Sample records for diamond interchanges

  1. Industrial diamond

    Olson, D.W.


    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  2. Interchangeable spline reference guide

    Dolin, R.M.


    The WX-Division Integrated Software Tools (WIST) Team evolved from two previous committees, First was the W78 Solid Modeling Pilot Project`s Spline Subcommittee, which later evolved into the Vv`X-Division Spline Committee. The mission of the WIST team is to investigate current CAE engineering processes relating to complex geometry and to develop methods for improving those processes. Specifically, the WIST team is developing technology that allows the Division to use multiple spline representations. We are also updating the contour system (CONSYS) data base to take full advantage of the Division`s expanding electronic engineering process. Both of these efforts involve developing interfaces to commercial CAE systems and writing new software. The WIST team is comprised of members from V;X-11, -12 and 13. This {open_quotes}cross-functional{close_quotes} approach to software development is somewhat new in the Division so an effort is being made to formalize our processes and assure quality at each phase of development. Chapter one represents a theory manual and is one phase of the formal process. The theory manual is followed by a software requirements document, specification document, software verification and validation documents. The purpose of this guide is to present the theory underlying the interchangeable spline technology and application. Verification and validation test results are also presented for proof of principal.

  3. Interchange Reconnection Alfven Wave Generation

    Lynch, B J; Li, Y


    Given recent observational results of interchange reconnection processes in the solar corona and the theoretical development of the S-Web model for the slow solar wind, we present further analysis of the 3D MHD simulation of interchange reconnection by Edmondson et al. (Astrophys. J. 707, 1427, 2009). Specifically, we analyze the consequences of the dynamic streamer belt jump that corresponds to flux opening by interchange reconnection. Information about the magnetic field restructuring by interchange reconnection is carried throughout the system by Alfven waves propagating away from the reconnection region, distributing the shear and twist imparted by the driving flows, including shedding the injected stress-energy and accumulated magnetic helicity along newly-open field lines. We quantify the properties of the reconnection-generated wave activity in the simulation. There is a localized high frequency component associated with the current sheet/reconnection site and an extended low frequency component associ...

  4. Industrial diamond

    Olson, D.W.


    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  5. Interchange.

    Reading Teacher, 1981


    Contains contributions dealing with the following: (1) teaching short vowels, diagraphs, and consonant blends; (2) affective planning in reading instruction; (3) phonics; (4) integrating reading and science instruction; (5) vocabulary; (6) story structure in children's book choices; (7) preventing summer reading loss; and (8) writing assignments…

  6. Interchange.

    Reading Teacher, 1980


    Offers suggestions from six contributors regarding a variety of classroom activities, including the use of high interest-low vocabulary books with gifted and average readers, an exercise in sequencing, a Halloween project to improve students' grammar, a technique to improve students' dictionary skills, and methods for helping students write books.…

  7. Diamond Nanophotonics

    Aharonovich, Igor


    The burgeoning field of nanophotonics has grown to be a major research area, primarily because of the ability to control and manipulate single quantum systems (emitters) and single photons on demand. For many years studying nanophotonic phenomena was limited to traditional semiconductors (including silicon and GaAs) and experiments were carried out predominantly at cryogenic temperatures. In the last decade, however, diamond has emerged as a new contender to study photonic phenomena at the nanoscale. Offering plethora of quantum emitters that are optically active at room temperature and ambient conditions, diamond has been exploited to demonstrate super-resolution microscopy and realize entanglement, Purcell enhancement and other quantum and classical nanophotonic effects. Elucidating the importance of diamond as a material, this review will highlight the recent achievements in the field of diamond nanophotonics, and convey a roadmap for future experiments and technological advancements.

  8. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    Richard, Stephen


    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML ( In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  9. VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF)

    Whitney, Alan; Kettenis, Mark; Phillips, Chris; Sekido, Mamoru


    One important outcome of the 7th International e-VLBI Workshop in Shanghai in June 2008 was the creation of a task force to study and recommend a universal VLBI data format that is suitable for both on-the-wire e-VLBI data transfer, as well as direct disk storage. This task force, called the VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) Task Force, is the first part of a two-part effort, the second of which will address standardization of e-VLBI data-transmission-protocols. The formation of the VDIF Task Force was prompted particularly by increased e-VLBI activity and the difficulties encountered when data arrive at a correlator in different formats from various instruments in various parts of the world. The task force created a streaming packetized data format that may be used for real-time and non-realtime e-VLBI, as well as direct disk storage. The data may contain multiple channels of time-sampled data with an arbitrary number of channels, arbitrary #bits/sample up to 32, and real or complex data; data rates in excess of 100 Gbps are supported. Each data packet is completely self-identifying via a short header, and data may be decoded without reference to any external information. The VDIF task force has completed its work, and the VDIF standard was ratified at the 2009 e-VLBI workshop in Madrid.

  10. Resistive interchange modes and plasma flow structures

    Paccagnella, Roberto


    Interchange modes are ubiquitous in magnetic confinement systems and are likely to determine or influence their transport properties. For example a good agreement between theory predictions for linear interchange modes and experimental results has been found recently in a Reverse Field Pinch device. In this work a set of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations that describe the dynamical evolution for the pressure driven interchange modes in a magnetic confinement system are studied. Global and local solutions relevant for tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches (RFPs) configurations are considered. The emphasis is especially in the characterization of the plasma flow structures associated with the dominant modes.

  11. Magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence

    Li, B.; Liao, X.; Sun, C. K.; Ou, W.; Liu, D.; Gui, G.; Wang, X. G.


    The magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence and transport in the Z-pinch and dipole-like systems are explored with two-fluid global simulations. By comparing the transport levels in the systems with a different magnetic curvature, we show that the interchange-mode driven transport strongly depends on the magnetic geometry. For the system with large magnetic curvature, the pressure and density profiles are strongly peaked in a marginally stable state and the nonlinear evolution of interchange modes produces the global convective cells in the azimuthal direction, which lead to the low level of turbulent convective transport.

  12. Limit Interchange and L'Hopital's Rule

    Ecker, Michael W.


    Conventional application of these two calculus staples is stretched here, somewhat recreationally, but also to raise solid questions about the role of limit interchange in analysis--without, however, delving any deeper than first-year Calculus.

  13. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)


    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  14. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.


    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  15. Focus on Nutrition. MCH Program Interchange.

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" describes selected materials and publications in maternal and child health (MCH) nutrition services and programs. The materials were developed by or are available from federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The information is intended to…

  16. Interchangeable Bearings for Profile and Weight Trade Studies Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock, Incorporated is proposing to design fully sealed shoulder and arm bearings with interchangeable bearing housings. The interchangeable housings shall be...

  17. Comparison of Pinavia Interchange Vs Interchange's All Directional and Nano of Traffic Operation and Safety with Traffic simulation

    Abolfazl samadi Heidar Abadi


    Full Text Available in this study, one of the newest types of interchange, which has recently attracted the attention of researchers and designers, i.e. Pinnavia and one of most recent interchange, i.e. the nano interchange and one of the world's most popular interchange, ie the all directional interchange are thoroughly investigated and the reasons for using it will be expressed. In this research, replacement of the Pinnavia interchange with the nano interchange, the all directional interchange with the input vehicle volume of 10000 in an hour and speeds of 70 and 90 km/sec, 2 percent of 10% and 20% heavy vehicles, two turnover ratio of 70 to 30 of left heavy, direct-equal of 50 to 50, under the number of 24 scenarios have been studied using a microscopic simulation by the AIMSUN software. Traffic operation analysis was conducted for the whole interchange. Moreover, parameters of Speed, Delay Time and, Density were compared. SSAM is an application that evaluates the traffic safety by the traffic noise and processing of vehicles routing. Interchange occurs when two road users are in collision position with no escape possibility. The safety estimation has been carried out for the whole interchange with the traffic volume of 10000 vph in highway, ramp volume of 1600 and 1000 vehicles in houre and 20% heavy vehicles which is one f the worst scenario cases. The results of this research reveal the better performance of the nano interchange in most traffic parameters such as, delay time,density and average speed. In terms of safety, the pinnavia interchange operation is better than the performance of the nano and All-directional Interchanges. Moreover, speed increment made a better traffic performance in the pinnavia interchange. In other words, operation of the the pinnavia interchange is better than the performance of the nano and All-directional Interchanges in the speed of 90 Km/h.

  18. Radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Fundamenski, W.


    Radial convection of isolated filamentary structures due to interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated. Following a basic discussion of vorticity generation, ballooning, and the role of sheaths, a two-field interchange model is studied by means of numerical simulations...... on a biperiodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that a blob-like plasma structure develops dipolar vorticity and electrostatic potential fields, resulting in rapid radial acceleration and formation of a steep front and a trailing wake. While the dynamical evolution strongly depends...... as the acoustic speed times the square root of the structure size relative to the length scale of the magnetic field. The plasma filament eventually decelerates due to mixing and collisional dissipation. Finally, the role of sheath dissipation is investigated. When included in the simulations, it significantly...

  19. Magnetic interchange instability of accretion disks

    Kaisig, M.; Tajima, T.; Lovelace, R. V. E.


    The nonlinear evolution of the magnetic interchange or buoyancy instability of a differentially rotating disk threaded by an ordered vertical magnetic field is investigated. A 2D ideal fluid in the equatorial plane of a central mass in the corotating frame of reference is considered as a model for the disk. If the rotation rate of the disk is Keplerian, the disk is found to be stable. If the vertical magnetic field is sufficiently strong, and the field strength decreases with distance from the central object, and thus the rotation of the disk deviates from Keplerian, if is found that an instability develops. The magnetic flux and disk matter expand outward in certain ranges of azimuth, while disk matter with less magnetic flux moves inward over the remaining range of azimuth, showing a characteristic development of an interchange instability.

  20. The Great American Biotic Interchange in birds

    Weir, Jason T; Bermingham, Eldredge; Schluter, Dolph


    The sudden exchange of mammals over the land bridge between the previously isolated continents of North and South America is among the most celebrated events in the faunal history of the New World. This exchange resulted in the rapid merging of continental mammalian faunas that had evolved in almost complete isolation from each other for tens of millions of years. Yet, the wider importance of land bridge-mediated interchange to faunal mixing in other groups is poorly known because of the inco...

  1. Resistive interchange instability in reversed shear tokamaks

    Furukawa, Masaru; Nakamura, Yuji; Wakatani, Masahiro [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)


    Resistive interchange modes become unstable due to the magnetic shear reversal in tokamaks. In the present paper, the parameter dependences, such as q (safety factor) profile and the magnetic surface shape are clarified for improving the stability, using the local stability criterion. It is shown that a significant reduction of the beta limit is obtained for the JT-60U reversed shear configuration with internal transport barrier, since the local pressure gradient increases. (author)

  2. Transport Bifurcation in Plasma Interchange Turbulence

    Li, Bo


    Transport bifurcation and mean shear flow generation in plasma interchange turbulence are explored with self-consistent two-fluid simulations in a flux-driven system with both closed and open field line regions. The nonlinear evolution of interchange modes shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by the low and high mean flow shear. By increasing the input heat flux above a certain threshold, large-amplitude oscillations in the turbulent and mean flow energy are induced. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise types of oscillations are found before the transition to the second regime. The fluctuation energy is decisively transferred to the mean flows by large-amplitude Reynolds power as turbulent intensity increases. Consequently, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which strong mean shear flows are generated in the plasma edge. The peak of the spectrum shifts to higher wavenumbers as the large-scale turbulent eddies are suppressed by the mean shear flow. The transition back to the first regime is then triggered by decreasing the input heat flux to a level much lower than the threshold for the forward transition, showing strong hysteresis. During the back transition, the mean flow decreases as the energy transfer process is reversed. This transport bifurcation, based on a field-line-averaged 2D model, has also been reproduced in our recent 3D simulations of resistive interchange turbulence, in which the ion and electron temperatures are separated and the parallel current is involved. Supported by the MOST of China Grant No. 2013GB112006, US DOE Contract No. DE-FC02-08ER54966, US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734.

  3. Analysis of genome rearrangement by block-interchanges.

    Lu, Chin Lung; Lin, Ying Chih; Huang, Yen Lin; Tang, Chuan Yi


    Block-interchanges are a new kind of genome rearrangements that affect the gene order in a chromosome by swapping two nonintersecting blocks of genes of any length. More recently, the study of such rearrangements is becoming increasingly important because of its applications in molecular evolution. Usually, this kind of study requires to solve a combinatorial problem, called the block-interchange distance problem, which is to find a minimum number of block-interchanges between two given gene orders of linear/circular chromosomes to transform one gene order into another. In this chapter, we shall introduce the basics of block-interchange rearrangements and permutation groups in algebra that are useful in analyses of genome rearrangements. In addition, we shall present a simple algorithm on the basis of permutation groups to efficiently solve the block-interchange distance problem, as well as ROBIN, a web server for the online analyses of block-interchange rearrangements.

  4. The Great American Biotic Interchange in birds.

    Weir, Jason T; Bermingham, Eldredge; Schluter, Dolph


    The sudden exchange of mammals over the land bridge between the previously isolated continents of North and South America is among the most celebrated events in the faunal history of the New World. This exchange resulted in the rapid merging of continental mammalian faunas that had evolved in almost complete isolation from each other for tens of millions of years. Yet, the wider importance of land bridge-mediated interchange to faunal mixing in other groups is poorly known because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. In particular, the ability of birds to fly may have rendered a land bridge unnecessary for faunal merging. Using molecular dating of the unique bird faunas of the two continents, we show that rates of interchange increased dramatically after land bridge completion in tropical forest-specializing groups, which rarely colonize oceanic islands and have poor dispersal abilities across water barriers, but not in groups comprised of habitat generalists. These results support the role of the land bridge in the merging of the tropical forest faunas of North and South America. In contrast to mammals, the direction of traffic across the land bridge in birds was primarily south to north. The event transformed the tropical avifauna of the New World.


    Florinski, V., E-mail: [Department of Space Science and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)


    The magnetic field measured by Voyager 1 prior to its heliocliff encounter on 2012.65 showed an unexpectedly complex transition from the primarily azimuthal inner-heliosheath field to the draped interstellar field tilted by some 20° to the nominal azimuthal direction. Most prominent were two regions of enhanced magnetic field strength depleted in energetic charged particles of heliospheric origin. These regions were interpreted as magnetic flux tubes connected to the outer heliosheath that provided a path for the particles to escape. Despite large increases in strength, the field’s direction did not change appreciably at the boundaries of these flux tubes. Rather, the field’s direction changed gradually over several months prior to the heliocliff crossing. It is shown theoretically that the heliopause, as a pressure equilibrium layer, can become unstable to interchange of magnetic fields between the inner and the outer heliosheaths. The curvature of magnetic field lines and the anti-sunward gradient in plasma kinetic pressure provide conditions favorable for an interchange. Magnetic shear between the heliosheath and the interstellar fields reduces the growth rates, but does not fully stabilize the heliopause against perturbations propagating in the latitudinal direction. The instability could create a transition layer permeated by magnetic flux tubes, oriented parallel to each other and alternately connected to the heliosheath or the interstellar regions.

  6. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  7. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)


    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  8. Hierarchical states in the Compositional Interchange Format

    H. Beohar


    Full Text Available CIF is a language designed for two purposes, namely as a specification language for hybrid systems and as an interchange format for allowing model transformations between other languages for hybrid systems. To facilitate the top-down development of a hybrid system and also to be able to express models more succinctly in the CIF formalism, we need a mechanism for stepwise refinement. In this paper, we add the notion of hierarchy to a subset of the CIF language, which we call hCIF. The semantic domain of the CIF formalism is a hybrid transition system, constructed using structural operational semantics. The goal of this paper is to present a semantics for hierarchy in such a way that only the SOS rules for atomic entities in hCIF are redesigned in comparison to CIF. Furthermore, to be able to reuse existing tools like simulators of the CIF language, a procedure to eliminate hierarchy from an automaton is given.

  9. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas


    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  10. Hierarchical states in the Compositional Interchange Format

    Beohar, H; van Beek, D A; Cuijpers, P J L; 10.4204/EPTCS.32.4


    CIF is a language designed for two purposes, namely as a specification language for hybrid systems and as an interchange format for allowing model transformations between other languages for hybrid systems. To facilitate the top-down development of a hybrid system and also to be able to express models more succinctly in the CIF formalism, we need a mechanism for stepwise refinement. In this paper, we add the notion of hierarchy to a subset of the CIF language, which we call hCIF. The semantic domain of the CIF formalism is a hybrid transition system, constructed using structural operational semantics. The goal of this paper is to present a semantics for hierarchy in such a way that only the SOS rules for atomic entities in hCIF are redesigned in comparison to CIF. Furthermore, to be able to reuse existing tools like simulators of the CIF language, a procedure to eliminate hierarchy from an automaton is given.

  11. Nano-inclusions in diamond: Evidence of diamond genesis

    Wirth, R.


    The use of Focused Ion Beam technology (FIB) for TEM sample preparation introduced approximately 15 years ago revolutionized the application of TEM in Geosciences. For the first time, FIB enabled cutting samples for TEM use from exactly the location we are interested in. Applied to diamond investigation, this technique revealed the presence of nanometre-sized inclusions in diamond that have been simply unknown before. Nanoinclusions in diamond from different location and origin such as diamonds from the Lower and Upper Mantle, metamorphic diamonds (Kazakhstan, Erzgebirge, Bohemia), diamonds from ophiolites (Tibet, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Ural Mountains), diamonds from igneous rocks (Hawaii, Kamchatka) and impact diamonds (Popigai Crater, Siberia) have been investigated during the last 15 years. The major conclusion of all these TEM studies is, that the nanoinclusions, their phases and phase composition together with the micro- and nanostructure evidence the origin of diamond and genesis of diamond. We can discriminate Five different mechanisms of diamond genesis in nature are observed: Diamond crystallized from a high-density fluid (Upper mantle and metamorphic diamond). Diamond crystallized from carbonatitic melt (Lower mantle diamond). Diamond precipitates from a metal alloy melt (Diamond from ophiolites). Diamond crystallized by gas phase condensation or chemical vapour condensation (CVD) (Lavas from Kamchatka, xenoliths in Hawaiian lavas). Direct transformation of graphite into diamond.

  12. Towards harmonized data interchange in food consumption data

    Pakkala, H.; Christensen, Tue; Presser, K.


    Food consumption data are collected and used in several fields of science. The data are often combined from various sources and interchanged between different systems. There is, however, no harmonized and widely used data interchange format. In addition, food consumption data are often combined...

  13. GraphXML: an XML based graph interchange format

    I. Herman (Ivan); M.S. Marshall (Scott)


    textabstractGraphXML is a graph description language in XML that can be used as an interchange format for graph drawing and visualization packages. The generality and rich features of XML make it possible to define an interchange format that not only supports the pure, mathematical description of a

  14. 76 FR 43393 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing


    ... two forms: interchange- plus pricing and blended. If an acquirer is charging an interchange- plus... pricing system should be different from the check pricing system. These commenters argued that the Board... collecting bank's service menu depending on the level of processing the collecting bank is required to do (e...

  15. Road Interchanges, Included in our street centerline file to include interchanges as a feature code for rams and interchanges, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Interchanges dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Included in our street centerline...

  16. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    Lundin, Ralph L.; Stewart, Delbert D.; Evans, Christopher J.


    Apparatus for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond.

  17. Optical engineering of diamond

    Rabeau, James R


    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  18. [Generic drugs: quality, efficacy, safety and interchangeability].

    Tschabitscher, Doris; Platzer, Peter; Baumgärtel, Christoph; Müllner, Marcus


    Since the introduction of generic drugs to the pharmaceutical market a sometimes emotional debate exists whether they are well-investigated and of high quality. There is some uncertainty about whether evidence of bioequivalence is enough to guarantee efficacy and safety of generic drugs. Some physicians ask the question if competent authorities are able to ascertain that the pharmaceutical quality of generics is acceptable. Doctors and patients sometimes are ill at ease about the interchangeability of innovator and generic products. This article describes how the European Union legislation ensures that a generic drug is only approved if its risk-benefit relationship is favourable and that it is essentially similar to the innovator product. In this context pharmacokinetic parameters are accepted as surrogates for clinical results because bioequivalence means therapeutic equivalence as well. For most drugs, current bioequivalence testing generally enables clinicians to routinely substitute generic for innovator products. Published findings, however, suggest that particular drugs may not be ideally suited for generic substitution when a patient is already on that drug. These are the so called critical dose medicinal products (drugs with a narrow therapeutic range). When starting a new therapy with any generic drug, however, its similarity to the innovator drug in terms of efficacy, safety and quality is guaranteed.

  19. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)


    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  20. Investing in Diamonds

    Renneboog, Luc


    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  1. Investing in Diamonds

    Renneboog, Luc


    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD


    Yury Gutsalenko


    Full Text Available The paper generalizes on the one hand theory of kinematic-geometrical simulation of grinding processes by means of tools with working part as binding matrix with abrasive grains located in it in random manner, for example diamond grains, and on the other hand practical performance of combined grinding process, based on introduction of additional energy as electric discharges and called by the organization-developer (Kharkov Polytechnic Institute «diamond-spark grinding» as applied to processing by means of diamond wheel. Implementation of diamond-spark grinding technologies on the basis of developed generalized theoretical approach allows to use the tool with prescribed tool-life, moreover to make the most efficient use of it up to full exhausting of tool-life, determined by diamond-bearing thickness. Development is directed forward computer-aided manufacturing.

  3. Diamond Integrated Optomechanical Circuits

    Rath, Patrik; Nebel, Christoph; Wild, Christoph; Pernice, Wolfram H P


    Diamond offers unique material advantages for the realization of micro- and nanomechanical resonators due to its high Young's modulus, compatibility with harsh environments and superior thermal properties. At the same time, the wide electronic bandgap of 5.45eV makes diamond a suitable material for integrated optics because of broadband transparency and the absence of free-carrier absorption commonly encountered in silicon photonics. Here we take advantage of both to engineer full-scale optomechanical circuits in diamond thin films. We show that polycrystalline diamond films fabricated by chemical vapour deposition provide a convenient waferscale substrate for the realization of high quality nanophotonic devices. Using free-standing nanomechanical resonators embedded in on-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometers, we demonstrate efficient optomechanical transduction via gradient optical forces. Fabricated diamond resonators reproducibly show high mechanical quality factors up to 11,200. Our low cost, wideband, carri...

  4. Ionoluminescence of diamond, synthetic diamond and simulants

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra de Colmenar km 15, Madrid 27049 (Spain); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de Mexico 04519, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de Mexico 04519, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacio en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Belmont, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de Mexico 04519, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra de Colmenar km 15, Madrid 27049 (Spain)], E-mail:


    Ionoluminescence (IL) spectra of diamond (natural samples and synthetic CVD) and its more common synthetic simulates such as sapphire, spinel, cubic zirconia, strontium titanate and yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG: Er) will be discussed here in order to support some criteria that will allow to distinguish between them. While diamond shows emission bands due to nitrogen defects, simulants feature d-transition metals and rare earths such as Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ti{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} emissions.

  5. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange


    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  6. Fabrication of diamond shells

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard


    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  7. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.


    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  8. Diamond nanobeam waveguide optomechanics

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Hryciw, Aaron C; Lake, David P; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E


    Optomechanical devices sensitively transduce and actuate motion of nanomechanical structures using light, and are central to many recent fundamental studies and technological advances. Single--crystal diamond promises to improve the performance of optomechanical devices, while also providing opportunities to interface nanomechanics with diamond color center spins and related quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate measurement of diamond nanobeam resonators with a sensitivity of 9.5 fm/Hz^0.5 and bandwidth >120 nm through dissipative waveguide--optomechanical coupling. Nanobeams are fabricated from bulk single--crystal diamond using a scalable quasi--isotropic oxygen plasma undercut etching process, and support mechanical resonances with quality factor of 2.5 x 10^5 at room temperature, and 7.2 x 10^5 in cryogenic conditions (5K). Mechanical self--oscillations, resulting from interplay between optomechanical coupling and the photothermal response of nanobeams in a buckled state, are observed with amplitude e...

  9. Quantum engineering: Diamond envy

    Nunn, Joshua


    Nitrogen atoms trapped tens of nanometres apart in diamond can now be linked by quantum entanglement. This ability to produce and control entanglement in solid systems could enable powerful quantum computers.

  10. Diamond dipole active antenna

    Bubnov, Igor N.; Falkovych, I. S.; Gridin, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Reznik, A. P.


    Advantages of the diamond dipole antenna as an active antenna are presented. Such an antenna is like an inverted bow-tie antenna, but the former has some advantages over the ordinary bow-tie antenna. It is shown that the diamond dipole antenna may be an effective element of a new antenna array for low-frequency radio astronomy as well as a communication antenna.

  11. Cryotribology of diamond and graphite

    Iwasa, Yukikazu; Ashaboglu, A.F.; Rabinowicz, E.R. [Francis Bitter Magnet Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    An experimental study was carried out on the tribological behavior of materials of interest in cryogenic applications, focusing on diamond and graphite. Both natural diamond (referred in the text as diamond) and chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) diamond (CVD-diamond) were used. The experiment was carried out using a pin-on-disk tribometer capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures, from 4.2 to 293 K. Two basic scenarios of testing were used: (1) frictional coefficient ({mu}) vs velocity (v) characteristics at constant temperatures; (2) {mu} vs temperature (T) behavior at fixed sliding speeds. For diamond/CVD-diamond, graphite/CVD-diamond, stainless steel/CVD-diamond pairs, {mu}`s are virtually velocity independent. For each of diamond/graphite, alumina/graphite, and graphite/graphite pairs, the {partial_derivative}{mu}/{partial_derivative}v characteristic is favorable, i.e., positive. For diamond/CVD-diamond and graphite/CVD-diamond pairs, {mu}`s are nearly temperature independent between in the range 77 - 293 K. Each {mu} vs T plot for pin materials sliding on graphite disks has a peak at a temperature in the range 100 - 200 K.

  12. Interchanges Safety: Forecast Model Based on ISAT Algorithm

    Sascia Canale


    Full Text Available The ISAT algorithm (Interchange Safety Analysis Tool, developed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA, provides design and safety engineers with an automated tool for assessing the safety effects of geometric design and traffic control features at an existing interchange and adjacent roadway network. Concerning the default calibration coefficients and crash distributions by severity and type, the user should modify these default values to more accurately reflect the safety experience of their local/State agency prior to using ISAT to perform actual safety assessments. This paper will present the calibration process of the FHWA algorithm to the local situation of Oriental Sicily. The aim is to realize an instrument for accident forecast analyses, useful to Highway Managers, in order to individuate those infrastructural elements that can contribute to improve the safety level of interchange areas, if suitably calibrated.

  13. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert


    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  14. Diamond electronic properties and applications

    Kania, Don R


    The use of diamond in electronic applications is not a new idea, but limitations in size and control of properties restricted the use of diamond to a few specialised applications. The vapour-phase synthesis of diamond, however, has facilitated serious interest in the development of diamond-based electronic devices. The process allows diamond films to be laid down over large areas. Both intrinsic and doped diamond films have a unique combination of extreme properties for high speed, high power and high temperature applications. The eleven chapters in Diamond: Electronic Properties and Applications, written by the world's foremost experts on the subject, give a complete characterisation of the material, in both intrinsic and doped forms, explain how to grow it for electronic applications, how to use the grown material, and a description of both passive and active devices in which it has been used with success. Diamond: Electronic Properties and Applications is a compendium of the available literature on the sub...

  15. Diamond pixel modules

    Gan, K K; Robichaud, A; Potenza, R; Kuleshov, S; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Wermes, N; Dulinski, W; Eremin, V; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Olivero, P; Gorisek, A; Chren, D; Kramberger, G; Schnetzer, S; Weilhammer, P; Martemyanov, A; Hugging, F; Pernegger, H; Lagomarsino, S; Manfredotti, C; Mishina, M; Trischuk, W; Dobos, D; Cindro, V; Belyaev, V; Duris, J; Claus, G; Wallny, R; Furgeri, A; Tuve, C; Goldstein, J; Sciortino, S; Sutera, C; Asner, D; Mikuz, M; Lo Giudice, A; Velthuis, J; Hits, D; Griesmayer, E; Oakham, G; Frais-Kolbl, H; Bellini, V; D'Alessandro, R; Cristinziani, M; Barbero, M; Schaffner, D; Costa, S; Goffe, M; La Rosa, A; Bruzzi, M; Schreiner, T; de Boer, W; Parrini, G; Roe, S; Randrianarivony, K; Dolenc, I; Moss, J; Brom, J M; Golubev, A; Mathes, M; Eusebi, R; Grigoriev, E; Tsung, J W; Mueller, S; Mandic, I; Stone, R; Menichelli, D


    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10(16) protons/cm(2) illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel m...

  16. Heteroepitaxial diamond growth

    Markunas, R. J.; Rudder, R. A.; Posthill, J. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Hudson, G.


    Technical highlights from 1993 include the following: Growth Chemistries: A clear correlation was observed between ionization potential of feedstock gasses and critical power necessary for inductive coupling of the plasma and consequent diamond growth. Substrate preparation and epitaxial film quality: Ion-implantation of C and O has been coupled with either electrochemical etching or acid cleaning for surface preparation prior to homoepitaxial growth. Reactor modifications: Key improvements were made to the RF reactor to allow for long growths to consolidate substrates. Liquid mass flow controllers were added to precisely meter both the water and selected alcohol. Ion-implantation and lift off: Lift off of diamond platelets has been achieved with two processes. Ion-implantation of either C or O followed by annealing and implantation of either C or O followed by water based electrolysis. Diamond characterization: Development of novel detect characterization techniques: (1) Etch delineation of defects by exposure to propane torch flame. (2) Hydrogen plasma exposure to enhance secondary electron emission and provide non-topographical defect contrast. Acetylene will react at room temperature with sites created by partial desorption of oxygen from the (100) diamond surface. Thermal desorption measurements give an apparent activation energy for CO desorption from diamond (100) of 45 kcal/mol. Quantum chemical calculations indicate an activation energy of 38 kcal/mol for CO desorption. Ab initio calculations on (100) surfaces indicates that oxygen adsorbed at one dimer site has an effect on the dimerization of an adjacent site.

  17. The Relationship between Interchangeability Standards and Precision Design in Teaching a Course on Interchangeability and Measurement Techniques

    Ren Xiu


    This article discusses some views on the relationship between carrying out and applying standards and precision design and the teaching of a course on interchangeability and measurement techniques. It points out that while emphasizing precision design, we should not underrate the significance of interchangeability and standardization. Although there are presently many teaching models available for such courses, each course should be designed separately to preserve its systematic character and integrality. As well, the development of students' abilities in precision design and the application of standards should be strengthened in experimental lessons within each course.

  18. Diamond Measuring Machine

    Krstulic, J.F.


    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for


    Kozlov Pavel Igorevich


    Full Text Available The article discusses a quality assessment method for transport decisions made in transport interchange hubs. Analysis of domestic regulatory documentation and international experience on this subject is performed. It is stated that the domestic regulatory documentation lacks such method of assessment. Special attention is paid to study of pedestrian flows in interchange complexes of intermodal transport interchange hubs. The aim of the study is development of the Level of Service comprehensive assessment criterion by analogy with the international practice. The authors propose to use the queueing theory with elements of the theory of graphs, techniques and regularities that underlie the Level of Service (service factor applied in planning and location of TIH in the USA as well as data from field surveys carried out by the pedestrian flows video detection method. During the field surveys it is planned to perform analysis of external and internal factors influencing the formation and composition of a pedestrian flow, to determine quantitative values of the main parameters of pedestrian flow (density, speed, intensity and regularities of their variation depending on the design features of pedestrian traffic environment. Determination of passenger service quality factors in TIH will help to develop an integral criterion based on the Level of Service, taking into account the specifics of TIH functioning in Russia as well as a methodology that allows a reasonable choice of combinations of structural elements and planning parameters of pedestrian traffic objects which will let to reduce construction costs and operating costs for location of interchange complexes.

  20. 2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.


    In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces...

  1. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for Libraries and Publishers.

    Santosuosso, Joe


    Defines electronic data interchange (EDI) as the exchange of data between computer systems without human intervention or interpretation. Standards are discussed; and the implementation of EDI in libraries and the serials publishing community in the areas of orders and acquisitions, claims, and invoice processing is described. (LRW)

  2. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.


    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  3. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land


    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  4. Mechanically induced degradation of diamond

    Bouwelen, F V


    bombardment a mechanically induced graphitisation, as opposed to a thermally activated transformation, may occur locally on collision with the CVD diamond. Two types of diamond-graphite interfaces were observed: (111) planes of diamond parallel to the a-b planes of graphite and (111) planes of diamond, smoothly within the plane, connected to a-b planes of graphite. The thesis concludes with a summary of the results, conclusions and recommendations for further work. This thesis deals with the wear of diamond occurring during frictional sliding contact between diamonds. In the introduction, a literature survey on friction, wear and polishing behaviour of diamond, with some emphasis on the anisotropy, is presented and earlier work is discussed. A review of the existing theories is given, a new hypothesis is proposed and key-experiments for verification are identified. Electron microscopical techniques such as High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) imaging and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy are described a...

  5. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)


    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  6. Biofunctionalization of diamond microelectrodes

    Reitinger, Andreas Adam; Lud, Simon Quartus; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Hutter, Naima Aurelia; Richter, Gerhard; Jordan, Rainer [WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, TU Muenchen (Germany)


    In this work we present two main routes for the biofunctionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films, aiming at the application of diamond microelectrodes as amperometric biosensors. We report on direct covalent grafting of biomolecules on nanocrystalline diamond films via diazonium monophenyls and biphenyls as well as other linker molecules, forming self-assembled monolayers on the diamond surface. Monolayers with different functional head groups have been characterized. Patterning of the available functional groups using electron beam-induced chemical lithography allows the selective preparation of well-localized docking sites for the immobilization of biomolecules. Furthermore, polymer brushes are expected to enable novel paths for designing more advanced biosensing schemes, incorporating multifunctional groups and a higher loading capacity for biomolecules. Here, we focus on the preparation of polymer grafts by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization. Further chemical modification of the grafted polymer brushes results in the introduction of additional functional molecules, paving the way for the incorporation of more complex molecular structures such as proteins. In a comparative study we investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.

  7. Diamond growth in mantle fluids

    Bureau, Hélène; Frost, Daniel J.; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Leroy, Clémence; Esteve, Imène; Cordier, Patrick


    In the upper mantle, diamonds can potentially grow from various forms of media (solid, gas, fluid) with a range of compositions (e.g. graphite, C-O-H fluids, silicate or carbonate melts). Inclusions trapped in diamonds are one of the few diagnostic tools that can constrain diamond growth conditions in the Earth's mantle. In this study, inclusion-bearing diamonds have been synthesized to understand the growth conditions of natural diamonds in the upper mantle. Diamonds containing syngenetic inclusions were synthesized in multi-anvil presses employing starting mixtures of carbonates, and silicate compositions in the presence of pure water and saline fluids (H2O-NaCl). Experiments were performed at conditions compatible with the Earth's geotherm (7 GPa, 1300-1400 °C). Results show that within the timescale of the experiments (6 to 30 h) diamond growth occurs if water and carbonates are present in the fluid phase. Water promotes faster diamond growth (up to 14 mm/year at 1400 °C, 7 GPa, 10 g/l NaCl), which is favorable to the inclusion trapping process. At 7 GPa, temperature and fluid composition are the main factors controlling diamond growth. In these experiments, diamonds grew in the presence of two fluids: an aqueous fluid and a hydrous silicate melt. The carbon source for diamond growth must be carbonate (CO32) dissolved in the melt or carbon dioxide species in the aqueous fluid (CO2aq). The presence of NaCl affects the growth kinetics but is not a prerequisite for inclusion-bearing diamond formation. The presence of small discrete or isolated volumes of water-rich fluids is necessary to grow inclusion-bearing peridotitic, eclogitic, fibrous, cloudy and coated diamonds, and may also be involved in the growth of ultradeep, ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic diamonds.

  8. Forty years of development in diamond tools

    The growth of the diamond industry in Western Countries since the First World War is surveyed. The articles described deal specifically with the development of the industrial diamond and diamond tool sector in different countries. All data point to continuing rapid expansion in the diamond tool sector. The West consumes 80 percent of world industrial diamond production. Diamond consumption increased sharply in the U.S. during World War 2. There are 300 diamond manufacturers in the U.S. today. In 1940, there were 25. In Japan, consumption of industrial diamonds has increased several times. In Italy, there has been a 75 fold increase in the production of diamond tools since 1959.

  9. 77 FR 66165 - Information Required in Notices and Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments


    ... varying forms, including lease payment credits for cars interchanged with the seller or lessor carrier (in... number of cars interchanged with the lessor in the prior year); monetary penalties for traffic... credit for cars interchanged with the seller or lessor.\\17\\ At least one, however, involved a total...

  10. 75 FR 61497 - Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Products; Public Hearing; Request...


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeable...'' (biosimilar) to, or ``interchangeable'' with, an FDA-licensed biological product. The purpose of this public... for biological products shown to be biosimilar to, or interchangeable with, an FDA-licensed...

  11. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the two...

  12. Interchange instability and transport in matter-antimatter plasmas

    Kendl, Alexander; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus


    Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density blob perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are in favour of sufficient magnetic confinement for planned electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalised to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetised electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can be expected to impede (so far unrealised) sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.

  13. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.


    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages.

  14. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.


    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages. PMID:27499797

  15. Towards Building a Uniform Cloud Database Representation for Data Interchange

    Andreica Alina


    Full Text Available The paper proposes design principles for data representation and simplification in order to design cloud services for data exchange between various information systems. We use equivalence algorithms and canonical representation in the cloud database. The solution we describe brings important advantages in organizational / entity communication and cooperation, with important societal benefits and can be provided within cloud architectures. The generic design principles we apply bring important advantages in the design of the interchange services.

  16. Induction of segmental interchanges in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhides).

    Lal, J; Srinivasachar, D


    Dry seeds of two varieties of Pennisetum typhoides (2n=14), 'Tift 23-B' and 'Bil-3B', were treated with gamma rays, diethyl sulphate (DES) and ethylene imine (EI) at their approximate LD50 dosages and the pollen mother cells of the M1 (first generation immediately after the seed treatment) plants were analysed at diakinesis for multivalent configurations resulting from segmental interchanges. While quadrivalents and trivalents were commonly found in all the mutagenic treatments, hexavalents were seen in the gamma-ray treatment only. Ring quadrivalents were common in all the treatments and their frequency was higher in gamma-ray treatment than in the treatments with the chemical mutagens of which EI produced more quadrivalents than DES. The variety 'BIL3B' was more responsive to all the mutagens used than 'Tift-23B' in which, excepting in gamma-ray treatment, no multivalents were observed in EI and DES treatments.The quadrivalents induced by different mutagens were of different types involving different chromosomes, indicating some kind of specificity of the mutagens in causing chromosome breaks. Thus, in EI-induced quadrivalents the nucleolar chromosome, the shortest chromosome of the complement, was involved, whereas in the case of DES and gamma rays it was the longest chromosome of the complement that was involved in the quadrivalent. Apparently the breaks must have been produced in different chromosomes preferentially.Self-pollinated seeds of two heterozygotes whose interchanges were induced by EI and gamma rays were given a second cycle treatment with gamma rays, again at the LD50 dosage (35 kR), and interchange stocks involving different chromosomes, up to a maximum of eight chromosomes were realized. Alternate use of EI and gamma rays offered better possibilities of obtaining inter-change heterozygotes involving more, if not all, chromosomes in a ring than two successive treatments with gamma rays alone.

  17. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi


    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  18. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  19. Towards a European food composition data interchange platform.

    Bell, Simone; Pakkala, Heikki; Finglas, Michael Paul


    Food composition data (FCD) comprises the description and identification of foods, as well as their nutrient content, other constituents, and food properties. FCD are required for a range of purposes including food labeling, supporting health claims, nutritional and clinical management, consumer information, and research. There have been differences within and beyond Europe in the way FCD are expressed with respect to food description, definition of nutrients and other food properties, and the methods used to generate data. One of the major goals of the EuroFIR NoE project (2005 - 10) was to provide tools to overcome existing differences among member states and parties with respect to documentation and interchange of FCD. The establishment of the CEN’s (European Committee for Standardisation) TC 387 project committee on Food Composition Data, led by the Swedish Standards Institute, and the preparation of the draft Food Data Standard, has addressed these deficiencies by enabling unambiguous identification and description of FCD and their quality, for dissemination and data interchange. Another major achievement of the EuroFIR NoE project was the development and dissemination of a single, authoritative source of FCD in Europe enabling the interchange and update of data between countries, and also giving access to users of FCD.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  1. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria


    Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion re...

  2. Biological applications of nanocrystalline diamond

    Williams, Oliver; Daenen, Michael; Haenen, Ken


    Nanocrystalline diamond films have generated substantial interest in recent years due to their low cost, extreme properties and wide application arena. Diamond is chemically inert, has a wide electrochemical window and is stable in numerous harsh environments. Nanocrystalline diamond has the advantage of being readily grown on a variety of substrates at very low thickness, resulting in smooth conformal coatings with high transparency. These films can be doped from highly insulating to metalli...

  3. Shengli Diamond Bits

    Yang Yukun; Han Tao


    @@ The geologic condition of Shengli Oilfield (SLOF)is complicated and the range of the rock drillability is wide. For more than 20 years,Shengli Drilling Technology Research Institute, in view of the formation conditions of SLOF,has done a lot of effort and obtained many achivements in design,manufacturing technology and field service. Up to now ,the institute has developed several ten kinds of diamond bits applicable for drilling and coring in formations from extremely soft to hard.

  4. Diamond turning of glass

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.


    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  5. Superconductivity in CVD diamond films.

    Takano, Yoshihiko


    A beautiful jewel of diamond is insulator. However, boron doping can induce semiconductive, metallic and superconducting properties in diamond. When the boron concentration is tuned over 3 × 10(20) cm(-3), diamonds enter the metallic region and show superconductivity at low temperatures. The metal-insulator transition and superconductivity are analyzed using ARPES, XAS, NMR, IXS, transport and magnetic measurements and so on. This review elucidates the physical properties and mechanism of diamond superconductor as a special superconductivity that occurs in semiconductors.

  6. Single point diamond machining of optical and related mounting surfaces

    Mladjan, Gary J.


    Over the past several years we have designed and fabricated several variations of a three mirror anistigmat Telescope for a Risk Reduction effort. In order to achieve passive athermalization, use of the same materials for both mirrors and structures is desirable. We fabricated 2 telescopes using investment cast aluminum alloy A356 in the first and investment cast Aluminum/Beryllium alloy 191 in the second, for all components. All optical surfaces and corresponding mounting surfaces are nickel plated and single point diamond tuned. The telescopes were assembled to meet the optical prescription tolerances with no alignment required other than focus. Components and performance levels are totally interchangeable between the telescopes, except for athermalization issues.

  7. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    Venturi, N.


    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  8. Improvement Possibilities of City Transportation System by Using PINAVIA Interchange

    Aušrius Juozapavičius


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The article analyzes transportation system problems of a common city by taking an example of Vilnius city and reveals drawbacks of street infrastructure and traffic organization which are responsible for traffic congestion and its consequences in many cities including Vilnius. A new high capacity Pinavia road interchange is presented. Mathematical model of the new interchange is described enabling transport specialists to optimize and adapt it to a given location. Unique features of the new Pinavia interchange are used to develop an improvement strategy of a city transportation system.

  9. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.


    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  10. High efficiency diamond solar cells

    Gruen, Dieter M.


    A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.

  11. Designing of concrete diamond sawblade

    ZHANG Shao-he; DING Xin-yu; ZHOU Jia-xiang


    By analyzing the abrasive theory of concrete diamond sawblade, the proposal that the diamond should be selected by its function in cutting concrete is presented. The part of the big grit diamonds cut rock, and the part of the small grit diamonds improve the wearability of the matrix. The contrast tests are done with different shapes of sawbaldes in split segment, slant "U" slot segment, sandwich segment, turbo segment and three-slot segment. The special shapes of sawblades can improve the effect of cooling and the removing ability of the rock powder. The data of tests show that the efficiency of cutting and the life of sawblades are improved by designing the diamond prescription and using the especial geometry of segment.

  12. 2D fluid simulations of interchange turbulence with ion dynamics

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Madsen, Jens; Xu, G. S.


    In this paper we present a first principle global two-dimensional fluid model. The HESEL (Hot Edge SOL Electrostatic) model is a 2D numerical fluid code, based on interchange dynamics and includes besides electron also the ion pressure dynamic. In the limit of cold ions the model almost reduces......B vorticity as well as the ion diamagnetic vorticity. The 2D domain includes both open and closed field lines and is located on the out-board midplane of a tokamak. On open field field lines the parallel dynamics are parametrized as sink terms depending on the dynamic quantities; density, electron and ion...

  13. Diamond Anvil Cell Techniques

    Piermarini, Gasper J.

    It has often been said that scientific advances are made either in a dramatic and revolutionary way, or, as in the case of the diamond anvil cell (DAC), in a slow and evolutionary manner over a period of several years. For more than 2 decades, commencing in 1958, the DAC developed stepwise from a rather crude qualitative instrument to the sophisticated quantitative research tool it is today, capable of routinely producing sustained static pressures in the multi-megabar range and readily adaptable to numerous scientific measurement techniques because of its optical accessibility, miniature size, and portability.

  14. Primitive helium in diamonds

    Ozima, M.; Zashu, S.


    He-3/He-4 isotopic ratio analyses of 13 diamond stones from unspecified mines in South Africa yield values ranging from less than 10 to the -7th to 0.00032 + or - 0.000025. The latter value is higher than the primordial He-3/He-4 ratio in meteorites, and close to the ratio for solar type He. It is suggested that these elevated values may represent primitive He which has evolved little, in view of its minute increase in radiogenic He-4, since the earth's formation.

  15. Heteroepitaxial Diamond Growth


    interstitials, respectively. The energies required for the planar to puckered distortion are 4.3 eV on Ni(l 11), 3.0 eV with the Na interstitial, 3.6 eV with H...give consideration to the crystallographic I alignment between diamond tiles to minimize dislocation densities at the " seams ". 3 Methods of checking the...crystallographic alignment (non-destructively) and assessing the dislocation densities at seams must be used to establish the viability of 3 any

  16. Synthesis of Diamond Films with Pulsed Plasma


    Diamond and Diamond-Like Films, The Electrochemical Society , Los Angeles, California, Volume 89-12, 114, May 1989. M. Aklufi and D. Brock, "Synthesis Of...Diamond Films By Microwave Generated Pulsed Plasmas," Proceedings of The Second International Symposium On Diamond Materials, The Electrochemical Society , Washington, DC, Volume 91-8, ’ 39, May 1991.

  17. Optical cryocooling of diamond

    Kern, M.; Jeske, J.; Lau, D. W. M.; Greentree, A. D.; Jelezko, F.; Twamley, J.


    The cooling of solids by optical means only using anti-Stokes emission has a long history of research and achievements. Such cooling methods have many advantages ranging from no moving parts or fluids through to operation in vacuum and may have applications to cryosurgery. However, achieving large optical cryocooling powers has been difficult to manage except in certain rare-earth crystals but these are mostly toxic and not biocompatible. Through study of the emission and absorption cross sections we find that diamond, containing either nitrogen vacancy (NV) or silicon vacancy defects, shows potential for optical cryocooling and, in particular, NV doping shows promise for optical refrigeration. We study the optical cooling of doped diamond microcrystals ranging 10-250 μ m in diameter trapped either in vacuum or in water. For the vacuum case we find NV-doped microdiamond optical cooling below room temperature could exceed |Δ T |>10 K for irradiation powers of Pin<100 mW. We predict that such temperature changes should be easily observed via large alterations in the diffusion constant for optically cryocooled microdiamonds trapped in water in an optical tweezer or via spectroscopic signatures such as the zero-phonon line width or Raman line.

  18. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Smedley, John, E-mail:; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  19. Presolar Diamond in Meteorites

    Amari, Sachiko


    Presolar diamond, the carrier of the isotopically anomalous Xe component Xe-HL, was the first mineral type of presolar dust that was isolated from meteorites. The excesses in the light, p-process only isotopes 124Xe and 126Xe, and in the heavy, r-process only isotopes 134Xe and 136Xe relative to the solar ratios indicate that Xe-HL was produced in supernovae: they are the only stellar source where these two processes are believed to take place. Although these processes occur in supernovae, their physical conditions and timeframes are completely different. Yet the excesses are always correlated in diamond separates from meteorites. Furthermore, the p-process 124Xe/126Xe inferred from Xe-L and the r-process 134Xe/136Xe from Xe-H do not agree with the p-process and r-process ratios derived from the solar system abundance, and the inferred p-process ratio does not agree with those predicted from stellar models. The 'rapid separation scenario', where the separation of Xe and its radiogenic precursors Te and I take...

  20. Role of interchange instability in flux transfer event origin

    B. V. Rezhenov

    Full Text Available It is shown that the interaction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, when it has southward component, with the geomagnetic field leads to the formation of an enhanced pressure layer (EPL near the magnetopause. Currents flowing on the boundary between the EPL and the magnetosheath prevent the IMF from penetrating the magnetosphere. However, the outward boundary of the EPL is unstable. The interchange instability permanently destroys the EPL. Separate filaments of the EPL move away from the Earth. New colder plasma of the magnetosheath with a frozen magnetic field replaces the hotter EPL plasma, and the process of EPL formation and destruction repeats itself.

    The instability increment is calculated for various magnitudes of the azimuthal wave number, ky, and curvature radius of the magnetic field lines, Rc. The disturbances with R-1eky≤4R-1e (where Re is the Earth's radius and RcRe are the most unstable.

    A possible result of the interchange instability of the EPL may be patchy reconnection, displayed as flux transfer events (FTEs near the magnetopause.

  1. Uncertainty-based Estimation of the Secure Range for ISO New England Dynamic Interchange Adjustment

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Sun, Yannan; Maslennikov, S.; Luo, Xiaochuan; Zheng, T.; George, S.; Knowland, T.; Litvinov, E.; Weaver, S.; Sanchez, E.


    The paper proposes an approach to estimate the secure range for dynamic interchange adjustment, which assists system operators in scheduling the interchange with neighboring control areas. Uncertainties associated with various sources are incorporated. The proposed method is implemented in the dynamic interchange adjustment (DINA) tool developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for ISO New England. Simulation results are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties

    Gruen, Dieter M.; McCauley, Thomas G.; Zhou, Dan; Krauss, Alan R.


    A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

  3. The Diamond Standard Vodka酒


    对于酒的品味不仅仅在酒本身所散发出的醉人魅力,自古以来,拥有艺术品般精湛做工、华美造犁的盛酒器皿也和酒一样流传千古。The Diamond Standard Vodka以“奢侈”、“豪华”作为卖点,除了散发着北欧风格的高贵气质外,由原产自奥地利的施华洛廿奇水晶制成25mm的瓶身更让它身价倍增。以钻石命名的它使用了钻石过滤专利系统,

  4. Guidelines for Provision and Interchange of Geothermal Data Assets



    The US Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) is funding and overseeing the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed information system providing access to integrated data in support of, and generated in, all phases of geothermal development. NGDS is being built in an open paradigm and will employ state-of-the-art informatics approaches and capabilities to advance the state of geothermal knowledge in the US. This document presents guidelines related to provision and interchange of data assets in the context of the National Geothermal Data System. It identifies general specifications for NGDS catalog metadata and data content, and provides specific instructions for preparation and submission of data assets by OGT-funded projects.

  5. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    Wallace, Richard M.


    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  6. HST Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) Static Test

    Chambers, William V.


    The HST Super Light Weight Interchangeable Carrier Static Test program calls for a total of 15 load cases with an average of 9 simultaneous push/pull locations per load case. This testing program represents the most complex static test ever attempted at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many unique multi-pull fixtures were designed to apply the simultaneous loading. Additionally, a total of 600 channels of data required processing for each loadcase. A total of 1100 separate strain gages were installed on SLIC. A team of 15 trained technicians were needed to apply test loads via mechanical hand pumps for several load cases. All 15 load cases were successfully conducted within 15 weeks. The ManTech team successfully tested all SLIC 1200 interface clips to the required testing loads. Several unique designs were needed to address testing challenges as loadline interference, Payload Safety, payload flexibility and opposing load applications.

  7. Simulation of the interchange instability in a magnetospheric substorm site

    O. V. Mingalev


    Full Text Available We perform modeling of the interchange instability driven by longitudinal pressure asymmetry in the region of the pressure buildup that forms in the inner magnetosphere at the substorm growth phase. The simulation refers to the dawnward side of the Harang discontinuity and times after Bz IMF turning northward. The solution for the equilibrium state indicates tailward flows associated with vortices, which is in agreement with a previous finding of Ashour-Abdalla et al. (1999, 2002. We show that in the regions of equilibrium field-aligned currents (FACs, small initial perturbations in pVγ (p is the isotropic plasma pressure, V is the unit magnetic flux tube volume, γ=5/3 the adiabatic exponent, set up as ripples inclined to azimuth, grow in time. For the background FAC of ~10-6 A/m2, the linear growth rate of the instability is ~6 min. Starting from the 12th min of evolution, the perturbations exhibit nonlinear deformations, develop undulations and front steepening. An interesting peculiarity in the distribution of the associated small-scale FACs is that they become asymmetric with time. Specifically, the downward currents are more localised, reaching densities up to 15×10-6 A/m2 at the nonlinear stage. The upward FACs are more dispersed. When large enough, these currents are likely to produce the aurora. We also run our simulation for the initial perturbations of large transverse scales in order to demonstrate that the interchange instability can be responsible for pressure and cross-tail current spatial variations of great extent.

  8. The Harang Reversal and the Interchange Stability of the Magnetotail

    Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Wang, C. P.; Wolf, R.


    During the substorm growth phase the overall convection, electric currents, and aurora structures in the nightside ionosphere often change very gradually over prolonged (> 1 hr) periods, and therefore the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) system can be considered to be in a quasi-steady state. For the source region of a downward field-aligned current (FAC) the cross-tail current, which is carried mostly by ions, closes with a FAC, which is carried by electrons moving away from the ionosphere. Thus both ions and electrons accumulate there and accordingly, the plasma pressure increases. In the source region of an upward FAC, in contrast, the reduction of plasma pressure is expected. Since the plasma pressure, more precisely the entropy parameter (pVr), is most critical for the interchange stability of the magnetotail, this simple assessment raises a fundamental question about the magnetotail dynamics, that is, how the magnetotail remains to be steady. In this study we argue that if the magnetosphere is in a steady state, those expected increase and decrease in plasma pressure need to balance with the change due to the plasma transport by convection. This requirement, along with the condition for the interchange stability, leads to the conclusion that the associated pattern of convection has a structure that is presumably the magnetospheric counter part of the Harang reversal. More specifically, for the dusk convection cell, the convection flow is directed azimuthally westward in the source region of the downward R2 current, whereas it is directed sunward in the source region of the upward R1 current. We verify this idea by examining a quasi-steady magnetotail modeled by the RCM-Dungey code. Using equi-potential contours as a reference we also suggest that auroral arcs mapped to the equator tend to be oriented in the east-west and Sun-Earth direction if they are located in the premidnight R2 and R1 currents, respectively.

  9. Samaritan donor interchange in living donor liver transplantation

    See Ching Chan; Kenneth SH Chok; William W Sharr; Albert CY Chan; Simon HY Tsang; Wing Chiu Dai and Chung Mau Lo


    BACKGROUND: In  order  to  overcome  ABO  blood  group incompatibility, paired donor interchange has been practised in living donor liver transplantation. Liver transplantations using grafts donated by Samaritan living donors have been performed in Europe, North America, South Korea, and Hong Kong. Such practice is clearly on strong biological grounds although social and psychological implications could be far-reaching. Local experience has been satisfactory but is still limited. As few centers have this arrangement, its safety and viability are still being assessed under a clinical trial setting. METHODS: Here we report a donor interchange involving an ABO-compatible pair with a universal donor and an ABO-incompatible pair with a universal recipient. This matching was not only a variation but also an extension of the donor interchange scheme. RESULTS: The four operations (two donor hepatectomies and two recipient operations) were successful. All the two donors and the two recipients recovered well. Such donor interchange further supports the altruistic principle of organ donation in contrast to exchange for a gain. CONCLUSIONS: Samaritan donor interchange certainly taxes further the ethical challenge of donor interchange. Although this practice has obvious biological advantages, such advantages have to be weighed against the potential increase in potential psychological risks to the subjects in the interchange. Further ethical and clinical evaluations of local and overseas experiences of donor interchange should guide future clinical practice in utilizing this potential organ source for transplantation.

  10. Helium and carbon isotopes in Indian diamonds

    Wiens, R.; Lal, D.; Craig, H.


    Helium and carbon isotope measurements in Indian diamonds (from Andhra Pradesh) were carried out using samples that included mined diamonds from primary kimberlite source rocks and alluvial diamonds from river gravel. The He and C isotope concentrations in diamonds from these two sources were compared, and the Indian diamonds were compared to those from other regions. Results indicate that most of the He-3 in the alluvial diamonds is of cosmogenic origin and that the alluvial diamonds may also have a significant He-4 component due to alpha particles implanted during storage in a secondary matrix. One diamond, a mined kimberlite specimen, was found to have the lowest He-4 content (0.018 microcc/g) so far recorded in diamonds.

  11. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    Lončar, Marko


    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.

  12. 78 FR 18666 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of...


    ... Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... codified in 49 CFR Part 376, ``Lease and Interchange of Vehicles.'' These regulations require certain for-hire motor carriers to have a formal lease when leasing equipment. ACTION: Notice and request...

  13. 78 FR 57822 - Lease and Interchange of Vehicles; Motor Carriers of Passengers


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 390 RIN 2126-AB44 Lease and Interchange of... regulations governing the lease and interchange of passenger-carrying commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) to... that a lessor surrenders control of the CMV for the full term of the lease or temporary exchange...

  14. Investigation into the interchangeability of generic formulations using immunosuppressants and a broad selection of medicines

    Yu, Y.; Teerenstra, S.; Neef, C.; Burger, D.M.; Maliepaard, M.


    PURPOSE: To date, the interchangeability of generic drugs has only been investigated for a limited number of medicines. The objective of this study was to investigate generic-generic drug interchangeability in a large subset of generic formulations in order to cover a broad spectrum of drugs. METHOD

  15. Interchangeability of generic anti-epileptic drugs: a quantitative analysis of topiramate and gabapentin.

    Maliepaard, M.; Banishki, N.; Gispen-de Wied, C.C.; Teerenstra, S.; Elferink, A.J.


    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine whether the so-called "shift" or "drift" problem might occur when generic anti-epileptic drugs are interchanged, and thus to assess if generic anti-epileptic drugs are interchangeable and can be used in an efficacious and safe way on the basis of

  16. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu


    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  17. Hydrogenated Black Diamond: An Electrical Study

    Williams, O.A.; Jackman, R.B. [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Nebel, C.E. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    Hydrogen surface conductivity has been a controversial subject since its discovery. Initial plasma treatments on single crystal diamond and polycrystalline diamond have lead to the widespread use of this material in active electronics. However, ''Black'' polycrystalline diamond, usually termed ''Thermal Management Grade'', shows carrier concentration and mobility values similar to both white polycrystalline diamond and single crystal material. Schottky contacts have also been fabricated and show promising characteristics. Black diamond can be grown considerably faster than white diamond and is hence much cheaper. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)


    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly

  19. Genetic Types of Diamond Mineralization

    A.A.MARAKUSHEV; 桑隆康; 等


    The paper describes the proposed models of diamond formation both in meteorites and in kimberlite and lamproite bodies.metamorphic complexes and explosive-ring structures ("astroblemes"),The diamond distribution in meteorites(chondrites,iron meteorites and ureilites)is restricted to taente-kamasite phase.The diamond generation here is tied up with the first stage of evolution of the planets,This stage is characterized by high pressure of hydrogen. leading to the formation of the planet envelope,The second stage of planet evolution began with the progressive imopoverishment of their atmospheres in hydrogen due to its predominant emission into the space and to progressive development of oxidative conditions.The model appears to have proved the relict nature of diamond mineraolization in meteorites.Diamond and other high-pressure minerals(its"satellites") were crystallized without any exception in the early intratelluric stages of peridotite and eclogite-pyroxenite magma evolution just before the magma intrusion into the higher levels of the mantle and crust where diamond is not thermodynamically stable,The ultramafic intrusive bodies(bearing rich relict diamonds)in the dase of a platform paaear to be the substrata for the formation of kimberlite-lamproite magma chambers as a result of magmatic replacement.The model explains the polyfacial nature of diamondiferous eclotgites,pyroxenites and peridotites and discusses the process of inheritance of their diamond mineralization by kimberlites and lamproites.Dimond oproductivity of metamorthic complexes is originated by the inheritance of their diamonds from the above-mentioned primary diamondiferous rocks.Large diamondiferous explosive-ring structures were formed by high-energy endogenic explosion of fluid which came from the Earth's core.This high energy differs endogenic impactogenesis from explosive volcanism.It proceeds at very high temperature to create diaplectic galsses(monomineral pseudomorphs)-the product of

  20. Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?

    Schrand, Amanda M; Huang, Houjin; Carlson, Cataleya; Schlager, John J; Omacr Sawa, Eiji; Hussain, Saber M; Dai, Liming


    Finely divided carbon particles, including charcoal, lampblack, and diamond particles, have been used for ornamental and official tattoos since ancient times. With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, nanotubes, nanodiamonds) attract a great deal of interest. Owing to their low chemical reactivity and unique physical properties, nanodiamonds could be useful in a variety of biological applications such as carriers for drugs, genes, or proteins; novel imaging techniques; coatings for implantable materials; and biosensors and biomedical nanorobots. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the possible hazards of nanodiamonds to humans and other biological systems. We have, for the first time, assessed the cytotoxicity of nanodiamonds ranging in size from 2 to 10 nm. Assays of cell viability such as mitochondrial function (MTT) and luminescent ATP production showed that nanodiamonds were not toxic to a variety of cell types. Furthermore, nanodiamonds did not produce significant reactive oxygen species. Cells can grow on nanodiamond-coated substrates without morphological changes compared to controls. These results suggest that nanodiamonds could be ideal for many biological applications in a diverse range of cell types.

  1. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A


    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  2. Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics

    Hausmann, Birgit J M; Quan, Qimin; Maletinsky, Patrick; McCutcheon, Murray; Choy, Jennifer T; Babinec, Tom M; Kubanek, Alexander; Yacoby, Amir; Lukin, Mikhail D; Loncar, Marko


    Diamond is a unique material with exceptional physical and chemical properties that offers potential for the realization of high-performance devices with novel functionalities. For example diamond's high refractive index, transparency over wide wavelength range, and large Raman gain are of interest for the implementation of novel photonic devices. Recently, atom-like impurities in diamond emerged as an exceptional system for quantum information processing, quantum sensing and quantum networks. For these and other applications, it is essential to develop an integrated nanophotonic platform based on diamond. Here, we report on the realization of such an integrated diamond photonic platform, diamond on insulator (DOI), consisting of a thin single crystal diamond film on top of an insulating silicon dioxide/silicon substrate. Using this approach, we demonstrate diamond ring resonators that operate in a wide wavelength range, including the visible (630nm) and near-infrared (1,550nm). Finally, we demonstrate an int...

  3. The Design of Diamond Compton Telescope

    Hibino, Kinya; Okuno, Shoji; Yajima, Kaori; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takashima, Takeshi; Yokota, Mamoru; Yoshida, Kenji


    We have developed radiation detectors using the new synthetic diamonds. The diamond detector has an advantage for observations of "low/medium" energy gamma rays as a Compton telescope. The primary advantage of the diamond detector can reduce the photoelectric effect in the low energy range, which is background noise for tracking of the Compton recoil electron. A concept of the Diamond Compton Telescope (DCT) consists of position sensitive layers of diamond-striped detector and calorimeter layer of CdTe detector. The key part of the DCT is diamond-striped detectors with a higher positional resolution and a wider energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. However, the diamond-striped detector is under development. We describe the performance of prototype diamond detector and the design of a possible DCT evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Anodic bonding of diamond to glass

    Fuentes, R. [Materials and Technologies Corp., Poughkeepsie, NY (United States); Trolio, L.M. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Butler, J.E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)


    A method is described for anodically bonding smooth nanocrystalline diamond films to glass substrates to form extremely flat diamond membranes with the smoothest side available of patterning absorber structures to form masks for proximity focused x-ray lithography.

  5. A new route to process diamond wires

    Marcello Filgueira


    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  6. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.


    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  7. Development of Diamond-Coated Drills


    Compared with the sintered polycrystalline diamond, the deposited thin film diamond has the great advantage on the fabrication of cutting tools with complex geometries such as drills. Because of their low costs for fabrication equipment and high performance on high speed machining non-ferrous metals and alloys, metal-compound materials, and hard brittle non-metals, diamond-coated drills find great potentialities in the commercial application. However, the poor adhesion of the diamond film on the substrate...

  8. Raman spectral research on MPCVD diamond film

    YAN Yan; ZHANG Shulin; ZHAO Xinsheng; HAN Yisong; HOU Li


    Raman spectra of MPCVD diamond film have been studied. Based on the resonance size selection effect, we think that there is no nano-crystalline diamond in the sample and the Raman peak at 1145 cm-1 can not be considered as the characteristic peak of nano-crystalline diamond though it has been used as the characteristic peak of nano-crystalline diamond widely for many years.

  9. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    Roger J Narayan


    Full Text Available Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years.

  10. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    Perez, J.M.


    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  11. Amplitude scaling for interchange motions of plasma filaments

    Kube, R; Garcia, O E


    We numerically study the interchange motion of seeded plasma blobs in a reduced two-field fluid model. If we neglect the compression of the electric drift in the model, the maximal radial center-of-mass velocity V of the filament follows the familiar square-root scaling V ~ (\\Delta n/N)^1/2, where \\Delta n is the blob amplitude and N is the background density. When including compression of the electric drift to account for an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the numerical simulations reveal that the maximal blob velocity depends linearly on its initial amplitude, V ~ \\Delta n/N. When the relative initial amplitude of the filament exceeds approximately unity we recover the square root velocity scaling. We explain the observed scaling laws in t erms of the conserved energy integrals of the model equations. The compression term leads to a constraint on the maximum kinetic energy of the blob, which is not present if the drift compression is ignored. If the compression term is included, only approximately half of the...

  12. Interchange reconnection between an active region and a corona hole

    Ma, L; Yan, X L; Xue, Z K


    With the data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we present a magnetic interaction between an isolated coronal hole (CH) and an emerging active region (AR). The AR emerged nearby the CH and interacted with it. Bright loops constantly formed between them, which led to a continuous retreat of the CH boundaries (CHBs). Meanwhile, two coronal dimmings respectively appeared at the negative polarity of the AR and the east boundary of the bright loops, and the AR was partly disturbed. Loop eruptions followed by a flare occurred in the AR. The interaction was also accompanied by many jets and an arc-shaped brightening that appeared to be observational signatures of magnetic reconnection at the CHBs. By comparing the observations with the derived coronal magnetic configuration, it is suggested that the interaction between the CH and the AR excellently fitted in with the model of interchange reconnection. It appears t...

  13. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung


    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  14. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    Sovinec, C. R.


    Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.

  15. Signatures of Interchange Reconnection: STEREO, ACE and Hinode Observations Combined

    Baker, D; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Demoulin, P; Harra, L K; Lavraud, B; Davies, J A; Optiz, A; Luhmann, J G; Sauvaud, J A; Galvin, A B


    Combining STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations has presented an opportunity to follow a filament eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME) on the 17th of October 2007 from an active region (AR) inside a coronal hole (CH) into the heliosphere. This particular combination of `open' and closed magnetic topologies provides an ideal scenario for interchange reconnection to take place. With Hinode and STEREO data we were able to identify the emergence time and type of structure seen in the in-situ data four days later. On the 21st, ACE observed in-situ the passage of an ICME with `open' magnetic topology. The magnetic field configuration of the source, a mature AR located inside an equatorial CH, has important implications for the solar and interplanetary signatures of the eruption. We interpret the formation of an `anemone' structure of the erupting AR and the passage in-situ of the ICME being disconnected at one leg, as manifested by uni-directional suprathermal electron flux in the ICME, to be a direct result of i...

  16. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  17. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC


    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  18. Diamonds at the golden point

    Katarina Anthony


    Alongside the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) – installed last month (see here) – lie diamond detectors. No ordinary gems, these lab-grown diamonds will be playing a vital role in Run 2: differentiating signals from collision products with those from the beam background.   The BCM detector's green "c-shaped" printed circuit board is mounted on the PLT/BCM carbon-fibre carriage ready for installation. Earlier this year, the CMS BRIL project installed beam condition monitors (BCM) at the heart of the CMS detector. Designed to measure the online luminosity and beam background as close as possible to the LHC beam pipe, the BCMs use radiation-hard diamonds to differentiate between background and collision signals. The BCM also protects the CMS silicon trackers from damaging beam losses, by aborting the beam if the signal currents measured are above an acceptable threshold. These new BCMs are designed with Run 2 bunches in mind. &ldq...

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    Jiang Chao [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, Hubei 430074 (China); Luo Fei [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, HuBei 430074 (China); Long Hua [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hu Shaoliu [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li Bo [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang Youqing [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)]. E-mail:


    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials.

  20. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    McMahon, M I


    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years.

  1. CVD diamond for electronic devices and sensors


    Synthetic diamond is diamond produced by using chemical or physical processes. Like naturally occurring diamond it is composed of a three-dimensional carbon crystal. Due to its extreme physical properties, synthetic diamond is used in many industrial applications, such as drill bits and scratch-proof coatings, and has the potential to be used in many new application areas A brand new title from the respected Wiley Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications series, this title is the most up-to-date resource for diamond specialists. Beginning with an introduction to the pr

  2. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    Casstevens, John M.


    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  3. Diamond Sensors for Energy Frontier Experiments

    Schnetzer, Steve


    We discuss the use of diamond sensors in high-energy, high-i ntensity collider experiments. Re- sults from diamond sensor based beam conditions monitors in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and pla ns for diamond based luminosity monitors for the upcoming LHC run are described. We describe recent measurements on single crystal diamond sensors that indicate a polarization effec t that causes a reduction of charge col- lection efficiency as a function of particle flux. We conclude by describing new developments on the promising technology of 3D diamond sensors.

  4. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria


    performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order......Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... resistance, chemical inertness, superior electrochemical behavior, biocompatibility, and nontoxicity. These properties have positioned the nanocrystalline diamond films as an attractive class of materials for a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications in the biomedical field. Consequently...

  5. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam


    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  6. Electron Microscopy of Natural and Epitaxial Diamond

    Posthill, J. B.; George, T.; Malta, D. P.; Humphreys, T. P.; Rudder, R. A.; Hudson, G. C.; Thomas, R. E.; Markunas, R. J.


    Semiconducting diamond films have the potential for use as a material in which to build active electronic devices capable of operating at high temperatures or in high radiation environments. Ultimately, it is preferable to use low-defect-density single crystal diamond for device fabrication. We have previously investigated polycrystalline diamond films with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and homoepitaxial films with SEM-based techniques. This contribution describes some of our most recent observations of the microstructure of natural diamond single crystals and homoepitaxial diamond thin films using TEM.

  7. Selected Bibliography II-Diamond Surface Chemistry


    34Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Polished Diamond Surfaces" JNL: Appl. Surf. Sci. REF: 62(4) (1992) 263-8 91 AUTHOR: Vazquez L., Martin -Gago J. A...Absorption in Semiconducting Synthetic Diamond" JNL: Physical Review REF: 140 (1965) A1272 AUTHOR: Keown R. TITLE: "Energy Bands in Diamond" JNL...34Determination of Optical Constant of Diamond Thin Films" JNL: Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. REF: 1759(Diamond Opt. V) (1992) 218-23 AUTHOR: Fazzio A., Martins

  8. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H


    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.


    Lorival J. Carminatti


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR and the Vameval test (T-VAM, characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat, volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE at peak test velocities (PV. No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1 and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm. During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm. However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04 (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s with a low correlation (r = 0.41. The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs.

  10. Microplasma device architectures with various diamond nanostructures

    Kunuku, Srinivasu; Jothiramalingam Sankaran, Kamatchi; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I.-Nan


    Diamond nanostructures (DNSs) were fabricated from three different morphological diamonds, microcrystalline diamond (MCD), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films, using a reactive ion etching method. The plasma illumination (PI) behavior of microplasma devices using the DNSs and the diamond films as cathode were investigated. The Paschen curve approach revealed that the secondary electron emission coefficient (γ value) of diamond materials is similar irrespective of the microstructure (MCD, NCD, and UNCD) and geometry of the materials (DNSs and diamond films). The diamond materials show markedly larger γ-coefficient than conventional metallic cathode materials such as Mo that resulted in markedly better PI behavior for the corresponding microplasma devices. Moreover, the PI behavior, i.e. the voltage dependence of plasma current density (J pl‑V), plasma density (n e‑V), and the robustness of the devices, varied markedly with the microstructure and geometry of the cathode materials that was closely correlated to the electron field emission (EFE) properties of the cathode materials. The UNCD nanopillars, possessing good EFE properties, resulted in superior PI behavior, whereas the MCD diamond films with insufficient EFE properties led to inferior PI behavior. Consequently, enhancement of plasma characteristics is the collective effects of EFE behavior and secondary electron emission characteristics of diamond-based cathode materials.

  11. Effects of diamond magnetism on the microstructure of electrodeposited diamond composites

    Lu Huiyang; Li Yundong; Huang Zhiwei; Go Huiyan


    Electroformed diamond tools have been used for many years in grinding and cutting fields while electrodeposited diamond composite coatings have been widely studied due to their desirable hardness, wear and corrosion resistance. This article eports the detrimental impact of diamond magnetism on the composites microstructure and gives explanations. Microstructure differences between composites that, respectively, contained no - further - treated diamond, magnetism - strengthening treated diamond and magnetism weakening treated diamond were carefully observed. It is shown that diamond magnetization treatment drastically harms the composite microstructure (e. G. , roughening the coating surface, coarsening the matrix grain, and more seriously, reducing the mechanical retention of diamond grains in the matrix) while demagnetization treatment does the opposite. All the observed facts could be explained by the electromagnetic interaction between magnetic fields produced by magnetic diamond grains and electric current (moving cations) during the electrodeposition process.

  12. High temperature brazing of diamond tools

    YAO Zheng-jun; SU Hong-hua; FU Yu-can; XU Hong-jun


    A new brazing technique of diamond was developed. Using this new technique optimum chemical and metallurgical bonding between the diamond grits and the carbon steel can be achieved without any thermal damages to diamond grits. The results of microanalysis and X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that a carbide layer exists between the diamond and the matrix, which consists of Cr3C2, Cr7C3 and Cr23C6. Performance tests show that the brazed diamond core-drill has excellent machining performance. In comparison with traditional electroplated diamond core-drill, the brazed diamond core-drill manufactured using the new developed technique has much higher machining efficiency and much longer operating life.

  13. Road Interchanges, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Interchanges dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. Data by this...

  14. Interchanges in popcorn (Zea mays L. involving the nucleolus organizer chromosome

    Maria Suely Pagliarini


    Full Text Available The analysis of microsporogenesis in endogamous plants of popcorn (S5 to S7 showed several and distinctinterchanges which involve the nucleolus organizer (chromosome 6. The detection of cells with interchanges was facilitatedby the presence of two nucleoli of different sizes in contrast to normal ones with a single big nucleolus. Interchange points donot always seem to be at the same place. Whereas in several situations the interchange point clearly involved more than twochromosome pairs, a simple terminal translocation seemed to occur in others. During diplotene, a cross-shaped configurationconnected with the nucleoli was observed in some meiocytes. Some heteromorphic bivalents were found during diakinesis,after which meiosis progressed normally to the end and gave rise to apparently normal tetrads with one normal nucleolus ineach microspore. Tests of pollen viability in fixed pollen grains showed 100% stainability in normal and in affected plants.This is the first report on chromosome interchanges in popcorn.

  15. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    Moussa, Jonathan


    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. On a remarkable composite Diamond

    Escher, B.G.


    In June 1937 the State Museum of Geology and Mineralogy at Leiden received from Mr. A.S. Dresden at Amsterdam a diamond crystal of a hitherto unknown shape. The crystal is colourless and transparent. Mr. J. Bolman determined its weight at 0.1698 g and its specific gravity at 3.4165.

  17. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Fifth technical information interchange meeting, Minutes



    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fifth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  18. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Technical Information Interchange Meeting, Minutes



    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fourth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  19. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics


    AD-A238 559 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics Judith E. Payne, Robert H. Anderson N STATEN= A... electronic commerce to enhance defense logistics / Judith L. Payne and Robert H, Anderson. "Prepared for the Assistant Sccretary of Defense (Production RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 | ,! R-4030-P&L Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to

  20. Diamond/diamond-like carbon coated nanotube structures for efficient electron field emission

    Dimitrijevic, Steven (Inventor); Withers, James C. (Inventor); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor)


    The present invention is directed to a nanotube coated with diamond or diamond-like carbon, a field emitter cathode comprising same, and a field emitter comprising the cathode. It is also directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from a field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes by coating the nanotube with diamond or diamond-like carbon. In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from an electron field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes, which method comprises coating the nanotubes with diamond or diamond-like carbon.

  1. Diamond-modified AFM probes: from diamond nanowires to atomic force microscopy-integrated boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Smirnov, Waldemar; Kriele, Armin; Hoffmann, René; Sillero, Eugenio; Hees, Jakob; Williams, Oliver A; Yang, Nianjun; Kranz, Christine; Nebel, Christoph E


    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), sharp and wear-resistant tips are a critical issue. Regarding scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), electrodes are required to be mechanically and chemically stable. Diamond is the perfect candidate for both AFM probes as well as for electrode materials if doped, due to diamond's unrivaled mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical properties. In this study, standard AFM tips were overgrown with typically 300 nm thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers and modified to obtain ultra sharp diamond nanowire-based AFM probes and probes that were used for combined AFM-SECM measurements based on integrated boron-doped conductive diamond electrodes. Analysis of the resonance properties of the diamond overgrown AFM cantilevers showed increasing resonance frequencies with increasing diamond coating thicknesses (i.e., from 160 to 260 kHz). The measured data were compared to performed simulations and show excellent correlation. A strong enhancement of the quality factor upon overgrowth was also observed (120 to 710). AFM tips with integrated diamond nanowires are shown to have apex radii as small as 5 nm and where fabricated by selectively etching diamond in a plasma etching process using self-organized metal nanomasks. These scanning tips showed superior imaging performance as compared to standard Si-tips or commercially available diamond-coated tips. The high imaging resolution and low tip wear are demonstrated using tapping and contact mode AFM measurements by imaging ultra hard substrates and DNA. Furthermore, AFM probes were coated with conductive boron-doped and insulating diamond layers to achieve bifunctional AFM-SECM probes. For this, focused ion beam (FIB) technology was used to expose the boron-doped diamond as a recessed electrode near the apex of the scanning tip. Such a modified probe was used to perform proof-of-concept AFM-SECM measurements. The results show that high-quality diamond probes can be fabricated, which are

  2. Ultrananocrystalline diamond contacts for electronic devices

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik


    A method of forming electrical contacts on a diamond substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The mixture of gases include a source of a p-type or an n-type dopant. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the diamond substrate. The diamond substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the diamond substrate for a first time, and a UNCD film, which is doped with at least one of a p-type dopant and an n-type dopant, is disposed on the diamond substrate. The doped UNCD film is patterned to define UNCD electrical contacts on the diamond substrate.

  3. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    Nunes, D.; Livramento, V.; Shohoji, N.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Correia, J. B.; Carvalho, P. A.


    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamondDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  4. Diamonds and the african lithosphere.

    Boyd, F R; Gurney, J J


    Data and inferences drawn from studies of diamond inclusions, xenocrysts, and xenoliths in the kimberlites of southern Africa are combined to characterize the structure of that portion of the Kaapvaal craton that lies within the mantle. The craton has a root composed in large part of peridotites that are strongly depleted in basaltic components. The asthenosphere boundary shelves from depths of 170 to 190 kilometers beneath the craton to approximately 140 kilometers beneath the mobile belts bordering the craton on the south and west. The root formed earlier than 3 billion years ago, and at that time ambient temperatures in it were 900 degrees to 1200 degrees C; these temperatures are near those estimated from data for xenoliths erupted in the Late Cretaceous or from present-day heat-flow measurements. Many of the diamonds in southern Africa are believed to have crystallized in this root in Archean time and were xenocrysts in the kimberlites that brought them to the surface.

  5. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.


    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  6. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle


    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  7. Nanotwinned diamond with unprecedented hardness and stability.

    Huang, Quan; Yu, Dongli; Xu, Bo; Hu, Wentao; Ma, Yanming; Wang, Yanbin; Zhao, Zhisheng; Wen, Bin; He, Julong; Liu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yongjun


    Although diamond is the hardest material for cutting tools, poor thermal stability has limited its applications, especially at high temperatures. Simultaneous improvement of the hardness and thermal stability of diamond has long been desirable. According to the Hall-Petch effect, the hardness of diamond can be enhanced by nanostructuring (by means of nanograined and nanotwinned microstructures), as shown in previous studies. However, for well-sintered nanograined diamonds, the grain sizes are technically limited to 10-30 nm (ref. 3), with degraded thermal stability compared with that of natural diamond. Recent success in synthesizing nanotwinned cubic boron nitride (nt-cBN) with a twin thickness down to ∼3.8 nm makes it feasible to simultaneously achieve smaller nanosize, ultrahardness and superior thermal stability. At present, nanotwinned diamond (nt-diamond) has not been fabricated successfully through direct conversions of various carbon precursors (such as graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon and C60). Here we report the direct synthesis of nt-diamond with an average twin thickness of ∼5 nm, using a precursor of onion carbon nanoparticles at high pressure and high temperature, and the observation of a new monoclinic crystalline form of diamond coexisting with nt-diamond. The pure synthetic bulk nt-diamond material shows unprecedented hardness and thermal stability, with Vickers hardness up to ∼200 GPa and an in-air oxidization temperature more than 200 °C higher than that of natural diamond. The creation of nanotwinned microstructures offers a general pathway for manufacturing new advanced carbon-based materials with exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties.

  8. Diamond Light Source: status and perspectives

    Materlik, Gerhard; Rayment, Trevor; Stuart, David I.


    Diamond Light Source, a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facility in the UK, celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2012. A private limited company was set up in April 2002 to plan, construct and operate the new user-oriented SR facility, called in brief Diamond. It succeeded the Synchrotron Radiation Source in Daresbury, a second-generation synchrotron that opened in 1980 as the world's first dedicated X-ray-providing facility, closing finally in 2008, by which time Diamond's accelera...

  9. Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method

    Zhao, Yusheng


    Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

  10. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.


    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  11. Diamond Detectors as Beam Monitors

    Dehning, B; Dobos, D; Pernegger, H; Griesmayer, E


    CVD diamond particle detectors are already in use in the CERN experiments ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE and at various particle accelerator laboratories in USA and Japan. This is a proven technology with high radiation tolerance and very fast signal read-out. It can be used for measuring single-particles as well as for high-intensity particle cascades, for timing measurements on the nanosecond scale and for beam protection systems. The radiation tolerance is specified with 10 MGy.

  12. CZ: Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds


    be solved by allowing renaming (e.g., Eiffel [24]) or by linearizing the class hierarchy [33, 32]. However, there is still no satisfactory solution to...desirable semantics; it is supported in languages such as Scala, Eiffel , and C++ (the last through virtual inheritance) [28, 24, 18]. Next, diamond...Languages that attempt to solve the object initialization problem include Eiffel [24], C++ [18], Scala [28] and Smalltalk with stateful traits [8

  13. Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals

    Beveratos, A; Gacoin, T; Poizat, J P; Grangier, P; Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe


    The quantum properties of the fluorescence light emitted by diamond nanocrystals containing a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colored center is investigated. We have observed photon antibunching with very low background light. This system is therefore a very good candidate for the production of single photon on demand. In addition, we have measured larger NV center lifetime in nanocrystals than in the bulk, in good agreement with a simple quantum electrodynamical model.

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    Fedor M. Shakhov


    Full Text Available A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K and 400 W/(m·K, respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon; one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K. Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  15. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.


    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  16. Field electron emission of diamond films on nanocrystalline diamond coating by CVD method

    CAI Rangqi; CHEN Guanghua; SONG Xuemei; XING Guangjian; FENG Zhenjian; HE Deyan


    The preparation process, structure feature and field electron emission characteristic of diamond films on nanocyrstalline diamond coating by the CVD method were studied. The field electron emission measurements on the samples showed that the diamond films have lower turn-on voltage and higher field emission current density. A further detailed theory explanation to the results was given.

  17. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M


    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...

  18. Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness of Diamond Detectors

    Behnke, T; Ghodbane, N; Imhof, A; Martínez, C; Zeuner, W


    The behavior of artificially grown CVD diamond films under intense electromagnetic radiation has been studied. The properties of irradiated diamond samples have been investigated using the method of thermally stimulated current and by studying their charge collection properties. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 6.8 MGy of 10 keV photons and 10 MGy of MeV-range photons. This observation makes diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the proposed TESLA detector.

  19. Generation of microdischarges in diamond substrates

    Mitea, S.; Zeleznik, M.; Bowden, M. D.; May, P. W.; Fox, N. A.; Hart, J. N.; Fowler, C.; Stevens, R.; StJ Braithwaite, N.


    We report the generation of microdischarges in devices composed of microcrystalline diamond. Discharges were generated in device structures with microhollow cathode discharge geometries. One structure consisted of an insulating diamond wafer coated with boron-doped diamond layers on both sides. A second structure consisted of an insulating diamond wafer coated with metal layers on both sides. In each case, a single sub-millimetre hole was machined through the conductor-insulator-conductor structure. The discharges were generated in a helium atmosphere. Breakdown voltages were around 500 V and discharge currents in the range 0.1-2.5 mA were maintained by a sustaining dc voltage of 300 V.

  20. Statistical and regulatory considerations in assessments of interchangeability of biological drug products.

    Tóthfalusi, Lászlo; Endrényi, László; Chow, Shein-Chung


    When the patent of a brand-name, marketed drug expires, new, generic products are usually offered. Small-molecule generic and originator drug products are expected to be chemically identical. Their pharmaceutical similarity can be typically assessed by simple regulatory criteria such as the expectation that the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of geometric means of some pharmacokinetic parameters be between 0.80 and 1.25. When such criteria are satisfied, the drug products are generally considered to exhibit therapeutic equivalence. They are then usually interchanged freely within individual patients. Biological drugs are complex proteins, for instance, because of their large size, intricate structure, sensitivity to environmental conditions, difficult manufacturing procedures, and the possibility of immunogenicity. Generic and brand-name biologic products can be expected to show only similarity but not identity in their various features and clinical effects. Consequently, the determination of biosimilarity is also a complicated process which involves assessment of the totality of the evidence for the close similarity of the two products. Moreover, even when biosimilarity has been established, it may not be assumed that the two biosimilar products can be automatically substituted by pharmacists. This generally requires additional, careful considerations. Without declaring interchangeability, a new product could be prescribed, i.e. it is prescribable. However, two products can be automatically substituted only if they are interchangeable. Interchangeability is a statistical term and it means that products can be used in any order in the same patient without considering the treatment history. The concepts of interchangeability and prescribability have been widely discussed in the past but only in relation to small molecule generics. In this paper we apply these concepts to biosimilars and we discuss: definitions of prescribability and interchangeability and

  1. All diamond self-aligned thin film transistor

    Gerbi, Jennifer [Champaign, IL


    A substantially all diamond transistor with an electrically insulating substrate, an electrically conductive diamond layer on the substrate, and a source and a drain contact on the electrically conductive diamond layer. An electrically insulating diamond layer is in contact with the electrically conductive diamond layer, and a gate contact is on the electrically insulating diamond layer. The diamond layers may be homoepitaxial, polycrystalline, nanocrystalline or ultrananocrystalline in various combinations.A method of making a substantially all diamond self-aligned gate transistor is disclosed in which seeding and patterning can be avoided or minimized, if desired.


    Siniša Dunda


    Full Text Available The influence of diamond concentration to the wear or diamond layer and to the life time of the diamond wire has experimentally tested. The changes of the diamond concentration were achieved by changing the beads' pace per m' of diamond wire. Upon the obtained results of the experiment, the optimal concentration of diamonds has been established, also considering the least cost, per square meter of sawing (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. The mechanical and strength properties of diamond.

    Field, J E


    Diamond is an exciting material with many outstanding properties; see, for example Field J E (ed) 1979 The Properties of Diamond (London: Academic) and Field J E (ed) 1992 The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond (London: Academic). It is pre-eminent as a gemstone, an industrial tool and as a material for solid state research. Since natural diamonds grew deep below the Earth's surface before their ejection to mineable levels, they also contain valuable information for geologists. The key to many of diamond's properties is the rigidity of its structure which explains, for example, its exceptional hardness and its high thermal conductivity. Since 1953, it has been possible to grow synthetic diamond. Before then, it was effectively only possible to have natural diamond, with a small number of these found in the vicinity of meteorite impacts. Techniques are now available to grow gem quality synthetic diamonds greater than 1 carat (0.2 g) using high temperatures and pressures (HTHP) similar to those found in nature. However, the costs are high, and the largest commercially available industrial diamonds are about 0.01 carat in weight or about 1 mm in linear dimension. The bulk of synthetic diamonds used industrially are 600 µm or less. Over 75% of diamond used for industrial purposes today is synthetic material. In recent years, there have been two significant developments. The first is the production of composites based on diamond; these materials have a significantly greater toughness than diamond while still maintaining very high hardness and reasonable thermal conductivity. The second is the production at low pressures by metastable growth using chemical vapour deposition techniques. Deposition onto non-diamond substrates was first demonstrated by Spitsyn et al 1981 J. Cryst. Growth 52 219-26 and confirmed by Matsumoto et al 1982 Japan J. Appl. Phys. 21 L183-5. These developments have added further to the versatility of diamond. Two other groups of

  4. The provenance of Borneo's enigmatic alluvial diamonds

    White, Lloyd; Graham, Ian; Tanner, Dominique; Hall, Robert; Armstrong, Richard; Yaxley, Greg; Barron, Larry; Spencer, Lee; van Leeuwen, Theo


    Gem-quality diamonds occur in several alluvial deposits across central and southern Borneo. Borneo has been a known source of diamonds for centuries, but the location of their primary igneous source remains enigmatic. Numerous geological models have been proposed to explain the distribution of Borneo's diamonds. To assess these models, we used a variety of techniques to examine heavy minerals from Kalimantan's Cempaka paleoalluvial diamond deposit. This involved collecting U-Pb isotopic data, fission track and trace element geochemistry of zircon as well as major element geochemical data of spinels and morphological descriptions of zircon and diamond. Our results indicate that the Cempaka diamonds were likely derived from at least two sources, one which was relatively local and/or involved little reworking, and the other more distal recording several periods of reworking. The distal diamond source is interpreted to be diamond-bearing pipes that intruded the basement of a block that: (1) rifted from northwest Australia (East Java or SW Borneo) and the diamonds were recycled into its sedimentary cover, or: (2) were emplaced elsewhere (e.g. NW Australia) and transported to a block (e.g. East Java or SW Borneo). Both of these scenarios require the diamonds to be transported with the block when it rifted from NW Australia in the Late Jurassic. The 'local' diamonds could be associated with ophiolitic rocks that are exposed in the nearby Meratus Mountains, or could be diamondiferous diatremes associated with eroded Miocene high-K alkaline intrusions north of the Barito Basin. If this were the case, these intrusions would indicate that the lithosphere beneath SW Borneo is thick (~150 km or greater).

  5. “Book-pilferage Is Not Banditry”──Information Interchange Across Cultural Boundaries

    Karl Lo


    Full Text Available


    Recent advance in information technology has enhanced information interchange all over the world. The paper uses a Chinese saying of "book-pilferage is not banditry" to illustrate that technology is only one of many factors in information interchange. Economic, political, legal and any of many other factors could censor information flow. Technology alone cannot mandate information flow. However, technology has the power to moderate the economic, political, legal and other cultural biases to enable the society to become more open to information interchange as a result.

  6. A Cross-Classified CFA-MTMM Model for Structurally Different and Nonindependent Interchangeable Methods.

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Jeon, Minjeong; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Eid, Michael


    Multirater (multimethod, multisource) studies are increasingly applied in psychology. Eid and colleagues (2008) proposed a multilevel confirmatory factor model for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data combining structurally different and multiple independent interchangeable methods (raters). In many studies, however, different interchangeable raters (e.g., peers, subordinates) are asked to rate different targets (students, supervisors), leading to violations of the independence assumption and to cross-classified data structures. In the present work, we extend the ML-CFA-MTMM model by Eid and colleagues (2008) to cross-classified multirater designs. The new C4 model (Cross-Classified CTC[M-1] Combination of Methods) accounts for nonindependent interchangeable raters and enables researchers to explicitly model the interaction between targets and raters as a latent variable. Using a real data application, it is shown how credibility intervals of model parameters and different variance components can be obtained using Bayesian estimation techniques.

  7. Homoepitaxial Boron Doped Diamond Anvil as Heating Element in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    Montgomery, Jeffrey; Samudrala, Gopi; Vohra, Yogesh


    Recent advances in designer-diamond technology have allowed for the use of electrically and thermally conducting homoepitaxially-grown layers of boron-doped diamond (grown at 1200 C with a 2% mixture of CH4 in H, resulting in extremely high doping levels ˜ 10^20/cm^3) to be used as heating elements in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). These diamonds allow for precise control of the temperature inside of the diamond anvil itself, particularly when coupled with a cryostat. Furthermore, the unmatched thermally conducting nature of diamond ensures that no significant spatial gradient in temperature occurs across the culet area. Since a thermocouple can easily be attached anywhere on the diamond surface, we can also measure diamond temperatures directly. With two such heaters, one can raise sample temperatures uniformly, or with any desired gradient along the pressure axis while preserving optical access. In our initial experiments with these diamond anvils we report on the measurement of the thermal conductivity of copper-beryllium using a single diamond heater and two thermocouples. We augment these measurements with measurements of sample pressure via ruby fluorescence and electrical resistance of the sample and diamond heater.

  8. Pro EDI in BizTalk Server 2006 R2 electronic document interchange solutions

    Beckner, Mark


    As business becomes more dependent on working with partners, suppliers, and other organizations in a streamlined way, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is one of the next big waves in connected systems. Microsoft BizTalk Server 2006 R2 offers an efficient, integrated way to deploy EDI solutions, and with the help of this book, readers will see how EDI can be used in their business and how best to get it set up with BizTalk. This book offers insights into the brand-new Biztalk 2006 R2--based EDI functionality, including the far greater flexibility in handling interchange. It gives advice coveri

  9. Trace elements in Gem-Quality Diamonds - Origin and evolution of diamond-forming fluid inclusions

    Pearson, Graham; Krebs, Mandy; Stachel, Thomas; Woodland, Sarah; Chinn, Ingrid; Kong, Julie


    In the same way that melt inclusions in phenocrysts have expanded our idea of melt formation and evolution in basalts, studying fluids trapped in diamonds is providing important new constraints on the nature of diamond-forming fluids. Fibrous and cloudy diamonds trap a high but variable density of fluid inclusions and so have been extensively studied using major and trace element compositions. In contrast, constraining the nature of the diamond-forming fluid for high purity gem-quality diamonds has been restricted by the rarity of available high quality trace element data. This is due to the extremely low concentrations of impurities that gem diamonds contain - often in the ppt range. The recent discovery of fluids in gem diamonds showing similar major element chemistry to fluid-rich diamonds suggest that many diamonds may share a common spectrum of parental fluids. Here we test this idea further. Recent advances in analytical techniques, in particular the development of the "off-line" laser ablation pre-concentration approach, have allowed fully quantitative trace element data to be recovered from "fluid-poor", high quality gem diamonds. We present trace element data for gem diamonds from a variety of locations from Canada, S. Africa and Russia, containing either silicate or sulphide inclusions to examine possible paragenetic or genetic differences between fluids. REE abundance in the "gem" diamonds vary from 0.1 to 0.0001 x chondrite. To a first order, we observe the same spectrum of trace element compositions in the gem diamonds as that seen in fluid-rich "fibrous" diamonds, supporting a common origin for the fluids. REE patterns range from extremely flat (Ce/Yb)n 2.5 to 5 (commonly in sulphide-bearing diamonds) to >70, the latter having significantly greater inter-element HFSE/LILE fractionation. In general, the fluids from the sulphide-bearing diamonds are less REE-enriched than the silicate-bearing diamonds, but the ranges overlap significantly. The very

  10. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N


    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  11. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    Renneboog, L.D.R.


    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual no

  12. Nature and genesis of Kalimantan diamonds

    Smith, Chris B.; Bulanova, Galina P.; Kohn, Simon C.; Milledge, H. Judith; Hall, Anne E.; Griffin, Brendan J.; Pearson, D. Graham


    The origin of alluvial diamonds from the four main diamond mining districts in Kalimantan was studied through characterisation of their properties, and determination of PT and age of formation of representative collections of diamonds from four localities of the island. The diamonds are mostly colourless, yellow or pale brown, shiny surfaced, dodecahedroids, octahedron/dodecahedroids, and more rarely cube combination forms. They are intensively resorbed. They have surface radiation damage and show abrasion features indicative of fluvial transportation and crustal recycling. The diamonds were polished down to expose internal structures and mineral inclusions. The majority of the diamonds are internally homogeneous or have simple octahedral zonation and show plastic deformation. Analysis by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy of their N content and aggregation characteristics shows that many diamonds are well-aggregated type IaB implying a long-term, mantle residence time and/or high temperatures of formation. Identified inclusion parageneses are 68% peridotitic and 32% eclogitic. The peridotitic inclusions are represented by olivine, chromite, garnet, orthopyroxene and pentlandite. Olivines (Fo 92-93) belong to the dunite-harzburgite paragenesis, with one at Fo 90 identified as lherzolitic. Chromite inclusions with 65-66 wt.% Cr 2O 3 and 4.2 GPa) are consistent with a paleo-heat flow of 38 to 40 mW/m 2 and derivation from 120 to 160 km depth, i.e. subcontinental mantle lithosphere conditions similar to diamonds from African and Yakutian cratonic situations.

  13. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    Renneboog, L.D.R.


    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  14. Anisotropic mechanical amorphization drives wear in diamond.

    Pastewka, Lars; Moser, Stefan; Gumbsch, Peter; Moseler, Michael


    Diamond is the hardest material on Earth. Nevertheless, polishing diamond is possible with a process that has remained unaltered for centuries and is still used for jewellery and coatings: the diamond is pressed against a rotating disc with embedded diamond grit. When polishing polycrystalline diamond, surface topographies become non-uniform because wear rates depend on crystal orientations. This anisotropy is not fully understood and impedes diamond's widespread use in applications that require planar polycrystalline films, ranging from cutting tools to confinement fusion. Here, we use molecular dynamics to show that polished diamond undergoes an sp(3)-sp(2) order-disorder transition resulting in an amorphous adlayer with a growth rate that strongly depends on surface orientation and sliding direction, in excellent correlation with experimental wear rates. This anisotropy originates in mechanically steered dissociation of individual crystal bonds. Similarly to other planarization processes, the diamond surface is chemically activated by mechanical means. Final removal of the amorphous interlayer proceeds either mechanically or through etching by ambient oxygen.

  15. Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation

    Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim;


    We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...

  16. The Charge Collection Properties of CVD Diamond

    Behnke, T; Oh, A; Steuerer, J; Wagner, A; Zeuner, W; Behnke, Ties; Hüntemeyer, Petra; Oh, Alexander; Steuerer, Johannes; Wagner, Albrecht; Zeuner, Wolfram


    The charge collection properties of CVD diamond have been investigated with ionising radiation. In this study two CVD diamond samples, prepared with electrical contacts have been used as solid state ionisation chambers. The diamonds have been studied with beta particles and 10 keV photons, providing a homogeneous ionisation density and with protons and alpha particles which are absorbed in a thin surface layer. For the latter case a strong decrease of the signal as function of time is observed, which is attributed to polarisation effects inside the diamond. Spatially resolved measurements with protons show a large variation of the charge collection efficiency, whereas for photons and minimum ionising particles the response is much more uniform and in the order of 18%. These results indicate that the applicability of CVD diamond as a position sensitive particle detector depends on the ionisation type and appears to be promising for homogeneous ionisation densities as provided by relativistic charged particles.

  17. He-3 in diamonds - The cosmogenic component

    Lal, D.; Craig, H.; Wacker, J. F.; Poreda, R.


    Results are presented of measurements of He-3 and He-4 concentrations in diamonds received directly from mines, as well as in industrual samples. None of the diamonds recovered from underground mining was found to have a He-3/He-4 ratio, R, exceeding three times the atmospheric He-3/He-4 ratio R(A), while one of the industrial diamonds was found to have an R value of 142 R(A). It is concluded that the hypothesis of Ozima et al. (1983) of high primordial He-3/He-4 ratios in diamonds exceeding MORB ratios is not required. The present findings on the He-3/He-4 ratios are explained as the result of cosmogenic and nucleogenic production of He-3 within the diamonds.

  18. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S


    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  19. Diamond sensors for future high energy experiments

    Bachmair, Felix, E-mail:


    With the planned upgrade of the LHC to High-Luminosity-LHC [1], the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation tolerant technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond sensors are an established technology as beam condition monitors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. The RD42-collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to use CVD diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in extreme radiation environments. An overview of the latest developments from RD42 is presented including the present status of diamond sensor production, a study of pulse height dependencies on incident particle flux and the development of 3D diamond sensors.

  20. Fiber-Coupled Diamond Quantum Nanophotonic Interface

    Burek, Michael J.; Meuwly, Charles; Evans, Ruffin E.; Bhaskar, Mihir K.; Sipahigil, Alp; Meesala, Srujan; Machielse, Bartholomeus; Sukachev, Denis D.; Nguyen, Christian T.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Bielejec, Edward; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Lončar, Marko


    Color centers in diamond provide a promising platform for quantum optics in the solid state, with coherent optical transitions and long-lived electron and nuclear spins. Building upon recent demonstrations of nanophotonic waveguides and optical cavities in single-crystal diamond, we now demonstrate on-chip diamond nanophotonics with a high-efficiency fiber-optical interface achieving >90 % power coupling at visible wavelengths. We use this approach to demonstrate a bright source of narrow-band single photons based on a silicon-vacancy color center embedded within a waveguide-coupled diamond photonic crystal cavity. Our fiber-coupled diamond quantum nanophotonic interface results in a high flux (approximately 38 kHz) of coherent single photons (near Fourier limited at quantum networks that interface multiple emitters, both on chip and separated by long distances.

  1. Review Article: Quantum Nanophotonics in Diamond

    Schröder, Tim; Zheng, Jiabao; Trusheim, Matthew E; Walsh, Michael; Chen, Edward H; Li, Luozhou; Bayn, Igal; Englund, Dirk


    The past decade has seen great advances in developing color centers in diamond for sensing, quantum information processing, and tests of quantum foundations. Increasingly, the success of these applications as well as fundamental investigations of light-matter interaction depend on improved control of optical interactions with color centers -- from better fluorescence collection to efficient and precise coupling with confined single optical modes. Wide ranging research efforts have been undertaken to address these demands through advanced nanofabrication of diamond. This review will cover recent advances in diamond nano- and microphotonic structures for efficient light collection, color center to nanocavity coupling, hybrid integration of diamond devices with other material systems, and the wide range of fabrication methods that have enabled these complex photonic diamond systems.

  2. Early diamond making at General Electric

    Strong, H. M.


    This is an account of how GE's early interest in a new super-hard metal, cobalt cemented tungsten carbide, for drawing tungsten lamp filament wire, led to a broader interest in the realm of super pressure and to diamond synthesis. P. W. Bridgman at Harvard University had demonstrated the new metal's (``Carboloy'') ability to generate pressures of 100 000 atm (100 kbars). Armed with this new capability, GE initiated a diamond project in 1951. In December 1954 two synthesized diamonds emerged in a marginal experiment that for a while could not be reproduced. Nevertheless, that experiment gave the critical clue to the process that now provides 90% of the world's industrial diamond needs. The high-pressure high-temperature process (HPHT) together with the new carbon vapor deposition process (CVD) brings diamonds' unique and valuable properties to applications requiring crystals tailored to fit specific needs.

  3. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M


    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  4. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)


    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  5. Diamond sensors for future high energy experiments

    Bachmair, Felix


    With the planned upgrade of the LHC to High-Luminosity-LHC [1], the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation tolerant technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond sensors are an established technology as beam condition monitors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. The RD42-collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to use CVD diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in extreme radiation environments. An overview of the latest developments from RD42 is presented including the present status of diamond sensor production, a study of pulse height dependencies on incident particle flux and the development of 3D diamond sensors.

  6. A MEMS diamond hemispherical resonator

    Bernstein, J. J.; Bancu, M. G.; Cook, E. H.; Chaparala, M. V.; Teynor, W. A.; Weinberg, M. S.


    In this paper we report the fabrication of hemispherical polycrystalline diamond resonators fabricated on a novel high-temperature glass substrate. The hemispherical resonator gyroscope is one of the most accurate and rugged of the mechanical gyroscopes, and can be operated in either rate or whole-angle mode due to its high degree of symmetry. A fabrication sequence for creating extremely symmetric 3D MEMS hemispheres is presented. Mode shapes and frequencies obtained with a laser vibrometer are shown, as well as curves of Q versus pressure, and the dependence of frequency on anchor size. Fundamental mode frequency matching to gyroscope operation in whole-angle mode.

  7. [Manufacture of diamond blades via microsystem technology].

    Spraul, Christoph W; Ertl, Stephan; Strobel, Stefan; Gretzschel, Ralph; Schirmer, Enrico; Rösch, Rudolf; Lingenfelder, Christian; Lang, Gerhard K


    The application of diamond knives has steadily increased in ophthalmic surgery. However, the geometry of the blade, its thickness and the sharpness of the cutting edge are limited by the abrasive diamond polishing process, e. g. the crystalline morphology of the bulk material and the grinding powder used. A new generation of diamond blades is presented herewith allowing free choice of blade shape and thickness and possessing excellent sharpness due to a new polishing process. The new production method is based on a high-quality CVD (chemical vapour deposition) diamond film of some tenths of microns thickness, deposited on a silicon wafer as microchip technology. The mechanical properties of this synthetic diamond film are almost equal to those of a natural diamond and the surface of this film is mirror-like after deposition without requiring post-polishing. The shape of the blade can be freely defined and is transferred into the diamond film by a plasma polishing process adopted from microsystem technology. The new production method results in highly reproducible diamond blades. Concave blades and round shapes can now be realised without the restrictions of the conventional production process. The force-free fabrication method even allows realisation of miniaturized blades (e. g. width production. Plasma polishing by means of gas atoms results in extreme sharpness with the cutting edge radius in the range of approx. 3 nm. Utilising microsystem technology we were able to manufacture reproducible artificial diamond blades. The new process offers for the first time surgeons a possibility of designing blades with a geometry close to their personal needs. Furthermore, the potential of facet-free ergonomically shaped diamond blades may stimulate further improvements towards novel surgical techniques.

  8. Microstructure and thermal expansion of Ti coated diamond/Al composites

    YANG Bo; YU Jia-kang; CHEN Chuang


    A titanium coating fabricated via vacuum vapor deposition for diamond/Al composites was used to improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond particles and Al matrix, and the Ti coated diamond particles reinforced Al matrix composites were prepared by gas pressure infiltration for electronic packaging. The surface structure of the Ti coated diamond particles was investigated by XRD and SEM. The interfacial characteristics and fracture surfaces were observed by SEM and EDS. The coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) of 50% (volume fraction) Ti coated diamond particles reinforced Al matrix composites was measured. The Ti coating on diamond before infiltration consists of inner TiC layer and outer TiO_2 layer, and the inner TiC layer is very stable and cannot be removed during infiltration process. Fractographs of the composites illustrate that aluminum matrix fracture is the dominant fracture mechanism, and the stepped breakage of a diamond particle indicates strong interfacial bonding between the Ti coated diamond particles and the Al matrix. The measured low CTEs (5.07×10~(-6)-9.27×10~(-6_) K~(-1) of the composites also show the strong interfacial bonding between the Ti coated diamond particles and the Al matrix.

  9. The influence of steepness of dominance hierarchies on reciprocity and interchange in captive groups of bonobos (Pan paniscus)

    Stevens, J.M.G.; Vervaecke, H.; Vries, Han de; Elsacker, L. van


    Biological market models explain variability in reciprocity and interchange between groups. In groups with a shallow dominance gradient, grooming will be mostly exchanged for itself (i.e. exchange will occur). In groups with steep dominance hierarchies, interchange is expected: individuals will groo

  10. Shape analysis of synthetic diamond

    Mullan, C


    Two-dimensional images of synthetic industrial diamond particles were obtained using a camera, framegrabber and PC-based image analysis software. Various methods for shape quantification were applied, including two-dimensional shape factors, Fourier series expansion of radius as a function of angle, boundary fractal analysis, polygonal harmonics, and comer counting methods. The shape parameter found to be the most relevant was axis ratio, defined as the ratio of the minor axis to the major axis of the ellipse with the same second moments of area as the particle. Axis ratio was used in an analysis of the sorting of synthetic diamonds on a vibrating table. A model was derived based on the probability that a particle of a given axis ratio would travel to a certain bin. The model described the sorting of bulk material accurately but it was found not to be applicable if the shape mix of the feed material changed dramatically. This was attributed to the fact that the particle-particle interference was not taken int...

  11. Localized vibrational modes in diamond

    Murzaev, R. T.; Bachurin, D. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.


    Discrete breather (DB) or, synonymously, intrinsic localized mode (ILM) is a spatially localized and time-periodic vibrational mode in a defect-free nonlinear lattice, e.g., in a crystal lattice. Standing DB and DB clusters (double and triple) are studied in diamond using molecular dynamics method with the AIREBO interatomic potentials. Single DB can be easily excited by applying initial shifts, A0, to a pair of nearest atoms along the valence bond in the opposite directions. Admissible excitation amplitudes are 0.09 ≤A0 /a0 ≤ 0.12, where a0 is the equilibrium interatomic distance. The core of a DB is a pair of nearest carbon atoms oscillating out-of-phase, while the neighboring atoms oscillate with one order of magnitude lower amplitudes. DB frequency is above the top of the phonon spectrum and increases with the oscillation amplitude. DB lives for more than 100 oscillation periods which approximately corresponds to 2 ps. The range of initial amplitudes and other conditions necessary for the excitation of double and triple DB clusters as well as their lifetime are investigated in detail. Two different mechanisms of energy exchange between DBs in the DB clusters are revealed, which is the main result of the present study. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear lattice dynamics of diamond.

  12. Entanglement, Holography and Causal Diamonds

    de Boer, Jan; Heller, Michal P; Myers, Robert C


    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the va...

  13. Diamond nucleation on surface of C60 thin layers

    杨国伟; 袁放成; 刘大军; 何金田; 张兵临


    Diamond nucleation on the surface of C60 thin layers and intermediate layer of Si substrates are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cross-section SEM images of diamond films show that diamond grains really nucleate on the surface of C60 thin layers. The SEM images of diamond nucleating sites show the nucleating aggregation of diamond on C60 surfaces. The preferential oriented diamond films are observed. The plasma pre-treatment of C60 sublimating layers is a key factor for diamond nucleation.

  14. Effects of titanium coating on property of diamond


    The titanium film was coated on the surface of diamond crystal in order to improve the chemical properties of diamond and the effect of titanium coating on the property of diamond was discussed. The anti-impacting strength, the oxidization process and the soakage property between vitrified bond and diamond were investigated. It is found that, when the titanium film is coated on the surface of diamond crystal, the soakage angle between vitrified bond and diamond decreases from 39.5° to 34.5° at 993 K, and the oxidization degree on the surface of diamonds is lowered greatly.

  15. Specification of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: Deliverable 1.1

    Boer, A.; Di Bello, M.; van den Berg, K.; Gordon, T.; Förhécz, A.; Vas, R.


    The main technical objectives of work package 1 are to develop a first version of a Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), building upon emerging XML-based standards of the Semantic Web, including RDF and OWL, and Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for interacting with legal knowledge systems

  16. Using EDI (electronic data interchange) to improve the accounts payable department.

    Bort, R; Schinderle, D R


    Additional paperwork, escalating costs, and an outdated accounts payable system at St. Joseph Health System forced management staff to alter the way the accounts payable department operates. This article describes the process the health system used to automate one of its accounts payable departments by using electronic data interchange/electronic funds transfer (EDI/EFT) technology.

  17. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni


    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  18. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J


    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (Pmet) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and Pmet. As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  19. Baseline Assessment Literature Review and Pre-School Record Keeping in Scotland. Interchange No. 55.

    Wilkinson, J. Eric; Watt, Joyce; Napuk, Angela; Normand, Barbara


    Every opportunity should be taken to communicate research findings both inside and outside government programs and make them accessible to policy makers, teachers, lecturers, parents, and employers. The "Interchange" series aims to further improve the Educational Research Unit's (ERU) dissemination of the findings of research funded by…

  20. Specification of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: Deliverable 1.1

    Boer, A.; Di Bello, M.; van den Berg, K.; Gordon, T.; Förhécz, A.; Vas, R.


    The main technical objectives of work package 1 are to develop a first version of a Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), building upon emerging XML-based standards of the Semantic Web, including RDF and OWL, and Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for interacting with legal knowledge

  1. Machine learning and intelligence science: Sino-forgeign interchange workshop IScIDE2010(A)

    Lei XU; Yanda LI


    @@ All the papers in this special issue are invited and compiled as Part A of the publication of the 2010 Sino-foreign interchange workshop on Intelligence Science and Intelligent Data Engineering(IScIDE2010).This workshop Was held on June 3-5,2010 in Harbin,and Was jointly held with 2010 academician forum on Information Science & Intelligence Science (ISIS).

  2. Study of extended MHD effects on interchange modes in spheromak equilibria

    Howell, E. C.; Sovinec, C. R.


    A study of extended MHD effects on linear interchange modes is performed using the NIMROD code [Sovinec & King JCP 2010]. A linear cylindrical equilibrium model is adapted from [Jardin NF 1982] to allow finite toroidal current at the edge. These equilibria are representative of SSPX discharges where currents are driven on the open field to keep the safety factor above 1/2 across the profile [McLean et al., POP 2006]. These spheromaks have weak magnetic shear, and interchange stability is an important consideration. The Suydam parameter, D, is scaled to study resistive and ideal interchange modes. The calculated MHD growth rate increases with D. The resistive interchange scaling γ ~η 1 / 3 is observed for D <1/4 . Calculations using the full extended MHD model are performed for a range of hall parameters Λ. This model includes gyro-viscosity, the hall term, equilibrium diamagnetic flows, and the cross-field diamagnetic heat flux. Two fluid effects in the full model are always destabilizing at large Λ. However, some cases exhibit a range of Λ where the growth rate for the full model is reduced relative to the MHD growth rate. Work supported by US DOE.

  3. New concepts in the abstract format of the Compositional Interchange Format

    Beek, D.A. van; Collins, P.J.; Nadales Agut, D.E.; Rooda, J.E.; Schiffelers, R.R.H.; Giua, A.; Silva, M.; Zaytoon, J.


    The compositional interchange format for hybrid systems (CIF) supports inter-operability of a wide range of tools by means of model transformations to and from the CIF. Work on the CIF takes place in the FP7 Multiform project, and in several other European projects. The CIF consists of an abstract a

  4. Diamond Production and Processing : What Armenia can Learn from an Intra-Regional Exchange on the Diamond Trade

    Grigorian, Karén


    There is a growing gap worldwide between the rising demand and stagnating supply of diamonds, producing new opportunities for diamond processing countries such as Armenia. Building productive capacity through skills development and technological progress is of central importance to achieving sustainable growth in diamond manufacturing countries. Secondary diamond industries are successful ...

  5. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Haggerty, S. E.


    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km


    Mária Domonkos


    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  7. Diamond detector - material science, design and application

    Gaowei, Mengjia

    Modern synchrotrons, such as the NSLS-II, will enable unprecedented science by having extremely high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. These capabilities create a harsh and demanding environment for measuring the characteristics of the x-ray beam. In many cases, existing measurement techniques fail completely, requiring the development of new detectors which can meet the demands of the synchrotron. The combination of diamond properties ranked diamond an appealing candidate in the field of radiation detection in extreme conditions and it has been used as x-ray sensor material for decades. However, only until the development of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the synthesis of diamond that has it been considered for wider applications in the state-of-art synchrotron light sources as part of beamline diagnostics, including the detection of x-ray beam flux and position. While defects and dislocations in CVD grown single crystal diamonds are inevitable, there are solutions in other aspects of a device fabrication to compensate this technological downside, including improving device performance in engineering diamond surface electrode materials and patterns and slicing and polishing diamond plates into thinner pieces. The content of this dissertation summarizes our effort in addressing several problems we encounter in the process of design and fabrication of single crystal CVD diamond based electronic devices. In order to study the generation of post-anneal photoconductive gain in our devices we have discussed in section 3 and 4 the two criteria for the observation of photoconductive current. In section 3 we reveal the correlation between structural defects in diamond and the post-anneal photoconductive regions. Section 4 introduces the measurements of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) we applied to investigate the diamond-metal Schottky barrier height for several metals and diamond surface terminations. The position of the

  8. Cathodoluminescence of natural, plastically deformed pink diamonds.

    Gaillou, E; Post, J E; Rose, T; Butler, J E


    The 49 type I natural pink diamonds examined exhibit color restricted to lamellae or bands oriented along {111} that are created by plastic deformation. Pink diamonds fall into two groups: (1) diamonds from Argyle in Australia and Santa Elena in Venezuela are heavily strained throughout and exhibit pink bands alternating with colorless areas, and (2) diamonds from other localities have strain localized near the discrete pink lamellae. Growth zones are highlighted by a blue cathodoluminescence (CL) and crosscut by the pink lamellae that emit yellowish-green CL that originates from the H3 center. This center probably forms by the recombination of nitrogen-related centers (A-aggregates) and vacancies mobilized by natural annealing in the Earth's mantle. Twinning is the most likely mechanism through which plastic deformation is accommodated for the two groups of diamonds. The plastic deformation creates new centers visible through spectroscopic methods, including the one responsible for the pink color, which remains unidentified. The differences in the plastic deformation features, and resulting CL properties, for the two groups might correlate to the particular geologic conditions under which the diamonds formed; those from Argyle and Santa Elena are deposits located within Proterozoic cratons, whereas most diamonds originate from Archean cratons.

  9. Artifact Diamond Its Allure And Significance

    Yoder, Max N.


    While the preponderance of the mechanical, optical, and electronic properties of natural diamond have been known for over a decade, only recently has artifact diamond in technologically useful form factors become an exciting possibility. The advent of sacrificial, lattice matched crystalline substrates provides the basis not only for semiconducting applications of diamond, but for optical mirrors, lenses, and windows as well. As a semiconductor, diamond has the highest resistivity, the highest saturated electron velocity, the highest thermal conductivity, the lowest dielectric constant, the highest dielectric strength, the greatest hardness, the largest bandgap and the smallest lattice constant of any material. It also has electron and hole mobilities greater than those of silicon. Its figure of merit as a microwave power amplifier is unexcelled and exceeds that of silicon by a multiplier of 8200. For integrated circuit potential, its thermal conductivity, saturated velocity, and dielectric constant also place it in the premier position (32 times that of silicon, 46 times that of GaAs). Although not verified, its radiation hardness should also be unmatched. Aside from its brilliant sparkle as a gemstone, there has been little use of diamond in the field of optics. Processing of the diamond surface now appears to be as simple as that of any other material --albeit with different techniques. In fact, it may be possible to etch diamond far more controllably (at economically viable rates) than any other material as the product of the etch is gaseous and the etched trough is self-cleaning. Other properties of diamond make it an ideal optical material. Among them are its unmatched thermal conductivity, its extremely low absorption loss above 228 nanometers, and unmatched Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, hardness, thermal shock, and modulus of elasticity. If the recently-found mechanisms by which erbium impurities in III-V junctions can be made to "lase

  10. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Gruen, Dieter M.


    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  11. Tribological performances of diamond film and graphite/diamond composite film with paraffin oil lubrication


    In this paper, the tribological performances of diamond film and graphite/diamond com-posite film were compared on an SRV wear testing machine with paraffin oil lubrication. The sur-face morphologies of specimens and wear tracks were observed by SEM. The wear volumes ofwear tracks were measured by profilometer. The influence of load on the tribological performancesof different specimens was studied. The wear mechanism under paraffin oil lubrication was ana-lyzed. The results showed that with paraffin oil lubrication, the friction coefficient and wear volumeof graphite/diamond composite film specimen are lower than diamond film. Under paraffin oil lu-brication, the wear mechanisms of both diamond film and graphite/diamond composite film weremainly sub-micro-fracture.

  12. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel


    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Physics and applications of CVD diamond

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nesladek, Milos


    Here, leading scientists report on why and how diamond can be optimized for applications in bioelectronic and electronics. They cover such topics as growth techniques, new and conventional doping mechanisms, superconductivity in diamond, and excitonic properties, while application aspects include quantum electronics at room temperature, biosensors as well as diamond nanocantilevers and SAWs.Written in a review style to make the topic accessible for a wider community of scientists working in interdisciplinary fields with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, this is e

  14. Mechanism of diamond-to-graphite transformation at diamond-stable conditions

    ZANG ChuangYi; CHEN XiaoZhou; HU Qiang; MA HongAn; JIAXiaoPeng


    The diamond-to-graphite transformation at diamond-stable conditions is studied by temperature gradient method (TGM) under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT), although it is unreasonable from the view of thermodynamic considerations. It is found that, at diamond-stable conditions, for example, at 5.5 GPa and 1550 K, with fine diamond grits as carbon source and NiMnCo alloy as metal solvent assisted, not only large diamond crystals, but metastable regrown graphite crystals would be grown by layer growth mechanism, and the abundance of carbon source in the higher temperature region is indispensable for the presence of metastable regrown graphite crystals. From this transformation, it is concluded that, with metal solvent assisted, although the mechanism of crystal growth could be understood by the macro-mechanism of solubility difference between diamond and graphite in metal solvents, from the point of micro-mechanism, the minimum growth units for diamond or graphite crystals should be at atomic level and unrelated to the kinds of carbon source (diamond or graphite), which could be accumulated free-selectively on the graphite with sp2Tr or diamond crystals with sp3 bond structure.


    Kanyuk M. I.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  16. Comparison theorems for causal diamonds

    Berthiere, Clement; Solodukhin, Sergey N


    We formulate certain inequalities for the geometric quantities characterizing causal diamonds in curved and Minkowski spacetimes. These inequalities involve the red-shift factor which, as we show explicitly in the spherically symmetric case, is monotonic in the radial direction and it takes its maximal value at the centre. As a byproduct of our discussion we re-derive Bishop's inequality without assuming the positivity of the spatial Ricci tensor. We then generalize our considerations to arbitrary, static and not necessarily spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the case of spacetimes with a horizon our generalization involves the so-called {\\it domain of dependence}. The respective volume, expressed in terms of the duration measured by a distant observer compared with the volume of the domain in Minkowski spacetime, exhibits behaviours which differ if $d=4$ or $d>4$. This peculiarity of four dimensions is due to the logarithmic subleading term in the asymptotic expansion of the metric nea...

  17. Astronomers debate diamonds in space


    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  18. Ultra-fast calculations using diamond

    Van Dijk, T.


    TU Delft researchers have managed to use a piece of diamond to hold four quantum bits that can be spun, flipped and entangled with each other. This is an important step towards a working quantum computer

  19. Modified diamond dies for laser applications

    McWilliams, R.A.


    A modified wire drawing die for spatial filtering techniques is described. It was designed for use in high power laser systems. The diamond aperture is capable of enduring high intensity laser frequency without damaging the laser beam profile. The diamond is mounted at the beam focus in a vacuum of 1 x 10/sup -5/ Torr. The vacuum prevents plasma forming at the diamond aperture, thus enabling the beam to pass through without damaging the holder or aperture. The spatial filters are fitted with a manipulator that has three electronic stepping motors, can position the aperture in three orthogonal directions, and is capable of 3.2 resolution. Shiva laser system is using 105 diamond apertures for shaping the High Energy Laser Beam.

  20. Films Composed Of Diamond And Diamondlike Carbon

    Shing, Yuh-Han


    Proposed films composed of diamond and diamondlike carbon useful as wear-resistant and self-lubricating protective and tribological coats at extreme temperatures and in corrosive and oxidizing environments. Films have wide variety of industrial applications.

  1. Advanced Bonded Diamond for Optical Applications


    demonstrates a doublet structure. As we know , diamond crystal will give a typical Raman peak at 1332 (1/cm). If the diamond grain is under tensile stress, the...1617nm to 1645 nm. Illuaiiri«nt: MHITI Htdiu»: AIB Sub-sttftt-e: GLASS Ixlt: CLASS D«tact or : U>1AL Angle: 0.0 (dag) Mf* MUt : 1430.0

  2. Low-stress doped ultrananocrystalline diamond

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Buja, Federico; van Spengen, Willem Merlijn


    Nanocrystalline diamond coatings exhibit stress in nano/micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS). Doped nanocrstalline diamond coatings exhibit increased stress. A carbide forming metal coating reduces the in-plane stress. In addition, without any metal coating, simply growing UNCD or NCD with thickness in the range of 3-4 micron also reduces in-plane stress significantly. Such coatings can be used in MEMS applications.

  3. Evaluating Multidimensional Queries by Diamond Dicing

    Webb, Hazel; Lemire, Daniel


    Queries that constrain multiple dimensions simultaneously are difficult to express and compute efficiently in both Structured Query Language (SQL) and multidimensional languages. We introduce the diamond cube operator to facilitate the expression of one such class of multidimensional query. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms to compute diamonds on both real and synthetic large data sets. We show that our custom implementation is more than twenty-five times faster, on a large data set, than popular database engines.

  4. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Li, Xin; Huang, Guoliang; Li, Qiang; Chen, Shengyi


    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the "Diamond ID" and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  5. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)


    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  6. Distribution and characteristics of diamonds from Myanmar

    Win, T. T.; Davies, R. M.; Griffin, W. L.; Wathanakul, P.; French, D. H.


    Diamonds occur in headless placers at several locations within Myanmar. Twenty-six stones from the Momeik area of northern Myanmar and 111 stones from the Theindaw area of southern Myanmar have been studied to characterise their morphology, crystal forms, colour, degree of resorption, surface features, internal structures, mineral inclusions, and nitrogen content and aggregation state. Most stones grew originally as octahedra, but now show very high degrees of resorption, and highly polished surfaces, reflecting transport in a magma. Etch features are abundant, and breakage and abrasion are common, due to alluvial transport. Brown radiation spots are common, suggesting that these diamonds have a long history in surface environments. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images of plates and whole stones commonly display marked oscillatory zoning of yellow and blue bands, outlining octahedral growth zones. Many other stones show uniform yellow CL. Syngenetic mineral inclusions identified thus far are mainly of peridotitic paragenesis and include olivine, chromite and native iron. Infrared spectroscopy studies show that ˜10% of the diamonds have very low-N contents (Type II diamonds). More N-rich diamonds show high degrees of aggregation (Type IaAB). Both types are consistent with derivation from the upper mantle, rather than from crustal metamorphic sources. The primary source of these diamonds is believed to be an alkaline igneous rock (lamproitic rather than kimberlitic) but they may have reached their present locations via a secondary collector such as a sedimentary rock.

  7. Diamond-Fluoroplastic Composites for Abrasive Tools

    Adrianova, O. A.; Kirillin, A. D.; Chersky, I. N.


    Composite materials based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and natural technical diamond powders from Yakutia diamond deposits are developed. It is shown that the compositions based on PTFE and a technical diamond powder at a content of up to 60 wt.%, due to their good physicomechanical characteristics, low friction coefficient, and good wetting of diamond particles by polymer, make is possible to create abrasive tools for polishing and grinding hard metals and semiprecious and precious stones with high serviceability and operational life combined with a considerable increase in the quality of treated surfaces and operational stability of the tools. It is found that PTFE, being a more elastic and softer matrix than the traditional ones, exhibits a self-sharpening effect of diamond grains upon grinding hard surfaces, when the grains go deep into the elastic matrix, the matrix wears out, and the working part of the tool becomes enriched with the diamond powder. These conclusions are confirmed by electron microscopic investigations. It is shown that the introduction of ultradisperse fillings (up to 2 wt.%) into such compositions allows us to improve the characteristics of abrasive tools considerably, especially for grinding hard semiprecious stones. The physicomechanical and frictional characteristics of the compositions and specific examples of their application in the jewelry industry and in stone working are discussed.

  8. Fiscal 1998 engineer interchange project on the engineer interchange project (coal mine technology field), international interchange project. Preliminary study in Russia; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Russia)



    For the engineer interchange project (coal mine technology field), field survey for collecting information was made on the level and trend of production technology through visits to some coal industry organizations by specialists in Russia which is one candidate for the engineer training project by sending and receiving. Although coal is positioned as an important energy resource in Russia, poor business performance and a decrease in production are reported because of privatization and cur off of subsidies during a transfer period to a market economy. In addition, severe environment surrounding the Russian coal industry such as a delay of facility renewal due to poor funds, overage facilities, and moral reduction of workers due to a rationing delay has a potential for further reduction of production. The research group thus surveyed the current state of the Russian coal industry such as actual production structures, actual coal mines, technical levels, and various problem points in Moscow and Baykal districts. (NEDO)

  9. Machine learning and intelligence science:Sino-foreign-interchange workshop on IScIDE2010 (B)

    Lei XU; Yanda LI


    @@ Aiming at a promotion of Sino-foreign-interchange workshop on Intelligence Science and Intelligent Data Engineering (IScIDE2010 ), three special issues have been scheduled in Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in China.One is called "Emerging Themes on Information Theory and Bayesian Approach" (Vol.5, No.3, 2010),which consists of nine invited papers from international well-known pioneers and Chinese senior scientists.The other two special issues are Part A and Part B of the publication of IScIDE2010, a Sino-foreign-interchange workshop on Intelligence Science and Intelligent Data Engineering held on June 3-5, 2010 in Harbin.The Part A came out as Vol.6, No.1, 2011 already, including 14 invited presentations by core researchers both from abroad and from Chinese major universities.

  10. Fast detection of genetic information by an optimized PCR in an interchangeable chip.

    Wu, Jinbo


    In this paper, we report the construction of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA. This device consists of an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component as well as an optical detection system. The DNA amplification happens on an interchangeable chip with the volumes as low as 1.25 μl, while the heating and cooling rate was as fast as 12.7°C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 min to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. An optimized PCR with two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA was also formulated with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific sex determining region Y (SRY) gene marker by utilizing raw saliva was successfully achieved and the genetic identification was in-situ detected right after PCR by the optical detection system.

  11. Apparatus, System and Method for Fast Detection of Genetic Information by PCR in an Interchangeable Chip

    Wen, Weijia


    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device for fast amplification and detection of DNA includes an interchangeable PCR chamber, a temperature control component, and an optical detection system. The DNA amplification is performed on an interchangeable chip with volumes as small as 1.25 µl, while the heating and cooling rate may be as fast as 12.7 °C/second ensuring that the total time needed of only 25 minutes to complete the 35 cycle PCR amplification. The PCR may be performed according to a two-temperature approach for denaturing and annealing (Td and Ta) of DNA with the PCR chip, with which the amplification of male-specific SRY gene marker by utilizing raw saliva may be achieved. The genetic identification may be in-situ detected after PCR by the optical detection system.

  12. USA Standard for a Format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on Magnetic Tape

    American Standards Institute Sectional Subcommittee Z39


    Full Text Available The Chairman of the United States of America Standards Institute, Sectional Committee Z39, Library Work and Documentation, has approved publication of the following draft "USA Standard for a Format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on Magnetic Tape" to hasten availability of this fundamental contribution to bibliographic standardization. Two important implementations follow the Standard. Part B of Appendix I is "Preliminary Guidelines for the Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, and National Agricultural Library Implementation of the Proposed American Standard for a Format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on Magnetic Tape as Applied to Records Representing Monographic Materials in Textual Printed Form (Books" - more succinctly known as MARC II. Part C is a Committee working paper entitled "Preliminary Committee on Scientific and Technical Information (COSATI Guidelines for Implementation of the USA Standard."

  13. The influence of finite Larmor radius effects on the radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    Madsen, Jens; Garcia, Odd E.; Larsen, Jeppe Stærk


    The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the perpendicular convection of isolated particle density filaments driven by interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated using a two-moment gyrofluid model. By means of numerical simulations on a two-dimensional, bi-periodic do......The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the perpendicular convection of isolated particle density filaments driven by interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated using a two-moment gyrofluid model. By means of numerical simulations on a two-dimensional, bi....... Due to FLR effects, the poloidal up-down symmetry in the particle density field observed in the zero Larmor radius limit is broken. The symmetry breaking implies a poloidal motion of the blobs in the BrB direction. At later times, the direction of the poloidal motion is reversed when the blob...

  14. Development of a Window Based Security System for Electronic Data Interchange

    Philip, Achimugu; Joshua, Abah


    The Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is the exchange of standardized documents between computer systems for business use. The objective of this study is to make Electronic Data Interchange secure to use and to eliminate human intervention in the transfer of data between business partners so that productivity and efficiency can be improved and also promote its usage between two or more trading organizations. This paper provides an overview of EDI by describing the traditional problems of exchanging information in business environments and how the EDI solves those problems and gives benefits to the company that makes use of EDI. This paper also introduces the common EDI Standards and explains how it works, how it is used over the internet and the security measures implemented. The system was executed on both local area network and wide area network after a critical study of the existing EDI methods and also implemented using VB.Net programming language. Finally, an interactive program was developed that handle...

  15. Fluctuation-induced shear flow and energy transfer in plasma interchange turbulence

    Li, B. [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Sun, C. K.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhou, A.; Wang, X. G. [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ernst, D. R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    Fluctuation-induced E × B shear flow and energy transfer for plasma interchange turbulence are examined in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. The nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by low and high E × B flow shear. In the first regime, the large-scale turbulent convection is dominant and the mean E × B shear flow is at a relatively low level. By increasing the heat flux above a certain threshold, the increased turbulent intensity gives rise to the transfer of energy from fluctuations to mean E × B flows. As a result, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which a strong mean E × B shear flow is generated.

  16. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    Quiroz Alfaro, Marco Antonio [Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir (Mexico). Escuela de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica y Biologia; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto [University of Ferrara (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry; Vong, Yunny Meas [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., Quertaro (Mexico). Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila


    Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes. (author)

  17. Research on a New Type of Diamond Saw Plate


    With the developing of stone material, diamond saw pl ate is used widely, and in order to increase cutting efficiency and life-span o f diamond saw plate, there are a lot of research jobs of segment for diamond saw plate. Layered segment for diamond saw plate is to divide single segment into s everal cutting tools by its structure, then increases rock-cutting faces. For i mpregnated man-made diamond saw plate, the bonding strength of diamonds with ma trix material has great effect on its life and service....

  18. Inverse Conversion of CO2 into Diamond: Implications for the Origin of Natural Diamond

    Q. W. Chen; Z. S. Lou; Y. T. Qian; Q. Wang


    @@ In prehistoric times carbon was known in the form of soot and charcoal. Ever since Antoine Lavoisier in 1792 and Smithson Tenet in 1797 demonstrated that diamond and graphite are allotropic forms of carbon[1], people have been interested in converting the relatively abundant carbon materials into much rarer diamond.

  19. Diamond Field Emission Source using Transfer Mold Technique Prepared by Diamond Powder Seeding

    Tezuka, Sachiaki; Matsuba, Yohei; Takahashi, Kohro

    Diamond thin films fabricated by MPCVD (microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition) are available for use as a field emitter material, because of its high mechanical quality, thermal conductivity, chemical stability, environmental tolerance, and NEA (negative electron affinity). Diode and triode emitter arrays using P-doped polycrystalline diamond were manufactured on a SiO2/Si(100) substrate with reverse pyramids formed by the transfer mold technique. As the diamond nucleation process, spin-coat seeding with pure diamond powder dispersed in isoamyl acetate has been introduced in place of the bias method. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the crystal quality of the diamond thin film fabricated by spin-coat seeding is superior to that fabricated by the bias method. The diamond crystal completely grew on top of the diode emitter by the US (ultrasonic) treatment in a diamond powder solution before spin-coat seeding. The tip radius was smaller than 50 nm. The beginning voltage of the emission of the diode emitter is 3 V after the DC glow discharge treatment in H2, which is lower than that of an emitter array fabricated by the bias method, 40 V. On the other hand, the emission of the diamond triode emitter starts at a gate voltage of only 0.5 V, and the emission current of 50∼60 mA is obtained at a gate voltage of 2 V.

  20. Homoepitaxial Boron Doped Diamond Anvils as Heating Elements in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    Montgomery, Jeffrey; Samudrala, Gopi; Smith, Spencer; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Weir, Samuel


    Recent advances in designer-diamond technology have allowed for the use of electrically and thermally conducting homoepitaxially-grown layers of boron-doped diamond (grown at 1200 °C with a 2% mixture of CH4 in H, resulting in extremely high doping levels ~ 1020/cm3) to be used as heating elements in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). These diamonds allow for precise control of the temperature inside of the diamond anvil itself, particularly when coupled with a cryostat. Furthermore, the unmatched thermally conducting nature of diamond ensures that no significant lateral gradient in temperature occurs across the culet area. Since a thermocouple can easily be attached anywhere on the diamond surface, we can also measure diamond temperatures directly. With two such heaters, one can raise sample temperatures uniformly, or with any desired gradient along the pressure axis while preserving optical access. In our continuing set of benchmark experiments, we use two newly created matching heater anvils with 500 μm culets to analyze the various fluorescence emission lines of ruby microspheres, which show more complicated behavior than traditional ruby chips. We also report on the temperature dependence of the high-pressure Raman modes of paracetamol (C8H9NO2) up to 20 GPa.

  1. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG


    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  2. EXELFS analysis of natural diamond and diamond films on Si substrates

    Moller, A.D. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (Mexico); Araiza, L.C.; Borja, M.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada (Mexico)


    In this work, we report the EXELFS results obtained from a polycrystalline diamond film grown on smooth silicon substrates using the Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HF-CVD) technique in a two-step deposition process published elsewhere. In order to evaluate the quality of the thin film obtained, these results were compared with results obtained from natural diamond.

  3. Low-dimensional model of resistive interchange convection in magnetized plasma

    Bazdenkov, S.; Sato, Tetsuya [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)


    Self-organization and generation of large shear flow component in turbulent resistive interchange convection in magnetized plasma is considered. The effect of plasma density-electrostatic potential coupling via the inertialess electron dynamics along the magnetic field is shown to play significant role in the onset of shear component. The results of large-scale numerical simulation and low-dimensional (reduced) model are presented and compared. (author)

  4. The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens

    Woodburne, Michael O.


    The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical...

  5. DoD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in Contracting Report


    00 co1 Ln DEPUTY UNDER SECRETARY -i OF DEFENSE (ACQUISITION REFORM) DTIC SELECTE 1 FEB 7 19940u DoD ELECTRONIC COMMERCE (EC)I ELECTRONIC DATA...implementing meaningful acquisition reform, according to the PAT report, DOD Electronic Commerce Electronic Data Interchange in Contracting Report. The...cutting substantially the procurement administrative lead-time for small purchases, electronic commerce is an absolute necessity in today’s austere

  6. Concepts for a Standard Data Interchange Structure (SDIS) INPE proposal to CCSDS/Panel 3

    Bergamini, E. W.; Martins, R. C.


    Concepts for a standard data interchange structure (SDIS) are proposed. Applications processes, products and an end-to-end reference physical and system model are identified for characterization of services to be offered with the aid of a SDIS, as a system. Implementation aspects are proposed for the SDIS: logical structure, format and protocol, inspired on the ISO/ANSI Reference Model for open systems interconnection.

  7. Regulation of toxin and bacteriocin gene expression in Clostridium by interchangeable RNA polymerase sigma factors.

    Dupuy, Bruno; Raffestin, Stéphanie; Matamouros, Susana; Mani, Nagraj; Popoff, Michel R; Sonenshein, Abraham L


    The production of major extracellular toxins by pathogenic strains of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium difficile, and a bacteriocin by Clostridium perfringens is dependent on a related group of RNA polymerase sigma-factors. These sigma-factors (BotR, TetR, TcdR and UviA) were shown to be sufficiently similar that they could substitute for one another in in vitro DNA binding and run-off transcription experiments. In cells, however, the sigma-factors fell into two subclasses. BotR and TetR were able to direct transcription of their target genes in a fully reciprocal manner. Similarly, UviA and TcdR were fully interchangeable. Neither BotR nor TetR could substitute for UviA or TcdR, however, and neither UviA nor TcdR could direct transcription of the natural targets of BotR or TetR. The extent of functional interchangeability of the sigma-factors was attributed to the strong conservation of their subregion 4.2 sequences and the conserved -35 sequences of their target promoters, while restrictions on interchangeability were attributed to variations in their subregion 2.4 sequences and the target site -10 sequences. The four sigma-factors have been assigned to group 5 of the sigma(70) family and seem to have arisen from a common ancestral protein that may have co-evolved with the genes whose transcription they direct. A fifth Clostridiumsigma-factor, sigma(Y) of Clostridium acetobutylicum, resembles the TcdR family, but was not functionally interchangeable with members of this family.

  8. Selection of criteria for interchangeability verification of special alloys on the example of nimonic

    Егор Павлович Дымко


    Full Text Available Research of nimonic long-term strength, which allows determining its value at different temperatures and the test of time are conducted on the basis of mathematical simulation. Criterion for interchangeability verification of special alloys on the example of nimonic is proposed. This criterion is based on a parametric description of the test property depending on the Lagrange multiplier and allows finding its suboptimal values in the investigated range of input variables

  9. Protokol Interchangeable Data pada VMeS (Vessel Messaging System dan AIS (Automatic Identification System

    Farid Andhika


    Full Text Available VMeS (Vessel Messaging System merupakan komunikasi berbasis radio untuk mengirimkan pesan antara VMeS terminal kapal di laut dengan VMeS gateway di darat. Dalam perkembangan sistem monitoring kapal di laut umumnya menggunakan AIS (Automatic Identification System yang telah digunakan di seluruh pelabuhan untuk memantau kondisi kapal dan mencegah tabrakan antar kapal. Dalam penelitian ini akan dirancang format data yang sesuai untuk VMeS agar bisa dilakukan proses interchangeable ke AIS sehingga bisa dibaca oleh AIS receiver yang ditujukan untuk kapal dengan ukuran dibawah 30 GT (Gross Tonnage. Format data VmeS dirancang dalam tiga jenis yaitu data posisi, data informasi kapal dan data pesan pendek yang akan dilakukan interchangeable dengan AIS tipe 1,4 dan 8. Pengujian kinerja sistem interchangeable menunjukkan bahwa dengan peningkatan periode pengiriman pesan maka lama delay total meningkat tetapi packet loss menurun. Pada pengiriman pesan setiap 5 detik dengan kecepatan 0-40 km/jam, 96,67 % data dapat diterima dengan baik. Data akan mengalami packet loss jika level daya terima dibawah -112 dBm . Jarak terjauh yang dapat dijangkau modem dengan kondisi bergerak yaitu informatika ITS dengan jarak 530 meter terhadap Laboratorium B406 dengan level daya terima -110 dBm.

  10. A Video Analysis of Use of the New 'Concussion Interchange Rule' in the National Rugby League.

    Gardner, A J; Iverson, G L; Stanwell, P; Moore, T; Ellis, J; Levi, C R


    The National Rugby League (NRL) in Australia introduced a new 'concussion interchange rule' (CIR) in 2014, whereby a player suspected of having sustained a concussion can be removed from play, and assessed, without an interchange being tallied against the player's team. We conducted a video analysis, describing player and injury characteristics, situational factors, concussion signs, and return to play for each "CIR" event for the 2014 season. There were 167 reported uses of the CIR. Apparent loss of consciousness/unresponsiveness was observed in 32% of cases, loss of muscle tone in 54%, clutching the head in 70%, unsteadiness of gait in 66%, and a vacant stare in 66%. More than half of the players who were removed under the CIR returned to play later in the same match (57%). Most incidences occurred from a hit up (62%) and occurred during a tackle where the initial contact was with the upper body (80%). The new concussion interchange rule has been used frequently during the first season of its implementation. In many cases, there appeared to be video evidence of injury but the athlete was cleared to return to play. More research is needed on the usefulness of video review for identifying signs of concussive injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Generation of Periodic Signatures at Saturn Through Titan's Interaction with the Centrifugal Interchange Instability

    Winglee, R.; Kidder, A. R.; Harnett, E. M.; Paty, C. S.; Snowden, D. S.


    Due to the high degree of alignment of Saturn's dipole with its rotation axis, no strong rotational periodicities are expected. However, Cassini data demonstrated the existence of such periodicities not only in Saturn's kilometric radio emissions (SKR), but in the plasma and magnetic field signatures. Multi-fluid/multi-scale simulations that include the heavy ions from the Enceladus plasma torus, the light ions of the solar wind and the interaction of Titan with the Kronian magnetosphere show that the rotational period is embedded in the development of the interchange instability but the planetary period is masked by high-frequency components of the instability. The presence of Titan is shown to damp the high-frequency components in association with the flapping of Titan's ion tail and this enables the fundamental frequency near the planetary rotation frequency to grow at the expense of the high-frequency components. As a result, the interchange instability is seen to change from one where 5-7 large interchange fingers dominate to one where there are about 3 which cause the modulation of magnetospheric parameters near the planetary period. This modulation includes the movement of the magnetopause, the injection of energetic particles into the inner magnetosphere and the plasma density at high latitudes both of which control Saturn's kilometic radiation.

  12. Nonbioequivalent prescription drug interchangeability, concerns on patient safety and drug market dynamics in Brazil.

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma; Oliveira, Ana Cecilia Amado Xavier de


    Since the enforcement of Generics Act (1999), three types of pharmaceutically equivalent products are marketed in Brazil: innovative reference (REF), "similar" (S) and generic (G) drugs. The S (brand name) and G (generic name) borrow from REF (brand name) clinical data on safety and efficacy and dosage regimen. G (but not S) is bioequivalent to and interchangeable with REF. Starting in 2003, Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) has required data on relative bioavailability tests (with REF) to approve (or renew registration of) S drugs. In 2014, Anvisa extended interchangeability notion to similar drugs with a "comparable" bioavailability, i.e., an "equivalent" similar drug (EQ). Drugs for chronic diseases and "critical dose medicines" are listed among the EQ drugs approved. Interchangeability of nonbioequivalent medicines raises deep concerns regarding therapeutic failures and adverse events. Concerns are even more worrisome if patients switch from one drug to another during an ongoing treatment for illnesses such as epilepsy, congestive heart failure, hypertension, diabetes and/or substitutable drugs have a narrow therapeutic index.

  13. Analysis of the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics in Low Volume Freeway Interchange

    Ronghua Wang


    Full Text Available Drivers’ behavior characteristics cannot be ignored in designing freeway interchange facilities in order to improve traffic safety. This paper conducted a field experiment in Qingyin expressway. Four freeway interchanges from K571+538 to K614+932 with relatively low volume were selected, and 12 qualified drivers, 6 car test drivers and 6 truck test drivers, were driving vehicles according to the driving program. GPS and eye-tracking instrument were employed to record running speed, real-time, running track, fixation point, and so forth. Box-plot graphs and Student’s t-test were used to analyze the 12 data sets of driver’s fixation on exit guide signs. Speed-distance curves of effective 11 data sets were plotted to examine the test drivers’ behavior in diverging area and merging area. The results indicated that (1 drivers recognize the exit direction signs in 170 m–180 m advanced distance; (2 the diverging influence area is 1000 m upstream of the diverge point, and the merging influence area is 350 m downstream of the merge point; (3 NO OVERTAKING sign is recommended to be placed at 350 m upstream of the diverge point. The results can provide guidance for the design of freeway interchange facilities and management in order to improve traffic safety.

  14. Diamond Structure BeO, Designable Super-Hard Materials and Semiconductor Be-Diamond

    XU Ji-An; SI Yan; SUN Zong-Qi; XIE Hong-Sen


    It is possible for Beryllium oxide (BeO) to have a cubic diamond structure although it normally has a hexagonal structure under ambient conditions. As the solution of cubic BN and diamond, the solid solution of cubic BeO-diamond or BeO-cBN-diamond can potentially be a kind of super-hard materials with designable hardness; and this solution has also been confirmed based on our preliminary first principles calculations. In addition, the nonstoichiometry of BeO could create a mobile carrier in the cubic BeO-C or BeO-BN-C system and it might lead to a new type of semiconductor Be-diamond.

  15. Road Interchanges, Road shapefile, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Interchanges dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Road...



    A set of new 2-D equations of interchange between suspended sediment and bed materials was serived by theoretical deduction based on the systematic summarization and assessment the previous studies of simulating the interchange between suspended sediment and bed materials in the Lower Yellow River. This model was used to simulate the erosion and deposition processes caused by the interchange between suspended sediment and bed materials in a sketch channel. The results show that these equations are well consistent with the laws of interchange between suspended sediment and bed materials. Furthermore, compared with previous models, it has important practical value not only because of strong theoretical foundation, but also for smaller amount of calculating work and convenient application in practice.

  17. Method of porous diamond deposition on porous silicon

    Baranauskas, Vitor; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C.; Chang, Dahge C.; Durrant, Steven F.


    In this paper, we discuss the experimental results of the fabrication of porous diamond/porous silicon and porous diamond structures by chemical vapor deposition of diamond over a skeleton of porous silicon, replicating the porous surface geometry around the Si pores and also creating new porous diamond structures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the diamond nuclei are deposited on the top of the porous silicon skeleton, forming isolated grains in the first nucleation stages, and then growing like the usual structure of most ceramic materials, making a self-sustained porous diamond structure. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the diamond films are of good quality, close to that of diamond films grown on crystalline silicon.

  18. Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing

    Sotillo, Belen; Hadden, J P; Sakakura, Masaaki; Chiappini, Andrea; Fernandez, Toney Teddy; Longhi, Stefano; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Criante, Luigino; Osellame, Roberto; Galzerano, Gianluca; Ferrari, Maurizio; Miura, Kiyotaka; Ramponi, Roberta; Barclay, Paul E; Eaton, Shane Michael


    We demonstrate the first buried optical waveguides in diamond using focused femtosecond laser pulses. The properties of nitrogen vacancy centers are preserved in the waveguides, making them promising for diamond-based magnetometers or quantum information systems.

  19. An efficient algorithm for sorting by block-interchanges and its application to the evolution of vibrio species.

    Lin, Ying Chih; Lu, Chin Lung; Chang, Hwan-You; Tang, Chuan Yi


    In the study of genome rearrangement, the block-interchanges have been proposed recently as a new kind of global rearrangement events affecting a genome by swapping two nonintersecting segments of any length. The so-called block-interchange distance problem, which is equivalent to the sorting-by-block-interchange problem, is to find a minimum series of block-interchanges for transforming one chromosome into another. In this paper, we study this problem by considering the circular chromosomes and propose a Omicron(deltan) time algorithm for solving it by making use of permutation groups in algebra, where n is the length of the circular chromosome and delta is the minimum number of block-interchanges required for the transformation, which can be calculated in Omicron(n) time in advance. Moreover, we obtain analogous results by extending our algorithm to linear chromosomes. Finally, we have implemented our algorithm and applied it to the circular genomic sequences of three human vibrio pathogens for predicting their evolutionary relationships. Consequently, our experimental results coincide with the previous ones obtained by others using a different comparative genomics approach, which implies that the block-interchange events seem to play a significant role in the evolution of vibrio species.

  20. Lubrication by Diamond and Diamondlike Carbon Coatings

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa


    Regardless of environment (ultrahigh vacuum, humid air, dry nitrogen, or water), ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon (DLC) and nitrogen-ion-implanted, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films had low steady-state coefficients of friction (less than 0.1) and low wear rates (less than or equal to 10(exp -6)cu mm/N(dot)m). These films can be used as effective wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings regardless of environment. On the other hand, as-deposited, fine-grain CVD diamond films; polished, coarse-grain CVD diamond films; and polished and then fluorinated, coarse-grain CVD diamond films can be used as effective wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings in humid air, in dry nitrogen, and in water, but they had a high coefficient of friction and a high wear rate in ultrahigh vacuum. The polished, coarse-grain CVD diamond film revealed an extremely low wear rate, far less than 10(exp 10) cu mm/N(dot)m, in water.

  1. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)


    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Facts and Artifacts in Interstellar Diamond Spectra

    Mutschke, H.; Dorschner, J.; Henning, T.; Jager, C.; Ott, U.


    Absorption spectra of presolar diamonds extracted from the Murchison meteorite have been measured in the extended wavelength range 0.2--500 mu m in order to make available optical properties of this supposed component of interstellar carbon dust. In contrast to terrestrial natural and synthetic diamonds, spectra of the meteoritic diamonds show prominent bands in the middle-IR. In this Letter, experimental evidence is presented that the OH band at 3200 cm-1 and the CH bands in the 2800--3000 cm-1 range are not intrinsic features of the diamonds and that the band at 1100 cm-1 contains an artificial component due to the extraction procedure. In addition, in our spectra a conspicuous band at 120 cm-1 was found. If the intrinsic character of this band, which, up to now, is unidentified, is confirmed, it would offer a chance to observe interstellar diamonds, e.g., by the ISO satellite. We encourage laboratory astrophysicists and observers to study this promising possibility.

  3. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.


    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  4. Diamonds: Cultural Representations and Transformations of a "Girl's Best Friend"

    Whiteley, Bryn Elizabeth


    The great success of the advertising industry in the 1950s created a diamond culture where diamonds are continuously associated with images of love and devotion. With all of the diamond's positive associations, no one could have imagined that such a precious jewel could have negative connotations. Yet in the 1990s, the label "blood diamond" emerged and became widely correlated with torture, rape, child labor, and environmental destruction. My three- manuscript dissertation covers the followin...

  5. Formation of nanostructured iridium and polycluster diamond films

    Pashchenko P. V.


    Full Text Available Iridium films and layered structures "iridium — diamond" were formed on Al2O3, MgO and SrTiO3 substrates. Iridium films were obtained by magnetron sputtering, and polycluster diamond films — by microwave discharge method. Structure of iridium and diamond films was studied depending on formation conditions. Application of polycluster diamond films as heatsink for hybrid microcircuit and control grid of electronic devices was considered.

  6. Local structure of liquid carbon controls diamond nucleation

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Valeriani, C.; Meijer, E.J.; Frenkel, D.


    Diamonds melt at temperatures above 4000 K. There are no measurements of the steady-state rate of the reverse process: diamond nucleation from the melt, because experiments are difficult at these extreme temperatures and pressures. Using numerical simulations, we estimate the diamond nucleation rate

  7. Local Structure of Liquid Carbon Controls Diamond Nucleation

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Valeriani, C.; Meijer, E.J.; Frenkel, D.


    Diamonds melt at temperatures above 4000 K. There are no measurements of the steady-state rate of the reverse process, i.e., diamond nucleation from the melt, because experiments are difficult at these extreme temperatures and pressures. Using numerical simulations, we estimate the diamond nucleatio

  8. Organizing the un-organized? Evidence from Indian diamond industry

    Kaveti, I.


    The Indian diamond industry is composed of tens of thousands of firms engaged in cutting and polishing of diamonds and resides in the so-called un-organized sector. However, together, these firms produce 11 out of 12 diamonds set in jewelery worldwide. In absence of formal systems of governance, how

  9. Chemistry and physics of diamond surfaces

    Domke, A


    in the literature. The valence band of diamond is investigated by off-normal ARUPS. The features observed are consistent with possible transitions, which are determined using bulk band structure calculations and comparison with the experimental binding energies. This thesis is concerned with the chemistry and physics of C(100) surfaces of diamond. The polished and cleaned C(100) surface is examined by surface microscopy (Atomic-force Microscopy), electron diffraction (Low-energy Electron Diffraction) and photoemission (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy). Results are presented on the presence of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen/deuterium on the C(100) surface. Finally, the valence band structure of diamond is probed by angle-resolved photoemission. We have confirmed by AFM that the grooves from the soft polishing process are present on a polished C(100) surface and found sporadic traces of hard polish on a surface polished in the soft polishing direction. XPS studies hav...

  10. Diamond-based 1-D imaging arrays

    Lansley, S.P.; Williams, O.A.; Ye, H. [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Rizvi, N.; Whitfield, M.D.; Jackman, R.B. [Exitech Limited, Hanborough Park, Long Hanborough, Oxford OX8 8LH (United Kingdom); McKeag, R.D. [Centronic Ltd., Centronic House, King Henry' s Drive, New Addington, Croydon CR9 OBG (United Kingdom)


    Diamond has shown great promise for the fabrication of high sensitivity, low dark current, fast and visible-blind deep UV photodetectors. In addition to careful choice of substrate material, defect passivation treatments applied to the diamond after growth have been found to considerably enhance the detector characteristics achieved. In this paper we report on the first purposefully designed 1-D CVD diamond imaging array for the detection of nanosecond 193 nm excimer laser pulses using this approach. It is shown to perform extremely well, giving less than 2% pixel-to-pixel variation in signal response, and is fast enough to avoid any sign of charge build up during prolonged operation. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    S A Jafari


    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  12. Charge multiplication effect in thin diamond films

    Skukan, N., E-mail:; Grilj, V.; Sudić, I.; Jakšić, M. [Division of Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pomorski, M. [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kada, W.; Kambayashi, Y.; Andoh, Y. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Makino, T.; Onoda, S.; Sato, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kamiya, T. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)


    Herein, we report on the enhanced sensitivity for the detection of charged particles in single crystal chemical vapour deposition (scCVD) diamond radiation detectors. The experimental results demonstrate charge multiplication in thin planar diamond membrane detectors, upon impact of 18 MeV O ions, under high electric field conditions. Avalanche multiplication is widely exploited in devices such as avalanche photo diodes, but has never before been reproducibly observed in intrinsic CVD diamond. Because enhanced sensitivity for charged particle detection is obtained for short charge drift lengths without dark counts, this effect could be further exploited in the development of sensors based on avalanche multiplication and radiation detectors with extreme radiation hardness.

  13. Acoustic and optical phonons in metallic diamond

    M. Hoesch, T. Fukuda, T. Takenouchi, J.P. Sutter, S. Tsutsui, A.Q.R. Baron, M. Nagao, Y. Takano, H. Kawarada and J. Mizuki


    Full Text Available The dispersion of acoustic and optical phonons in highly boron-doped diamond has been measured by inelastic X-ray scattering at an energy resolution of 6.4 meV. The sample is doped in the metallic regime and shows superconductivity below 4.2 K (midpoint. The data are compared to pure and nitrogen-doped diamond that represent the non-metallic state. No difference is found for the acoustic phonons in the three samples, while the optical phonons show a shift of the dispersion (softening in qualitative agreement with earlier results from Raman spectroscopy. The presence of boron and nitrogen incorporated into the diamond lattice leads to structural disorder. Evidence for this is found both in the observation of otherwise symmetry-forbidded Bragg intensity at (0 0 2 and intensity from acoustic phonon modes in the vicinity of (0 0 2.

  14. Diamond: a material for laser spectroscopy

    Castex, M. C.; Riedel, D.; Museur, L.; Chardonnet, Christian; Gicquel, Alix; Foulon, Francois; Borel, C.; Bergonzo, P.; Jany, C.


    Diamond polycrystalline films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition techniques present interesting feature for laser spectroscopy due to several advantages arising from their optical, electronic, thermal and mechanical properties. Their wide transmission band from the far IR to the UV make them attractive as optical devices for high-power laser beam. Moreover, with a wide band gap, a short carrier lifetime and a high damage threshold, diamond is an ideal semiconductor material for the fabrication of fast and solar blind VUV detectors. We report here results of laser studies performed with tow different objectives. With use of a pulsed VUV laser at 125 nm we have determined the photoconductive response of polycrystalline diamond detectors. With a CO2 laser we have investigated the polarization properties of auto-supported films having thicknesses smaller than the wavelength.

  15. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas


    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make




    The diamond secondary emission enhanced photocathode (SEEP) provides an attractive alternative for simple photo cathodes in high average current electron injectors. It reduces the laser power required to drive the cathode, simultaneously isolating the cathode and the FW cavity from each other, thereby protecting them from contamination and increasing their life time. In this paper, we present the latest results on the secondary electron yield using pulsed thermionic and photo cathodes as primary electron sources, shaping the diamond using laser ablation and reactive ion etching as well as the theoretical underpinning of secondary electron generation and preliminary results of modeling.

  17. Arsenic-bound excitons in diamond

    Barjon, J.; Jomard, F.; Morata, S.


    A set of new excitonic recombinations is observed in arsenic-implanted diamond. It is composed of two groups of emissions at 5.355/5.361 eV and at 5.215/5.220/5.227 eV. They are respectively attributed to the no-phonon and transverse-optical phonon-assisted recombinations of excitons bound to neutral arsenic donors. From the Haynes rule, an ionization energy of 0.41 eV is deduced for arsenic in diamond, which shows that arsenic is a shallower donor than phosphorus (0.6 eV), in agreement with theory.

  18. Growth of diamond layers on diamond and cBN seeds using iron carbide under high pressure and high temperature

    Li Xun; Hao Zhao Yin; LiuPeng; Li Musen; Zou Guang Tian; Cheng Shu Yu; Cheng Kai Jia


    Iron carbide without any graphite was studied under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT); diamond layers were obtained both on diamond and on cubic boron nitride seeds at 5.5 GPa and 1700-1750 K. The results showed that transition-metal carbide was the main intermediate in the course of the transformation from graphite to diamond under HPHT.

  19. Biocompatibility and Surface Studies of Microwave CVD Diamond Films

    Davis, Brian; Garguilo, J. M.; Koeck, F. A. M.; Nemanich, R. J.; Price, K. J.


    The structure and surface properties of a variety of diamond and diamond like carbon films were studied at the nano-scale, in an attempt to assess the biocompatibility of these surfaces. The process of microwave chemical vapor deposition was used to deposit undoped diamond, nitrogen doped diamond, diamond with a titanium monolayer, and diamond-like carbon samples. The contact angles of de-ionized water droplets on the surface of the samples were measured to analyze the surface energy of each film. The rms roughness values of the diamond films measured by atomic force microscopy were also used in determining surface characteristics. Surface treatments of hydrogen passivation, and oxidization were applied to the surface of each film. Hydrogen passivation of the undoped diamond, and nitrogen doped diamond surfaces increases the contact angle on average 30 degrees. Oxidation of the surface decreases the contact angle on average 20 degrees. The surface treatments did not significantly change the contact angle of the diamond like carbon films. Protein adsorption is the first event to take place at a tissue/material interface of an implant into the body, and fibrinogen is the major surface protein, which initiates coagulation and inflammation in the body. The adsorption of fibrinogen was used as an indicator of the biocompatibility of these diamond materials. Fibrinogen was applied to the diamond, and diamond like carbon films. A correlation between contact angle/surface energy, roughness, and the fibrinogen adsorption of these diamond surfaces is reported. There was no significant change in the contact angles following the application of fibrinogen to the surface of the films. This could indicate the biocompatibility of the diamond films. This work supported by the NSF REU program at NCSU and a Physical Sciences Student Research grant from MSU.

  20. Structure and characteristics of Si-coated diamond grits

    Lu Jing; Wang Yanhui; Qi Xuehai; Huang Hao; Zang Jianbing


    During sintering process of diamond tools, metal bond containing graphitizing elements such as Fe, Co, Ni seriously erodes diamond grits, which reduces the strength of the diamond grits. In this paper, silicon films were coated on the surface of diamond grits by means of atomic layer deposition (ALD) from gaseous SiH4. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) were utilized to analyze the structure and the morphology of Si-coated diamond respectively. The results suggested thatthe film was cubic-phase polycrystalline silicon and the surface of the film was smooth and continuous. According with the adsorption mechanism of SiH4 on the surface of diamond grits, the stretching and bending modes of SiH2 and SiH3 both existed. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used to compare the thermal stability of coated diamond and uncoated diamond. Owning to the protection of silicon films the starting oxidation temperature of coated diamond reached as high as 920℃, which was much higher than that of uncoated diamond. Bending experiment was conducted to measure the bending strength of Fe-Cu-Sn-Ni based metal bond diamond blade. In comparison with uncoated diamond, the bending strength of Sicoated diamond blade increased by 16.2%, scan electron microscope (SEM) observation of the blade fracture revealed that the deposited silicon films not only protected the diamond grits from erosion during sintering process but also realized the strong binding between the diamond grits and the bond.

  1. Scientific factors for assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of follow-on biologics

    Chow SC


    Full Text Available Shein-Chung Chow1, Laszlo Endrenyi2, Peter A Lachenbruch3, Lan-Yan Yang1, Eric Chi41Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 2University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 3Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 4Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAbstract: Biological products are therapeutic agents produced using a living system or organism. In practice, access to these life-saving biological products is limited due to their expensive cost. In the next few years, patents of the early biological products will expire. This provides other biopharmaceutical/biotech companies the opportunity to manufacture follow-on biologics. For the conventional pharmaceuticals of small molecules, regulations and statistical methods for the assessment of bioequivalence for generic approval are well established. However, unlike the conventional drug products, the complexity and heterogeneity of the molecular structure, complicated manufacturing process, different analytical methods, and the possibility of severe immunogenicity reactions make evaluation of equivalence (similarity between an innovator and its follow-on biologics a great challenge for both the scientific community and regulatory agencies. This article reviews past experiences for the assessment of bioequivalence for conventional drug products. Detailed descriptions of the fundamental differences and assumptions between the chemical generic products and follow-on biologics are given. An overview of current regulatory requirements for assessing biosimilarity of follow-on biologics is provided. Statistical considerations for scientific factors for assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of the follow-on biologics as posted at the recent FDA Public Hearing on Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeability Biological Products are discussed. In addition, current statistical issues that are commonly encountered when assessing biosimilarity of follow-on biologics are reviewed

  2. Botulinum toxin type A products are not interchangeable: a review of the evidence

    Brin MF


    Full Text Available Mitchell F Brin,1,2 Charmaine James,3 John Maltman1 1Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Allergan, Marlow, UKAbstract: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA products are injectable biologic medications derived from Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Several different BoNTA products are marketed in various countries, and they are not interchangeable. Differences between products include manufacturing processes, formulations, and the assay methods used to determine units of biological activity. These differences result in a specific set of interactions between each BoNTA product and the tissue injected. Consequently, the products show differences in their in vivo profiles, including preclinical dose response curves and clinical dosing, efficacy, duration, and safety/adverse events. Most, but not all, published studies document these differences, suggesting that individual BoNTA products act differently depending on experimental and clinical conditions, and these differences may not always be predictable. Differentiation through regulatory approvals provides a measure of confidence in safety and efficacy at the specified doses for each approved indication. Moreover, the products differ in the amount of study to which they have been subjected, as evidenced by the number of publications in the peer-reviewed literature and the quantity and quality of clinical studies. Given that BoNTAs are potent biological products that meet important clinical needs, it is critical to recognize that their dosing and product performance are not interchangeable and each product should be used according to manufacturer guidelines.Keywords: onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, glabellar lines, non-interchangeability

  3. Evaluation of TEG(®) and RoTEM(®) inter-changeability in trauma patients

    Hagemo, Jostein S; Næss, Paal A; Johansson, Pär;


    using. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Agreement was evaluated by Bland-Altman plots and calculation of limits of agreement. RESULTS: The mean ISS in the total population was 17, and the mortality was 16.5%. Mean base excess was -2.8 (SD: 4.2). The correlation coefficient for corresponding...... centres except for MA/MCF in one centre (Copenhagen). Generally, correlation coefficients were lower and agreement poorer in the one centre (Oslo) where measurements were performed bedside by clinicians. CONCLUSION: Inter-changeability between TEG(®) and RoTEM(®) is limited in the trauma setting...

  4. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    Paccagnella, R.


    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate β's, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high β, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  5. Design and development of an interchangeable nanomicroelectrospray source for a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    Smith, Douglas R.; Sagerman, Gary; Wood, Troy D.


    An interchangeable microelectrospray and nanoelectrospray ionization source has been designed and constructed for use on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. This new source is specially designed to conduct nanoelectrospray experiments utilizing pulled borosilicate glass emitters, as well as various ionization modes utilizing silica capillaries. The source design facilitates the easy exchange between a microelectrospray source and nanoelectrospray source. The microionspray assembly can be quickly replaced by the nanoelectrospray adaptation in order to conduct nanoelectrospray experiments. Furthermore, this source design allows for the coupling of low flow separation techniques, like microliquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis.

  6. The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens.

    Woodburne, Michael O


    The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10914-010-9144-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  7. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.


    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  8. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.


    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  9. Excerpt from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship


    Gordon Chang’s essay, excerpted from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship, focuses on Zhang Shuqi, a Chinese-born artist who worked in the United States during the period of World War II and acted as a cultural diplomat for China. Zhang strongly influenced American mass culture by bringing methods of Chinese brush painting to a general audience. However, despite the popular “orientalist” association of Zhang’s art with traditional brush painting (and, bey...

  10. Excerpt from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship

    Gordon H. Chang


    Full Text Available Gordon Chang’s essay, excerpted from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship, focuses on Zhang Shuqi, a Chinese-born artist who worked in the United States during the period of World War II and acted as a cultural diplomat for China. Zhang strongly influenced American mass culture by bringing methods of Chinese brush painting to a general audience. However, despite the popular “orientalist” association of Zhang’s art with traditional brush painting (and, beyond that, timeless Chinese culture, his work was in fact strikingly modern.

  11. Revisiting the mechanisms of low-temperature, base-catalysed ester interchange reactions

    Dijkstra Albert J.


    Full Text Available Ester interchange reactions such as the interesterification of triglycerides and their transesterification with methanol (methanolysis to produce FAME (biodiesel nowadays invariably use a basic catalyst such as an alkali alcoholate or hydroxide. Whereas it was formerly assumed that the catalytically active intermediates in the interesterification reaction and the methanolysis reaction were the glycerolate anion and the methanolate anion respectively, it now looks far more likely that the enolate anion plays a major role whenever the concentration of free alcohol groups in the reaction medium is small in comparison with the concentration of fatty acid moieties. Which mechanism dominates in which reaction and which reaction stage will be explained and discussed.

  12. Rigid sigmoidoscopy and MRI are not interchangeable in determining the position of rectal cancers

    Baatrup, G; Bolstad, M; Mortensen, J H


    was 30mm and for tumours located in the posterior quadrant only 12mm. The distributions of the cancers as low, middle and high differ by more than 10% between the two methods. The coefficient of correlation between measurements was 0.9 but the variation was not acceptable. The length of the tumours......PURPOSE: 1) To analyse for interchangeability of rigid sigmoidoscopy and MRI in determining the distance from anus to tumour, and to determine if anterior/posterior location influences this difference. 2) To analyse the effect of preoperative chemo-radiotherapy on the distance from anus to tumour...

  13. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Transaksi Elektronik Ritel Pupuk Dengan Metode Electronic Data Interchange (EDI

    Nelly Oktavia Adiwijaya


    Full Text Available Fertilizer distribution from distributor to agents, are required to be responsive in addressing the demand for fertilizers. Distributors are also required to be able to manage inventory in the warehouse, to avoid overstocking of fertilizer. Design and implementation of a fertilizer retail electronic commerce applications using electronic data interchange (EDI method is applied in this study. The system is built to help distributors to control the existence of the stock of fertilizer so no excess stock. In addition, the use of EDI can provide information quickly (real-time without having to go directly to the warehouse locations.

  14. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    Royen, J V


    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  15. Promulgation and Implementation of National Standard on Diamond Grading


    @@ With the development of the diamond market, a revision of the national standard, Diamond Grading, formulated in 1996, was promulgated on July 1, 2003 and became effective since Nov. 1, 2003.The revision was formulated based upon GB/T16554-1996, GB/T18303 and a large amount of domestic and international data and information to serve the purpose of improving the technical standard of diamond grading, accelerating the domestic market′s entry the international diamond market as well as protecting the basic interests of diamond traders and all customers.

  16. Enhanced Transverse Magnetoresistive Effect in Semiconducting Diamond Films

    WANG Wan-Lu; LIAO Ke-Jun; WANG Bi-Ben


    A very large magnetoresistive effect in both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial semiconducting diamond films by chemical vapor deposition has been observed. The changes in the resistance of the films strongly depend on both magnetic field intensity and geometric form of the samples. The effect of disk structure is greater than that of stripe type samples, also variation in the resistance of homoepitaxial diamond films is greater than that of eteroepitaxial diamond films. The resistance of homoepitaxial diamond films with the disk structure is increased y a factor of 2.1 at room temperature under magnetic field intensity of 5 T, but only 0.80 for heteroepitaxial diamond films.

  17. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall


    Natural diamond has been valued for its appearance and mechanical properties for at least two thousand years. As a gem stone diamond is unsurpassed. However, scientific work, especially in the last 20 years, has demonstrated that diamond has numerous surprising properties and many unique ones. Some of the extreme properties have been known for many years, but the true scale of diamond's other highly desirable features is still only coming to light as control in the synthesis of diamond, and hence material perfection, improves. The ultimate prize for man-made diamond is surely not in the synthesis of gem stones, but in delivering technological solutions enabled by diamond to the challenges facing our society today. If the special properties are to be exploited to their full potential, at least four crucial factors must be considered. First, there must be sufficient scientific understanding of diamond to make applications effective, efficient and economical. Secondly, the means of fabrication and control of properties have to be achieved so that diamond's role can be optimised. Thirdly, it is not enough that its properties are superior to existing materials: they must be so much better that it is worth initiating new technologies to exploit them. Finally, any substantial applications will have to address the society's major needs worldwide. The clear technology drivers for the 21st century come from the biomedical technologies, the demand for energy subject to global constraints, and the information technologies, where perhaps diamond will provide the major enabling technology [1]. The papers in this volume concern the solid state physics of diamond, and primarily concern the first two factors: understanding, and control of properties. They address many of the outstanding basic problems, such as the identification of existing defects, which affect the material's properties, both desirable and less so. Regarding future substantial applications, one paper discusses

  18. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Diamond MEMS: wafer scale processing, devices, and technology insertion

    Carlisle, J. A.


    Diamond has long held the promise of revolutionary new devices: impervious chemical barriers, smooth and reliable microscopic machines, and tough mechanical tools. Yet it's been an outsider. Laboratories have been effectively growing diamond crystals for at least 25 years, but the jump to market viability has always been blocked by the expense of diamond production and inability to integrate with other materials. Advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have given rise to a hierarchy of carbon films ranging from diamond-like carbon (DLC) to vapor-deposited diamond coatings, however. All have pros and cons based on structure and cost, but they all share some of diamond's heralded attributes. The best performer, in theory, is the purest form of diamond film possible, one absent of graphitic phases. Such a material would capture the extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and chemical inertness of natural diamond. Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, Ill., is the first company to develop a distinct chemical process to create a marketable phase-pure diamond film. The material, called UNCD® (for ultrananocrystalline diamond), features grain sizes from 3 to 300 nm in size, and layers just 1 to 2 microns thick. With significant advantages over other thin films, UNCD is designed to be inexpensive enough for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, microelectromechanical machines (MEMS), cell phone circuitry, radio frequency devices, and even biosensors.

  20. Analysis of the carbon source for diamond crystal growth

    LI Li; XU Bin; LI MuSen


    The lattice constants of diamond and graphite at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) were calculated on the basis of linear expansion coefficient and elastic constant. According to the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), the valence electron structures (VESs) of diamond, graphite crystal and their common planes were calculated. The relationship between diamond and graphite structure was analyzed based on the boundary condition of the improved Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory by Cheng (TFDC). It was found that the electron densities of common planes in graphite were not continuous with those of planes in diamond at the first order of approximation. The results show that during the course of diamond single crystal growth at HPHT with metal catalyst, the carbon sources forming diamond structure do not come from the graphite structure directly. The diamond growth mechanism was discussed from the viewpoint of valence electron structure.

  1. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    Gan, Kock Kiam


    The measurement of luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using diamond detect or s has matured from devices based on a rather large pads to highly granular pixelated device s . The ATLAS experiment has recently installed a diamond pixel detector, the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), to measure the luminosity in the upgraded LHC with higher instantaneous luminosity. Polycrystalline diamonds were used to fabricate the diamond pixel modules. The design , production, and test beam result s are described. CMS also has a similar plan to construct a diamond based luminosity monitor, the Pixel Luminos ity Telescope s (PLT) . In a pilot run using single crystal diamond, the pulse height was found to depend on the luminosity . Consequently the collaboration decided to use silicon instead due to time constrain ts .

  2. Fracture behavior of HPHT synthetic diamond with micrometers metallic inclusions

    He-sheng LI; Yong-xin QI; Yuan-pei ZHANG; Mu-sen LI


    The fracture behavior of the diamond single cwstals with metallic inclusions was investigated in the present paper.Single diamond crystals with metallic inclusions were formed by a special process with high pressure and high tempemture(HPHT).The inclusions trapped in the diamond were characterized mainly to be metallic carbide of(Fe,Ni)23C6 or Fe3C and solid solution of y-(Fe,Ni)by transmission electronic microscopy(TEM).The grain size of the inclusions is about micrometers. The fracture characteristics of the diamond single crystals,after compression and heating,were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The fracture sections of the compressed and heated diamonds were found to be parallel to the (111)plane. The interface of the inclusions and diamond is deduced to be the key factor and the original region Of the fracture formation. Mechanisms of the fracture behavior ofthe HPHT synthesized diamonds are discussed.




    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm{sup 2} have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector.

  4. Spotting a fake[Telling natural and synthetic diamonds apart

    Lawson, S. [Diamond Trading Company, Maidenhead, Berkshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    Diamonds are highly prized for their dazzling appearance and hardness, but would you be able to spot one that had been created in the laboratory? Simon Lawson describes how physics-based techniques can distinguish between natural and synthetic stones. For the last 50 years or so we have been able to make synthetic diamonds that replicate the superlative physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, and these are used largely for industrial applications. But in the mind of the consumer, there is far more to a diamond than its hardness or brilliance. Research commissioned by the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) has shown that 94% of women surveyed prefer natural diamonds over synthetic ones as a symbol of love, possibly as a result of the immense age of natural stones. One of the key research activities at the DTC is therefore to ensure that synthetic diamonds can be spotted easily. (U.K.)

  5. Crucial Techniques in Precise Electroplating Diamond Reamer Manufacturing

    郑广花; 王春海; 傅建军; 赵忠泽


    Inside-holding diamond is an entirely new technique in reamer manufacturing. Compared with the outside-holding diamond technique, the inside-holding technique can make diamond reamer with high precision, equal height and even distribution of diamond grain over the reamer surface, better integrity of diamond grain due to lack of a finishing surface, and a long natural-life. On the other hand, the process of inside-holding technique is more complex. In order to obtain a high-quality inside-holding diamond reamer, some crucial techniques must be used in the reamer manufacturing process. Techniques such as design method, manufacturing process of die, diamond electroplating process and die removing process are presented in this paper.

  6. Thermal residual stress analysis of coated diamond grits

    Zi-qian Huang; Bo Xiang; Yue-hui He; Bai-yun Huang


    Residual stresses of coated diamond grits were analyzed by a finite element unit cell model.Diamond grits coated with four types of metals, W, Mo, Ti, and Cr, were considered.The numerical results show that compressive stress occurs in the diamond particles and tensile stress occurs in the metal matrix; compressive stress is concentrated in the diamond sharp comer; interface stresses decrease by more than 1000 MPa with a metal interlayer; plastic deformation of the matrix begins near the sharp comer of diamond grits and extends toward the peripheral zone.Stress concentration dramatically decreases due to plastic deformation of the matrix.The deposition of transition metals on a diamond surface can dramatically promote the adhesion between diamond grits and the metal bond.

  7. Fabrication of vertically aligned diamond whiskers from highly boron-doped diamond by oxygen plasma etching.

    Terashima, Chiaki; Arihara, Kazuki; Okazaki, Sohei; Shichi, Tetsuya; Tryk, Donald A; Shirafuji, Tatsuru; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu; Fujishima, Akira


    Conductive diamond whiskers were fabricated by maskless oxygen plasma etching on highly boron-doped diamond substrates. The effects of the etching conditions and the boron concentration in diamond on the whisker morphology and overall substrate coverage were investigated. High boron-doping levels (greater than 8.4 × 10(20) cm(-3)) are crucial for the formation of the nanosized, densely packed whiskers with diameter of ca. 20 nm, length of ca. 200 nm, and density of ca. 3.8 × 10(10) cm(-2) under optimal oxygen plasma etching conditions (10 min at a chamber pressure of 20 Pa). Confocal Raman mapping and scanning electron microscopy illustrate that the boron distribution in the diamond surface region is consistent with the distribution of whisker sites. The boron dopant atoms in the diamond appear to lead to the initial fine column formation. This simple method could provide a facile, cost-effective means for the preparation of conductive nanostructured diamond materials for electrochemical applications as well as electron emission devices.

  8. Double Aztec Diamonds and the Tacnode Process

    Adler, Mark; van Moerbeke, Pierre


    Discrete and continuous non-intersecting random processes have given rise to critical "infinite dimensional diffusions", like the Airy process, the Pearcey process and variations thereof. It has been known that domino tilings of very large Aztec diamonds lead macroscopically to a disordered region within an inscribed ellipse (arctic circle in the homogeneous case), and a regular brick-like region outside the ellipse. The fluctuations near the ellipse, appropriately magnified and away from the boundary of the Aztec diamond, form an Airy process, run with time tangential to the boundary. This paper investigates the domino tiling of two overlapping Aztec diamonds; this situation also leads to non-intersecting random walks and an induced point process; this process is shown to be determinantal. In the large size limit, when the overlap is such that the two arctic ellipses for the single Aztec diamonds merely touch, a new critical process will appear near the point of osculation (tacnode), which is run with a time...

  9. On the Diamond Bessel Heat Kernel

    Wanchak Satsanit


    Full Text Available We study the heat equation in n dimensional by Diamond Bessel operator. We find the solution by method of convolution and Fourier transform in distribution theory and also obtain an interesting kernel related to the spectrum and the kernel which is called Bessel heat kernel.

  10. Nanomechanical Resonant Structures in Nanocrystalline Diamond


    poses, diamond may be one of the most desirable materials for many NEMS applications because it is chemically very resistant, has a high hardness...Redistribution subject Then, the substrate is removed from the chamber and is it treated in an ultrasonic bath of nanodiamond powder dis- persed in

  11. On-Chip Diamond Raman Laser

    Latawiec, Pawel; Burek, Michael J; Hausmann, Birgit J M; Bulu, Irfan; Loncar, Marko


    Synthetic single-crystal diamond has recently emerged as a promising platform for Raman lasers at exotic wavelengths due to its giant Raman shift, large transparency window and excellent thermal properties yielding a greatly enhanced figure-of-merit compared to conventional materials. To date, diamond Raman lasers have been realized using bulk plates placed inside macroscopic cavities, requiring careful alignment and resulting in high threshold powers (~W-kW). Here we demonstrate an on-chip Raman laser based on fully-integrated, high quality-factor, diamond racetrack micro-resonators embedded in silica. Pumping at telecom wavelengths, we show Stokes output discretely tunable over a ~100nm bandwidth around 2-{\\mu}m with output powers >250 {\\mu}W, extending the functionality of diamond Raman lasers to an interesting wavelength range at the edge of the mid-infrared spectrum. Continuous-wave operation with only ~85 mW pump threshold power in the feeding waveguide is demonstrated along with continuous, mode-hop-fr...

  12. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors

    Hempel, Maria [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Baer, Tobias [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Castro Carballo, Elena Maria [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Lohmann, Wolfgang [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Schmidt, Ruediger [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)


    The LHC has an operational stored energy of 130MJ per beam. Only a small percentage of beam losses in the LHC equipment can damage material or lead to magnet quenches. Therefore, it is important to monitor different types of beam losses, e.g. scattering on residual gas particles, UFOs, collisions and injection losses. A detailed understanding of beam loss mechanisms is necessary to reduce them and ensure save operation. Two different beam loss monitors are installed in the LHC tunnel: ionization chambers and diamond sensors. Ionization chambers trigger a beam dump if beam losses exceed a certain threshold. They have a time resolution of 40um (half LHC turn) which is not sufficient to resolve bunch-by-bunch beam losses. Diamond sensors have a nanosecond time resolution and can therefore detect bunch-by-bunch beam losses. This time resolution allows an analysis of various types of beam losses and an understanding of the mechanisms. For the first time beam loss intensities were measured bunch-by-bunch caused by different origins of losses. Beam loss measurements using diamond sensors will be presented. The results are compared to simulations and good qualitative agreement was found. The potential of diamond sensors for LHC and experiment applications are discussed.

  13. Diamond Light Source: status and perspectives.

    Materlik, Gerhard; Rayment, Trevor; Stuart, David I


    Diamond Light Source, a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facility in the UK, celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2012. A private limited company was set up in April 2002 to plan, construct and operate the new user-oriented SR facility, called in brief Diamond. It succeeded the Synchrotron Radiation Source in Daresbury, a second-generation synchrotron that opened in 1980 as the world's first dedicated X-ray-providing facility, closing finally in 2008, by which time Diamond's accelerators and first beamlines were operating and user experiments were under way. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A gives some examples of the rich diversity of research done in the initial five years, with some glimpses of activity up to 2014. Speakers at the 10 year anniversary symposium were drawn from a small number of major thematic areas and each theme was elaborated by a few speakers whose contributions were placed into a broader context by a leading member of the UK academic community in the role of rapporteur. This introduction gives a summary of the design choices and strategic planning of Diamond as a coherent user facility, a snapshot of its present status and some consideration of future perspectives.

  14. AC Impedance Behaviour of Black Diamond Films

    Haitao YE; Olivier GAUDIN; Richard B.JACKMAN


    The first measurement of impedance on free-standing diamond films from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz up to 300℃ were reported. A wide range of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) materials were investigated, but here we concentrate are well fitted to a RC parallel circuit model and the equivalent resistance and capacitance for the diamond films have been estimated using the Zview curve fitting. The results show only one single semicircle response at each temperature measured. It was found that the resistance decreases from 62 MΩ at room temperature to 4 kΩ at300℃, with an activation energy around 0.51 eV. The equivalent capacitance is maintained at the level of 100 pF up to 300℃ suggesting that the diamond grain boundaries are dominating the conduction. At 400℃, the impedance at low frequencies shows a linear tail, which can be explained that the AC polarization of diamond/Au interface occurs.

  15. Thermally induced defects in industrial diamond

    Masina, BN


    Full Text Available with 12 mm of WC and 3 mm of PCD. The picture of the industrial diamond that was used in this study is shown in figure 1(a). The samples were heated by a Trump Laser Frequency excited (TLF) series CO2 laser and a Rosin Sinar DY044 diode pumped Nd...

  16. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J


    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  17. Análise dos impactos do Eletronic Data Interchange em empresas

    Alessandra Vasconcelos Gallon


    Full Text Available O Eletronic Data Interchange (EDI favorece a formação de mercados eletronicamente integrados, porque permite coligir grande volume de dados, reduzir custos de tratamento de dados e eliminar barreiras de distâncias geográficas. O EDI, além de servir de meio de troca de transações eletrônicas, provê segurança, serviços de apoio aos clientes e recuperação de informações. O artigo objetiva descrever os impactos da adoção do Eletronic Data Interchange em empresas. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo exploratório de multicasos, com abordagem qualitativa. Iniciou-se com um resgate das principais idéias de autores que abordaram o tema. Em seguida identificaram-se empresas que adotam esta ferramenta, coletaram-se dados destas por meio da internet, jornais e revistas, e procedeu-se à análise dos impactos do EDI nestas empresas. Concluiu-se que a adoção do EDI nas empresas pesquisadas gerou impactos favoráveis de redução de custos operacionais, melhoria da produtividade e exploração de novas oportunidades de negócios.

  18. Parasites of freshwater fishes and the Great American Biotic Interchange: a bridge too far?

    Choudhury, A; García-Varela, M; Pérez-Ponce de León, G


    We examine the extent to which adult helminths of freshwater fishes have been part of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), by integrating information in published studies and new data from Panama with fish biogeography and Earth history of Middle America. The review illustrates the following: (1) the helminth fauna south of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and especially south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, shows strong Neotropical affinities; (2) host-parasite associations follow principles of the 'biogeographic core fauna' in which host-lineage specificity is pronounced; (3) phylogenetic analysis of the widespread freshwater trematode family Allocreadiidae reveals a complex history of host-shifting and co-diversification involving mainly cyprinodontiforms and characids; (4) allocreadiids, monogeneans and spiruridan nematodes of Middle American cyprinodontiforms may provide clues to the evolutionary history of their hosts; and (5) phylogenetic analyses of cryptogonimid trematodes may reveal whether or how cichlids interacted with marine or brackish-water environments during their colonization history. The review shows that 'interchange' is limited and asymmetrical, but simple narratives of northward isthmian dispersal will likely prove inadequate to explain the historical biogeography of many host-parasite associations in tropical Middle America, particularly those involving poeciliids. Finally, our study highlights the urgent need for targeted survey work across Middle America, focused sampling in river drainages of Colombia and Venezuela, and deeper strategic sampling in other parts of South America, in order to develop and test robust hypotheses about fish-parasite associations in Middle America.

  19. A Longitudinal Multilevel CFA-MTMM Model for Interchangeable and StructurallyDifferent Methods

    Tobias eKoch


    Full Text Available One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality, whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings. Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only 5 observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed.

  20. A longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for interchangeable and structurally different methods.

    Koch, Tobias; Schultze, Martin; Eid, Michael; Geiser, Christian


    One of the key interests in the social sciences is the investigation of change and stability of a given attribute. Although numerous models have been proposed in the past for analyzing longitudinal data including multilevel and/or latent variable modeling approaches, only few modeling approaches have been developed for studying the construct validity in longitudinal multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) measurement designs. The aim of the present study was to extend the spectrum of current longitudinal modeling approaches for MTMM analysis. Specifically, a new longitudinal multilevel CFA-MTMM model for measurement designs with structurally different and interchangeable methods (called Latent-State-Combination-Of-Methods model, LS-COM) is presented. Interchangeable methods are methods that are randomly sampled from a set of equivalent methods (e.g., multiple student ratings for teaching quality), whereas structurally different methods are methods that cannot be easily replaced by one another (e.g., teacher, self-ratings, principle ratings). Results of a simulation study indicate that the parameters and standard errors in the LS-COM model are well recovered even in conditions with only five observations per estimated model parameter. The advantages and limitations of the LS-COM model relative to other longitudinal MTMM modeling approaches are discussed.

  1. Microstructure and thermal properties of diamond/aluminum composites with TiC coating on diamond particles

    Feng, H. [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 Youyi Xilu, Xi' an 710072 (China); Yu, J.K., E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 Youyi Xilu, Xi' an 710072 (China); Tan, W. [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 Youyi Xilu, Xi' an 710072 (China)


    A titanium carbide coating on the surface of diamond particles was proposed to improve the interfacial bonding between diamond particles and aluminum alloy for diamond/aluminum composites. The diamond/aluminum composites with the TiC coating on diamond particles were fabricated by gas pressure infiltration. The composites were characterized with optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy and by measuring thermal properties, including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion. The results show that the interface adhesion between the diamond particles and the aluminum matrix is strengthened due to the existence of the TiC coating, and the fracture mechanism of the composites is a combination of matrix's ductile fracture and interfacial debonding. Improvements in thermal properties, including a reduced thermal expansion and a high thermal conductivity, have been achieved by the TiC coating on diamond particles to get the good interface.

  2. Hydrocarbons Encapsulated in Diamonds From China and India

    Leung, I.; Tsao, C.; Taj-Eddin, I.


    We examined a large number of diamonds from a kimberlite pipe located in Fuxian, China, and alluvial diamonds from Panna, India. We selected 6-10 diamonds from each locality based on certain characteristics: they are white, brilliant, mostly devoid of mineral inclusions, fracture-free, many contain microscopic bubbles, some display etched circular patterns. These diamonds were examined under ultraviolet (UV) light using a fluorescence microscope, then, investigated using a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer. Several diamonds emit blue fluorescence when excited with UV light, while others appear dim because they are not fluorescent. It is the latter that render the included bubbles clearly visible, glowing as yellow and blue spherules within the dim diamond host. These fluorescent bubbles are probably filled with hydrocarbon fluids of variable compositions. FT-IR spectra of diamond typically show absorption due to intrinsic diamond lattice vibrations. We found in most of our diamonds used in this study an additional, outstanding group of absorption bands located just below the wavenumber 3000. Peak positions in this region correlate well with symmetric and asymmetric stretching of methylene and methyl groups, attributable to H bonded to C atoms. Comparing them with standard spectral shapes, we found a good match with an alkane molecule composed of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Our observations provide evidence that hydrocarbons might be important components in the deep mantle, but, to transport them up to Earth's surface would require strong capsules which, perhaps, only diamond could provide.

  3. Inclusions of Hydrocarbon Fluids in Diamonds From Wafangdian, Liaoning, China

    Leung, I. S.; Tsao, C.


    We studied a large number of industrial-grade diamonds from Pipe 50 of Liaoning, China. These diamonds are not suitable for polishing into gems or making cutting tools. They are usually crushed to form abrasives, without much scientific scrutiny. We report here fluid inclusions in dozens of diamonds. The first type of fluids occur in the outer rim of diamonds, just below the surface, while their interior is free of visible fluids. Under UV radiation, when a non-fluorescent diamond appeared dim, bubbles of included fluids became visible as yellow and blue spherules. Such diamonds are sometimes encrusted with euhedral micro-diamonds resembling those on thin films grown by CVD. The second type of fluid-rich diamonds display iridescence of pink, blue, green and yellow colors. They show lamellar, filamentous, or tubular structures, some of the tubes are filled with granules, probably grown from fluids in the tubes. An FT-IR investigation of both types yielded similar results. Apart from absorption due to intrinsic diamond lattice vibrations, we found an outstanding group of bands just below wavenumber 3000. This indicates the presence of a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons of long chain length. Our results seem to implicate that hydrocarbons might be an important component in Earth's mantle, which might even have provided carbon from which diamonds crystllized.

  4. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K. [eds.


    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  5. Drift Wave versus Interchange Turbulence in Tokamak Geometry Linear versus Nonlinear Mode Structure

    Scott, B D


    The competition between drift wave and interchange physics in general E-cross-B drift turbulence is studied with computations in three dimensional tokamak flux tube geometry. For a given set of background scales, the parameter space can be covered by the plasma beta and drift wave collisionality. At large enough plasma beta the turbulence breaks out into ideal ballooning modes and saturates only by depleting the free energy in the background pressure gradient. At high collisionality it finds a more gradual transition to resistive ballooning. At moderate beta and collisionality it retains drift wave character, qualitatively identical to simple two dimensional slab models. The underlying cause is the nonlinear vorticity advection through which the self sustained drift wave turbulence supersedes the linear instabilities, scattering them apart before they can grow, imposing its own physical character on the dynamics. This vorticity advection catalyses the gradient drive, while saturation occurs solely through tur...

  6. Design of Three-dimensional Interchange Network Based on IPv4/IPv6 Network

    Yange Chen


    Full Text Available The present universities are deploying IPv6 campus network actively, protecting the existing investment and equipment need a gradual transition process safely. In order to achieve the fast communication between IPv4 /IPv6 hybrid network, a BRT three-dimensional interchange system is proposed. By introducing kinds of technologies and communication solutions in this paper, the system is realized by building the BRT IPv6 channel in Dual-stack network, and finally designed that achieves the network fast intercommunication in IPv4 and IPv6 hybrid campus network, as well as resolves IPv6 occupying IPv4 communication channel in dual-stack network to increase the network burden question.

  7. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian


    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.

  8. Two-dimensional convection and interchange motions in fluids and magnetized plasmas

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.


    In this contribution some recent investigations of two- dimensional thermal convection relevant to ordinary fluids as well as magnetized plasmas are reviewed. An introductory discussion is given of the physical mechanism for baroclinic vorticity generation and convective motions in stratified...... fluids, emphasizing its relation to interchange motions of non- uniformly magnetized plasmas. This is followed by a review of the theories for the onset of convection and quasi-linear saturation in driven-dissipative systems. Non-linear numerical simulations which result in stationary convective states....... The global bursting is interpreted in terms of a predator-prey regulation from the point of view of energetics. Finally, a discussion is given of the relevance of these phenomena to a variety of magnetized plasma experiments....


    IONESCU Cozmin


    Full Text Available One solution for attaching soles on footwear is to inject them directly into the upper part using moulds with unique cavities. Injection moulds are manufactured for each sole design, for each foot, right and left, and for each size number. As a result of the market demand for a large number of soles designs, the execution costs of moulds for each of them are substantial. In the case of small manufacturers, injection moulds wear out morally long before they wear out physically. This paper will present some design solutions for moulds that have reusable parts that can be used from one sole design to another, without changing the entire mould. Using these moulds, soles design can be modified by interchanging some modules which are fitted into the main mould cavities. These solutions represent a cheaper and faster alternative for classic moulds, with unique single cavities.

  10. Carnivorans at the Great American Biotic Interchange: new discoveries from the northern neotropics.

    Forasiepi, Analia M; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Gomez, Catalina Suarez; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Quiroz, Luis I; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R


    We report two fossil procyonids, Cyonasua sp. and Chapalmalania sp., from the late Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation) and Colombia (Ware Formation), respectively. The occurrence of these pre-Holocene procyonids outside Argentina and in the north of South America provides further information about the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The new specimens are recognized in the same monophyletic group as procyonids found in the southern part of the continent, the "Cyonasua group," formed by species of Cyonasua and Chapalmalania. The phylogenetic analysis that includes the two new findings support the view that procyonids dispersed from North America in two separate events (initially, previous to the first major migration wave-GABI 1-and then within the last major migration wave-GABI 4-). This involved reciprocal lineage migrations from North to South America, and included the evolution of South American endemic forms.

  11. Interchange turbulence model for the edge plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE

    Bufferand, H.; Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Fedorczak, N.; Gunn, J.; Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Colin, C.; Galassi, D.; Leybros, R.; Serre, E. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, M2P2, Marseille (France)


    Cross-field transport in edge tokamak plasmas is known to be dominated by turbulent transport. A dedicated effort has been made to simulate this turbulent transport from first principle models but the numerical cost to run these simulations on the ITER scale remains prohibitive. Edge plasma transport study relies mostly nowadays on so-called transport codes where the turbulent transport is taken into account using effective ad-hoc diffusion coefficients. In this contribution, we propose to introduce a transport equation for the turbulence intensity in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE to describe the interchange turbulence properties. Going beyond the empirical diffusive model, this system automatically generates profiles for the turbulent transport and hence reduces the number of degrees of freedom for edge plasma transport codes. We draw inspiration from the k-epsilon model widely used in the neutral fluid community. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Nucleation, growth and acoustic properties of thin film diamond

    Whitfield, M D


    emission spectroscopy has been used to study the influence of substrate bias on the microwave plasma during diamond nucleation. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have recently emerged as promising near term applications for currently available CVD diamond however little is known about the propagation of acoustic waves in this material; a detailed study of the influence of film characteristics on acoustic propagation in free standing CVD diamond films has been undertaken using the techniques of laser ultrasonic analysis. The unusual combination of extreme properties possessed by diamond could benefit a wide range of applications. Thus far practical utilisation of this material has remained difficult and consequently limited; natural and synthetic crystals are unsuitable forms for many uses; particularly electronic applications which ideally require large area, single crystal substrates. Emerging CVD methods for the growth of thin film diamond offer a practical alternative; although nucleation on non-diamond ...

  13. Processing of Photonic Crystal Nanocavity for Quantum Information in Diamond

    Bayn, Igal; Lahav, Alex; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi; Fairchild, Barbara A; Prawer, Steven; Barth, Michael; Benson, Oliver; Wolf, Thomas; Siyushev, Petr; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Jorg


    The realization of photonic crystals (PC) in diamond is of major importance for the entire field of spintronics based on fluorescent centers in diamond. The processing steps for the case of diamond differ from those commonly used, due to the extreme chemical and mechanical properties of this material. The present work summarizes the state of the art in the realization of PC's in diamond. It is based on the creation of a free standing diamond membrane into which the desired nano-sized patterns are milled by the use of Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB). The optimal fabrication-oriented structure parameters are predicted by simulations. The milling strategies, the method of formation the diamond membrane, recipes for dielectric material-manipulation in FIB and optical characterization constraints are discussed in conjunction with their implication on PC cavity design. The thus produced structures are characterized via confocal photoluminescence.

  14. On diamond-free subposets of the Boolean lattice

    Kramer, Lucas; Young, Michael


    The Boolean lattice of dimension two, also known as the diamond, consists of four distinct elements with the following property: $A\\subset B,C\\subset D$. A diamond-free family in the $n$-dimensional Boolean lattice is a subposet such that no four elements form a diamond. Note that elements $B$ and $C$ may or may not be related. There is a diamond-free family in the $n$-dimensional Boolean lattice of size $(2-o(1)){n\\choose\\lfloor n/2\\rfloor}$. In this paper, we prove that any diamond-free family in the $n$-dimensional Boolean lattice has size at most $(2.25+o(1)){n\\choose\\lfloor n/2\\rfloor}$. Furthermore, we show that the so-called Lubell function of a diamond-free family in the $n$-dimensional Boolean lattice is at most $2.25+o(1)$, which is asympotically best possible.

  15. "The nature of diamonds and their use in earth's study"

    Nestola, F.; Alvaro, M.; Pearson, D. G.; Shirey, S. B.


    To mark the occasion of the second International Diamond School (IDS) held in January 2015 at Bressanone (Italy), it is appropriate to publish a special issue of Lithos on diamond research entitled "The nature of diamonds and their use in Earth's study". The IDS, sponsored by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) and by the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO), was a special event that allowed undergraduate students, Ph.D. students and young scientists to meet, learn and discuss diamond research with some of the most eminent international scientists and leaders from industry, for an entire week. In alignment with the aim of the school, the goal of this issue is present a collection of research papers, from scientists from all over the world, providing an overview of the most advanced frontiers in diamond research, with the aim of demonstrating how diamonds can be used to provide a unique perspective on the deep Earth.

  16. Diamond based adsorbents and their application in chromatography.

    Peristyy, Anton A; Fedyanina, Olga N; Paull, Brett; Nesterenko, Pavel N


    The idea of using diamond and diamond containing materials in separation sciences has attracted a strong interest in the past decade. The combination of a unique range of properties, such as chemical inertness, mechanical, thermal and hydrolytic stability, excellent thermal conductivity with minimal thermal expansion and intriguing adsorption properties makes diamond a promising material for use in various modes of chromatography. This review summarises the recent research on the preparation of diamond and diamond based stationary phases, their properties and chromatographic performance. Special attention is devoted to the dominant retention mechanisms evident for particular diamond containing phases, and their subsequent applicability to various modes of chromatography, including chromatography carried out under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma enhanced diamond deposition on steel and Si substrates

    Y.S. Li; Y. Tang; W. Chen; Q. Yang; C. Xiao; A. Hirose


    Diamond growth on Fe-Cr-Al-Si steel and Si substrates was comparatively investigated in microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor with different deposition parameters. Adherent nanocrystalline diamond films were directly deposited on this steel substrate under a typical deposition condition, whereas microcrystalline diamond films were produced on Si wafer. With increasing CH4 concentration, reaction pressure, or the total gas flow rate, the quality of nanocrystalline diamond films formed on Fe-Cr-Al-Si substrates is gradually deteriorated in terms of density and adhesion. This impaired diamond quality on steels is primarily associated with a combined effect by the substrate composition and the specific process conditions that favor excessive nucleation of diamond.

  18. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben


    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results.

  19. Análise dos impactos do Eletronic Data Interchange em empresas

    Alessandra Vasconcelos Gallon


    Full Text Available

    O Eletronic Data Interchange (EDI favorece a formação de mercados eletronicamente integrados, porque permite coligir grande volume de dados, reduzir custos de tratamento de dados e eliminar barreiras de distâncias geográficas. O EDI, além de servir de meio de troca de transações eletrônicas, provê segurança, serviços de apoio aos clientes e recuperação de informações. O artigo objetiva descrever os impactos da adoção do Eletronic Data Interchange em empresas. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo exploratório de multicasos, com abordagem qualitativa. Iniciou-se com um resgate das principais idéias de autores que abordaram o tema. Em seguida identificaram-se empresas que adotam esta ferramenta, coletaram-se dados destas por meio da internet, jornais e revistas, e procedeu-se à análise dos impactos do EDI nestas empresas. Concluiu-se que a adoção do EDI nas empresas pesquisadas gerou impactos favoráveis de redução de custos operacionais, melhoria da produtividade e exploração de novas oportunidades de negócios.

  20. Structure and consequences of the kinetic ballooning/interchange instability in the magnetotail

    Pritchett, P. L.; Coroniti, F. V.


    AbstractThe structure and dynamical consequences of the kinetic ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) that can be excited in the curved magnetic geometry characteristic of the terrestrial plasma sheet are investigated by means of three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. Compared with earlier studies that considered a single Bz minimum configuration with an extremely large midtail field, additional simulations are performed in which this maximum is reduced to a more realistic value, the dependence on the values of the plasma beta and of the mass and temperature ratios mi/me and Ti/Te is investigated, and the limiting case of a constant Bz profile is examined. The general properties of the BICI modes are found to be unaltered by these changes. Significantly, the BICI excitation is found not to require an explicit tailward magnetic field gradient; it appears to be sufficient for the entropy to decrease with distance down the tail. The BICI wavelength varies inversely with Bz, and the eigenmodes are strongly field aligned with parallel electron flows comparable to the ion thermal velocity. In the edge of the plasma sheet, the oscillations in Bx and Bz have comparable magnitude. Once excited, the growth of the modes is robust and leads to the formation of intense interchange heads that propagate earthward. When the equatorial plasma beta is on the order of 500 or higher, the Bz field can be driven southward in the wake of the heads. This results in the onset of localized magnetic reconnection and a violent disruption of the plasma sheet.

  1. A gene pattern mining algorithm using interchangeable gene sets for prokaryotes

    Kim Sun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mining gene patterns that are common to multiple genomes is an important biological problem, which can lead us to novel biological insights. When family classification of genes is available, this problem is similar to the pattern mining problem in the data mining community. However, when family classification information is not available, mining gene patterns is a challenging problem. There are several well developed algorithms for predicting gene patterns in a pair of genomes, such as FISH and DAGchainer. These algorithms use the optimization problem formulation which is solved using the dynamic programming technique. Unfortunately, extending these algorithms to multiple genome cases is not trivial due to the rapid increase in time and space complexity. Results In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for mining gene patterns in more than two prokaryote genomes using interchangeable sets. The basic idea is to extend the pattern mining technique from the data mining community to handle the situation where family classification information is not available using interchangeable sets. In an experiment with four newly sequenced genomes (where the gene annotation is unavailable, we show that the gene pattern can capture important biological information. To examine the effectiveness of gene patterns further, we propose an ortholog prediction method based on our gene pattern mining algorithm and compare our method to the bi-directional best hit (BBH technique in terms of COG orthologous gene classification information. The experiment show that our algorithm achieves a 3% increase in recall compared to BBH without sacrificing the precision of ortholog detection. Conclusion The discovered gene patterns can be used for the detecting of ortholog and genes that collaborate for a common biological function.

  2. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    Popok, Vladimir


    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite a...... implantation. Implantation of cobalt and argon clusters into two different allotropic forms of carbon, namely, graphite and diamond is analysed and compared in order to approach universal theory of cluster stopping in matter....... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...

  3. Quantum optical signal processing in diamond

    Fisher, Kent A G; Maclean, Jean-Phillipe W; Bustard, Philip J; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J


    Controlling the properties of single photons is essential for a wide array of emerging optical quantum technologies spanning quantum sensing, quantum computing, and quantum communications. Essential components for these technologies include single photon sources, quantum memories, waveguides, and detectors. The ideal spectral operating parameters (wavelength and bandwidth) of these components are rarely similar; thus, frequency conversion and spectral control are key enabling steps for component hybridization. Here we perform signal processing of single photons by coherently manipulating their spectra via a modified quantum memory. We store 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, in a room-temperature diamond crystal; upon retrieval we demonstrate centre frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 to 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, to be an integrated platform for photon storage ...

  4. Sensing electric fields using single diamond spins

    Dolde, Florian; Doherty, Marcus W; Nöbauer, Tobias; Rempp, Florian; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Wolf, Thomas; Reinhard, Friedemann; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Jörg


    The ability to sensitively detect charges under ambient conditions would be a fascinating new tool benefitting a wide range of researchers across disciplines. However, most current techniques are limited to low-temperature methods like single-electron transistors (SET), single-electron electrostatic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy. Here we open up a new quantum metrology technique demonstrating precision electric field measurement using a single nitrogen-vacancy defect centre(NV) spin in diamond. An AC electric field sensitivity reaching ~ 140V/cm/\\surd Hz has been achieved. This corresponds to the electric field produced by a single elementary charge located at a distance of ~ 150 nm from our spin sensor with averaging for one second. By careful analysis of the electronic structure of the defect centre, we show how an applied magnetic field influences the electric field sensing properties. By this we demonstrate that diamond defect centre spins can be switched between electric and magneti...

  5. Characterization of boron doped nanocrystalline diamonds

    Peterlevitz, A C; Manne, G M; Sampaio, M A; Quispe, J C R; Pasquetto, M P; Iannini, R F; Ceragioli, H J; Baranauskas, V [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, 13083-852 Campinas SP Brasil (Brazil)], E-mail:


    Nanostructured diamond doped with boron was prepared using a hot-filament assisted chemical vapour deposition system fed with an ethyl alcohol, hydrogen and argon mixture. The reduction of the diamond grains to the nanoscale was produced by secondary nucleation and defects induced by argon and boron atoms via surface reactions during chemical vapour deposition. Raman measurements show that the samples are nanodiamonds embedded in a matrix of graphite and disordered carbon grains, while morphological investigations using field electron scanning microscopy show that the size of the grains ranges from 20 to 100 nm. The lowest threshold fields achieved were in the 1.6 to 2.4 V/{mu}m range.

  6. Superhard BC(3) in cubic diamond structure.

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Quan; Gao, Bo; Wang, Yanchao; Li, Hongdong; Chen, Changfeng; Ma, Yanming


    We solve the crystal structure of recently synthesized cubic BC(3) using an unbiased swarm structure search, which identifies a highly symmetric BC(3) phase in the cubic diamond structure (d-BC(3)) that contains a distinct B-B bonding network along the body diagonals of a large 64-atom unit cell. Simulated x-ray diffraction and Raman peaks of d-BC(3) are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Calculated stress-strain relations of d-BC(3) demonstrate its intrinsic superhard nature and reveal intriguing sequential bond-breaking modes that produce superior ductility and extended elasticity, which are unique among superhard solids. The present results establish the first boron carbide in the cubic diamond structure with remarkable properties, and these new findings also provide insights for exploring other covalent solids with complex bonding configurations.

  7. Mechanism for diamond growth from methyl radicals

    Harris, Stephen J.


    We use a 9-carbon model compound to describe a proposed mechanism for homoepitaxial growth of diamond from methyl radicals on a hydrogenated, electrically neutral (100) surface. We estimate enthalpy and entropy changes for each step in the mechanism using group additivity methods, taking into account the types of bonding and steric repulsions found on the (100) surface. Rate constants are estimated based on analogous reactions for hydrocarbon molecules, while gas phase species concentrations are taken from our previous measurements. The rate equations are then integrated. The method, which contains no adjustable parameters or phenomenological constants, predicts a growth rate of between 0.06 and 0.6 μm/h, depending on the local details of the surface. Uncertainties related to the use of a model compound rather than diamond are discussed. The analysis demonstrates that the proposed mechanism is feasible.

  8. Dynamics of a distorted diamond chain

    Mikeska, H.-J.; Luckmann, C.


    We present results on the dynamics of the distorted diamond chain, S=1/2 dimers alternating with single spins 1/2 and exchange couplings J1 and J3 in between. The dynamics in the spin fluid (SF) and tetramer-dimer (TD) phases is investigated numerically by exact diagonalization for up to 24 spins. Representative excitation spectra are presented both for zero magnetic field and in the 1/3 plateau phase and the relevant parameters are determined across the phase diagram. The behavior across the SF-TD phase transition line is discussed for the specific heat and for excitation spectra. The relevance of the distorted diamond chain model for the Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 (azurite) material is discussed with particular emphasis on inelastic neutron scattering experiments; the recent suggestion of one possibly ferromagnetic coupling constant is not confirmed.

  9. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.


    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  10. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.


    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  11. Effect of argon during diamond deposition

    Barbosa, D.C.; Mengui, U.A.; Contin, A.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Baldan, M.R.; Corat, E.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais


    The effect of argon content upon the growth rate and the properties of diamond thin films grown with different grains sizes is explored. An argon-free and argon-rich gas mixture of methane and hydrogen is used in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of the films is accomplished by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution x-ray diffraction. An extensive comparison of the growth rate values obtained in this study with those found in the literature suggests that there are distinct common trends for microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond growth, despite a large variation in the gas mixture composition. Included is a discussion of the possible reasons for these observations. (author)

  12. Leakage current measurements of a pixelated polycrystalline CVD diamond detector

    Zain, R.M.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Cunnigham, L.; Stehl, C.; Berderman, E.; Rahim, R. A.


    Diamond has several desirable features when used as a material for radiation detection. With the invention of synthetic growth techniques, it has become feasible to look at developing diamond radiation detectors with reasonable surface areas. Polycrystalline diamond has been grown using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique by the University of Augsburg and detector structures fabricated at the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre (JWNC) in the University of Glasgow in order to produce pi...

  13. Ion implantation of diamond: Damage, doping, and lift-off

    Parikh, N.R.; McGucken, E.; Swanson, M.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Hunn, J.D.; White, C.W.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    In order to make good quality economical diamond electronic devices, it is essential to grow films and to dope these films to obtain n- and p- type conductivity. This review talk discuss first doping by ion implantation plus annealing of the implantation damage, and second flow to make large area single crystal diamonds. C implantation damage below an estimated Frenkel defect concentration of 7% could be recovered almost completely by annealing at 950C. For a defect concentration between 7 and 10%, a stable damage form of diamond (``green diamond``) was formed by annealing. At still higher damage levels, the diamond graphitized. To introduce p-type doping, we have co-implanted B and C into natural diamond at 77K, followed by annealing up to 1100C. The resulting semiconducting material has electrical properties similar to those of natural B-doped diamond. To create n-type diamond, we have implanted Na{sup +}, P+ and As{sup +} ions and have observed semiconducting behavior. This has been compared with carbon or noble element implantation, in an attempt to isolate the effect of radiation damage. Recently, in order to obtain large area signal crystals, we have developed a novel technique for removing thin layers of diamond from bulk or homoepitaxial films. This method consists of ion implantation, followed by selective etching. High energy (4--5 MeV) implantation of carbon or oxygen ions creates a well-defined layer of damaged diamond buried at a controlled depth. This layer is graphitized and selectivity etched either by heating at 550C in an oxygen ambient or by electrolysis. This process successfully lifts off the diamond plate above the graphite layer. The lift-off method, combined with well-established homoepitaxial growth processes, has potential for fabrication of large area single-crystal diamond sheets.

  14. Quantum Optics in Diamond Nanophotonic Chips


    techniques [12]. Using a CCD camera, this “deterministic emitter switch microscopy ” (DESM) technique enables super - resolution imaging with localization down...selective optical transitions allow individual NV electron spins to be easily observed using standard confocal microscopy . The NV has two unpaired...record-precision magnetometry with diamond nanocrystals [11]. 1.3 Wide-Field Multispectral Super - Resolution Imaging Using Spin- Dependent Fluorescence in

  15. Simulation of 3D diamond detectors

    Forcolin, G. T.; Oh, A.; Murphy, S. A.


    3D diamond detectors present an interesting prospect for future Particle Physics experiments. They have been studied in detail at beam tests with 120 GeV protons and 4 MeV protons. To understand the observations that have been made, simulations have been carried out using Synopsys TCAD in order to explain the movement of charge carriers within the sample, as well as the effects of charge sharing. Reasonable agreement has been observed between simulation and experiment.

  16. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A. [CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B. [University College London (United Kingdom). Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.


    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used.

  17. Junction like behavior in polycrystalline diamond films

    Bhaskaran, Shivakumar, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Charlson, Earl Joe; Litvinov, Dmitri [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Makarenko, Boris [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result that we obtained are compared with single crystalline diamond devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The barrier height of 4.4 eV matches the ideal pn-junction barrier height of diamond thin film. - Abstract: We have successfully fabricated polycrystalline diamond rectifying junction devices on n-type (1 0 0) silicon substrates by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) using methane/hydrogen process gas and trimethyl borate and trimethyl phosphite dissolved in acetone as p- and n-type dopants, respectively. Impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage analysis indicates that the conduction is vertical down the grains and facets and not due to surface effects. Electrical characteristics were analyzed with In and Ti/Au top metal contacts with Al as the substrate contact. Current-voltage characteristics as a function of temperature showed barrier potentials of 1.1 eV and 0.77 eV for the In and Ti/Au contacts, respectively. Barrier heights of 4.8 eV (In) and 4.4 eV (Ti/Au) were obtained from capacitance-voltage measurements.

  18. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.


    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  19. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others


    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  20. TSC response of irradiated CVD diamond films

    Borchi, E; Bucciolini, M; Guasti, A; Mazzocchi, S; Pirollo, S; Sciortino, S


    CVD diamond films have been irradiated with electrons, sup 6 sup 0 Co photons and protons in order to study the dose response to exposure to different particles and energies and to investigate linearity with dose. The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) has been studied as a function of the dose delivered to polymethilmetacrilate (PMMA) in the range from 1 to 12 Gy with 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The TSC spectrum has revealed the presence of two components with peak temperatures of about 470 and 520 K, corresponding to levels lying in the diamond band gap with activation energies of the order of 0.7 - 1 eV. After the subtraction of the exponential background the charge emitted during the heating scan has been evaluated and has been found to depend linearly on the dose. The thermally emitted charge of the CVD diamond films has also been studied using different particles. The samples have been irradiated with the same PMMA dose of about 2 Gy with 6 and 20 MeV electrons from a Linac, sup 6 sup 0 ...

  1. Magnetically Orchestrated Formation of Diamond at Lower Temperatures and Pressures

    Little, Reginald B.; Lochner, Eric; Goddard, Robert


    Man's curiosity and fascination with diamonds date back to ancient times. The knowledge of the many properties of diamond is recorded during Biblical times. Antoine Lavoisier determined the composition of diamond by burning in O2 to form CO2. With the then existing awareness of graphite as carbon, the race began to convert graphite to diamond. The selective chemical synthesis of diamond has been pursued by Cagniard, Hannay, Moisson and Parson. On the basis of the thermodynamically predicted equilibrium line of diamond and graphite, P W Bridgman attempted extraordinary conditions of high temperature (>2200°C) and pressure (>100,000 atm) for the allotropic conversion of graphite to diamond. H T Hall was the first to successfully form bulk diamond by realizing the kinetic restrictions to Bridgman's (thermodynamic) high pressure high temperature direct allotropic conversion. Moreover, Hall identified catalysts for the faster kinetics of diamond formation. H M Strong determined the import of the liquid catalyst during Hall's catalytic synthesis. W G Eversole discovered the slow metastable low pressure diamond formation by pyrolytic chemical vapor deposition with the molecular hydrogen etching of the rapidly forming stable graphitic carbon. J C Angus determined the import of atomic hydrogen for faster etching for faster diamond growth at low pressure. S Matsumoto has developed plasma and hot filament technology for faster hydrogen and carbon radical generations at low pressure for faster diamond formation. However the metastable low pressure chemical vapor depositions by plasma and hot filament are prone to polycrystalline films. From Bridgman to Hall to Eversole, Angus and Matsumoto, much knowledge has developed of the importance of pressure, temperature, transition metal catalyst, liquid state of metal (metal radicals atoms) and the carbon radical intermediates for diamond synthesis. Here we advance this understanding of diamond formation by demonstrating the external

  2. Radiation Hardness and Linearity Studies of CVD Diamonds

    Behnke, T; Ghodbane, N; Imhof, A


    We report on the behavior of CVD diamonds under intense electromagnetic radiation and on the response of the detector to high density of deposited energy. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 10 MGy of MeV-range photons and the diamond response to energy depositions of up to 250 GeV/cm^3 has been found to be linear to better than 2 %. These observations make diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector proposed for TESLA.

  3. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof

    Hemley, Russell J [Washington, DC; Mao, Ho-kwang [Washington, DC; Yan, Chih-shiue [Washington, DC


    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  4. FTIR thermochronometry of natural diamonds: A closer look

    Kohn, Simon C.; Speich, Laura; Smith, Christopher B.; Bulanova, Galina P.


    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a commonly-used technique for investigating diamonds, that gives the most useful information if spatially-resolved measurements are used. In this paper we discuss the best way to acquire and present FTIR data from diamonds, using examples from Murowa (Zimbabwe), Argyle (Australia) and Machado River (Brazil). Examples of FTIR core-to-rim line scans, maps with high spatial resolution and maps with high spectral resolution that are fitted to extract the spatial variation of different nitrogen and hydrogen defects are presented. Model mantle residence temperatures are calculated from the concentration of A and B nitrogen-containing defects in the diamonds using known times of annealing in the mantle. A new, two-stage thermal annealing model is presented that better constrains the thermal history of the diamond and that of the mantle lithosphere in which the diamond resided. The effect of heterogeneity within the analysed FTIR volume is quantitatively assessed and errors in model temperatures that can be introduced by studying whole diamonds instead of thin plates are discussed. The spatial distribution of VN3H hydrogen defects associated with the 3107 cm- 1 vibration does not follow the same pattern as nitrogen defects, and an enrichment of VN3H hydrogen at the boundary between pre-existing diamond and diamond overgrowths is observed. There are several possible explanations for this observation including a change in chemical composition of diamond forming fluid during growth or kinetically controlled uptake of hydrogen.

  5. Amino-terminated diamond surfaces: Photoelectron emission and photocatalytic properties

    Zhu, Di; Bandy, Jason A.; Li, Shuo; Hamers, Robert J.


    We report a new approach to making stable negative electron-affinity diamond surfaces by terminating diamond with amino groups (also known as amine groups, -NH2). Previous studies have shown that negative electron affinity can be induced by terminating diamond surfaces with hydrogen, creating a surface dipole favorable toward electron emission. Here, we demonstrate that covalent tethering of positive charges in the form of protonated amino groups, -NH3+, also leads to negative electron affinity (NEA) and facile electron emission into vacuum and into water. Amino-terminated diamond was prepared using a very mild plasma discharge. Valence-band photoemission studies of the amino-terminated diamond samples show a characteristic "NEA" peak, demonstrating that the amino-terminated surface has NEA. Diamond's ability to emit electrons into water was evaluated using photochemical conversion of N2 to NH3. Time-resolved surface photovoltage studies were used to characterize charge separation at the diamond interface, and Mott-Schottky measurements were performed to characterize band-bending at the diamond-water interface. XPS studies show that the amino-terminated surfaces provide increased chemical resistance to oxidation compared with H-terminated diamond when illuminated with ultraviolet light.

  6. Diamond color measurement instrument based on image processing

    Takahashi, H.; Mandal, S.; Toosi, M.; Zeng, J.; Wang, W.


    Gemological Institute of America (GIA) has developed a diamond color measurement instrument that can provide accurate and reproducible color measurement results. The instrument uses uniform illumination by a daylight-approximating light source; observations from a high-resolution color-camera with nearly zero-distortion bi-telecentric lens, and image processing to calculate color parameters of diamonds. Experiments show the instrument can provide reproducible color measurement results and also identify subtle color differences in diamonds with high sensitivity. The experimental setup of the prototype instrument and the image processing method for calculating diamond color parameters are presented in this report.

  7. Noble gases in diamonds - Occurrences of solarlike helium and neon

    Honda, M.; Reynolds, J. H.; Roedder, E.; Epstein, S.


    Seventeen diamond samples from diverse locations were analyzed for the contents of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and of their isotopes, using a Reynolds (1956) type glass mass spectrometer. The results disclosed a large spread in the He-3/He-4 ratios, ranging from values below atmospheric to close to the solar ratio. In particular, solarlike He-3/He-4 ratios were seen for an Australian colorless diamond composite and an Arkansas diamond, which also displayed solarlike neon isotopic ratios. Wide variation was also observed in the He-4/Ar-40 ratios, suggesting a complex history for the source regions and the diamond crystallization processes.

  8. CVD Diamond Sink Application in High Power 3D MCMs

    XIE Kuo-jun; JIANG Chang-shun; LI Cheng-yue


    As electronic packages become more compact, run at faster speeds and dissipate more heat, package designers need more effective thermal management materials. CVD diamond, because of its high thermal conductivity, low dielectric loss and its great mechanical strength, is an excellent material for three dimensional (3D) multichip modules (MCMs) in the next generation compact high speed computers and high power microwave components. In this paper, we have synthesized a large area freestanding diamond films and substrates, and polished diamond substrates, which make MCMs diamond film sink becomes a reality.

  9. CVD diamond resistor as heater and temperature sensor

    Yang, G.S.; Aslam, M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    Heat generation and temperature control, essential for most heater applications, require different components in a conventional system. We achieve the heat generation and temperature measurement simultaneously by using a single diamond resistor. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) p-type diamond resistors with different dimensions were fabricated on polycrystalline diamond or oxidized Si substrates using diamond film technology compatible with integrated circuit (IC) processing. The temperature response of the resistors was characterized in the temperature range of 25 - 500{degrees}C. Power densities in access of 600 watt/in{sup 2} were achieved.

  10. Morphology Analysis of Nickel-boron/ diamond Electroless Deposition

    WANG Lin; ZHU Xuanmin; ZHOU Jian; OUYANG Shixi


    The influences of mass concentration of nickel chloride hexahydrate, sodium borohydride,ethylenediamine, pH value, bath temperature on deposition rate were studied with orthogonal experiments by a series of pre-treatments on micro-diamond particle, and the optimized parameters were obtained. Both the morphology and the composition of original diamond and the diamond with Ni-B coating were analyzed by SEM and XRD respectively. The SEM image shows that the spherical Ni-B particle is coated upon diamond.XRD pattern shows that the coating compositions are Ni and Ni2B.

  11. Bases of the Mantle-Carbonatite Conception of Diamond Genesis

    Litvin, Yuriy; Spivak, Anna; Kuzyura, Anastasia


    In the mantle-carbonatite conception of diamond genesis, the results of physic-chemical experiments are coordinated with the data of analytic mineralogy of primary inclusions in natural diamonds. Generalization of the solutions of principal genetic problems constitutes the bases of the conception. The solutions are following: (1) it is grounded that diamond-parental melts of the upper mantle have peridotite/eclogite - carbonatite - carbon compositions, of the transition zone - (wadsleite↔ringwoodite) - majorite - stishovite - carbonatite - carbon compositions, and of the lower mantle - periclase/wustite - bridgmanite - Ca-perovskite -stishovite - carbonatite - carbon compositions; (2) a construction of generalized diagrams for the diamond-parental media, which reveal changeable compositions of the growth melts of diamonds and associated phases, their genetic relations to the mantle substance, and classification connections of the primary inclusions in natural diamonds; (3) experimental equilibrium phase diagrams of syngenesis of diamonds and primary inclusions, which characterize the nucleation and growth conditions of diamonds and a capture of paragenetic and xenogenetic minerals by the growing diamonds; (4) a determination of the phase diagrams of diamonds and inclusions syngenesis under the regime of fractional crystallization, which discover the regularities of ultrabasic-basic evolution and paragenesis transitions in the diamond-forming systems of the upper and lower mantle. The evidence of the physic-chemically united mode of diamond genesis at the mantle depths with different mineralogy is obtained. References. Litvin Yu.A. (2007). High-pressure mineralogy of diamond genesis. In: Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy (edited by Eiji Ohtani), Geological Society of America Special paper 421, 83-103. Litvin Yu.A. (2012). Experimental study of physic-chemical conditions of natural diamond formation on an example of the eclogite-carbonatite-sulphide-diamond

  12. 76 FR 45649 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley Interchange Project: Jackson County, OR


    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley Interchange... the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, I-5: Fern Valley... Administration, 530 Center Street, NE., Suite 420, Salem, Oregon 97301, Telephone: (503) 316-2559. The I-5:...

  13. Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) Fluid Toxicity Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP)

    Sheredy, William A.


    A Technical Interchange meeting was held between the payload developers for the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and the NASA Safety Review Panel concerning operational anomaly that resulted in overheating one of the fluid heaters, shorted a 24VDC power supply and generated Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB) from Perfluorohexane.

  14. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...


    ... of Route 250 Bypass and McIntire Road. The project would reduce traffic congestion and improve... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville,...

  15. Final Environmental Assessment for Gate 5 (Central Avenue) Interchange Improvements on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming


    PHONE TYPIST’S SUSPENSE DATE INITIALS Beckwith, GS -11 90 CES/CEAN 773-3667 rs SUBJECT DATE Final Environmental Assessment, Gate 5 (Central Avenue... Kirk Schaumman Air Quality Manager F. E. Warren AFB WY 82005 10 Final Environmental Assessment for Gate 5 (Central Avenue) Interchange Improvements

  16. 22 CFR 501.9 - Interchange of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Interchange of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...

  17. Panel 2 - properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films

    Blau, P.J.; Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ajayi, O.O.; Liu, Y.Y.; Purohit, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bartelt, P.F. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Baughman, R.H. [Allied Signal, Morristown, NJ (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Cooper, C.V. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dugger, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freedman, A. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Larsen-Basse, J. [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States); McGuire, N.R. [Caterpillar, Peoria, IL (United States); Messier, R.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Noble, G.L.; Ostrowki, M.H. [John Crane, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States); Sartwell, B.D. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Wei, R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)


    This panel attempted to identify and prioritize research and development needs in determining the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films (D/DLCF). Three specific goals were established. They were: (1) To identify problem areas which produce concern and require a better knowledge of D/DLCF properties. (2) To identify and prioritize key properties of D/DLCF to promote transportation applications. (3) To identify needs for improvement in properties-measurement methods. Each of these goals is addressed subsequently.

  18. Microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites with Ti-coated diamond particles produced by gas pressure infiltration

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Hailong; Zhang, Yang; Che, Zifan; Wang, Xitao, E-mail:


    As an attractive thermal management material, diamond particles reinforced Cu matrix (Cu/diamond) composites generally exhibit thermal conductivities lower than expected. To exploit the potential of heat conduction, a combination of Ti coating on diamond particles and gas pressure infiltration was used to prepare Cu/diamond(Ti) composites. A high thermal conductivity of 716 W/mK and a low coefficient of thermal expansion of 5.8 ppm/K at 323 K were obtained in the composites. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) characterization shows that a TiC layer was formed between Cu matrix and diamond reinforcement, which is responsible for the enhancement of thermal conductivity. The results suggest that Ti coating can significantly promote interface bonding between Cu and diamond and gas pressure infiltration is an effective method to produce Cu/diamond composites. - Highlights: • The Cu/diamond(Ti) composites are produced by gas pressure infiltration. • A TiC layer is formed between Cu matrix and diamond reinforcement. • A thermal conductivity of 716 W/mK is obtained for the composites. • A coefficient of thermal expansion of 5.8 ppm/K at 323 K was obtained.

  19. Diamonds in meteorites – Raman mapping and cathodoluminescence studies

    A.T. Karczemska


    Full Text Available diversity among the diversity of other extraterrestrial carbon phases. The main subject of research shown here are example meteorites consisting diamonds: ureilites DaG 868 and Dho 3013. Results are compared with previous investigations. Diamonds exist in many different meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs and in comets dust. Origin of different diamonds is still debated among the scientists, two main possibilities are taken into consideration CVD process or shock metamorphism. Understanding laboratory techniques of manufacturing diamond helps in understanding the processes taking place in the Space. From the other side, the new findings and discoveries give the new insight to material science and laboratory techniques.Design/methodology/approach: The samples were examined with different methods, the most investigations presented here are Raman Mapping and Cathodoluminescence (CL.Findings: Diamonds have been found in different samples with different shock stages. It means that not all diamonds in urelites could have shock origin. Diamonds from examined samples show high diversity, they exist in different sizes, from nanodiamonds to micrometer sizes diamonds and in different polytypes. Shifts of Raman diamond peaks indicates this.Research limitations/implications: Results show the possibilities of creating the new diamond-based materials similar to those found in meteorites. Diamond polytypes are not well characterized yet and could give some surprises for materials science. For future research it would be interesting to apply more methods such as X-ray diffraction or HRTEM.Originality/value: SEM+BSE+EDS+CL results and Raman imaging results of DaG 868 and Dho 1303 ureilites are shown for the first time.

  20. Thin film deposition of diamond using normal paraffins as source of diamond nucleation centers

    Ershova, A., E-mail: [Nano-Technology Laboratory, Triangle Inc., 01079 (Ukraine); Eizenbraun, A. [Nano-Technology Laboratory, Triangle Inc., 01079 (Ukraine)


    Highlights: ► Paraffin compounds are diamond nucleation sources. ► Thermoconductivity of Cu–DTF device is higher than such conductivity of Cu. ► DTF growth in HFCVD reactor is not linear function of time. -- Abstract: We propose a process for diamond thin film (DTF) deposition using normal paraffins (nP) as source of diamond nucleation centers. We deposited micro-crystalline diamond thin films (MCDTF) on a Cu substrate using Hot Filament CVD (HFCVD) and Passive Pt/Pd Surface Catalysis (PPt/PdSC) methods. Beeswax and a 1:1 mixture of normal paraffins of the general formula CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n}CH{sub 3} with n = 22 and 26 were tested as nP starting material. The films obtained were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Raman scattering temperature dependent spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, all of which confirmed that the deposited material is MCDTF.

  1. Regional consequences of a biotic interchange: insights from the Lessepsian invasion

    Nawrot, Rafal; Albano, Paolo G.; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin


    The fossil record provides ample evidence of large-scale biotic interchanges and their pervasive effects on regional biotas, but mechanisms controlling such events are difficult to decipher in deep time. Massive invasion of Indo-Pacific species into the Mediterranean Sea triggered by the opening of the Suez Canal offers a unique opportunity to examine the ecological consequences of breaking down biogeographic barriers. We developed an extensive database of taxonomic composition, body size and ecological characteristics of the Red Sea and Mediterranean bivalve fauna in order to link biotic selectivity of the invasion process with its effects on the recipient biota. Shallow-water occurrence and presence outside the tropical zone in other regions are the strongest predictors of the successful transition through the Suez Canal. Subsequent establishment of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea correlates with early arrival and preference for hard substrates. Finally, large-bodied species and hard-bottom dwellers are over-represented among the invasive aliens that have reached the spread stage and impose a strong impact on native communities. Although body size is important only at the last invasion stage, alien species are significantly larger compared to native Mediterranean bivalves. This reflects biogeographic difference in the body-size distributions of the source and recipient species pools related to the recent geological history of the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to the general expectations on the effects of temperature on average body size, continued warming of the Mediterranean Sea accelerates the entry of tropical aliens and thus indirectly leads to increase in the proportion of large-bodied species in local communities and the regional biota. Invasion-driven shifts in species composition are stronger in hard-substrate communities, which host a smaller pool of incumbent species and are more susceptible to the establishment of newcomers. Analogous differences

  2. Anticipation on the Development of Polycarbonate Production Technology by Using Ester-interchange Method in China

    Cai Shengquan; Shen Ji


    Polycarbonate (hereinafter referred to as "PC ") is the sole product having good transparency among the 5 major engineering plastics. In 2000, the worldwide PC production capacity was reached up to 2,800,000 tons of several hundreds of brands of various grades. It is estimated that the global PC production capacity will exceed 3,500,000 tons in 2005. The global demand for PC was 1,900,000 tons in 2000, which will reach to 2,600,000 tons and more than 3,000,000 tons in 2003 and 2005 respectively according to relevant estimations. The total production capacity of PC of the whole country reached to 3000-4000 tons in 2003. PC imported to China in 2003 was up to 534,000 tons and the apparent amount of consumption of that year was 447,000 tons.The scientific and technical personnel of Chenguang Chemical Research Institute engaged in the research and development of PC production technologies have been advancing wave upon wave with a combatant spirit and the spirit of "Storming the gate" for more than 40 years, having made important breakthroughs in a continuous PC manufacturing process by using ester-interchange method and in project amplification techniques. We consider that favorable conditions are now already available in China for building up PC production plants (each has an annual production capacity of 10,000 tons or above) by using ester- interchange method.In the recent 2 years, the growth rate of domestic annual PC consumption was up to more than 30 %, almost all of which relied on imports from foreign countries. Consequently, the development of domestically made PC has become a task, which brooks no delay. At present, conditions for building up domestic large-scale PC production plants are already available. It should be noted that PC production technologies are matured, PC products have a huge market potential and the returns on investment are optimistic. Therefore, building PC production plants, each with an annual production capacity of 10,000 tons ( approx

  3. Interchangeability among therapeutic equivalents of lamotrigine: evaluation of quality of life

    Beatriz Maria Pereira Girolineto


    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological disorder worldwide. Approximately 70% of patients with epilepsy have their seizures controlled by clinical and pharmacological treatment. This research evaluated the possible influence of interchangeability among therapeutic equivalents of LTG on the clinical condition and quality of life of refractory epileptic patients. The study was divided into three periods of 42 days, and an equivalent therapeutic LTG randomly dispensed for each period (two similars - formulations A and B, and the reference product - formulation C. The mean dose of LTG was 5.5 mg/kg/day. The presence of side effects tends to have a greater deleterious effect on quality of life of refractory epileptics compared to variations in number of seizures or changes in plasma concentrations. The results showed that independently of the drug prescribed, interchangeability among therapeutic equivalents can negatively impact epilepsy control.Epilepsia é o distúrbio neurológico grave mais comum no mundo todo. Aproximadamente 70% dos pacientes com epilepsia têm suas crises controladas com tratamento clínico e farmacológico. Esta pesquisa avaliou a possível interferência da intercambialidade entre equivalentes terapêuticos da lamotrigina na condição clínica e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes com epilepsia refratária. O estudo foi dividido em três períodos de 42 dias e em cada período foi dispensado um equivalente terapêutico, aleatoriamente (dois similares - formulação A e B e o medicamento de referência - formulação C. A dose média de lamotrigina foi de 5,5 mg/kg/dia. A ocorrência de efeitos colaterais tende a ser mais decisiva para a redução da qualidade de vida em epilepsia refratária em relação às variações no número de crises ou alterações nas concentrações plasmáticas. Os resultados demonstram que, independentemente do medicamento prescrito, a intercambialidade entre equivalentes terap

  4. Hot-filament chemical vapour deposition of diamond onto steel

    Buijnsters, Ivan


    The main goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of depositing well adhering polycrystalline diamond coatings on steel substrates. It is well known that the growth and adhesion of diamond layers directly onto steels is complicated by the high carbon solubility and the high thermal expa

  5. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond coated on titanium for osteoblast adhesion.

    Pareta, Rajesh; Yang, Lei; Kothari, Abhishek; Sirinrath, Sirivisoot; Xiao, Xingcheng; Sheldon, Brian W; Webster, Thomas J


    Diamond coatings with superior chemical stability, antiwear, and cytocompatibility properties have been considered for lengthening the lifetime of metallic orthopedic implants for over a decade. In this study, an attempt to tailor the surface properties of diamond films on titanium to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) adhesion was reported. The surface properties investigated here included the size of diamond surface features, topography, wettability, and surface chemistry, all of which were controlled during microwave plasma enhanced chemical-vapor-deposition (MPCVD) processes using CH4-Ar-H2 gas mixtures. The hardness and elastic modulus of the diamond films were also determined. H2 concentration in the plasma was altered to control the crystallinity, grain size, and topography of the diamond coatings, and specific plasma gases (O2 and NH3) were introduced to change the surface chemistry of the diamond coatings. To understand the impact of the altered surface properties on osteoblast responses, cell adhesion tests were performed on the various diamond-coated titanium. The results revealed that nanocrystalline diamond (grain sizes applications.

  6. First result on biased CMOS MAPs-on-diamond devices

    Kanxheri, K., E-mail: [Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Citroni, M.; Fanetti, S. [LENS Firenze, Florence (Italy); Lagomarsino, S. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy); INFN Firenze, Pisa (Italy); Morozzi, A. [Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Parrini, G. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy); Passeri, D. [Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy); INFN Firenze, Pisa (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)


    Recently a new type of device, the MAPS-on-diamond, obtained bonding a thinned to 25 μm CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor to a standard 500 μm pCVD diamond substrate, has been proposed and fabricated, allowing a highly segmented readout (10×10 μm pixel size) of the signal produced in the diamond substrate. The bonding between the two materials has been obtained using a new laser technique to deliver the needed energy at the interface. A biasing scheme has been adopted to polarize the diamond substrate to allow the charge transport inside the diamond without disrupting the functionalities of the CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor. The main concept of this class of devices is the capability of the charges generated in the diamond by ionizing radiation to cross the silicon–diamond interface and to be collected by the MAPS photodiodes. In this work we demonstrate that such passage occurs and measure its overall efficiency. This study has been carried out first calibrating the CMOS MAPS with monochromatic X-rays, and then testing the device with charged particles (electrons) either with and without biasing the diamond substrate, to compare the amount of signal collected.

  7. Single-color centers implanted in diamond nanostructures

    Hausmann, Birgit J. M.; Babinec, Thomas M.; Choy, Jennifer T.; Hodges, Jonathan S.; Hong, Sungkun; Bulu, Irfan; Yacoby, Amir; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Lončar, Marko


    The development of material-processing techniques that can be used to generate optical diamond nanostructures containing a single-color center is an important problem in quantum science and technology. In this work, we present the combination of ion implantation and top-down diamond nanofabrication in two scenarios: diamond nanopillars and diamond nanowires. The first device consists of a 'shallow' implant (~20 nm) to generate nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers near the top surface of the diamond crystal prior to device fabrication. Individual NV centers are then mechanically isolated by etching a regular array of nanopillars in the diamond surface. Photon anti-bunching measurements indicate that a high yield (>10%) of the devices contain a single NV center. The second device demonstrates 'deep' (~1 μm) implantation of individual NV centers into diamond nanowires as a post-processing step. The high single-photon flux of the nanowire geometry, combined with the low background fluorescence of the ultrapure diamond, allowed us to observe sustained photon anti-bunching even at high pump powers.

  8. Origin of Ultralow Friction and Wear in Ultrananocrystalline Diamond


    flats and Si3N4 spheres [13]. Substrates were ultrasonically pre- treated as in [10] except with functionalized nanodiamond powder (4 nm diameter...5.0%. [24] K. Miyoshi, in Proceedings of the Applied Diamond Conference 1995. Applications of Diamond Films and Related Materials: Third International

  9. Diamonds in the Rough: Identifying and Serving Low Income Students

    Ford, Donna Y.; Grantham, Tarek C.; Frazier-Trotman, Michelle


    Children who live in poverty are frequently at risk for underachievement. This is not to say that poverty automatically causes lack of achievement, but being poor can certainly take its toll. Gifted low income students can be compared to diamonds, which can only be formed under conditions of extreme heat and pressure. Both diamonds and…

  10. Quantum control of single spins and single photons in diamond

    Van der Sar, T.


    This thesis describes a series of experiments on the control of the optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, and on control of the electron and nuclear spin states associated with the NV center. The NV center is a fluorescing atomic defect center in diamond, consisting of a

  11. Hard Assets : The Returns on Rare Diamonds and Gems

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.


    This paper examines the investment performance of diamonds and other gems (sapphires, rubies, and emeralds) over the period 1999-2010, using a novel data set of auction transactions. Between 1999 and 2010, the annualized real USD returns for white and colored diamonds equaled 6.4% and 2.9%, respecti

  12. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania


    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  13. Functionalized diamond nanopowder for phosphopeptides enrichment from complex biological fluids

    Hussain, Dilshad [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad, E-mail: [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jabeen, Fahmida; Ashiq, Muhammad N.; Athar, Muhammad [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W.; Bonn, Guenther K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Derivatization of diamond nanopowder as IMAC and RP. •Characterization with SEM, EDX and FT-IR. •Phosphopeptide enrichment from standard as well as real samples. •Desalting and human serum profiling with reproducible results. •MALDI-MS analysis with database identification. -- Abstract: Diamond is known for its high affinity and biocompatibility towards biomolecules and is used exclusively in separation sciences and life science research. In present study, diamond nanopowder is derivatized as Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and as Reversed Phase (C-18) media for the desalting of complex mixtures and human serum profiling through MALDI-TOF-MS. Functionalized diamond nanopowder is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Diamond-IMAC is applied to the standard protein (β-casein), spiked human serum, egg yolk and non-fat milk for the phosphopeptides enrichment. Results show the selectivity of synthesized IMAC-diamond immobilized with Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} ions. To comprehend the elaborated use, diamond-IMAC is also applied to the serum samples from gall bladder carcinoma for the potential biomarkers. Database search is carried out by the Mascot program ( ( for the assignment of phosphorylation sites. Diamond nanopowder is thus a separation media with multifunctional use and can be applied to cancer protein profiling for the diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  14. Distinctive glial and neuronal interfacing on nanocrystalline diamond.

    Amel Bendali

    Full Text Available Direct electrode/neuron interfacing is a key challenge to achieve high resolution of neuronal stimulation required for visual prostheses. Neuronal interfacing on biomaterials commonly requires the presence of glial cells and/or protein coating. Nanocrystalline diamond is a highly mechanically stable biomaterial with a remarkably large potential window for the electrical stimulation of tissues. Using adult retinal cell cultures from rats, we found that glial cells and retinal neurons grew equally well on glass and nanocrystalline diamond. The use of a protein coating increased cell survival, particularly for glial cells. However, bipolar neurons appeared to grow even in direct contact with bare diamond. We investigated whether the presence of glial cells contributed to this direct neuron/diamond interface, by using purified adult retinal ganglion cells to seed diamond and glass surfaces with and without protein coatings. Surprisingly, these fully differentiated spiking neurons survived better on nanocrystalline diamond without any protein coating. This greater survival was indicated by larger cell numbers and the presence of longer neurites. When a protein pattern was drawn on diamond, neurons did not grow preferentially on the coated area, by contrast to their behavior on a patterned glass. This study highlights the interesting biocompatibility properties of nanocrystalline diamond, allowing direct neuronal interfacing, whereas a protein coating was required for glial cell growth.

  15. Distinctive glial and neuronal interfacing on nanocrystalline diamond.

    Bendali, Amel; Agnès, Charles; Meffert, Simone; Forster, Valérie; Bongrain, Alexandre; Arnault, Jean-Charles; Sahel, José-Alain; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Bergonzo, Philippe; Picaud, Serge


    Direct electrode/neuron interfacing is a key challenge to achieve high resolution of neuronal stimulation required for visual prostheses. Neuronal interfacing on biomaterials commonly requires the presence of glial cells and/or protein coating. Nanocrystalline diamond is a highly mechanically stable biomaterial with a remarkably large potential window for the electrical stimulation of tissues. Using adult retinal cell cultures from rats, we found that glial cells and retinal neurons grew equally well on glass and nanocrystalline diamond. The use of a protein coating increased cell survival, particularly for glial cells. However, bipolar neurons appeared to grow even in direct contact with bare diamond. We investigated whether the presence of glial cells contributed to this direct neuron/diamond interface, by using purified adult retinal ganglion cells to seed diamond and glass surfaces with and without protein coatings. Surprisingly, these fully differentiated spiking neurons survived better on nanocrystalline diamond without any protein coating. This greater survival was indicated by larger cell numbers and the presence of longer neurites. When a protein pattern was drawn on diamond, neurons did not grow preferentially on the coated area, by contrast to their behavior on a patterned glass. This study highlights the interesting biocompatibility properties of nanocrystalline diamond, allowing direct neuronal interfacing, whereas a protein coating was required for glial cell growth.

  16. Fabrication of Diamond Based Sensors for Use in Extreme Environments

    Gopi K. Samudrala


    Full Text Available Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. We demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.

  17. Distinctive Glial and Neuronal Interfacing on Nanocrystalline Diamond

    Bendali, Amel; Agnès, Charles; Meffert, Simone; Forster, Valérie; Bongrain, Alexandre; Arnault, Jean-Charles; Sahel, José-Alain; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Bergonzo, Philippe; Picaud, Serge


    Direct electrode/neuron interfacing is a key challenge to achieve high resolution of neuronal stimulation required for visual prostheses. Neuronal interfacing on biomaterials commonly requires the presence of glial cells and/or protein coating. Nanocrystalline diamond is a highly mechanically stable biomaterial with a remarkably large potential window for the electrical stimulation of tissues. Using adult retinal cell cultures from rats, we found that glial cells and retinal neurons grew equally well on glass and nanocrystalline diamond. The use of a protein coating increased cell survival, particularly for glial cells. However, bipolar neurons appeared to grow even in direct contact with bare diamond. We investigated whether the presence of glial cells contributed to this direct neuron/diamond interface, by using purified adult retinal ganglion cells to seed diamond and glass surfaces with and without protein coatings. Surprisingly, these fully differentiated spiking neurons survived better on nanocrystalline diamond without any protein coating. This greater survival was indicated by larger cell numbers and the presence of longer neurites. When a protein pattern was drawn on diamond, neurons did not grow preferentially on the coated area, by contrast to their behavior on a patterned glass. This study highlights the interesting biocompatibility properties of nanocrystalline diamond, allowing direct neuronal interfacing, whereas a protein coating was required for glial cell growth. PMID:24664111

  18. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    Ramkumar, S; Conway, J; Whitehead, A J; Sussman, R S; Hill, G; Walker, S


    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (CVD1 and CVD2) of CVD diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of CVD1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after approx 6 Gy. The diamond devices of CVD2 type had a response at low fields (1162.8 V/cm), the CVD2-type devices show...

  19. Detection of diamond in ore using pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy

    Lamprecht, GH


    Full Text Available The viability of using pulsed laser excited Raman spectroscopy as a method for diamond detection from ore, has been investigated. In this method the spontaneous Stokes Raman signal is used as indicator of diamond, and a dual channel system...

  20. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.


    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2-0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  1. Diamond-cBN alloy: A universal cutting material

    Wang, Pei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); High Pressure Science and Engineering Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); He, Duanwei, E-mail:; Kou, Zili; Li, Yong; Hu, Qiwei; Xu, Chao; Lei, Li; Wang, Qiming [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Xiong, Lun; Liu, Jing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)


    Diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN) as conventional superhard materials have found widespread industrial applications, but both have inherent limitations. Diamond is not suitable for high-speed cutting of ferrous materials due to its poor chemical inertness, while cBN is only about half as hard as diamond. Because of their affinity in structural lattices and covalent bonding character, diamond and cBN could form alloys that can potentially fill the performance gap. However, the idea has never been demonstrated because samples obtained in the previous studies were too small to be tested for their practical performance. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of transparent bulk diamond-cBN alloy compacts whose diameters (3 mm) are sufficiently large for them to be processed into cutting tools. The testing results show that the diamond-cBN alloy has superior chemical inertness over polycrystalline diamond and higher hardness than single crystal cBN. High-speed cutting tests on hardened steel and granite suggest that diamond-cBN alloy is indeed a universal cutting material.

  2. Quantum control of single spins and single photons in diamond

    Van der Sar, T.


    This thesis describes a series of experiments on the control of the optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, and on control of the electron and nuclear spin states associated with the NV center. The NV center is a fluorescing atomic defect center in diamond, consisting of a

  3. Diamond thin films: giving biomedical applications a new shine.

    Nistor, P A; May, P W


    Progress made in the last two decades in chemical vapour deposition technology has enabled the production of inexpensive, high-quality coatings made from diamond to become a scientific and commercial reality. Two properties of diamond make it a highly desirable candidate material for biomedical applications: first, it is bioinert, meaning that there is minimal immune response when diamond is implanted into the body, and second, its electrical conductivity can be altered in a controlled manner, from insulating to near-metallic. In vitro, diamond can be used as a substrate upon which a range of biological cells can be cultured. In vivo, diamond thin films have been proposed as coatings for implants and prostheses. Here, we review a large body of data regarding the use of diamond substrates for in vitro cell culture. We also detail more recent work exploring diamond-coated implants with the main targets being bone and neural tissue. We conclude that diamond emerges as one of the major new biomaterials of the twenty-first century that could shape the way medical treatment will be performed, especially when invasive procedures are required. © 2017 The Authors.


    Robert Radtke


    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  5. Influence of diamond surface termination on thermal boundary conductance between Al and diamond

    Monachon, Christian; Weber, Ludger [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Mecanique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    The effect of diamond surface treatment on the Thermal Boundary Conductance (TBC) between Al and diamond is investigated. The treatments consist in either of the following: exposition to a plasma of pure Ar, Ar:H and Ar:O, and HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid dip for various times. The surface of diamond after treatment is analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, revealing hydrogen termination for the as-received and Ar:H plasma treated samples, pure sp{sup 2} termination for Ar treated ones and oxygen (keton-like) termination for the other treatments. At ambient, all the specific treatments improve the TBC between Al and diamond from 23 {+-} 2 MW m{sup -2} K{sup -1} for the as-received to 65 {+-} 5, 125 {+-} 20, 150 {+-} 20, 180 {+-} 20 MW m{sup -2} K{sup -1} for the ones treated by Ar:H plasma, acid, pure Ar plasma, and Ar:O plasma with an evaporated Al layer on top, respectively. The effect of these treatments on temperature dependence are also observed and compared with the most common models available in the literature as well as experimental values in the same system. The results obtained show that the values measured for an Ar:O plasma treated diamond with Al sputtered on top stay consistently higher than the values existing in the literature over a temperature range from 78 to 290 K, probably due a lower sample surface roughness. Around ambient, the TBC values measured lay close to or even somewhat above the radiation limit, suggesting that inelastic or electronic processes may influence the transfer of heat at this metal/dielectric interface.

  6. Mantle Degassing and Diamond Genesis:A Carbon Isotope Perspective



    The effect of Co2 and CH4 degassing from the mantle on the carbon isotopic composition of diamond has been quantitatively modeled in terms of the principles of Rayleigh distillation.Assuming the δ13 C value of -5‰ for the mantle,the outgassing of CO2 can result in the large negative δ13 C values of diamond,whereas the outgassing of CH4 can drive the δ13C values of diamond in the positive direction.The theoretical expectations can be used to explain the full range of δ13 C values from-34.4‰5 to+5‰ observed for natural diamonds.It is possible that diamond formation was triggered by the degassing of Co2 and/or CH4 from the mantle and the associated fractional crystallization of carbonate-bearing melt.

  7. A Fabry-Perot Microcavity for Diamond-Based Photonics

    Janitz, Erika; Dimock, Mark; Bourassa, Alexandre; Sankey, Jack; Childress, Lilian


    Open Fabry-Perot microcavities represent a promising route for achieving a quantum electrodynamics (cavity-QED) platform with diamond-based emitters. In particular, they offer the opportunity to introduce high purity, minimally fabricated material into a tunable, high quality factor optical resonator. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-based microcavity incorporating a thick (> 10 {\\mu}m) diamond membrane with a finesse of 17,000, corresponding to a quality factor Q ~ $10^6$. Such minimally fabricated, thick samples can contain optically stable emitters similar to those found in bulk diamond. We observe modified microcavity spectra in the presence of the membrane, and develop analytic and numerical models to describe the effect of the membrane on cavity modes, including loss and coupling to higher-order transverse modes. We estimate that a Purcell enhancement of approximately 20 should be possible for emitters within the diamond in this device, and provide evidence that better diamond surface treatments and mirror ...

  8. Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing

    Sotillo, Belén; Bharadwaj, Vibhav; Hadden, J. P.; Sakakura, Masaaki; Chiappini, Andrea; Fernandez, Toney Teddy; Longhi, Stefano; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Criante, Luigino; Osellame, Roberto; Galzerano, Gianluca; Ferrari, Maurizio; Miura, Kiyotaka; Ramponi, Roberta; Barclay, Paul E.; Eaton, Shane Michael


    Diamond is a promising platform for sensing and quantum processing owing to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) impurity. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532 nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV’s states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically. However, still lacking is an efficient photonic fabrication method for diamond akin to the photolithographic methods that have revolutionized silicon photonics. Here, we report the first demonstration of three dimensional buried optical waveguides in diamond, inscribed by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. Within the waveguides, high quality NV properties are observed, making them promising for integrated magnetometer or quantum information systems on a diamond chip. PMID:27748428

  9. An on-chip diamond optical parametric oscillator

    Hausmann, B J M; Venkataraman, V; Deotare, P; Loncar, M


    Efficient, on-chip optical nonlinear processes are of great interest for the development of compact, robust, low-power consuming systems for applications in spectroscopy, metrology, sensing and classical and quantum optical information processing. Diamond holds promise for these applications, owing to its exceptional properties. However, although significant progress has been made in the development of an integrated diamond photonics platform, optical nonlinearities in diamond have not been explored much apart from Raman processes in bulk samples. Here, we demonstrate optical parametric oscillations (OPO) via four wave mixing (FWM) in single crystal diamond (SCD) optical networks on-chip consisting of waveguide-coupled microring resonators. Threshold powers as low as 20mW are enabled by ultra-high quality factor (1*10^6) diamond ring resonators operating at telecom wavelengths, and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser. We also report the inferred nonlinear refractive index...

  10. Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities

    Piekarczyk, W


    Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...

  11. Electronic structure studies of nanocrystalline diamond grain boundaries

    Zapol, P.; Sternberg, M.; Frauenheim, T.; Gruen, D. M.; Curtiss, L. A.


    Diamond growth from hydrogen-poor plasmas results in diamond structures that are profoundly different from conventionally CVD-grown diamond. High concentration of carbon dimers in the microwave plasma results in a high rate of heterogeneous renucleation leading to formation of nanocrystalline diamond with a typical grain size of 3--10 nm. Therefore, up to 10% of carbon atoms are located in the grain boundaries. In this paper the authors report on density-functional based tight-binding molecular dynamics calculations of the structure of a {Sigma}13 twist (100) grain boundary in diamond. Beginning with a coincidence site lattice model, simulated annealing of the initial structure was performed at 1,500 K followed by relaxation toward lower temperatures. About one-half of the carbons in the grain boundary are found to be three-coordinated. Coordination numbers, bond length and bond angle distributions are analyzed and compared to those obtained in previous studies.

  12. Nanofluidics of Single-crystal Diamond Nanomechanical Resonators

    Kara, V; Atikian, H; Yakhot, V; Loncar, M; Ekinci, K L


    Single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators are being developed for countless applications. A number of these applications require that the resonator be operated in a fluid, i.e., a gas or a liquid. Here, we investigate the fluid dynamics of single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators in the form of nanocantilevers. First, we measure the pressure-dependent dissipation of diamond nanocantilevers with different linear dimensions and frequencies in three gases, He, N$_2$, and Ar. We observe that a subtle interplay between the length scale and the frequency governs the scaling of the fluidic dissipation. Second, we obtain a comparison of the surface accommodation of different gases on the diamond surface by analyzing the dissipation in the molecular flow regime. Finally, we measure the thermal fluctuations of the nanocantilevers in water, and compare the observed dissipation and frequency shifts with theoretical predictions. These findings set the stage for developing diamond nanomechanical resonators o...

  13. Electroluminescence Spectrum Shift with Switching Behaviour of Diamond Thin Films

    王小平; 王丽军; 张启仁; 姚宁; 张兵临


    We report a special phenomenon on switching behaviour and the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum shift of doped diamond thin films. Nitrogen and cerium doped diamond thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition system and other special techniques. An EL device with a three-layer structure of nitrogen doped diamond/cerium doped diamond/SiO2 thin films was made. The EL device was driven by a direct-current power supply. Its EL character has been investigated, and a switching behaviour was observed. The EL light emission colour of diamond films changes from yellow (590nm) to blue (454 nm) while the switching behaviour appears.

  14. Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing

    Sotillo, Belén; Bharadwaj, Vibhav; Hadden, J. P.; Sakakura, Masaaki; Chiappini, Andrea; Fernandez, Toney Teddy; Longhi, Stefano; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Criante, Luigino; Osellame, Roberto; Galzerano, Gianluca; Ferrari, Maurizio; Miura, Kiyotaka; Ramponi, Roberta; Barclay, Paul E.; Eaton, Shane Michael


    Diamond is a promising platform for sensing and quantum processing owing to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) impurity. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532 nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV’s states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically. However, still lacking is an efficient photonic fabrication method for diamond akin to the photolithographic methods that have revolutionized silicon photonics. Here, we report the first demonstration of three dimensional buried optical waveguides in diamond, inscribed by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. Within the waveguides, high quality NV properties are observed, making them promising for integrated magnetometer or quantum information systems on a diamond chip.

  15. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima


    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.



    Interaction flow field of the sonic air jet through diamond shaped orifices at different incidence angles (10 degrees, 27.5 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees) and total pressures (0.10 MPa and 0. 46 MPa) with a Mach 5.0 freestream was studied experimentally. A 90 degrees circular injector was examined for comparison. Crosssection Mach number contours were acquired by a Pitot-cone five-hole pressure probe.The results indicate that the low Mach semicircular region close to the wall is the wake region. The boundary layer thinning is in the areas adjacent to the wake. For the detached case, the interaction shock extends further into the freestream, and the shock shape has more curvature, also the low-Mach upwash region is larger. The vortices of the plume and the height of the jet interaction shock increase with increasing incidence angle and jet pressure. 90 degrees diamond and circular injector have stronger plume vorticity, and for the circular injector low-Mach region is smaller than that for the diamond injector. Tapered ramp increases the plume vorticity, and the double ramp reduces the level of vorticity. The three-dimensional interaction shock shape was modeled from the surface shock shape, the center plane shock shape, and crosssectional shock shape. The shock total pressure was estimated with the normal component of the Mach number using normal shock theory. The shock induced total pressure losses decrease with decreasing jet incidence angle and injection pressure,where the largest losses are incurred by the 90 degrees, circular injector.

  17. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of diamond surfaces

    Chin, R.P.


    Second harmonic generation (SHG) and infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopies have been shown to be powerful and versatile for studying surfaces with submonolayer sensitivity. They have been used in this work to study bare diamond surfaces and molecular adsorption on them. In particular, infrared-visible SFG as a surface vibrational spectroscopic technique has been employed to identify and monitor in-situ surface bonds and species on the diamond (111) surface. The CH stretch spectra allow us to investigate hydrogen adsorption, desorption, abstraction, and the nature of the hydrogen termination. The C(111) surface dosed with atomic hydrogen was found to be in a monohydride configuration with the hydrogen atoms situated at top-sites. The ratio of the abstraction rate to the adsorption rate was appreciable during atomic hydrogen dosing. Kinetic parameters for thermal desorption of H on C(111) were determined showing a near first-order kinetics. For the fully H-terminated (111) surface, a large (110 cm{sup {minus}1}) anharmonicity and {approximately}19 psec lifetime were measured for the first-excited CH stretch mode. The bare reconstructed C(111)-(2 {times} l) surface showed the presence of CC stretch modes which were consistent with the Pandey {pi}-bonded chain structure. When exposed to the methyl radical, the SFG spectra of the C(111) surface showed features suggesting the presence of adsorbed methyl species. After heating to sufficiently high temperatures, they were converted into the monohydride species. Preliminary results on the hydrogen-terminated diamond (100) surface are also presented.

  18. Doping and cluster formation in diamond

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo


    Introducing a cluster formation model, we provide a rational fundamental viewpoint for the difficulty to achieve n-type dopeddiamond. We argue that codoping is the way forward to form appropriately doped shallow regions in diamond and other forms of carbon such as graphene. The electronegativities of the codopants are an important design criterion for the donor atom to efficiently donate its electron. We propose that the nearest neighbour codopants should be of a considerably higher electronegativity compared to the donor atom. Codoping strategies should focus on phosphorous for which there are a number of appropriate codopants.

  19. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Awadesh K Mallik; S A Shivashankar; S K Biswas


    Polycrystalline diamond coatings have been grown on unpolished side of Si(100) wafers by hot filament chemical vapour deposition process. The morphology of the grown coatings has been varied from cauliflower morphology to faceted morphology by manipulation of the growth temperature from 700°C to 900°C and methane gas concentration from 3% to 1·5%. It is found that the coefficient of friction of the coatings under high vacuum of 133·32 × 10-7 Pa (10-7 torr) with nanocrystalline grains can be manipulated to 0·35 to enhance tribological behaviour of bare Si substrates.

  20. Nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    Catledge, S A; Thomas, V; Vohra, Y K


    With increasing numbers of orthopaedic devices being implanted, greater emphasis is being placed on ceramic coating technology to reduce friction and wear in mating total joint replacement components, in order to improve implant function and increase device lifespan. In this chapter, we consider ultra-hard carbon coatings, with emphasis on nanostructured diamond, as alternative bearing surfaces for metallic components. Such coatings have great potential for use in biomedical implants as a result of their extreme hardness, wear resistance, low friction and biocompatibility. These ultra-hard carbon coatings can be deposited by several techniques resulting in a wide variety of structures and properties.

  1. Microscopy of nitride layers grown on diamond

    Pécz, B.; Tóth, L.; Barna, Á.;


    are determined by selected area electron diffraction. Besides threading dislocations a high number of inversion domains (ID) were formed in some GaN films. The preparation of the diamond surface and the growth conditions proved to affect significantly the formation of crystal defects such as threading...... dislocations and IDs. Single polarity GaN films with a low density of dislocations were achieved for the optimized growth conditions. The highest quality GaN layers were grown on AlN buffer in which two crystalline variants were nucleated, but one of them was overgrown already in the thickness of the buffer...

  2. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals


    a native SiO2 oxide layer (P-type; 1 Ω·cm, SQI, San Jose, CA) were washed with persulfuric acid solution prior to use. Oxidation of Diamond... Graphene . Phys. Rep.: Rev. Sect. Phys. Lett. 2009, 473, 51−87. (34) Ferrari, A. C.; Meyer, J. C.; Scardaci, V.; Casiraghi, C.; Lazzeri, M.; Mauri, F...Piscanec, S.; Jiang, D.; Novoselov, K. S.; Roth, S.; Geim, A. K. Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 97, 187401−18740

  3. Initial damage processes for diamond film exposure to hydrogen plasma

    Deslandes, A., E-mail: [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Guenette, M.C. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Samuell, C.M. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Karatchevtseva, I. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D.D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Blackwell, B. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Corr, C., E-mail: [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Riley, D.P., E-mail: [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Exposing chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond films in a recently constructed device, MAGPIE, specially commissioned to simulate fusion plasma conditions. • Non-diamond material is etched from the diamond. • There is no hydrogen retention observed, which suggests diamond is an excellent candidate for plasma facing materials. • Final structure of the surface is dependent on synergistic effects of etching and ion-induced structural change. -- Abstract: Diamond is considered to be a possible alternative to other carbon based materials as a plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices due to its high thermal conductivity and resistance to chemical erosion. In this work CVD diamond films were exposed to hydrogen plasma in the MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE): a linear plasma device at the Australian National University which simulates plasma conditions relevant to nuclear fusion. Various negative sample stage biases of magnitude less than 500 V were applied to control the energies of impinging ions. Characterisation results from SEM, Raman spectroscopy and ERDA are presented. No measureable quantity of hydrogen retention was observed, this is either due to no incorporation of hydrogen into the diamond structure or due to initial incorporation as a hydrocarbon followed by subsequent etching back into the plasma. A model is presented for the initial stages of diamond erosion in fusion relevant hydrogen plasma that involves chemical erosion of non-diamond material from the surface by hydrogen radicals and damage to the subsurface region from energetic hydrogen ions. These results show that the initial damage processes in this plasma regime are comparable to previous studies of the fundamental processes as reported for less extreme plasma such as in the development of diamond films.

  4. Anisotropy of synthetic diamond in catalytic etching using iron powder

    Wang, Junsha [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan 410082 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Wan, Long, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan 410082 (China); Chen, Jing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan 410082 (China); Yan, Jiwang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Synthetic diamond crystallites were etched using iron without requiring hydrogen. • The effect of temperature on the etching behaviour was demonstrated. • The anisotropy of etching on different crystal planes was investigated. • The extent of etching on diamond surface was examined quantitatively. • A schematic model for diamond etching by iron is being proposed. - Abstract: This paper demonstrated a novel technique for catalytic etching of synthetic diamond crystallites using iron (Fe) powder without flowing gas. The effect of temperature on the etching behaviour on different crystal planes of diamond was investigated. The surface morphology and surface roughness of the processed diamond were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and laser-probe surface profiling. In addition, the material composition of the Fe-treated diamond was characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy and the distribution of chemical elements and structural changes on Fe-loaded diamond surfaces were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Results showed that at the same temperature the {1 0 0} plane was etched faster than the {1 1 1} plane, and that the etching rate of both {1 0 0} and {1 1 1} plane increased with temperature. The etch pits on {1 0 0} plane were reversed pyramid with flat {1 1 1} walls, while the etch holes on {1 1 1} plane were characterized with flat bottom. It was also demonstrated that graphitization of diamond and subsequent carbon diffusion in molten iron were two main factors resulting in the removal of carbon from the diamond surface.


    Fabien A. Basset


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the use of a single test to obtain annual training guidelines applicable to multiple modes of training. Eight triathletes (4 females, 4 males were tested 3 times during their training year (Phase I; Phase II; Phase III on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Cardio-respiratory variables were calculated at standardized percentages of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max; 50-100%. VO2max differences between tests reached 6% in every testing session (p 0.01. VO2max was stable for both tests throughout the season. The ANOVA (3 phases x 2 tests x 6 intensities demonstrated that there was a significant difference for heart rate (HRs; p 0.05 between tests in Phase I only. However, the nonparametric sign test did not show any significant differences in any phase. These results demonstrated that triathletes could use the relationship between HR and % VO2max collected during a treadmill or a cycle ergometer test to obtain interchangeable reference HRs for monitoring their running and cycling training bouts in high volume and/or high intensity phases of their training year.

  6. A study on the ester interchange reaction of dimethyl naphthalate with ethylene glycol

    Sho, S.Y.; Cheong, S.I [Hannam University, Taejeon (Korea)


    The kinetics of ester interchange reaction of dimethyl naphthalate (DMN) with ethylene glycol (EG) has been studied in the range of 180-200 deg. C using zinc and manganese catalysts. The reaction was performed in a semibatch reactor under nonisothermal condition and the degree of reaction was calculated from experimental data of methanol removal rate and reaction temperature. As a reaction model, both the functional group model and the molecular species model were applied and analysed. In case of zinc catalysts, the ratio of reaction rate of methyl hydroxyethyl naphthalate (MHEN) with EG on that of DMN with EG is about 1.4, whereas in case of manganese catalyst the ration is about 4.3, which implies that the reaction rate is quite dependent on the type of catalyst. In case of zinc catalyst, the reaction order of catalyst concentration on either DMN or MHEN and EG is less than 1, whereas in case of manganese catalyst, the reaction order is larger than 1. The activation energy for zinc and manganese catalyst, irrespective of the type of molecular species, e. g., DMN and MHEN, were found to be 25000 and 28750 cal/mol, respectively. As a result of comparing two reaction model, the molecular species model fits well for the experimental dat. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  7. MAPA: Implementation of the Standard Interchange Format and use for analyzing lattices

    Shasharina, Svetlana G.; Cary, John R.


    MAPA (Modular Accelerator Physics Analysis) is an object oriented application for accelerator design and analysis with a Motif based graphical user interface. MAPA has been ported to AIX, Linux, HPUX, Solaris, and IRIX. MAPA provides an intuitive environment for accelerator study and design. The user can bring up windows for fully nonlinear analysis of accelerator lattices in any number of dimensions. The current graphical analysis methods of Lifetime plots and Surfaces of Section have been used to analyze the improved lattice designs of Wan, Cary, and Shasharina (this conference). MAPA can now read and write Standard Interchange Format (MAD) accelerator description files and it has a general graphical user interface for adding, changing, and deleting elements. MAPA's consistency checks prevent deletion of used elements and prevent creation of recursive beam lines. Plans include development of a richer set of modeling tools and the ability to invoke existing modeling codes through the MAPA interface. MAPA will be demonstrated on a Pentium 150 laptop running Linux.

  8. Amazonian magnetostratigraphy: Dating the first pulse of the Great American Faunal Interchange

    Campbell, Kenneth E., Jr.; Prothero, Donald R.; Romero-Pittman, Lidia; Hertel, Fritz; Rivera, Nadia


    The chronostratigraphy of the youngest Neogene deposits of the Amazon Basin, which comprise the Madre de Dios Formation in eastern Peru, remains unresolved. Although 40Ar/ 39Ar dates on two volcanic ashes from this formation in Peru provide critical baseline data points, stratigraphic correlations among scattered riverine outcrops in adjacent drainage basins remain problematic. To refine the chronostratigraphy of the Madre de Dios Formation, we report here the magnetostratigraphy of an outcrop on the Madre de Dios River in southeastern Peru. A total of 18 polarity zones was obtained in the ˜65-m-thick Cerro Colorado section, which we correlate to magnetozones Chrons C4Ar to C2An (9.5-3.0 Ma) based on the prior 40Ar/ 39Ar dates. These results confirm the late Miocene age of a gomphothere recovered from the Ipururo Formation, which underlies the late Miocene Ucayali Unconformity at the base of the Cerro Colorado outcrop. The results also support earlier interpretations of a late Miocene age for other fossils of North American mammals recovered from basal conglomeratic deposits of the Madre de Dios Formation immediately above the Ucayali Unconformity. These mammals include other gomphotheres, peccaries, and tapirs, and their presence in South America in the late Miocene is recognized as part of the first pulse of the Great American Faunal Interchange.

  9. Generic products of antiepileptic drugs: a perspective on bioequivalence and interchangeability.

    Bialer, Meir; Midha, Kamal K


    Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently available as generic products, yet neurologists and patients are reluctant to switch to generics. Generic AEDs are regarded as bioequivalent to brand AEDs after meeting the average bioequivalence criteria; consequently, they are considered to be interchangeable with their respective brands without loss of efficacy and safety. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the present bioequivalence requirements are already so rigorous and constrained that there is little possibility that generics that meet regulatory bioequivalence criteria could lead to therapeutic problems. So is there a scientific rationale for the concerns about switching patients with epilepsy to bioequivalent generics? Herein we discuss the assessment of bioequivalence and propose a scaled-average bioequivalence approach where scaling of bioequivalence is carried out based on brand lot-to-lot variance as an alternative to the conventional bioequivalence test as a means to determine whether switching patients to generic formulations, or vice versa, is a safe and effective therapeutic option. Meeting the proposed scaled-average bioequivalence requirements will ensure that when an individual patient is switched, he or she has fluctuations in plasma levels similar to those from lot-to-lot of the brand reference levels and thus should make these generic products safely switchable without change in efficacy and safety outcomes.

  10. Efficient sorting of genomic permutations by translocation, inversion and block interchange.

    Yancopoulos, Sophia; Attie, Oliver; Friedberg, Richard


    Finding genomic distance based on gene order is a classic problem in genome rearrangements. Efficient exact algorithms for genomic distances based on inversions and/or translocations have been found but are complicated by special cases, rare in simulations and empirical data. We seek a universal operation underlying a more inclusive set of evolutionary operations and yielding a tractable genomic distance with simple mathematical form. We study a universal double-cut-and-join operation that accounts for inversions, translocations, fissions and fusions, but also produces circular intermediates which can be reabsorbed. The genomic distance, computable in linear time, is given by the number of breakpoints minus the number of cycles (b-c) in the comparison graph of the two genomes; the number of hurdles does not enter into it. Without changing the formula, we can replace generation and re-absorption of a circular intermediate by a generalized transposition, equivalent to a block interchange, with weight two. Our simple algorithm converts one multi-linear chromosome genome to another in the minimum distance.

  11. Developments of frequency comb microwave reflectometer for the interchange mode observations in LHD plasma

    Soga, R.; Tokuzawa, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamada, I.; Inagaki, S.; Kasuya, N.


    We have upgraded the multi-channel microwave reflectometer system which uses a frequency comb as a source and measure the distribution of the density fluctuation caused by magneto-hydro dynamics instability. The previous multi-channel system was composed of the Ka-band, and the U-band system has been developed. Currently, the U-band system has eight frequency channels, which are 43.0, 45.0, 47.0, 49.0, 51.0, 53.0, 55.0, and 57.0 GHz, in U-band. Before the installation to the Large Helical Device (LHD), several tests for understanding the system characteristics, which are the phase responsibility, the linearity of output signal, and others, have been carried out. The in situ calibration in LHD has been done for the cross reference. In the neutral beam injected plasma experiments, we can observe the density fluctuation of the interchange mode and obtain the radial distribution of fluctuation amplitude.

  12. Summary of Work for Joint Research Interchanges with DARWIN Integrated Product Team 1998

    Hesselink, Lambertus


    The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available under the Joint Research Interchange for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching and vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.

  13. Summary of Work for Joint Research Interchanges with DARWIN Integrated Product Team

    Hesselink, Lambertus


    The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available un- der the Joint Research Interchange for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching an@ vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.

  14. Microfluidic impact printer with interchangeable cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning.

    Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui


    Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets challenges on biocompatibility, thermal and chemical sensitivity, as well as limited availability of reagents. In this paper, we aim at combining the desired features from non-contact inkjet printing and dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, sub-microliter ink loading with a minimal dead volume, high-throughput printing, biocompatible non-contact processing, sequential patterning with self-alignment, wide adaptability for complex media (e.g., cell suspension or colloidal solutions), interchangeable/disposable cartridge design, and simple assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards laboratory-based research and development. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analysed. Optimal printing resolution of 80 μm has been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two useful functions of the MI-printer, multiplexed printing and combinatorial printing, have been experimentally demonstrated with less than 10 μm misalignment. Moreover, molecular and biological patterning, utilizing the multiplexed and combinatorial printing, has been implemented to illustrate the utility of this versatile printing technique for emerging biomedical applications.

  15. Identical but not interchangeable: Preschoolers view owned objects as non-fungible.

    McEwan, Stephanie; Pesowski, Madison L; Friedman, Ori


    Owned objects are typically viewed as non-fungible-they cannot be freely interchanged. We report three experiments (total N=312) demonstrating this intuition in preschool-aged children. In Experiment 1, children considered an agent who takes one of two identical objects and leaves the other for a peer. Children viewed this as acceptable when the agent took his own item, but not when he took his peer's item. In Experiment 2, children considered scenarios where one agent took property from another. Children said the victim could take back her own property from the perpetrator, but that she could not take an identical object belonging to the perpetrator. Finally, in Experiment 3A and 3B, children considered scenarios where a teacher could give a child either of two objects to play with-an object that the child had recently played with, or another object that looked the same. Children were more likely to say that the teacher should give the object recently played with when it belonged to the child, compared with when it belonged to the teacher. These findings are informative about the basis of judgments that property is non-fungible, and about young children's representation of ownership rights. They show that children's representation of ownership rights is not limited to principles protecting owners from being deprived. Our findings instead suggest that ownership rights are viewed as pertaining to individual objects.

  16. Inadvertent interchange of electrocardiogram limb lead connections: analysis of predicted consequences part II: double interconnection errors.

    Rowlands, Derek J


    Limb lead connection errors are known to be very common in clinical practice. The consequences of all possible single limb lead interconnection errors were analyzed in an earlier publication (J Electrocardiology 2008;41:84-90). With a single limb lead interconnection error, 6 combinations of limb lead connections are possible. Two of these combinations give rise to records in which the limb lead morphology is uninterpretable. Such records show a "flat line" in lead II or III. Three of the errors give rise to records that are fully interpretable once the specific interconnection error has been identified (although one of the errors cannot reliably be recognized in the absence of a previous record for comparison). One of the errors produces no change in the electrocardiogram recording. In all cases, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages. This communication predicts the changes in limb lead appearances consequent upon all possible double limb lead interchanges and illustrates these with records electively taken with such double interconnection errors. There are only 3 possible double limb lead interconnection errors. In 2 of the possible combinations, interpretation of the limb leads is impossible, and each of these errors gives rise to a flat line in lead I. In the third combination, the record is fully interpretable once the abnormality has been identified. In all 3 types, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages.

  17. Five Micron High Resolution MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging with Simple, Interchangeable, Multi-Resolution Optical System

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Dueñas, Maria Emilia; Lee, Young Jin


    High-spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is crucial for the mapping of chemical distributions at the cellular and subcellular level. In this work, we improved our previous laser optical system for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI, from 9 μm practical laser spot size to a practical laser spot size of 4 μm, thereby allowing for 5 μm resolution imaging without oversampling. This is accomplished through a combination of spatial filtering, beam expansion, and reduction of the final focal length. Most importantly, the new laser optics system allows for simple modification of the spot size solely through the interchanging of the beam expander component. Using 10×, 5×, and no beam expander, we could routinely change between 4, 7, and 45 μm laser spot size, in less than 5 min. We applied this multi-resolution MALDI-MSI system to a single maize root tissue section with three different spatial resolutions of 5, 10, and 50 μm and compared the differences in imaging quality and signal sensitivity. We also demonstrated the difference in depth of focus between the optical systems with 10× and 5× beam expanders.

  18. DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in contracting report


    Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.

  19. Match intensity and pacing strategies in rugby league: an examination of whole-game and interchanged players, and winning and losing teams.

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J


    There is currently limited information on whether pacing occurs during rugby league match play. In addition, to date no research has investigated whether pacing strategies differ between winning and losing teams. This study investigated the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged rugby league players. Furthermore, we investigated the pacing strategies of winning and losing teams. Fifty-two rugby league players, from a sample of 11 teams competing in a semi-elite competition, underwent global positioning system analysis. Performances were divided into match quartiles for whole-game and interchanged players. Total distance, including low- and high-speed distances, and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were recorded. The total distance and low-speed distance covered across all quartiles of the match, but specifically quartiles 1 and 8, were greater for interchanged players than whole-game players. The match outcome differentially affected the pacing strategies of whole-game and interchanged players. Whole-game players from winning teams set a higher pacing strategy than whole-game players from losing teams (effect size [ES] = 1.03 ± 0.77, 96%, very likely), whereas interchanged players from losing teams demonstrated a greater "end-spurt" than interchanged players from winning teams (ES = 0.60 ± 0.52, 96%, very likely). The pacing strategies of interchanged players were higher than whole-game players, irrespective of playing position. The results of this study suggest that pacing strategies differ between interchanged and whole-game rugby league players. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a different pacing strategy between winning and losing teams. These findings suggest that physical preparation for rugby league matches, and recovery from these matches, should be individualized for whole-game and interchanged players. Finally, performing physically intense training on a regular basis is likely to develop the physical and mental qualities required to

  20. Experimental study of diamond resorption during mantle metasomatism

    Fedorchuk, Yana; Schmidt, Max W.; Liebske, Christian


    Many of kimberlite-derived diamonds are partially dissolved to various degree but show similar resorption style. This resorption style has been observed in experiments with aqueous fluid at the conditions corresponding to kimberlite emplacement (1-2 GPa). At the same time, each diamond population has more than ten percent of diamond crystals with several drastically different resorption styles, which have not been observed in experiments, and may represent partial dissolution of diamonds during metasomatism in different mantle domains. Metasomatic processes modify the composition of subcratonic mantle, may trigger the formation of kimberlite magma, and result in the growth and partial dissolution of diamonds. Composition of metasomatic agents as constrained from studies of the reaction rims on mantle minerals (garnet, clinopyroxene) and experimental studies vary between carbonatitic melt, aqueous silicate melt, and CHO fluid. However, complex chemical pattern of mantle minerals and estimates of redox regime in subcratonic mantle allow different interpretations. Here we explore diamond dissolution morphology as an indicator of the composition of mantle metasomatic agents. Towards this end we examine diamond dissolution morphologies developed in experiments at the conditions of mantle metasomatism in different reacting media and compare them to the mantle-derived dissolution features of natural diamonds. The experiments were conducted in multi-anvil (Walker-Type) apparatus at 6 GPa and 1200-1500oC. Dissolution morphology of natural octahedral diamond crystals (0.5 mg) was examined in various compositions in synthetic system MgO-CaO- SiO2-CO2-H2O. The runs had the following phases present: solid crystals with fluid (various ratio of H2O-CO2-SiO2, and in the air), carbonate melt, carbonate-silicate melt, and carbonate melt with CHO fluid. Experiments produced three different styles of diamond resorption. In the presence of a fluid phase with variable proportions of H2O

  1. Electrical Conductivity Of Diamond Up To 1,200 Degrees C

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Leslie D.


    Report discusses measurements of electrical conductivities of two synthetic diamond films, three synthetic diamondlike films, and two natural type IIa diamonds at temperatures from ambient to 1,200 degrees C. Measurements performed to compare electrical conductivities of state-of-the-art diamond films with those of natural insulating diamond, particularly at temperatures above 700 degrees C.


    Wang Hongxiang; Sun Tao; Li Dan; Dong Shen


    A new tool force model to be presented is based upon process geometry and the characteristics of the force system,in which the forces acting on the tool rake face,the cutting edge rounding and the clearance face have been considered,and the size effect is accountable for the new model.It is desired that the model can be well applicable to conventional diamond turning and the model may be employed as a tool in the design of diamond tools.This approach is quite different from traditional investigations primarily based on empirical studies.As the depth of cut becomes the same order as the rounded cutting edge radius,sliding along the clearance face due to elastic recovery of workpiece material and plowing due to the rounded cutting edge may become important in micro-machining,the forces acting on the cutting edge rounding and the clearance face can not be neglected.For this reason,it is very important to understand the influence of some parameters on tool forces and develop a model of the relationship between them.

  3. Diamond Detectors for the TOTEM Timing Upgrade

    Antchev, G.; The TOTEM collaboration; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.;; Bozzo, M.; Broulim, P.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Campanella, C.E.; Catanesi, M.G.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Guaragnella, C.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kavspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kosinski, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lokajivcek, M.V.; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas-Rodriguez, F.; Lucsanyi, D.; Macri, M.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Naaranoja, T.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Novak, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Palocko, L.; Passaro, V.; Peroutka, Z.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prochazka, J.; Prudenzano, F.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Royon, C.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sodzawiczny, T.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Wyszkowski, P; Zielinski, K


    This paper describes the design and the performance of the timing detector developed by the TOTEM Collaboration for the Roman Pots (RPs) to measure the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) of the protons produced in central diffractive interactions at the LHC. The measurement of the TOF of the protons allows the determination of the longitudinal position of the proton interaction vertex and its association with one of the vertices reconstructed by the CMS detectors. The TOF detector is based on single crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition (scCVD) diamond plates and is designed to measure the protons’ TOF with about 50 ps time precision. This upgrade to the TOTEM apparatus will be used in the LHC run 2 and will tag the central diffractive events up to an interaction pileup of about 1. A dedicated fast and low noise electronics for the signal amplification has been developed. The digitization of the diamond signal is performed sampling the waveform. After introducing the physics studies that will most profit from the addition of...

  4. Topical review: spins and mechanics in diamond

    Lee, Donghun; Lee, Kenneth W.; Cady, Jeffrey V.; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.


    There has been rapidly growing interest in hybrid quantum devices involving a solid-state spin and a macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Such hybrid devices create exciting opportunities to mediate interactions between disparate quantum bits (qubits) and to explore the quantum regime of macroscopic mechanical objects. In particular, a system consisting of the nitrogen-vacancy defect center (NV center) in diamond coupled to a high-quality-factor mechanical oscillator is an appealing candidate for such a hybrid quantum device, as it utilizes the highly coherent and versatile spin properties of the defect center. In this paper, we will review recent experimental progress on diamond-based hybrid quantum devices in which the spin and orbital dynamics of single defects are driven by the motion of a mechanical oscillator. In addition, we discuss prospective applications for this device, including long-range, phonon-mediated spin–spin interactions, and phonon cooling in the quantum regime. We conclude the review by evaluating the experimental limitations of current devices and identifying alternative device architectures that may reach the strong coupling regime.

  5. Computer model of tetrahedral amorphous diamond

    Djordjević, B. R.; Thorpe, M. F.; Wooten, F.


    We computer generate a model of amorphous diamond using the Wooten-Weaire method, with fourfold coordination everywhere. We investigate two models: one where four-membered rings are allowed and the other where the four-membered rings are forbidden; each model consisting of 4096 atoms. Starting from the perfect diamond crystalline structure, we first randomize the structure by introducing disorder through random bond switches at a sufficiently high temperature. Subsequently, the temperature is reduced in stages, and the topological and geometrical relaxation of the structure takes place using the Keating potential. After a long annealing process, a random network of comparatively low energy is obtained. We calculate the pair distribution function, mean bond angle, rms angular deviation, rms bond length, rms bond-length deviation, and ring statistics for the final relaxed structures. We minimize the total strain energy by adjusting the density of the sample. We compare our results with similar computer-generated models for amorphous silicon, and with experimental measurement of the structure factor for (predominantly tetrahedral) amorphous carbon.

  6. DIAMONDS: a new Bayesian nested sampling tool*

    Corsaro Enrico


    Full Text Available In the context of high-quality asteroseismic data provided by the NASA Kepler Mission, we developed a new code, termed DIAMONDS (high-DImensional And multi-MOdal NesteD Sampling, for fast Bayesian parameter estimation and model comparison by means of the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC algorithm, an efficient and powerful method very suitable for high-dimensional problems (like the peak bagging analysis of solar-like oscillations and multi-modal problems (i.e. problems that show multiple solutions. We applied the code to the peak bagging analysis of solar-like oscillations observed in a challenging F-type star. By means of DIAMONDS one is able to detect the different backgrounds in the power spectrum of the star (e.g. stellar granulation and faculae activity and to understand whether one or two oscillation peaks can be identified or not. In addition, we demonstrate a novel approach to peak bagging based on multi-modality, which is able to reduce significantly the number of free parameters involved in the peak bagging model. This novel approach is therefore of great interest for possible future automatization of the entire analysis technique.

  7. Polishing of dental porcelain by polycrystalline diamond.

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Sato, Hideaki; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Hojo, Satoru


    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) exhibits excellent abrasive characteristics and is commonly used as loose grains for precision machining of hard ceramics and other materials that are difficult to grind and polish. In the present study, we investigated using bonded PCD for polishing dental porcelain, for which a lustrous surface is difficult to obtain by polishing. We compared the surface texture and characteristics of dental porcelain after polishing with bonded PCD with that obtained using bonded monocrystalline diamond (MCD), which is commonly used for this purpose. Polishing was performed at various pressures and rotational speeds on a custom-built polishing apparatus using bonded PCD or MCD with grain sizes of 3.92 μm on specimens consisting of VITA Omega 900 dentin porcelain after firing and then glazing to a specified surface roughness. The surface roughness of the polished porcelain and the abrasion quantity in terms of its polishing depth were measured, and its surface texture and characteristics were investigated. At low polishing pressures, PCD yielded a finer polished surface than MCD. The polishing depth after polishing for 20-30 min was approximately 2-3 μm with PCD and 1-2 μm with MCD. The polished surface was more uniform and smooth with PCD than with MCD.

  8. Studies of defects on ion irradiated diamond

    Lai, P.F.; Prawer, S.; Spargo, A.E.C.; Bursill, L.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    It is known that diamond is amorphized or graphitized when irradiated above a critical dose. Above this critical dose, D{sub c}, the resistance R is found to drop very rapidly due to the formation of graphite regions which overlap at D{sub c} to form a semi-continuous electrically conducting pathway through the sample. One particularly interesting method of studying this transformation is electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Using EELS, the different phases of carbon can be identified and distinguished from each other using the extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) of the core-loss part of the spectrum. EELS is a sensitive method for determining the electronic structure of small areas of a sample. In this paper, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EELS measurements of the ion irradiated diamond were combined in an attempt to correlate the microstructural nature of the ion-beam induced damage to the changes in the electrical and other properties. 7 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  9. Advanced laser diagnostics for diamond deposition research

    Kruger, C.H.; Owano, T.G.; Wahl, E.H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using thermal plasmas is attractive for diamond synthesis applications due to the inherently high reactant densities and throughput, but the associated high gas-phase collision rates in the boundary layer above the substrate produce steep thermal and species gradients which can drive the complex plasma chemistry away from optimal conditions. To understand and control these environments, accurate measurements of temperature and species concentrations within the reacting boundary layer are needed. This is challenging in atmospheric pressure reactors due to the highly luminous environment, steep thermal and species gradients, and small spatial scales. The applicability of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) as a spectroscopic probe of atmospheric pressure reacting plasmas has been investigated. This powerful, nonlinear technique has been applied to the measurement of temperature and radical species concentrations in the boundary layer of a diamond growth substrate immersed in a flowing atmospheric pressure plasma. In-situ measurements of CH and C{sub 2} radicals have been performed to determine spatially resolved profiles of vibrational temperature, rotational temperature, and species concentration. Results of these measurements are compared with the predictions of a detailed numerical simulation.

  10. Interface Instability of Diamond Crystals at High Temperature and High Pressure

    尹龙卫; 李木森; 许斌; 崔建军; 郝兆印


    Diamond growth instability at high temperature and high pressure (HPHT) has been elucidated by observing the cellular interface in diamond crystals. The HPHIT diamond crystals grow layer by layer from solution of carbon in the molten catalyst. In the growth of any other crystals from solution, the growth interface is not stable and should be of the greatest significance to understand further the diamond growth mechanism. During the diamond growth, the carbon atoms are delivered to the growing diamond crystal by diffusion through a diamond crystal-solution boundary layer. In front of the boundary layer, there is a narrow constitutional supercooling zone related to the solubility difference between diamond and graphite in the molten catalyst. The diamond growth stability is broken, and the flat or planar growth interface transforms into a cellular interface due to the light supercooling. The phenomenon of solute trails in the diamonds was observed, the formation of solute trails was closely associated with the cellular interface.

  11. A Review on the Low-Dimensional and Hybridized Nanostructured Diamond Films

    Hongdong Li


    Full Text Available In the last decade, besides the breakthrough of high-rate growth of chemical vapor deposited single-crystal diamonds, numerous nanostructured diamond films have been rapidly developed in the research fields of the diamond-based sciences and industrial applications. The low-dimensional diamonds of two-dimensional atomic-thick nanofilms and nanostructural diamond on the surface of bulk diamond films have been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In addition, the diamond-related hybrid nanostructures of n-type oxide/p-type diamond and n-type nitride/p-type diamond, having high performance physical and chemical properties, are proposed for further applications. In this review, we first briefly introduce the three categories of diamond nanostructures and then outline the current advances in these topics, including their design, fabrication, characterization, and properties. Finally, we address the remaining challenges in the research field and the future activities.

  12. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    Juan David Carrillo; Analía eForasiepi; Carlos eJaramillo; Marcelo R. eSánchez-Villagra


    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review...

  13. Is there a need for a formulary of clinically interchangeable medicines to guide generic substitution in Saudi Arabia?

    Alrasheedy, Alian A; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Aljadhey, Hisham; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Al-Tamimi, Saleh Karamah


    The escalating healthcare expenditure is a major challenge to sustainability of the healthcare systems. To confront the escalating health expenditure in general and medicines expenditure in particular, many countries promoted the use of generic medicines. To promote generic medicines, many countries have adopted a generic substitution (GS) policy and generic prescribing. To effectively implement the GS policy, it is evident in the literature that it is essential to have an evidence-based guide on therapeutic equivalence and formulary of interchangeable medicines to guide responsible GS. In Saudi Arabia, GS is permissive and pharmacists are given the right to perform GS. While the prescriber's approval is not a requirement, patient consent is required when performing GS. Although there are some general drug references, such as the Saudi National Formulary (SNF) and list of registered medicines in the Saudi market, but there is currently no information available to healthcare professionals that documents the therapeutic and bioequivalence between medicines. Thus, it is essential to have a formulary of interchangeable medicines to guide appropriate GS or at least to include such vital information regarding therapeutic equivalence and brand interchangeability as part of the SNF. That, in turn, will not only make healthcare professionals more confident when providing GS, but will also enable the avoidance of situations where GS is inappropriate.

  14. Carbohydrate and caffeine improves high intensity running of elite rugby league interchange players during simulated match play.

    Clarke, Jon S; Highton, Jamie; Close, Graeme L; Twist, Craig


    The study examined the effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on simulated rugby league interchange performance. Eight male elite rugby league forwards completed two trials of a rugby league simulation protocol for interchange players seven days apart in a randomized crossover design, ingesting either carbohydrate (CHO; 40 g·h-1) or carbohydrate and caffeine (CHO-C) (40 g·h-1 + 3 mg·kg-1) drink. Movement characteristics, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and countermovement jump height (CMJ) were measured during the protocol. CHO-C resulted in likely to very likely higher mean running speeds (ES 0.43 to 0.75), distance in high intensity running (ES 0.41 to 0.64) and mean sprint speeds (ES 0.39 to 1.04) compared to CHO. Heart rate was possibly to very likely higher (ES 0.32 to 0.74) and RPE was likely to very likely lower (ES -0.53 to 0.86) with CHO-C. There was a likely trivial to possibly higher CMJ in CHO-C compared to CHO (ES 0.07 to 0.25). The co-ingestion of carbohydrate with caffeine has an ergogenic effect to reduce the sense of effort and increase high intensity running capability that might be employed to enhance interchange running performance in elite rugby league players.

  15. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Donna H. Wang


    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  16. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays.

    Varney, Michael W; Aslam, Dean M; Janoudi, Abed; Chan, Ho-Yin; Wang, Donna H


    Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C) has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM). The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA), due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  17. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Buseck, Peter R.


    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  18. A Novel Image Data Hiding Scheme with Diamond Encoding

    Wu Hsien-Chu


    Full Text Available A novel data hiding scheme in digital images with the diamond encoding by pixel value adjustment is proposed. The proposed method is the extension of the exploiting modification direction (EMD embedding scheme. First, the process of embedding partitions the cover image into nonoverlapping blocks of two consecutive pixels and transforms the secret messages to a series of -ary digits. For each block, the diamond encoding technique is applied to calculate the diamond characteristic value, and one secret -ary digit is concealed into the diamond characteristic value. The diamond characteristic value is modified to secret digit and it can be obtained by adjusting pixel values in a block. This scheme is designed in such a way that the distortion of each block after diamond encoding is never out of the embedding parameter , and the block capacity is equal to . The diamond encoding provides an easy way to produce a more perceptible result than those yielded by simple least-significant-bit substitution methods. The embedded secret data can be extracted without the original cover image. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of hiding more secret data while keeping the stego-image quality degradation imperceptible.


    GAO Tao; PENG Wei; YAO Chunyan


    Analytical simulation and corresponding proof-test are adopted to study the principle of the curing process of photopolymer resin diamond tools. The influence of the diamond as abrasives in photopolymer resin owing to the absorptivity of the diamond for the UV light on the photopolymer resin curing process is discussed. Based on the above, a kind of diamond tool-dicing blade is selected to analyze the curing process of photopolymer bond diamond tools. An analytical model of curing process is developed and a correlation curve between the depth of polymerization of the photopolymer resin diamond tools and the exposure time to represent the curing process of photopolymer bond dicing blade. A test is done to proof-test the validity of the analytical model and the correlation curve. The simulated data fit the experimental results, which demonstrates the analytical models and numerical algorithm are of high reliability. The analytical simulation method could possibly be used to optimize the curing cycle and improve the quality of the photopolymers resin bond diamond tools.

  20. Fabrication of planarised conductively patterned diamond for bio-applications

    Tong, Wei [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Fox, Kate, E-mail: [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Ganesan, Kumaravelu [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Turnley, Ann M. [Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Shimoni, Olga [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phong A. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Lohrmann, Alexander; McFarlane, Thomas; Ahnood, Arman; Garrett, David J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Meffin, Hamish [National Information and Communication Technology Australia, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); O' Brien-Simpson, Neil M.; Reynolds, Eric C. [Oral Health Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, 720 Swanston Street, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Prawer, Steven [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)


    The development of smooth, featureless surfaces for biomedical microelectronics is a challenging feat. Other than the traditional electronic materials like silicon, few microelectronic circuits can be produced with conductive features without compromising the surface topography and/or biocompatibility. Diamond is fast becoming a highly sought after biomaterial for electrical stimulation, however, its inherent surface roughness introduced by the growth process limits its applications in electronic circuitry. In this study, we introduce a fabrication method for developing conductive features in an insulating diamond substrate whilst maintaining a planar topography. Using a combination of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, secondary diamond growth and silicon wet-etching, we have produced a patterned substrate in which the surface roughness at the interface between the conducting and insulating diamond is approximately 3 nm. We also show that the patterned smooth topography is capable of neuronal cell adhesion and growth whilst restricting bacterial adhesion. - Highlights: • We have fabricated a planar diamond device with conducting and insulating features. • A precise method is provided using CVD and RIE techniques to develop the substrate. • The step between conducting and insulating features is less than 3 nm. • Planar topography promotes neuronal cell adhesion and restricts bacterial adhesion. • Neuronal cells prefer conductive diamond (N-UNCD) to non-conductive diamond (UNCD)

  1. Ion-Implanted Diamond Films and Their Tribological Properties

    Wu, Richard L. C.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Korenyi-Both, Andras L.; Garscadden, Alan; Barnes, Paul N.


    This paper reports the physical characterization and tribological evaluation of ion-implanted diamond films. Diamond films were produced by microwave plasma, chemical vapor deposition technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes (0.3 and 3 microns) and roughness (9.1 and 92.1 nm r.m.s. respectively) were implanted with C(+) (m/e = 12) at an ion energy of 160 eV and a fluence of 6.72 x 10(exp 17) ions/sq cm. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted in ultrahigh vacuum (6.6 x 10(exp -7)Pa), dry nitrogen and humid air (40% RH) environments. The effects of C(+) ion bombardment on fine and coarse-grained diamond films are as follows: the surface morphology of the diamond films did not change; the surface roughness increased (16.3 and 135.3 nm r.m.s.); the diamond structures were damaged and formed a thin layer of amorphous non-diamond carbon; the friction coefficients dramatically decreased in the ultrahigh vacuum (0.1 and 0.4); the friction coefficients decreased slightly in the dry nitrogen and humid air environments.

  2. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S


    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

  3. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.


    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  5. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen


    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  6. Fabrication of Fe-Based Diamond Composites by Pressureless Infiltration

    Meng Li


    Full Text Available A metal-based matrix is usually used for the fabrication of diamond bits in order to achieve favorable properties and easy processing. In the effort to reduce the cost and to attain the desired bit properties, researchers have brought more attention to diamond composites. In this paper, Fe-based impregnated diamond composites for drill bits were fabricated by using a pressureless infiltration sintering method at 970 °C for 5 min. In addition, boron was introduced into Fe-based diamond composites. The influence of boron on the density, hardness, bending strength, grinding ratio, and microstructure was investigated. An Fe-based diamond composite with 1 wt % B has an optimal overall performance, the grinding ratio especially improving by 80%. After comparing with tungsten carbide (WC-based diamond composites with and without 1 wt % B, results showed that the Fe-based diamond composite with 1 wt % B exhibits higher bending strength and wear resistance, being satisfactory to bit needs.

  7. Spectroscopic constraints on growth of Siberian mixed-habit diamonds

    Skuzovatov, Sergei Yu.; Zedgenizov, Dmitry A.; Rakevich, Alexander L.


    Notable within-crystal variability of mineralogical and geochemical properties of single natural diamonds are commonly attributed to changing chemistry of parental fluids, sources of carbon and redox conditions of diamond precipitation. A distinct type of compositional heterogeneity (mixed-habit structure) is well-known to occur in diamonds as well as in many other minerals due to purely "structural" reasons that are unequal crystal chemistry of crystallographically different faces and selective absorption and fractionation of impurities between adjacent growth pyramids. Based on the combined cathodoluminescence, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, study of nine diamond crystals with different growth histories and external morphology, but all showing mixed-habit patterns at different growth stages, we show that mixed-diamonds may grow in closed system conditions or with a slowly decreasing growth rate from a media with a much lower impurity content than previously thought. Intracrystal nitrogen distribution seems to be a function of growth rate even in the cases of unusual impurity partitioning between growth sectors. Generally poor with IR-active hydrogen at moderate nitrogen aggregation parameters, studied diamonds likely resemble the low hydrogen content from the growth medium that, for cubic diamonds, was typically suggested hydrogen-rich and a crucial factor for growth of cubic and mixed-habit diamonds. We also show that mixed-habit diamond growth may occur not only in peridotitic suite but also in an extended field of geochemical affinities from high-Ni to low-Ni or maybe even Ni-free environments, such as pyroxenitic or eclogitic.

  8. Endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis: interchangeable diagnostic modalities in suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia?

    Scholte, Johannes B J; van Dessel, Helke A; Linssen, Catharina F M; Bergmans, Dennis C J J; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Roekaerts, Paul M H J; van Mook, Walther N K A


    Authoritative guidelines state that the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be established using either endotracheal aspirate (ETA) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, thereby suggesting that their results are considered to be in accordance. Therefore, the results of ETA Gram staining and semiquantitative cultures were compared to the results from a paired ETA-BALF analysis. Different thresholds for the positivity of ETAs were assessed. This was a prospective study of all patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage for suspected VAP in a 27-bed university intensive care unit during an 8-year period. VAP was diagnosed when ≥ 2% of the BALF cells contained intracellular organisms and/or when BALF quantitative culture revealed ≥ 10(4) CFU/ml of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. ETA Gram staining and semiquantitative cultures were compared to the results from paired BALF analysis by Cohen's kappa coefficients. VAP was suspected in 311 patients and diagnosed in 122 (39%) patients. In 288 (93%) patients, the results from the ETA analysis were available for comparison. Depending on the threshold used and the diagnostic modality, VAP incidences varied from 15% to 68%. For the diagnosis of VAP, the most accurate threshold for positivity of ETA semiquantitative cultures was moderate or heavy growth, whereas the optimal threshold for BALF Gram staining was ≥ 1 microorganisms per high power field. The Cohen's kappa coefficients were 0.22, 0.31, and 0.60 for ETA and paired BALF Gram stains, cultures, and BALF Gram stains, respectively. Since the ETA and BALF Gram stains and cultures agreed only fairly, they are probably not interchangeable for diagnosing VAP.

  9. Lapin Data Interchange Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files


    The purpose of grant NCC3-966 was to investigate and evaluate the interchange of application-specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).

  10. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.


    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  11. Hepatitis A vaccine response in HIV-infected patients: are TWINRIX and HAVRIX interchangeable?

    Jimenez, Humberto R; Hallit, Rabih R; Debari, Vincent A; Slim, Jihad


    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection remains a health risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Seroconversion rates among HAV vaccinated HIV-infected patients have been shown to be reduced compared to the general population. Current guidelines regard HAV vaccines as interchangeable, however there no published data comparing their efficacy in HIV patients. Our study evaluated the impact of different factors, including type of vaccination, on the immunologic response to hepatitis A vaccination in HIV-infected patients in the HAART era. This was a retrospective review of 226 HIV-infected patients at our clinic in Newark, NJ. Patients were eligible if at least one dose HAVRIX (1440 ELISA units) or TWINRIX (720 ELISA units) was administered and had anti-HAV antibody data pre- and post-vaccination. Numerous variables were evaluated for their effect on seroconversion. Seroconversion developed in 53.5% of the population. Responders had higher baseline median CD4 counts (446 versus 362 cells/mm(3); P=0.004) and lower median HIV RNA levels (475 copies/mL versus 5615 copies/mL; P=0.018) than non-responders. Patients with CD4 counts>350 cell/mm(3) were more likely to respond than those with CD4 countsvaccination series was not completed (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.18-0.96). Seroconversion rates to HAV vaccination are significantly impaired among HIV-infected patients. CD4 cell count and virologic suppression at vaccination impact response. Seroconversion among TWINRIX recipients appeared to be more sensitive to these factors and vaccine series completion in comparison to those administered HAVRIX. Among HIV-patients requiring hepatitis a and b vaccination, the advantage of TWINRIX over HAVRIX as a combination product should be reevaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Technology for boron-doped layers formation on the diamond

    Zyablyuk K. N.


    Full Text Available The authors investigated natural type IIa diamond crystals and CVD diamond films. The article presents electrophysical parameters of the structures obtained in different modes of ion implantation of boron into the crystal with further annealing. Parameters of the crystals with a high nitrogen impurity density indicate that they can be used for the manufacture of microwave field-effect transistors operating at room temperature. CVD diamond films doped with boron during the growth process also have the required for MOSFET manufacture carrier mobility. However, due to the high activation energy of boron, the required channel conductivity is achieved at high operating temperatures.

  13. Control of crystallite size in diamond film chemical vapor deposition

    Moran, Mark B.; Johnson, Linda F.; Klemm, Karl A.


    In depositing an adhering, continuous, polycrystalline diamond film of optical or semiconductor quality on a substrate, as by forming on the substrate a layer of a refractory nitride interlayer and depositing diamond on the interlayer without mechanical treatment or seeding of the substrate or the interlayer, the substrate is heated in a vacuum chamber containing a microwave activated mixture of hydrogen and a gas including carbon, and the size of deposited diamond crystallites and their rate of deposition selectively varied by a bias voltage applied to the substrate.

  14. Results on diamond timing detector for the TOTEM experiment

    Bossini, E., E-mail: [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa (Italy)


    We describe the results and status of our R&D on diamond timing detectors for the TOTEM experiment at CERN. Tests with commercial devices have been done and here reported; the unsatisfactory results push us to design a new detector. We present test beams results and the front-end electronics, critical point of the design. Efficiency studies and timing performance dependence from detector capacitance will be also reported. - Highlights: • Diamond particles detector for precise Time Of Flight measurements. • Integrated very low-noise electronics. • Minimum Ionizing Particle detector. • Diamond detector development and characterization.

  15. CVD diamond coatings on titanium : Characterisation by XRD techniques

    Cappuccio, G. [CNR, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica]|[INFN-LNF, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Laboratorio Dafne Luce


    Here, the authors report an analysis carried out on diamond coatings on titanium substrates to show the potentially of x-ray diffraction techniques in the structural characterisation both of diamond thin films and of the other phases (TiC and TiH{sub 2}) present in the interfacial layer. It should be noted that the composition and microstructure of the interface layers strongly affect the characteristics of the diamond films, particularly adhesion, which is one of the most important elements determining the final quality of the coating.

  16. Diamond electro-optomechanical resonators integrated in nanophotonic circuits

    Rath, P; Diewald, S; Lewes-Malandrakis, G; Brink, D; Heidrich, N; Nebel, C; Pernice, W H P


    Diamond integrated photonic devices are promising candidates for emerging applications in nanophotonics and quantum optics. Here we demonstrate active modulation of diamond nanophotonic circuits by exploiting mechanical degrees of freedom in free-standing diamond electro-optomechanical resonators. We obtain high quality factors up to 9600, allowing us to read out the driven nanomechanical response with integrated optical interferometers with high sensitivity. We are able to excite higher order mechanical modes up to 115 MHz and observe the nanomechanical response also under ambient conditions.

  17. Application of Diamond Nanoparticles in Low-Energy Neutron Physics

    Alexander Strelkov


    Full Text Available Diamond, with its exceptionally high optical nuclear potential and low absorption cross-section, is a unique material for a series of applications in VCN (very cold neutron physics and techniques. In particular, powder of diamond nanoparticles provides the best reflector for neutrons in the complete VCN energy range. It allowed also the first observation of quasi-specular reflection of cold neutrons (CN from disordered medium. Effective critical velocity for such a quasi-specular reflection is higher than that for the best super-mirror. Nano-diamonds survive in high radiation fluxes; therefore they could be used, under certain conditions, in the vicinity of intense neutron sources.

  18. Si/Nanocrystalline Diamond Film Heterojunction Diodes Preparation


    With electron assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition technology, nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited on polished n-(100)Si wafer surface. The deposited films were characterized and observed by Raman spectrum, X-ray diffraction, semiconductor characterization system and Hall effective measurement system. The results show that with EA-HFCVD, not only an undoped nanocrystalline diamond films with high-conductivity (p-type semiconducting) but also a p-n heterojunction diode between the nanocrystalline diamond films and n-Si substrate is fabricated successfully. The p-n heterojunction has smaller forward resistance and bigger positive resistance. The p-n junction effective is evident.

  19. Diamond Processing by Focused Ion Beam - Surface Damage and Recovery

    Bayn, Igal; Cytermann, Catherine; Meyler, Boris; Richter, Vladimir; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi


    The Nitrogen Vacancy color center (NV-) in diamond is of great interest for novel photonic applications. Diamond nano-photonic structures are often implemented using Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) processing, leaving a damaged surface which has a detrimental effect on the color center luminescence. The FIB processing effect on single crystal diamond surfaces and their photonic properties is studied by Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and photoluminescence (PL). Exposing the processed surface to hydrogen plasma, followed by chemical etching, drastically decreases implanted Ga concentration, resulting in a recovery of the NV- photo-emission and in a significant increase of the NV-/NV0 ratio.

  20. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Mityagin A. Yu.


    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.