del Valle, Luis; Kaleeba, Johnan; Toole, Bryan P; Parsons, Chris; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    Emmprin (CD147; basigin) is a multifunctional glycoprotein expressed at higher levels by cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Through direct effects within tumor cells and promotion of tumor-stroma interactions, emmprin participates in induction of tumor cell invasiveness, angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance. Although its contribution to cancer progression has been widely studied, the role of emmprin in viral oncogenesis still remains largely unclear, and only a small body of available literature implicates emmprin-associated mechanisms in viral pathogenesis and tumorigenesis. We summarize these data in this review, focusing on the role of emmprin in pathogenesis associated with the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a common etiology for cancers arising in the setting of immune suppression. We also discuss future directions for mechanistic studies exploring roles for emmprin in viral cancer pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

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    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  14. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

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    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  15. The great escape: viral strategies to counter BST-2/tetherin.

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    Janet L Douglas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced BST-2 protein has the unique ability to restrict the egress of HIV-1, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, Ebola virus, and other enveloped viruses. The observation that virions remain attached to the surface of BST-2-expressing cells led to the renaming of BST-2 as "tetherin". However, viral proteins such as HIV-1 Vpu, simian immunodeficiency virus Nef, and KSHV K5 counteract BST-2, thereby allowing mature virions to readily escape from infected cells. Since the anti-viral function of BST-2 was discovered, there has been an explosion of research into several aspects of this intriguing interplay between host and virus. This review focuses on recent work addressing the molecular mechanisms involved in BST-2 restriction of viral egress and the species-specific countermeasures employed by various viruses.

  16. Human Lectins and Their Roles in Viral Infections

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    Christopher P. Mason

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate recognition of virus proteins is an important component of the immune response to viral pathogens. A component of this immune recognition is the family of lectins; pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that recognise viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs including viral glycoproteins. In this review we discuss the contribution of soluble and membrane-associated PRRs to immunity against virus pathogens, and the potential role of these molecules in facilitating virus replication. These processes are illustrated with examples of viruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and Ebola virus (EBOV. We focus on the structure, function and genetics of the well-characterised C-type lectin mannose-binding lectin, the ficolins, and the membrane-bound CD209 proteins expressed on dendritic cells. The potential for lectin-based antiviral therapies is also discussed.

  17. Pest control through viral disease: mathematical modeling and analysis.

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    Bhattacharyya, S; Bhattacharya, D K

    2006-01-07

    This paper deals with the mathematical modeling of pest management under viral infection (i.e. using viral pesticide) and analysis of its essential mathematical features. As the viral infection induces host lysis which releases more virus into the environment, on the average 'kappa' viruses per host, kappain(1,infinity), the 'virus replication parameter' is chosen as the main parameter on which the dynamics of the infection depends. We prove that there exists a threshold value kappa(0) beyond which the endemic equilibrium bifurcates from the free disease one. Still for increasing kappa values, the endemic equilibrium bifurcates towards a periodic solution. We further analyse the orbital stability of the periodic orbits arising from bifurcation by applying Poor's condition. A concluding discussion with numerical simulation of the model is then presented.

  18. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  19. Visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitenkov Vladislav Borisovich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate extent and nature of visual pathways involvement in children with acute viral encephalitis. METHODS: Thirty patients(age 5-12 yearswith acute viral encephalitis underwent visual evoked potentials(VEPinvestigation within 12 days from the appearance of the first signs of disease. Latency and amplitude of P100 peak were compared with normative data and between patients with varicella and tick-borne encephalitis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between children with these two forms of encephalitis. In the whole group in 40% of the cases signs of the visual cortex dysfunction(P100 amplitude loweringand mild slowing of the conductivity along the visual pathways(P100 latency lengtheningwere seen. In 3% of the cases retrobulbar optic neuritis was diagnosed. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that visual pathway have good endurance to the viral encephalitis anatomically, but functionally visual cortex is quite vulnerable towards general disturbances caused by this kind of illness.

  20. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Viral Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pmp; Handa, S K; Banerjee, A

    2006-10-01

    There was a rise in the number of viral hepatitis cases in a regimental training centre in Mar 2003 and an epidemic of viral hepatitis was suspected. The clinical case sheets and preliminary investigations carried out in the local military hospital (MH) were reviewed. A cross sectional descriptive epidemiological study was undertaken with survey odf the suspected sewage and water pipelines. A total of 36 cases occurred from Mar 2003 to Apr 2003. There was clustering in time and space suggesting common source epidemic. All the 36 serum samples tested for IgM anti HEV antibodies were positive. Exploration of the water pipelines revealed sewage contamination due to leakage in the pipeline passing close to the sewage line. The overall attack rate was 1.44%. The outbreak of viral hepatitis in the regimental training centre occurred due to sewage contamination of drinking water pipeline.