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Sample records for diarrea caracas venezuela

  1. Soil gas radon concentration across faults near Caracas, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Flores, N.; Urbani, F.; Carreno, R.

    2001-01-01

    SSNTD were used across tectonic features of different degree of activity and lithology in four localities north of Caracas, Venezuela. The homemade dosimeters with LR115 film were buried 20-30 cm in the ground. This cheap and low- tech method proved very useful to understand the tectonic features involved, measuring higher Radon concentration above traces of active faults while in old and sealed faults the results only show the effect of the surrounding lithology. Radon concentration range is 4.3 - 27.2 kB/m 3 . (Author)

  2. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  3. Chagas’ disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela as an epidemiological model

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    Servio eUrdaneta-Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas´ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, P. rufotuberculatus infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and humans detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine faeces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas´ disease reported the first proven cases of oral transmission of T. cruzi to humans; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology and Pharmacology, could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent

  4. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude

  5. LESIONES MÚSCULO ESQUELÉTICAS CATASTRÓFICAS EN CABALLOS PURA SANGRE DE CARRERA, CARACAS-VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Morales B., Abelardo; Bermúdez G., Víctor; García G., Francisco; Perdigón M., Miguel; Naranjo B., Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Se hizo un estudio clínico-patológico de las lesiones músculo-esqueléticas catastróficas ocurridas en pruebas públicas en el Hipódromo “La Rinconada”, Caracas, Venezuela, entre el 2000 al 2007. Se trabajó con 78 equinos Pura Sangre de Carrera con lesiones del aparato locomotor. Se colectó muestras de sangre para estudio hematológico, bioquímico y hormonal (paratohormona), así como muestras de orina para determinar niveles de fosfatos. Se les practicó la eutanasia debido a la severidad de las ...

  6. Frecuencia de enzimas asociadas a sensibilidad disminuida a betalactámicos en aislados de enterobacterias, Caracas, Venezuela Frequency of enzymes associated with reduced sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics in enterobacteria isolates, Caracas, Venezuela

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    Daniel Marcano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de los mecanismos enzimáticos asociados a sensibilidad disminuida a los antibióticos betalactámicos de amplio espectro en aislados de enterobacterias obtenidos de centros hospitalarios de Caracas, Venezuela. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal con enterobacterias aisladas de pacientes de ocho centros hospitalarios de Caracas, Venezuela, desde el 15 de octubre de 2009 al 15 de enero de 2010. La identificación se realizó mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales, y la susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos mediante antibiograma (Kirby-Bauer, según las normas de 2010 del Instituto de Estándares Clínicos y de Laboratorio. La detección de los genes de resistencia a betalactámicos se realizó mediante amplificación por reacción en cadena de polimerasa. RESULTADOS: De 1 235 aislados, 207 (16,8% mostraron resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación o a carbapenemes o a ambos. De esos, 93,8% presentaron fenotipo betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE; 4,3%, fenotipo AmpC derreprimido, y 1,9%, fenotipo carbapenemasa. La caracterización de los dos primeros fenotipos determinó que 36,7% eran tipo SHV; 22,3%, grupo CTX-M-1; 21,7%, tipo TEM; 5,2%, grupo CTX-M-1 + impermeabilidad; 4,5%, combinación de dos enzimas; 4,3%, grupo CTX-M-2; 3,4%, tipo PER, y 1,9%, tipo KPC. Se observó un predominio del tipo SHV en las cepas obtenidas de hospitales públicos y del grupo CTX-M-1, en los privados. CONCLUSIONES: De los mecanismos enzimáticos investigados, el tipo SHV fue el más frecuente, seguido del grupo CTX-M-1 y tipo TEM. Asimismo, se encontró un alto porcentaje de carbapenemasas tipo KPC. Este es uno de los pocos estudios multicéntricos realizados en Venezuela donde se evalúa la frecuencia de este tipo de mecanismo de resistencia a los antimicrobianos, incluida la caracterización fenotípica y molecular. Se demostró que los métodos de detección requieren una interpretaci

  7. Home/social environment and asthma profiles in a vulnerable community from Caracas: lessons for urban Venezuela?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulett, Arnaldo Capriles; Yibirin, Maria Gonzalez; Brandt, Román Barreto; García, Amaris; Hurtado, Dollys; Puigbó, Armando Perez

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is a significant public health problem in Venezuela affecting the predominantly urban and poor majority of the population. Information regarding home and the social environment, key elements in asthma, is found to be deficient in these deprived socioeconomic sectors. This study was carried out to depict a life with asthma in this context which has been served over the years by a National Asthma Control Program. A survey of families residing in a socioeconomically deprived community of Caracas was carried out with the assumption that this community reflects the image of a life with asthma emanating from our deprived urban areas. Home physical settings were inspected for the following items: moldy walls, floors, ceilings, windows, sewage, garbage disposal, running water, plumbing, electricity, telephone, construction debris, furniture, bathrooms, food storage, and home appliances. In addition, we also gathered information regarding smoking habits, fumes exposure, pets and/or animals, and sighting of roaches and/or rodents. The presence of people with asthma was observed and their status of control was assessed through the asthma control test (ACT). Comparisons were made between families with asthmatics and those without asthmatics. Randomly, 242 of 750 families (32.26%) were surveyed, with "head of family" providing information (75.6%) on most occasions. No significant association was found with respect to the previously explored items in those families with or without the presence of asthmatics. Medically diagnosed asthma was found in 14.91%, with ACT scores of <19 points in two-thirds of these adults and asthmatic children. Asthmatics reported symptoms occurring mostly during the night and an almost exclusive use of rescue medications. Families provided most treatments and children preferred to use the oral route for control medications. Significant work and school absenteeism were detected in more than 50% of these asthmatics. No physical home environmental

  8. Molecular characterization of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients in a Public Hospital in Caracas, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco Restrepo, Aura Dayana; Velásquez Nieves, Mariel Alexandra; Takiff, Howard

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria are amongst the most important causative agents of nosocomial infections worldwide. Isolates of this bacterium have been identified in Venezuela but little is known about their local spread. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of KPC-producing strains isolated from 2012 to 2013 in a public hospital in Caracas, Venezuela. Twenty-two K. pneumoniae clinical isolates phenotypically classified as KPC producing were subjected to PCR screening for the presence of bla KPC genes and their location within transposon Tn4401. The bla KPC PCR product was sequenced to identify the KPC alleles. Genotypic analysis was performed by means of repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Finally, conjugation and electroporation assays were used to determine whether the bla KPC genes were found in plasmids. All isolates contained the bla KPC-2 variant, and 21 of the 22 were associated with the Tn4401b isoform. The strains were distributed in 8 sequence types (ST), three of which were new. Conjugation and electroporation assays indicated that 95.5% (n=21/22) of the isolates contained the bla KPC gene in plasmids. This study on circulating bacterial strains and the identification of KPC alleles may help to understand the routes of dissemination and control their spread within this hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Frecuencia y causas de mortalidad en caballos pura sangre inglés de carreras en el hipódromo "La Rinconada", Caracas, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Abelardo; García, Francisco; Gomez, Marian; Leal, Luis; López, Pedro; Planas, Gilberto; Rodríguez, Carlos; Vallejo, Mariela; Morales, María

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la frecuencia y causas de muerte súbita o que conllevaron a la eutanasia de caballos de carreras Pura Sangre Inglés del Hipódromo “La Rinconada” en Caracas, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 129 casos de mortalidad, 69 en caballos y 60 en yeguas, de una población de 1900 equinos durante el año 2009, mediante necropsia y análisis hematológicos, bacteriológicos e histopatológicos. La mortalidad anual fue por lo tanto 7% con un promedio mensual de 11 equinos muertos. La frecuencia d...

  10. Edificio Ince - Caracas (Venezuela

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    Sanabria, Tomás José

    1971-08-01

    Full Text Available This project includes a tall building, headquarters of the owning organisation, a four storey block, used for professional training purposes, and an auditorium. In addition there is underground space used as car park, and a small plaza with gardens, meant as an open air exhibition space for sculptures. The structure of the buildings is reinforced concrete, and the curtain walls are of anodizod aluminium.El conjunto comprende: el edificio torre, sede de la Institución; un bloque de cuatro plantas, destinado para centro de formación profesional, y un auditorio. Hay, además, un sótano, que alberga: el estacionamiento de vehículos y zonas de instalaciones diversas, y una plaza tratada paisajísticamente y destinada a exposición permanente de escultura al aire libre. Su estructura es de hormigón armado y los cerramientos son de aluminio anodizado.

  11. Características etiológicas, clínicas y sociodemográficas de la diarrea aguda en Venezuela Etiological, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics of acute diarrhea in Venezuela

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    María I. Urrestarazu

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro ciudades de Venezuela se llevó a cabo un estudio para evaluar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y etiológicas de la diarrea aguda en niños menores de 5 años. Entre junio de 1993 y mayo de 1995 se estudiaron 2 552 niños con diarrea y 793 controles que fueron atendidos en el hospital. Para el análisis estadístico de los resultados se empleó la prueba exacta de Fisher. Los rotavirus fueron los agentes más importantes, tanto por su frecuencia (30% como por su asociación con la deshidratación (58%. Le siguieron en importancia Campylobacter spp. (13% y Escherichia coli serogrupos O clásicos (9%, pero su asociación con la diarrea solo fue estadísticamente significativa en los niños menores de 3 meses, hecho de particular importancia desde el punto de vista del tratamiento. Se confirmó la importancia de la edad como factor determinante de la prevalencia y gravedad de la diarrea.In four cities of Venezuela a study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. The study was done between June 1993 and May 1995 and involved children who were seen in a hospital, 2 552 with diarrhea and 793 controls. The Fisher exact test was used for the statistical analysis of the results. Rotaviruses were the most important agents, both in terms of their frequency (30% and their association with dehydration (58%. Following in importance were Campylobacter spp. (13% and Escherichia coli classical O serogroups (9%, but their association with diarrhea was only statistically significant among children less than 3 months old, a fact that is particularly important from the standpoint of treatment. The importance of age was confirmed as a determining factor in the prevalence and severity of diarrhea.

  12. Comportamiento sexual riesgoso en adolescentes y sus actitudes hacia individuos con VIH en la Parroquia 23 de Enero, Caracas, Venezuela Risky Sexual Behavior and Attitudes towards People with HIV of Adolescents from Parish 23 de Enero, Caracas, Venezuela

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    Rafael Antonio Broche Morera

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, desde enero de 2007 hasta enero de 2008, con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento sexual de riesgo en un grupo de adolescentes de la Parroquia 23 de Enero, del Distrito Metropolitano de Caracas, así como las actitudes desarrolladas por los mismos hacia individuos contagiados con VIH. El universo estuvo constituido por 1256 sujetos, de entre los que se seleccionó una muestra de 450 que se encuestaron anónimamente. Los resultados demuestran un predominio del comportamiento sexual riesgoso en el grupo de edades comprendido entre los 14 y los 17 años, y el estrato social bajo. Las prácticas sexuales presentaron una tendencia a las calificaciones negativas. Existe correspondencia entre la evaluación de las actitudes desarrolladas hacia las personas contagiadas con VIH y el comportamiento sexual individual de los adolescentes.From January 2007 to January 2008, we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study to characterize the risky sexual behavior and attitudes towards people with HIV of adolescents from Parish 23 de Enero, Metropolitan District of Caracas. Out of a universe of 1 256 adolescents, we selected a random sample of 450 who were surveyed anonymously. Results showed the risky sexual behavior of the group of age 14 - 17. Sexual practices trended towards negative evaluations. There is a correspondence between the evaluation of attitudes towards people with HIV and the individual sexual behavior of the adolescents.

  13. Conocimiento sobre VIH/SIDA por adolescentes de la Parroquia 23 de Enero. Caracas, Venezuela Knowledge of HIV/AIDS of Adolescents from Parish 23 de Enero, Caracas, Venezuela

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    Rafael Antonio Broche Morera

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, desde enero de 2007 hasta enero de 2008, con el objetivo de caracterizar los conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA en un grupo de adolescentes de la Parroquia 23 de Enero, del Municipio Libertador, en el Distrito Capital, de Venezuela. El universo estuvo constituido por 1256 sujetos, de entre los que se seleccionó una muestra de 450, que se encuestaron anónimamente. Los resultados arrojan precocidad en el inicio de las relaciones sexuales, así como un elevado diagnóstico de ITS. El grupo de edades más representativo en este sentido fue de 14 a 17 años. Se constató la escasa información sexual que reciben los adolescentes a través de los medios de comunicación, la escuela y la familia. Predominaron el nivel académico de primaria no terminada, estrato social bajo, tabaquismo y elevado consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. La categoría regular fue la más representada en la evaluación del conocimiento.A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to characterize the knowledge of HIV/AIDS of adolescents from Parish 23 de Enero, Libertador Municipality, Capital District, Venezuela, from January 2007 to January 2008. Out of a universe of 1 256 adolescents, we selected a random sample of 450 to be later surveyed anonymously. Results showed early sexual relations, and an elevated number of STD's diagnoses. The group of age 14 - 17 was the most representative, with little information provided by the mass media, school, and family. An unfinished elementary education, an elevated intake of alcohol and tobacco, and lower stratum of society were predominant aspects. Knowledge was mostly categorized as regular.

  14. Comportamiento social del mono capuchino común Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae en tres exhibiciones zoológicas de Caracas, Venezuela

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    Marie Charlotte López

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El confinamiento es una situación extrema para los primates con áreas de vivienda extensas, y su efecto sobre la conducta puede ser considerable. Cebus olivaceus es el primate más común en los zoológicos de Venezuela pero su conducta en esta condición no ha sido documentada. Para estimar el efecto del confinamiento sobre el comportamiento social de C. olivaceus, observamos tres grupos en zoológicos de Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar, que diferían en las condiciones de cautiverio. El grupo en Caricuao, podía desplazarse libremente en un área no cercada, mientras que en Parque del Este y El Pinar estaban en fosas relativamente pequeñas. Se determinó el repertorio de conductas sociales y la frecuencia, duración y tiempo dedicado por individuo a cada comportamiento. Se realizaron observaciones focales de cada individuo, barridos del grupo y observaciones ad libitum. Se estableció la dominancia relativa y las asociaciones afiliativas entre individuos. El repertorio de conductas sociales fue similar entre grupos y respecto a lo observado en condiciones naturales. Sin embargo, las conductas afiliativas fueron menos frecuentes pero más largas en el grupo de Caricuao, mientras que las conductas agonísticas fueron más frecuentes en Parque del Este y El Pinar. Además, el agonismo fue menos frecuente en los grupos observados que en la naturaleza. Las diferencias entre grupos se explican por la condición del cautiverio. Sugerimos que con el confinamiento incrementa la tensión social y la probabilidad de encuentros agonísticos, en contraposición, la afiliación reduciría esta tensión. Por otra parte, la convivencia prolongada, la imposibilidad de mantener distancias individuales óptimas o de migrar del grupo promoverían la reducción del agonismo, a largo plazo, lo que explicaría las diferencias con los grupos naturales. En los tres grupos hubo cierta estructura social (relaciones de dominancia, afiliaciones y

  15. Dos bancos en Caracas, Venezuela

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    Sanabria Equipo, Tomás José

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available 1. Three main zones can be differentiated in this building. The safety section (strong rooms, control and vigilance of valuables, etc., which is situated underground; the public section (ground and first floors; and the working staff departments, where operations, research and administrative tasks are attended to. These are located in the four top floors. This bank is one of the most important new features of the city, and helps towards the formation of a civic centre, involving the National Financial Centre. 2. In the second bank, the ground floor is taken up with public rooms and halls. The second floor contains the executive offices, and the remaining standard floors are available to let. At the top of the building there is a staff club. Some of the main features of this block are the sound use of the ground site, the plastic quality of the external surfaces, and the flexibility of the internal distribution.1. En este edificio podemos distinguir tres zonas principales: la de seguridad (cajas fuertes, custodia y vigilancia de valores, etc. Que ocupa gran parte de los sótanos; la destinada a atender al público —planta baja y entreplanta— y la zona de trabajo -con las oficinas, en las que se llevan a cabo funciones de tipo «operativo», de «investigación», y «ejecutivas»—, desarrollada en los cuatro pisos superiores. El edificio constituye uno de los más importantes elementos del nuevo paisaje urbano, origina un espacio cívico de gran significación y representa el Centro Financiero Nacional. 2. En este edificio, la planta baja alberga los espacios públicos del Banco; en la entreplanta están situadas las oficinas ejecutivas del mismo; y las restantes lantas «tipo» han sido dedicadas al «alquiler»; en la parte superior del edificio está situado el Club para los empleados del Banco. Sus características fundamentales son: el aprovechamiento racional del solar, el movimiento plástico de las fachadas y la flexibilidad de distribución interior.

  16. Novel approach for decentralized energy supply and energy storage of tall buildings in Latin America based on renewable energy sources: Case study – Informal vertical community Torre David, CaracasVenezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Jimeno A.; Schlueter, Arno

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the concept of a decentralized power system based on wind energy and a pumped hydro storage system in a tall building. The system reacts to the current paradigm of power outage in Latin American countries caused by infrastructure limitations and climate change, while it fosters the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) for a more diversified and secure electricity supply. An explicit methodology describes the assessment of technical, operational and economic potentials in a specific urban setting in Caracas/Venezuela. The suitability, applicability and the impacts generated by such power system are furthermore discussed at economic, social and technical level. - Highlights: ► We have modeled an innovative pico pumped hydro-storage system and wind power system for tall buildings. ► We conducted technical, economic and social analysis on these energy supply and storage alternatives. ► The energy storage system can achieve efficiencies within 30% and 35%. ► The energy storage is realistic and economic sensible in comparison to other solutions. ► The impacts of such a system in the current living conditions and safety issues of the building are minimum

  17. Armonización de las NIC/NIIF en las prácticas contables de entes emisores no financieros que cotizan en la Bolsa de Valores de Caracas, Venezuela

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    Oda Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación de tipo documental y empírica tiene el propósito de analizar la armonización contable material de las Normas Internacionales de Contabilidad (nic y las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (niif de los entes emisores no financieros; para ello, se abordó inicialmente el proceso de aplicación de las mismas en el nivel mundial, así como el proceso correspondiente en Venezuela. Se consultó el anuario estadístico de 2007 emitido por la Bolsa de Valores de Caracas; de un total de 49 empresas que aparecen en él, veinte corresponden al sector financiero y de seguros, y veintinueve al sector no financiero; de estas últimas se obtuvieron los estados financieros auditados comparativos de los años 2007-2006 de veinticinco empresas, que fue la muestra que se analiza. El análisis de los resultados indica que para la mayoría de las unidades estudiadas, en más del 70% las prácticas de contabilidad utilizadas por las empresas objeto de estudio coinciden con las disposiciones establecidas por las nic-niif. Sin embargo, se puede observar que de los 221 atributos examinados, 48% no aplica a las empresas objeto de estudio o no aparece la información en los elementos de los estados financieros; al aplicar el índice de Jaccard son excluidos de la base de datos para determinar la similitud.

  18. Diarrea y micronutrientes

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Zea; Theresa Ochoa

    2013-01-01

    La diarrea continúa siendo una causa importante de morbi-mortalidad en niños pequeños. Si bien el uso de las sales de rehidratación oral ha sido de gran ayuda para disminuir la mortalidad asociada a deshidratación, aún se requieren de estrategias efectivas para disminuir la morbilidad asociada a esta enfermedad. El zinc y la vitamina A son dos micronutrientes que han demostrado ser útiles en la prevención y tratamiento de la diarrea en niños. La suplementación de zinc actualmente es recomenda...

  19. Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The background notes by the U.S. State Department on Venezuela emphasize the unique economic conditions in this oil-rich nation, and include information on its people, geography, history, government politics, defense and foreign relations. Venezuela, located on the north coast of South America, has 17,791,000 people, growing at a rate of 2.7%. Infant mortality is 2.7/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Geography ranges from the scarcely populated highlands between the Orinoco river and Guyana, the Orinoco plains, to the populated Andes mountains and coast. 80% of the population is urban. Literacy is a priority at 88.4%; Technical and university education is increasing; emigration from other countries is common because of relatively good working conditions. Venezuela has a long history of self government, having become independent in 1921. Now the democratic constitutional government is effective in improving both internal and regional development and human rights. The economy is based on oil production and refining, as well as steel and aluminum, all nationalized industries. Self-sufficiency in agriculture is a national goal. Because of the rapid population growth rate, however, per capita income and GNP are stagnating.

  20. Edificio de viviendas residenciales, en Caracas (Venezuela

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    Beckhoff, P.

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a very well designed building, both in its internal distribution and inner and outer ornamentation. It has 12 storeys, and an outstanding feature of it is the exceptional landscaping of its terraces, and the very attractive aspect of the external elevations. There is every evidence of carefully and elaborate design, leading to a fine example of good taste and excellent architecture.Bien resuelto, desde el doble punto de vista de su distribución y ornatos exterior e interior, este edificio, de 12 plantas de altura, se distingue, además, por el tratamiento paisajístico de sus terrazas y por la composición estética de sus fachadas. Todo denota un cuidadoso y elaborado estudio, que ha conducido al logro de una muestra perfecta de buen gusto y de arquitectura ejemplar.

  1. El Pulpo. Caracas

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrecho valle donde el conquistador Diego de Losada fundó a Caracas, contenía hasta hace poco una población de 150.000 habitantes. Ni las distancias ni el tiempo preocupaban a los moradores. El peatón era todavía el dueño de la ciudad. Vivía cerca de su trabajo. Su traslado no se transformaba, como hoy, en pérdida de tiempo y gastos de energías.

  2. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  3. GMO Technology. Venezuelans' Consumers Perceptions: Situation in Caracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Antonio Pereira de Abreu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main benefits generated by the genetically modified organisms (GMO`s include greater yields harvested, foods with greater content of nutrients, vaccines, resistant plants to virus or plagues and resistant plant to high levels of salts in ground. However, there is a controversial discussion regarding its acceptation and welcoming and is missing information in regard the topic especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to measure the level of knowledge or acceptance towards GMO’s and biotechnology by consumer from Caracas, Venezuela. The researchers will use a survey that was previously applied to consumers from USA, Japan and some other South American countries. The results of the study demonstrated that Venezuelan’ consumers are misinformed about this topic; however, they are more informed about microbial contamination and pesticides than other topics.

  4. The Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: An Analysis of the Reasons Behind Venezuela’s Continuing Demands for Abrogation of the 1899 Anglo-Venezuelan Arbitral Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Universidad de los Andes. 1989. "Beice Ingreso a la OEA." Prensa Libre (Ciudad Guatemala,I Guatemala). January 9. 1991: 4. "Felize in... de las "Nuevas Tribus". Pue rto Ayvamcho). Territorlo Federal de Amazonias , Venozuela: Edicion del Comite Regaional del PartidoICerunista, de ...Suministro de Crudo a Republica Dominicana." E1 Universal (Caracas, Venezuela). August 17, 1990: 12. "Venezuela Propone Defensa de la Amazonia ."

  5. Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    sold to buyers in Western Europe and the United States. The most important Venezuelan exports in the 19th century were cocoa and coffee. In the 20th...confusion in the U.S. Congress over the difference between the Organiza- tion of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), of which Venezuela was not a...member, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), to which Venezuela belonged, the action remained in force even though Caracas had

  6. A Study of Venezuela’s Internal and External Threat and the United States Security Assistance Program in the Build-Up and Modernization of Her Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    percent of the popula- tion, leaving six percent of the population to other denominations; and (3) a literacy rate of 77 percent. The national language is...has focused on the improve- ment of Venezuela’s educational system. In 1958, the adult literarcy rate was 63 percent (20:320). Today the adult literacy ...hasta Marzo 1969. Oficina Central de Informacion . Caracas, Venezuela, 1969. 28. Penniman, Howard R. Venezuela at the Polls: The National Elections of

  7. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of 18 F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that 18 FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis

  8. En Caracas: una radio sin antena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Angola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuenta la experiencia única de la radio comunitaria Parque Central de Caracas (1994 donde al decir de su director y concesionario de la estación se necesitó compromiso, esfuerzo, romanticismo y comunidad. Creada como un sistema de seguridad y publicidad surgió por iniciativa de la Asociación de vecinos de la Etapa 1 donde viven más de 12 mil personas Funciona sin estar dentro de los patrones transmisor-Antena-Receptor, no se encuentra regulada por ninguna ley, son a decir de Marañón el medio de comunicación más libre del país donde la comunidad se expresa por sobre la economía, la técnica y la ley.

  9. Diarrea persistente: algunos factores de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyliam Díaz Fernández

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-longitudinal, con el propósito de evaluar algunos aspectos socioculturales en 75 niños menores de 2 años, que con diagnóstico de diarrea persistente, ingresaron en el Servicio de Enfermedades Diarreicas del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Dr. Angel A. Aballí" de Ciudad de La Habana, de julio de 1995 a marzo de 1996, ambos inclusive. Los resultados permiten afirmar que la mayoría de estos episodios acontecieron en lactantes y que el elevado índice de hacinamiento, malas condiciones higiénico-sanitarias de la vivienda y padres con nivel escolar medio, dominaron los antecedentes sociales de los niños estudiados.A descriptive-longitudinal study was conducted aimed at evaluating some sociocultural aspects in 75 children under 2 that due to persistent diarrhea were admitted in the Service of Diarrheal Diseases of the «Dr. Angel A. Aballí» Pediatric Teaching Hospital, in Havana City, from July, 1995, to March, 1996, including both. The results allow to assure that most of these episodes occurred in infants and that the high index of heaping, bad hygienic and sanitary conditions of the houses and parents with middle educational level predominated in the social background of the studied children.

  10. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martín Delgado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.

  11. INFECCIONES OPORTUNISTAS EN INDIVIDUOS VIH + HOSPITALIZADOS. HOSPITAL VARGAS DE CARACAS. 2005- 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lissete Franco Ricart

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la frecuencia de infecciones oportunistas y determinar cual es la más frecuente en pacientes VIH+ del Hospital Vargas de Caracas durante el período 2005 – 2006. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo y observacional. Lugar: Hospital “José María Vargas” de Caracas, Venezuela. Participantes: Pacientes ingresados con historia de VIH+ e infección oportunista. Intervención: Revisión de Historias Clínicas de archivo entre los años 2005-2006. Principales medidas de Resultados: Porcentajes y Medidas de Tendencia Central, tabuladas en una base de datos con ayuda del programa Microsoft Excel 2003 para Windows ®. Resultados: Se revisaron 120 historias; 83 cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. El promedio de edad fue 36,87 años; 59,04% correspondían al sexo masculino y 40,96% al sexo femenino. El 44,4% fueron infecciones respiratorias, 31,88% infecciones del SNC. Las infecciones más frecuentes: 24,64% Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 19,87% Toxoplasma gondii, 15,94% Candida albicans y 10,14% Pneumocystis jiroveci. En el 63,86% de los casos se encontraron dos o más infecciones simultáneas. El 64% de estos pacientes recibía tratamiento y el 46% era heterosexual no promiscuo. Conclusiones: Las alteraciones respiratorias constituyen la infección oportunista más frecuente en pacientes VIH+.

  12. Infecciones oportunistas en individuos VIH + hospitalizados. Hospital Vargas de Caracas. 2005-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Franco Ricart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la frecuencia de infecciones oportunistas y determinar cual es la más frecuente en pacientes VIH+ del Hospital Vargas de Caracas durante el período 2005 - 2006. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo y observacional. Lugar: Hospital "José María Vargas" de Caracas, Venezuela. Participantes: Pacientes ingresados con historia de VIH+ e infección oportunista. Intervención: Revisión de Historias Clínicas de archivo entre los años 2005-2006. Principales medidas de Resultados : Porcentajes y Medidas de Tendencia Central, tabuladas en una base de datos con ayuda del programa Microsoft Excel 2003 para Windows ®. Resultados : Se revisaron 120 historias; 83 cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. El promedio de edad fue 36,87 años; 59,04% correspondían al sexo masculino y 40,96% al sexo femenino. El 44,4% fueron infecciones respiratorias, 31,88% infecciones del SNC. Las infecciones más frecuentes: 24,64% Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 19,87% Toxoplasma gondii, 15,94% Candida albicans y 10,14% Pneumocystis jiroveci. En el 63,86% de los casos se encontraron dos o más infecciones simultáneas. El 64% de estos pacientes recibía tratamiento y el 46% era heterosexual no promiscuo. Conclusiones : Las alteraciones respiratorias constituyen la infección oportunista más frecuente en pacientes VIH+.

  13. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  14. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  15. Pronóstico de la diarrea por rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota-Hernández Felipe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la gravedad de la diarrea por rotavirus (RV y por no rotavirus. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal en 520 lactantes con diarrea aguda, efectuado entre octubre de 1994 y marzo de 1995 en siete centros del primer nivel de atención en cinco estados de México. El diagnóstico de RV se realizó con ensayo inmunoenzimático o por electroforesis. El análisis se hizo a través de medidas de tendencia central. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana o variación. Resultados. Se aisló RV en 264 lactantes (50.7% con predominio en varones de 6 meses a un año. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron significativamente diferentes entre el grupo rotavirus positivo y el grupo rotavirus negativo en mediana de evacuaciones por 24 horas, frecuencia de vómitos, temperatura > 38° C, deshidratación y calificación de gravedad, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Estos resultados mostraron peor pronóstico por mayor gravedad de la diarrea por RV en lactantes, con relación a otra etiología. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  16. Venezuela and Energy Security of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Igorevna Vesnovskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America. The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security. Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states.

  17. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  18. Sediment Thickness and a WEST-EAST Geologic Cross Section in the Caracas Valley

    OpenAIRE

    KANTAK, PETER; SCHMITZ, MICHAEL; AUDEMARD, FRANCK

    2005-01-01

    Caracas is located at the Caribbean - South America plate boundary zone, with an associated strike slip fault system, which accommodates the relative movement of both plates and is responsible for the seismic hazard in the region. The damage pattern of the 1967 Caracas earthquake emphasized the existence of important site effects due to the sedimentary basin fill of the Caracas valley. A revised map of the sedimentary thickness was developed during this study, based on drill holes (mostly fro...

  19. Fisiopatología de la diarrea aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Es un artículo de revisión de los aspectos importantes de la fisiopatología de la diarrea. Se hace una descripción de la fisiopatología intestinal que incluye la anatomía del intestino y de su superficie de absorción y la estructura funcional de la mucosa intestinal. La fisiopatología normal de los líquidos intestinales. Mecanismo de absorción del agua y los electrólitos. Absorción de sodio por difusión electrogénica, unido al ion cloro, intercambio con el ion hidrógeno y unido a sustancias orgánicas como glucosa, aminoácidos y algunos oligopéptidos; secreción intestinal de agua y electrólitos. Control intracelular de la secreción. Mediadores y moduladores extracelulares del transporte intestinal. Factores que aumentan la absorción y reducen la secreción. Factores que estimulan la secreción y reducen la absorción Mecanismo fisiopatológico de la diarrea. Clasificación de la diarrea infecciosa aguda: acuosa secretoria y osmótica; diarrea con sangre invasiva y no invasiva.This a review of some important aspects of the physiopathology of diarrhea. A description is made of the intestinal physiopathology, including the anatomy of the intestine and of its surface of absorption, as well as the functional structure of the intestinal mucosa: the normal physiopathology of the intestinal fluids; the mechanism of absorption of water and electrolites; the absorption of sodium by electrogenic difussion, joined to the chloride ion; the interchange with the hydrogen ion and attached to organic substances, such as glucose, aminoacids and some oligopeptides; the intestinal secretion of water and electrolites; the intracellular control of secretion, the extracellular mediators and modulators of intestinal transport; the factors that increase absorption and reduce secretion; the factors that stimulate secretion and absorption; and the physiopathological mechanism of diarrhea. The classification of acute infectious diarrhea in aqueous

  20. Periodontal status of mentally handicapped school children in Caracas, Venezuela. A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Morales-Chávez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactor pathology, characterized by the progressive destruction of the dental structures support tissues. Patients with some type of disability have a higher predisposition to develop periodontal disease, due to bad hygiene, product of their motor and psychological deficiencies, and to their systemic alterations that difficult the defense against periodontopathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the periodontal status of a group of children with special needs, and a control group. 47 patients with mental retardation and Down syndrome from three special education centers, and 31 healthy patients of ages ranging from 6 to 15 years, were dentally evaluated, to determine their plaque index, gingival index, and the presence of calculus. After gathering the data and tabulating the results, a 1.08 plaque index was determined, and a gingival index of 1.03, corresponding to a mild gingivitis in the study group. On the other hand, on the group of regular patients, there was a 1.08 PI and a 0.96 GI. Calculus percentage was similar on both groups. However, a large percentage of children with mild gingival inflammation was observed in the group of special patients (53.19%, compared to the control group (29%.

  1. Diarrea funcional como causa de diarrea crónica Functional diarrhea as cause of chronic diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trini Fragoso Arbelo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea funcional se presenta con frecuencia en la práctica pediátrica, y generalmente no se asocia a alteraciones nutricionales, pero sí a esquemas dietéticos incorrectos. Se actualiza su importancia clínica, se hace énfasis en la patogenia, diagnóstico y en los métodos de tratamiento. Consideramos que es la causa más frecuente de diarrea crónica inespecífica, y que el interrogatorio dirigido según los criterios de Roma es útil para su diagnóstico. La mayoría de los pacientes con esta enfermedad en la infancia deben ser tratados en la atención primaria.The functional diarrhea is frequent in the pediatric practice and in general it is not associated with nutritional alterations, but to incorrect dietary schemes. Its clinical significance is updated and its pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods are emphasized. Authors considered that the functional diarrhea is the more frequent cause of unspecific chronic diarrhea and the questioning directed according the Rome criteria is very useful for its diagnosis. Most of patients presenting with this disease during childhood must to be treated in primary care services.

  2. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  3. Embarazo adolescente como factor de riesgo en la salud infantil. Ambulatorio El Valle. Caracas, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio León Allocca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si los hijos de madres adolescentes utilizan más los servicios de salud curativos que los hijos de madres no adolescentes. Diseño: Estudio observacional, transversal, analítico. Lugar: Distrito sanitario N°4 de El Valle. Caracas, Venezuela. Participantes: 250 niños menores 5 años, a conveniencia que asistieron a consulta ambulatoria. Intervenciones: Entrevista donde se examino antecedentes prenatales, obstétricos, demográficos, antropométricos, patológicos, y sanitarios. Principales medidas de resultados: Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo y comparaciones: chi cuadrado, riesgo relativo, IC 95%. Resultados: La prevalencia de consultas de hijos de adolescentes fue 35,8%. De las madres 57% no finalizaron secundaria, 74% provienen de estratos bajos. De los niños 14% son asmáticos. Las madres adolescentes tienen 8 y 3 veces más probabilidades de control prenatal inadecuado y de tener un hijo con bajo peso al nacer respectivamente, en comparación con la no adolescente. En relación a la utilización de los servicios de salud, los hijos de madres adolescentes y no adolescentes acuden a la consulta curativa ambulatoria y emergencia prácticamente en igual proporción, pero los primeros tienen 2 veces mas probabilidad de ser hospitalizados. Conclusiones: El ser hijo de madre adolescente no representa un riesgo para utilizar en mayor proporción los servicios de salud curativo de consulta ambulatoria y de emergencia, pero si tiene mayor probabilidad de ser hospitalizado, en comparación con el hijo de madre no adolescente. Se requiere atención y educación integral al adolescente. Palabras clave: Embarazo adolescente, morbilidad infantil, servicios de salud.

  4. Radiation doses in angiography in the University Hospital of Caracas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Aponte, Angel R.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work is evaluated, in angiography procedures carried out in the Radiology Department of the University Hospital of Caracas, the radiation dose received by the exposed professional when they carry out these explorations invasive and the followed norms of radiological protection during the exploration. The measurement was carried out on the exposed professional conformed by a medical interventionist, a medical assistant (resident), a nurse and a technical radiologist. Dosimeters TL was placed in the inter-orbital line at level of the crystalline lens, on thyroid, on the hands, thorax, breast, and on the gonads. The maximum values of dose (in mGy) that were measured: 1,84 at level of the crystalline lens; 1,24 on thyroid; 9,04 on the right hand; 65,04 on hand left; 0,07 on thorax; 0,07 on Breast; 0,07 for ovaries; and smaller than 0,04 for testicle. (author)

  5. DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA: PATOGÉNESIS E INMUNOPATOLOGÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iang Rondón

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea viral bovina (DVB representa un problema de ámbito mundial que causa considerables pérdidastanto en ganado de carne como lechero, afectándolo de diversas formas las cuales están supeditadas ala edad del animal, estado inmunológico y momento de la gestación en el que se produce la infección.La DVB es causada por un virus ARN, género Pestivirus, familia Flaviviridae, el cual ha sido clasificado en2 biotipos (citopático y no citopático según su comportamiento en células de cultivo y en 2 genotipos (Iy II basados en su secuencia genética. Dependiendo de las cepas infectantes se presenta un cuadroclínico particular variando en severidad desde una forma subclínica, pasando por la forma clínica eincluso produciendo la fatal enfermedad de las mucosas o causando efectos deletéreos sobre el feto. Apesar de que en nuestro medio ya existen estudios sobre esta entidad, la implementación de metodologíasdiagnósticas constituye una limitante para el manejo de la misma. La presente revisión se enfoca en lapatogenia e inmunopatología de la DVB.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Margareth A; Abadía, Edgar; Solalba Gómez; Maes, Mailis; Muñoz, Mariana; Gómez, Daniela; Guzmán, Patricia; Méndez, María Victoria; Ramirez, Carmen; Mercedes, España; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

    2014-12-01

    Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors.

  7. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  8. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  9. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas maternas frente a la diarrea infantil aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Montero, María Belén

    2014-01-01

    Entre las enfermedades más predominantes de la primera infancia las diarreas explican el 18% de las muertes de niños a nivel mundial. Particularmente en Argentina las diarreas y las infecciones gastrointestinales están dentro de las doce causas de muerte más importantes entre los niños menores de 5 años, lo que genera un gran problema de salud pública en los países en desarrollo, por su alta carga de morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Indagar sobre los conocimientos, actitudes,...

  10. [Domestic violence in Caracas: social and cultural predictors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-León, R; Camardiel, A; Avila, O B; DeArmas, E

    1999-01-01

    The article gives an account of the results of a research intended to know violence reported by individual between couples and towards children and also to establish the importance of social (sex, income, education, civil status, work status, gun license, alcohol abuse, attraction to violent TV programs) and cultural (social norms about aggression between couples and children punishment, and capacity to express anger and handle conflicts in a non-violent ways) predictors in such behavior. The information is based on a survey applied to Caracas Metropolitan Area (CMA) inhabitants between 18 and 70 years of age (n = 1,297) selected by probabilistic, biphasic, and tetra-stage sampling, and at random following the Politz method. The instrument was a questionnaire with on scale answers Likert type. The information was treated with multi-varying statistical analysis, using the association technique between two variables by means of the Chi-square test, with conditional independence log-linear for three variables. The results suggest relatively low violence levels between couples and towards children. Regarding children, women tend to be more violent with them, most probably explained by factors relating income and unemployment. It was found that the bigger the accord with the norm to discipline children with physical violence, the bigger the frequency of violent behavior towards them. On the contrary, the bigger the conviction to be skilled in handling situations without violence, the lesser the frequency of violent behavior. Regarding violence between couples no association was found with the sex variable, but one can certainly talk about violent couples, which is related to the way of coupling, unemployment, and lack of formal education. From the norm point of view, a relationship between belief in the norms and violent behavior is observed, although these norms and attitudes are measured by the ability of the couple of control himself/herself and act in a non

  11. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Añez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El año 2009 terminó con una cifra sin precedentes en cuanto a los secuestros reportados en Venezuela. Los datos aportados por los organismos oficiales revelan que durante el 2008 hubo 537 secuestros, lo cual representa un aumento de 52% respecto al total del 2007, mientras que en el 2009 la cifra se incrementó en un 62,82%, en relación con el año anterior. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir el delito de secuestro en Venezuela, con especial referencia al Estado Zulia, población fronteriza limítrofe con Colombia. Para ello se emplea una metodología de tipo documental- descriptiva. Se revela que no existen esquemas predefinidos que permitan caracterizar este tipo penal, pues, tal y como ha venido sucediendo, es susceptible de llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento y circunstancia, no de modo exclusivo en sujetos de alto estatus socioeconómico, sino con mínimos medios para responder a las exigencias de los plagiarios; de aquí la proliferación de la modalidad del llamado secuestro exprés. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: de ser un delito predominantemente político, fronterizo y ejecutado por grupos organizados, ha pasado a ser uno de objetivos sobre todo económicos, urbano, y ejecutado con un fin de lucro por la delincuencia común. En verdad, el Estado Zulia sigue repuntando en la lista de los estados con mayor incidencia de este delito en Venezuela, pero no es el principal, pues ha sido desplazado en posicionamiento por otras urbes del país, encabezadas en la actualidad por la ciudad capital de Caracas.

  12. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  13. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  14. Venezuela recasts itself as a new frontier in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    In January of this year, Venezuela captured the attention of the international energy community by welcoming back the foreign oil companies that, 20 years earlier, it had shut out of the country by nationalizing the hydrocarbon sector. The tool used to attract that attention, a new exploration bidding round, is the most publicized event staged to date in the country's aperture process. However, it is only the latest in a series of steps taken by officials to bring international oil and gas companies back to Caracas. Venezuela's physical attraction is easily understood. The country possesses roughly one-half of Latin America's (including Mexico) 125 billion bbl of established, conventional crude oil reserves, plus an estimated 300 billion bbl of additional, nonconventional reserves in the ultra-heavy crude belt of the Orinoco basin. Averaging 2.8 million bpd in 1996, Venezuelan crude production represents over 35% of regional oil output. Natural gas reserves total 138 Tcf, or just over one-half of the region's total reserves of 274 Tcfg. Annual gas output averages just under 5 Tcf, of which roughly 30% is reinjected as part of tertiary oil recovery schemes. This paper reviews the incentives, deregulation, and government policies to restore the oil and gas industry to the country

  15. Nivel cognoscitivo sobre higiene bucal y gingivitis crónica en adolescentes: Colegio “Presidente Kennedy”. Venezuela. 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero López, Dunia; Cruz Morales, Rosario; Limonta Vidal, Elena del Rosario

    2009-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo y corte transversal en 68 adolescentes del Colegio “Presidente Kennedy”, perteneciente a la comunidad Julián Blanco, parroquia Petare Norte, municipio Sucre, estado Distrito Metropolitano de Caracas en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela; en el período comprendido de septiembre a diciembre del 2006 con el objetivo de evaluar el nivel cognoscitivo sobre la higiene bucal y gingivitis crónica en estudiantes de 14 años de edad. Se aplicó u...

  16. NÚCLEO DE DESARROLLO ENDÓGENO SOCIALISTA Y FINCA INTEGRAL: CONSTRUYENDO LA SOBERANÍA ALIMENTARIA EN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Silvia; Escalona, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue sistematizar dos experiencias de producción agropecuaria con prácticas agroecológicas buscando identificar su contribución a la soberanía alimentaria en Venezuela: Núcleo de Desarrollo Endógeno Socialista La Limonera (NUDES), en Caracas y Finca integral Rivera-Parra, en el estado Mérida. La sistematización cuantitativa se hizo mediante la aplicación de una metodología híbrida de MESMIS (Masera et al. 2000) y Sarandón y otros (2006) probada por Silva y Pér...

  17. Vinculacion Entre La Educacion Y El Mundo Del Trabajo: Informe Final. (Coloquio Regional Caracas, Venezuela, Septiembre 2-6, 1985) = The Linkage Between Education and Employment: Final Report of the Regional Colloquium (Caracas, Venezuela, September 2-6, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    At this regional colloquium 13 papers were presented concerning the relationship between education and employment. Themes addressed were: (1) the transformation of the workplace by technology and science; (2) the future of the disadvantaged population as a consequence of the technological revolution; and (3) the resulting changes in the education…

  18. Escherichia coli enteroagregativa en niños con diarrea de un hospital de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Arias B

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre las Escherichia coli diarreogénicas la categoría E. coli enteroagregativa (ECEA es una de las más importantes y frecuentemente asociada a diarreas infantiles. El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de detectar los factores de virulencia que caracterizan a esta categoría patogénica mediante hibridación por colony blot usando sondas de ADN específicas. Se evaluaron 233 cepas aisladas en el laboratorio del Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas durante los meses de diciembre 1998 y abril de 1999. Del total de muestras analizadas, se encontró que 17,16% de las cepas poseen el factor de virulencia característico de esta categoría. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que un importante número de aislamientos de niños con diarrea presentan E. coli enteroagregativa.

  19. [Superficial mycoses: casuistry of the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel", Caracas, Venezuela (2001-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Ana María; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Panizo, María Mercedes; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Reviakina, Vera; Dolande, Maribel

    2016-03-01

    The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. only direct examination was performed. Of the 3 228 samples processed, 1 098 (34%) were positive and their distribution according to the etiological agent was: dermatophytes 79.5%; 10.9% yeasts; non-dermatophytes fungi 5.1% and 4.5% Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex (70.1%), followed by T mentagrophytes complex (15.1%), Microsporum canis (9.4%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (4%). The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium (66.8%), followed by Tineapedis (16.4%) and Tinea capitis (8.1%). Candida parapsilosis complex (37.5%) was the most frequently isolated yeast and Fusarium spp. (53.6%) was the most isolated among non-dermatophyte fungi, followed by Aspergillus spp. (19.6%) and Acremonium spp. (10.7%). The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment. This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country.

  20. Enterobacterias como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea en la comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Agudelo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar, a nivel de la comunidad, los enteropatógenos bacterianos que producen diarrea en niños menores de 10 años, tomamos muestras de heces de 204 pacientes con cuadro diarreico de 1 a 7 días de evolución y de un grupo control, sin diarrea, conformado por 48 niños. Evaluamos también la recuperación de los microorganismos empleando o no medio de Cary-Blair como medio de transporte e identificamos las categorías de Escherichia coli aisladas empleando pruebas biológicas e inmunológicas. Se destacaron como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea E. coli (58,8%, E. coli enterotoxigénica, productora de toxina labil (ECET-TL (5,1%, Salmonella enteritidis (6,9% y Shigella sonnei (5,9%. Cuando no se usó el medio de transporte de Cary-Blair la sensibilidad en la recuperación de los microorganismos fue del 37%. Se destaca la importancia de determinar la frecuencia real de las categorías de E. coli en nuestro medio.

  1. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  2. LDC nuclear power: Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    1982-01-01

    Venezuela had an aggressive nuclear program when it was under a dictatorship in the 1950s, but it is currently assuming a wait-and-see stance. The country has one small research reactor, but it may have a reactor on-line in the mid-1990s. CONADIN, Venezuela's nuclear energy planning agency, has commissioned feasibility studies and requested proposals for a reactor-siting survey. A recent study for the Venezuelan state oil company suggests tha a natural-uranium, gas-cooled reactor could provide process steam to extract oil from the bituminous tar sands of the Orinoco Basin. Venezuela is also exploring for uranium reserves. 23 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  3. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk

  4. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...... draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...

  5. Venezuela - energy situation 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The energy situation of Venezuela is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and on the balance of payments.

  6. Diseases and injuries associated with travel among students, employees and teachers of the Central University of Venezuela during the national summer vacations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, Alejandro; Marrero, Aiskel; Naranjo, Niurka; Palacios, Yanine; Rossomando, Maria T; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of disease and injuries associated with travel, etiology, risk factors and medical management in a cross-sectional evaluation of university students, employees and teachers of the Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela, who returned from domestic travel. A questionnaire completed by 500 individuals was used to evaluate the incidence of disease and injuries associated with travel, the etiology, risk factors and medical management in university students, employees and teachers of Caracas, Venezuela. From the total who accepted and responded to the interview (460, 92%), 50.8% were females. Almost half of them had some vaccination before travel for: measles 78%, rubella 73.6%, hepatitis B 57%, Yellow fever 53.7%. After travel, 53.9% of the individuals reported disease or injury related with travel, including insect bites (22%), which was reported most commonly. Occurrence of disease and injuries was higher for those who traveled to the jungle (OR=5.23, 95% CI 0.62-43.80), followed by those who travel to two areas (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.06-3.13). Drinking alcohol during travel was identified in 73.8%, was significantly higher in men (ptravel. The results indicated the importance of education and training in travel medicine, a relatively new medical discipline in Venezuela. Venezuela has a significant number of people visiting areas at risk for the acquisition of tropical and non-tropical conditions. Occasionally, travelers were without adequate preventive measures and pre-travel advice which is considered of utmost importance. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Saneamiento, educación, medio ambiente y diarreas: el caso del Conurbano Bonaerense

    OpenAIRE

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio es analizar los efectos del déficit en servicios de saneamiento, factores socio-económicos y factores ambientales que, por sí mismos o en combinación, incrementan el riesgo de padecimiento de diarreas entre la población del Conurbano Bonaerense, una de las áreas mas densamente pobladas de la Argentina y uno de los once conglomerados urbanos más grandes del mundo. Para la medición de los efectos se utilizan datos primarios obtenidos mediante una encuesta ad-hoc y se est...

  8. Venezuela takes responsabilidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1992-01-01

    No federal government officials showed up at the Oct. 29 ceremony to lauch the Responsabilidad Integral program of Asoquim, the Venezuelan chemical industry association. But that did not discourage industry representatives. Industry has tried to keep the Ministry of Environment Affairs involved as much as possible, says Danay Zoppi de Perez, corporate v.p. with Grupo Quimico. But industry was proud to be doing it anyway, despite the absence of government. It's a private, proactive initiative. Asoquim's program is based on the six Responsible Care codes. At the ceremony, 56 companies from Asoquim's membership of 150, which represents 90% of chemicals production in the country, signed on. Signatories include stateowned Petroquimica de Venezuela (Pequiven), domestic private-sector firms, and most of the multinationls operating in Venezuela. The ceremony drew officials from the fire service and civil defense authorities who have to deal with spills and accidents

  9. Venezuela ups the ante

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collitt, Raymond.

    1997-01-01

    Strong performances by small and medium sized oil companies in Venezuela have contributed to the success of its oil industry. This paper considers the historical progress of the industry since its nationalisation twenty-one years ago, charting its attractiveness to investors and plans for expansion. Its very success has brought the Venezuelan oil industry into conflict with OPEC's quota system, which it argues, needs to be charged. (UK)

  10. Estimating Venezuelas Latent Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Bencomo; Hugo J. Montesinos; Hugo M. Montesinos; Jose Roberto Rondo

    2011-01-01

    Percent variation of the consumer price index (CPI) is the inflation indicator most widely used. This indicator, however, has some drawbacks. In addition to measurement errors of the CPI, there is a problem of incongruence between the definition of inflation as a sustained and generalized increase of prices and the traditional measure associated with the CPI. We use data from 1991 to 2005 to estimate a complementary indicator for Venezuela, the highest inflation country in Latin America. Late...

  11. CULTURA ORGANIZACIONAL Y POSMODERNIDAD. UNA APROXIMACIÓN AL CASO VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Vallenilla Solórzano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to approach the study of the Organizational Culture and Postmodernism. Yes, we could talk about a post Modernistic Organizational Culture, and how these concepts could be interpreted in some Venezuelan organizations. Hence, a descriptive-documental research is in course. There bibliographic sources on this subject are studied. It is clear the Organizational Culture concept, but the Postmodernism concept is not, because of the contrast between theoretical positions resulting in contradictory and excluding issues. This makes difficult the characterization of a Post modernistic-Organizational Culture. Organizations like Procter & Gamble and the Electricity de Caracas have an Organizational Culture which is characteristic of private firms, centered basically to be accordingly to new eras and changing markets. Petroleos de Venezuela, traditionally dedicated to the oil business, since 1999, due to the new politic scenery, undertakes other responsibilities aimed to enhance Venezuelan Social Indicators.

  12. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  13. Country watch: Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R

    1996-01-01

    Since 1990, ACCSI has worked to safeguard the rights of people living with HIV/AIDS in Venezuela. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) had recognized ACCSI's program by 1992, enabling the nongovernmental organization (NGO) to establish fixed office hours during which it can receive clients. ACCSI does not distinguish between people living with HIV/AIDS and others, but considers it important to regulate AIDS as a public health issue within the context of human rights and ethics. Almost all of the Legal Office's initial cases were related to discrimination in the workplace, health centers, and educational institutions, but the ACCSI now also addresses family problems related to adoption, insurance, and inheritance, among others. To cope with the increase in service caseload, services have been extended through collaboration with specialized organizations concerned with human rights, women, children, prisons, and indigenous people. ACCSI influences governmental policy-making through its participation in the National AIDS Program. Moreover, ACCSI's networking activities ensure that the topic of HIV/AIDS and human rights is now always included in seminars and conferences in Venezuela, even when they are concerned with sexually transmitted diseases or other medical issues. Almost every time the press report upon AIDS, they consult the NGO. Everyday more people in Venezuela are standing up for their rights and denouncing discrimination against people infected with HIV.

  14. Uso de las enzimas digestivas en el tratamiento de la diarrea persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Izquierdo Estévez

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de corte transversal, con el propósito de conocer la medida en que los fermentos pancreáticos totales administrados oralmente, favorecen la evolución de la enfermedad, en los niños menores de 1 año con diarrea persistente, ingresados en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Ángel A. Aballí" en el período de enero a abril de 1996. Los resultados permiten afirmar la reducción del número de deposiciones y el incremento efectivo de peso al 3er. día de tratamiento, así como la mejoría de los síntomas asociados con la diarrea, sin efectos secundarios.A prospective cross-sectional study aimed at finding out to what extent the orally-administered total pancreatic fermets influence over the development of diarrhea disease in under one-year old children admitted with persistent diarrhea to the Gastroenterology Service Unit of «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital from January to April 1996 was performed. Results showed the reduction in the number of stools, the effective weight gain on the 3rd day of treatment as well as the improvement of diarrhea-related symptoms without side effects.

  15. Varón de 48 años con diarrea y colestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jímenez Jurado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de un varón de 48 años derivado a la consulta por un cuadro clínico de diarrea crónica (> 6 semanas junto con alteración de las pruebas de función hepática consistente en un patrón de colestasis. La presencia de diarrea crónica y colestasis nos obligaron al diagnóstico diferencial entre las siguientes entidades: enfermedad celíaca, enferme-dad inflamatoria intestinal, enfermedades infecciosas crónicas (tuber-culosis intestinal, micobacterium avium en inmunodeprimidos, causas metabólicas como la amiloidosis, obstrucción de la vía biliar intrahepatica (ductopenia del adulto, colangitis esclerosante primaria o secundaria, toma de fármacos y finalmente causas tumorales (colangiocarcinoma, linfoma de Hodgkin, adenocarcinoma colon. En el caso que presentamos, la colangio resonancia magnética nuclear fue la herramienta diagnóstica fundamental para el diagnóstico de la entidad

  16. Incidencia y factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea aguda en una comunidad rural de la selva peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Henríquez Camacho

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia y factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea aguda en una comunidad rural localizada en la selva del departamento de San Martín, Perú. Material y métodos: Una cohorte de 119 personas fue seleccionada al azar entre la población de 446 habitantes y seguida diariamente por un mes entre enero y febrero de 1999, buscando casos de diarrea aguda, definida como tres ó más cámaras de deposiciones al día por no más de 3 días. Un estudio caso control pareado fue diseñado para determinar los factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea. Resultados: Fueron observados 18 casos de diarrea aguda; la incidencia fue 15.1 casos por 100 personas-mes (IC 95%: 9.45-23.12. La edad media de los casos fue de 10.7 años (rango: 1-34 años y 66% de los casos fueron niños menores de 10 años de edad. Los factores de riesgo para adquirir diarrea fueron: consumo de alimentos crudos, RR: 2.2 (IC 95%: 1.12-4.33, consumo de alimentos no lavados, RR: 4.47 (IC 95%: 1.56-12.82, falta de lavado de manos antes de alimentarse, RR: 9.61 (95% IC: 1.44-64.16, consumo de agua no hervida, RR: 4.52 (IC 95%: 1.23-16.65 y alimentación fuera de casa, RR: 2.2 (IC 95%: 1.51-3.20. La diferencia en el número promedio (DE de personas que vivían por casa entre casos y controles fue de 4.38 (1.03 vs. 3.22 (0.54, p=0.0003, respectivamente. No hubo diferencia en el tiempo de residencia en la comunidad entre casos y controles, media de 5.61 ( 5.04 años vs. 8.83 (9.79, p=0.5747. Conclusiones: Diarrea aguda es un problema de salud pública en la selva de San Martín. Hacinamiento, carencia de saneamiento y pobres prácticas higiénicas son los responsables para adquirir diarrea aguda en esta comunidad de bajo nivel socioeconómico. Campañas educativas y mejora en las condiciones sanitarias son claramente necesarias para superar este problema.

  17. Estrés en una muestra de niños de Caracas

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Durán, Leonardo Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Stress in a sample of children from CaracasResumenEl objetivo de este estudio descriptivo fue caracterizar el estrés en una muestra de niños caraqueños, poniendo énfasis en identificar los eventos estresantes prevalentes. Asimismo, puesto que la percepción de las amenazas se encuentra mediada por las características específicas de cada sujeto (Lazarus y Folkman, 1986), se analizaron las diferencias de estrés en función del sexo y del tipo de institución educativa (i.e., pública o privada) de ...

  18. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  19. Venezuela: Un perfil general.

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Rafael Isidro

    2003-01-01

    1.- Artículos Cartay, Rafael. "Los productos típicos y su reglamentación. Una tentativa de aplicación de la denominación de origen al cacao venezolano" Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Garzaro, Domingo; Guerra Cedezo, Franklin. "Theobroma Cacao L.: Un nuevo enfoque para nutrición y salud" Anido, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Alejandro. "La demanda de las calorías en Venezuela 1970-1995: Algunas evidencias empíricas" Molina, Luisa Elena. "Notas sobre la situación de la producción primaria de arroz en Ven...

  20. Diabetes Care in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; González-Rivas, Juan P; Lima-Martínez, Marcos; Stepenka, Victoria; Rísquez, Alejandro; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its economic burden have increased in Venezuela, posing difficult challenges in a country already in great turmoil. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence, causes, prevention, management, health policies, and challenges for successful management of diabetes and its complications in Venezuela. A comprehensive literature review spanning 1960 to 2015 was performed. Literature not indexed also was reviewed. The weighted prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was estimated from published regional and subnational population-based studies. Diabetes care strategies were analyzed. In Venezuela, the weighted prevalence of diabetes was 7.7% and prediabetes was 11.2%. Diabetes was the fifth leading cause of death (7.1%) in 2012 with the mortality rate increasing 7% per year from 1990 to 2012. In 2012, cardiovascular disease and diabetes together were the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years.T2D drivers are genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle, including unhealthy dietary patterns and physical inactivity. Obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome are present at lower cutoffs for body mass index, homeostatic model assessment, and visceral or ectopic fat, respectively. Institutional programs for early detection and/or prevention of T2D have not been established. Most patients with diabetes (∼87%) are cared for in public facilities in a fragmented health system. Local clinical practice guidelines are available, but implementation is suboptimal and supporting information is limited. Strategies to improve diabetes care in Venezuela include enhancing resources, reducing costs, improving education, implementing screening (using Latin America Finnish Diabetes Risk Score), promoting diabetes care units, avoiding insulin levels as diagnostic tool, correct use of oral glucose tolerance testing and metformin as first-line T2D treatment, and reducing health system fragmentation. Use of the Venezuelan adaptation of

  1. Undocumented migration to Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, R

    1984-01-01

    "In 1980 Venezuela took...steps to regularize the undocumented migrant population. While the number responding to the amnesty was small relative to expectations, the majority of illegals appeared to have regularized their status. For the first time it was possible to assess objectively the characteristics of the undocumented population. Moreover, the problem of illegal migrants seems to have been temporarily solved, a result of both the amnesty and the country's declining economic activity." Topics covered in the present article include the nationality, geographic distribution, sex and age distribution, educational status, and occupations of undocumented migrants. excerpt

  2. Crisis, descentralización y gobernabilidad urbana en el área metropolitana de Caracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El proceso de reforma política y descentralización venezolano fueron interpretados como elementos necesarios para profundizar la democracia en este país. Sin embargo, la crisis econónica y lo incompleto del proceso de descentralización han significado a la larga un descenso en el nivel de gobernabilidad general. En este contexto, la autora analiza el caso del área metropolitana de Caracas y explica las peculiaridades de la gobernabilidad urbana en situaciones de aguda crisis económica.ABSTRACT: The Venezuelan process of political reform and transference of competentes to the regional and local levels were considered as constituent elements to deep democracy in this country. However, the economic crisis and the unfinished devolution have meant at the long run a decline in the level of general governability. In this context, the author analyzes the metroplitan area of Caracas, trying to explain the urban governability in contexts of grave economic crisis.

  3. La prevenzione dell'influenza, della malattia da meningococco C e della diarrea da colera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Trivello

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza, meningococco C e colera: tre differenti agenti infettivi che causano malattie molto diverse tra loro, tutte però con un denominatore comune: sono prevenibili con la vaccinazione. La vaccinazione influenzale nei bambini è un argomento di grande attualità e dibattito: i vari aspetti verranno messi a confronto sulla base delle esperienze internazionali e nazionali. La vaccinazione contro il meningococco C: saranno riportati i risultati di una esperienza di collaborazione tra Pediatria di Famiglia e Sanità Pubblica. La diarrea da colera e la sua prevenzione: molti Paesi considerati ad alto rischio per il colera stanno trasformandosi in destinazioni turistiche popolari e la possibilità di contrarne le forme più lievi è molto elevata; la vaccinazione consente efficacemente di eliminare questo rischio.

  4. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu

  5. Petrochemical development in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkenborn, A.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation highlighted the evolution of the petrochemical industry in Venezuela. Comparative advantages for the industry such as (1) abundant low cost energy, (2) attractive geographical position, (3) good infrastructure, (4) skilled, low cost labour force, and (5) regional integration, were reviewed. A summary of national production, refining, and marketing facts for petrochemicals, coal, orimulsion, and marine transportation were presented, along with financial information concerning revenues from sales, and profits and investments. Future plans to maximize the creation of value for the nation through increased oil production and partial privatization of state petroleum enterprises, were reviewed. The current state and future plans for focused development of fertilizers, olefins and olefin derivatives, and methanol products were outlined. Production statistics for three large petrochemical complexes, - El Tablazo, Moron and Jose - were also presented. 9 figs

  6. A project: 'Radiological protection in radiology', IAEA - Universidad Central de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.R.; Salazar, G.; Fermin, R.; Gonzalez, M.

    2001-01-01

    For several years a reference center of the UCV has been working on the project VEN/9/007 on dose reduction in diagnostic radiology sponsored by the IAEA. The dose and quality image was evaluated for different types of radiological study (conventional radiology, CT, mammography, interventional radiology) in different facilities at Caracas and others regions of the Venezuela. TL dosimeters were used to assess dose and reduction in dose. Based on the recommendations given by CEC documents on diagnostic quality criteria, a quality control program in radiological protection of patients and staff has been developed, for example: Pilot study by using TLD in personnel radiation monitoring. Comparative study between high and low kVp in chest. Evaluation and dose reduction in chest pediatric. Reduction of radiation dose in studies of billiards via Quality Image and reduction of the dose in studies of colon by enema. Radiation dose of staff in fluoroscopy procedures. Evaluation and dose reduction in dental radiography in public Institutions. A mammography accreditation program for Venezuela, applied to public hospitals. (author)

  7. Mochima, estado Sucre (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elisa Requena Mago

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos de recesión, los expertos nos bombardean con cifras relacionadas a la caída del producto interno bruto, al desempleo, entre otras. Dada la situación que presenta hoy en día Venezuela, aunado a la alta inflación y la devaluación de la moneda; el escenario resulta bastante complicado para el consumidor y las empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. En este sentido, las PyMES turísticas de Mochima, ubicadas en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela, se presentan como una alternativa para de alguna manera ayudar a disipar ese triste escenario, mediante sus bondades y en combinación con Internet. De allí que el presente artículo aborde desde los aspectos teóricos del turismo hasta las bondades naturales y culturales que ofrece esta zona oriental del país. Se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptiva y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios de los investigadores. De acuerdo al estudio, se diseñó la página web y se concluyó, que la implementación de la misma ayudaría en gran medida a mejorar los ingresos de la región y darse a conocer tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

  8. [A confirmatory diagnosis of antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi in donors referred by blood banks in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Zavala-Jaspe, Reinaldo; Díaz-Villalobos, María; Mauriello, Luciano; Maekelt, Alberto; de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón

    2008-06-01

    To establish the confirmatory diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, at least two immunoserological tests (ELISA, Indirect hamaglutination, IH, Complement Fixation Test, CFT) were carried out in 254 donors, from public and private blood banks of Venezuela, during 48 months between 1997-1998 and 2003-2004, referred to the Immunology Section of the Tropical Medicine Institute in Caracas. Antibodies anti-T. cruzi were detected in 129/254 (50,79%) by ELISA-IgG or IH and CFT. The "artificial xenodiagnosis" was positive in 10/118 persons with positive confirmed serology. Of 129 donors found positive by the serological tests, 68 were living in the capital region and 61 in the interior of the country. Likewise 113 were born in the interior of the country, 8 in Caracas and 8 in Colombia. Of them, 12 individuals serologically confirmed declared to have donated blood in a minimum of 4 occasions before diagnosis. The present study emphasizes the importance of detection of antibodies against T. cruzi in the integral evaluation of blood donors, since many of them with antibodies anti-T. cruzi, have donated blood several times previous to diagnosis.

  9. Morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Núñez Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela; en el período de enero a octubre de 2009. El universo fue de 286 niños, lo que se corresponde con la población total del grupo de edad de menores de 15 años. De estos se seleccionaron por muestreo aleatorio simple 43 pacientes, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario y se confeccionó una guía de observación, para describir los factores epidemiológicos que influyen en la infestación por parasitismo intestinal. Además, se les realizaron análisis de las heces fecales seriadas para el diagnóstico del parasitismo. El método estadístico fue el cálculo de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. A través del estudio de las heces fecales seriadas se obtuvo que 27 pacientes tenían parasitosis intestinal, para una morbilidad de 62,79%, con una mayor incidencia en los niños de cinco a nueve años de edad. El sexo femenino fue el más afectado. Los factores epidemiológicos que más influyeron fueron: los malos hábitos higiénicos personales, el entorno desfavorable y el consumo de agua no potable; existió relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, los factores epidemiológicos y la morbilidad por parasitismo intestinal. Predominó la parasitosis por Entamoeba Histolytica, con 11 casos, para un 40,74%. La diarrea, las molestias abdominales y la pérdida de apetito constituyeron los principales síntomas

  10. Soberanía, representación e independencia en Caracas, 1808-1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Quintero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el impacto que la crisis política de la monarquía española sus- citó en Caracas, en donde tuvo lugar un intenso debate. En noviembre de 1808 se intentó erigir una junta, sin éxito. El 19 de abril de 1810 se constituyó la Junta Conservadora de los Derechos del Rey Fernando VII y, finalmente, el 5 de julio de 1811 se declaró la Independencia. El artículo analiza el contenido del debate acerca del ejercicio de la soberanía, así como la manera en que organizaron la representación política quienes tuvieron a su cargo la conducción de este pro- ceso histórico, desde el inicio del movimiento juntista hasta la declaración de la indepedencia.

  11. Debris-flow and flooding hazards associated with the December 1999 storm in coastal Venezuela and strategies for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Larsen, M.C.; Eaton, L.S.; Morgan, B.A.; Blair, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy rainfall from the storm of December 14-16, 1999 triggered thousands of landslides on steep slopes of the Sierra de Avila north of Caracas, Venezuela. In addition to landslides, heavy rainfall caused flooding and massive debris flows that damaged coastal communities in the State of Vargas along the Caribbean Sea. Examination of the rainfall pattern obtained from the GOES-8 satellite showed that the pattern of damage was generally consistent with the area of heaviest rainfall. Field observations of the severely affected drainage basins and historical records indicate that previous flooding and massive debris-flow events of similar magnitude to that of December 1999 have occurred throughout this region. The volume of debris-flow deposits and the large boulders that the flows transported qualifies the 1999 event amongst the largest historical rainfall-induced debris flows documented worldwide.

  12. Expansión metropolitana y movilidad: el caso de Caracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lizarraga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El modo de expansión urbana del Área Metropolitana de Caracas (AMC ha resultado en una fuerte segregación residencial según los ingresos y, paralelamente, en condiciones inequitativas de movilidad y accesibilidad. La desregulación y privatización del transporte colectivo dio lugar a un sector desorganizado y desarticulado. Las fuertes inversiones en infraestructuras de transporte público en las últimas décadas, como Metro o Metrocable, no han tenido los efectos esperados para reducir los graves impactos negativos (costos externos del modelo (accidentalidad, congestión de tráfico, contaminación atmosférica y acústica, ni la exclusión social. En este artículo se estudian las características del modelo de movilidad del AMC en el contexto metropolitano latinoamericano, y los efectos indeseados que provoca, mediante las últimas aportaciones teóricas y datos estadísticos disponibles. Se concluye exponiendo algunas propuestas para avanzar hacia la movilidad urbana sostenible.The mode ofurban expansion in Caracas Metropolitan Area (CMA has caused high levels of residential segregation and, at the same time, unequal conditions related to urban mobility and accessibility. Deregulation and privatization of the collective transport induced the emergence ofa disorganized and disarticulated sector The big investments in public transport infrastructures, such as the subway or Metrocable, did not have the expected effects to reduce the social exclusion or the negative impacts ofthe model (traffic congestion, accidents, pollution. In this work we will analyze the mobility model combined with the expansion model of the CMA, through the study of the features of the mobility model and its undesired effects within the Latin-American context. We will use the available statistical data and the last theoretical contributions. Finally, we willputforward some proposals to achieve sustainable urban mobility.

  13. La metrópoli fragmentada: Caracas entre la pobreza y la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Cariola

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Caracas se transforma, se expande sobre la Región Metropolitana y se fragmenta a nivel socio territorial e institucional como consecuencia de las nuevas dinámicas que la globalización ha impuesto en todos los ámbitos de la sociedad. Más allá de una ciudad dual, escindida en dos escenarios socio territoriales excluyentes entre sí por la polarización social, el territorio metropolitano se caracteriza por la coexistencia de "múltiples ciudades" donde conviven verdaderos apartheid sociales de los grupos populares con ghettos exclusivos para los sectores altos y medios, nuevos distritos de comando ligados a la globalización y áreas de nueva pobreza. En este contexto, las viejas y nuevas formas de la violencia urbana, los cambios en los modos de vida con su tendencia al repliegue a lo privado y a la atomización emergen como características de una sociedad metropolitana diversificada y polarizada en sus distintos espacios, incluida la construcción y apropiación de la ciudadCaracas is transforming itself, spreading over the Metropolitan Region, fragmenting at a socio-territorial and institutional level because of the new dynamics that globalization has imposed over all fields of society. Beyond a dual city, divided in two excluding socio-territorial scenarios product of social polarization, the metropolitan territory is characterized by the coexistence of "multiple cities" where a true social apartheid of popular groups live together with exclusive ghettos for high and middle sectors, that are new districts of command linked to globalization and areas of poverty. In this context, old and new-found forms of urban violence, changes in the way of life together with the trends toward privacy and atomization, emerge as the characteristics of a diversified and polarized metropolitan society in its different spaces, including the construction and appropriation of the city

  14. Impacto ambiental de un nuevo modelo de sistema de transporte público para Caracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Mundu00F3 Tejada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito urbano una de las principales fuentes contaminantes del ambiente son los vehículos automotores. Una estrategia para reducir el número de los vehículos en circulación y frenar el deterioro ambiental es el mejoramiento del sistema de transporte público y estimular su uso. Para hacer atractivo el empleo del transporte público en Caracas es indispensable hacer cambios importantes en este. Se propone la implantación de un sistema de Bus Rapid Transit (BRT que responda a los deseos de movilización de la población expresados en la Encuesta de Movilidad de 2005. En dicha propuesta, las líneas de la red de transporte masivo existente constituirían rutas troncales del sistema más importantes; el BRT contemplaría la operación de estas rutas a lo largo del eje este-oeste de la ciudad y de los principales corredores viales de los valles secundarios localizados al suroeste y sureste de Caracas; y las rutas alimentadoras operarían desde distintos sectores hacia las rutas troncales. La estimación del impacto ambiental derivado de la implantación del sistema propuesto, calculado solo con base en la sustitución de unidades minibús por autobuses en los principales corredores, señala ahorros sustanciales en consumo de espacio y de combustible; una disminución moderada del ruido; y reducciones de las emisiones de monóxido de carbono (CO, óxidos de nitrógeno (NOx e hidrocarburos (HC.

  15. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  16. Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu juht kuulutas sõja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Fernando Baez kuulutas, et tema juhtimisel püüab Venezuela rahvusraamatukogu saavutada juhirolli Ladina-Ameerikas, kuna USA Kongressi Raamatukogust on saanud raamatukogude suurimaid vaenlasi ajaloos

  17. Venezuela: A Full-Year Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higdon, Melody

    2006-01-01

    This Country Climatology Digest is a climatological study of Venezuela. After describing the geography and major meteorological features of the entire region, the study discusses in detail the climatic controls of Venezuela's weather...

  18. Kaos. Venezuelas top flirter med Hizbollah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Terrororganisationen Hizbollah har længe brugt Venezuela som base i det ekstremt lukrative narkotikamarked.......Terrororganisationen Hizbollah har længe brugt Venezuela som base i det ekstremt lukrative narkotikamarked....

  19. Molecular epidemiology of human sporotrichosis in Venezuela reveals high frequency of Sporothrix globosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Emma; León-Navarro, Isabel; Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Mendoza, Mireya; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A

    2015-02-25

    Sporotrichosis is a cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal disease of humans and other mammals, known to be caused by the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, which comprises four species of clinical importance: S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, and S. schenckii sensu stricto. Of them, S. globosa and S. schenckii s. str. show global distribution and differences in global frequency as causal agents of the disease. In the Americas, only three species are present: S. schenckii s. str., S. brasiliensis (so far, only reported in Brazil), and S. globosa. In Venezuela, since the first case of sporotrichosis reported in 1935, S. schenckii have been considered its unique etiological agent. In the present work, the presence of more than one species in the country was evaluated. By phenotypic key features and molecular phylogeny analyses, we re-examined 30 isolates from diverse Venezuelan regions belonging to the fungi collection of Instituto de Biomedicina, Caracas, Venezuela, and national reference center for skin diseases. All isolates were collected between 1973 and 2013, and maintained in distilled water. Sporotrichosis in Venezuela is mainly caused by S. schenckii s. str. (70%). However, a significant proportion (30%) of sporotrichosis cases in the country can be attributable to S. globosa. A correlation between intraspecific genotypes and clinical presentation is proposed. Our data suggest that sporotrichosis various clinical forms might be related to genetic diversity of isolates, and possibly, to diverse virulence profiles previously reported in the S. schenckii species complex. Sporothrix globosa was found to be the causative agent of 30% of sporotrichosis for the Venezuelan cases re-examined, the highest frequency of this species so far reported in the Americas. The high genetic variability presented by S. schenckii s. str. indicates that species distinction based on phenotypic key features could be a challenging and uncertain task; molecular identification

  20. [Urban construction, professions, and immigration at the origin of urban studies in Venezuela, 1870-1957].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Frechilla, J J

    1996-01-01

    The individuals and circumstances involved in the creation of the first graduate urban studies program in Venezuela are recalled, beginning with the odernization of Caracas under the impulse of President Antonio Guzman Blanco, elected in 1870. Guzman Blanco converted himself into Venezuela's first urbanist with the establishment of organizational frameworks and completion of massive public works projects, which were based largely on the urban models of the US and Europe. Engineering and public health were consolidated as the two most influential sources of professional competence for guiding urban development. By the mid-1930s, growth fueled by petroleum revenues was causing rapid urbanization, and it became apparent that trained professionals able to manage the increasingly complex tasks of urban planning were in short supply. A new surge of modernizing construction began in 1936 and led to a cooperative arrangement with a French firm, whose personnel were to be required to train Venezuelan engineers for future service in urban planning. An influx of refugees from the Spanish Civil War and the increasing influence of urban planning processes in the US were also observed. The National Commission on Urbanism was created in 1946 as a dependency of the Ministry of Planning to facilitate public administration of the development and control of cities. Throughout the period, a debate was underway on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to urban planning versus a primarily architectural or engineering approach. In 1957, some consensus was reached on the need for urban planning to be viewed as more than a speciality of architecture. A framework was developed for a graduate program in 1969 in the Central University of Venezuela. The National Commission on Urbanism was disbanded in 1957, largely because of its excessive focus on architecture to the exclusion of other disciplines relevant to the urbanization process.

  1. Venezuela nationalises oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertheim, Peter Howard; Abrantes, Dayse

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela President Hugo Chavez has stated he will nationalise the Orinoco belt's extra-heavy oil operations and ask for 'special powers' to rule the country. Since last year, the government has been negotiating with international consortia currently operating in the Orinoco area, so that Venezuela state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) attains a majority stake in each project (ml)

  2. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  3. Attracting higher income class to public transport in socially clustered cities. The case of Caracas. / Atracción del mayor nivel de ingresos al transporte público en las ciudades socialmente segregadas. El caso de Caracas.

    OpenAIRE

    Flórez, Josefina

    2000-01-01

    In Caracas, as in most socially clustered cities, modal split is highly related to income. High income population is mostly car dependant, while lower income people are captive of public transport. This typical situation is explained by world-wide social values and fashion but also by the fact that new, segregated residential areas for the upper social levels have been located in areas poorly served by public transport, creating a dependency on the private car. It is not surprising that, duri...

  4. Oil Prices and Venezuela's Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; Rebecca Ray

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at Venezuela’s export revenue, imports, and trade and current account balances under a range of oil price outcomes for the next two years. It finds that Venezuela would run large current account surpluses for prices between $60-90 per barrel, and would even run a small surplus with prices at $50 per barrel. (Most oil industry estimates for the next two years are in the range of $80-90 per barrel). The authors conclude that Venezuela is unlikely to run into foreign exchange co...

  5. Enlightenment and education: Baltasar de los Reyes Marrero and the Modern Philosophy program at the Universidad de Caracas, 1788

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Rojas

    2014-01-01

    of their study programs and the reform of academic structures in in their professorship. The clergyman Baltasar de los Reyes Marrero (1752-1809, recognized as the founder of the Modern Philosophy program at the Real y Pontiicia Universidad de Caracas, is one of these outstanding educators. Thus, this paper focuses on the general biographical features, intellectual formation and pedagogical efforts carried out in the Venezuelan university by Baltasar de los Reyes.

  6. Áreas metropolitanas:¿qué ha cambiado?: La experiencia de la Caracas Metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barrios

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available La nueva economía de la información y del conocimiento ha tenido tres decisivas implicaciones de orden territorial. Primero, ha acelerado el proceso de aglomeración urbana a escala planetaria. Segundo, ha provocado fuertes alteraciones en las redes urbanas de ámbito mundial, regional y nacional. Y tercero, ha impulsado la reestructuración interna de las áreas metropolitanas que se habían conformado durante la era industrial. Todo parece anticipar, por lo tanto, polarizaciones y fragmentaciones territoriales todavía más acentuadas que las conocidas en un pasado cercano. Tomando como referencia el caso de Caracas, se trata de averiguar en qué medida el desarrollo reciente de esta metrópoli sigue las grandes tendencias territoriales antes anotadas; y qué esfuerzos se están haciendo para ajustar sus instancias locales a las nuevas realidades urbanas. Como un recurso adicional, en distintos momentos se establecen comparaciones con Barcelona (España, considerada un ejemplo emblemático de las metrópolis de la era de la informaciónThe developments of new informational and knowledge-based economies have had three decisive implications at the territorial level. First, it has accelerated the urban agglomeration processes worldwide. Second, it has brought about substantial alterations in the existing global, regional and national urban networks. Finally, it has triggered the internal restructuring of former industrial-based metropolitan areas. All this seems to anticipate that territorial polarization and fragmentation will reach higher levels than those we have observed in the recent past. Taking the case of Caracas as a reference point, the intention is to find out to what extent the recent development of this metropolis follows the main territorial trends mentioned above. Interest is also placed in finding what steps are being taken in order to adjust its local levels of government to the new urban realities. In addition, comparisons are

  7. Health Physics Education in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanas, J.

    1979-01-01

    Training courses on health physics have been organized regularly in Venezuela since 1962. The basic course consists of 20 hours for theoretical tuition and 10 hours for laboratory practice. Post-graduate courses have been organized by the Central University since 1965. Radiological technicians receive their training through the courses organized by the Ministry of Health. (author)

  8. World status: Petroleos de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is given of the petroleum industry in Venezuela. The industry was nationalized in 1975 and by 1990 was the world's fifth largest oil company. They have ambitious plans to expand production capacity and are looking to the major oil companies to assist. The prospects for sales of Orimulsion are also discussed. (UK)

  9. Energy sector developments in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantin, R.

    1997-01-01

    The current state and future development of the oil, gas and coal sector in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has oil reserves of 73 billion barrels, gas reserves of 143 TCF and coal reserves of 6 billion BOE. The country has a refining capacity of 2.9 million barrels per day, a petrochemical capacity of 7.7 million tons per year, and a coal capacity of 4.6 million tons per year. The largest refiners in Venezuela are Shell, Exxon, PDVSA, Mobil, BP, Chevron and Texaco. In 1996 the total oil and derivatives exports for Venezuela were 2.8 million barrels per day. Fifty-eight companies from 14 countries participate in the Venezuelan upstream market. Fifteen operating agreements have been awarded to 27 companies from nine countries. Third round operating agreements have been awarded to 26 companies and profit sharing agreements are in force involving 14 companies. Four vertically integrated projects (Maraven-Conoco, Maraven-Total, Corpoven-Arco-Texaco-Phillips, and Lagoven-Mobil-Veba) are currently underway. The Orimulsion(R) project, the refining system, the natural gas production, marketing and transmission system, associated future projects for the 1997-2006 time frame, and developments in the field of petrochemicals also have been reviewed. 21 figs

  10. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Venezuela discusses the status of English in society and in the educational system. It also gives an account of Venezuelan political, economic, and social life. A description is given of the education system and reforms that have been proposed for nursery school through higher education.…

  11. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  12. Democracia y dilema eficiencia-equidad en la descentralización local en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La descentralización es uno de los mecanismos mediante el cual el Estado central transfiere competencias políticas y administrativas a las localidades, ya sea con la finalidad de fortalecer la participación política, lograr eficiencia estatal o para buscar la gobernabilidad. En algunos países latinoamericanos como Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica se han impulado procesos de descentralización con el fin de racionalizar la actividad estatal y, precisamente, contribuir a la gobernabilidad.En Venezuela la Comisión para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE implementó la descentralización en 1988 como una forma de superar el modelo estado céntrico, caracterísitico de las últimas décadas en el país. El proceso no estuvo acompañado por cambios constitucionales, lo que condujo a conflictos entre diversas normas y al consiguiente retraso en la implementación de las nuevas políticas. El ejercicio descentralizador se está desarrollando principalmente a nivel político, por ejemplo, en los municipios de Chacao, Baruta, El Hatillo y Libertador, que pertenecen al Area Metropolitana Interna de Caracas. Así, el proceso descentralizador se vive con diferencias marcadas resultantes del tipo de administración implementada desde la alcaldía, la mayor o menor disponibilidad de resursos económicos y humanos, la población y la pobreza.ABSTRACT: Decentralization is one of the mechanisms by which the central State transfers political and administrative competences to the localities, sometimes with the purpose of strenghtening political participation, to achieve state efficiency of to look for gobernability. In some Latín American countries such as Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica have been decentralization processes impulsed to rationalize the public activity and, precisely, to contribute to gobernability.In Venezuela the Comission for the State Reform (COPRE implemented the decentralization in 1988 as a way of

  13. Áreas metropolitanas:¿qué ha cambiado?: La experiencia de la Caracas Metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barrios

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available La nueva economía de la información y del conocimiento ha tenido tres decisivas implicaciones de orden territorial. Primero, ha acelerado el proceso de aglomeración urbana a escala planetaria. Segundo, ha provocado fuertes alteraciones en las redes urbanas de ámbito mundial, regional y nacional. Y tercero, ha impulsado la reestructuración interna de las áreas metropolitanas que se habían conformado durante la era industrial. Todo parece anticipar, por lo tanto, polarizaciones y fragmentaciones territoriales todavía más acentuadas que las conocidas en un pasado cercano. Tomando como referencia el caso de Caracas, se trata de averiguar en qué medida el desarrollo reciente de esta metrópoli sigue las grandes tendencias territoriales antes anotadas; y qué esfuerzos se están haciendo para ajustar sus instancias locales a las nuevas realidades urbanas. Como un recurso adicional, en distintos momentos se establecen comparaciones con Barcelona (España, considerada un ejemplo emblemático de las metrópolis de la era de la información

  14. Effective treatment of common variable immunodeficiency associated diarrhea Diarrea asociada a inmunodeficiencia común variable tratada con budesonida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Córdova Guevara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID, the commonest symptomatic primary antibody deficiency syndrome, is characterised by recurrent bacterial infections, particularly of the upper and lower airways; it is also associated with an increased incidence of autoimmune and neoplastic disorders. CVID has a high prevalence of infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases. Up to 60% of the patients with non-treated CVID develop diarrhea and 10% associated idiopathic malabsorption with weight loss. The case of a 50-year-old woman with CVID-associated diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating of one year's duration is reported. An exhaustive evaluation made for secondary causes of her symptoms was unrevealing; she was treated with loperamide and diet, without improvement. She later followed a course of oral budesonide for 3 months; her clinical symptoms disappeared and her quality of life improved. In conclusion, we report the case of a patient with CVID-related chronic diarrhea who responded well to oral budesonide treatment. This outcome provides the gastroenterologist with a new therapeutic option in this difficult group of patients.La inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV es la deficiencia primaria de anticuerpos sintomática más frecuente y está caracterizada por infecciones bacterianas recurrentes, especialmente de las vías aéreas superiores e inferiores, y también asociada a incremento de enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias. Presenta alta prevalencia de enfermedades gastrointestinales infecciosas, inflamatorias y neoplásicas. Hasta el 60% de los pacientes con IDCV no tratados desarrollan diarrea y el 10% desarrollan malabsorción idiopática asociado a pérdida de peso. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 50 años con IDCV que presenta diarrea crónica, con dolor y distensión abdominal desde hace 1 año. Realizándose múltiples exploraciones y descartando causas secundarias de diarrea crónica, se inicia

  15. Consenso chileno de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Rocha, Cristian; Pidal, Paola; Ajenjo, M. Cristina; Quera, Rodrigo; Quintanilla, Marcela; Lubascher, Jaime; Jemenao, M. Irene; Ibáñez, Patricio; Álvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Diomedi, Alexis; Marcotti, Alejandra; Acuña, Mirta; Arab, Juan P; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Candía, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile (DACD) ha adquirido gran relevancia debido al aumento en su incidencia, gravedad, capacidad de recurrencia y carga económica asociada. Contar con una guía de consenso local es fundamental para mejorar su manejo. Objetivo: Elaborar un consenso multidisciplinara y basado en la evidencia en la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la DACD. Métodos: Se convocó a un panel de expertos en el área de enfermedades infecciosas, gastroenterolo...

  16. Identificación de Arcobacter en heces de niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en reservorios animales

    OpenAIRE

    Rito Zerpa Larrauri; Jorge O Alarcón Villaverde; Percy E Lezama Vigo; Lilian Patiño Gabriel; Alberto Reyes Dioses; Augusto M Valencia Ramírez; Jorge Velásquez; Carlos R Sevilla Andrade; Miriam J Alarcón León

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Los microorganismos del género Arcobacter, considerados patógenos zoonóticos emergentes, son morfológicamente similares a Campylobacter. Los reportes de Arcobacter como agente etiológico de diarrea en humanos en América Latina son escasos. En el Perú no se ha comunicado su aislamiento en heces de humanos o en animales. Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de Arcobacter en heces de niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en animales: aves, ganado vacuno, porcino, peces y mariscos. Diseño:...

  17. Domingo Irwin, Relaciones civiles-militares en el siglo XX, Caracas, El Centauro, 2000, 224 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Langue, Frédérique

    2005-01-01

    En la larga lista de los interrogantes planteados por la " revolución bolivariana " del Presidente Chávez en la Venezuela de hoy figura sin lugar a dudas la naturaleza de la misma. ¿Régimen militarista, autoritario, retoño del caudillismo, manifestación de pretorianismo, nueva simbiosis entre la sociedad civil y el sector militar ? Especialista de las relaciones civiles-militares en la larga duración, Domingo Irwin aborda en esta entrega una temática pluridisciplinaria dominada por la histori...

  18. Autopistas y distribuidores de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, growing urban transportation loads have created serious problems in our large cities. To remedy this crisis. It is more than ever necessary to plan varied and important engineering works in all urban areas. This article describes the road works which have perfected Caracas urban circulation. It consists of a very efficient system of arteries containing transit timing devices: the interchange «El Ciempiés», the highway «La Araña», the avenue «Boyacá», the interchange «Baralt Sur», etc. All this enormous and complicated program goes to show the outstanding effort being put forth by the Venezuelan Ministry of Public Works, dedicated to improving urban engineering in the country. With its engineers, technical personnel, various other government organs, and construction firms of national renown, it is realizing its goals.La creciente demanda del transporte urbano ha creado serios problemas de tránsito en las grandes ciudades. Para solucionarlo se hace preciso acometer importantes y variadas obras de ingeniería en todas ellas. Se describen en este articulo las más espectaculares, las cuales han hecho posible la perfección de la actual vialidad arterial de Caracas —a pesar de que el sistema vial no está todavía completamente desarrollado—, que se compone de una red de vías de alta capacidad con articulaciones, que consisten en dispositivos distribuidores de tránsito: Distribuidor «El Ciempiés», Autopista «La Araña-Caricuao», Avenida «Boyacá», Distribuidor «Baralt-Sur», etc. Todo este enorme y complicado programa muestra, de forma bien patente, el notable esfuerzo que está realizando el Ministerio de Obras Públicas venezolano, encaminado a solucionar el problema de vialidad urbana en el país, con la eficiente colaboración de sus ingenieros y personal técnico, organismos diversos del Estado y empresas constructoras de renombre nacional.

  19. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Cadenas, María Sonsiré; Hasmy, Anwar; Vessuri, Hebe

    2011-08-01

    Nanoscale research in Venezuela is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on research groups, research lines, and institutions involved. A summary exploration is made of international collaboration through scientific co-authorship, as well of the efforts to build nano capacities, available infrastructure, relationships to the productive sector and a weak presence in Venezuelan public policies, although there is some expectation that the situation may soon begin to change.

  20. COSTE DE LA DIARREA ASOCIADA A CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE EN ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Asensio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: No se dispone de estudios adecuados del coste de las diarreas asociadas a Clostridium difficile (DACD en España. El objetivo del estudio es estimar el coste de las DACD para el Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS. Métodos: Se realizó un modelo económico para calcular el coste por episodio de DACD (por antibióticos, prolongación del ingreso hospitalario, procedimientos quirúrgicos, medidas de control de la infección, recurrencias de las infecciones tratadas y el coste anual de la DACD. El uso de recursos en la práctica clínica se obtuvo mediante un panel Delphi de clínicos españoles con experiencia en la DACD y los costes unitarios (€ 2012 de fuentes españolas. Resultados: Se estimó que anualmente se produjeron 7.601 episodios de DACD en España (incidencia de 17,1 episodios/año/10.000 altas hospitalarias con un gasto anual para el SNS de 32.157.093 €. Coste por episodio de DACD: 3.901 € (infección inicial, 4.875 € (primera recurrencia y 5.916 € (segunda recurrencia. Coste total de las recurrencias: 10.426.750 € anuales. El 95,6% del gasto se debería a la prolongación de la duración de la estancia hospitalaria, el 0,5% a tratamientos antibióticos, el 2,8% a intervenciones quirúrgicas y el 1,1% a las medidas de control de la infección. Los resultados del estudio fueron sensibles a la incidencia y tasa de letalidad de la DACD en España y a la duración de la prolongación de la duración de la estancia hospitalaria debida a la DACD. Conclusiones: Según este estudio, el gasto asociado a la DACD se debe fundamentalmente a la prolongación de los ingresos hospitalarios y tiene un gran impacto económico en el SNS.

  1. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Delgado, Alejandro; Colella, Maria T; Landaeta-Nezer, Maria E; Rosello, Arantza; Perez de Salazar, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Hartung, Claudia; Magaldi, Sylvia; Velasquez, Etna

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycoses in Venezuela. It is a granulomatous chronic infection with cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue lesions. Regional lymphatic involvement may be present; extracutaneous disease is rare. The causal fungus Sporothrix schenckii has been isolated from soil, vegetation, and animals on numerous occasions and in many localities throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of sporotrichosis observed in Venezuela and review of the literature. We included the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment, and follow-up of patients with sporotrichosis from 1963 to 2009, diagnosed at the Department of Medical Mycology. One-hundred and thirty-three sporotrichosis cases were diagnosed. Most patients were under the age of 30 years (66.15%). In 61.6% of them, the mode of transmission was not identified. The predominant clinical form in this population was lymphocutaneous (63.15%). Direct microscopic diagnosis was performed in 123 cases, and 57.9% yielded positive results for asteroid body. Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Venezuela. There are no reports to this date of disseminated forms of the disease, even amongst patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Direct microscopic examination of wet mount slides with saline solution or distilled water in the search for asteroid bodies is paramount. Saturated sodium and potassium iodine solutions continue to be extremely efficacious and affordable to most of our patients, therefore our treatment of choice. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Venezuela opens up to explorers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1995-01-01

    The opening of Venezuela's first exploration bidding round since oil nationalisation in 1976 was a turning-point in the country's energy policy. The state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA), has said that the bidding round could generate investment of some $11 billion eventually in development investment and that over the next 10 years, nearly 20 percent of a planned $55 billion, 10-year state oil company investment programme could also come from foreign or private sector oil investment. Should this optimistic prediction materialise, Venezuela, whose 2.75 million b/d oil production in October was some 400,000 b/d over its Opec quota, will remain both the dominant oil producer in Latin America and the top-ranking oil exporter to the US market. In May this year, Venezuelan oil exports topped 1.43 million b/d, or some 16.8 percent of the US market, compared with Saudi Arabia's 15.7 percent. (author)

  3. Probióticos para la prevención de la diarrea asociada al clostridium difficile en adultos y niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-05-01

    Resultados principales: Sobre la base de esta revisión sistemática y del metanálisis de 23 ensayos controlados aleatorios con 4213 pacientes, las pruebas de calidad moderada indican que los probióticos son tanto seguros como efectivos para prevenir la diarrea asociada al Clostridium difficile.

  4. Organizaciones sociales y conflictos sociopolíticos en una sociedad polarizada: las dos caras de la democracia participativa en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los analistas y estudiosos de la sociedad civil organizada han tendido a identificarla con los valores positivos de la pluralidad, tolerancia, civilidad y democracia. Sin embargo, un análisis de los procesos de polarización sociopolítica existentes en Venezuela indica que dentro de la heterogeneidad ideológica, política, cultural y de clases sociales que la caracterizan pueden desarrollarse tanto proyectos democráticos como proyectos e imaginarios profundamente excluyentes. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las consecuencias de ambas facetas, en los imaginarios y las representaciones sociales de exclusión del «otro», en el espacio y la guetificación de la ciudad de Caracas y en el origen de la violencia urbana y de la violencia inter-clases sociales en un país, donde paradójicamente, se ha institucionalizado la democracia participativa.ABSTRACT: Scholars and researchers have identified organized civil society with positive values such as plurality, tolerance, civility and democracy. Nonetheless, an analysis of current processes of sociopolitical polarization in Venezuela shows that within the ideological, political, cultural and social classes heterogeneity that characterize organized civil society might develop democratic projects as well as imaginaries, representations and non-democratic projects. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of these two faces in the exclusion of the «other», on the space and the guetification of the capital city of Caracas, on urban violence and on interclass violence in a country that, paradoxically, has institutionalized participatory democracy.

  5. Estudio del Impuesto sobre Inmuebles Urbanos en la ciudad de Caracas: recaudación, eficiencia, equidad y control urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Mier y Terán, Hilda

    2015-01-01

    El estudio del Impuesto sobre Inmuebles Urbanos que se presenta a continuación se fundamenta en las teorías económica, tributaria y urbanística, con el fin de evaluar su desempeño en relación con objetivos de recaudación, equidad, eficiencia y control urbano. Se escoge la ciudad de Caracas como ámbito de investigación con una constatada trayectoria en el desarrollo institucional del tema. Se utilizan como fuentes de información las Ordenanzas de Impuesto y de Presupuesto e Informes de Memoria...

  6. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  7. Consumo informativo y competencias digitales de estudiantes de periodismo de Colombia, Perú y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Romero-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del presente artículo es profundizar en los hábitos de consumo informativo que se perfilan en estudiantes del grado de comunicación en Colombia, Perú y Venezuela, en particular sobre la tendencia a la infoxicación y sobresaturación informativa de su propio ecosistema comunicativo, así como indagar sobre las competencias comunicativas que han obtenido en su formación. La metodología se centró en un cuestionario autoadministrado digital de carácter cuantitativo, aplicado a 1.603 estudiantes de tercer año en universidades privadas de Medellín, Lima y Caracas. Entre las principales conclusiones se destaca un intensivo consumo de internet y redes sociales que supera las cinco horas diarias, con especial atención a que la mayor parte de los contenidos recibidos a través de sus redes son pseudoinformaciones y que la formación en competencias mediáticas para el consumo informativo se hace preminentemente de manera autodidacta.

  8. Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    supported the 30 Amnesty International, “Venezuela, Los Derechos Humanos en Riesgo en Medio de Protestas...iachr/docs/annual/2015/doc-en/ InformeAnual2015-cap4-Venezuela-EN.pdf Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos (PROVEA) http

  9. LA VARIACIÓN DE /ɾ/ EN POSICIÓN FINAL DE PALABRA EN EL HABLA DE CARACAS: UN ESTUDIO SOCIOFONÉTICO

    OpenAIRE

    Ugueto C, Marluis M

    2016-01-01

    Resumen En esta investigación se analiza la variación /ɾ/ en posición final de palabra en el habla de Caracas. El estudio se realizó sobre una muestra de habla seleccionada del corpus PRESEEA, Caracas 2004-2011. Se analizaron las variantes [ɾ], [ɹ] y otras ([h] y [r]) de /ɾ/. La distinción de estas variantes fue determinada, en un estudio previo, mediante dos tipos de análisis: el perceptivo y el acústico. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa Goldvarb. Los resultados muestran que...

  10. Diarrea del viajero asociada a Aeromonas hydrophila Traveller's diarrohea caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pita Toledo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila es una bacteria que se encuentra frecuentemente en aguas dulces y salobres. Desde hace varios años se conoce que determinadas cepas de la especie pueden causar enfermedad en pescados y en anfibios, existiendo cierta controversia sobre su patogeneicidad en humanos. No obstante, puede dar lugar a infección en personas, que la adquieren bien a través de heridas abiertas o bien por ingestión de alimentos o agua contaminados. Sin embargo, en prácticamente la totalidad de las publicaciones se hace referencia a casos aislados más que a brotes producidos por esta bacteria. Generalmente la infección por A. hydrophila da lugar a gastroenteritis en personas sanas, pudiendo generar una septicemia en individuos inmunodeprimidos.En 1998 se produjo una alarma en el sector hotelero por un incremento considerable de los casos de gastroenteritis entre los turistas que acudían durante sus vacaciones a determinadas zonas costeras de la isla de Tenerife.Tras tener conocimiento de la situación, la Dirección General de Salud Pública inició una investigación epidemiológica con el objetivo de conocer la magnitud real del problema detectado e identificar los factores asociados a la misma, para poner en marcha las medidas correctoras y de control necesarias. El análisis inicial permitió determinar que se trataba de un proceso de gran magnitud en su extensión aunque de carácter leve, que afectaba únicamente a los turistas en una zona costera en concreto, compatible por lo tanto con la diarrea del viajero, planteándose un origen probablemente hídrico.Aeromonas hydrophila is a bacteria frequently found in fresh water and saline water. Certain strains of the species have been known to cause disease in fish and amphibians for several years, although some controversy exists about its ability to cause illness in humans. Nevertheless, either through open wounds or contaminated food or water, it can give rise to infection. However, almost

  11. Lepra en Venezuela 1978 - 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Merkl A., Federico

    2002-01-01

    El programa de lepra en Venezuela describe a 8 859 pacientes diagnosticados y tratados entre 1978 y 1997. Debido a características propias de la patología se presume que no todos los enfermos son captados y se aplica una metodología para estimar la "prevalencia real" de la enfermedad. Encontramos que su distribución es desigual en el país y que a pesar de haberse alcanzado el criterio de eliminación a nivel nacional, el problema persiste en un grupo de sus estados. The program of leprosy i...

  12. Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Noya, O; Mondolfi, A; Peceño, C; Botto, C

    1988-07-01

    A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey seeking hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly was carried out in isolated Yanomami hamlets in Amazonas Territory in Venezuela. All 110 inhabitants greater than 1 year of age were evaluated clinically and 98 were studied immunologically. The spleen index for individuals greater than 10 years of age was 44%. Only 3 patients had Plasmodium spp. on thick blood smears. All had serological evidence of infection with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty-three patients were considered to show hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly. Clinical manifestations of the syndrome did not differ from those described in other parts of the world.

  13. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota-Hernández Felipe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.

  14. Burden of diarrhea among children in Honduras, 2000-2004: estimates of the role of rotavirus La diarrea infantil en Honduras, 2000-2004: estimados del papel desempeñado por el rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Orlando Solórzano Girón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the annual burden of diarrhea and of diarrhea that is associated with rotavirus (RV in children who are treated at public clinics and hospitals in Honduras. METHODS: Data were collected from computerized records of all children OBJETIVOS: Estimar la carga anual por diarrea y por diarrea asociada con la infección por rotavirus (RV en niños atendidos en clínicas y hospitales públicos de Honduras. MÉTODOS: Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de los registros computarizados de todos los niños menores de 5 años atendidos por diarrea en clínicas y hospitales operados por la Secretaría de Salud de Honduras durante el período 2000-2004. Una revisión de los estudios realizados sobre RV en Honduras y los países vecinos ofreció estimados de las tasas de detección de RV en niños tratados por diarrea aguda hospitalizados o de forma ambulatoria. Con estos datos se estimó el número anual de casos de diarrea y de diarrea asociada con la infección por RV en Honduras, la incidencia acumulativa de diarrea y de diarrea asociada con la infección por RV en niños menores de 5 años y el número de muertes debido a RV en niños hospitalizados por diarrea. RESULTADOS: Entre los años 2000 y 2004 se registraron medias anuales de 222 000 visitas médicas, 4 390 hospitalizaciones y 162 muertes hospitalarias por diarrea en niños menores de 5 años en instalaciones sanitarias públicas de Honduras. A partir de la revisión de la literatura científica relativa a Honduras y los países vecinos se estimó que 30% de los casos de diarrea atendidos ambulatoriamente y 43% de los hospitalizados podrían deberse a RV. En consecuencia, se estimó que 66 600 visitas médicas ambulatorias, 1 888 hospitalizaciones y 70 muertes hospitalarias de niños menores de 5 años pueden atribuirse a la infección por RV anualmente en Honduras. Por lo tanto, los riesgos de un niño en sus primeros 5 años de vida de asistir a una consulta, de ser

  15. Importance of energy efficiency in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrie, R.

    1991-01-01

    Venezuela's economic development relies heavily on oil. The nation's energy production equals 3.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe) per day. Oil comprises 71% of the energy Venezuela produces, natural gas 20%, hydro 9% and coal 1%. Of the energy produced, Venezuela exports three quarters and consumes the remainder. Over 99% of Venezuela's energy exports are crude oil and oil products. Economic problems have constrained Venezuela's development in recent years. Saddled with an external debt of $US 32 billion, Venezuela will continue to encounter barriers for years to come. The nation is, however, in the process of restructuring its economy. As part of this process, the Venezuelan government has begun to integrate opportunities for improving the efficiency of its energy use. As a major oil producer and exporter, Venezuela is conscious of its responsibility to the international community to limit its emissions of energy-related CO 2 into the atmosphere. For this reason, the Venezuelan government is in the process of creating a program to conserve and ration the use of energy. This effort incorporates a number of measures including the substitution of natural gas for liquid fuels for all end uses (including transportation activities), the increased reliance on hydropower in the generation of electricity and the reduction of waste in the production of natural gas to 2% of the economically recollectable volume

  16. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  17. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  18. Venezuela: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Venezuela's expansion by state oil company PDVSA has gone from a mere concept a year ago to a well-defined plan. The five-year project that began this year and runs through 1995 received a $4-billion upgrading last fall to $25 billion. Money will be spent in increments of $5 billion/year, and all sectors are involved. Largest share, about $10.5 billion, will go to upstream projects, with $6 billion to be invested in refining, $6 billion in petrochemicals, $1.5 billion in coal and $800 million in domestic marketing. PDVSA intends to finance most of the spending directly from its cash flow. The upstream spending will go toward boosting oil production to more than 3.6 MMbpd by the beginning of 1996, with capacity topping at 4.2 MMbopd. Such heavy spending should prove a boon to the Venezuelan economy. The oil industry constitutes 23% of Venezuela's GNP, accounts for 75% of governmental revenues and produces 70% of the nation's annual foreign exchange earnings. The Ministry of Planning already is forecasting a 7% leap in real growth of the GNP this year

  19. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal content in fuel oil and oil-ashes in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Abril, J.M.; Greaves, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years an intensive national program was developed to determine the environmental radioactivity levels in Venezuela. Gamma dose and the radon concentrations indoors, in drinking water, in caves and in artificial cavities including the effect of radon transported to the surface with the earth gas have been studied. To continue this project the oil and other natural energy resource should be considered. It is expected that the environmental radiation level is modified in regions where the oil industrial activity is more aggressive such as in the Zulia State and the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, (Central Region). In these regions Venezuela is producing 1.750 thousand barrels of oil from the near-to-the- surface or deep oil drilling. Petroleum constitutes an important source of energy and as the majority of natural source contains radionuclides and their disintegration products, being U, Ra, Pb, Bi, Po and K the most often encountered. The combustion of petroleum concentrate in the ashes those radioelements, and later enter the environment by different ways producing adverse effects on the quality of man life. The concentration of radioelements varies greatly between oil fields, then we still requiring local survey studies in this area. Moreover due to the recent national interest in recycling processes, it becomes important to take precaution in the selection of materials that may contain by-products of industrial origin, including oil. In fact the oil ashes, oil slurry and other mining by-products are thought to be employable in the building industry. The concentration of radioactivity in the ash from thermoelectric power plants that use petroleum as a primary energy source was determined. The analysis include the two major thermoelectric power plants in Venezuela, Ricardo Zuluaga on the northern sea side of Caracas and Planta Centro on the littoral of Carabobo State. The study cover different samples: fuel oil No 6, ashes, heavy and medium petroleum

  20. Heavy water. A production alternative for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of heavy water production methods is made. Main facts about isotopic and distillation methods, reforming and coupling to a Hydrogen distillation plant are presented. A feasibility study on heavy water production in Venezuela is suggested

  1. Area Handbook Series: Venezuela; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    crept down to B43 - US$1. In a related matter, the Currency Exchange Office (R6gimen de Cambio de Dinero-Recadi), the organization that oversaw the...Febres, Carlos Eduardo. "Religi6n y Comportamiento Politico de la Clase Obrera en Caracas," Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurzdicasy Politicas...Mendoza, 1962. Villamrnzar, Thania. " Proceso de represi6n alas prncticas migico- religiosas en M6rida," Boletin Antropolgico [M~rida, Venezue- la), No. 11

  2. Los conventos dominicos de Caracas y Mérida: frailes entre la infidencia y la independencia venezolana (1810-1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray Oswaldo Montilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto se enmarca en el estudio de las escabrosas relaciones entre la Iglesia Católica y los nuevos gobiernos formados en los primeros decenios del siglo diecinueve, especíicamente en el nacimiento de estos nuevos Estados. El texto se decanta aún más del plano estrictamente institucional para leer las opiniones, descarnadas de cualquier interés literario, y conocer las apetencias políticas de los frailes dominicos de dos conventos venezolanos: el de Caracas, cuyo santo titular es San Jacinto, y el de Mérida, puesto bajo la protección del santo predicador San Vicente Ferrer.

  3. Restricciones funcionales en la elisión del Marcador de Plural en el Español de Caracas

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Sánchez, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizan y explican los factores funcionales que condicionan la elisión de la /-s/ plural en el español de Caracas. La codificación y el análisis de los datos sigue el planteamiento de Poplack (1980) con el fin de demostrar que la elisión de la marca de plural depende de la compleja combinación de factores morfológicos, semánticos y sintácticos, apoyándose así en una nueva interpretación de la hipótesis funcional de Kiparsky (1972), en la cual se reconoce la importancia de ...

  4. Evaluación nutricional del niño con diarrea funcional Nutritional evaluation of the child with functional diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Díaz Lorenzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea funcional se presenta con frecuencia en la práctica pediátrica y generalmente no se asocia a alteraciones nutricionales, pero sí a esquemas dietéticos incorrectos. Con el objetivo de determinar la evaluación nutricional de los niños con este tipo de afección, y la influencia de la dieta en la aparición de la enfermedad, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 44 niños menores de 36 meses de edad, que fueron atendidos entre el 2003 y el 2005 en la consulta de gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario Pedro Borrás Astorga. Según los Criterios de Roma II, el diagnóstico correspondiente fue el de diarrea funcional. No hubo afectación nutricional relevante. La evaluación dietética demostró una alimentación no saludable, debida fundamentalmente al consumo poco variado, no equilibrado ni adecuado de los alimentos, que contribuyó a la génesis de las diarreas.Functional diarrhea appears frequently in the pediatric practice and it is not generally associated with nutritional disorders, but with inappropriate diet schemes. In order to determine the nutritional evaluation of the children with this type of affection, and the influence of the diet on the appearance of the disease, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 44 children under 36 months old that received attention at the gastroenterology office of “Pedro Borras Astorga” University Pediatric Hospital between 2003 and 2005. According to the criteria of Rome II, they were diagnosed functional diarrhea. No significant nutritional affection was observed. The dietetic evaluation showed an unhealthy nutrition that contributed to the genesis of the diarrea.

  5. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  6. [Experiences of the urbanization process in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Tirado, N

    1985-01-01

    The process of urbanization and urban growth in relation to economic development in Venezuela is analyzed. Four periods are considered: the period prior to the discovery of oil in Venezuela, which ended in the early 1940s; from the 1940s to the early 1970s; from the 1970s to 1983; and the present. Information is provided for the period 1936-1981 on total and urban population growth and on the size and number of urban centers.

  7. Nuclear power planning study for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The optimum capacity for nuclear power plants that might be built in Venezuela in the period 1985-2000 and the best time for incorporating them into the electric system is defined. The most recent forecasts regarding growth of the population and demand, and of the economy in general, and the taking into account the costs for the fossil-fuel and hydroelectric resources known to exist in Venezuela, as compared with the costs of importing uranium, are discussed

  8. Radioactive wastes handling problems in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R.; Venegas, R.

    1984-07-01

    A brief description of the radioactive wastes problem in Venezuela is presented. The origins of the problem are shown in a squematic form. The requirements for its solution are divided into three parts: information system, control system, radioactive wastes hadling system. A questionnaire summarizing factors to be considered when looking for a solution to the problem in Venezuela is included, as well as conclusions and recomendations for further discussion

  9. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de Robert Dahl (1993.Palabras Clave: Calidad de la democracia; Venezuela; Indicadores; estudio comparado; poliarquía.Quality of Democracy in VenezuelaAbstractSince 1999 a constitutional reform in Venezuela introduced some mechanisms of direct democracy such as the referendum and the plebiscite. Although this process broadened the means for citizens’ participation in the political system, there were important setbacks in political and civil liberties. The goal of this paper is to measure the quality of democracy according to a series of indicators that draw upon Robert Dahl’s conception of polyarchy.Keywords: Quality of democracy; Venezuela; indicators; comparative studies; polyarchy.

  10. Cefalea en la infancia: experiencia clínica en la Unidad de Neuropediatría del Hospital Doctor Miguel Pérez Carreño, Caracas, Venezuela = Headache in children: clinical experience at the the Neuropediatric Unit, Hospital Doctor Miguel Pérez Carreño, Caracas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Machuca, Josefa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la cefalea es común en la infancia y su frecuencia aumenta en la adolescencia; raras veces está relacionada con enfermedades graves, pero sí repercute negativamente en la calidad de vida.Objetivo: determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la cefalea en una cohorte de niños, clasificarla y evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento profiláctico.Métodos: estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y longitudinal en el que se analizaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, antecedentes perinatales y personales, historia familiar de cefalea, características de los episodios, tratamiento recibido y respuesta al mismo. Se clasificaron los casos de acuerdo con los criterios de la Sociedad Internacional de Cefalea y según su patrón temporal.Resultados: el grupo más afectado fueron los escolares y predominaron las niñas. El antecedente familiar de migraña estuvo presente en 64,7%. Predominó la migraña sin aura (63,9%. Recibieron tratamiento profiláctico 88,6% y hubo buena respuesta en 88,2%. Los estudios de neuroimágenes y el EEG hechos de rutina no tuvieron utilidad.Conclusiones: no existen criterios estandarizados para la clasificación de la cefalea en la infancia, pero debe hacerse un seguimiento adecuado de todos los síntomas para validar los criterios diagnósticos y reducir el impacto negativo sobre la calidad de vida.

  11. Acceso a la educación en salud y su potencial en la disminución de la incidencia de diarrea infantil en las poblaciones costeras de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Solís

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación en salud o pláticas en el ámbito institucional mitiga la incidencia de diarrea infantil. Yucatán es el estado con las mayores tasas de incidencia de diarreas a nivel nacional; el impacto de las pláticas, como parte de un programa de salud, en la incidencia de diarreas ha sido insuficientemente estudiado. Objetivo: Analizar el rol del acceso a las pláticas para prevenir la incidencia de diarreas infantiles. Metodología: Se utilizó el muestreo de encuestas en 151 hogares, se encontró a 187 niños menores de cinco años de edad. El estudio se realizó en tres segmentos muestrales de la zona costera, con diferentes condiciones ambientales: Progreso (puerto urbano concentrado, Celestún (reserva biosfera, turismo, urbanizada y Río Lagartos (turismo, reserva biosfera rural. Se estimó la tasa de prevalencia lápsica de diarrea, los casos fueron las diarreas ocurridas en los 15 días inmediatos previos a la encuesta. Se hizo análisis descriptivos, bivariados, estratificados y la regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Se registró una tasa de prevalencia lápsica de 13.37% (n=25 casos. El análisis logístico multivariado mostró el impacto protector significativo de las pláticas (=-2.105; RM=0.163; y = 0.018 con un efecto que equivale a 6.25 veces menos riesgo de presentar episodios diarreicos. Conclusión: Las pláticas, como política de salud, tienen impacto en la disminución de las diarreas; esto sucede en especial si se llevan a cabo entre los beneficiarios de los programas sociales.

  12. Acceso a la educación en salud y su potencial en la disminución de la incidencia de diarrea infantil en las poblaciones costeras de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La educación en salud o pláticas en el ámbito institucional mitiga la incidencia de diarrea infantil. Yucatán es el estado con las mayores tasas de incidencia de diarreas a nivel nacional; el impacto de las pláticas, como parte de un programa de salud, en la incidencia de diarreas ha sido insuficientemente estudiado. Objetivo: Analizar el rol del acceso a las pláticas para prevenir la incidencia de diarreas infantiles. Metodología: Se utilizó el muestreo de encuestas en 151 hogares, se encontró a 187 niños menores de cinco años de edad. El estudio se realizó en tres segmentos muestrales de la zona costera, con diferentes condiciones ambientales: Progreso (puerto urbano concentrado, Celestún (reserva biosfera, turismo, urbanizada y Río Lagartos (turismo, reserva biosfera rural. Se estimó la tasa de prevalencia lápsica de diarrea, los casos fueron las diarreas ocurridas en los 15 días inmediatos previos a la encuesta. Se hizo análisis descriptivos, bivariados, estratificados y la regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Se registró una tasa de prevalencia lápsica de 13.37% (n=25 casos. El análisis logístico multivariado mostró el impacto protector significativo de las pláticas (B=-2.105; RM=0.163; y p= 0.018 con un efecto que equivale a 6.25 veces menos riesgo de presentar episodios diarreicos. Conclusión: Las pláticas, como política de salud, tienen impacto en la disminución de las diarreas; esto sucede en especial si se llevan a cabo entre los beneficiarios de los programas sociales.

  13. Attracting higher income class to public transport in socially clustered cities. The case of Caracas. / Atracción del mayor nivel de ingresos al transporte público en las ciudades socialmente segregadas. El caso de Caracas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez, Josefina

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In Caracas, as in most socially clustered cities, modal split is highly related to income. High income population is mostly car dependant, while lower income people are captive of public transport. This typical situation is explained by world-wide social values and fashion but also by the fact that new, segregated residential areas for the upper social levels have been located in areas poorly served by public transport, creating a dependency on the private car. It is not surprising that, during the 1970's, a high proportion of Caracas's middle and high-income citizens were systematically using their car even in areas where there was a good offer of public transport. What is more unusual is to realise that, since 1983 when the metro system was inaugurated, there is a new pattern of travel behaviour. The metro has mainly attracted high-income people. Besides the few of them who have transferred from surface to underground public transport, many of the wealthier patrons seem to be regular car users that presently take the metro when it provides a good alternative. Currently, the transit system in Caracas is comprised of four main modes: the metro (since 1983; the "por puesto", which are minibus vehicles of 18 to 32 seats; the jeeps, which are dual traction vehicles of up to 12 seat (most of them serving hilly areas, basically slums; and the bus system, consisting of metro-bus and private operators. CA Metro operates the metro and, since 1987, metro-bus lines, which are bus feeder services to its heavy rail metro operation that extend the cover area of the system into the less central zones of the city. While the metro and metro-bus offer transit services to middle and high income users, the mini-buses and jeeps provide flexible transit service to low income groups. The metro and metro-bus services are more reliable and offer higher quality that mini-buses and jeeps. This higher quality service is one of the main attributes attracting the wealthier

  14. Muuga joodab Venezuela naftaga Valgevene tehaseid / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela toornaftat veetakse Valgevenesse Muuga sadama kaudu. Riia sadam loodab suurema osa Venezuela nafta transiidist endale saada, samas peaks sadam selleks tegema mitmeid töid, nt. süvendama akvatooriumi

  15. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    ... who was first elected in 1998. Under Ch vez, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new constitution in place, a new unicameral legislature, and even a new name for the country, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela...

  16. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkoop, J.

    2009-07-01

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him. [nl

  17. Espacios culturales comunitarios en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, José Adolfo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The community centre programme in Venezuela (ECC,Spanish initials for Espacios Culturales Comunitarios wasundertaken in 2001 on the initiative of the Deputy Ministry ofCulture’s Department of Cultural Buildings. The idea was todesign an extremely simple, flexible and inexpensive system,readily applicable all across the country and suitable for atropical climate. The programme was headed by ProfessorJuan Pedro Posani, who created the architectural design forthese centres. Engineer José Adolfo Peña and architectCarmen Yáñez authored the structural and buildingengineering. The solutions devised to meet constructionrequirements were based on two principles: the choice of alightweight prefabricated building system and the definition ofthe extreme climatic conditions characteristic of the tropics asthe core issue to be addressed.In terms of architectural and humanist policy, the project is anarchitectural commitment to the environment, buildingtechnology and the conditions and demands of a clearlydisadvantaged social community.El programa de los Espacios Culturales Comunitarios (ECCen Venezuela surge de la dirección de EdificacionesCulturales del ViceMinisterio de Cultura en el año 2001. Laidea consiste en diseñar un sistema extremadamente sencillo,flexible y económico que pueda multiplicarse rápidamentepor todo el país y que sea capaz de responderadecuadamente a las condiciones contextuales del trópico. Elprograma ha sido dirigido por el profesor Juan PedroPosani, quien concibió la arquitectura de los mismos. Laconcepción estructural y constructiva es obra del ingenieroJose Adolfo Peña y de la arquitecta Carmen Yáñez. Larespuesta a las condiciones de partida se basó en dosprincipios: la elección de un sistema de prefabricación ligeray la consideración en primer plano de las condicionesclimáticas extremas propias del trópico.El proyecto, en términos de arquitectura y de política humanista,es un compromiso arquitect

  18. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO HOMERO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.

  19. El Fenomeno Chavez: Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Modern Day Bolivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Venezuela’s state owned oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela. Ever seeking opportunities to provoke the giant United States, Chavez agreed to provide...controlled joint “El Fenomeno Chavez” . . . 9 venture, Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA). Exxon Mobil Corporation decided to sell their stakes among...exploited. 9. Major oil companies in Venezuela: 1. Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA) – government-owned; generates 1/3 of national GDP; monopolized the

  20. Essays on Art in Venezuela (Ramón de la Plaza, 1883: an Ethnohistorical Musical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Viña Bolívar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available General Ramon Plaza Manrique (1831-1886, distinguished character of the Caracas elite, published in 1883 a collection of essays which offered a wide panorama of the art in Venezuela, including music. One of the most interesting sections is about the indigenous world, abounding in details regarding the unequivocal origin of pre-Hispanic music. The treatment of topics, the references to old sound systems, the comparison as study method and, in general terms, the background of the ideas reveal a world of shades that can be approached from new perspectives. Interdisciplinarity enables the exchange of glances adapted to the times, allowing extensive understanding of objects of study such as music; in the case of ethno-history, whose objectives are achieved thanks to the parallel deployment of the methodology of ethnography and history sciences. In this paper a canonical text of the Venezuelan and Latin American musical historiography is analyzed in order to update its approaches through an ethno-historical musical bias.

  1. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50, 7202.21.75, 7202.21.90, and... with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela. Accordingly...

  2. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970) and...

  3. De la sociabilidad vigilante a la urbanidad privativa. Homogeneización residencial, usos citadinos y ciudadanía en Caracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José García Sánchez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years, the phenomena generally classified in terms of “personal insecurity” or “urban violence” have yielded significant changes in the metropolitan variables and in the social relations conforming or not the inhabitants as citizens and civics in Caracas. By assessing the installation, proliferation and normalization of security devices established by civil neighbor associations in order to protect urbanizations of middle and high class sectors, and legitimized by the acts or omissions of several government and non government institutions, it is possible to measure, according to the principles of pragmatic sociology, how in Caracas contemporary forms of segregation and of residential homogenization are crystallized between watchful sociability and exclusive urbanity

  4. Democracia y conflicto en Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda el tema de la democracia en Venezuela desde una perspectiva múltiple y variada. Parte de la consideración de un conjunto de variables (papel del Estado en la sociedad globalizada, la política y el ejercicio del poder, la economía, la política social, los movimientos sociales y las protestas colectivas, medio ambiente y grupos étnicos para realizar una ponderación del curso y los retos de la sociedad democrática venezolana en el período 1988-2008. El trabajo maneja el análisis desde la óptica de la comparación histórica, la historia crítica, la sociología histórica y el pensamiento político para establecer las principales tendencias que ha adquirido la democracia venezolana en cada una de esas variables en el período estudiado, así como la prospectiva que pueden adquirir en los próximos años.

  5. Toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Varela Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to contribute information on toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela. Information on taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was compiled from articles, books, catalogs, herbarium collections. A botanical analysis (taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was performed. The information about plant poisoning cases was requested to SIMET (Pharmacy faculty -UCV. Seventy-eight species were found in 34 families, the most important were: Apocynaceae (10 genera/12 species, Araceae (9/9, Euphorbiaceae (4/10 and Solanaceae (5/6. Genus Euphorbia was the most species rich. Most species were exotic species (79.5% and shrubs (32.1%. The entire plant (35 and latex (19 were the most toxic parts and the most frequent accidental ingestion (61.5%. Twenty cases were reported between 2009-2013, of which 80% were minors, female and urban areas. There is very little information published in Hispanic American countries

  6. Seropositividad al virus linfotrópico de células T humanas tipos I y II en donantes del Banco Municipal de Sangre de Caracas y factores de riesgo asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela León

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Conocer la proporción de sangre descartada por seropositividad al virus linfotrópico de células T humanas (HTLV tipos I y II, la prevalencia de dicha infección y los probables factores de riesgo en donantes del Banco Municipal de Sangre de Caracas (BMSC. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron serológicamente mediante ensayos de inmunoadsorción enzimática (ELISA 23 413 donantes atendidos entre julio del año 2000 y abril de 2001 en el BMSC. Las muestras repetidamente reactivas (RR se estudiaron por inmunoblot de Western (WB, como prueba suplementaria. Los donantes positivos o indeterminados por WB fueron citados a la consejería para realizar la confirmación mediante la amplificación de ácidos nucleicos por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, recoger datos sobre sus antecedentes de riesgo y asesorarlos acerca de su estado. RESULTADOS. El 0,2% de las donaciones resultaron RR; de ellas 52,1% resultaron positivas en el WB (23 a HTLV I y 2 a HTLV II; 4,1% indeterminadas por WB; 29,2% negativas; y el 14,6% no pudo ser evaluado. Asistieron a la consejería 16 donantes (14 WB positivos a HTLV I, 1 a HTLV II y 1 indeterminado. Todos resultaron positivos en la RCP. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con el grupo control en cuanto a edad, sexo, tipo de donación, número de donaciones previas, antecedentes de transfusiones y comportamiento sexual. Se observaron diferencias significativas según los antecedentes de consumo de drogas no intravenosas (P < 0,05, y altamente significativas (P < 0,001 según los antecedentes de lactancia materna larga. Las madres estudiadas de seis de los donantes positivos que manifestaron haber tenido una larga lactancia materna resultaron positivas, al igual que el hijo mayor de la única pareja positiva de las 13 evaluadas. CONCLUSIONES. Se descartó el 0,2% de la sangre por resultar positiva al HTLV I/II. La prevalencia entre los donantes fue de 0,11%. En el 37,5% de los casos se pudo determinar la

  7. Seropositividad al virus linfotrópico de células T humanas tipos I y II en donantes del Banco Municipal de Sangre de Caracas y factores de riesgo asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Graciela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Conocer la proporción de sangre descartada por seropositividad al virus linfotrópico de células T humanas (HTLV tipos I y II, la prevalencia de dicha infección y los probables factores de riesgo en donantes del Banco Municipal de Sangre de Caracas (BMSC. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron serológicamente mediante ensayos de inmunoadsorción enzimática (ELISA 23 413 donantes atendidos entre julio del año 2000 y abril de 2001 en el BMSC. Las muestras repetidamente reactivas (RR se estudiaron por inmunoblot de Western (WB, como prueba suplementaria. Los donantes positivos o indeterminados por WB fueron citados a la consejería para realizar la confirmación mediante la amplificación de ácidos nucleicos por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, recoger datos sobre sus antecedentes de riesgo y asesorarlos acerca de su estado. RESULTADOS. El 0,2% de las donaciones resultaron RR; de ellas 52,1% resultaron positivas en el WB (23 a HTLV I y 2 a HTLV II; 4,1% indeterminadas por WB; 29,2% negativas; y el 14,6% no pudo ser evaluado. Asistieron a la consejería 16 donantes (14 WB positivos a HTLV I, 1 a HTLV II y 1 indeterminado. Todos resultaron positivos en la RCP. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con el grupo control en cuanto a edad, sexo, tipo de donación, número de donaciones previas, antecedentes de transfusiones y comportamiento sexual. Se observaron diferencias significativas según los antecedentes de consumo de drogas no intravenosas (P < 0,05, y altamente significativas (P < 0,001 según los antecedentes de lactancia materna larga. Las madres estudiadas de seis de los donantes positivos que manifestaron haber tenido una larga lactancia materna resultaron positivas, al igual que el hijo mayor de la única pareja positiva de las 13 evaluadas. CONCLUSIONES. Se descartó el 0,2% de la sangre por resultar positiva al HTLV I/II. La prevalencia entre los donantes fue de 0,11%. En el 37,5% de los casos se pudo determinar la

  8. Order in progressive construction: Manifestation based on housing in two barrios (slums) of the city of Caracas

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano, Andres

    2012-01-01

    In Venezuela, the name of “barrio” is given to the housing agglomeration set without any city-planning order on a land area that, most of the times, has been illegally occupied. In the barrio zones it is the family that undertakes, from the beginning, the gradual construction of its house, without any intermediary and with scarcely qualified construction workers. This dynamic occupation and following house construction is part of many Venezuelan cities’ growth. In this context, featured by th...

  9. Venezuela electoral 2012: escenarios y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Trak Vásquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de estas líneas es reflexionar sobre los posibles escenarios que se pueden dar en Venezuela a partir de las elecciones presidenciales del 7 de octubre, en donde se juega la reelección de Hugo Chávez Frías (HCF. Para ello es necesario hacer un breve recorrido por la historia política reciente de Venezuela, cómo llega HCF al poder y los hitos más importantes que han marcado sus mandatos desde 1998.

  10. REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs.  The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative

  11. Venezuela: moving from abundance to moderation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, E

    1984-06-01

    Venezuela is Latin America's second greatest oil producer and its dependence on oil production is extreme. Hydrocarbons account for over 90% of its foreign currency earnings, and oil revenue represents the bulk of the state's resources. Statistics on petroleum exploration, production, refining, consumption, and exports are given and related to the status quo and predicted development in Venezuela. The potential contribution of the Orinoco heavy crude oil reservoir is assessed. A decreased independence on oil production as an income market for the country is being sought.

  12. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week

  13. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  14. Lessons Learned by Venezuela Fighting in Low Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-05

    situation prompted several groups, especially students and slum dwellers, to organize themselves against the repression, with the campus of the Central...Juan, Colonel, et al. Los Cinco de Linea. Caracas: Direccion de Educacion del Ejercito, 4 August 1980. Blanco Munoz, Agustin. La Lucha Armada

  15. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF THE VENEZUELA ROUND STINGRAY UROTRYGON VENEZUELAE SCHULTZ FROM THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY ACEVEDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As for most batoid species, little is known about the basic biology of the Venezuela round stingray Urotrygon venezuelae (Urotrygonidae. This study presents information about the reproductive biology of the species, including fecundity, embryonic development stage, relationship between maternal size and fecundity, gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, sex ratios, maturity size and size at birth. With all this information, a preliminary reproductive cycle is proposed. A total of 269 specimens were caught with beach seine in Salguero beach, Colombian Caribbean Sea, between August 2005 and October 2006. We propose for U. venezuelae a biological cycle with three reproductive peaks: November-December, March-April and August. Size at sexual maturity was calculated in 176 mm (total length for females and 227 mm for males; fecundity ranged between one and six embryos per female. We found that cloacal diameter and liver weight were better predictors for fecundity than total length for U. venezuelae.

  16. Nuclear power planning study for Venezuela. Estudio de planificacion nucleoelectrica para Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The optimum capacity for nuclear power plants that might be built in Venezuela in the period 1985-2000 and the best time for incorporating them into the electric system is defined. The most recent forecasts regarding growth of the population and demand, and of the economy in general, and the taking into account the costs for the fossil-fuel and hydroelectric resources known to exist in Venezuela, as compared with the costs of importing uranium, are discussed.

  17. Evaluación nutricional, lactancia, alimentación complementaria y factores socioambietales en niños con diarrea crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Bottarelli, Josela

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar cual es el estado nutricional, el tipo de la lactancia materna, alimentación complementaria y factores socioambientales en niños de 6 a 12 meses de edad que presentan diarrea crónica. Material y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo, en una muestra de 40 niños lactantes, atendidos en un consultorio de gastroenterología de un Hospital público de la ciudad de Mar del Plata. Se evalúo el estado nutricional a través de los indicadores de crecimiento in...

  18. Infección por Campylobacter y Shigella como causa de Diarrea Aguda Infecciosa en niños menores de dos años en el Distrito de la Victoria, Lima-Perú

    OpenAIRE

    María Perales D; Máximo Camiña; Carmen Quiñones

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Campylobacter y Shigella como agentes etiológicos en diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años atendidos en 4 centros de salud del distrito de La Victoria (Lima, Perú) Materiales y métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico se realizaron coprocultivos bajo técnica microbiológica estándar a los niños menores de dos años con diarrea aguda acuosa atendidos en 4 centros de salud de La Victoria entre abril y octubre de 2001. Fueron excluidos aquell...

  19. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Venezuela, RB

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Venezuela RB. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  20. Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

    2012-01-01

    Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people…

  1. Venezuela: Issues in the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Congressional Research Service 12 telecommunications, electricity, and steel companies, as well as cement, coffee , sugar, flour, and milk...poppy, and cannabis cultivation in the common Sierra de Perijá mountain area bordering the two countries. In 2008 and 2009, Venezuela installed 10

  2. Venezuela: Higher education, neoliberalism and socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhr, T.; Verger, A.; Hill, David; Rosskam, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we analyse the Higher Education For All (HEFA) policies and practices in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. In the construction of a 21st Century Socialism, universal access to higher education has not only become a constitutional right but assumes a pivotal role in both the

  3. Nave de montaje Volkswagen, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhorst, D.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available To assemble Volkswagen cars for the Venezuela market, a large hall has been built, which is fitted with full facilities for its purpose, such as painting and greasing installations, and large parking area for the finished vehicles. The siting of this hall was carefully studied, and such factors as nearness to industrial zones, climate, and ease of access were decisive aspects that were taken into account. The final choice was a site near Morón, in the Carabobo Department, close to the sea. The main constructional item is the roof of the large hall. It is made of a series of hyperbolic-parabolic reinforced concrete thin shells, of rectangular planform, and slightly inclined towards the north, to produce a saw edge profile. Each of these shells is supported by a central column. The hollow spaces along the saw edge profile have been used for ventilation. The enclosing walls consist of trellice material, which also provide ample facility for additional ventilation.Para el montaje de los coches Volkswagen destinados al mercado venezolano, se ha construido una gran nave dotada de todos los servicios necesarios: pintura, engrases, aparcamiento de los vehículos terminados, etc. La elección del lugar más apropiado para la situación de la nave y edificios anexos fue motivo de un detenido estudio, en el que la proximidad a zonas industriales, clima, fácil entrada de materiales procedentes de ultramar y salida para los acabados, fueron los factores decisivos. Definitivamente se eligió un solar en las cercanías de Morón, del departamento de Carabobo, y próximo al mar. Lo más notable es la cubierta de la gran nave, formada por una serie de láminas parabólico-hiperbólicas de hormigón armado, de planta rectangular, inclinadas ligeramente hacia el norte para formar un perfil en diente de sierra. Cada una de estas láminas se soporta por un montante central. Los huecos que dichos dientes de sierra dejan se han aprovechado para la ventilación. Los

  4. Occupational Safety and Health in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, Yohama

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela has pioneered a preventive-focused and comprehensive movement for Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in Latin America. However, despite being an oil-rich country, it has some of the lowest salaries for their workers and highest levels of hyperinflation, devaluation, crime, and violence of the world. Review the current status and challenges on relevant aspects of OSH in Venezuela. Review of literature and documents from national governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and the Venezuelan government concerning OSH and related topics since 1986. Reformed in 2005, the Organic Law on Prevention, Conditions and Environment (LOPCYMAT) was a fundamental moment of change for OSH. Factors which have impacted OSH the strongest are (i) the creation of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (INPSASEL) and (ii) the socioeconomic crisis Venezuela is going through. Venezuela's laws are innovative and yet non-compliance is enormous. Almost half of the population works in the informal sector. Following the International Labor Office projections, 5 people die per day in Venezuela due to occupational accidents or diseases, making health and safety at work a luxury rather than a right. The quality of life for the average worker has deteriorated, affecting not only health but the overall well-being of all Venezuelans. The political and socio-economic situation has led to a mass exodus of more than 1.6 million highly qualified and talented professionals. Many statistics concerning OSH are not updated and are unreliable regarding occupational accidents and diseases. There is a substantial difference between what is written to protect individual Venezuelans in the workplace and the reality of workplace conditions. Substantial governmental actions are needed in the immediate future to improve occupational safety and health of Venezuelan workers. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Presencia de rotavirus en adultos con diarrea en Asunción, Paraguay Incidence of rotavirus in adults with diarrhea in Asunción, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martínez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde octubre de 2001 a marzo de 2004 se analizaron 533 heces de individuos mayores de 18 años con cuadros de diarrea, identificándose rotavirus en 92 (17,3% de ellas. La infección por rotavirus en adultos no mostró un grupo etáreo más afectado y se presentó a lo largo de todo el año sin diferencias significativas en las frecuencias trimestrales. En Paraguay, en los niños menores de 5 años, presenta un pico estacional entre los meses de junio y octubre. Los datos presentados refuerzan la necesidad de tener en cuenta a rotavirus en el diagnóstico diferencial de las diarreas en adultos.From October 2001 to March 2004, 92 out of 533 (17.3% fecal samples of patients over 18 years of age were positive for rotavirus. There were not differences of rotavirus incidence between age groups. Although in Paraguay, rotavirus infections in children less than 5 years old present a seasonal peak pattern (since June to October, in adults rotavirus was present throughout the year with the same frequency. Results presented here reinforce the notion that rotavirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diarrhea in adults.

  6. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    minor production source of opium and cocoa , Venezuela is important in the transit of narcotics between Columbia and the US. 60 61 Mindful of this, a...took over.91 To highlight the significance of oil to Venezuela , in 2006, oil represented 91% of its exports compared to 80% five years earlier.92...methodology to examine the last ten years of Venezuelas Hugo Chavez presidency and the significant aspects in terms of US security. The paper contents

  7. Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus circulating in Venezuela during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Daría; Reyes, Jesús; Negredo, Ana; Hernández, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María; Comach, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relações Caracas-Moscou: implicações da presença russa no mar do Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO P. SAMPEDRO ROMERO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    o artigo trata da política externa da Rússia,

    país afastado da América do Sul desde o fim da

    Guerra Fria. Nesse sentido, aborda o relacionamento

    entre Moscou e Caracas.

  9. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976

  10. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  11. National Oil Companies: the view from Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.

    1994-01-01

    National oil companies were key elements in the initial OPEC strategy and they brought a de-integration of oil industry. These companies have tried to move from crude marketing to product marketing through new investments at home and abroad in order to get higher value added and more secure markets for crude. Low prices bring new challenges. Venezuela's answers are strategic associations, operating contract for marginal fields and profit sharing agreements. (Author)

  12. La Psicología Social Comunitaria en procesos de reubicación masiva: una experiencia de la Gran Misión Vivienda Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Giuliani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La Psicología Social Comunitaria cuenta con un sostenido desarrollo  teórico y metodológico que representa un gran potencial de aplicabilidad en la solución de diversos problemas sociales y en el desarrollo de las comunidades.  Por su parte, el contexto venezolano actual, donde casi todas las políticas públicas implican un alto nivel de protagonismo de la organización y la participación comunitaria, es sumamente propicio para que las ciencias sociales en general y, la Psicología Social Comunitaria en particular, integren sus aportes. En función de estos planteamientos, en el presente trabajo presentamos una experiencia realizada en el marco de la Gran Misión Vivienda Venezuela, política pública impulsada por el estado venezolano que asume una perspectiva comunitaria y participativa. La experiencia en cuestión se desarrolló entre diciembre del 2013 y diciembre del 2014 y estuvo adscripta al Gobierno del Distrito Capital, en Caracas, Venezuela. Tuvo como eje central el desarrollo e implementación de un Enfoque Comunitario Integral destinado a servir de orientación al trabajo que realizaron los equipos con las poblaciones ubicadas en los nuevos urbanismos construidos por el estado. El diseño e implementación del Enfoque, integró buena parte de las propuestas teórico -  conceptuales de la Psicología Comunitaria.   Palabras clave: vivienda, comunidad, organización, participación, políticas públicas.

  13. El impuesto predial urbano. Análisis teórico y aproximación inicial al caso de la ciudad de Caracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mier Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El impuesto predial urbano es un instrumento fundamental en el financiamiento del sector público local, presenta ventajas sobre otros instrumentos tributarios por su relativa neutralidad, estabilidad y anclaje espacial, en beneficio del logro de objetivos de equidad, eficiencia, recaudación, y de planificación urbana. El presente trabajo muestra un avance de investigación en relación con aspectos teóricos tributarios, económicos y urbanísticos, adaptados a este particular instrumento fiscal, también recoge algunas referencias internacionales de diseño del impuesto. El ámbito geográfico para el estudio son los Municipios Baruta, Chacao, Libertador y Sucre del Distrito Metropolitano de Caracas. Además de la revisión bibliográfica de la literatura especializada, fueron utilizadas las fuentes documentales oficiales. Finalmente se realiza una primera aproximación a la evaluación del caso de la ciudad de Caracas, para el cual se identifican algunas fortalezas y debilidades, pero sobre todo la necesidad de desarrollar líneas de investigación para el estudio detallado de los instrumentos disponibles. Ello tiene como fin aportar conocimientos que permitan reforzar la autonomía presupuestaria local, en el marco de políticas de bienestar y de descentralización político-administrativa.

  14. Frecuencia y resistencia bacteriana de Staphylococcus aureus en infecciones nosocomiales en el Hospital Universitario de Caracas, años 2004 y 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Borga Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de infecciones nosocomiales y resistencia a meticiclina de S. aureus en el Hospital Universitario de Caracas, primer semestre de años 2004 y 2007. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo para determinar frecuencia de infecciones intrahospitalarias (IN y resistencia a meticiclina de S. aureus, se analizaron los informes de los Boletines de la Sub Comisión de Infecciones Hospitalarias del Hospital Universitario de Caracas correspondientes al primer semestre de los años 2004 y 2007 Resultados: En el año 2004 se registraron 1.608 casos de IN, 6,84% ocasionadas por S. aureus y 2.311 en el año 2007, 10,42% causadas por dicho microorganismo. La resistencia a la meticilina en el año 2004 fue 14% de las 110 cepas aisladas y en el 2007 fue de 68% de las 241 cepas aisladas. Conclusiones: Existe diferencia en la frecuencia de infecciones hospitalarias producidas por S. aureus y en la resistencia a meticiclina de las cepas en el HUC, mayor en el 2007 en comparación al 2004.

  15. Short- and long-term monitoring of radon, thoron and carbon dioxide in soil-gas at Altos de pipe, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2004-01-01

    Radon and thoron activities in soil-gases have been measured since July 9, 1997 Cariaco earthquake (Mw=6.9) until the end of 2000. Carbon dioxide concentrations were also monitored between 1998-2000. The soil-gas was collected between 50-55 cm depths at two sampling points at Altos de pipe (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas-IVIC) near Caracas, Venezuela. The radon and thoron measurements were performed daily employing radiation monitors with scintillation cells and the carbon dioxide was monitored with portable gas analyzers. Average weekly and monthly values were calculated and plotted for this three-four year period. In general, both the radon and carbon dioxide values showed sinusoidal trends due to seasonal changes. During the dry season the radon and carbon dioxide values decreased, while the radon activity was relative constant (flat) during the rainy season at one of the sampling points. Only two monthly radon values were seen to be anomalous in the graphs in respect to seven anomalous periods for the average weekly values. No anomalous periods were clearly seen for carbon dioxide. Finally, it was difficult to try to relate these radon anomalous periods with specific earthquakes due to the large number of minor earthquakes during these years, but it seem that the minor earthquake (Mb=5.9) of October 4, 2000 could be associated with the radon anomalous period in September, when there were no other minor earthquakes (Mb≥4.0). (author)

  16. O Mercosul na política de integração de Venezuela = Mercosur in Venezuela’s integration policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briceño-Ruiz, José

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo argumenta-se que a estratégia do governo Chávez de solicitar a adesão ao Mercosul deve ser contextualizada no quadro das mudanças políticas internas na Venezuela e da forma como estas mudanças tem influído na elaboração e aplicação de política externa deste país. Neste sentido, qualquer decisão do governo venezuelano em matéria de integração regional está subordinada à consecução dos três objetivos básicos da política exterior do país: a luta contra a ordem unipolar, transformada nos anos recentes em anti-imperialismo; a rejeição ao neoliberalismo, que se converteu em anticapitalismo e a promoção da integração bolivariana. A dificuldade de compatibilizar os objetivos da política exterior venezuelana com a realidade política, estratégica e regulamento institucional do Mercosul e os custos econômicos que teria para o país adotar o programa de liberalização do Protocolo de Caracas explicam as dificuldades da adesão venezuelana ao Mercosul

  17. Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

    This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela,…

  18. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  19. Language Planning for Venezuela: The Role of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Irving; Serrano, Jose

    A rationale for teaching foreign languages in Venezuelan schools is discussed. An included sociolinguistic profile of Venezuela indicates that Spanish is the sole language of internal communication needs. Other languages spoken in Venezuela serve primarily a group function among the immigrant and indigenous communities. However, the teaching of…

  20. The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

  1. Bacterial pathogens associated with bloody diarrhea in Uruguayan children Patógenos bacterianos asociados a diarrea con sangre en niños uruguayos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Mota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease continues to be a serious health problem, especially in developing countries. Bloody diarrhea represents approximately 20-30% of all cases and has higher morbidity and mortality. Treatment with antibiotics is beneficial in cases of Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia and Salmonella infection, principally in those children with a higher risk of invasive disease. The aims of this study were to detect the bacterial agents associated with bloody diarrhea in children and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Between June 2001 and January 2008, 249 children with bloody diarrhea were studied. Shigella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC were recovered from 48 (19.3% and 3 (1.2% of the total of cases, respectively. In 49 out of 249 children, in whom other enteropathogens were investigated, we recovered Campylobacter jejuni from 7 children (14.3%, Salmonella spp. from 2 (4.1% and Aeromonas spp. from 1 (2% in addition to Shigella from 7 children (14.3%. Thirty-four (70% Shigella isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and 13 (27% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All Shigella isolates were susceptible to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Salmonella and STEC isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics assayed. Thus, the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin would not be appropriate for the empirical treatment of Shigella - associated diarrhea.La enfermedad diarreica es un problema de salud importante, especialmente en los países en desarrollo. La diarrea sanguinolenta representa el 20-30% del total de casos y determina una mayor morbimortalidad. La antibioticoterapia es beneficiosa en casos de infección por Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia y Salmonella, principalmente en niños con riesgo elevado de enfermedad invasora. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron conocer las bacterias asociadas a diarrea sanguinolenta y determinar su patrón de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos

  2. Creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos sobre el manejo de la alimentación del niño con diarrea aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corral-Terrazas Martha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar las creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos rurales sobre el manejo de alimentación en los casos de diarrea aguda de los menores de cinco años y compararlos con la recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de antropología cognitiva con los 10 médicos que brindan atención a la población infantil en el Hospital Rural del IMSS-Solidaridad de San Juanito, Bocoyna, Chihuahua, México, de julio a diciembre de 1998. Se trianguló la información obtenida por las técnicas de grupos focales, viñetas, listado libre, sorteo de montones y cuestionario semiestructurado. Resultados. Los médicos reconocieron el impacto negativo de la diarrea sobre el estado nutricio del niño, pero no todos evaluaron su estado de nutrición. Como tratamientos predominaron los antimicrobianos, el manejo con líquidos y las recomendaciones sobre alimentación. De éstas, las más consistentes fueron la lactancia materna, la alimentación tardía y la dieta "escalonada". Conclusiones. La información obtenida contrasta con la recomendación de la OMS, en especial con la de alimentación sostenida.

  3. Trends in fatal snakebites in Venezuela, 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Jesús A; Rifakis, Pedro M; Vargas, Jair A; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2007-01-01

    There have been few studies evaluating snakebite mortality in Venezuela and South America. In this study we evaluate trends in fatal snakebites occurring in Venezuela between 1995 and 2002. Epidemiological data for this study were retrieved from the records of the Ministry of Health of Venezuela. Using these data, we analyzed the impact of snakebites in Venezuela during the study period. During the study period, there were 266 reports of death due to snakebite; 79.7% were males, and 20.3% were females (P Mortality rate by age showed an age-dependent rate, with higher rates in older ages (P = .038). Snake envenomations are an important cause of injury and deaths in Venezuela as in many American countries. Surveillance of envenomations is essential for establishing guidelines, planning therapeutic supplies, and training medical staff on snakebite treatment, as well as assessing risk zones for travelers.

  4. Identificación morfológica de Ehrlichia sp. en las plaquetas de pacientes con infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, en Venezuela Morphologic identification of Ehrlichia sp. in the platelets of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene del Carmen de Tamí

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia de infección por bacterias del género Ehrlichia en una población de pacientes con infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Como se sabe, la infección por VIH suele culminar en el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA después de un período variable en que la persona queda expuesta a distintos tipos de infecciones oportunistas, cuya gravedad varía según el deterioro de su sistema inmunitario. La ehrliquiosis humana es una enfermedad infecciosa de reconocimiento reciente que se transmite por garrapatas y que es causada por especies de Ehrlichia. Se trata de microorganismos gramnegativos, intracelulares obligados, que muestran tropismo por células sanguíneas (leucocitos y plaquetas. En Venezuela se identificó por primera vez en seres humanos en 1994, con la detección de microcolonias (mórulas en el citoplasma de plaquetas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para el estudio se reunieron muestras de sangre periférica de 87 pacientes con seropositividad a VIH recibidos en el Laboratorio de Inmunología del Instituto de Oncología y Hematología, en Caracas, Venezuela, que es uno de los centros de referencia nacionales para casos de infección por VIH. Se revisaron retrospectivamente, al microscopio óptico, frotis elaborados con capa blanca sanguínea concentrada, teñidos con colorante de Wright y sellados con resina para su conservación. RESULTADO: Se identificó Ehrlichia trombocítica en 12 de los 87 sujetos del estudio, es decir, en 13,8%. CONCLUSIÓN: La identificación de Ehrlichia trombocítica en pacientes seropositivos sugiere la necesidad de tener en cuenta la ehrliquiosis como posible diagnóstico en la población con infección por VIH.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of infection by bacteria of the genus Ehrlichia in a population of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As is widely recognized, HIV infection is usually followed by the acquired

  5. Ampharetidae Malmgren, 1867 (Annelida: Polychaeta from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Liñero-Arana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred nineteen specimens of the family Ampharetidae Malmgren, collected in soft bottoms from 26 stations of the Venezuelan coast using PVC corer (0.018 m2, trawl and dredge van Veen (0.013 m3, were analyzed taxonomically. Five species were identified: Auchenoplax crinita Ehlers, 1887, Isolda pulchella F. Müller, 1858, Melinna maculata Webster, 1879, Amphicteis cf. scaphobranchiata Moore, 1906, and Hobsonia florida Banse, 1979; all are new records for Venezuela and extend the geographic distribution of these species.

  6. La calidad de vida urbana en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Mora, María Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    En las últimas décadas Venezuela se ha caracterizado por un crecimiento alto que supera el 3% interanual, el cual al ser extrapolado al año 2005, refleja una tendencia a situarse alrededor del 2%, catalogado como crecimiento moderado, que de seguir a este ritmo de crecimiento la población tiende a quintuplicarse en la segunda mitad del siglo XX (Camargo, M., 1996). Dicho crecimiento poblacional ha estado acompañado de cambios en la distribución de la población, como resulta ser la concentraci...

  7. Kebijakan Politik Hugo Chavez Dalam Penanggulangan Krisis Ekonomi Venezuela (1998-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Try Edo Ati

    2015-01-01

    Hugo Chavez is the President of Venezuela who has an important role for change of political direction to resolve economic crisis in Venezuela with his Bolivarian Revolution. His political and economic policies able to cope with the bad condition in Venezuela. The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the condition of Venezuela when the economic crisis (2) Describe the Bolivarian Revolution (3) Describe the policies of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela tackling the economic crisis...

  8. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  9. Nuevos significados de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Karina Núñez Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es interpretar los nuevos significados de la demo- cracia en Venezuela, construidos a partir de los cambios y transformaciones iniciados en 1999 (proceso constituyente-reforma política, teniendo como centro los discursos y prácticas de una ciudadanía que debe participar de forma activa y organizada en los asuntos públicos con miras a la búsqueda de la solución de sus problemas más apremiantes. La aproximación metodológica (cualitativa-hermenéutica se realizó con- siderando que esta redefinición es una construcción intersubjetiva de los valores, acciones y normas en el ámbito político que intenta explicar cómo se construye la ciudadanía, fundamentalmente en el nivel local, a través de formas asociativas (como los consejos comunales en su interrelación con el Estado. Se concluye que a partir del nuevo orden constitucional de 1999 se comien- za a construir en Venezuela un nuevo sujeto que intenta viabilizar sus de- mandas a través de las organizaciones sociales.

  10. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  11. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo.

  12. [Three phases of homicidal violence in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Venezuela was considered one of the least violent countries in Latin America, however by 2010 it was among the countries with the highest homicide rate. This article analyzes the evolution of homicides in Venezuela between 1985 and 2010 and proposes the existence of three stages which correspond to trends in social and political institutions of the country. The first from 1985 to 1993, characterized by the looting of 1989 and the coups d'état of 1992, when for the first time the homicide rate rose from 8 to 20. The second phase from 1994 to 1998 was a recovery period of the institutional and political stability when the homicide rate remained constant at around 20. The third phase began in 1999 with the H Chavez government and the institutional destruction that comes with the Bolivarian revolution and caused an increase in the rate of 20 to 57 homicides per 100 thousand inhabitants. This article argues that the explanation for the changes in the phases is to be found in the transformation of social and political institutions.

  13. Orígenes y desarrollo de una élite regional. Aristocracia y cacao en la provincia de Caracas, siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Langue

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Como lo demuestra la evolución de la historiografía americanista en los últimos diez años, la insistencia en la historia social y particularmente en la de las élites contempla, en la mayoría de los casos, el período  conocido como el de la "revolución en el gobierno", según la caracterización de Brading. A ese respecto, la naturaleza de los detentores de la riqueza y del poder en la provincia de Caracas — tal sería la definición más amplia del término élite —, una aristocracia criolla por exc...

  14. Orígenes y desarrollo de una élite regional. Aristocracia y cacao en la provincia de Caracas, siglos XVI-XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Frédérique Langue

    2005-01-01

    Como lo demuestra la evolución de la historiografía americanista en los últimos diez años, la insistencia en la historia social y particularmente en la de las élites contempla, en la mayoría de los casos, el período  conocido como el de la "revolución en el gobierno", según la caracterización de Brading. A ese respecto, la naturaleza de los detentores de la riqueza y del poder en la provincia de Caracas — tal sería la definición más amplia del término élite —, una aristocracia criolla por exc...

  15. Actitudes lingüísticas en Venezuela. Exploración de creencias hacia la variante nacional, la lengua española y el español dialectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecsil Yosibel Coello Millán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de Caracas hacia al español de Venezuela y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 personas, estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se analizaron los datos cuantitativa y cualitativamente para identificar las opiniones y creencias de los hablantes y poder describir sus actitudes lingüísticas hacia el habla española de las regiones del país y de otros países hispanohablantes. Este estudio observa un cambio de actitud hacia la variante del español nacional y describe las creencias que comparten los caraqueños hacia el español Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish-speakers from Caracas towards Spanish spoken in Venezuela and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed in order to identify the opinions and beliefs of the speakers, and to be able to describe their linguistic attitudes towards the Spanish varieties of the different regions of the country. This study shows an attitudinal change towards the national variety of Spanish and describes the beliefs that caraqueños share towards the Spanish language.

  16. En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Gómez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6 587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos de encuestas comunitarias. Los datos hospitalarios muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea dieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (1 de cada 8 nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (1 de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$27,7 millones. Estos datos preliminares muestran que la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en los niños argentinos es muy pesada y podría disminuirse con una vacuna segura y efectiva. Además se necesita ampliar la

  17. En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Jorge A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6 587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos de encuestas comunitarias. Los datos hospitalarios muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea dieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (1 de cada 8 nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (1 de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$27,7 millones. Estos datos preliminares muestran que la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en los niños argentinos es muy pesada y podría disminuirse con una vacuna segura y efectiva. Además se necesita ampliar la

  18. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  19. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  20. Lesiones musculoesqueléticas catastróficas en miembros posteriores : Estudio de casos en caballos pura sangre de carreras en el hipódromo "La Rinconada", Caracas, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Briceño, Abelardo; García, Francisco; Villoria, D.; Leal, L.; Gómez, M.

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la prevalencia de lesiones musculo esqueléticas catastróficas en miembros posteriores de caballos Pura Sangre de Carreras. Se estudiaron 17 casos de fracturas, con edades entre 2-3 años, de un total de 216 fracturas en equinos de raza Pura Sangre de Carrera del Hipódromo “La Rinconada”, durante los años 2000-2011. Todos los equinos presentaron historia de fracturas de miembros posteriores y fueron evaluados clínicamente. Se les práctico eutanasia, pos...

  1. Military nurses in Venezuela and training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Izquierdo-Martínez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nursing career professionals with solid-humanistic way scientific, ethical and basis in order that they can properly integrate the multidisciplinary team to creatively solve health problems through nursing care. This article analyzes the formation of the military nurse in Venezuela, with the help of logical historical method to uncover trends and regularities that characterize this process. The nurse is a professional attitudes, values, knowledge and skills to assume their social responsibility, applying theories and models of discipline in the promotion, prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of health. Similarly, military nurse career provides to the military institution and especially health institutions of the country leadership training in the management of custodial care, management and research on health and committed to education continues in his practice.

  2. Nostalgic Venezuela. Reelection, rupture and revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Dámaso Luis León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Venezuela was an oasis in Latin America, a stable, democratic and prosperous country for several decades until the coming of the 1980s’ crisis. The new context and the erosion of traditional actors forced profound political changes. The crisis, the adjustments made during the 1990s and the population’s hopes of one day returning to the path of prosperity generated increasingly radical policy responses. This article seeks to analyse the political responses of the Venezuelan people to the challenges posed by their new socioeconomic reality and how these connect with visions derived from past experience and the approach to the roles of state and leader. It also explores the frustration caused by failure to meet their expectations, leading to the election of increasingly radical options.

  3. Visual pollution in public spaces in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Velandia, Carmen Arelys

    2013-01-01

    Each day cities inhabitants are exposed to visual pollution. This work assess the environmental impact caused by visual pollution in public spaces, using as a case of study a mixed-use neighborhood in San Cristobal, the capital of Tachira state, Venezuela. Such assessment was made using a qualitative approach, where special emphasis was paid to the perception of these impacts by a purposive sample of users of this area. The compilation and analysis of information reveal the main visual pollutants existing in these public spaces where, in addition to outdoor advertising, overhead wires, rubbish, graffiti, vacant land, among others, cars and outdoor kiosks. Neighborhood users are sensitive to the presence of visual pollutants, which affects them physically and psychologically, as well as for the visual quality of their environment. Such signs were used to guide a qualitative appraisal of environmental impacts generated by these circumstances and to propose policies to mitigate them.

  4. Information Sciences: training, challenges and new proposal from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomar José Montilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It reflects on the training of information professionals in Venezuela and the potential contributions that these professionals can provide to society and its projection to it. The content is divided into three parts: the first deals with issues related to professional training in Information Sciences in Venezuela, the second project the training Venezuelan Information Sciences in the future and the third reflects on the prospects for professionals in Information Science

  5. Reactor, radioactive isotopes and nuclear energy: their avatars in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of nuclear affairs in Venezuela, since the decision to bring a research reactor (3MW) to Venezuela (1954) to current situation, is presented. Since the establishment of the National Council for Nuclear Affairs (CONAN) and then of the National Council for the Development of Nuclear Industry (CONADIN), steps are being taken to train nuclear engineers, since most studies thus far indicate the last few years of the Century as the time when nuclear energy will have to supplement other sources

  6. Propuesta para la implementación de un servicio de promoción y orientación a la lectura en las instalaciones del Metro de Caracas

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes, Nazly; Granda, Renny

    2007-01-01

    This study is a proposal for the implementation of reading orientation and promotion modules in Metro de Caracas facilities as a new library service to address Caraqueños' reading needs. Issues regarding the Public Library Metropolitan Network such as the scope and inadequate supply of library services, lack of library policies and planning to promote reading, role alteration and conception of the public library are dealt with in this study since these issues have brought about people's lack...

  7. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los debates sobre la democracia en la Venezuela de hoy carecen de una definición común sobre el tema, sobre cómo estudiarlo, e incluso respecto a qué es democracia. El régimen ha sido descrito de muchas formas: democracia participativa, híbrido, mixto, personalista, populista, iliberal, autoritarismo competitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de calidad de la democracia en Venezuela, en el marco de una concepción procedimental de la democracia. La evaluación empírica de cinco dimensiones de calidad de la democracia (decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, rendición de cuentas y soberanía revela un nivel bajo en conjunto, con escasa variación entre 2005 y 2010. Los escenarios posibles luego de las elecciones de 2012 incluyen: reforzamiento de las tendencias autoritarias, militarización abierta, liberalización política con fortalecimiento institucional, o volatilidad duradera con conflicto polarizado y debilidad institucional. La salud del presidente Chávez afectará estos escenarios, dado su carácter de factor central unificador de su movimiento y del régimen.Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the

  8. PDV [Petroleos de Venezuela] ditches past to play leading role in Venezuela's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusti, L.

    1994-01-01

    The president of Petroleos de Venezuela (PDV) describes the transformation of Venezuelan society and economics which has come about between 1989 and 1992 and the effect of these political changes on the oil industry in this country. While political and social unrest has been widespread before and during these changes PDV, at least, considers that a more robust economy and a better and fairer society will result than would have been possible under the oil rent system which held sway prior to 1989. (author)

  9. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year Reviews... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... on subject imports from Venezuela was adequate, and [[Page 4438

  10. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States..., Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  11. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to an industry in... orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff...

  12. 78 FR 9034 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ...] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Reviews of the... India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela. The Department finds that revocation of these antidumping duty orders... INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela...

  13. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, Jacinto; Schuler, Harland; Borges, Rafael; Olivero, Vimerca; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Frontado, Hortencia; Grillet, María E

    2013-10-07

    Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10-12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001-2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. From 2007-2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children Venezuela.

  14. Malaria control and elimination, Venezuela, 1800s –1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-10-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920,malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world's interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication.Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization.We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  15. Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-01-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  16. Responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lescher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela. El trabajo se sustenta en los postulados de Rodríguez (2010, De la Cuesta (2011, el Ministerio de Educación de España (2011, entre otros. El estudio fue descriptivo, de campo. La población estuvo conformada por autoridades de cinco (5 universidades, una (1 pública y cuatro (4 privadas ubicadas en Maracaibo, a las cuales se accedió mediante un cuestionario compuesto por treinta y dos (32 ítems cerrados. El instrumento fue validado por expertos en el ámbito de la gerencia universitaria. Para determinar la confiabilidad del cuestionario se aplicó el método test-retest, obteniéndose un coeficiente de 0,94. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el promedio aritmético o media. Los resultados indican que las universidades estudiadas exhiben un modelo de responsabilidad social de tendencia empresarial instrumental, donde el conocimiento se perfila como el principal activo disponible para su uso por la sociedad, pero se requiere una mayor integración de las instituciones de educación superior con sus stakeholders.

  17. Las decisiones de los hogares en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakah Mancini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza quién toma las decisiones en los hogares y los factores que afectan la decisión. Esta investigación se condujo en Venezuela, donde se preguntó a las mujeres sobre las decisiones de los hogares en cuatro áreas. Los resultados indican que la mayoría de los hogares toman decisiones conjuntamente. Excluyendo esta categoría, la mayoría de las mujeres toman decisiones concernientes a la compra de bienes y la educación de los hijos, mientras que los hombres dominan las decisiones acerca de las finanzas del hogar y el cambio de residencia. También se encontró que la mayoría de las parejas que trabajan comparten los gastos del hogar. Además, se identifican factores que afectan el poder de decisión de las mujeres como la participación femenina en el mercado laboral y la edad, no obstante, el nivel de educación no afecta su poder decisión.

  18. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  19. Zulia rich coal seams to fuel Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-16

    In March, 1982, Carbozulia awarded a contract to Fluor Corp. to provide basic engineering services, including mine planning and geology, for the two-phase project. The open pit mine and ancillary facilities, valued at more than $200 million, will provide steam and metallurgical coal for domestic use. The site, Mina Paso Diablo, is located about 60 miles northwest of Maracaibo. Upon phase one completion sometime in 1987, the mill will start production, gradually increasing to 4 million metric-tons-per-year. This will increase to 6.4 million metric tons when phase two is completed. In addition to the mine, the Venezuelan government plans to build an industrial complex along Lake Maracaibo. Corpozulia will build a steel-rolling mill and add a 350,000 metric tons-per-year coking oven, which will consume about 7% of the mine's metallurgical-coal production. Another government-owned firm, Electric Energy of Venezuela, plans to build a thermo-electric plant nearby. Two 250-megawatt units are planned initially, with potential to add another six units. At full capacity, the plant will burn more than 90% of the coal produced from the mine. Mina Paso Diablo contains one of Latin America's largest proven coal reserves - about 350 million metric tons - with guesstimates running as high as 4 billion metric tons for the Zulia coal basin. The coal is of superior quality, running about 12,000 to 13,000 Btu's per lb. with a low ash and sulphur content.

  20. Social Change and Health Policy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuramy J. Gutiérrez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews social changes occurring in Venezuela during the last two decades, examining how they led to the development of a new health policy. Initially, the political context of the nineties is examined; this was a time when the neoliberal politics of the 1980’s had a demonstrable impact on the living conditions and health status of the population. By 1999 social and political events led to a new Constitution which provided the juridical and legal framework for a new health policy. The conceptualization of health and the model of health care which arose from the constitutional process are considered, as well as the reaction of the dominant economic and political sectors to the new policies imposed by constitutional mandate. The emergence of Barrio Adentro and other social missions is analyzed as an essential factor in the initiation of structural changes within the country and its health institutions. The Barrio Adentro program is described in detail, along with key steps in the development of the Venezuelan National Public Health System. Finally, the impact of these new health policies on the quality of life of the Venezuelan population is delineated.

  1. Human rotavirus strains circulating in Venezuela after vaccine introduction: predominance of G2P[4] and reemergence of G1P[8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzi, Esmeralda; Piñeros, Oscar A; Oropeza, M Daniela; Naranjo, Laura; Suárez, José A; Fernández, Rixio; Zambrano, José L; Celis, Argelia; Liprandi, Ferdinando

    2017-03-21

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Despite Venezuela was among the first developing countries to introduce RV vaccines into their national immunization schedules, RV is still contributing to the burden of diarrhea. Concerns exist about the selective pressure that RV vaccines could exert on the predominant types and/or emergence of new strains. To assess the impact of RV vaccines on the genotype distribution 1 year after the vaccination was implemented, a total of 912 fecal specimens, collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Caracas from February 2007 to April 2008, were screened, of which 169 (18.5%) were confirmed to be RV positive by PAGE. Rotavirus-associated diarrhea occurred all year-round, although prevailed during the coolest and driest months among unvaccinated children under 24 months old. Of 165 RV strains genotyped for G (VP7) and P (VP4) by seminested multiplex RT-PCR, 77 (46.7%) were G2P[4] and 63 (38.2%) G1P[8]. G9P[8], G3P[8] and G2P[6] were found in a lower proportion (7.3%). Remarkable was also the detection of rotaviruses, but they were rather distant from Rotarix ® vaccine and pre-vaccine strains. Unique amino acid substitutions observed on neutralization domains of the VP7 sequence from Venezuelan post-vaccine G1P[8] could have conditioned their re-emergence and a more efficient dissemination into susceptible population. The results suggest that natural fluctuations of genotypes in combination with forces driving the genetic evolution could determine the spread of novel strains, whose long-term effect on the efficacy of available vaccines should be determined.

  2. Frecuencia y patotipos de Escherichia coli diarrogénicas en niños peruanos con y sin diarrea Frequency and pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in peruvian children with and without diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Ochoa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las E. coli diarrogénicas (DEC son una de las principales causas de diarrea en niños en países en vías de desarrollo. Sin embargo, no son rutinariamente diagnosticadas en los laboratorios clínicos. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de las DEC en niños peruanos y describir la variabilidad genética de estas cepas. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 8 003 cepas de E. coli previamente aisladas de ocho estudios previos de diarrea en niños, mayormente en zonas periurbanas de Lima. El diagnóstico de las DEC fue a través de un PCR múltiple a tiempo real para los seis grupos de DEC. Se empleó PCR para la determinación de genes adicionales de virulencia. Resultados. La prevalencia promedio global en muestras de diarrea (n=4 243 fue: E. coli enteroagregativa (EAEC 9,9%, enteropatogénica (EPEC 8,5%, enterotoxigénica (ETEC 6,9%, difusamente adherente (DAEC 4,8%, productora de toxina shiga (STEC 0,8% y enteroinvasiva (EIEC 0,6%. La frecuencia relativa de cada patógeno varía según la edad y tipo de estudio. Los principales patotipos en muestras control (n=3 760 fueron EPEC (10,9% y EAEC (10,4%. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la frecuencia de genes de virulencia para cada patotipo, así como en los mecanismos moleculares de resistencia, sin diferencias significativas entre muestras de diarrea y control. Conclusiones. Las DEC son causa importante de diarrea en niños peruanos. Estos patógenos son altamente heterogéneos. Se requieren estudios adicionales para determinar la prevalencia en zonas rurales del Perú, así como en casos graves de diarrea.Introduction. Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC are a major cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. However, they are not part of routine diagnosis in clinical laboratories. Objectives. To determine the DEC prevalence in Peruvian children and to describe the genetic variability of these strains. Materials and methods. A total of 8 003 E. coli strains previously

  3. Elevada prevalencia de Cyclospora cayetanensis en indígenas del estado Bolívar, Venezuela High prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among indigenous people in Bolivar State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Devera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad las coccidiosis intestinales causadas por Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli y Cyclospora cayetanensis constituyen parasitosis de gran importancia médica, sin embargo, en el Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, se desconocen muchos aspectos epidemiológicos de estas infecciones. Entre julio de 2003 y abril de 2004 fue evaluada la población indígena San Antonio de Morichal con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de coccidiosis intestinales. Las muestras fecales obtenidas por evacuación espontánea fueron preservadas en dicromato de potasio 2,5% y posteriormente examinadas mediante la técnica de concentración con formol-éter y coloración de Kinyoun. De los 160 indígenas evaluados, el 92,5% (148 casos estaba parasitado. Entamoeba coli (58,8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (38,8% y Giardia lamblia (18,8% fueron los más comunes. La prevalencia de coccidiosis intestinal fue de 13,1%, siendo la cyclosporiosis la más importante con 11,9% (19 casos. Solamente se diagnosticó un caso con ooquistes de C. parvum (0,6% y otro con I. belli (0,6%. No hubo diferencias en cuanto al sexo (p > 0,05 y la edad (c2 = 5,6; g.l: 6 de los habitantes infectados con C. cayetanensis. De los infectados con C. cayetanensis únicamente dos tenían diarrea. En conclusión, se determinó una prevalencia elevada de coccidiosis intestinal en habitantes de la comunidad indígena evaluada, siendo la infección por C. cayetanensis las más prevalente.The intestinal coccidioses caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, and Cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitoses of major medical importance, but many epidemiological aspects of these infections are still unknown in Bolívar State, Venezuela. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and especially of intestinal coccidiosis, an indigenous population in San Antonio de Morichal was evaluated from July 2003 to April 2004. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were preserved in potassium

  4. Infección por Campylobacter y Shigella como causa de Diarrea Aguda Infecciosa en niños menores de dos años en el Distrito de la Victoria, Lima-Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Perales D

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Campylobacter y Shigella como agentes etiológicos en diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años atendidos en 4 centros de salud del distrito de La Victoria (Lima, Perú Materiales y métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico se realizaron coprocultivos bajo técnica microbiológica estándar a los niños menores de dos años con diarrea aguda acuosa atendidos en 4 centros de salud de La Victoria entre abril y octubre de 2001. Fueron excluidos aquellos niños con disentería y aquellos que habían recibido tratamiento antibiótico previo a la atención. Resultados: se estudiaron un total de 248 casos, de los cuales 48 (19,4% coprocultivos fueron positivos: 33 (13.3% a Campylobacter, 12 (4,8% a Shigella y 3 (1,2% a Salmonella. No se identificaron otros patógenos. Las especies de Shigella identificadas fueron: Shigella flexneri en 9 (75,0% casos y Shigella sonnei en 3 (25,0% La única especie de Campylobacter identificada fue Campylobacter jejuni siendo el biotipo I el más frecuente (84,6% Conclusiones: Campylobacter y Shigella juegan un importante papel como agentes etiológicos causantes de diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años.

  5. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  6. Misery Index Corrected by Informality: Applicable to Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index, adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector to the unemployment level. This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated. Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, compared to the deterioration of the indicator in Venezuela. In general terms, the IMO is controlled by unemployment, except in Venezuela. However, preponderance of inflation over unemployment in this country seems to occur by the underestimate that the unemployment rate has on the Venezuelan labor market situation.

  7. Identificación de Arcobacter en niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en reservorios animales: aves, ganado vacuno y porcino, peces y mariscos

    OpenAIRE

    Zerpa, Rito; Alarcón, Jorge; Lezama, Percy; Patiño, Lilian; Reyes, Alberto; Valencia, Augusto; Velásquez, Jorge; Alarcón, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de Arcobacter en niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en animales: aves, ganado vacuno y porcino, peces y mariscos. Diseño: Estudio transversal descriptivo. Institución: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrión, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Instituto Materno Infantil de San Bartolomé y Hospital Arzobispo Loayza. Material biológico: Aislamientos bacterianos de humanos y animales. Intervenciones: Búsqueda activa de Arc...

  8. EDUCACIÓN SANITARIA SOBRE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES ADOLESCENTES PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DE DIARREAS AGUDAS EN LACTANTES DEL HOSPITAL HERMILIO VALDIZÁN – HUÁNUCO 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Zevallos, Julia Marina

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVO. Determinar el efecto de la educación sanitaria sobre lactancia materna en madres adolescentes para la prevención de diarreas agudas. MÉTODOS. Se llevó a cabo un estudio cuasi-experimental con pre y post test para 24 lactantes que conformaron el grupo experimental y 24 lactantes el grupo control, procedentes del hospital Regional Hermilio Valdizán, Huánuco 2015. Se utilizó un cuestionario de conocimiento, una guía de observación y una ficha de registros. Para el aná...

  9. Efecto del zinc aminoquelado y el sulfato de zinc en la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea en niños preescolares de centros infantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El déficit de zinc es común en niños de poblaciones en desarrollo. La deficiencia de zinc altera el sistema inmunológico y la resistencia a las infecciones. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos compuestos de zinc en la prevención de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo comunitario triple ciego en 301 niños entre dos y cinco años de edad de centros infantiles de Medellín. Fueron seis conglomerados distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de intervención que recibieron zinc aminoquelado, sulfato de zinc y placebo durante cinco días de la semana a lo largo de 16 semanas. Se evaluaron diariamente los síntomas de infección respiratoria, diarrea aguda y efectos secundarios. Resultados. La incidencia de la infección respiratoria fue menor con el zinc aminoquelado (1,42 por 1.000 días-niño comparado con el sulfato de zinc (1,57 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,90, IC95%: 0,382 a 2,153, p=0,999 y con el placebo (3,3 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,43, IC95%: 0,196 a 0,950, p=0,049. La incidencia de diarrea aguda con el zinc aminoquelado (0,15 por 1.000 días-niño fue menor que con el sulfato de zinc (1,18 0,78 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,20, IC95%: 0,0043 a 1,662, p=0,361 y que la del grupo placebo (0,49 por 1.000 días-niño (RR=0,32, IC95%: 0,006 a 3,990, p=0,346. Conclusiones. El zinc aminoquelado tuvo mejor efecto en la disminución de la incidencia de la infección respiratoria y la diarrea agudas en niños preescolares comparado con los otros grupos de estudio. Identificador en clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01791608

  10. Epidemiología y caracterización de los factores de riesgo de diarrea viral bovina y neosporosis en bovinos del valle del Mantaro – región Junín

    OpenAIRE

    Arauco Villar, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico de Diarrea viral bovina (DVB) y neosporosis en 425 vacas en producción de 37 hatos del Valle del Mantaro-Región Junín, Perú, mediante ELISA e identificando sus factores de riesgo aplicando una encuesta. Para DVB se encontraron prevalencias: muestral 66.33%, predial 97.3% (36/37) y promedio/hato 64.78%, Concepción tuvo las prevalencias promedio/hato y muestral más altas, luego Jauja, Chupaca y Huancayo; la prevalencia de animales persistentement...

  11. Tres nuevas especies de Sterculia L. (Sterculiaceae) de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    MONDRAGÓN, Alcides

    2005-01-01

    Como resultado del estudio taxonómico del género Sterculia L. (Sterculiaceae) en Venezuela, se describen tres nuevas especies: Sterculia abbreviata, procedente de los estados Amazonas, Aragua, Delta Amacuro, Mérida y Miranda; S. amazonica, a lo largo del Río Ocamo del estado Amazonas, y estado Bolívar; S. steyermarkii, en bosques siempreverdes en las costas del estado Miranda y en el estado Mérida. As a result of a taxonomical study of the genus Sterculia L. (Sterculiaceae) in Venezuela, t...

  12. Proteste in Venezuela und die Krise des Chavismus

    OpenAIRE

    Mijares, Víctor M.

    2014-01-01

    Seit Wochen demonstrieren in Venezuela Gegner der Regierung von Nicolás Maduro gegen Gewaltkriminalität, Inflation und die Einschränkung bürgerlicher Grundrechte. Die Regierung antwortet mit Repression und lässt einen führenden Oppositionspolitiker verhaften. Venezuela steht vor einem neuen Zyklus der Instabilität. Das während der Präsidentschaft von Hugo Chávez (1999-2013) etablierte sozioökonomische Modell stößt schon im ersten Amtsjahr seines Nachfolgers Nicolás Maduro an seine Grenzen: Ve...

  13. Beneficios fiscales de las sociedades cooperativas en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez A., Héctor M.

    2013-01-01

    En la última década (período 2000-2010) en Venezuela, el número de sociedades cooperativas ha aumentado notablemente. Esto debido al énfasis por parte del Estado en promover la creación de estas asociaciones inmersas en la economía social, otorgando a las mismas diversos beneficios fiscales. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo, analizar los beneficios fiscales de las sociedades cooperativas en Venezuela. Se concluye, que las cooperativas poseen varios beneficios fi...

  14. Growth in an oil abundant economy: The case of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Bety Agnany; Amaia Iza

    2008-01-01

    This paper has been presented at DEGIT-X held in México 2005.-- Revised: 2008-08. Venezuela's growth experience over the past fifty years is characterized by a high economic growth rate from 1950 to 1970 and a low economic growth rate in the last thirty years. Although Venezuela is an oil abundant economy, this growth experience is largely accounted for by the evolution of its real non-oil GDP. We use growth accounting to quantify the extent to which the growth experience in non-oil sector...

  15. INFORME DE COYUNTURA EXPORTACIONES DE COLOMBIA A VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni E. Reyes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad fundamental de este informe es presentar la situación de exportaciones que originadas en Colombia han tenido como destino Venezuela. Este intercambio comercial es muy importante en términos de la región latinoamericana. En particular, durante los años de mayor intercambio entre los dos países, lo que ha ocurrido en especial en la primera década del Siglo XXI, este comercio llegó a representar casi un 80 por ciento del total de intercambio de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN –Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela.

  16. Events affecting gold exploration in Venezuela since 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the gold mining industry in Venezuela has changed significantly since 1999 as a result of Government policy changes and industry response to these changes. This report documents the policy decisions that have affected the mining industry, discusses the response of the industry on a site by site basis, and suggests possible effects of these changes on the global economy. For the short term, at least, it appears that these changes have made Venezuela a more difficult place to invest for U.S. and Canadian companies, while investment by Chinese entities has been encouraged.

  17. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, C. (I.V.I.C., Caracas (Venezuela)); Estevez, R. (Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)); Henneberg, H.G. (Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  18. pobres y nuevas coaliciones en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Briggs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, los gobiernos locales junto con el gobierno nacional, crearon un sistema nacional de salud paralelo, Misión Barrio Adentro (MBA, ubicando a unos 33.000 profesionales de la salud, inicialmente cubanos, en vecindarios de bajos ingresos. A través de la etnografía y entrevistas, se concluye que MBA proporcionó acceso a la atención médica y logró obtener apoyo popular a consecuencia de: movimientos sociales de los pobres; cooperación entre trabajadores comunitarios, residentes, profesionales de salud y funcionarios públicos; la integración de la atención médica con programas sociales y económicos; la ubicación de médicos como residentes en barrios pobres; interacciones positivas y equitativas médico-paciente; el papel clave de los Comités de Salud; y el impacto de la hostilidad de la prensa, un segmento grande de los médicos venezolanos y la oposición en transformar a la salud en un tema político esencial. Todo esto nos sugiere que el Estado puede confrontar las inequidades de salud cuando se unen perspectivas teóricas de la medicina social y la epidemiología crítica con los saberes populares dentro de las comunidades afectadas. Estructuras institucionales flexibles, no burocráticas y creativas aumentan la efectividad de las intervenciones.

  19. Study of renewable energies in Venezuela; Estudio del desarrollo de las energias alternativas en Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posso, F. R.

    2004-07-01

    It is study the feasibility of development of the alternative energies, AE, in Venezuela based on its potential of exploitation, the analysis of its energetic system, and the attitude of the State before the AE. The results indicate that the country has a high potential of AE, that the hidroenergy in great scale is the unique one with an important participation in the energy system, and that the solar energy and the eolic are those of greater possibility of development. However, an assembly of factors impede the development in firm of the AE, fundamentally related to its historic condition of producer and consumer of fuel fossil in great scale at low cost. It is concluded that only with a change of attitude of the State and the concourse of all the actors involved in the sector, the {sup c}lean energies{sup w}ould be able to have an important weight in the national energetic balance. (Author)

  20. Taska teeb Venezuela seebi eesti moodi / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska ostis ära Venezuela seebiooperi "Lorenzo naine", et valmistada Kanal Spordis näitamiseks Eesti oludele mugandatud "Kalevi naised" (lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar, osades Maria Avdjuško, Andrus Vaarik, Jan Uuspõld, Anne Reemann)

  1. Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de las Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela. Presenta los resultados taxonómicos y de distribución de las especies recolectadas durante los años 1960 a 1962. Las muestras de plancton analizadas indicaron la presencia de 18 especies

  2. Snakes from the Leeward Group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1940-01-01

    Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck entrusted me with the study of the snakes, which he collected during his trips to the islands off the north coast of Venezuela, to the Venezuelan mainland, and to eastern Colombia. In the present paper the species collected by Dr. Hummelinck are listed with data on scale

  3. Frogs from the Leeward group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1948-01-01

    The present notes deal with a small collection of frogs that was made by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during his visits to the islands of the Leeward Group, Venezuela and Eastern Colombia. I have included in this study the specimens of Pleurodema brachyops (Cope) already present in the Rijksmuseum van

  4. [Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela.

  5. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  6. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  7. [An explanation of recent trends in infant mortality in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M R

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in infant mortality in Venezuela is presented using official data. The results show a strong decline up to 1968, followed by a period of fluctuation due to sporadic outbreaks of epidemics. However, the most recent data reveal a continuing decline in mortality, indicating that the problems posed by epidemics have been resolved. (summary in ENG, SPA)

  8. Use of nuclear techniques in agriculture in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez C, R.

    1984-01-01

    The agricultural activites being carried out so far in Venezuela are described. Failures and lessons learned from the induced mutation programme (sorghum and ajonjoli) are emphasized. Some of the results obtained with the use of isotopes in biological investigations with dairy and beef cattle and sheep are related. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Reorganization and redimensioning of nuclear activities in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This paper is of a self-critical nature, beginning with a retrospective look at nuclear activities in Venezuela. An inventory of human resources, materials and existing techniques is also made. National nuclear policies and developments are examined pointing out failures and successes. Finally, conclusions are presented about the technical assistance received from international organizations in research, nuclear safety and technological development

  10. Diversity of avian haemosporidians in arid zones of northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Nayara O; Rodríguez-Ferraro, Adriana; Braga, Erika M; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    Arid zones of northern Venezuela are represented by isolated areas, important from an ornithological and ecological perspective due to the occurrence of restricted-range species of birds. We analysed the prevalence and molecular diversity of haemosporidian parasites of wild birds in this region by screening 527 individuals (11 families and 20 species) for parasite mitochondrial DNA. The overall prevalence of parasites was 41%, representing 17 mitochondrial lineages: 7 of Plasmodium and 10 of Haemoproteus. Two parasite lineages occurred in both the eastern and western regions infecting a single host species, Mimus gilvus. These lineages are also present throughout northern and central Venezuela in a variety of arid and mesic habitats. Some lineages found in this study in northern Venezuela have also been observed in different localities in the Americas, including the West Indies. In spite of the widespread distributions of some of the parasite lineages found in northern Venezuela, several, including some that are relatively common (e.g. Ven05 and Ven06), have not been reported from elsewhere. Additional studies are needed to characterize the host and geographical distribution of avian malaria parasite lineages, which will provide a better understanding of the influence of landscape, vector abundance and diversity, and host identity on haemosporidian parasite diversity and prevalence.

  11. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    constitution and unicameral legislature, and a new name for the country, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. U.S. officials and human rights...revamped political institutions, eliminating the Senate and establishing a unicameral National Assembly, and expanded the presidential term of office from

  12. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Venezuela a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in a 32 year old man is presented. The clinical picture included a rapid progressive dementia associated with ataxia, global aphasia, myoclonus and pyramidal signs, death ocurred after 13 months. The diagnosis of CJD was confirmed by CT and neuropathological studies. This is the first report of CJD occurring in Venezuela.

  13. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications.

  14. State-Led Education for Democratic Socialism: Venezuela's Education Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela's "Bolivarian Revolution" is conceptualised as an anti-neoliberal project that aims to promote fundamental changes in the configuration of political power via processes of state-grassroots collaboration. Central to this process is an emphasis on the key role of education in the development of a 21st Century socialism based on…

  15. More oil sand cooperation between Canada and Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    Venezuela has pioneered the production of heavy oil, according to Dr. A. Guzman-Reyes, director general of hydrocarbons for the Venezuelan government. The first heavy oil production began in Venezuela 60 yr ago and the oil industry has steadily improved methods of producing and handling heavy oil. The country's producing fields are capable of yielding almost one million barrels of heavy oil daily, although actual production, largely because of market limitations, is about 650,000 bpd. Canada's daily heavy oil production, including the 60,000 bbl of synthetic crude produced daily by the Great Canadian Oil Sands plant, is about 200,000 bbl. Dr. Guzman-Reyes stated that Venezuela intends to rapidly develop heavy oil production and upgrade facilities to maintain its export markets. The national oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela, plans to invest 4 times the amount spent on oil development over the last 60 yr during the next 10 yr, a total of $3 billion by 1980.

  16. Escuela de psicología en Venezuela: estructura curricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Vicentelli

    Full Text Available The paper is concerning to the academic formation of the psycho1ogist at Venezuela, studing the curriculum structure, taking in consideration the recommendations, suggestions and reflections presented in events that had influenced the teaching of Psychology and the action of the professional.

  17. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings Carga de morbilidad de la diarrea por rotavirus en Perú: la necesidad de una vacuna y su potencial de ahorro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ehrenkranz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. Methods. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Results. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384 000 cases, 64 000 clinic visits, 30 000 hospitalizations, and 1 600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Conclusions. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.Objetivos. Evaluar la carga de morbilidad de la diarrea por rotavirus en Perú, la necesidad de una vacuna y el ahorro que esta podría proporcionar en este país. M

  18. Patrones de adherencia de cepas de Escherichia coli Difusamente adherente (DAEC provenientes de niños con y sin diarrea Adhesion patterns in diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC strains isolated from children With and without diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Riveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las E. coli de adherencia difusa (DAEC son el sexto grupo de E. coli diarrogénicas reconocidas. Su asociación con diarrea es controversial. No se conoce la variabilidad en los patrones de adherencia de cepas clínicas. Objetivos. Comparar los patrones de adherencia entre cepas aisladas de niños con y sin diarrea. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 31 cepas DAEC, 25 de diarrea y 6 de niños asintomáticos (control aislados de un estudio de cohorte de niños menores de 12 meses en el cono sur de Lima. Las DAEC fueron identificadas por PCR (gen daaD. Se evaluó el patrón y grado de adherencia en cultivos de células HEp-2; la polimerización de actina se evaluó por la prueba de coloración de fluorescencia de actina (FAS; y la motilidad se evaluó por métodos convencionales microbiológicos. Resultados. El patrón de adherencia difusa se encontró en el 88% de muestras de diarrea y en el 100% de muestras control. La cantidad de bacterias adheridas por célula fue significativamente menor en las muestras de diarrea (pIntroduction. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC is the sixth recognized group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, its association with diarrhea remains controversial. Variability in the adherence patterns of clinical strains is unknown. Objectives. To compare the adherence patterns between strains isolated from children with and without diarrhea. Materials and methods. A total of 31 DAEC strains were analyzed, 25 from children with diarrhea and 6 from asymptomatic (control children, isolated from a cohort study of children under one year of age in the southern districts of Lima. DAEC were identified by PCR (daaD gene. The pattern and adherence score in HEp-2 cell culture were evaluated, Actin polimerization was determined by fluorescence actin staining (FAS and motility was evaluated by conventional microbiology methods. Results. Diffuse adherence pattern was found in 88% of diarrhea samples and in the total of

  19. Numerical Electromagnetic Models of Cube-Shaped Boxes - An Initial Investigation for Near-Field Prediction of HF Shipboard Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    de Armamento y Electronica 2 Comandancia de la Armada Av. Vollmer San Benardino Caracas, 1011 Venezuela 10. Director de Comunicaciones 2 Comandancia...Prof. Harry Atwater, Code 62An 1 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 6. Capitdn de Corbeta 5 Carlos R Molina T Comandancia de la Armada Av...Vollmer San Benardino Caracas, 1011 Venezuela 7. Escuela Naval de Venezuela 2 Director Comandancia de la Armada Av. Vollmer San Benardino Caracas

  20. Las cárceles y población reclusa en Venezuela Prisos and inmates population in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Posada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de los asuntos penitenciarios, en América Latina existen pocos estudios comprensivos y recomendaciones regionales con relación a este contexto. En este trabajo se describen las características de las cárceles y los reclusos en Venezuela, información recopilada a través de revisión documental y en visitas realizadas desde 1998-2006 a diferentes penales venezolanos, en el marco de las Jornadas de Salud insertas en el Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, con el propósito de realizar un aporte que sirva como antecedente nacional y regional para la investigación en el ámbito penitenciario, que permita avanzar en el estudio de sus problemas y en la promoción e implementación de posibles soluciones.Despite the importance of prison issues in Latin America, there is little in the way of detailed local studies or recommendations on the subject. This article sets out to describe the situation concerning prisons and inmates in Venezuela. Data for this study was compiled from documentary sources and visits to a number of Venezuelan prisons from 1998 to 2006 as part of the Health Conference of the Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, (Central University of Venezuela Prison Program. The program’s aim was to make contributions towards research on the prison environment at national and regional levels that might serve as a precedent for further study of the problems and issues that exist, and promote and implement possible solutions.

  1. Factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela / Factors of School Effectiveness in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Martínez-Garrido

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La línea de investigación sobre Eficacia Escolar aporta información sobre los factores de aula y escuela que promueven de forma duradera el desarrollo global de todos y cada uno de sus estudiantes más allá de lo que sería esperable teniendo en cuenta sus condiciones previas, al mismo tiempo que fomentan el desarrollo de la comunidad educativa (Murillo, 2007. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar cuáles son los factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela. Para dar respuesta a este objetivo, se lleva a cabo un estudio multinivel siguiendo el planteamiento de valor añadido, esto es, se considera cuál es la aportación de cada factor de eficacia descontando el efecto que generan las características personales, sociales previas del estudiante (nivel socioeconómico y cultural de la familia del estudiante, rendimiento previo, género…. El estudio se lleva a cabo con la información aportada por 362 estudiantes de 23 aulas de tercer curso de Primaria de 10 escuelas venezolanas. El análisis se realiza sobre 4 variables de producto (Rendimiento en Matemáticas y Lectura, Autoconcepto y Satisfacción hacia la escuela, 5 variables de ajuste y 37 variables explicativas. Para la recogida de la información se utilizaron pruebas de rendimiento, test de autoconcepto y cuestionarios a los profesores de la escuela y los estudiantes. Como método de análisis se utilizaron Modelos Multinivel con dos niveles de análisis (estudiante, escuela. Los resultados encontrados indican la existencia de 6 factores de eficacia escolar en Venezuela que demuestran hacer una aportación significativa al desarrollo cognitivo y socioafectivo de los estudiantes: Sentido de Comunidad, Clima de aula y escuela, Currículum de calidad, Dirección escolar, Participación de la comunidad escolar y Recursos. Los resultados de esta investigación han de considerarse como un insumo esencial en cualquier debate informado que busque mejorar la calidad y la equidad de

  2. Lactancia materna y diarrea aguda en los primeros tres meses de vida Breast feeding and the incidence of acute diarrhea during the first three months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Macías-Carrillo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la lactancia materna exclusiva y sus interacciones con algunos factores socioeconómicos, en relación con la incidencia de diarrea aguda durante los primeros tres meses de la vida. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En la ciudad de Durango, México, en 1994 se llevó a cabo un estudio de cohorte con tres meses de seguimiento; la muestra estuvo compuesta por 327 parejas de madre y recién nacido, residentes de la ciudad de Durango, durante el periodo abril-junio de 1994. Para el análisis se utilizaron técnicas descriptivas, análisis bivariados y modelos multivariados de regresión logística con efectos aleatorios. RESULTADOS: Los niños que no reciben lactancia exclusiva al seno materno tienen un riesgo significativamente elevado de padecer diarrea aguda desde el inicio de la vida (RMlactancia mixta= 3.23; IC 95% 1.84-5.68 y RMlactancia artificial=4.36; IC 95% 2.32-8.19. Además, el efecto protector de la lactancia al seno materno es independiente del que tienen factores de riesgo tales como la educación materna deficiente, la falta de apoyo social y el hecho de que la madre sea adolescente. Sin embargo, en el caso especial del saneamiento ambiental encontramos evidencia de una posible modificación del efecto respecto al tipo de lactancia (deltaG=9.26; p=0.09, que se traduce en una razón de momios para la carencia de agua y drenaje mayor que la suma de las RM para cada condición por separado (RMno agua/no drenaje = 2.58; IC 95% 1.10-6.03, en el modelo multivariante final. CONCLUSIONES: Al igual que estudios previos encontramos que la lactancia exclusiva al seno materno tiene una gran importancia, a pesar de que en el entorno persistan condiciones adversas ligadas a la pobreza y al subdesarrollo socioeconómico. En especial, parece que la protección que confiere la lactancia al seno es todavía mayor cuando se carece de las condiciones básicas de saneamiento, lo cual, a su vez, se traduce en oportunidades de intervenci

  3. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  4. US energy security plans threatened by militant Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Faced with the need to import increasing volumes of crude oil and the desire to avoid over-dependence on the Middle East, the United States is looking to its own hemisphere for more oil. Unfortunately for Washington, the continent's largest oil exporter does not appear to want to co-operate. Venezuela's President, Hugo Chavez, wants to reduce his country's political and economic ties with the US and is seeking other markets for its oil. He has also picked a fight with US oil companies operating in Venezuela, disputing their taxes and refusing to approve their upstream investment programmes, giving rise to fears that oil and gas production will not grow as planned, thereby reducing future export levels. (author)

  5. The New Phase of Constitutional Struggle in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-21

    the context of the November 22 election of conservative Mauricio Macri to the presidency of Argentina , the announcement by Ecuadorian President Rafael...Correa that he will not run for a fourth term, the economic crisis in Brazil with the looming impeachment of its president Dilma Rousseff, and the...and its neighbors. Anatomy of the Coming Crisis The potential for catastrophe in Venezuela within the coming months arises from a potentially

  6. Isotopic evidence for prehistoric subsistence change at Parmana, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwe, N.J. van der; Roosevelt, A.C.; Vogel, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of 13 C/ 12 C ratio measurements on human skeletons from Parmana, Venezuela are reported which show that there was a dramatic shift in the prehistoric diet from dependence on C 3 plants, in which carbon dioxide is initially fixed as phosphoglyceric acid, to C 4 plants, which include maize, in which the carbon dioxide is fixed as a C 4 carboxylic acid. (U.K.)

  7. Estimating the equilibrium real exchange rate in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Hilde Bjørnland

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether the real exchange rate is misaligned with respect to its long-run equilibrium is an important issue for policy makers. This paper clarifies and calculates the concept of the equilibrium real exchange rate, using a structural vector autoregression (VAR) model. By imposing long-run restrictions on a VAR model for Venezuela, four structural shocks are identified: Nominal demand, real demand, supply and oil price shocks. The identified shocks and their impulse responses are c...

  8. Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, Bolivarian Socialism, and Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Francisco Rojas Aravena, “Nuevo contexto de seguridad internacional: nuevos desafios, nuevas oportunidades?” in La seguridad en America Latina pos 11...Institute, 2005; and Andres Benavente Urbina and Julio Alberto Cirino, “El populismo Chavista en Venezuela,” in La democracia defraudada, Buenos Aires... seguridad en Las Américas: Una mirada a la Conferencia Especial de Seguridad ,” Foro, Noviembre 2003, pp. 10–15. 20. Alvaro Vargas Llosa, “The

  9. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  10. Misery Index corrected by informality: applicable to Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ramoni Perazzi, Josefa; Orlandoni Merli, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index), adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector) to the unemployment level -- This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated -- Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, c...

  11. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  12. Proyectos educativos: estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineira Finol

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Educativo Integral Comunitario (PEIC y el Proyecto Educativo Institucional constituyen la categoría de comparación entre Venezuela y Colombia; a tal fin, este estudio de tipo comparativo-documental se centró en determinar congruencias y discrepancias entre PEIC y PEI, utilizando el método comparativo estructurado en cuatro fases: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación, propuesto por Hilker y Bereday (1972 Entre los resultados se tienen: congruencias en cuanto surgen sobre las bases de diagnóstico externos efectuados por organismos internacionales UNESCO, CEPAL ante la inefectividad y baja productividad de ambos países; a nivel interno responden a políticas educativas reformadoras de currículum y leyes,. Discrepancias referidas al tiempo de implementación; en Venezuela a partir de 1996; Colombia en 1992; este último, consolidó las bases para la participación a través del gobierno escolar y de un sistema de evaluación institucional, muy incipiente en Venezuela.

  13. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  14. The epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in Latin America: anticipating rotavirus vaccines La epidemiología de la diarrea por rotavirus en América Latina: perspectivas de vacunación frente al rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Kane

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the disease burden and characterize the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in Latin America. METHODS: We conducted a literature review of studies of children OBJETIVO: Valorar la carga de enfermedad e identificar las características epidemiológicas de la diarrea causada por rotavirus en América Latina. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una revisión de la literatura que abarcaba los estudios de niños menores de 5 años que fueron hospitalizados o atendidos como pacientes ambulatorios a causa de la diarrea, y en los cuales se buscó al rotavirus como agente etiológico de la diarrea. Nuestro trabajo de revisión incluye los estudios publicados desde el año 1998 sobre pacientes ingresados y ambulatorios, que incluyeron a 100 niños o más, y que informaron sobre actividades de vigilancia que se prolongaron durante al menos 12 meses consecutivos. RESULTADOS: Un total de 18 estudios de pacientes ingresados y 10 estudios de pacientes ambulatorios satisficieron los criterios de inclusión de nuestro trabajo de revisión. Se detectó el rotavirus en el 31% (mediano de los pacientes ingresados (intervalo del 16% al 52% y en el 30.5% de los pacientes ambulatorios (intervalo del 4% al 42%. La tasa mediana de detección fue mayor en los estudios que emplearon un ensayo de encimoinmunoanálisis (ELISA (pacientes ingresados: 38%, pacientes ambulatorios: 33% frente a otros métodos de detección menos sensibles. La distribución de la enfermedad rotavírica según la edad difería entre países, aunque la proporción de niños hospitalizados durante el primer año de vida fue del 65% al 85%. En la mayoría de los países se produjeron ingresos hospitalarios por rotavirus durante todo el año, y el rotavirus normalmente mostraba un máximo estacional en el invierno tanto en las zonas de clima tropical como en aquellas de clima templado. CONCLUSIONES: La importante carga de enfermedad que se atribuye al rotavirus en América Latina sugiere que las

  15. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at

  16. Venezuela loodab tüürida Kuuba saatust / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez soovib üle võtte Fidel Castro rolli võitluses USA ülemvõimu vastu. Venezuela odava nafta tähtsus Kuuba majandusele. Vt. samas: Kuuba nafta õõnestab USA embargot

  17. The Crisis of Civil-Military Relations in Venezuela: Testing Rational Choice, Cultural, and Institutional Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    universal.com. [10 October 1998], 1. El Universal Digital, " Pobreza Critica in Venezuela," 01 January 1998. Available [Online]:HYPERLINK "http:/www.eud.com...Digital, " Pobreza Critica in Venezuela," 01 January 1998. Available [Online] :HYPERLINK "http:/www.eud.com/Elecciones98" http:/www.el- universal.com

  18. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Ryan M.; Sachs, Daniel; Petkiewicz, Shayne J.

    2017-01-01

    precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor...... expression system. These tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts....

  19. Using the Five Themes of Geography To Teach about Venezuela and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois

    Activities that employ the five themes of geography--location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions--to teach about Venezuela and Mexico are described in this document. Each theme has objectives, a list of materials, and three types of activities--exploration, invention, and expansion. Background information on Venezuela and…

  20. Dengue in Venezuela : A study on viral transmission, risk factors and clinical disease presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is wereldwijd de belangrijkste door muggen overgedragen ziekte. In Venezuela komen regelmatig epidemieën van toenemende omvang voor. In het onderzoek beschreven in dit proefschrift werden ongeveer 2000 personen uit drie wijken in Maracay, Venezuela, bestudeerd middels een prospectieve

  1. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela Escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae na Ilha de Margarita, Nordeste da Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De Sousa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school, in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela.Descrevem se os dois primeiros casos de escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae. Os acidentes ocorreram no ambiente antrópico (um no domicilio e outro na escola na aldeia de La Sierra, Ilha de Margarita, Estado de Nueva Esparta, nordeste da Venezuela. Os dois acidentes, moderadamente graves, cursaram com acometimento pancreático e alterações eletrocardiografias. Este reporte permite incluir à Ilha de Margarita entre as áreas endêmicas de escorpionismo na Venezuela.

  2. Venezuela positioning itself to take key market role in wake of Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Venezuela which continues efforts to position itself in world markets to capitalize on fallout from the Persian Gulf war. The central government and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA have accelerated already ambitious plans to expand activities in upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. Pvdsa has sharply increased its 1991-96 investment program from the level planned at the end of last year. The goal is to put Venezuela on a par with major Persian Gulf oil exporters in terms of productive capacity. Linchpin of those efforts could well be further steps toward privatization of Venezuela's oil sector. For the first time since nationalization in 1976, private foreign and domestic companies are being permitted to participate in Venezuelan exploration and development. In addition, the government is trimming the onerous tax burden the oil sector has carried in Venezuela, as well as its heavy subsidy of domestic petroleum products

  3. 77 FR 58912 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ...(b) of the Kingpin Act. Individual: 1. LOPEZ PERDIGON, Roberto Manuel; DOB 09 Sep 1971; POB Caracas... Cruz, Venezuela; RIF J-31327555-7 (Venezuela) [SDNTK]. Dated: September 13, 2012. Adam J. Szubin...

  4. [Need and demand of kidneys for transplantation in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, C L; Bellorín-Font, E; Weisinger, J; Pernalete, N; Urbina, D; Paz-Martínez, V

    1993-01-01

    The number of cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation has become insufficient around the world. Despite concerted efforts, we have been unsuccessful in greatly improve the supply of organ donors, and consequently the number of end stage renal failure patients awaiting for kidney transplantation continues to increase. The primary objective of this paper is to quantify the need and supply of kidneys for transplant in Venezuela. An overview of the current level of kidney transplant activity in Venezuela is presented, observing that the activity with cadaveric donors had been predominant since 1983, although not to an optimal level. The annual activity in kidney transplant between 1989-1991 remained stable in 6 transplants/million people, but went sharply down to 4.6 in 1992. An estimate of the current need is around 10 donors/million people. This is in contrast with an effective donation rate of only 2.01 and 1.92 donors/million achieved in 1990 and 1991 respectively. The most frequent cause for no donation was the lack of familiar consent. Based on an analysis of the factors involved in the shortage of donor supply in Venezuela, we present some recommendations to increase the availability of cadaveric organ donors in the country. These measures include an improvement of education and legal regulation in the field of organ donation and transplantation, and following the Spanish model, the creation of a program of hospital transplant coordinators that can detect and evaluate potential organ donors as well as coordinate the logistical aspects of transplantation.

  5. El sistema educativo y el trabajo en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Moreno, Marysela C.

    2009-01-01

    El sistema educativo y en el mercado laboral se trabaja con el más importante y valioso recurso: el humano, el cual presenta unas características muy peculiares que merecen ser estudiadas como una rama de la economía como lo es la economía de la educación y la economía laboral. En Venezuela, ambas ramas han sido poco abordadas, pues otros temas económicos han ocupado las reflexiones; sin embargo, las cifras de desempleo y los problemas sociales son cada vez más alarmantes, convirtiéndose en l...

  6. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  7. Venezuela: un caso de inflación mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Risquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el fenómeno inflacionario venezolano reciente, caracterizado como un caso de “inflación moderada”. En él se relaciona esta situación con el problema de la debilidad institucional, el déficit de credibilidad de las autoridades, lo cual ha llevado a un importante uso del impuesto inflacionario como mecanismo de financiamiento del gasto público. Así mismo se señala el papel desempeñado por la inercia en la permanencia de la inestabilidad de los precios en Venezuela.

  8. Prevalence of human toxoplasmosis in san carlos island, venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor; Sánchez-Chávez, Yulaicy; Estévez, Jesús; Larreal, Yraima; Molero, Emelyn

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 335 individuals, 1-65 years of age (mean ±SD of 20.8 ±15.7), in 6 communities from the San Carlos Island, Western Venezuela, was conducted to study the prevalence of serum antibody to Toxoplasma gondii. The indirect hemagglutination test showed an overall infection rate of 49.8% (167 of 335) that ranged 23-64.8% according to the locality. No association between antibody status and age or risk factors was detected. Higher antibody rates were found in a windward coast community, and...

  9. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Gomez, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Herrera, O.; Salazar, V.; Smith, A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql -1 and only 12% above 0.37 Bql -1 . Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year -1 . (author)

  10. Uranium exploration in Venezuela: Situation at the end of 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium exploration started in Venezuela in 1951. The activities began with enthusiasm but interest waned because of the unfavourable economic conditions of the uranium market. In 1975, with the establishment of the National Council for the Development of the Nuclear Industry, emphasis was once again placed on exploration for radioactive minerals. Systematic exploration began 18 months ago, and so far exploratory targets have been found in phosphate rocks in Tachira state and in Palaeozoic granites at El Baul (Cojedes state); very favourable occurrences have been encountered in the Precambrian in Merida and Bolivar states, and in continental Tertiary rocks in Trujillo state. (author)

  11. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darukhanavala, P.P.; Davidson, M.C.; Tyler, T.N.; Blaskovich, F.T.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010

  12. Desarrollo de la Misión Milagro en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Agüin, Victor

    2011-01-01

    La Misión Milagro, iniciativa Cubana apoyada por Venezuela, es una campaña de contenido social y humanitario, cuyo propósito es devolver la visión o curar diversos padecimientos oftalmológicos en los pueblos latinoamericanos. Debido a la deuda con las personas excluidas de la atención de salud y apartadas de la vida social y productiva por padecer problemas solucionables de salud visual, se considera necesario evaluar el desarrollo de la Misión Milagro en el territorio Venezolano. Se realizó ...

  13. Challenging the norm? International election accompaniment in Nicaragua and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley MCCONNEL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available International election monitoring has been touted as a regional norm in the Western hemisphere, but recent reforms in Venezuela and Nicaragua substituted a diminished international role of electoral accompaniment. This article traces the initial acceptance and later limitation of international election monitoring in those countries to explore whether the change constitutes norm localization or norm defection. It concludes that the norm is not as well institutionalized in the hemisphere as conventionally thought, and that models need to assess together national and international monitoring capacities.

  14. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Torres; María Cristina Useche; Gerardo Castellano

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993), Coleman (1988), Bourdieu (2001) y Lin (2001). La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue...

  15. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Venezuela: report of two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco; Sáenz, Ana Maria; Cirocco, Antonietta; Tacaronte, Inés Maria; Fajardo, Javier Enrique; Calebotta, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Two native Yanomami children from the Venezuelan Amazonia with erythroderma were hospitalized on our service. Clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence studies diagnosed endemic pemphigus foliaceous. Human leukocyte antigen class II showed DRB1*04 subtype *0411, which has not been previously associated with this disease. However, it shares a common epitope with all the human leukocyte antigen DRB1 alleles that have been involved in this disease among Brazilian populations. Although this condition is endemic in Brazil, our patients are the first two reported in Venezuela.

  16. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Oduber; Endira Mora; Juan Antonio Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. ...

  17. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Oduber, Jesús; Mora, Endira

    2017-01-01

    El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. ...

  18. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  19. Democracy in Hugo Chavez’s Venezuela: Developing or Faltering Due to His Politics, Activities, and Rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-07

    Caracas, the nucleus of the chaos, Chavez did not participate on either side of the melee because he was bedridden with chicken pox ; however, the events...with an average daily export of 1.2 million barrels per day. Only Canada, Saudi Arabia, and Mexico export more petroleum to the U.S., with averages of

  20. Zinc supplementation for treating diarrhea in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis Administración de suplementos de zinc para tratar la diarrea infantil: revisión sistemática y metanálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais Freire Galvao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To update the available evidence about zinc use for treating diarrhea in children and to assess its effect on the malnourished population, a subgroup that has not been fully explored in previous analyses. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of randomized clinical trials that assessed children up to 5 years old with acute diarrhea who received zinc supplementation. Controls received a placebo or oral rehydration therapy. After searching the main databases, without language restrictions, two independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Meta-analyses were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance random effects. RESULTS: Eighteen of 1 041 studies retrieved were included in the review (n = 7 314 children. Zinc was beneficial for reducing the duration of diarrhea in hours (mean difference [MD] = -20.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -29.15 to -11.09, I² = 91%. The effect was greater in malnourished children (MD = -33.17, 95% CI = -33.55 to -27.79, I² = 0%. Diarrhea prevalence on days 3, 5, and 7 was lower in the zinc group. The incidence of vomiting was significantly greater in the group that received zinc than in the control group. Included randomized controlled trials were of low risk of bias in most domains assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies.OBJETIVO: Actualizar los datos probatorios disponibles acerca del uso del zinc en el tratamiento de la diarrea infantil y evaluar su efecto en la población malnutrida, un subgrupo no plenamente estudiado en análisis anteriores. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaban a niños de hasta 5 años de edad con diarrea aguda y a los

  1. Caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in Kingston, Jamaica Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los cuidadores hacia la diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Rose Bachrach

    2002-07-01

    diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica, con el fin de determinar si sus escasos conocimientos sobre la prevención y el tratamiento de la diarrea y la deshidratación hacen que los niños corran mayor riesgo de hospitalización por estos problemas. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional de casos y controles entre febrero y mayo de 1997 en el Hospital Infantil Bustamante de Kingston. Se usó una muestra de conveniencia de niños de menos de 5 años y los datos fueron recogidos mediante entrevistas personales con los cuidadores de los dos grupos de niños. Un grupo estaba formado por 117 niños con gastroenteritis aguda, y el otro por 98 niños con problemas agudos no relacionados con la gastroenteritis. De los 215 cuidadores entrevistados, 197 eran las madres, 9 eran tutores, 5 eran los padres y 4 eran las abuelas. Resultados. La media etaria de los cuidadores, su nivel educacional y su estatus socioeconómico eran similares en los dos grupos. Los cuidadores del grupo de niños con gastroenteritis tenían niños más pequeños y menos acceso al agua corriente y a frigoríficos. Los niños cuyos cuidadores nunca habían oído hablar de la rehidratación oral tenían mayor riesgo de presentar gastroenteritis y deshidratación [razón de posibilidades (odds ratio: OR: 4,6; intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95: 1,8-11,7], al igual que los niños cuyos cuidadores tenían escasos conocimientos sobre la prevención y el tratamiento de la diarrea y la deshidratación (OR: 3,7; IC95: 1,6-8,8. Otro factor de riesgo independiente fue la poca confianza del cuidador en su propia capacidad para tratar la diarrea del niño (OR: 2,3; IC95: 1,1-4,9. Conclusiones. Estos resultados destacan la necesidad de incrementar los esfuerzos informativos que les permitan a los cuidadores proteger a los niños de la morbilidad y la mortalidad relacionadas con la diarrea.

  2. Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae y su importancia en Venezuela | The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae And their importance in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Fátima Agrela Da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of various diseases that affect the health of the Venezuelan population. The increase in the incidence of malaria and the emergence of diseases such as chikungunya and Zika make it necessary to implement control measures to reduce the impact of these diseases in Venezuela. To do this, it is essential to know the aspects related to their morphology, bioecology and the characteristics that make possible the participation of mosquitoes in the transmission of these diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe these aspects.

  3. Mitos fundantes en la fuerza espiritual de los warao de Venezuela / Mitos de origem na espiritualidade dos warao da Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ-MUÑOZ, Jenny; Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez - Universidad Latinoamericana y del Caribe.

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es parte del producto de una exhaustiva investigación realizada por la autora y un grupo de colegas, concretamente con el pueblo warao de comunidades ubicadas en el municipio Antonio Díaz, estado Delta Amacuro, Venezuela, con el objetivo de recopilar una serie de mitos de origen desde los propios actores sociales para intentar conocer si para el momento, es decir, finales de la primera década del siglo XXI, aún se contaban ante los miembros del pueblo...

  4. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DE LOASACEAE EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguera Eliana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Loasaceae no ha sido estudiada taxonómicamente en Venezuela, por tal razón se realizó una revisión taxonómica que permitió reconocer las especies presentes en el país y los principales caracteres de importancia taxonómica para su reconocimiento. Se examinaron 102 especímenes de Loasaceae depositados en herbarios nacionales e internacionales. En Venezuela, Loasaceae está representada por tres subfamilias (Gronovioideae, Loasoideae y Mentzelioideae, cuatros géneros (Gronovia, Klaprothia, Nasa y Mentzelia y nueve especies (Gronovia scandens L., Klaprothia fasciculata (C. Presl Poston, K. mentzelioides Kunth, Nasa lindeniana (Urb. & Gilg Weigend, N. venezuelensis (Steyerm. Weigend, N. perijensis (Weigend Weigend, N. triphylla (Juss. Weigend subsp. papaverifolia (Kunth Weigend, Mentzelia aspera L., M scabra subsp. chilensis (Gay Weigend. Se proporcionan claves para las especies presentes en el país, descripciones, ejemplares examinados, sinónimos, ilustraciones, datos de distribución geográfica y ecología, y breves comentarios morfológicos. El indumento y la ornamentación de la cubierta seminal son los principales caracteres de valor taxonómico para distinguir las especies de Loasaceae venezolanas.

  5. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  7. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  8. End-stage renal disease and its treatment in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellorin-Font, Ezequiel; Milanés, Carmen Luisa; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2002-09-01

    In Venezuela there are 3234 new cases (132 per million population [pmp]) requiring renal replacement therapy each year, and only 40% of these are admitted to the different modalities of dialysis. In the year 2000, there were 195 patients pmp in chronic hemodialysis (4700 patients). Diabetes, glomerular diseases, and hypertension account for more than 60% of the patients in chronic dialysis. Gross mortality in hemodialysis is around 20%, and cardiovascular causes are the primary cause of death (39.5%). Hospital admission in the dialysis patients amounts to 4.6 days/patient/year. Rehabilitation is inadequate. Only 45% of the dialysis patients report normal home or work activities. Transplantation in Venezuela has a general graft survival rate of 83% at 1 year (90% for living related grafts) and 50% (64% for living related grafts) at 10 years. Future tendencies include emphasis in preventive strategies, including early detection and treatment of diabetes and hypertension, as well as efforts to increase the rate of renal transplantation.

  9. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representation

  10. Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguillos, C.; Deng, H.

    2018-04-01

    The integration and use of different space technology applications for disasters management, play an important role at the time of prevents the causes and mitigates the effects of the natural disasters. Nevertheless, the space technology counts with the appropriate technological resources to provide the accurate and timely information required to support in the decision making in case of disasters. Considering the aforementioned aspects, in this research is presented the design and implementation of an Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela. Network based on the design of a topology that integrates the satellites platforms in orbit operation under administration of Venezuelan state, such as: the communications satellite VENESAT-1 and the remote sensing satellites VRSS-1 and VRSS-2; as well as their ground stations with the aim to implement an emergency communications network to be activated in case of disasters which affect the public and private communications infrastructures in Venezuela. In this regard, to design the network several technical and operational specifications were formulated, between them: Emergency Strategies to Maneuver the VRSS-1 and VRSS-2 satellites for optimal images capture and processing, characterization of the VENESAT-1 transponders and radiofrequencies for emergency communications services, technologies solutions formulation and communications links design for disaster management. As result, the emergency network designed allows to put in practice diverse communications technologies solutions and different scheme or media for images exchange between the areas affected for disasters and the entities involved in the disasters management tasks, providing useful data for emergency response and infrastructures recovery.

  11. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  12. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available n Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros Legales; 3. Presentar Declaración Informativa de ISLR; 4. Practicar retención de ISLR; 5. Emitir factura de conformidad con lo establecido en la regulación venezolana.Venezuela promulgated the Special Law of the Communal Councils in 2006. The Communal Council is constituted by three agencies: Executive agency, Financial Management Unit, and Social comptroller Unit. The Financial Management Unit or Communal Bank will acquire the legal figure of a cooperative, therefore the present paper intends to analyze the formal duties established in the Venezuelan tax laws, that the Communal Bank must fulfil: 1. To register in the corresponding registration system; 2. Keep the accountancy Books required by tax laws; 3. To file an informative income tax return; 4. To practice income tax withholding; 5. To emit invoice in accordance with Venezuelan tax regulations.

  13. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  14. O referendo na Venezuela: um ato em um drama inacabado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McCoy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo enfoca o referendo revogatório realizado na Venezuela em agosto de 2004, que confirmou a permanência de Hugo Chávez na Presidência do país até o fim de seu mandato. Apontam-se o contexto político que nele culminou, no qual o governo Chávez foi alvo de intensas contestações por parte de seus opositores, e seus conturbados desdobramentos, com acusações de fraude e de atuação imparcial da autoridade eleitoral. A autora destaca a rígida polarização que permeou o processo, dividindo a sociedade venezuelana e impondo ao governo e à própria oposição o desafio de reconstituir o consenso nacional em torno dos interesses coletivos.The article focuses on the recall referendum that took place in Venezuela in August 2004, which confirmed the permanence of President Hugo Chávez. It points out the political context that culminated in the referendum, in which oppositionists fiercely criticized Chávez and his administration. The author shows the sharp polarization that characterized this process, dividing Venezuelan society and affecting the notion of collective interest.

  15. Urban invation of sandflies transmition of leishmania in merida venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Nieves Blanco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban development together with uncontrolled construction in endemic areas of leishmaniasis has resulted in a series of environmental transformations that have promoted the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with the adaptation sandflies transmitters to these urban environments. This study aims to determine the presence of sandflies and the epidemiological factors associated with the transmission of leishmaniasis in an urban area of Zea, Venezuela. Five methods of catching sandflies were used indoors in two urbanizations in Zea, Venezuela. Through a survey-type instrument, the epidemiological variables associated with the transmission of leishmaniasis in the housing estates were determined. The presence in the urban dwellings of Lutzomyia youngi, Lutzomyia spinicrassa, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia ovallesi, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia atroclavata and Lutzomyia lichyi were demonstrated. 62.5% of the species caught in urbanized areas have antropohematophagy habits. A 67% and 80% of infestation was determined in the dwellings of the studied urbanizations. It was evidenced a low level of knowledge in the inhabitants mainly on the sandflies, which increases the risk of domiciliation and transmission of leishmaniasis, the control entities are warned to implement preventive and educational measures.

  16. Caracterización genotípica y fenotípica de cepas emergentes de Escherichia coli aisladas de niños con diarrea en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yurley Arias Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA sigue siendo uno de los principales problemas en salud pública en países en desarrollo. Dentro de los agentes infecciosos que causan esta enfermedad se encuentran bacterias, virus y parásitos. Los agentes bacterianos ocupan un segundo lugar destacándose Escherichia coli enteropatógenas entre las más importantes. Actualmente, seis cepas con diferentes mecanismos de patogenicidad están asociados a diarrea  E. coli enteropatógena (ECEP, productora de toxina-shiga (ECTS, enterotoxigénica (ECET, enteroinvasiva (ECEI, enteroagregativa (ECEA y adherente difusa (ECAD, cada una con un set específico de genes de virulencia. No obstante, se han reportado brotes de EDA ocasionados por cepas de E. coli diferentes a los patotipos conocidos, denominadas cepas emergentes. Estos brotes han sido reportados en Alemania, Europa y recientemente en Cartagena Colombia, lo que sugiere que en nuestro medio circulan estas cepas. Por lo cual, es necesario caracterizar estas cepas emergentes. Objetivo: Caracterizar genotípicamente y fenotípicamente dos cepas emergentes de E. coli aisladas de muestras diarreicas en niños menores de cinco años en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: De un estudio de casos y controles realizado entre Julio del 2013 y diciembre del 2014 en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia a 860 niños menores de 5 años con diarrea (casos y sin diarrea (controles. Se aislaron a partir de coprocultivos cepas de E. coli mediante pruebas bioquímicas. A estas cepas previamente almacenadas a -80°C se les determino mediante PCR multiplex los patotipos de E. coli, los cuales posteriormente fueron confirmados mediante PCR simple. Muestras positivas para dos patotipos u otra característica fueron clasificadas como cepas emergentes. Finalmente, estas cepas se caracterizaron fenotípica y genotípicamente. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo pruebas como secuenciación de genes de

  17. Creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos sobre el manejo de la alimentación del niño con diarrea aguda Physicians' beliefs and knowledge on dietary management of children with acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Corral-Terrazas

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar las creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos rurales sobre el manejo de alimentación en los casos de diarrea aguda de los menores de cinco años y compararlos con la recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de antropología cognitiva con los 10 médicos que brindan atención a la población infantil en el Hospital Rural del IMSS-Solidaridad de San Juanito, Bocoyna, Chihuahua, México, de julio a diciembre de 1998. Se trianguló la información obtenida por las técnicas de grupos focales, viñetas, listado libre, sorteo de montones y cuestionario semiestructurado. Resultados. Los médicos reconocieron el impacto negativo de la diarrea sobre el estado nutricio del niño, pero no todos evaluaron su estado de nutrición. Como tratamientos predominaron los antimicrobianos, el manejo con líquidos y las recomendaciones sobre alimentación. De éstas, las más consistentes fueron la lactancia materna, la alimentación tardía y la dieta "escalonada". Conclusiones. La información obtenida contrasta con la recomendación de la OMS, en especial con la de alimentación sostenida.Objective. To identify the beliefs and knowledge of a group of rural physicians on the dietary management of children under five years of age, with acute diarrhea. Physicians' dietary management was compared with that recommended by the World Health Organization. Material and Methods. A cognitive anthropology study was carried out from July to December 1998, on ten physicians that care for the infant population ascribed to Hospital Rural IMSS-Solidaridad of San Juanito Bocoyna, Chihuahua, Mexico. Data were collected through focus groups, case vignettes, free listing, pile sorting, and a semi-structured questionnaire, and then cross-referred. Results. The physicians recognized the negative impact of diarrhea on the nutritional state of the child, but not all of them evaluated this state

  18. Estructura del sistema legal del turismo en Venezuela | Structure of the legal system of tourism in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Navas Graterol

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that the social dynamic of human life, in its constant evolution promotes special and particular circumstances that the law must regulate, such as tourism. The latter, as multifaceted activity, develops into different scopes of human activities: economic, social, cultural, environmental, political and obviously, in the judicial, and requires to be regulated, supervised, encouraged and coordinated by the law. This compendium of rules integrates what is known as the Legal System Structure of the Tourism in Venezuela and they are organized in a hierarchical way, into a legal level that gives a determinate rank, which can be the same or different, and could be seen in the pyramidal model created by Hans Kelsen. The understanding of this legal system that regulates tourism through the compressive hermeneutics of its rules, allowed to find out that the legal structure is well defined within the Venezuelan touristic context. The analysis of results allowed to conclude that the norm that regulates the tourism activity in Venezuela responds to the Kelsen pyramidal model and there is a diverse number of legal instruments which contain rules that regulates it in direct way and others indirectly.

  19. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  20. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

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    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  1. Experiencia con pacientes hospitalizados en la unidad de capacitación para el tratamiento de la diarrea del Hospital Univertario San Vicente de Paúl de Medellín Experience with hospitalized children at a training unit for diarrhea treatment, in Medellín, Colombia

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    Carlos A. Bernal Parra

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre 1988 y 1994 se atendieron 1.755 niños en la sala de hospitalización de la Unidad de Capacitación para el Tratamiento de la Diarrea, del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín; 1.022 (58.2% fueron hombres y 733 (41.8% mujeres; mil setenta y ocho eran menores de un año (61.4% y 677 (38.6% tenían más de un año. Eran desnutridos 888 (50.6%. Presentaban diarrea persistente 418 (23.8%; 1.056 (82.2% diarrea acuosa, 213 (16.6% diarrea disentérica y 16 (1.2% solamente vómitos. Novecientos trece pacientes (52% consultaron o estuvieron en la sala de hidratación oral y 276 (15.7% habían estado hospitalizados por diarrea durante el último mes. Al ingreso 670 (38.2% se encontraban hidratados, 151 (8.6% tenían deshidratación grave y 934 (53.2% presentaban otros grados de deshidratación. La bacteria más frecuentemente identificada fue Salmonella enteritidis (258 casos; 23.9%. Setecientos ochenta y seis pacientes (44.8% recibieron los líquidos solamente por vía oral o por sonda nasogástrica y 969 (55.2% por vía intravenosa. Al egreso 1.088 (62% tuvieron el diagnóstico de diarrea aguda y 667 (38% el de diarrea persistente. La mortalidad fue de 1.5% (27 pacientes.

    We present the results of our experience in the in-patient treatment of children with diarrhea. Between 1988 and 1994,1.755 children were hospitalized for this purpose at the Training Unit for Diarrhea Treatment, Hospital San Vicente, in Medellín, Colombia; 1.022 (58.2% were males and 733 (41.8% females; 1.078 (61.4% were younger than one year and 677 (38.6% were above this age. Eight hundred and eighty eight (50.6% were undernourished. At admission, persistent diarrhea was found in 418 (23.8%; stools were watery in 1.056 (82.2% and dysenteric in 213 (16.6%; 16

  2. Valgevenest Iraanini : Venezuela liider koob USA-vastas ühisrinnet / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez külastab mitmeid Ameerika Ühendriikidele probleemseid riike. Kohtumine Valgevene presidendi Aleksandr Lukashenkoga, eelseisvast visiidist Venemaale. Lisa: Chavez tahab julgeolekunõukogusse

  3. Venezuela tõusis presidendi sotsialismikursi vastu üles / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelas toimunud rahvahääletusel lükati tagasi president Hugo Chavezi ettepanekud, mis puudutasid põhiseaduse muutmist. President peab seda vaid ajutiseks tagasilöögiks. Lisa: Tudengid ja meedia riigipea vastu

  4. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  5. Democracy in Hugo Chavez's Venezuela: Developing or Faltering Due to His Politics, Activities, and Rhetoric?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, R. N

    2008-01-01

    .... During his reign, Chavez, a member of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, has made many dramatic changes to the nearly 50-year-old democracy, including nationalizing several key industries...

  6. An Analysis of the Contracting Process Used by the National Armed Force of Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Yovany

    2000-01-01

    ... to the new Bolivarian Venezuelan National Constitution The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the military contracting process for goods and services in Venezuela as well as to identify policies...

  7. rendre les villes urbaines sûres et inclusives au Venezuela

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ont étudié ces institutions et leur lien avec le taux de criminalité et la cohésion sociale dans quatre villes : Caracas, Ciudad Guayana, San Cristóbal et San Antonio del Táchira. Leur objectif était de trouver des solutions favorisant la sécurité et l'inclusivité dans ces villes. Histoire à succès | Villes sûres et inclusiVes. FLiC kr.

  8. CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES DE NIÑOS DE COMUNIDAD RURAL PERUANA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LA DIARREA AGUDA INFECCIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Veramendi-Espinoza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:  Asociar los Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas (CAP sobre la lactancia materna de las madres con la frecuencia de DAI en los últimos seis  meses del niño menor de dos  años. Metodología: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Lugar: Centro poblado Huaylas, Ancash-Perú, durante febrero de 2011. Participantes:  34 madres de niños menores de 2 años. Intervenciones: Encuesta CAP mediante entrevista a domicilio y revisión de las historias clínicas para confirmar DAI. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntaje obtenido en la encuesta para las distintas variables CAP. Resultados: Se halló conocimiento de medio a bajo en 76,5% de las madres encuestadas, actitudes neutras en 58,8% y favorables en 20,6 y prácticas neutras en 64,7% e inadecuadas en 23,5%. No se encontró correlación entre estos. Conclusión: No se logró establecer ningún tipo de asociación estadísticamente significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna con diarreas agudas infecciosas.

  9. CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES DE NIÑOS DE COMUNIDAD RURAL PERUANA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LA DIARREA AGUDA INFECCIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Veramendi-Espinoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Asociar los Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas (CAP sobre la lactancia materna de las madres con la frecuencia de DAI en los últimos seis me- ses del niño menor de dos años. Metodología: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Lugar: Centro poblado Huaylas, Ancash-Perú, durante febrero de 2011. Participantes: 34 madres de niños menores de 2 años. Intervenciones: Encuesta CAP mediante entrevista a domicilio y revisión de las historias clínicas para confirmar DAI. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntaje obtenido en la encuesta para las distintas variables CAP. Resultados: Se halló conocimiento de medio a bajo en 76,5% de las madres encuestadas, actitudes neutras en 58,8% y favorables en 20,6 y prácticas neutras en 64,7% e inadecuadas en 23,5%. No se encontró correlación entre estos. Conclusión: No se logró establecer ningún tipo de asociación estadísticamente significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna con diarreas agudas infecciosas.

  10. Knowledge Management and Analysis of Scientific Biotechnology Trends in Venezuela

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    Maria Fatima Ebole Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on knowledge management and analysis of scientific Biotechnology trends in Venezuela, providing an overview of the science profile as well as regional development and its relation to issues of topics covered by Biotechnology based on the analysis of scientific publications for the period of 1995 to 2010. The survey was accomplished in database ISI/Web of Science using 60 terms selected by experts in Biotechnology and 803 register has been organized. Scientific indicators were produced using data/ text mining tools. It was possible to find a greater number of scientific publications in areas such as Ecology and Health, showing a greater frequency in these terms: DNA, PCR and Biodiversity. Results pointed out The United States of America as the main foreign partner-country of scientific publications followed by Spain and France. It was possible to verify cooperation network with others Latin American countries: Brazil, Colombia and Chile.

  11. Fatal yellow fever in a traveler returning from Venezuela, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-14

    On September 28, 1999, a previously healthy 48-year-old man from California sought care at a local emergency department (ED) and was hospitalized with a 2-day history of fever (102 F [38.9 C]), chills, headache, photophobia, diffuse myalgias, joint pains, nausea, vomiting, constipation, upper abdominal discomfort, and general weakness. On September 26, he had returned from a 10-day trip to Venezuela. On September 29, an infectious disease physician from the ED contacted the Marin County Health Department (MCHD) about the patient's symptoms; MCHD reported his illness to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) as a suspected case of viral hemorrhagic fever. This report describes the investigation of the case.

  12. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia La Barbera-Sánchez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 µg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1 422 and 86 µg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization. A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX, but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3 toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSPUn severo brote de intoxicación paralizante por moluscos (PSP en inglés ocurrió en Manzanillo y Guayacán en la costa noroeste de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela entre agosto y octubre de 1991. Una proliferación de Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum y Alexandrium tamarense causó el brote. Los niveles de PSP en mejillón (Perna perna superaron los niveles máximos permisibles de saxitoxina, 80 µg STX/100g carne. Los niveles de toxinas variaron entre 2 548 y 115

  13. Mineral content of the honey produced in Zulia state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán de Ferrer, Betzabé; Ojeda de Rodríguez, Graciela; Peña, Jorge; Martínez, Janeth; Morán, María

    2004-09-01

    The mineral content of the honey produced in five zones of the Zulia state, Venezuela, during dry and rainy seasons was determined. The analyzed elements were: sodium, potassium (by emission spectroscopy), calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese (by atomic absorption spectroscopy), phosphorus (phosphate ions, by colorimetric method), and ash content of raw honey samples directly collected from different beekeepers. The mean values for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and P were 353+84; 1774+138; 237+66; 52+24; 0.76+0.43; 13.5+10.23; 0.92+0.42 and 1642+323 mg/kg respectively. The mean ash content was 0.431+0.15%. Potassium was the most abundant of the elements determined. This results confirm that Zulian honey can be considered a good source of minerals.

  14. Gamma environmental dosimetry and radon concentration in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Greaves E, D.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental radiation levels have been determined in Venezuela by means of different techniques including the passive dosimeters and the alpha and gamma dosimetry besides the gross alpha/beta counting. The most important conclusion is that the presence of artificial radionuclides (Cesium-137, Beryllium-7 and Cadmium-109) was observed in different environmental samples and in food considered contaminant. The values of gamma levels are between 28 and 40 mGy/day and the mean value of radon concentration in closed environment is 36 Bq/m 3 ; the higher values of a factor 10 have been measured in the Andes region. The 20% of analysed drinking water has a concentration of alpha radionuclides emitters less than 0.005 Bq/l and only the 8% is greater than 0.450 Bq/l. (authors). 6 refs., 1 fig

  15. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  16. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  17. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  18. Estados Unidos y Venezuela: Una relación necesaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies Hugo Chavez's electoral victory and the implementation of a new type of democracy as two factors that transformed Venezuelan foreign policy, and in particular, the bilateral relationship with the United States. Chavez's international activism, in addition to his Bolivarian policy signaled a shift from "safe partner" to "partner with reservations" in the country's relations with Washington. Although Venezuela considered itself a Latin American showcase in previous years, the text argues that Chavez's populist tendencies, his critical posture towards the promotion of democracy and human rights, and his supposed links with Colombian guerrillas has led to a "wait-and-see" policy characterized by high levels of caution on the part of the United States.

  19. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  20. What does the failure to reduce homicides in Venezuela teach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the paradox of increased homicides in Venezuela in a period of wealth and redistribution. To do so, theories that explain criminality through poverty and inequality are reviewed and refuted and weighed against theories of institutionalism. Thus, the article analyses the situation of homicides between 1985 and 2010 and establishes three periods in which the rules regulating access to a goods, b political power, and c social and penal control were broken. The theories are discussed with statistical information and interpreted within the economic and political context of the time. It is concluded that the reduction in homicides requires institutionalism based on sensitivity and certain formal and informal rules that allow the construction of legitimacy around social difference and punishment, and a citizens’ culture that favours social control by peers over penal control by the State.

  1. Strategi Venezuela Menyepakati ALBA dalam Menghadapi Ekspansi Perdagangan Amerika Serikat Dikawasan Amerika Latin

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlawan, Indra; Wahyu, Septian

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 Venezuela and Cuba have agreed on a regional collaboration in latin america called Alternative Bolivarian Para las Americas an abbreviated ALBA. This collaboration is formed as a resistance facing U.S. trade expansion to bring a mission neoliberalism. With the formation of ALBA, Venezuela is the regional co-operation leaders make strategic measures to face Neoliberalism. In 2010 ALBA has had a total of 10 member countries. As counter hegemony, ALBA also worked in three space. In the s...

  2. Characterization of antigenetic serotypes from the dengue virus in Venezuela by means of Grid Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isea, Raúl; Montes, Esther; Rubio-Montero, Antonio J; Rosales, José D; Rodríguez-Pascual, Manuel A; Mayo, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    This work determines the molecular epidemiology of dengue virus in Venezuela by means of phylogenetic calculations performed on the EELA-2 Grid infrastructure with the PhyloGrid application, an open source tool that allows users performing phylogeny reconstruction in their research. In this study, a total of 132 E nucleotide gene sequences of dengue virus from Venezuela recorded in GenBank(R) have been processed in order to reproduce and validate the topology described in the literature.

  3. Guidelines to elaborate a migration plan for digital terrestrial television in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    José Rafael Uzcátegui; José Francisco Torres; Nelson Pérez García; Luís Duque; Zeldívar Bruzual

    2011-01-01

    In October 2009, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela adopted the ISDB-Tb (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting - Terrestrial Built On), released by Japan, with some improvement made by Brazil, as Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) to be deployment in Venezuela. After standard choice, has been start the route towards the solution of transcendental aspects of legal and technical nature to enable the provision of digital terrestrial television service harmonized with the goals of true soc...

  4. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertinellys TEIXEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC, aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD, and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH, is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137 were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, mainly from discharges (96/137. The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively. Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49, followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49. The aac(6´-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  5. Los movimientos estudiantiles en Venezuela, 1958-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está centrado en los aportes del movimiento estudiantil al proceso político venezolano, en dos momentos clave: la renovación universitaria de 1969, y las protestas estudiantiles de 1987. Hemos identificado las particularidades de los diferentes grupos estudiantiles, y a sus principales dirigentes; sus mecanismos de intervención y de conflicto, su relación con los programas de partidos y movimientos políticos, y su incidencia en la situación política local y nacional. Recurriendo a fuentes biblio-hemerográficas, documentales y orales, el estudio consideró los aportes teórico-metodológicos de investigaciones relacionadas con los movimientos sociales en general y con el movimiento estudiantil en particular. Se concluye estableciendo que los movimientos estudiantiles fueron durante los primeros treinta años de la democracia puntofijista los principales protagonistas del conflicto social en Venezuela.____________________ABSTRACT:The present work describes the contributions of the student movement to the Venezuelan political process, in two focal moments: the university’s renovation of 1969, and the students’ protests of 1987. We have identified the peculiarities of the different students’ groups and their main leaders; their political mechanisms of intervention and conflict, their relation with programs of parties and movements, and their incidence in the local and national political situation. Referring to biblio-hemerographic, documentary and oral sources, the study has considered the theoretical-methodological contributions of researches related both to social movements in general and to student movements in particular. It is established that, during the first thirty years of the puntofijista democracy, student movements were the main protagonists of the social conflict in Venezuela.  

  6. Reactor, radioactive isotopes and nuclear energy: their avatars in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, M

    1981-03-01

    The decision to bring a fair sized (3MW) research reactor to Venezuela, made in 1954 by a single, ambitious and prestige seeking individual working with a dictatorial government, is a clear case of cargo cult, an implicit desire to import industralized countries' science and technology by purchasing key in hand their expensive machine. The reactor has never ceased to experience difficulties since then, not so much of a physical or mechanical, but rather of a human nature and due to the almost grotesque distance between the machine's potentialities and the quantity and quality of personnel available. Demand and motivation have been scarce, because fossil and hydro energy have been so far plentiful. Military motivation was in theory absent. Perspectives have apparently improved, not that a scientific community has been trained and an infrastructure exists. Radioactive isotopes have been widely used in Venezuela, beginning in 1953, for medical practice and biological research. At present about 2.5 million bolivars worth of radioisotopes are imported annually, mostly from the US and to a lesser extent, from UK. Steps are being taken to train nuclear engineers, since most studies thus far indicate the last few years of the century as the time when nuclear energy will begin to enter the picture, and since a period of at least ten years is needed between the decision to build an atomic power plant and the time it goes into operation. Choice of technique has not been made, but an active, although still small, uranium prospecting program has been initiated. It seems as if, by the end of the century, either nuclear energy will have to supplement other sources, or standard of living of Venezuelans - at least that relative minority who can afford to live well - will drop. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Applicability and optimization of SAGD in eastern Venezuela reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina R, J.A.; Bashbush, J.L.; Fernandez, E.A. [Schlumberger, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-10-15

    Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is one of the most effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. In Venezuela, a significant amount of heavy oil in place has been mapped, but limited areas have been developed. Suitable EOR methods need to be applied to extend the productive life of these reservoirs and increase their recovery factors. This paper presented and described an evaluation and stepwise optimization process for a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project using a representative sector model from a field with fluid and reservoir characteristics from an eastern Venezuela formation. The purpose of the study was to understand the impact of key parameters in the process specific to the selected area and to understand the effects on the recovery factor in these reservoirs, which have previously produced with primary recovery mechanisms. The paper discussed a sensitivity analysis that was performed using thermal simulation. Thermal simulation and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis were described. Parameters that were analyzed included vertical well spacing, injection steam rate, well flowing pressure, and horizontal length of the well pair. The paper also presented a brief analysis of the effect on oil recovery from the angle of dip in the reservoir and the orientation of the well pair with regard to the direction of dip. A comparison between two- and three- pseudocomponent model results was also provided. The authors recommended that economic analyses should accompany the final optimization sequence, to incorporate financial and technical considerations for the selection design of the SAGD pilot. 7 refs., 12 tabs., 18 figs.

  8. Analisis Penerapan Kebijakan Ekonomi Sosialis Venezuela Pada Masa Pemerintahan Hugo Chavez Menghadapi Imperialisme Ekonomi Amerika Serikat Tahun 1998-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Razali, Rino

    2014-01-01

    This describes through analysis of the literature study on the application of the socialist economy in Venezuela when leadership of Hugo Chavvez. This Research intended to analyse the application of Venezuela socialist economic policies when the leadreship of Hugo Chavez to face the Economic imperialism by United States of America in 1998-2013. It is because the US economic imperialism was very detrimental to the people of Venezuela.Keywords: policy, bolivarianisme, economics.

  9. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representationEste artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del

  10. [Taxonomy of some microteids (Squamata) from Venezuela, I: variation and geographic distribution of Euspondylus acutirostris and description of a new Euspondylus from northeast Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares-Urrutia, A; Celsa Señaris, J; Arends, A

    2000-01-01

    Only two species of the microteiid lizard genus Euspondylus (E. acutirostris and E. phelpsorum) had been reported from Venezuela. New records of the poorly known gymnophthalmid lizard Euspondylus acutirostris are reported extending its known range along the Coastal Range and Sierra de Aroa (north-central Venezuela) and Sierra de San Luis (northwestern Venezuela), all records occurring at the cloud forest above 1000 m. Seven body measurements were included and morphological variation is described based on at least 17 new specimens. Sexual dimorphism is determined in, at least, eight characteristics of size and squamation. Specimens were found in epiphytic bromeliads and the ground. The populations from Sierra de Aroa and Sierra de San Luis (only one specimen known from each locality), differ from those of the Coastal Range (supposedly the nominal population) in some morphological and coloration features, suggesting that the former two could represent different taxonomical entities. A new species of Euspondylus is described based on a female (taken within a bromeliad) from Cerro El Humo, Sucre, northeastern Venezuela. It differs from congeners mainly by having keeled scales on the limbs and a very acute snout.

  11. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  12. Venezuela : Vargas : Centrale thermo-électrique de Tacoa dans les années 1980 : littoral caraïbe de Catia La Mar

    OpenAIRE

    Pouyllau , Michel

    1981-01-01

    La Centrale thermo-électrique de Tacoa (connue actuellement comme Complejo Generador Josefina Joaquina Sánchez de Tacoa) a été construite en plusieurs étapes sur le littoral caraïbe de Catia La Mar (quartier Arrecife). Elle participe à l'approvisionnement électrique du Littoral de l'Etat de Vargas (villes de La Guaira, Maiquetia) ainsi que, pour partie, de la capitale Caracas. L'image correspond à une extension réalisée à la fin des années 1970 par Electricidad de Caracas et la compagnie belg...

  13. Venezuela: calidad de las elecciones y calidad de la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam KORNBLITH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo de la afirmación de Levine y Molina (2006, según la cual la calidad de la democracia depende del funcionamiento de los procesos mediante los cuales la población selecciona y controla sus gobernantes, en este trabajo se examina el caso venezolano, haciendo especial énfasis en el análisis de la dinámica electoral del período marcado por la presidencia de Chávez (1999-2006. Dicho examen nos lleva a concluir que el régimen sociopolítico venezolano actual puede ser caracterizado más adecuadamente como un «régimen autoritario electoral», más que como una democracia representativa convencional. Los rasgos autoritarios del gobierno venezolano actual explicarían la baja puntuación obtenida por Venezuela en los índices de Freedom House. Sin embargo, este examen también nos lleva a considerar la pertinencia de los supuestos de la calidad de la democracia en el contexto de un cambio de régimen que explícitamente se aleja de las aspiraciones e ideales que sustentan el concepto, dimensiones e indicadores de la calidad de la democracia propuestos.ABSTRACT: Taking off from the affirmation by Levine and Molina that «the quality of democracy depends on the operation of procedures whereby the population selects and controls its government», this article examines the dynamics of elections during the Presidency of Chávez, (1999-2006. This examination leads to the conclusion that the current regime is better characterized as «an autoritarian electoral regime» than as a conventional representative democracy. This re-definition explains the low scores obtained by Venezuela both in Freedom House. At the same time, this study throws light on the bases of democracy and of definitions of quality of democracy in a regime that explicitly rejects the very ideals and aspirations that underlie the definitions, dimensions and indicators of democracy itself.

  14. A new species of Microphallus (Trematoda: Microphallidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T Díaz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available During 1997-1999, a total of 94 crabs, Uca rapax were collected from La Sabana, La Ceiba and El Paujil, Sucre State, Venezuela. Of these 36 were infected with metacercariae. Two parasites were located in the abdominal muscles and one under the tissue of carapace and gonad. These metacercariae grew to adults in the following genera: Levinseniella, Microphallus and Maritrema, in the period of 2-5 days after feeding experimentally to the rat Rattus norvegicus, mice Mus musculus and duck Cairinia moschata. Specimens of the genus Microphallus were described herein as a new species M. sabanensis. The life cycle of M. sabanensis sp.nov. were studied experimentally using rat, mice and duck. All developmental stages and the adult are described. In addition, M. sabanensis was collected from wild birds Anas discors, Pluvialis squatarola, Butorides striatus, Egretta caerulea and Nycticorax violaceus from the same localitiesDurante 1997-1999, se recolectaron en La Sabana, La Ceiba y El Paujil del Distrito Cajigal, Estado Sucre, Venezuela, un total de 94 cangrejos Uca rapax, 36 de ellos estaban parasitados con tres especies de metacercarias de digéneos. Dos de ellos localizados en la musculatura del abdomen y una en el tejido que recubre internamente el caparazón y las gónadas. Estas metacercarias fueron dadas como alimento a ratones Mus musculus, ratas Rattus norvegicus, y patos Cairina moschata y tres genéros de microfálidos, Levinseniella, Microphallus y Maritrema fueron recuperados del intestino delgado de estos animales después de 2-5 días de la infección. Especimenes del genero Microphallus de este estudio se describen como Microphallus sabanensis sp.n. Se estudió experimentalmente los aspectos de ciclo vida de la especie, utilizando ratas, ratones y patos. Se describen todas las estapas larvales y los adultos. Además, M. sabanensis se encuentra naturalmente en las aves: Anas discors, Pluvialis squatarola, Butorides striatus, Egretta caerulea

  15. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  16. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  17. Identificación y caracterización genética de agentes virales diarreagénicos en niños menores de cinco años de edad con o sin diarrea en Bucaramanga

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    Nayibe Tatiana Sánchez Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    59 meses. Se observó mayor asociación entre los casos con síntomas de diarrea, vómito, fiebre o dolor abdominal. El genotipo de norovirus G1 más frecuente fue GI.2 y de norovirus GII fue GII.4. Los serotipos más prevalentes de rotavirus fueron G12P8 seguido de G9P8. Conclusiones: Se logró la identificación de 6 virus (norovirus GI, norovirus GII, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus y rotavirus, en muestras de materia fecal de pacientes menores de cinco años de Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana. El mayor porcentaje de aislamiento se obtuvo para el género norovirus en especial norovirus GII. Rotavirus fue el agente viral que tuvo mayor relación con los síntomas de diarrea, vómito, fiebre y dolor abdominal. Este estudio muestra la importancia de los virus en la epidemiología de EDA en la infancia y la alta diversidad genética de los norovirus y rotavirus dentro de la población pediátrica en Bucaramanga, Colombia.

  18. Caracterización de aislamientos de Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 asociados a cuadros de diarrea Characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 isolates associated with diarrhea

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    S. González Fraga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Vibrio cholerae, el agente causal del cólera, se trasmite al hombre por ingestión de agua y alimentos contaminados. Aunque son los serogrupos O1 y O139 los que habitualmente se asocian al cólera epidémico, los aislamientos de otros serogrupos también son causales de gastroenteritis e infecciones extra-intestinales. Durante el período 2003-2005, se investigó la presencia de V. cholerae en la materia fecal de niños con diarrea atendidos en el Hospital del Niño Jesús, Tucumán. Se recuperaron 34 aislamientos de V. cholerae no-O1, no-O139. Se determinaron sus perfiles de virulencia por PCR, la sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos y la diversidad genética por electroforesis en campo pulsado. Se obtuvieron ocho perfiles de virulencia, aunque ningún aislamiento fue positivo para la toxina colérica ni para la toxina termoestable. Cuatro aislamientos fueron positivos para el sistema de secreción de tipo tres. El 17,6% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes o de sensibilidad intermedia a ampicilina y el 5,9% fueron resistentes a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Los aislamientos resultaron muy diversos: se hallaron 27 patrones distintos en 29 aislamientos tipificables por electroforesis en campo pulsado. A pesar de su baja incidencia, V. cholerae continúa siendo un agente causal de diarrea en niños, los que se ven afectados por una amplia variedad de cepas circulantes.Vibrio cholerae, etiologic agent of cholera, is transmitted to humans by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Even though serogroups O1 and O139 are the ones usually associated to epidemic cholera, isolates from other serogroups also cause gastroenteritis and extraintestinal infections. During the period 2003-2005, presence of V. cholerae in stools was investigated in children with diarrhea that seaked assistance at the Niño Jesús Hospital in Tucumán. Thirty four isolates of V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 were recovered. We characterized the isolates studying

  19. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda Oral rehydration in continuous administration or in fractionated doses in dehydrated children with acute diarrhea

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    Felipe Mota-Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.Objective. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two oral rehydration techniques. Material and Methods. A randomized clinical trial was conducted at the oral rehydration unit of Hospital Infantil de Mexico "Federico Gomez", between September 1998 and June 1999. Forty patients five-year old and younger children, dehydrated due to acute diarrhea, were given oral rehydration solution (ORS ad libitum (AL group; another forty patients received ORS in fractionated doses (FD group. Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Results are presented as

  20. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra diarrea viral bovina, virus sincitial bovino, rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina, leucosis bovina, Neospora caninum, parainfluenza bovina (PI3 y paratuberculosis, en ganadería bovina de fincas ubicadas en Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar

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    Tatiana Gálvis García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el área de la ganadería los problemas caracterizados por infertilidad, abortos, muerte embrionaria, crías con malformaciones neurológicas y físicas son de gran importancia, ya que hay múltiples etiologías y se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos a nivel mundial. Lo anterior ocasiona serias pérdidas económicas y afectando la exportación de carne de los bovinos debido a la restricción de normas de sanidad, donde se encuentran las enfermedades como diarrea viral bovina, rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina, leucosis bovina y Neospora caninum. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra diarrea viral bovina (DVB, virus sincitial respiratorio bovino (BRSV, virus de la rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina (IBR, leucosis enzoótica bovina (BLV, N. caninum, Parainfluenza bovina (PI3 y paratuberculosis (ParaTBC, en bovinos de Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar. Materiales y métodos: Tipo de estudio: Descriptivo de corte transversal, se realizó en 27 fincas ubicadas en zona rural de los municipios de Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar. El Tamaño de la muestra se estimó en 905 bovinos. De cada animal se tomó sangre por punción venosa de la vena coccígea en tubos sin anticoagulante mediante el uso de sistema de vacío Vacutainer®. Cada muestra fue etiquetada adecuadamente con los códigos de identificación asignada, las muestras se centrifugaron a 1500 rpm y se transportó al laboratorio en recipientes con hielo. Se realizó alícuotas en viales de 1,5 ml y se almacenaron a -20 ° C para su posterior procesamiento. Determinación de anticuerpos específicos: Las pruebas para detectar anticuerpos específicos fue mediante ensayo de inmunoabsorción enzimática (ELISA, de las casas comerciales INGEZIM (BRSV, DBV, BLV, N. caninum, IBR, PARACHEK 2 (ParaTBC y BIO-X DIAGNOSTIC (PI3. La validación de las pruebas se realizó mediante los respectivos controles positivos y negativos los cuales se procesaron por duplicado. Resultados

  1. Efecto citotóxico en colon humano de Escherichia coli enterohemorrágico aislado de terneros con diarrea sanguinolenta Cytotoxic effect in human colon of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from calves with bloody diarrhea

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    V. Pistone Creydt

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga (STEC es el patógeno emergente en alimentos de mayor impacto, siendo su principal reservorio el ganado bovino. STEC puede causar diarrea, colitis hemorrágica y síndrome urémico hemolítico. El presente trabajo estudió la acción citotóxica de dos cepas de STEC aisladas de heces de terneros diarreicos en colon humano in vitro. Los fragmentos se montaron como un diafragma en una cámara de Ussing y se incubaron con las cepas patógenas. El flujo neto absortivo de agua (Jw disminuyó y la corriente de cortocircuito (Isc aumentó significativamente (P Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC is one of the most important emergent pathogen in foods, being its main reservoir bovine cattle. STEC can cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The present work have studied the cytotoxic action in human colon of cultures of two STEC strains isolated from faeces of calves with bloody diarrhea. Colonic mucosa was mounted as a diaphragm in a Ussing chamber and incubated with the cultures of pathogenic strains. Net water flow (Jw decreased and the short-circuit current (Isc increased significantly (p < 0,01 compared to negative control. Tissues showed an erosion of the mucose, epithelial exfoliation, and presence of pseudo-membranes in the lumen. Mild circulatory lesions were observed in the lamina propia. A moderate neutrophils infiltration was observed in the lumen and into the epithelial cells. Colonic crypts were not disrupted. Both experimental strains caused a similar lesion on colon tissues. This is the first study that shows that cultures of STEC strains isolated from bovine cattle produce cytotoxic effects in vitro in human colon.

  2. Anticipating rotavirus vaccines: review of epidemiologic studies of rotavirus diarrhea in Argentina En anticipación de una vacuna antirrotavirus: revisión de estudios epidemiológicos sobre la diarrea por rotavirus en la Argentina

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    Jorge A. Gómez

    1998-02-01

    , to more accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine program, and to indicate what methods might best be used to monitor such a program's impact.En todo el mundo, los rotavirus son la causa más común de diarrea grave en los niños pequeños y actualmente se están ensayando sobre el terreno vacunas que posiblemente permitan inmunizar a la población infantil dentro de varios años. Con el fin de estimar la carga de enfermedad por rotavirus en la Argentina y la utilidad de establecer en el país un sistema de vigilancia de la enfermedad, se revisaron datos sobre la detección de estos virus, según estudios publicados y otros inéditos de nueve ciudades argentinas y uno multicéntrico. Los informes revisados indican que se detectaron rotavirus en 20% de 5 226 especímenes (con un recorrido de 6 a 54% entre estudios tomados de niños hospitalizados por diarrea y en 9% de 6587 especímenes (recorrido de 5 a 22% entre estudios tomados de pacientes ambulatorios, miembros de poblaciones mixtas (niños hospitalizados y ambulatorios y sujetos sometidos a encuestas comunitarias. Los datos correspondientes a hospitales muestran que, si bien los virus se detectaron durante todo el año, en los meses de invierno (mayo a julio hubo un pico de intensidad cuando hasta la mitad de los niños con diarrea tuvieron resultados positivos a los rotavirus. En tres laboratorios se logró serotipificar para la proteína G a 230 de 294 especímenes positivos (78%; los resultados indican que el serotipo G1 fue el más común (presente en 60% de los especímenes serotipificados, seguido del G2 (en 20%, G4 (en 14% y G3 (en 5%. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos en el país, se estimó que en 1991 en la Argentina hubo aproximadamente 84 500 visitas de pacientes ambulatorios (uno de cada ocho nacimientos y 21 000 hospitalizaciones de 4 días en promedio (uno de cada 31 nacimientos asociadas con rotavirus, que en conjunto costaron unos US$ 27,7 millones. Estos datos

  3. Prevalence of Dyslipidemias in Three Regions in Venezuela: The VEMSOLS Study Results

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    González-Rivas, Juan P.; Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Brajkovich, Imperia; Ugel, Eunice; Rísquez, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dyslipidemia in multiple regions of Venezuela is unknown. The Venezuelan Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (VEMSOLS) was undertaken to evaluate cardiometabolic risk factors in Venezuela. Objective To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in five populations from three regions of Venezuela. Methods During the years 2006 to 2010, 1320 subjects aged 20 years or older were selected by multistage stratified random sampling from all households in five municipalities from 3 regions of Venezuela: Lara State (Western region), Merida State (Andean region), and Capital District (Capital region). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical analysis were obtained from each participant. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the NCEP/ATPIII definitions. Results Mean age was 44.8 ± 0.39 years and 68.5% were females. The prevalence of lipids abnormalities related to the metabolic syndrome (low HDL-c [58.6%; 95% CI 54.9 - 62.1] and elevated triglycerides [39.7%; 36.1 - 43.2]) were the most prevalent lipid alterations, followed by atherogenic dyslipidemia (25.9%; 22.7 - 29.1), elevated LDL-c (23.3%; 20.2 - 26.4), hypercholesterolemia (22.2%; 19.2 - 25.2), and mix dyslipidemia (8.9%; 6.8 - 11.0). Dyslipidemia was more prevalent with increasing body mass index. Conclusion Dyslipidemias are prevalent cardiometabolic risk factors in Venezuela. Among these, a higher prevalence of low HDL is a condition also consistently reported in Latin America. PMID:29538522

  4. Improvement of Managerial Education of Junior Officers of the Venezuelan Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    it is very important that the Navy has a well rounded career program to improve the management education of all officers, especially for those just...93943-5100 5. Comandancia General de la Armada de Venezuela 2 Director de Educacion de la Armada Ave. Vollmer, San Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela 1011...6. Escuela Superior de Guerra Naval 1 Direccion de Educacion de la Armada Ave. Vollmer, San Bernardino Caracas, Venezuela 1011 7. Cdr. Igor A. Campos

  5. [Dog (Canis familiaris) infectivity to Lutzomyia youngi in Trujillo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Dalila; Rojas, Elina; Scorza, José Vicente; Jorquera, Alicia

    2006-10-01

    In Trujillo, Venezuela the prevalence for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is 38 per 100,000 inhabitants. In a periurban, rural settlement of the capital city Trujillo, we studied the potential capability of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as a source of infection for Lutzomyia youngi, a phlebotomine sand fly species abundant in the study area and whose domestic vectorial activity has been proven. Dogs with dermal lesions suggestive of ATL and parasitological confirmation of infection, were selected for xenodiagnosis by allowing sylvatic phlebotomines from a ATL free area, to feed ad libitum over each animal's entire body surface. The insects' intestinal tracts were dissected 5 days after the blood meal in order to look for flagellate forms. When these were found, parasitological identification was performed by the multiplex-PCR technique. Four hundred and fifty five sand flies engorged over two dogs in three different assays; promastigotes were found in 4 (0.88%) of the specimens on only one occasion. PCR identified DNA of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus. The household dog has the potential of being a domestic risk factor in the ATL transmission cycle.

  6. Origin of ultramafic-hosted magnesite on Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jaber, N. S.; Kimberley, M. M.

    1992-06-01

    Ultramafic-hosted deposits of magnesite (MgCO3) have been studied on Margarita Island, Venezuela, to elucidate the source of carbon and conditions of formation for this type of ore. Petrographic, mineralogic, and δ18O data indicate that magnesite precipitated on Margarita in near-surface environments at low P and T. δ13C ranges from -9 to -16‰ PDB within the magnesite and -8 to -10‰ PDB within some calcite and dolomite elsewhere on the island. The isotopically light dolomite fills karst and the calcite occurs as stock-work veins which resemble the magnesite deposits. These carbon isotopic ratios are consistent with a deep-seated source rather than an overlying source from a zone of surficial weathering. However, there is not much enrichment of precious metals and no enrichment of heavy rare-earth elements, as would be expected if the carbon had migrated upward as aqueous carbonate ions. The carbon probably has risen as a gaseous mixture of CO2 and CH4 which partially dissolved in near-surface water before leaching cations and precipitating as magnesite and other carbonates. The process probably is ongoing, given regional exhalation of carbonaceous gases.

  7. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela

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    Jesús Oduber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. El propósito es observar su relación con la victimización por hackeo y acoso online en una muestra de 308 sujetos. Este estudio halló un grupo de variables que pueden estar relacionadas con la probabilidad de victimización cibernética, las cuales serán discutidas en términos

  8. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  9. International migration data: their problems and usefulness in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealba, R

    1987-01-01

    During the 1940s and 1950s Venezuela was an important destination for migrants from Southern Europe, a flow that disappeared almost entirely during the 1960s, to be replaced by border movements and the largely illegal migration of Colombians. The oil boom of the 1970s saw an increase of the latter, which may have subsided during the 1980s due to the more difficult economic conditions that have also led to significant emigration levels of Venezuelans and former immigrants. Methods of data collection systems that provide information on migrants include the National Population and Housing Census, the National Household Survey, migration surveys, arrival and departure statistics, registration systems operated by the Direccion General Sectorial de identificacion y Control de Extranjeros, the 1980 regularization drive, statistics gathered by the Ministry of Labor, and vital and civil registration statistics. The lack of effective coordination among the different government agencies gathering information and the administrative nature of the data collected give rise to problems of comparability. Mechanisms to publish and disseminate the data available are not well developed, so that researchers often have no access to potentially useful sources of information. Problems of timeliness in the publication of the most widely used information are also present, as is the large gap existing in data pertaining to emigration, be it of Venezuelan nationals or of immigrants leaving the country.

  10. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  11. en la Venezuela de Chávez

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    Alfredo Ramos Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el liderazgo carismático y plebiscitario, el experimento bolivariano de Chávez y del chavismo en el poder se mueve entre el desgobierno y el autoritarismo. La relevancia de esta fórmula política, en la experiencia de Venezuela en los años recientes, ha sido observada, si no adoptada, en otras experiencias recientes en las democracias andinas, como una alternativa exitosa frente al denunciado fracaso de la democracia representativa. Con las banderas y símbolos de un bolivarianismo retórico, que se combina con un indeterminado “socialismo del siglo xxi”, se ha pretendido impulsar lo que se ha convenido en llamar “revolución bolivariana”. En este artículo me propongo como objetivo interpretar tal fenómeno a partir de los resultados de las elecciones y referendos después de la reelección de Chávez en diciembre de 2006.

  12. SOFTWARE LIBRE: OPORTUNIDADES Y RETOS CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A VENEZUELA

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    Gladys Rodríguez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan algunas consideraciones en torno al software libre, sus oportunidades pero también sus desafíos, a la vez que se expone el marco legal de esta figura a partir de su implementación en Venezuela. Se ha empleado una metodología descriptivo-explicativa, partiendo de la revisión bibliográfica conjuntamente con la legislación nacional sobre el tema. Asimismo, se consultó a FUNDACITE ZULIA, a través de la Misión Ciencia, y se concluye que el software libre es una oportunidad para desarrollar programas que atiendan necesidades particulares, y hay quienes consideran que resulta una herramienta especialmente útil para democratizar el acceso a la información en países en desarrollo; sin embargo, planteamos la realidad de una brecha digital entre países en desarrollo y desarrollados

  13. Geochemical record of anthropogenic impacts on Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yunping; Jaffe, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Bulk geochemical parameters and organic matter biomarkers in a short, high resolution gravity core (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) were examined to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts on the lake's conditions. During the period of ca. 1840-1990, sedimentary organic matter was characterized by high contents of total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN), low TOC/TN values as well as relatively enriched δ 13 C and δ 15 N signals, suggesting a primary autochthonous (algae and macrophytes) organic matter origin. The occurrence of large amounts of C 23 and C 25 relative to C 29 and C 31 n-alkanes indicated substantial inputs from submerged/floating macrophytes. The variations of C 32 15-keto-ol, tetrahymanol, diploptene, C 32 bishomohopanol, 2-methylhopane, dinosterol and isoarborinol concentrations over the investigated period record changes in the planktonic community structure, including Botryococcus braunii, bacteriavore ciliates, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophytes and dinoflagellates. A principal shift occurred in the 1910s when cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates became more abundant at the expense and decline of B. braunii and Eustigmatophytes, likely related to increasing anthropogenic activity around the lake. A second shift (less obvious) occurred in the 1960s when cyanobacteria became the sole predominant planktonic class, coinciding with further deterioration of lake conditions

  14. Venezuela's Barrio Adentro: an alternative to neoliberalism in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Benach, Joan; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented health care sector reforms based on a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care less as a social right and more as a market commodity. These reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states as prescribed by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program, Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). In this article, the authors review the main features of the Venezuelan health care reform, analyzing, within their broader sociopolitical and economic contexts, previous neoliberal health care reforms that mainly benefited transnational capital and domestic Latin American elites. They explain the emergence of the new health care program, Misión Barrio Adentro, examining its historical, social, and political underpinnings and the central role played by popular resistance to neoliberalism. This program not only provides a compelling model of health care reform for other low- to middle-income countries but also offers policy lessons to wealthy countries.

  15. Histological and microbiological aspects of actinomycetoma cases in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available A ten year (1976-1986 review study of cases of Actinomycetoma in Venezuela was made through personal interview and clinical examinations, analysis of medical records of patients with actinomycetoma, histological studies of biopsy samples, as well as microbiological studies of isolates strain, also through out personal interviews with researchers and dermatologists who were sources of information on mycetoma cases. A total of 47 cases were recorded. As etiologic agent Actinomadura madurae was found in 20 cases - (42.5%, Nocardia brasiliensis in 13 cases (27.6%, Nocardia spp 7 cases (14.8%, Streptomyces somaliensis in 4 cases (8.5%, N. asteroides in 2 cases (4.2% and N. otitidis caviarum, (N. caviae in 1 case (2.1%. Most of the reported cases involved individuals living and working in rural areas, mostly males who outnumber females 4:1. The patients were 18 to 80 years old. A. madurae was reported as the most frequent etiologic agent. Most of the clinical cases were seen when the disease was well established. Twenty four of the forty seven cases reported were observed in Lara State, which represents a 51.0% of all the cases studied.

  16. Chavism and Criminal Policy in Venezuela, 1999-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lia Grajales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the Venezuelan democracy was an exception in South America due to a party system that was based on what was known as the ‘Punto Fijo Pact’. At the start of the 1980s a series of economic, social and political events began to occur, which caused this ‘exceptionalism’ to stagger and disrupt the institutionality of the traditional Venezuelan democratic State. The events led to a deep national crisis and the birth of a new political era. By the end of the 1990s, there had been a significant shift towards left-wing governance. Hugo Chávez Frías subsequently won the presidential elections in 1998. This paper analyzes some aspects of the criminal policies that were implemented during the reign of left-wing leader Chávez till his death in 2013 and thereafter by Chavist party president elect, Nicolás Maduro during 2013-2014. Four stages can be identified in the behavior of incarceration rates. The first stage, from 1999 to 2000, was characterized by the lowest recordings of incarceration rates and the lowest measured percentage of preventive detention in Venezuela in thirty years. The second stage, from 2001 to 2005, saw a slight increase in the incarceration rate which then remained stable. The third stage, from 2006 to 2012, and the fourth stage, from 2013 to 2014, are characterized by sustained increases in preventive detention, incarceration and murder rates.

  17. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  18. Integrality in Brazil and Venezuela: similarities and complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Targino Bruno Dos; Barros, Ione Silva; Amorim, Anne Caroline Coelho Leal Árias; Rocha, Dais Gonçalves; Mendonça, Ana Valéria Machado; Sousa, Maria Fátima de

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to compare Primary Health Care (PHC) in Brazil and Venezuela, considering its characteristics as to integrality. It has a qualitative approach, using documental analysis, semi-structured interviews with key informants and field diary notes. We observed the three realms of integrality inherent to the health work process: comprehensive and holistic care, the individual viewed as a complex being with multiple needs, requiring the connection of various health knowledge; continuity of care in institutional micro-policy with interprofessional articulation, in order to consider individual care; continuity of care in macro-policy, when a shift to other levels of care is needed; intersectoriality was also included, when the needs of an individual and community require a cross-sectoral coordination, with action on determinants and conditionants of the health-disease process. It is worth highlighting the natural tendency to include a comprehensive community medical training. We conclude that those countries strengthened by democracy draw their integrality practices closer, as well as the construction of social and health policies for underprivileged populations to achieve equity.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in tropical Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, N R; Eddy, K; Hodgen, A N; Lopez, R I; Turner, K J

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in different socio-economic groups of the tropical population of Venezuela. The lack of definitive independent diagnostic criteria for toxocariasis required the establishment of operational upper limits of normality for Toxocara ELISA values, based upon their log-normalized distribution in a presumptive "non-toxocariasis" sub-population. Only 1.8% of urban subjects of medium-high socio-economic level were considered to be clearly positive in Toxocara ELISA, compared to 20.0% of urban slum dwellers, 25.6% rural subsistence farmers and 34.9% Amazon Indians. As the test was performed using excretory-secretory antigen, and under conditions of competitive inhibition by soluble extracts of non-homologous parasites, co-infection by common intestinal helminths, protozoa or other organisms did not give rise to false positive results. However, strong cross-reactivity with Onchocerca volvulus may have influenced the prevalence figure obtained for the Amazon Indians. These results indicate that T. canis is yet another parasite that is widely distributed in economically underprivileged tropical populations.

  20. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  1. Dengue Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Past and Recent Viral Transmission in Venezuela : A Comprehensive Community-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Guzman, Diamelis M.; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C.; Tami, Adriana

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a

  2. A new species of Hemerobiella Kimmins (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) from Venezuela with notes on the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Francisco; Lara, Rogéria I R; Martins, Caleb C

    2015-10-09

    Hemerobiella periotoi Sosa & Lara sp. nov. is described from Venezuela. The new species was collected at the edges of a mature cloud forest in Lara state. This is the third species known in Hemerobiella Kimmins, and the second recorded from Venezuela. Additionally, new Venezuelan records and illustrations of H. oswaldi Monserrat, as well as, a key to Hemerobiella species are provided.

  3. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leslie C; Ponce, Gustavo; Oviedo, Milagros; Lopez, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E

    2014-08-01

    Temephos is an insecticide widely used in Venezuela to control the proliferation of the larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), the principal vector of dengue virus. The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility to temephos of Ae. aegypti in four locations in western Venezuela: Lara, Tres Esquinas, Ureña and Pampanito. Larval bioassays were conducted on samples collected in 2008 and 2010, and the levels of α- and β-esterases, mixed-function oxidases, glutathione-S-transferase and insensitive acethyl cholinesterase were determined. Larval populations from western Venezuela obtained during 2008 and 2010 were found to be susceptible to temephos, with low resistance ratios and without overexpression of enzymes. The low RR values reveal the effectiveness of temephos in controlling the larval populations of Ae. aegypti. Control strategies must be vigorously monitored to maintain the susceptibility to temephos of these populations of Ae. aegypti. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Venezuela. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Venezuela estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range 2,000 to 42,000 tonnes uranium.- The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Precambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the Guayana Shield. Other potentially favorable geologic environments include Cretaceous phosphorite beds, continental sandstone and granitic rocks. The mission recommends that approximately US $18 million be spent on exploration in Venezuela over the next five years. The majority of this expenditure would be for surface surveys utilizing geologic studies, radiometric and geochemical surveys and some drilling for geologic information. Additional drilling would be required later to substantiate preliminary findings. (author)

  5. As questões habitacional e urbana na Venezuela contemporânea

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Higuchi Hirao

    2015-01-01

    Essa dissertação aborda a questão urbana e habitacional na Venezuela. Realiza-se investigação histórica sobre os principais períodos da política habitacional na Venezuela a partir de 1928 (fundação do Banco Obrero), seguida pela caracterização do programa Gran Misión Vivienda Venezuela (sob a gestão de Hugo Chávez) e dos movimentos sociais urbanos reunido em torno da plataforma do Movimiento de Pobladoras y Pobladores. Investiga-se a importância da formação das favelas e a subsequente luta pe...

  6. Caracterización del mercado laboral del sector hotelero del estado Mérida, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Villasmil R., María A.; Andrade, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Esta investigación trata sobre modelos que permiten caracterizar Mercados Laborales Locales (MLL), ya que en Venezuela el manejo de los mismos es casi inexistente. En este sentido, se plantea como objetivo caracterizar al mercado laboral del sector hotelero del estado Mérida-Venezuela en función del conocimiento de las particularidades económicas, institucionales, políticas, sociales, educativas y culturales de la zona así como las condiciones que se tengan en materia de empleo, oferta de for...

  7. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Ramos, José Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas), los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 ...

  8. Migração transfronteiriça na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available AS ZONAS fronteiriças são zonas de empréstimos e apropriações culturais e, por isso, um lugar privilegiado para a compreensão do fenômeno migratório internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns aspectos do processo de deslocamentos transfronteiriços no norte do Brasil, no município de Pacaraima (Estado de Roraima e na fronteira sul da Venezuela, no município de Gran Sabana (Estado Bolívar, e, ao mesmo tempo, apontar as tendências e reflexos nas configurações socioculturais nessas zonas de contato. Nessa fronteira Brasil-Venezuela, podemos afirmar que o trânsito maior é de brasileiros para a Venezuela e para a Guiana, em decorrência das possibilidades de atuarem nas atividades de mineração, no comércio local e no setor de transportes, além das atividades ilegais, como tráfico de mulheres, contrabando de combustível e câmbio ilegal de moeda. Apresenta-se, no entanto, uma nova tendência que é a imigração de estrangeiros de outros países do continente, tais como peruanos e colombianos. Esses migrantes transfronteiriços percorrem os países fronteiriços em itinerários cuja porta de entrada é a Venezuela e a Guiana, mas também o Estado do Amazonas.BORDER zones are zones of cultural lending, borrowing and appropriation, and, therefore, a privileged vantage point for understanding the phenomenon of international migration. This essay attempts to examine certain aspects of the transborder dislocation process in northern Brazil (the city of Pacaraima, state of Roraima and in southern Venezuela (the city of Gran Sabana, state of Bolívar, and point out its trends and reflections on the sociocultural makeup of those contact zones. In this Brazil-Venezuela border, the largest movement is clearly that of Brazilians going into Venezuela and Guyana in search of job opportunities in mining, local business and transportation, not to mention illegal activities such as the traffic of women, fuel smuggling and

  9. Complete genome sequence of jacquemontia yellow vein virus, a novel begomovirus infecting Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2017-08-01

    Wild plants of the family Convolvulaceae are hosts for a few New World begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus infecting the wild convolvulaceous plant Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela. The cloned bipartite genome showed the organization of typical New World begomoviruses and was found to be phylogenetically related to those of begomoviruses from Venezuela and other Caribbean countries. Several recombination events have been shown to have occurred involving genome fragment exchange with related begomoviruses infecting crops such as tomato and cucurbits and wild plants, including Jacquemontia sp. We propose the name jacquemontia yellow vein virus (JacYVV) for this new begomovirus.

  10. Urban outbreak of acute orally acquired Chagas disease in Táchira, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez, Jesús A.; Araujo, Benjamín; Contreras, Krisell; Rivas, Marianela; Ramírez, Pedro; Guerra, Watermo; Calderón, Noél; Terren, Carlo Ascaso; Barrera, Reggie; Rodríguez Morales, Alfonso Javier

    2013-01-01

    Aguda por vía oral adquirió la enfermedad de Chagas (AOACD) se ha convertido en una amenaza importante en algunos países de América del Sur [1,2]. Hasta marzo de 2013, al menos cuatro han reportado brotes de la enfermedad de Chagas aguda adquirida por vía oral, en concreto Brasil [3], Venezuela [4], Colombia [5] y Bolivia [6]. Los brotes también se están produciendo probablemente en Argentina y Ecuador, según algunos informes antiguos [2]. En Venezuela, ha habido por lo menos tres informes ep...

  11. El rostro más especial de Venezuela. Jacqueline Saburido.

    OpenAIRE

    González, Silvia Lidia

    2006-01-01

    : Editorial: El emblemático número tres. Por: Ruiz Calderón, Humberto Especial Jóvenes, alcohol y ¿salud?. Venezuela, penoso liderazgo: consumo de licor y muertes en percances viales. Por: González, Silvia Lidia ¡Cuidado! ebrio al volante. Artículo Bebiendo el futuro. Por: Morales, Nelson Guía Web Sitios sobre alcoholismo en Internet. Historias El rostro más especial de Venezuela. Jacqueline Saburido. Por: González, Silvia Lidia Hora libre...

  12. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  13. Perspectivas del MERCOSUR ante la incorporación de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Laredo, Iris Mabel; Cignacco, Gloria; Díaz, Corina; Angelone, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    El trabajo analiza críticamente las principales experiencias de integración regional existentes en un contexto de creciente globalización asimétrica. Una caracterización del bolivarianismo permite revisar la política exterior de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. De allí, se examinan las posibles consecuencias de la admisión de Venezuela al MERCOSUR, no sólo para ese país, sino para toda América Latina. This paper analyzes critically the mayor experiences of regional integration that e...

  14. Phlebotominae de Venezuela: Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. del estado Lara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Arredondo Cardona

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el macho de Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. capturado en el Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Distrito Andrés Eloy Blanco, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La especie puede ser identificada por la forma característica del parámetro. Pertenece al grupo Verrucarum, serie Verrucarum de Theodor (1965.A description is given of the male of Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. who was collected in the National Park of Yacambú, State of Lara, Venezuela. This species is identified by the characteristic form of the paramere. It belongs to the Verrucarum Group, Verrucarum Series of Theodor (1965.

  15. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  16. STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics

  17. [Changes in lipid availability in Venezuela, 1970-1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Olivo, E A; Ablan de Flórez, E

    1994-12-01

    The authors carry out a research focused on the quantification and analysis of the main changes in feeding and nutrition in Venezuela between 1970 and 1992. Such research started with the review and adjustment of the Food Balance Sheets (Hojas de Balance de Alimentos) elaborated by the Instituto Nacional de Nutrición (National Nutrition Institute) between 1970 and 1979 in order to homogenize them in a methodological way to make them similar to those elaborated by that institution and the Fundación Polar for the 1980-90 period. Estimates were made about the daily and per person availability of food for human consumption (DCH) for 1991 and 1992. This report, a partial product of that research, characterizes the evolution of the lipidic DCH in Venezuela for the 1970-1992 period. This period has been divided in seven stages of the evolution of the total energetic DCH, as this reflects well the course of the daily and per person Food Purchasing Power (PCA); there is a direct and strong functional relationship between these two variables. Along those stages the behaviour of the lipidic DCH is studied and we try to view possible relationships between the evolution of the Venezeluans economical situation and the absolute and relative variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH. This structure is analyzed from several points of view: groups of food sources, origin, "visibility", and place of origin. One purpose is to determine also which food groups are mainly responsible for the venezuelan's external lipidic dependence. A general picture of the evolution of the DCH for saturated fatty acids and cholesterol is made, as well as of the variations experienced by the P/S and M/S relationships. It was found that the most dynamic elements, those that can explain a very high percentage of the variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH were: the groups of foods of Visible Fats, Milk and dairy products, and Meats; vegetal lipids

  18. Cambios institucionales: La descentralización en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramírez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un esbozo de un conjunto de hechos históricos ocurridos en el transcurrir de los siglos XIX y XX, concebidos como antecedentes de la descentralización en Venezuela. Esos acontecimientos son interpretados y analizados dentro del amplio contexto político de la organización y consolidación del Estado desde los inicios de la República en el siglo XIX hasta la creación de la Comisión Presidencial para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE en 1984. Se parte de una noción sobre las bases teóricas de esas estrategias del desarrollo, se busca el vínculo a lo largo del proceso histórico republicano desde los tiempos del federalismo en adelante, se hace un diagnóstico e interpretación de la regionalización, y se aborda el origen de la descentralización y sus objetivos. A modo de conclusión se reafirma la apreciación teórica y metodológica de esas propuestas para el desarrollo, se insiste en su indisoluble unión a lo histórico, se deslinda el momento de inicio de la aceleración del crecimiento económico a partir de la regionalización, y se ratifica la descentralización como propuesta política para la modernización de la democracia partidista de finales del siglo XX.

  19. La lengua escrita en algunos documentos cumanaqueños de misioneros aragoneses en la Venezuela de los siglos XVII y XVIII: aspectos gráficos y léxicos Written language in some “Cumanaqueño” documents by Aragonese missionaries in the XVII and XVIII centuries’ Venezuela: graphic and lexical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rosina Serrano Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Los capuchinos aragoneses obtuvieron licencia real para misionar en Caracas y Cumaná en 1658. Se trataba de un contingente insuficiente para la extensión del territorio, los emigrados a Indias procedentes de Aragón nunca fueron numerosos, y pronto se tuvo que recurrir a capuchinos andaluces que ayudaran en la labor evangélica; aunque las diferencias entre los dos grupos hizo que no tendieran a mezclarse entre ellos y finalizó por dividir la misión en dos (Caracas y Cumaná). La presencia de es...

  20. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    34Petroleo e industrializacion," Comercio Exterior , Vol. 32, (Nov 1982), p. 1213. 52. Blutstein, p. 158. 53. Ministerio de Energia y Minas, Petroleo y...tion of Guyana), and the Empresa Nacional de Pesca (National Fishing Enterprise). As will be analyzed in the next chapter, Venezuela’s develop- ment...economia venezolana en los ultimos 35 anos, p. 273. Comercio Exterior , (Nov 1982), p. 1220. Rollins, Raw Materials Development and Economic Growth: A Study

  1. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años Sustained feeding during acute diarrhea in children younger than five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOMERO MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.Objective. To identify locally available and culturally acceptable foods for children with acute diarrhea, and test their acceptance and effect on the childís weight. Material and methods. 142 mothers of children younger than five years of age living in rural communities were interviewed to indentify culturally accepted diets by means of group sorting. These were displayed in a multidimensional scale. A descriptive study was performed of the clinical course of 54 children, ages 4 to 50 months who received the designed diets during the first 48 hours of diarrhea. Results. The designed diets considered age of the child, and stage of the disease. Children spent 47.6 ± 22.2 h in the hospital during which they consumed 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/day (additional to breast milk and they gained 70.6 ± 179.7 g. A direct relationship was observed between increasing age and

  2. Caracterización genotipica de aislamientos de Escherichia coli obtenidos de cerdos con diarrea posdestete y enfermedad de los edemas Genotypic characterization of toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhea (PWD and edema disease (ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A Moredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar mediante PCR 47 aislamientos de Escheríchia coli recuperados de 32 cerdos con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea posdestete (DPD y de 3 cerdos con enfermedad de los edemas (ED. Sobre 44 aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con DPD, 42 (95,5 % fueron caracterizados como E. coli enterotoxigénicos (ETEC y 2 (4,5 % como E. coli productores de toxina Shiga (STEC. Catorce aislamientos de ETEC (33,3 % fueron positivos para los genes estl/estlI/fedA. El genotipo más complejo fue eltA/estll/east1/faeG/aidA. Los aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con ED se clasificaron como STEC porcinos y fueron portadores de stxJaidA. Once aislamientos (25 % fueron portadores del gen que codifica la expresión de la adhesina AIDA-I. Sin embargo, en ningún aislamiento se detectaron los genes que codifican la expresión de las adhesinas F5, F6, F41, de intimina y de "Paa". La prevención de la DPD y de la ED podría realizarse mediante el desarrollo de vacunas que generen anticuerpos contra las adhesinas de las cepas de E. coli prevalentes en la Argentina.The purpose of this work was to characterize 47 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 32 pigs diagnosed with postweaning diarrhea and tree pigs with edema disease by PCR. Forty two (95.5 % of the strains isolated from diarrheic pigs were characterized as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and 2 (4.5 % as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Fourteen (33.3 % ETEC strains were positive for est/estll/fedA genes. The most complex genotype was eltA/estl/faeG/aidA. Strains isolated from pigs with ED were classified as porcine STEC and were stxjaidA carriers. Eleven (25 % strains carried the gene encoding adhesln protein AIDA-I. However, genes coding for F5, F6, F41, intimin and Paa were not detected. The development of vaccines generating antibodies against prevalent E. coli adhesins in Argentina could be useful for the prevention of PWD and ED.

  3. Research reactor utilization. Summary reports of three study group meetings: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, held in Istanbul 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, held in Caracas 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, held in Lucas Heights 28 February - 4 March 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The three sections of this book, which are summary reports of three Study Group meetings of the IAEA: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, Istanbul, 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, Caracas, 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, Lucas Heights, Australia, 28 February - 4 March 1966. These meetings were the latest in a series designed to promote efficient utilization of research reactors, to disseminate information on advances in techniques, to discuss common problems in reactor operations, and to outline some advanced areas of reactor-based research. (author)

  4. 78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary... of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Russia and... United States at less than fair value. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation...

  5. LESIONES CUTANEAS PARASITARIAS EN EL ASNO EQUUS ASINUS DE CHORONI, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Abelardo; Garcia, Francisco; Rossini, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted erythemat...

  6. Streptomyces venezuelae TX-TL - a next generation cell-free synthetic biology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; Lai, Hung-En; Needham, Hannah; Polizzi, Karen M; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-04-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae is a promising chassis in synthetic biology for fine chemical and secondary metabolite pathway engineering. The potential of S. venezuelae could be further realized by expanding its capability with the introduction of its own in vitro transcription-translation (TX-TL) system. TX-TL is a fast and expanding technology for bottom-up design of complex gene expression tools, biosensors and protein manufacturing. Herein, we introduce a S. venezuelae TX-TL platform by reporting a streamlined protocol for cell-extract preparation, demonstrating high-yield synthesis of a codon-optimized sfGFP reporter and the prototyping of a synthetic tetracycline-inducible promoter in S. venezuelae TX-TL based on the tetO-TetR repressor system. The aim of this system is to provide a host for the homologous production of exotic enzymes from Actinobacteria secondary metabolism in vitro. As an example, the authors demonstrate the soluble synthesis of a selection of enzymes (12-70 kDa) from the Streptomyces rimosus oxytetracycline pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Venezuela's African Agenda in a South–South: Context The Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venezuela's African Agenda, an intention to diversify its oil partners as well as a search for a land where to export the 'Bolivarian Revolution', is a sign of the growing interest on the part of Latin America to strengthen ties with the African continent, and constitutes an alternative to the option represented by the BRICS ...

  8. Rural Development in Venezuela and the Guianas: A Bibliography. Training and Methods Series Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography cites 930 materials dealing with Venezuela and the Guianas. Published between 1949 and 1972, the materials are found in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin. Topics covered are: agriculture, agrarian reform, economic affairs, economic cooperation, human resources, American Indians, industry, law, money,…

  9. 78 FR 49471 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... the gross weight, terms of delivery, and whether the price was inclusive of Russian value-added tax... Russia and Venezuela are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value... subject merchandise sold at less than normal value (``NV''). In addition, Petitioners allege that subject...

  10. The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

  11. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  12. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  13. High Precision Optical Observations of Space Debris in the Geo Ring from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.; Downes, J. J.; Casanova, D.; Tresaco, E.

    2018-01-01

    We present preliminary results to demonstrate that our method for detection and location of Space Debris (SD) in the geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) ring, based on observations at the OAN of Venezuela is of high astrometric precision. A detailed explanation of the method, its validation and first results is available in (Lacruz et al. 2017).

  14. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  15. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  16. The paramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, A.N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal paramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based oil analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  17. Guidelines For Implementation of Industrial Programs For Proposed Community Colleges in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Pablo Maria

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected industrial education departments and programs of the community colleges in the United States, and to draw some beneficial implications for the establishment of the proposed community colleges in Venezuela. The procedure involved a review of the literature, the construction of a questionnaire, and…

  18. [Cities and oil. Historical and prospective aspects of the urban population of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papail, J; Picquet, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a historical overview of urbanization in Venezuela. The impact of the oil economy on population change and spatial distribution is emphasized. A typology of cities based on socioeconomic function and on a demographic classification of urban centers is devised. Future trends in urbanization are also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. Education, Democracy and Social Change: Venezuela's Education Missions in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The "Bolivarian Revolution" in Venezuela is conceptualised as a pedagogical project that aims to develop "twenty-first century Socialism" through state-grassroots collaboration in the reorganisation of political space in order to develop participatory, democratic institutions and processes. The cornerstones of this project to…

  20. Universities, Public Policy and Economic Development in Latin America: The Cases of Mexico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorey, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Since establishment of national university systems in Mexico and Venezuela, three principal demands have dominated policy formation: government ideological demand; economic demand for expertise; and political and social demand for upward mobility through education. Tensions between these demands have stemmed from economic inability to sustain…

  1. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  2. Venezuela - energy situation 1981. BfAI-Marktinformation. Reihe MI-BS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The energy situation of Venezuela is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and the balance of payment.

  3. Adapting EVIAVE methodology as a planning and decision-making tool in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamorano, M.; Paolini, A.; Ramos, A.; Rodriguez, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Landfills in Venezuela have serious problems regarding their location, design and operation. In fact, basic waste disposal is one of the main weaknesses of the municipal waste management in this country. The Venezuelan Ministry of Environment and Renewable Resources has studied and identified the negative impacts of operating landfills, but no program has been implemented to determine the cause-effect relation of these impacts or to design strategies to counteract with the serious environmental and health risks generated. This paper describes how EVIAVE methodology can be successfully used for landfill diagnosis, and shows how this type of landfill diagnosis was applied in Venezuela. For our research study, we carried out both a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the environmental problems generated by 22 landfills in Venezuela. Our study was based on the following environmental indexes: Landfill Environment, Environmental Risk, Environmental Value, and Probability of Contamination. For the purposes of our study, it was first necessary to adapt EVIAVE to the legal system and social context in Venezuela. The results obtained confirmed the applicability of this methodology to Venezuelan landfills. EVIAVE was found to be an effective planning tool that provided crucial information for the development of action plans, which would improve landfill operation, and help make decisions pertaining to their closure, sealing and eventual recovery.

  4. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  5. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. LA CAPACITACIÓN PROFESIONAL DE FUNCIONARIOS POLICIALES EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Sofía Rodríguez Ugueto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacitación del funcionario policial en la actualidad, en cuanto a la práctica policial, presupone la delimitación de contradicciones que resultan necesarias en la sociedad y que no se corresponde con la pertinencia del momento histórico. Esta realidad está presente en la sociedad venezolana, que de manera particular la están viviendo los cuerpos policiales del país, los cuales en el marco de las transformaciones sociales que se llevan a cabo, requiere también cambios de su rol como funcionario a nivel nacional en la orientación del proyecto social, exigencia que conlleva a un Nuevo Modelo Policial alejado de lo tradicional y poco funcional como cuerpo represivo capaz de orientarse hacia una nueva disposición como funcionario inserto en la comunidad cuya función de represión se ha de ajustar a un plano primario de prevención y formación ciudadana. Los autores reflexionan en estas problemáticas.PALABRAS CLAVE: capacitación profesional; capacitación continua; modelo policial.THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF POLICE OFFICIALS IN VENEZUELA ABSTRACTThe police official's training at the present time, as for the police practice, it presupposes the delimitation of contradictions that are necessary in the society and that doesn't belong together with the relevancy of the historical moment. This reality is present in the Venezuelan society that are living her the police bodies of the country in a particular way, which also requires changes of its list like official at national level in the orientation of the social project in the mark of the social transformations that are carried out, demand that bears a New Police Model far from the traditional and not very functional as repressive body able to be guided toward a new disposition like official inserts in the community whose function of repression must be adjusted to a primary plane of prevention and civic formation. The authors meditate in these problems.KEYWORDS: professional training

  7. LA SALUD EN EL PROCESO DE DESCENTRALIZACION TERRITORIAL EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Avila Urdaneta

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La estrategia de la descentralización del Estado se inicia con la aprobación de la Ley de Descentralización, Delimitación y Transferencia de Competencias del Poder Público (LOD en diciembre de 1989. El propósito de la descentralización es aumentar la capacidad de respuesta eficiente del sistema de servicios a los problemas de salud a la población entre los diferentes niveles de poder central, estadal y municipal, así como brindarle una mayor participación a las comunidades en su solución. En Venezuela las instituciones que prestan servicios de salud son numerosas, en su mayoría independientes y ausentes de una coordinación efectiva por parte del Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social (MSAS, ente creado en 1936 con mayor injerencia en los asuntos relativos a la salud. El MSAS se orienta hacia una política de centralización normativa – procedimental y desconcentración programática que consiste en la transferencia de las funciones administrativas, requeridas para el desarrollo de los programas, a los órganos regionales del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Destaca que el MSAS delimitará a las comunidades territorial, demográfica y técnicamente, en función del establecimiento de atención integral a la salud que le preste sus servicios. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el proceso de descentralización de la salud, tomando en cuenta la actual coyuntura sociopolítica y económica en el marco de la nueva Constitución Bolivariana (1999. La muestra está constituida por los Estados Monagas, Carabobo, Aragua, Falcón y Zulia. Los resultados se concretan en el aumento de la productividad y calidad de los servicios de atención médica; simplificación de los procesos administrativos y el fortalecimiento de la democracia, al contar con una comunidad involucrada y satisfecha con el servicio de salud. Se concluye que el proceso de descentralización municipal ha sido frenado por el Gobierno central en los Estados Monagas y

  8. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  9. [Mycoses in Venezuela: Working Groups in Mycology reported cases (1984-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Méndez, Dilia; Hernández Valles, Rosaura; Alvarado, Primavera; Mendoza, Mireya

    2013-01-03

    In 1984 the Venezuelan Work Groups in Mycology (VWGM) were created introducing an innovative approach to the study of the mycoses in Venezuela. To study the occurrence of the mycoses in Venezuela. Review the reported cases of mycoses by the newsletter Boletín Informativo Las Micosis en Venezuela (VWGM) from 1984 to 2010. The data collected showed 36,968 reported cases of superficial mycoses, 1,989 of deep systemic cases, and 822 of localized mycoses. Pityriasis dermatophytosis was the most common superficial infection, and paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis the most frequent deep systemic infection. Chromoblastomycosis was the most frequently diagnosed subcutaneous infection. The data provided showed the distribution by geographical area for each of the fungal infections studied, which may help to establish the endemic areas. Superficial mycosis is a public health problem due to its high morbidity and is probably responsible for some of the outbreaks in high-risk groups. Paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis were reported more often, which agrees with earlier reports prior to the formation of the VWGM. Cases of sporotrichosis and chromoblastomycosis in Venezuela can be considered unique due to the high number of cases. This study highlights the contribution of the VWGM to the behavior of the mycoses in Venezuela, its incidence, prevalence, and the recognition of these infections as a problem of public health importance. The VWGM should keep working in this endeavor, not only reporting new cases, but also unifying the clinical and epidemiological criteria, in order to properly monitor the evolving epidemiological changes reported in these types of infections. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. A new species of Bachia (Teiidae, Sauria) from Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, with notes on the zoogeography of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Bachia guianensis nov. spec, is described from Guri, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, on the basis of a single specimen. The species is closely related to Bachia heteropa (Lichtenstein), but differs from this species in lacking the interparietal scale.

  11. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart

    2010-02-01

    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  12. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  13. APORTE PATRIMONIAL A PARTIR DEL PROCESO INMIGRATORIO CANARIO EN VENEZUELA Y EL ESTADO LARA ENTRE 1961 Y 1981

    OpenAIRE

    Pastrán Calles, Félix Reinaldo

    2017-01-01

    FULL TITLE PATRIMONIAL CONTRIBUTION FROM THE CANARY IMMIGRATION PROCESS IN VENEZUELA AND THE LARA STATE FROM 1961 TO 1981 RESUMEN El presente articulo tiene como objetivo reconocer el aporte patrimonial a partir del proceso inmigratorio canario en Venezuela y el Estado Lara, durante el periodo 1961 hasta 1981, periodo que abarca una amplitud de beneficios y desarrollo como resultado de acciones de canarios dentro del espacio geográfico venezolano. Metodológicamente se aplican los funda...

  14. The Texts of the Instruments Concerning the Agency's Assistance to Venezuela for the Continuation of a Research Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The texts of the Title Transfer Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of the United States of America and Venezuela, and of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Venezuela concerning the Agency's assistance to that Government for the continuation of a research reactor project, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 7 November 1975, pursuant to Articles IV and X respectively.

  15. Estado actual de la Colección de Palmas (Arecaceae) del Herbario Nacional de Venezuela (VEN)

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza Flores, Yaroslavi

    2014-01-01

    The National Herbarium of Venezuela (VEN) has the largest collection of botanical specimens in the country,thus being the main source of reference for the flora of Venezuela. It also hosts a large number of specimensfrom other countries in the Neotropical region. The VEN contains approximately 400 000 specimens currentlyregistered in the herbarium’s database, of which 2192 form the palm (Arecaceae) collection that encompasses35 genera (including 5 foreign genera) and 127 specific and infraspe...

  16. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  17. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs Evaluación de vacunas experimentales para la diarrea viral bovina en bovinos, ovinos y cobayos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines.El control del virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB se basa en la eliminación de animales persistentemente infectados, y la inmunización de hembras para prevenir infecciones fetales. La eficiencia de estas vacunas es variable por su baja inmunogenicidad. Se evaluó la respuesta inmune humoral contra virus homólogos y heterólogos de 7 vacunas experimentales inactivadas del VDVB en bovinos y en dos modelos experimentales (ovinos y cobayos. Las vacunas conteniendo VDVB Singer, Oregon, NADL y polivalentes indujeron seroconversión en

  18. Review of the genus Bythonia Oman 1936 with description of a new species and new record from Venezuela (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Iassinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiani, Marco A

    2017-06-06

    Bythonia freytagi sp. nov. is diagnosed and described from northern Venezuela. Bythonia rugosa is recorded for the first time in Venezuela from the southern state of Amazonas. The presence of both species of Bythonia in Venezuela represent the first occurrences of this genus north of the Equator. Comments on the relationships of the described species are made and two species groups are proposed. A checklist and key to the known species of the genus are provided.

  19. Epidemiological aspects of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela Aspectos epidemiológicos de la leishmaniasis visceral humana y canina en Venezuela

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    Olga Zerpa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report recent data on the distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Venezuela, and to highlight problems associated with effective control measures. METHODS: We report the number of cases, incidence rate, age and sex distribution, and mortality rates for human VL (HVL for the period of 1995 through 2000, based on National Registry of Leishmaniasis data. We carried out serological studies on a total of 3 025 domestic dogs from the 12 states in Venezuela reporting cases of human VL in this 1995-2000 period and also from the state of Yaracuy, where cases were reported earlier during the decade of the 1990s. RESULTS: From 1995 through 2000, 242 cases of HVL were reported from 12 states, in various sections of Venezuela. There was a relatively stable national incidence rate of 0.2 cases per 100 000 persons per year. Of the 242 cases, 26.0% were from Margarita Island, one of the three islands that make up the state of Nueva Esparta (Margarita Island was the only one of the Nueva Esparta islands that had HVL cases. Over the 1995-2000 period, the annual incidence rates for Nueva Esparta ranged from 1.7 to 3.8 cases per 100000 population. Males in Venezuela were more frequently affected (59.5% than were females (40.5%. In terms of age, 67.7% of the VL patients were OBJETIVOS: Dar a conocer datos recientes acerca de la distribución de la leishmaniasis visceral (LV humana y canina en Venezuela y resaltar los problemas que se asocian con la aplicación de buenas medidas de control. MÉTODOS: Damos a conocer el número de casos, la tasa de incidencia, la distribución por edad y sexo y las tasas de mortalidad de la LV humana (LVH durante el período de 1995 a 2000, según datos obtenidos del Registro Nacional de Leishmaniasis. Llevamos a cabo pruebas serológicas en un total de 3 025 perros domésticos de los 12 estados de Venezuela que notificaron casos de LV en este período, y también de Yaracuy, donde se notificaron

  20. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

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    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  1. Barrio Adentro and the reduction of health inequalities in Venezuela: an appraisal of the first years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Francisco; Muntaner, Caries; Chung, Haejoo; Williams-Brennan, Leslie; Benach, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an update on the characteristics and performance of Venezuela's Bolivarian health care system, Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). During its first five years of existence, Barrio Adentro has improved access and utilization of health services by reaching approximately 17 million impoverished and middle-class citizens all over Venezuela. This was achieved in approximately two years and provides an example of an immense "South-South" cooperation and participatory democracy in health care. Popular participation was achieved with the Comités de Salud (health committees) and more recently with the Consejos Comunales (community councils), while mostly Cuban physicians provided medical care. Examination of a few epidemiological indicators for the years 2004 and 2005 of Barrio Adentro reveals the positive impact of this health care program, in particular its primary care component, Barrio Adentro I. Continued political commitment and realistic evaluations are needed to sustain and improve Barrio Adentro, especially its primary care services.

  2. La violencia como mecanismo del debate público en Venezuela durante el siglo XX

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    Inés Guardia Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente ensayo es describir los mecanismos por medio de los cuales la violencia política se presenta como uno de los elementos fundamentales del debate público en dos coyunturas históricas en Venezuela: en la Revolución de Octubre y en la Revolución Bolivariana. El trabajo se desarrolla en torno a dos ideas: primero se abordará el problema de la violencia y el miedo desde una perspectiva teórica, luego se describirá cada una de estas coyunturas históricas; finalmente se revisa comparativamente este fenómeno que se repite a lo largo del tiempo en Venezuela.

  3. SIMULACIÓN DE UN MODELO DE EQUILIBRIO GENERAL COMPUTABLE PARA VENEZUELA

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    Luis Enrique Pedauga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de la simulación de un modelo de equilibrio general computable construido para Venezuela. El uso de este modelo se ejempli-fica mediante la calibración y simulación de una economía abierta con tres agentes institucionales (hogares, empresas y gobierno y tres sectores productivos (petró-leo, manufactura y resto, para una economía abierta. Se considera diferentes re-glas de política. En cada caso se muestra el proceso de calibración y los resultados de las simulaciones utilizando información proveniente de la serie de matrices de contabilidad social para Venezuela entre 1997 y 2005. Se aporta simulaciones de la economía hasta 2009, tanto en los parámetros pertinentes y como algunos ejerci-cios de sensibilidad

  4. ANÁLISIS DEL COMERCIO DE GAS ENTRE COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

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    SEBASTIÁN OSORIO RUIZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las oportunidades de intercambio de gas natural de Colombia con otros mercados regionales. Para dicho análisis, se propone un modelo del mercado de gas natural en Colombia, el cual incluye la oferta, la demanda, y las restricciones de transporte, así como las importaciones y exportaciones. El modelo se basa en la representación del comportamiento de los productores y su efecto en el mercado. Ya en este mercado la oferta es un oligopolio y el modelo es un modelo de equilibrio espacial con competencia a la Cournot. Los fl ujos resultantes del modelo indican que el impacto inicial de las exportaciones a Venezuela sobre el mercado Colombiano es bajo, y que las importaciones desde Venezuela mejoran la seguridad del suministro de gas al mercado y aumentan la competencia entre los productores.

  5. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. [Morphological abnormalities in the cibarium of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) caught in Trujillo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-de Daboín, Yolanda; Oviedo-Araújo, Milagros; González-Pérez, Adalberto; Suárez-Hernández, Jorge; Sandoval, Claudia M; Cazorla, Dalmiro

    2015-01-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is a recognized vector of Leishmania infantum in Colombia and Venezuela. To describe and illustrate the morphological abnormalities in Lu. evansi females captured in a rural focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Trujillo, Venezuela. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, Shannon traps and aspiration in resting places. The identification was performed according to Young & Duncan (1994) and drawings were made using a microscope with camara lucida . Abnormalities in the cibarium of Lu. evansi were detected in 4 (0.12%) females of the 3,477 adults that were studied. Lutzomyia evansi can have uncommon morphological variants associated with an increase in the number of teeth in the cibarium and their arrangement, which may lead to errors in the taxonomic identification of anomalous specimens. The study of such deformities can serve to avoid taxonomic identification errors.

  7. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE SUB-NATIONAL DECENTRALIZATION OF THE HEALTH IN VENEZUELA INFANTILE MATERNAL PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Ávila Urdaneta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The work approaches the evaluation of the decentralization of the health at sub-national level in Venezuela, maternal program Infantile (PROMIN, period 1998-2004: Case of study, Estado Zulia. With the samples of ten Municipalities and Coordinators of Health (CH. Of the results and conclusions, it is appraised that in Venezuela with the Model of Integral Attention with respect to the PROMIN (1998-2004, the reason of Maternal Mortality RMM average for the country ascends to 60 by 100,000 NVR (OPS, 2003, whereas in Zulia was in 79,9; they emphasize the Municipalities: Cañada de Urdaneta with but the high one of 214.13, followed of Mara 149.44 by 100,000 NVR. Key words: Sub-national decentralization of the Health, Infantile Maternal Program, Indicating of Morbidity and Mortality, Coordination of the Municipal Health.

  9. The hope of the universe: Bolivarianism in the era of Gran Venezuela (1974-1983

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    Tomás Straka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews Venezuelan Bolivarianism and its relationship with the political discourses and projects during what has been called “Gran Venezuela” (Great Venezuela, 1974- 1983. During this period, Venezuela enjoyed a combination of two decades of democratic stability and high oil prices, becoming an exceptionally prosperous, free and peaceful country in Latin-America. In this context, democratic governments used political Bolivarian historicism in order to legitimize their apparent success as proof that they were complying with the vision set out by Simón Bolívar, traditionally associated with conservative thought and dictatorship. It also used Bolivarianism to project its status as an emerging power in the Third World.

  10. Lutzomyia Lewisi, a new Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae from Cojedes State, Venezuela

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    M. Dora Feliciangeli

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available The female of a new species, Lutzomyia lewisi is described. Reasons are stated on which the classification proposed by Lewis et al. (1977 is adopted for sandflies recorded in Venezuela. The current controversy over the generic names of phlebotomine sandflies are also discussed.A fêmea da uma nova espécie, Lutzomyia lewisi é descrita. A argumentação pela qual se adota a classificação de Lewis et al. (1977 para os flebótomos da venezuela é apresentada, assim como se discute a controvérsia atual sobre a nomenclatura genérica dos flebótomos.

  11. Venezuela: confrontación social y polarización política

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    Leonardo Bracamonte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Medófilo Medina y Margarita López Maya. Venezuela: Confrontación social y polarización política. Bogotá: Ediciones Aurora, 2003. La intensidad del debate público y del enfrentamiento político al que asiste el país desde 1998, ha logrado penetrar los espacios ociales más diversos, incluso aquellos en los que se creía que estaban vedados asuntos tan terrenales como los políticos, tenidos hasta la víspera como banales y de poca monta. Tal es uno de los saldos más trascendentales del proceso de transformación en curso hoy en Venezuela. Esto último es tan innegable, que constituye una verdad compartida por los dos bandos en que fatalmente está dividido el país

  12. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Ryan M. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Sachs, Daniel [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Petkiewicz, Shayne J. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Barajas, Jesus F. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Blake-Hedges, Jacquelyn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Thompson, Mitchell G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant & Microbial Biology; Reider Apel, Amanda [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Rasor, Blake J. [Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio (United States). Dept. of Biology; Katz, Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Department of Bioengineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kogle Alle (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability

    2016-09-07

    Streptomyces have a rich history as producers of important natural products and this genus of bacteria has recently garnered attention for its potential applications in the broader context of synthetic biology. However, the dearth of genetic tools available to control and monitor protein production precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor protein production in this host. These tools were applied to characterize heterologous promoters and various attB chromosomal integration sites. A final study leveraged the characterized toolset to demonstrate its use in producing the biofuel precursor bisabolene using a chromosomally integrated expression system. In conclusion, these tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  13. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini with description of fourteen new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: B. aragua sp. n., B. asymmetricus sp. n., B. capanaparo sp. n., B. castaneus sp. n., B. corozo sp. n., B. ebeninus sp. n., B. garciai sp. n., B. humeralis sp. n., B. jolyi sp. n., B. llanensis sp. n., B. megaphallus sp. n., B. ornaticollis sp. n., B. repertus sp. n., and B. tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: B. ambogynus Mouchamps, B. consobrinus Knisch, B. elegans Knisch, B. geayi d’Orchymont, B. ghanicus d’Orchymont, B. guyanensis Queney, B. holdhausi Knisch, B. marquardti Knisch, B. olivae Queney, B. reticulatus Knisch, B. wintersteineri Knisch, and B. zimmermanni Knisch.

  14. Perú y Venezuela: desempeño económico e instituciones

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    Alberto Martínez C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1989 Venezuela implementó un programa de reformas para fortalecer el papel del mercado en la asignación de los recursos y disminuir la intervención del Estado y un año después Perú hizo otro tanto. Sin embargo, Perú creció a una tasa de 6,3 por ciento en las siguientes dos décadas, mientras que Venezuela lo hizo al 3,1 por ciento. El objetivo de este trabajo es indagar, mediante una investigación documental, las causas que explican ese resultado. La principal conclusión es que el marco institucional es un elemento fundamental para explicar el desempeño económico de estos dos países

  15. Algunas Características de los Cacaos Criollos de Venezuela

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    Ciferri R.

    1949-03-01

    Full Text Available Se indican algunas características morfológicas y biométricas de los cacaos "Criollo de cáscara morada" y "Criollo de cáscara decolorada", observadas en un cacaotal de Venezuela y las cuales se comparan con las de algunos de sus cruces, así más afines, como más alejados, que en conjunto forman el Forastero Venezolano. Se llama la atención sobre unos tipos de cacao muy valiosos, derivados de los cruzamientos entre estos dos tipos de Criollo, mencionados. Se indica, además, la distribución de dichos Criollos en Venezuela.

  16. Occupational medicine in a developing society: a case study of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L; Goldsmith, D F

    1980-01-01

    Recent activities of the World Health Organization and other international agencies have placed new emphasis on occupational health in developing nations. Venezuela is a nation in transition from a developing society dominated economically by petroleum and agriculture to an economically-diversified industrialized urban society. It provides a case study which illuminates the problems of extending occupational health services in developing economies and questions of public policy regarding utilization of medical resources and the priority that occupational health should hold in such a society. Occupational health has become a serious problem in the developing world as new industries and accelerating ecnomic development occur without adequate resources for worker protection. The study of cases such as that of Venezuela may provide guidance for anticipating and preventing problems in other nations. This paper should be considered a pilot study to explore a social aspect of occupational health that has not received adequate attention.

  17. Do heavy-handed tactics reduce homicides? The case of Venezuela

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    Andrés Antillano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effectiveness of mano dura (heavy-handed policies in reducing homicides by studying the case of Venezuela in the period 2012-2015 and gives particular attention to policies involving police violence. Although firm hand policies involve a set of strategies and discourses that revolve around the crime and the institutional response to it, this paper exclusively addresses police interventions that involve increased coercion and violence as a formula for tackling criminality. Over these years, policies have been tested out in Venezuela that involve greater police violence on the pretext of defeating the high levels of criminal violence. But rather than the expected effects of reducing violence and homicides, both have grown significantly.

  18. Los efectos de las elecciones de 1993 y 1995 sobre el sistema de partidos en Venezuela

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    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La autora analiza los cambios ocurridos en las dos últimas convocatorias electorales en Venezuela. Sus observaciones muestran cómo un sistema de partidos tradicionalmente fuerte, bipartidista, se recompone a partir de la crisis política derivada de la dificultades económicas que vive este país. Emergencia de nuevas fuerzas, altas tasas de volatilidad y de desidentificación política son algunos de los nuevos procesos que aparecen en la vida política venezolana.ABSTRACT: The author analyzes the changes which have happened in the last two elections in Venezuela. Her observations show how a strong traditionally party system, bipartidist, it's recomponed from the political crisis provoked by economic problems in the country. The emergency of new political forces, high rates of volatility and political desafection are some of the new processes which appeared in the Venezuelan political life.

  19. Discurso y comunicación en Venezuela: del determinismo al nacionalismo tecnológico

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    Jesús Alberto Andrade Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el desarrollo de las tecnologías de información en Venezuela y cómo el elemento discursivo legitima su uso; para ello, se identifican tres tipos de discursos (determinismo tecnológico, democracia tecnológica y nacionalismo tecnológico. Se parte del supuesto de que la hegemonía es un proceso ideológico en constante búsqueda de poder, que usa el discurso para su legitimación. Se analiza cómo en Venezuela, junto con las políticas estatales que buscan la construcción de un modelo comunicacional basado en tecnologías de información, el discurso técnico "permea" los ambientes donde las tic puedan legitimar su existencia, con el fin de establecer una hegemonía ideológica en la sociedad.

  20. KPC and VIM producing Enterobacter cloacae strain from a hospital in northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Marcano, Daniel; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Salgado, Nurys; Cuaical, Nirvia; Rodriguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; De Donato, Marcos

    2015-06-01

    An 83-year-old male patient is admitted to the central hospital in Cumana, Venezuela with severe urinary infection, history of hospitalizaions and prolonged antimicrobial treatments. A strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated showing resistance to multiple types of antibiotics (only sensitive to gentamicin), with phenotype of serine- and metallo-carbapenemases. Both, bla(VIM-2) and bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolate. This is the first report of an Enterobacteriaceae species producing both KPC carbapenemase and VIM metallo carbapenemase in Venezuela. This finding has a great clinical and epidemiological impact in the region, because of the feasibility of transferring these genes, through mobile elements to other strains of Enterobacter and to other infection-causing species of bacteria.

  1. Distribuidor de tránsito «La Araña» (Venezuela

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available The location of Caracas city, the road system that converges on it, and the rapid growth of the town in a particular direction due to the special topography of the neighborhood, have led to very considerable traffic difficulties. To guide this traffic correctly it has been necessary to build a traffic distributor; called «the spider», at which traffic crosses at four different levels. Obviously, serious technical problems have had to be faced to overcome the low strength of the soil, and its difficult contours. Owing to the large size and extension of the project, the precasting of many special units has been a most important factor. The girders and structural columns are of prestressed concrete, and the foundations, which rest on a variety of piles, are of reinforced concrete. The project has been financed by the Ministry of Public Works, and is now in an advanced state of completion, but the final stage is yet to be done. The total budget for this project is about 600 m. pesetas. The present article describes the total work and gives some brief details on the methods of calculation and execution that were adopted.La situación de Caracas y el sistema vial que concurre en su casco urbano, junto con la expansión de la ciudad en una dirección determinada, provocada por condiciones topográficas locales, han creado un problema de encauzamiento del tránsito que culmina en la necesidad de construir un distribuidor de tráfico, denominado «La Araña», en el que se cruzan las calzadas a cuatro niveles distintos. Como es lógico, se han tenido que afrontar serios problemas técnicos para vencer accidentes locales y terrenos de apoyo de pobre capacidad de sustentación. Dado el gran volumen, variedad y dispersión de obras, la prefabricación de elementos básicos ha sido imperiosa. Las vigas y entramados estructurales son de hormigón pretensado, y los cimientos, con bases apoyadas sobre pilotes de distintos tipos, de hormigón armado ordinario

  2. A protocol to determine the situation of nuclear medicine in Venezuela, 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizales, L.; Leandro, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results and the methodology followed for the implementation of a Protocol that included Radiological Protection and Quality Control at SPECT Systems in two important public hospitals at Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. We found in these inspections that the main problems were the lack of medical physicist capacity in nuclear medicine that implemented programs of quality assurance as well as radiation protection in these departments. (author)

  3. A new species of Piaroa (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) from Venezuela, with taxonomic notes on the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Osvaldo Villarreal; De Armas, Luis F; García, Luis Fernando

    2014-02-19

    A new species belonging to the schizomid genus Piaroa Villarreal, Giupponi and Tourinho, 2008 is described from north-western Venezuela. A complementary description of Piaroa guipongai Villarreal and Garcia, 2012 is provided including SEM pictures of relevant structures of both sexes. A key for males of Piaroa and Colombiazomus Armas and Delgado-Santa, 2012 is included. The presence of Dm3 setae on Hubbardiidae is discussed.

  4. The Institutional Vision of the Geopolitics of Water Resources in Venezuela (State, Nation and Government)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Javier Lizcano Chapeta

    2017-01-01

    In the global, regional and local context, water resources are a strategic element from the geopolitical point of view, given the scarcity of water and the management that must be given to this problem from States, governments and nations. In this sense, the purpose is to analyze the strategic importance that has been given to water resources in Venezuela, taking into account the vision of the State, government and nation. A documentary design is used, of descriptive type, and as a data colle...

  5. New record and new species of Cerambycinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ubirajara R.; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    2010-01-01

    Novas espécies descritas de Trinidad and Tobago: Plocaederus dozieri sp. nov. (Cerambycini, Cerambycina), Anelaphus trinidadensis sp. nov. (Elaphidionini), Piezocera rufula sp. nov. (Piezocerini), Assycuera marcelae sp. nov. and Ceralocyna venusta sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Ancylocerina). Neocompsa pallida sp. nov. (Ibidionin) é descrita de Trinidad and Tobago e da Venezuela. Ommata (O.) gallardi Peñaherrera & Tavakilian, 2004 (Rhinotragini), descrita originalmente da Guiana Francesa, é registra...

  6. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Díaz-Ramos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas, los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 especies tecadas y los cocolitóforidos (24 especies a los cuales se les realizado una diagnosis formal e ilustraciones (dibujos y/o fotografias y que han sido reportados en la literatura científica (revistas y/o tesis de licenciatura o maestría. Esta ordenado según la clase, orden, familia y especie. Además, en el se cita al autor (es de cada taxón.ha.The marine phytoplankton of Venezuela has been studied on a regular basis since the mid 20th century. However, a species checklist that can be used as a framework for taxonomic studies is lacking. In this paper, an index of the marine microflora of Venezuela is presented for the first time. The index includes only those diatoms (89 centric and 186 pennate species, dinoflagellates (eight naked and 154 thecate species and coccolithophores (24 especies for which formal diagnosis and illustrations (drawings and/or photographs have been reported in the scientific literature (journals and/or first degree or master's theses. It is ordered alphabetically according to class, order, family, and species. It includes the author (s of the taxa.

  7. A protocol to determine the situation of nuclear medicine in Venezuela, 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, L; Leandro, G [Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Unidad de Tecnologia Nuclear, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary results and the methodology followed for the implementation of a Protocol that included Radiological Protection and Quality Control at SPECT Systems in two important public hospitals at Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. We found in these inspections that the main problems were the lack of medical physicist capacity in nuclear medicine that implemented programs of quality assurance as well as radiation protection in these departments. (author)

  8. [Seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in Canis familiaris, state of Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Concepción, Juan Luis; Carzola, Valentina; Rodríguez, Jéssicca; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans has been extensively studied in Venezuela; however, in reservoirs it has been less investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the seroepidemiology of T. cruzi in the state of Sucre, Venezuela. A cross-sectional and prospective study conducted in 95 towns and 577 dwellings in the 15 municipalies of the state of Sucre, Venezuela, from August to November, 2008. The evaluation of serum samples was performed with the CruziELISA kit and the multiple antigens binding assays (MABA). Furthermore, epidemiological surveys were applied to evaluate the risk factors. A total of dogs (average age of 2, 6 + 2.2 years, 226 males and 137 females) was evaluated. The combination of the ELISA / MABA tests detected 78 positive sera, sixty-nine negative and 10 of inconclusive results. The seroprevalence of the T. cruzi infection in dogs in the state of Sucre, was 22.1% (CI 95%: 20.58-22.4%). No significant statistic association was found between the T. cruzi infection in dogs and the evaluated epidemiological variables: hunting dogs that slept oudoors roaming freely in the populated center, sex of the animal and eating habits. The T. cruzi infection was associated to the age of canines, being significantly higher in the group of 0 to 3 years, when compared with older dogs. The high T. cruzi seroprevalence dected in dogs shows that in this región of Venezuela there prevails an important risk factor of transmissibility of this parasite to human populations.

  9. Venezuela 1999–2014: Macro-Policy, Oil Governance and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Vera

    2015-01-01

    During the administration of President Chavez, Venezuela registered some celebrated and encouraging socio-economic achievements, however; in the macroeconomic realm the country underperformed compared with other countries in Latin America of a similar size. The country, for instance, did not manage to avoid recurrent external crisis, suffered from unprecedented net transfers of financial resources abroad and, despite the oil windfall, has not accumulated a strong level of defensive internatio...

  10. A stable demand for money despite financial crisis: The case of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for broad money in Venezuela, over a period of financial crisis and substantial exchange rate fluctuations. The analysis shows that there exist a long run relationship between real money, real income, inflation, the exchange rate and the domestic interest rate, that remains stable over major policy changes and large shocks. The long run properties emphasize that both inflation and exchange rate depreciations have negative effects on real money demand. The lo...

  11. Hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela: Reproduction in Pelibuey and West African Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, J.; Lopez Barbella, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    The literature review is largely limited to recent research conducted on hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela. Whereas reproduction is the general topic reviewed, much of the research quoted deals with the influence of nutrition, management, climate and disease on various indices of reproduction in the ewe and ram. Areas where information is minimal are also identified, as are research topics which need to be addressed. (author). 90 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Del Puntofijisimo a la Quinta Republica: elecciones y democracia en Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kornblith.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that political stability in Venezuela depends upon the relationship between collective political preferences and the decisions made by elected officials. The author analyzes electoral patterns in the country between 1989 and 2000, in order to evaluate the effects of the Punto Fijo Pact, created in 1958, the reasons for President Hugo Chávez’s political strengthening, and his efforts to “recreate the republic”.

  13. The political role of national oil companies in the large exporting countries : the Venezuela case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommer, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper starts by defining the role of mining companies vis-a vis the landlords in a modern economy. Then it examines the role international oil companies played in exporting countries. Finally the role of national oil companies is analyzed following the same scheme : what is their contribution to the development of a new landlord-tenant relationship, nationally and internationally ? ''Petroleos de Venezuela'' is taken as an example. (Author). 27 refs

  14. Losing Influence: Regional Effects of U.S. Foreign Policy with Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    the Americas ICE Immigrations and Customs Enforcement ICSID International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes MAS Movement for...American states. As of 2012, countries such as Brazil, Venezuela, and Chile all export more goods to China than they do to the United States.7 In the...Iraq in 2003, it approached the UN Security Council seeking an approved UN resolution for military action. Latin America’s representatives, Chile

  15. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month--86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second--higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial appearance in 2009. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was the most common influenza

  16. effect of remediation on growth parameter of soybean (glycine max)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir VIn

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 7(2), pp. 61-67 ... 1979- 1997, the Nigeria petroleum industries spilled 5334 barrels of oil into ..... Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, Caracas, Venezuela, 7-10,. June 1998.

  17. [Control, elimination and eradication of viral immuno preventable diseases in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida; Maldonado, Mery

    2005-09-01

    Vaccination has demonstrated the capacity for the drastic decrease of the prevalence and incidence of several diseases of viral etiology and it has allowed their eradication. Among these human immuno preventable diseases are included poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, chicken pox, rubella, hepatitis A and B, influenza A and yellow fever. In residents, travelers to endemic areas and personal at risk, the vaccines to Japanese and equine encephalitis, rabies and adenovirus can be applied. Venezuela has not escaped from the positive impact in the epidemiology of these illnesses as a consequence of the organization and implementation of big national vaccination campaigns; however, and in spite of these efforts, important outbreaks of measles, yellow fever, chicken pox and hepatitis have occurred in the last few years. The tools to eliminate the majority of these viral diseases exist in Venezuela as well as in other countries, and are readily available, effective and relatively not expensive, but require on the whole of an effort of authorities and communities. The implementation of these strategies should have the support of the World Health Organization and the Panamerican Health Organization. This is a priority for the next few years if our aim is the eradication of these illnesses from Venezuela, the continent and the world.

  18. Molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus in patients with acute hepatitis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristina Gutiérrez; Sánchez, Doneyla; Villalba, Maria Caridad Montalvo; Pujol, Flor Helene; de Los Ángeles Rodríguez Lay, Licel; Pinto, Belquis; Chacón, Elsa Patricia; Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a common infection in developing countries. HEV infection occurs as outbreaks, as sporadic clinical cases and as large epidemics in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HEV infection in patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, referred to the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in Venezuela. Seventy-four sera were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgM antibodies. HEV-RNA was amplified from anti-HEV IgM positive sera using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for ORF1 (RNA dependent RNA polymerase region) and the amplicons sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The frequency of anti-HEV IgM was 22/74 (30%) in the samples tested. Dual infection with HAV and HEV was found in 31% (12/39) of anti-HAV IgM positive patients. Viremia was detected in 3/22 (14%) of sera positive for anti-HEV IgM. Two HEV strains were classified as genotype 1 and one as genotype 3, which were closely related to Yam 67 (north of India) and US1 isolates from the USA, respectively. These findings suggest that HEV is an important cause of acute viral hepatitis in Venezuela as a single infection or co-infection with HAV, with high morbidity in children and young adults suggesting that this infection is endemic in Venezuela. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Fonsecaea pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Rojas, O; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Moreno-Treviño, María G; González, Gloria M

    2015-05-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused frequently by fungi of the Fonsecaea genus. The objective of this study was the phenotypic and molecular identification of F. pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela. Ten strains were included in this study. For phenotypic identification, we used macroscopic and microscopic morphologies, carbohydrate assimilation test, urea hydrolysis, cixcloheximide tolerance, proteolitic activity and the thermotolerance test. The antifungal activity of five drugs was evaluated against the isolates. Molecular identification was performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions of the isolated strains. The physiological analysis and morphological features were variable and the precise identification was not possible. All isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole and posaconazole. Amphotericin B was the least effective drug. The alignment of the 559-nucleotide ITS sequences from our strains compared with sequences of GenBank revealed high homology with F. pedrosoi (EU285266.1). In this study, all patients were from rural areas, six from Mexico and four from Venezuela. Ten isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular analysis, using ITS sequence and demonstrated that nine isolates from Mexico and Venezuela were 100% homologous and one isolate showed a small genetic distance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. A program on quality assurance and dose calibration for radiation therapy units in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, M.C. de; Carrizales, L.; Diaz, J.; Gutt, F.; Cozman, A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a five year program (1988-90-91-92-93) on quality assurance and dose calibration for 12 Cobalt-60 units from public hospitals, which represents 30% of total radiation therapy units in Venezuela, are presented. The remarkable improvement in the general performance of these units can be seen in the IAEA/WHO Postal TLD Intercomparison results which gave 100% within ± 5% in 1990 and 1992, while 63% in 1990 and 44% in 1992, with errors up to 37% were obtained for the participants not included in the program. The difference between the two groups lead the government to decrete through the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela, Resolution G-1397 on March 3, 1993, the quality assurance and dose calibration programs shall be established for all radiation therapy installations in Venezuela. The project for the standards was developed by the SSDL physicists and it was already approbated by the Health Ministry. It is expected that the Norms will enter into effect by the end of 1994. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs