WorldWideScience

Sample records for diamond formation process

  1. Effects of pretreatment processes on improving the formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li-Ju; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I-Nan.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pretreatment on the nuclei formation of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) on Si substrates were studied. Either precoating a thin layer of titanium (∼400 nm) or ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond and titanium mixed powder (D and T process) enhances the nucleation process on Si substrates markedly, and the UNCD nuclei formed and fully covered the Si substrate, when deposition was processed using the microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition process for 10 min. In contrast, during the same period, ultrasonication pretreatment using diamond powders (D process) can only form large UNCD clusters, which were scarcely distributed on Si substrates. The analyses using x-ray diffractometer, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis reveal that the titanium layer reacted with carbon species in the plasma, forming crystalline TiC phase, which facilitates the subsequent formation of UNCD nuclei. The beneficial effect of Ti layer on enhancing the nucleation of UNCD is presumably owing to high solubility and high diffusivity of carbon species in Ti materials, as compared with those of Si materials

  2. Data science implications in diamond formation and craton evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, F.; Huang, F.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Diamonds are so-called "messengers" from the deep Earth. Fluid and mineral inclusions in diamonds could reflect the compositions of fluids/melts and wall-rocks in which diamond formed. Recently many diamond samples are examined to study the water content in the mantle transition zone1, the mechanism of diamond formation2 and the mantle evolution history3. However, most of the studies can only explain local activities. Therefore, an overall project of data grouping, comparison and correlation is needed, but limited progress has been made due to a lack of benchmark datasets on diamond formation and effective computing algorithms. In this study, we start by proposing the very first complete and easily-accessible dataset on mineral and fluid inclusions in diamonds. We rescue, collect and organize the data available from papers, journals and other publications resources ([2-4] and more), and then apply several state-of-the-art machine learning methods to tackle this earth science problem by clustering diamond formation process into distinct groups primarily based on the compositions, the formation temperature and pressure, the age and so on. Our ongoing work includes further data exploration and training existing models. Our preliminary results show that diamonds formed from older cratons usually have higher formation temperature. Also peridotitic diamonds take a much larger population than the ecologitic ones. More details are being discovered when we finish constructing the database and training our model. We expect the result to demonstrate the advantages of using machine learning and data science in earth science research problems. Our methodology for knowledge discovery are very general and can be broadly applied to other earth science research problems under the same framework.[1] Pearson et al, Nature (2014); [2] Tomlinson et al, EPSL (2006); [3] Weiss et al, Nature (2016); [4] Stachel and Harris, Ore Geology Reviews (2008); Weiss et al, EPSL (2013)

  3. GENERAL RULES OF SIC FORMATION IN DIAMOND-CONTAINING COMPOSITION AT LOW PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Zhuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental investigations of structure-formation process of «diamond-carbide silicon» composite at low pressure which is obtained by liquid silicon impregnation of a porous blank made of diamond crystals with nano-coatings have made it possible to establish the following general rules of the process concerning a sintering reaction in the coating and composite material: vacuum magnetronic spraying of composite cathodes leads to formation of nano-coating which is made of silicon and hydrogen atoms or clusters, and their subsequent treatment with plasma of glow discharge is accompanied by formation of α-SiC at low temperatures in a hard phase; silicon impregnation at 1500 °C with given pyrolytic carbon in the charge may result in β-SiC matrix formation.The formed «diamond-carbide silicon» composite material contains a frame structure of diamond crystals with nano-coating impregnated by silicon carbide and is characterized by high physical and mechanical properties. 

  4. TRANSFORMATIONS IN NANO-DIAMONDS WITH FORMATION OF NANO-POROUS SILICON CARBIDE AT HIGH PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kovalevsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigations on regularities of diamond - silicon carbide composite structure formation at impact-wave excitation. It has been determined that while squeezing a porous blank containing Si (SiC nano-diamond by explosive detonation products some processes are taking place such as diamond nano-particles consolidation, reverse diamond transition into graphite, fragments formation from silicon carbide. A method for obtaining high-porous composites with the presence of ultra-disperse diamond particles has been developed. Material with three-dimensional high-porous silicon-carbide structure has been received due to nano-diamond graphitation at impact wave transmission and plastic deformation. The paper reveals nano-diamonds inverse transformation into graphite and its subsequent interaction with the silicon accompanied by formation of silicon-carbide fragments with dimensions of up to 100 nm.

  5. Nanosecond formation of diamond and lonsdaleite by shock compression of graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, D; Ravasio, A; Gauthier, M; Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Frydrych, S; Helfrich, J; Fletcher, L B; Schaumann, G; Nagler, B; Barbrel, B; Bachmann, B; Gamboa, E J; Göde, S; Granados, E; Gregori, G; Lee, H J; Neumayer, P; Schumaker, W; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H; Roth, M

    2016-03-14

    The shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond has been of great scientific and technological interest since the discovery of microscopic diamonds in remnants of explosively driven graphite. Furthermore, shock synthesis of diamond and lonsdaleite, a speculative hexagonal carbon polymorph with unique hardness, is expected to happen during violent meteor impacts. Here, we show unprecedented in situ X-ray diffraction measurements of diamond formation on nanosecond timescales by shock compression of pyrolytic as well as polycrystalline graphite to pressures from 19 GPa up to 228 GPa. While we observe the transition to diamond starting at 50 GPa for both pyrolytic and polycrystalline graphite, we also record the direct formation of lonsdaleite above 170 GPa for pyrolytic samples only. Our experiment provides new insights into the processes of the shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond and uniquely resolves the dynamics that explain the main natural occurrence of the lonsdaleite crystal structure being close to meteor impact sites.

  6. Stagnant zone formation on diamond cutting tools during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izman, S.; Tamin, M.N.; Mon, T.T.; Venkatesh, V.C.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of an intact region on the rake face of cutting tool during machining is quite common phenomenon but its significance in maintaining tool edge sharpness has not been recognized by many researchers. This region is sometimes called stagnant zone. It is believed that when an intact zone present on the rake face, it delays the crater wear progress and hence maintaining the tool edge sharpness longer. This paper investigates the effect of edge radius, surface roughness of the rake face and cutting parameters on the formation of stagnant zone on two different type of diamond tools i.e. polycrystalline diamond PCD-KD100 and diamond-coated inserts when machining titanium alloy. The used inserta and post-processed chips were examined under FESEM and optical microscope after cutting at three different conditions. Experimental results show that the speed and feel, the tool edge radius, and the tool rake surface roughness significantly affect the stagnant zone formation. (author)

  7. Eclogitic inclusions in diamonds: Evidence of complex mantle processes over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Sobolev, Vladimir N.; Yefimova, Emiliya S.; Sobolev, Nikolai V.

    1996-08-01

    The first ion-probe trace element analyses of clinopyroxene-garnet pairs both included within diamonds and from the eclogite host xenoliths are reported; these diamondiferous eclogites are from the Udachnaya and Mir kimberlite pipes, Yakutia, Russia. The major and trace element analyses of these diamond-inclusion and host-rock pairs are compared in order to determine the relative ages of the diamonds, confirm or deny genetic relationships between the diamonds and the eclogites, evaluate models of eclogite petrogenesis, and model igneous processes in the mantle before, during, and after diamond formation. The most striking aspect of the chemical compositions of the diamond inclusions is the diversity of relationships with their eclogite hosts. No single distinct pattern of variation from diamond inclusion minerals to host minerals is found for all four samples. Garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions in the diamonds from two samples (U-65/3 and U-66/3) have lower Mg#s, lower Mg, and higher Fe contents, and lower LREE than those in the host eclogite. We interpret such variations as due to metasomatism of the host eclogite after diamond formation. One sample, U-41/3 shows enrichment in diamond-inclusion MREE enrichment relative to the eclogite host and may indicate a metasomatic event prior to, or during, diamond formation. Bulanova [2] found striking differences between inclusions taken from within different portions of the very same diamond. Clinopyroxene inclusions taken from the central (early) portions of Yakutian diamonds were lower in Mg# and Mg contents (by up to 25%) than those later inclusions at the rims of diamonds. These trends are parallel to those between diamond inclusions and host eclogites determined for four of the five samples from the present study and may merely represent changing magmatic and/or P-T conditions in the mantle. Garnet trace element compositions are similar in relative proportions, but variable in abundances, between diamond inclusions

  8. Anodic oxidation with doped diamond electrodes: a new advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Alexander; Stadelmann, Manuela; Blaschke, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond anodes allow to directly produce OH· radicals from water electrolysis with very high current efficiencies. This has been explained by the very high overvoltage for oxygen production and many other anodic electrode processes on diamond anodes. Additionally, the boron-doped diamond electrodes exhibit a high mechanical and chemical stability. Anodic oxidation with diamond anodes is a new advanced oxidation process (AOP) with many advantages compared to other known chemical and photochemical AOPs. The present work reports on the use of diamond anodes for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from several industrial wastewaters and from two synthetic wastewaters with malic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acid. Current efficiencies for the COD removal between 85 and 100% have been found. The formation and subsequent removal of by-products of the COD oxidation has been investigated for the first time. Economical considerations of this new AOP are included

  9. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond

  10. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  11. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  12. In situ x-ray observations of the diamond formation process in the C-H sub 2 O-MgO system

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, T; Shimomura, O

    2002-01-01

    The diamond formation process in aqueous fluid catalyst under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions has been observed for the first time. Quench experiments and in situ x-ray diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation have been performed upon a mixture of brucite (Mg(OH) sub 2) and graphite as the starting material. It was confirmed that brucite decomposed into periclase and H sub 2 O at 3.6 GPa and 1050 deg. C while its complete melting occurred at 6.2 GPa and 1150 deg. C, indicating that the solubility of MgO in H sub 2 O greatly increases with increasing pressure. The conversion of carbon from its graphite to its diamond form in aqueous fluid was observed at 7.7 GPa and 1835 deg. C.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of processes proceeding on (111) faces of diamond during chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarczyk, W.; Prawer, S.

    1992-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited diamond is commonly synthesized from activated hydrogen-rich, carbon/hydrogen gas mixtures under conditions which should, from a thermodynamic equilibrium point of view, favour the production of graphite. Much remains to be understood about why diamond, and not graphite, forms under these conditions. However, it is well known that the presence of atomic hydrogen, is crucial to the success of diamond deposition. As part of an attempt to better understand the deposition process, a thermodynamic analysis of the process was performed on diamond (111) faces in hydrogen rich environments. It is shown that the key role of atomic hydrogen is to inhibit the reconstruction of the (111) face to an sp 2 -bonded structure, which would provide a template for graphite, rather than diamond formation. The model correctly predicts experimentally determined trends in growth rate and diamond film quality as a function of methane concentration in the stating gas mixture. 17 refs., 4 figs

  14. The depth of sub-lithospheric diamond formation and the redistribution of carbon in the deep mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christopher; Frost, Daniel J.

    2017-03-01

    respectively. Macroscopic diamond formation in rocks with pyroxenite compositions are likely facilitated in the deep mantle by higher average oxidation states and low mineral H2 O solubility compared to the surrounding mantle, which aid the mobility of C-O-H volatile species. The apparent lack of inclusions with a peridotite affinity may result from generally low oxygen fugacities in such lithologies, which reduces carbon mobility, and the lack of a suitable oxidising agent to allow diamonds to form from CH4. This glimpse of deep carbon cycle processes implies that heterogeneities in the carbon content, redox state and chemical composition of the mantle may be strongly coupled.

  15. Bias-enhanced post-treatment process for enhancing the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H.; Dong, C. L.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-01-01

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films were markedly improved via the bias-enhanced plasma post-treatment (bep) process. The bep-process induced the formation of hybrid-granular structure of the diamond (bep-HiD) films with abundant nano-graphitic phase along the grain boundaries that increased the conductivity of the films. Moreover, the utilization of Au-interlayer can effectively suppress the formation of resistive amorphous-carbon (a-C) layer, thereby enhancing the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Therefore, bep-HiD/Au/Si films exhibit superior EFE properties with low turn-on field of E 0  = 2.6 V/μm and large EFE current density of J e  = 3.2 mA/cm 2 (at 5.3 V/μm)

  16. Investigation of the nucleation process of chemical vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katai, S.

    2001-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to contribute to the understanding of the bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) process during the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond on silicon. The investigation of both the gas phase environment above the substrate surface, by in situ mass selective energy analysis of ions, and of the surface composition and structure by in vacuo surface analytic methods (XPS, EELS) have been carried out. In both cases, the implementation of these measurements required the development and construction of special experimental apparatus as well. The secondary aim of this work was to give orientation to our long term goal of growing diamond films with improved quality. For this reason, (1) contaminant levels at the diamond-silicon interface after growth were studied by SIMS, (2) the internal stress distribution of highly oriented free-standing diamond films were studied by Raman spectroscopy, and (3) an attempt was made to produce spatially regular oriented nuclei formation by nucleating on a pattern created by laser treatment on silicon substrates. (orig.)

  17. Architecting boron nanostructure on the diamond particle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Yu, J.H.; Nishimura, K.; Sasaoka, S.; Jiang, N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides an efficient approach for nano-functionalization of diamond powders. Boron nanostructure can be grown on diamond particle entire surface by a simple heat-treatment process. After treatment, various boron nanoforms were grown on the diamond particle surface at different processing temperature. High-density boron nanowires (BNWs) grow on the diamond particle entire surface at 1333 K, while nanopillars cover diamond powders when the heat treatment process is performed at 1393 K. The influence of the pretreatment temperature on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites were investigated. Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of 670 W (m K) −1 was obtained, which was achieved by the formation of large number of nanowires and nanopillars on the diamond particle surface.

  18. Diamond MEMS: wafer scale processing, devices, and technology insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Diamond has long held the promise of revolutionary new devices: impervious chemical barriers, smooth and reliable microscopic machines, and tough mechanical tools. Yet it's been an outsider. Laboratories have been effectively growing diamond crystals for at least 25 years, but the jump to market viability has always been blocked by the expense of diamond production and inability to integrate with other materials. Advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have given rise to a hierarchy of carbon films ranging from diamond-like carbon (DLC) to vapor-deposited diamond coatings, however. All have pros and cons based on structure and cost, but they all share some of diamond's heralded attributes. The best performer, in theory, is the purest form of diamond film possible, one absent of graphitic phases. Such a material would capture the extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and chemical inertness of natural diamond. Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, Ill., is the first company to develop a distinct chemical process to create a marketable phase-pure diamond film. The material, called UNCD® (for ultrananocrystalline diamond), features grain sizes from 3 to 300 nm in size, and layers just 1 to 2 microns thick. With significant advantages over other thin films, UNCD is designed to be inexpensive enough for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, microelectromechanical machines (MEMS), cell phone circuitry, radio frequency devices, and even biosensors.

  19. Mechanochemical formation of heterogeneous diamond structures during rapid uniaxial compression in graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Goldman, Nir

    2018-05-01

    We predict mechanochemical formation of heterogeneous diamond structures from rapid uniaxial compression in graphite using quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Ensembles of simulations reveal the formation of different diamondlike products starting from thermal graphite crystal configurations. We identify distinct classes of final products with characteristic probabilities of formation, stress states, and electrical properties and show through simulations of rapid quenching that these products are nominally stable and can be recovered at room temperature and pressure. Some of the diamond products exhibit significant disorder and partial closure of the energy gap between the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (i.e., the HOMO-LUMO gap). Seeding atomic vacancies in graphite significantly biases toward forming products with small HOMO-LUMO gap. We show that a strong correlation between the HOMO-LUMO gap and disorder in tetrahedral bonding configurations informs which kinds of structural defects are associated with gap closure. The rapid diffusionless transformation of graphite is found to lock vacancy defects into the final diamond structure, resulting in configurations that prevent s p3 bonding and lead to localized HOMO and LUMO states with a small gap.

  20. Study of the diamond and diamond like films formation and technology development for the films precipitation on solid surface for wear resistance increasing of tools, machine and mechanism parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanbekov, Z.; Bekmuhambetov, E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the project: The purpose of the project is a development and a creation of an effective technology of the diamond and diamond like films precipitation on materials, including refractory metals, semiconductors and composite on the carbon fibers base. The study method includes the experimental investigation of the base surface structure and properties, preparation of the surface for diamond and diamond like coats growing. The precipitation of above mentioned films will be carried out from the plasma being formed from carbon gas medium at low pressure. The main purposes of the project are: - development of the technology for obtaining the films with specified properties; provision of required rate -of the precipitation; - decreasing of temperature; - manufacturing of the functioning laboratory stand with further developing of a pilot- - commercial plant for diamond and diamond like coating. It is supposed to develop a method of the monocrystal diamond films growing, that are useful for semiconductor devices manufacturing The methods: A thermo-emission and ECR methods will be used for investigation of the diamond and diamond like films formation and growth processes. The plant that will be used for the first method is a two electrode construction. Refractory metals (W,Re) being heated up to 2500 Kelvin degrees, are usually used as an actuating electrode. The second one is a base on which the precipitation is carrying out. Refractory metals, steel, silicon can be used as the base. Actuating medium is a mixture of carbon and inert gases. The second method is based on a principle of a plasma formation with use of 2.45 GHz Shf radiation power. An ECR-plasma is formed in conjunction with magnetic field in the actuating chamber. This method allows to precipitate high quality films at lower pressure. Expected results: The main purpose of the project is to assimilate the high effective technology of the diamond and diamond like films precipitation on different

  1. Doping and cluster formation in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schuster, Cosima

    2011-01-01

    Introducing a cluster formation model, we provide a rational fundamental viewpoint for the difficulty to achieve n-type dopeddiamond. We argue that codoping is the way forward to form appropriately doped shallow regions in diamond and other forms of carbon such as graphene. The electronegativities of the codopants are an important design criterion for the donor atom to efficiently donate its electron. We propose that the nearest neighbour codopants should be of a considerably higher electronegativity compared to the donor atom. Codoping strategies should focus on phosphorous for which there are a number of appropriate codopants.

  2. Doping and cluster formation in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2011-09-09

    Introducing a cluster formation model, we provide a rational fundamental viewpoint for the difficulty to achieve n-type dopeddiamond. We argue that codoping is the way forward to form appropriately doped shallow regions in diamond and other forms of carbon such as graphene. The electronegativities of the codopants are an important design criterion for the donor atom to efficiently donate its electron. We propose that the nearest neighbour codopants should be of a considerably higher electronegativity compared to the donor atom. Codoping strategies should focus on phosphorous for which there are a number of appropriate codopants.

  3. The processing of heteroepitaxial thin-film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.

    1998-09-01

    Thin film diamond is of particular interest because of its wide applicability, including its potential use in high temperature electronics. This thesis describes a study of some of the processing stages required to exploit thin film diamond as an electronic device. Initial experiments were carried out to optimise bi-metallic contact schemes on orientated diamond film using electrical measurements and chemical analysis. Temperature stability was also investigated and it was concluded that the most favourable ohmic contact scheme is aluminium-on-titanium. Further electrical measurements confirmed that the contribution of resistance made by the contacts themselves to the metal/diamond/metal system overall was acceptably low, specifically 6 Ω.cm 2 for an undoped diamond system and less than 3 x 10 -6 Ω.cm 2 for boron doped diamond. To improve the as-grown resistivity of diamond films, an oxygen/argon plasma etch process was applied. The input parameters of the plasma system were optimised to give the maximum achievable resistivity of 4 x 10 11 Ω.cm. This was attained using a statistical design procedure via analysis of resistivity and etch rate outputs. Having optimised post growth treatment and contact metallisation, undoped and doped orientated diamond films were characterised via voltage and temperature dependencies. It was concluded that the dominant charge transport mechanisms for undoped diamond, nitrogen and boron doped diamond were variable range hopping at low temperatures up to 523 K and grain boundary effects. At higher temperatures, valence or impurity band conduction appeared to be the probable mechanisms with activation energies of 0.23 eV for nitrogen doped diamond and 0.08 eV for boron doped diamond. Preliminary experiments electrical properties of diamond and initial results suggested the presence of a high density of recombination centres. The final stage of experimental research initiated a study of direct electron beam writing lithography to

  4. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityagin A. Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

  5. Selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palnichenko, A.V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning was studied. DLC films was deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, filtered vacuum arc deposition, laser ablation, magnetron sputtering and ion-beam lithography methods. The DLC coatings were...

  6. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  7. Initial damage processes for diamond film exposure to hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslandes, A.; Guenette, M.C.; Samuell, C.M.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D.D.; Blackwell, B.; Corr, C.; Riley, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Exposing chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond films in a recently constructed device, MAGPIE, specially commissioned to simulate fusion plasma conditions. • Non-diamond material is etched from the diamond. • There is no hydrogen retention observed, which suggests diamond is an excellent candidate for plasma facing materials. • Final structure of the surface is dependent on synergistic effects of etching and ion-induced structural change. -- Abstract: Diamond is considered to be a possible alternative to other carbon based materials as a plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices due to its high thermal conductivity and resistance to chemical erosion. In this work CVD diamond films were exposed to hydrogen plasma in the MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE): a linear plasma device at the Australian National University which simulates plasma conditions relevant to nuclear fusion. Various negative sample stage biases of magnitude less than 500 V were applied to control the energies of impinging ions. Characterisation results from SEM, Raman spectroscopy and ERDA are presented. No measureable quantity of hydrogen retention was observed, this is either due to no incorporation of hydrogen into the diamond structure or due to initial incorporation as a hydrocarbon followed by subsequent etching back into the plasma. A model is presented for the initial stages of diamond erosion in fusion relevant hydrogen plasma that involves chemical erosion of non-diamond material from the surface by hydrogen radicals and damage to the subsurface region from energetic hydrogen ions. These results show that the initial damage processes in this plasma regime are comparable to previous studies of the fundamental processes as reported for less extreme plasma such as in the development of diamond films

  8. Diamonds in dense molecular clouds - A challenge to the standard interstellar medium paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Herbst, T. M.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of a newly discovered infrared C-H stretching band indicate that interstellar diamond-like material appears to be characteristic of dense clouds. In sharp contrast, the spectral signature of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium is dominated by -CH2- and -CH3 groups. This dichotomy in the aliphatic organic component between the dense and diffuse media challenges standard assumptions about the processes occurring in, and interactions between, these two media. The ubiquity of this interstellar diamond-like material rules out models for meteoritic diamond formation in unusual circumstellar environments and implies that the formation of the diamond-like material is associated with common interstellar processes or stellar types.

  9. Upper mantle fluids evolution, diamond formation, and mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    During mantle metasomatism, fluid-rock interactions in the mantle modify wall-rock compositions. Previous studies usually either investigated mineral compositions in xenoliths and xenocrysts brought up by magmas, or examined fluid compositions preserved in fluid inclusions in diamonds. However, a key study of Panda diamonds analysed both mineral and fluid inclusions in the diamonds [1] which we used to develop a quantitative characterization of mantle metasomatic processes. In the present study, we used an extended Deep Earth Water model [2] to simulate fluid-rock interactions at upper mantle conditions, and examine the fluids and mineral assemblages together simultaneously. Three types of end-member fluids in the Panda diamond fluid inclusions include saline, rich in Na+K+Cl; silicic, rich in Si+Al; and carbonatitic, rich in Ca+Mg+Fe [1, 3]. We used the carbonatitic end-member to represent fluid from a subducting slab reacting with an excess of peridotite + some saline fluid in the host environment. During simultaneous fluid mixing and reaction with the host rock, the logfO2 increased by about 1.6 units, and the pH increased by 0.7 units. The final minerals were olivine, garnet and diamond. The Mg# of olivine decreased from 0.92 to 0.85. Garnet precipitated at an early stage, and its Mg# also decreased with reaction progress, in agreement with the solid inclusions in the Panda diamonds. Phlogopite precipitated as an intermediate mineral and then disappeared. The aqueous Ca, Mg, Fe, Si and Al concentrations all increased, while Na, K, and Cl concentrations decreased during the reaction, consistent with trends in the fluid inclusion compositions. Our study demonstrates that fluids coming from subducting slabs could trigger mantle metasomatism, influence the compositions of sub-lithospherc cratonic mantle, precipitate diamonds, and change the oxygen fugacity and pH of the upper mantle fluids. [1] Tomlinson et al. EPSL (2006); [2] Sverjensky, DA et al., GCA (2014

  10. Coating of diamond-like carbon nanofilm on alumina by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasatien, Chotiwan; Tonanon, Nattaporn; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanofilms with thickness varied from under one hundred to a few hundred nanometers have been successfully deposited on alumina substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. To obtain dense continuous DLC nanofilm coating over the entire sample surface, alumina substrates were pre-treated to enhance the nucleation density. Raman spectra of DLC films on samples showed distinct diamond peak at around 1332 cm(-1), and the broad band of amorphous carbon phase at around 1550 cm(-1). Full width at half maximum height (FWHM) values indicated good formation of diamond phase in all films. The result of nano-indentation test show that the hardness of alumina samples increase from 7.3 +/- 2.0 GPa in uncoated samples to 15.8 +/- 4.5-52.2 +/- 2.1 GPa in samples coated with DLC depending on the process conditions. It is observed that the hardness values are still in good range although the thickness of the films is less than a hundred nanometer.

  11. Direct conversion of h-BN into c-BN and formation of epitaxial c-BN/diamond heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Jagdish; Bhaumik, Anagh; Xu, Weizong

    2016-01-01

    We have created a new state of BN (named Q-BN) through rapid melting and super undercooling and quenching by using nanosecond laser pulses. Phase pure c-BN is formed either by direct quenching of super undercooled liquid or by nucleation and growth from Q-BN. Thus, a direct conversion of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into phase-pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is achieved by nanosecond pulsed laser melting at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressure in air. According to the P-T phase diagram, the transformation from h-BN into c-BN under equilibrium processing can occur only at high temperatures and pressures, as the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is at 3500 K/9.5 GPa or 3700 K/7.0 GPa with a recent theoretical refinement. Using nonequilibrium nanosecond laser melting, we have created super undercooled state and shifted this triple point to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. The rapid quenching from super undercooled state leads to the formation of a new phase, named as Q-BN. We present detailed characterization of Q-BN and c-BN layers by using Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, electron-back-scatter diffraction, high-resolution TEM, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and discuss the mechanism of formation of nanodots, nanoneedles, microneedles, and single-crystal c-BN on sapphire substrate. We have also deposited diamond by pulsed laser deposition of carbon on c-BN and created c-BN/diamond heterostructures, where c-BN acts as a template for epitaxial diamond growth. We discuss the mechanism of epitaxial c-BN and diamond growth on lattice matching c-BN template under pulsed laser evaporation of amorphous carbon, and the impact of this discovery on a variety of applications.

  12. The optimization of the cutting process of diamonds with a YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Lubbe

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available A laser cannot, as generally assumed by the layman, cut right through a diamond with a single cut. A couple of hundred cuts may be necessary to "chip carve" through a diamond. There are several parameters, for example cutting speed, focus point, overlapping of cuts, etc., that influence the cutting process. With a view to optimizing the cutting process, laser cuts in diamonds were studied in a systematic way with the aid of an electron microscope. The method, technique and the results of the research are discussed in this article.

  13. Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...

  14. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  15. Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.

  16. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films

  17. Regeneration of FBGs during the HFCVD diamond-fiber coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Nélia J.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.; Neto, Victor F.; Nogueira, Rogério N.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the regeneration of saturated fiber Bragg gratings during the diamond coating of the fiber is presented. Due to the high temperatures characteristic of the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process (around 800 ºC), uniform fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are not appropriate to be coated. Nevertheless, regenerated Bragg gratings are a suitable solution for this drawback. Its production process involves the inscription of a saturated FBG followed by a time consuming heat treatment. Here it is proposed to take advantage of the high temperatures characteristic of the HFCVD process to simultaneous regenerate the grating and coat the fiber with diamond.

  18. Production of diamond wire by Cu15 v-% Nb 'in situ' process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueira, M.; Pinatti, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond wires are cutting tools used in the slabbing of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, as well as in cutting of concrete structures. This tool consists of a steel cable on which diamond annular segments (pearls) are mounted with spacing between them. This work has developed a new technological route to obtain the diamond wires, whose fabrication involves metal forming processes such as rotary forging and wire drawing, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments of sintering and recrystallization. It was idealized the use of Cu 15v% Nb composite wires as the high tensile strength cable, covered with an external cutting rope made of bronze 4wt% diamond composite, along the overall wire surface. Investigations were carried out on the mechanical behavior and on the microstructural evolution of the Cu 15 vol % Nb wires, which showed ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 960 MPa and deformation of approximately 3,0 %. The cutting external rope of 1.84 mm in diameter showed UTS = 230 MPa. On the microstructural side aspect it was observed that the diamond crystals were uniformly distributed throughout the tool bulk in the several processing steps. Cutting tests were carried out starting with an external diamond rope of 1.93 mm in diameter, which cut a marble sectional area of 1188 cm 2 , and the tool degraded to a final diameter of 1.23 mm. For marble the 'in situ' wire showed a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond saws, however their probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix and the low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond. (author)

  19. Planarization of the diamond film surface by using the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Planarization of the free-standing diamond film surface as smooth as possible could be obtained by using the hydrogen plasma etching with the diffusion of the carbon species into the metal alloy (Fe, Cr, Ni). For this process, we placed the free-standing diamond film between the metal alloy and the Mo substrate like a metal-diamond-molybdenum (MDM) sandwich. We set the sandwich-type MDM in a microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. The sandwich-type MDM was heated over ca. 1000 .deg. C by using the hydrogen plasma. We call this process as the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process. After etching the free-standing diamond film surface, we investigated surface roughness, morphologies, and the incorporated impurities on the etched diamond film surface. Finally, we suggest that the hydrogen plasma etching with carbon diffusion process is an adequate etching technique for the fabrication of the diamond film surface applicable to electronic devices

  20. Hot Deformation Behavior and Processing Maps of Diamond/Cu Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongdi; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Di; Zhu, Hanxing; Fan, Tongxiang

    2018-06-01

    The hot deformation behaviors of 50 vol pct uncoated and Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites were investigated using hot isothermal compression tests under the temperature and strain rate ranging from 1073 K to 1273 K (800 °C to 1000 °C) and from 0.001 to 5 s-1, respectively. Dynamic recrystallization was determined to be the primary restoration mechanism during deformation. The Cr3C2 coating enhanced the interfacial bonding and resulted in a larger flow stress for the Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites. Moreover, the enhanced interfacial affinity led to a higher activation energy for the Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites (238 kJ/mol) than for their uncoated counterparts (205 kJ/mol). The strain-rate-dependent constitutive equations of the diamond/Cu composites were derived based on the Arrhenius model, and a high correlation ( R = 0.99) was observed between the calculated flow stresses and experimental data. With the help of processing maps, hot extrusions were realized at 1123 K/0.01 s-1 and 1153 K/0.01 s-1 (850 °C/0.01 s-1 and 880 °C/0.01 s-1) for the uncoated and coated diamond/Cu composites, respectively. The combination of interface optimization and hot extrusion led to increases of the density and thermal conductivity, thereby providing a promising route for the fabrication of diamond/Cu composites.

  1. Beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the deposition process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating with cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jianhua, E-mail: laser@zjut.edu.cn; Yang, Lijing; Li, Bo; Li, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hard Ni-based alloy powder as matrix in diamond composite coating was studied. • The influence of laser on diamond distribution of composite coating was analyzed. • The graphitization of diamond was prohibited in supersonic laser deposition process. • The abrasion mechanisms of diamond/Ni60 composite coating were discussed. - Abstract: Although cold spray process has many unique advantages over other coating techniques, it has difficulties in depositing hard materials. This article presents a study in the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the fabrication process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating using cold spray. The focus of this research is on the comparison between the composite coatings produced with laser cladding (LC) and with supersonic laser deposition (SLD), with respect to diamond graphitization and tribological properties, thus to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the cold spray process. The influence of deposition temperature on the coating characteristics, such as deposition efficiency, diamond volume fraction, microstructure and phase is also investigated. The tribological properties of the diamond/Ni60 composite coating produced with SLD are determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer, along with the diamond/Ni60 coating produced using LC with the optimal process parameters for comparison. The experimental results show that with the assistance of laser irradiation, diamond/Ni60 composite coating can be successfully deposited using cold spray; the obtained coating is superior to that processed with LC, because SLD can suppress the graphitization of the diamond particles. The diamond/Ni60 composite coating fabricated with SLD has much better tribological properties than the LC coating.

  2. Investigations on diamond nanostructuring of different morphologies by the reactive-ion etching process and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunuku, Srinivasu; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Chang, Wen-Hao; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan

    2013-08-14

    We report the systematic studies on the fabrication of aligned, uniform, and highly dense diamond nanostructures from diamond films of various granular structures. Self-assembled Au nanodots are used as a mask in the self-biased reactive-ion etching (RIE) process, using an O2/CF4 process plasma. The morphology of diamond nanostructures is a close function of the initial phase composition of diamond. Cone-shaped and tip-shaped diamond nanostructures result for microcrystalline diamond (MCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films, whereas pillarlike and grasslike diamond nanostructures are obtained for Ar-plasma-based and N2-plasma-based ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films, respectively. While the nitrogen-incorporated UNCD (N-UNCD) nanograss shows the most-superior electron-field-emission properties, the NCD nanotips exhibit the best photoluminescence properties, viz, different applications need different morphology of diamond nanostructures to optimize the respective characteristics. The optimum diamond nanostructure can be achieved by proper choice of granular structure of the initial diamond film. The etching mechanism is explained by in situ observation of optical emission spectrum of RIE plasma. The preferential etching of sp(2)-bonded carbon contained in the diamond films is the prime factor, which forms the unique diamond nanostructures from each type of diamond films. However, the excited oxygen atoms (O*) are the main etching species of diamond film.

  3. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  4. Surface analytical investigation of diamond coatings and nucleation processes by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1993-10-01

    Imaging SIMS for the investigation of substrate surfaces: the influence of the substrate surface on diamond nucleation is a major topic in the investigation of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond. It is well known that the nucleation density can be enhanced by scratching the substrate surface with abrasive powders. Diamond can nucleate at scratches or at residues of the polishing material. In the present work the surface of refractory metals (Mo, Nb, Ta, W) polished with silicon carbide and diamond powder is studied by imaging (2- or 3-D) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). In first experiments the distribution of SiC and/or diamond residues after polishing was determined. The reaction of diamond with the substrate during heating to deposition temperatures was investigated. Investigation of WC/Co hardmetal substrates: it is well known that Co contained in the binder phase of the hard metal inhibits a strong adhesion between the diamond film and the substrate, which is need for an application as cutting tool. Several attempts to improve the adhesion have been reported up to now. In this work a pre-treatment procedure leading to the formation of Co compounds (borides and silicides) which are stable under diamond deposition conditions were investigated. Furthermore, the application of intermediate sputter layers consisting of chromium and titanium were studied. Investigation of P-doped diamond coatings: in the quaternary phase diagram C-P-B-N exist some phases with diamond structure and superhard phases (e.g BP, c-BN). Also a hypothetical superhard phase of the composition C 3 N 4 is predicted. A scientific objective is the synthesis of such phases by chemical vapour deposition. An increase of the phosphorus concentration effects a distinct change in the morphology of the deposited coatings. A major advantage of SIMS is that the concentration profiles can be measured through the whole film, due to the sputter removal of the sample, and the interface

  5. Effect of graphite particle size and content on the formation mechanism of detonation polycrystalline diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Y.; Cao, Y.; Liu, R.; Shang, S. Y.; Huang, F. L.

    2018-03-01

    The formation mechanism of detonation polycrystalline diamond (DPD) generated from the detonation of a mixed RDX/graphite explosive is investigated. It is found experimentally that the DPD conversion rate decreases with both the content and the particle size of the graphite. Moreover, the particle sizes of the generated DPD powder are analyzed, which shows that, with the decrease in the graphite particle size, the mean number diameter of DPD decreases, but the mean volume diameter increases. In addition, with the help of scanning electron microscopy, it is observed that the in situ phase change occurs in the graphite particles, by which the small particles combine to form numerous large DPD particles. Based on both the experimental data and the classical ZND detonation model, we divide such a DPD synthesis process into two stages: In the first stage, the in situ phase change from graphite to diamond is dominant, supplemented by some coalescence growth at high pressure and temperature, which is affected mainly by the detonation performance of the mixed explosive under consideration. In the second stage, the graphitization of DPD caused by the residual heat is dominant, which is affected mainly by the unloading rate of the particle temperature.

  6. Finite element design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ding, Mingming; Shi, Tongfei

    2018-06-01

    The finite element method is used to simulate the steady-state temperature field in diamond synthesis cell. The 2D and 3D models of the China-type cubic press with large deformation of the synthesis cell was established successfully, which has been verified by situ measurements of synthesis cell. The assembly design, component design and process design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond based on the finite element simulation were presented one by one. The temperature field in a high-pressure synthetic cavity for diamond production is optimized by adjusting the cavity assembly. A series of analysis about the influence of the pressure media parameters on the temperature field are examined through adjusting the model parameters. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of wasteland was studied in detail. It indicates that the wasteland is inevitably exists in the synthesis sample, the distribution of growth region of the diamond with hex-octahedral is move to the center of the synthesis sample from near the heater as the power increasing, and the growth conditions of high quality diamond is locating at the center of the synthesis sample. These works can offer suggestion and advice to the development and optimization of a diamond production process.

  7. Detecting of the processes of the diamond formation using the monomineral thermobarometry .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Afanasiev, Valentin; Pokhilenko, Lyudmila; Logvinova, Alla; Vladykin, Nikolai

    2010-05-01

    The methods of the monomineral thermobarometry used for the reconstruction of the mantle sections beneath the kimberlite pipes (Ashchepkov et al., 2009) allow to determined PT range for the diamond inclusions (DI) and diamond bearing associations. They show various conditions for the crystallization of diamond for in mantle lithosphere beneath the Yakutia, Africa, and North America. In Yakutia most DI (Sobolev ea 1997, 2004; Logvinova ea., 2005 and ref their in) (Cr-pyropes, Mg -opx) form Mir and Udachnaya pipes are referred to the cold geotherms 35 (partly 33 mvm-2) at the pressure range from 35 to 80 kbar. Cr- pyropes (Ti-bearing) partly drops the on the heated area near convective branches 40-45 mvm-2 convective geotherms. Most Cr- rich pyroxenes refer to the coldest or heated (metasomatic type) at the deeper parts of the mantle columns while mildly Cr-rich varieties refer to the conditions of the crystallization from the melts related to the protokimberlites and associated carbonatites near the Graphite-Diamond boundary (G-D). They are more widely distributed in mantle beneath the Mir pipe where the essential part of mantle column from 50 to 35kbar was subjected to the refertilization. But chromite PT estimates mostly refer the heated conditions of the convective branch at the lithosphere base (~70-60kbar). They are most typical for the Alakite pipes. Diamond bearing eclogites show the some separate levels of crystallization with the high T-range reflecting conditions 35 to 45 mvm-2 mostly in the 60-50 kbar interval. They coincide with the levels of the intensive heating in the mantle columns. For the South Africa in the Mesozoic pipes beneath Lesotho - Jagersfontein (Viljoen ea. 2005), Finsch (Appleyard ea., 2004; Gurney, Switzer, 1973; She ea., 1983), Koffiefontein (Rickard ea., 1986), diamond bearing associations refer to three geotherm branches. The coldest (Cr-pyropes and Mg-Opx) is related to ancient subduction with the heating at 60 and 75 kbars. The 40

  8. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond nanowires with enhanced electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalini, Jayakumar; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Ting-Hsun; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I.-Nan; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    The effects of N 2 incorporation in Ar/CH 4 plasma on the electrochemical properties and microstructure of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are reported. While the electrical conductivity of the films increased monotonously with increasing N 2 content (up to 25%) in the plasma, the electrochemical behavior was optimized for UNCD films grown in (Ar–10% N 2 )/CH 4 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the main factor resulting in high conductivity in the films was the formation of needle-like nanodiamond grains and the induction graphite layer encapsulating these grains. The electrochemical process for N 2 -incorporated UNCD films can readily be activated due to the presence of nanographite along the grain boundaries of the films. The formation of needle-like diamond grains was presumably due to the presence of CN species that adhered to the existing nanodiamond clusters, which suppressed radial growth of the nanodiamond crystals, promoting anisotropic growth and the formation of needle-like nanodiamond. The N 2 -incorporated UNCD films outperformed other electrochemical electrode materials, such as boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon, in that the UNCD electrodes could sense dopamine, urea, and ascorbic acid simultaneously in the same mixture with clear resolution

  9. Lithospheric diamond formation as a consequence of methane-rich volatile flooding: An example from diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths of the Karelian craton (Finland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, K. A.; Cartigny, P.; Tappe, S.; O'Brien, H.; Klemme, S.

    2017-06-01

    A collection of 61 xenocrystic and 12 eclogite xenolith-derived diamonds from the 600 Ma Lahtojoki kimberlite in central Finland has been investigated. Calculated pressure and temperature conditions for the diamondiferous eclogites are in excess of 5.5 GPa and 1300 °C, suggesting residence depths greater than 180 km, near the base of the Karelian cratonic mantle lithosphere. Geochemically, the eclogite xenoliths have gabbroic compositions showing positive Eu and Sr anomalies, relatively low ΣREE and elevated Al2O3 contents, yet garnets have ambiguous δ18O values of 5.7‰ and 5.9‰. Gabbroic eclogite formation could therefore be linked to either subduction processes during the 1.9 Ga Svecofennian orogeny or to cumulate processes during 2.1 Ga rift-induced magmatism. Determination of the oxygen fugacity of Lahtojoki eclogite xenoliths from both this work and previous studies suggests that diamond-bearing eclogites may be more reduced (ΔFMQ-3.5) compared to barren eclogites (ΔFMQ-1.7). While recycled oceanic crust protoliths for the eclogites remain a possibility, the carbon isotopic compositions and nitrogen abundances of the Lahtojoki diamonds indicate mantle-derived volatile sources. All diamonds (i.e., loose and eclogite xenolith-derived) display a restricted range of δ13C values from -7.8‰ to -3.7‰ that overlaps with the carbon isotopic composition of Earth's mantle. The Lahtojoki diamond δ13C values form a negatively skewed distribution, indicating diamond growth from reduced mantle-derived carbon sources such as methane- (CH4) bearing fluids. Nitrogen contents of the Lahtojoki diamonds range from 40 to 1830 atomic ppm with a mean of ∼670 atomic ppm; these elevated nitrogen contents combined with the close association to eclogites suggest an eclogitic or crustal volatile source. However, the Karelian craton was periodically intruded by ultramafic alkaline magmas since at least 1.8 Ga, noting in particular the occurrence of phlogopite

  10. Formation of a silicon terminated (100) diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Alex; Sear, Michael; Pakes, Chris; Tadich, Anton; O'Donnell, Kane M.; Ley, Lothar; Stacey, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    We report the preparation of an ordered silicon terminated diamond (100) surface with a two domain 3 × 1 reconstruction as determined by low energy electron diffraction. Based on the dimensions of the surface unit cell and on chemical information provided by core level photoemission spectra, a model for the structure is proposed. The termination should provide a homogeneous, nuclear, and electron spin-free surface for the development of future near-surface diamond quantum device architectures

  11. Mechanism behind the formation of self-assembled nano-sized clusters in diamond-like carbon nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Yuan Mei; Koh, Angel Ting Ting; Niu, Lifang; Chua, Daniel Hock Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have shown that Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with diversified material properties are obtainable through doping process but the presence of the dopants were reported to form independent nanoclusters within the carbon matrix. Using combined analysis from theoretical estimations (Saha's equation and coefficient of absorption, alpha(p)), Transport of Ions In Matter (TRIM) simulation and experimental results, this work examined the mechanism behind the formation of self-assembled nanoclusters in DLC nanocomposite. We showed that the presence of metal dopants increased the heat dissipation on DLC, which allowed the energetic metal species to diffuse and enhance the formation of nanoclusters that increased the surface roughness of the films. In addition, TRIM and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) hinted the presence of energetic species may force the carbon ions to react with the interface to form silicon carbide bonds, which may be a more dominant factor compared to internal stress reduction in improving the adhesion strength of DLC.

  12. Novel phase of carbon, ferromagnetism, and conversion into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Jagdish; Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-01-01

    as needed. Subsequent laser pulses can be used to grow nanodiamond into microdiamond and nucleate other nanostructures of diamond on the top of existing microdiamond and create novel nanostructured materials. The microstructural details provide insights into the mechanism of formation of nanodiamond, microdiamond, nanoneedles, microneedles, and single-crystal thin films. This process allows carbon-to-diamond conversion and formation of useful nanostructures and microstructures at ambient temperatures in air at atmospheric pressure on practical and heat-sensitive substrates in a controlled way without need for any catalysts and hydrogen to stabilize sp 3 bonding for diamond formation

  13. Anatomy of a pressure-induced, ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic transition in pyrrhotite: Implications for the formation pressure of diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, Stuart A.; Egli, Ramon; Hochleitner, Rupert; Roud, Sophie C.; Volk, Michael W. R.; Le Goff, Maxime; de Wit, Maarten

    2011-10-01

    Meteorites and diamonds encounter high pressures during their formation or subsequent evolution. These materials commonly contain magnetic inclusions of pyrrhotite. Because magnetic properties are sensitive to strain, pyrrhotite can potentially record the shock or formation pressures of its host. Moreover, pyrrhotite undergoes a pressure-induced phase transition between 1.6 and 6.2 GPa, but the magnetic signature of this transition is poorly known. Here we report room temperature magnetic measurements on multidomain and single-domain pyrrhotite under nonhydrostatic pressure. Magnetic remanence in single-domain pyrrhotite is largely insensitive to pressure until 2 GPa, whereas the remanence of multidomain pyrrhotite increases 50% over that of initial conditions by 2 GPa, and then decreases until only 33% of the original remanence remains by 4.5 GPa. In contrast, magnetic coercivity increases with increasing pressure to 4.5 GPa. Below ˜1.5 GPa, multidomain pyrrhotite obeys Néel theory with a positive correlation between coercivity and remanence; above ˜1.5 GPa, it behaves single domain-like yet distinctly different from uncompressed single-domain pyrrhotite. The ratio of magnetic coercivity and remanence follows a logarithmic law with respect to pressure, which can potentially be used as a geobarometer. Owing to the greater thermal expansion of pyrrhotite with respect to diamond, pyrrhotite inclusions in diamonds experience a confining pressure at Earth's surface. Applying our experimentally derived magnetic geobarometer to pyrrhotite-bearing diamonds from Botswana and the Central African Republic suggests the pressures of the pyrrhotite inclusions in the diamonds range from 1.3 to 2.1 GPa. These overpressures constrain the mantle source pressures from 5.4 to 9.5 GPa, depending on which bulk modulus and thermal expansion coefficients of the two phases are used.

  14. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.

  15. Micron-scale variations in coupled δ13C-N abundance core-rim traverses in octahedral diamonds: insights into the processes and sources of episodic diamond formation beneath the Siberian craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers de Vries, D.F.; Bulanova, G.; de Corte, K.; Pearson, D.G.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    The internal structure and growth history of six macro-diamonds from kimberlite pipes in Yakutia (Russia) were investigated with cathodoluminescence imaging and coupled carbon isotope and nitrogen abundance analyses along detailed core to rim traverses. The diamonds are characterised by octahedral

  16. Adherence of diamond films on refractory metal substrates for thermionic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, B.H.; Ramalingam, M.L.; Adams, S.F.; Cloyd, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond films are currently being considered as electrical insulation material for application in the thermionic fuel element of a power producing nuclear reactor system. The function of the diamond insulator in this application is to electrically isolate the collector of each cell in the TFE from the coolant and outer sheath. Deposition of diamond films on plane surfaces of Si/SiO 2 have already been demonstrated to be quite effective. However, the diamond films on refractory metal surfaces tend to spall off in the process of deposition revealing an inefficient adherence characteristic between the film and the substrate. This paper is geared towards explaining this deficiency by way of selected experimentation and the use of analytical tools to predict uncertainties such as the mismatch in coefficient of expansion, micrographic study of the interface between the film and the substrate and X-ray diffraction spectra. The investigation of the adherence characteristics of several diamond films on Mo and Nb substrates revealed that there was an allowable stress that resulted in the formation of the critical thickness for the diamond film

  17. Nucleation mechanism for the direct graphite-to-diamond phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Eshet, Hagai; Kühne, Thomas D.; Behler, Jörg; Parrinello, Michele

    2011-09-01

    Graphite and diamond have comparable free energies, yet forming diamond from graphite in the absence of a catalyst requires pressures that are significantly higher than those at equilibrium coexistence. At lower temperatures, the formation of the metastable hexagonal polymorph of diamond is favoured instead of the more stable cubic diamond. These phenomena cannot be explained by the concerted mechanism suggested in previous theoretical studies. Using an ab initio quality neural-network potential, we carried out a large-scale study of the graphite-to-diamond transition assuming that it occurs through nucleation. The nucleation mechanism accounts for the observed phenomenology and reveals its microscopic origins. We demonstrate that the large lattice distortions that accompany the formation of diamond nuclei inhibit the phase transition at low pressure, and direct it towards the hexagonal diamond phase at higher pressure. The proposed nucleation mechanism should improve our understanding of structural transformations in a wide range of carbon-based materials.

  18. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  19. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  20. Influence of brazing parameters and alloy composition on interface morphology of brazed diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, Ulrich E. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: klotz@fem-online.de; Liu Chunlei [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Khalid, Fazal A. [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, GIK Institute, Topi, NWFP (Pakistan); Elsener, Hans-Rudolf [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Active brazing is an effective technique for joining diamond or cBN grit to metallic substrates. This technique is currently used to manufacture superabrasive, high-performance tools. The investigation of interface reactions between diamond and active brazing alloys plays an important role in understanding and improving the brazing process and the resultant tool performance. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling enabled the high resolution investigation of these extremely difficult to prepare metal-diamond joints. The interfacial nanostructure is characterized by the formation of two layers of TiC with different morphologies. First a cuboidal layer forms directly on the diamond and reaches a thickness of approximately 70 nm. Then a second layer with columnar TiC crystals grows on the first layer into the brazing filler metal by a diffusion-controlled process. The combined thickness of both TiC layers varies between 50 nm and 600 nm depending on the brazing temperature and holding time.

  1. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    diamond's exceptional properties for quantum information processing [2], a topic on which there have been many recent papers, and where a diamond colour centre single photon source is already commercially available. Biomedical applications of diamond are recognised, partly tribological and partly electrochemical, but lie outside the present group of papers. Processing and controlling diamond surfaces and interfaces with other materials in their environment are critical steps en route to exploitation. Boron-doped diamond has already found application in electro-analysis and in the bulk oxidation of dissolved species in solution [3]. Energy-related applications—ranging from high-power electronics [3] to a potential first wall of fusion reactors [4]—are further exciting potential applications. Even small and ugly diamonds have value. Their mechanical properties [5] dominate, with significant niche applications such as thermal sinks. The major applications for diamond to date exploit only a fraction of diamond's special properties: visual for status diamonds, and mechanical for working diamonds. Diamond physics reaches well beyond the usual laboratory, to the geological diamond formation processes in the Earth's mantle. Characterization of natural gem diamonds [6, 7] is one part of the detective story that allows us to understand the conditions under which they formed. It was only half a century ago that the scientific and technological challenges of diamond synthesis were met systematically. Today, most of the recent research on diamond has concentrated on synthetics, whether created using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) techniques or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The HPHT synthesis of diamond has advanced dramatically [8, 9] to the extent that dislocation birefringence [10] can be largely eliminated. In silicon technology, the elimination of dislocations was a major step in microelectronics. Now, even diamond can be synthesised containing virtually no

  2. Redox Equilibria Involving Chromium Minerals in Aqueous Fluids in the Deep Earth - Implications for Diamond Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Huang, F.; Hao, J.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Diamonds are often associated with inclusions of garnet that are characteristically Cr-rich and Ca-poor, suggesting metasomatic reactions involving fluids [1]. To investigate these reactions, we developed a thermodynamic characterization of Cr-bearing minerals and integrated it with our database for the thermodynamic properties of aqueous Cr-species [2]. We retrieved thermodynamic properties of picrochromite (MgCr2O4), and knorringite (Mg3Cr2Si3O12) consistent with minerals in the Berman (1988) using calorimetric data and experimental phase equilibria involving the reactions: MgCr2O4 + SiO2 = Cr2O3 + MgSiO3 [2] and MgCr2O4 + 4MgSiO3 = Mg3Cr2Si3O12 + Mg2SiO4 [3], respectively.At high temperatures and pressures, neutral pH and FMQ, the predicted solubilities of eskolaite and knorringite equilibrium with Cr2+ in a pure water system are very low. However, we found that complexes of Cr2+ and Cl- could increase the solubilities of chromium minerals significantly. At 500°C and 0.2 - 1.0 GPa, we retrieved the CrCl(OH)0 neutral complex from experiments on the solubility of Cr2O3 in HCl solutions [4]. At 1,000°C and 4.0 GPa, we retrieved the properties of a CrCl3- complex from experiments on the solubility of Cr2O3 in KCl solutions [5]. The predicted solubility of a garnet containing 23 mole% of knorringite in equilibrium with CrCl3- in a peridotitic diamond-forming fluid is 22 millimolal (1,144 ppm). This result suggests that a redox reaction relating to diamond formation might involveMg3Al2Si3O12 + 0.5CO2(aq) + 2 CrCl3- + 2H+ = Mg3Cr2Si3O12 + 0.5C-Diamond + 2Al3+ + 6Cl-. In this way, high temperature and pressure fluids containing Cr(II)-complexes might promote the mobility of chromium and be involved in metasomatic reactions and diamond formation.[1]Boyd et al. (1993)[2] Hao et al. (submitted to Geochem. Persp. Letters)[3] Berman (1988)[4] Klemme et al. (2000)[5] Klemme et al. (2004)[6] Watenphul et al. (2014)[7] Klein-BenDavid et al. (2011)

  3. Fabrication of a miniature diamond grinding tool using a hybrid process of micro-EDM and co-deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Lai, Yun-Cheng; Liu, Ching-Chang

    2008-01-01

    A novel miniature diamond grinding tool usable for the precise micro-grinding of miniature parts is presented. A hybrid process that combines 'micro-EDM' with 'precision co-deposition' is proposed. The metal substrate is micro-EDMed to a 50 µm diameter and micro diamonds with 0–2 µm grains are 'electroformed' on the substrate surface, producing a miniature multilayered grinding tool. Nickel and diamond act as binders and cutters, respectively. A partition plate with an array of drilled holes is designed to ensure good convection in the electroforming solution. The dispersion of diamond grains and displacement of nickel ions are noticeably improved. A miniature funnel mould enables the diamond grains to converge towards the cathode to increase their deposition probability on the substrate, thereby improving their distribution on the substrate surface. A micro ZrO 2 ceramic ferrule is finely ground by the developed grinding tool and then yields a surface roughness of R a = 0.085 µm. The proposed approach is applied during the final machining process

  4. Study of the triton-burnup process in different JET scenarios using neutron monitor based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtsev, G., E-mail: g.nemtsev@iterrf.ru; Amosov, V.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R. [Institution “Project center ITER,” Moscow (Russian Federation); Popovichev, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    We present the results of analysis of triton burn-up process using the data from diamond detector. Neutron monitor based on CVD diamond was installed in JET torus hall close to the plasma center. We measure the part of 14 MeV neutrons in scenarios where plasma current varies in a range of 1-3 MA. In this experiment diamond neutron monitor was also able to detect strong gamma bursts produced by runaway electrons arising during the disruptions. We can conclude that CVD diamond detector will contribute to the study of fast particles confinement and help predict the disruption events in future tokamaks.

  5. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  6. Effect of processing parameters on Cu-Co-Fe-based diamond impregnated metal matrix composite for stone cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawani, K.; Shahid, M.; Arshad, S.N.; Hasaini, M.H.; Khan, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    Diamond Impregnated Metal Matrix Composites (DIMMC), manufactured by powder metallurgy route, playa major role in stone cutting tool industry. Unfortunately, these diamond tools are not manufactured locally. Our industry relies heavily on the import of these diamond tools to meet the local demand. This study was undertaken as a first step towards indigenous development of these diamond tools. Most of the diamond tools exist in the form of a composite structure with diamond grits embedded in a metallic matrix. This paper investigates the effect of various processing variables on the properties of DIMMC. Effect of pressure on the compaction behavior, sintering time and temperature has been investigated. Relatively better homogeneity has been observed with dry mixing of individual powders using zinc stearate as lubricant compared to wet mixing. A linear increase in green density has been found by increasing compaction pressure up to 400 MPa. (author)

  7. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  8. STRUCTURING OF DIAMOND FILMS USING MICROSPHERE LITHOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Domonkos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  9. X-ray topographic study of diamonds: implications for the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrosì, Giovanna; Nestola, Fabrizio; Tempesta, Gioacchino; Bruno, Marco; Scandale, Eugenio; Harris, Jeff W.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on the growth conditions of the diamonds through the analysis of the mineral inclusions trapped in them (Howell, 2012 and references therein). Nevertheless, to obtain rigorous information about chemical and physical conditions of diamond formation, it is crucial to determine if the crystallization of the inclusions occurred before (protogenetic nature), during (syngenetic nature) or after (epigenetic nature) the growth of diamond (Wiggers de Vries et al., 2011). X-ray topography (XRDT) can be a helpful tool to verify the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond. This technique characterizes the extended defects and reconstructs the growth history of the samples (Agrosì et al., 2013 and references therein) and, consequently contributes to elucidation of the relationship between the inclusions and the host-diamond. With this aim a diamond from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia, was investigated. The diamond crystal was the one previously studied by Nestola et al. (2011) who performed in-situ crystal structure refinement of the inclusions to obtain data about the formation pressure. The inclusions were iso-oriented olivines that did not show evident cracks and subsequently could not be considered epigenetic. Optical observations revealed an anomalous birefringence in the adjacent diamond and the inclusions had typical "diamond-imposed cubo-octahedral" shape for the largest olivine. The diffraction contrast study shows that the diamond exhibits significant deformation fields related to plastic post growth deformation. The crystallographic direction of strains was established applying the extinction criterion. Section topographs were taken to minimize the overlapping of the strain field associate with the different defects and revealed that no dislocations nucleated from the olivine inclusions. Generally, when a solid inclusion has been incorporated in the growing crystal, the associated volume distortion can be minimized by

  10. Experimental Setup for Diamond Grinding Using Electrochemical InProcess Controlled Dressing (ECD of Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective method for finish machining of hard-metals and alloys is to use the diamond grinding wheels for grinding. An application of diamond wheels significantly increases the employee output, reduces costs, and raises manufacturing efficiency with achieving the high performance properties of treated surfaces.During grinding a working surface of diamond wheel wears out. It adversely affects the cutting capability of the diamond grains, and depending on the grinding conditions can occur through different mechanisms. Wear of diamond wheel causes distortion of its shape and reduces cutting properties. However, dressing of diamond wheels is a complicated and time-consuming operation in terms of manufacturing technique.Methods to make dressing of diamond grinding wheel have different types of classification. Classification of dressing methods by the type of energy used is as follows: mechanical, chemical, electrophysical, electromechanical, and electrochemical. All these methods have their advantages and disadvantages.Electrochemical method of dressing is the most productive and efficient. Electrochemical method comprises anode-mechanical dressing and electrochemical (electrolytic one. The paper presents the electrochemical in-process dressing (ECD and the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID.The source of energy, grinding a wheel with metal bond, and an electrode are necessary for providing ELID. The ELID consists of several stages. The first stage is preliminary electrolytic dressing of diamond wheel. The electrolyte is placed into the gap between the wheel and electrode. The bond of the wheel is oxidized. An insulating layer is formed. It reduces an electrical conductivity of the wheel and controls consumption of diamond grains, as well as polishes the surface of the work piece. Further, the insulating layer is destroyed. The cycle of dressing begins anew.The ECD proceeds in the same way as ELID. However during the ECD-process there

  11. The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho

    OpenAIRE

    Madowe, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling. Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves...

  12. Noble gas studies in vapor-growth diamonds: Comparison with shock-produced diamonds and the origin of diamonds in ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junichi; Fukunaga, Kazuya; Ito, Keisuke (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The authors synthesized vapor-trowth diamonds by two kinds of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using microwave (MWCVD) and hot filament (HFCVD) ionization of gases, and examined elemental abundances and isotopic compositions of the noble gases trapped in the diamonds. It is remarkable that strong differences existed in the noble gas concentrations in the two kinds of CVD diamonds: large amounts of noble gases were trapped in the MWCVD diamonds, but not in the HFCVD diamonds. The heavy noble gases (Ar to Xe) in the MWCVD diamonds were highly fractionated compared with those in the ambient atmosphere, and are in good agreement with the calculated fractionation patterns for plasma at an electron temperature of 7,000-9,000 K. These results strongly suggest that the trapping mechanism of noble gases in CVD diamonds is ion implantation during diamond growth. The degrees of fractionation of heavy noble gases were also in good agreement with those in ureilites. The vapor-growth hypothesis is discussed in comparison with the impact-shock hypothesis as a better model for the origin of diamonds in ureilites. The diamond (and graphite, amorphous carbon, too) may have been deposited on early condensates such as Re, Ir, W, etc. This model explains the chemical features of vein material in ureilites; the refractory siderophile elements are enriched in carbon and noble gases and low in normal siderophiles. The vapor-growth model is also compatible with the oxygen isotopic data of ureilites which suggests that nebular processes are primarily responsible for the composition of ureilites.

  13. A wear simulation study of nanostructured CVD diamond-on-diamond articulation involving concave/convex mating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul A.; Thompson, Raymond G.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    Using microwave-plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), a 3-micron thick nanostructured-diamond (NSD) layer was deposited onto polished, convex and concave components that were machined from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These components had the same radius of curvature, 25.4mm. Wear testing of the surfaces was performed by rotating articulation of the diamond-deposited surfaces (diamond-on-diamond) with a load of 225N for a total of 5 million cycles in bovine serum resulting in polishing of the diamond surface and formation of very shallow, linear wear grooves of less than 50nm depth. The two diamond surfaces remained adhered to the components and polished each other to an average surface roughness that was reduced by as much as a factor of 80 for the most polished region located at the center of the condyle. Imaging of the surfaces showed that the initial wearing-in phase of diamond was only beginning at the end of the 5 million cycles. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and surface profilometry were used to characterize the surfaces and verify that the diamond remained intact and uniform over the surface, thereby protecting the underlying metal. These wear simulation results show that diamond deposition on Ti alloy has potential application for joint replacement devices with improved longevity over existing devices made of cobalt chrome and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). PMID:26989457

  14. Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  15. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite...... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...... implantation. Implantation of cobalt and argon clusters into two different allotropic forms of carbon, namely, graphite and diamond is analysed and compared in order to approach universal theory of cluster stopping in matter....

  16. D.C. Arcjet Diamond Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Derrek Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films synthesized by a D.C. (direct current) arcjet device was reported for the first time in 1988. This device is capable of higher diamond growth rates than any other form of diamond CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process due to its inherent versatility with regard to the enthalpy and fluid properties of the diamond-depositing vapor. Unfortunately, the versatility of this type of device is contrasted by many difficulties such as arc stability and large heat fluxes which make applying it toward diamond deposition a difficult problem. The purpose of this work was to convert the dc arcjet, which is primarily a metallurgical device, into a commercially viable diamond CVD process. The project was divided into two parts: process development and diagnostics. The process development effort concentrated on the certain engineering challenges. Among these was a novel arcjet design that allowed the carbon-source gas to be injected downstream of the tungsten cathode while still facilitating mixture with the main gas feed. Another engineering accomplishment was the incorporation of a water -cooled substrate cooler/spinner that maintained the substrate at the proper temperature, provided the substrate with a large thermal time constant to reduce thermal shock of the diamond film, and enabled the system to achieve a four -inch diameter growth area. The process diagnostics effort concentrated on measurements aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the properties of the plasma jet such as temperature, plasma density, Mach number, pressure at the substrate, etc. The plasma temperature was determined to be 5195 K by measuring the rotational temperature of C _2 via optical emission spectroscopy. The Mach number of the plasma jet was determined to be ~6.0 as determined by the ratio of the stagnation pressures before and after the shock wave in the plasma jet. The C_2 concentration in the plasma jet was determined to be {~10 }^{12} cm^ {-3} by

  17. Structural defects in natural plastically deformed diamonds: Evidence from EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineeva, R. M.; Titkov, S. V.; Speransky, A. V.

    2009-06-01

    Structural defects formed as a result of plastic deformation in natural diamond crystals have been studied by EPR spectroscopy. The spectra of brown, pink-brown, black-brown, pink-purple, and gray plastically deformed diamonds of type Ia from deposits in Yakutia and the Urals were recorded. The results of EPR spectroscopy allowed us to identify various deformation centers in the structure of natural diamonds and to show that nitrogen centers were transformed under epigenetic mechanical loading. Abundant A centers, consisting of two isomorphic nitrogen atoms located in neighboring structural sites, were destroyed as a result of this process to form a series of N1, N4, W7, M2, and M3 nitrogen centers. Such centers are characterized by an anisotropic spatial distribution and a positive charge, related to the mechanism of their formation. In addition, N2 centers (probably, deformation-produced dislocations decorated by nitrogen) were formed in all plastically deformed diamonds and W10 and W35 centers (the models have not been finally ascertained) were formed in some of them. It has been established that diamonds with various types of deformation-induced color contain characteristic associations of these deformation centers. The diversity of associations of deformation centers indicates appreciable variations in conditions of disintegration of deep-seated rocks, transfer of diamonds to the Earth’s surface, and formation of kimberlitic deposits. Depending on the conditions of mechanical loading, the diamond crystals were plastically deformed by either dislocation gliding or mechanical twinning. Characteristic features of plastic deformation by dislocation gliding are the substantial prevalence of the N2 centers over other deformation centers and the occurrence of the high-spin W10 and W35 centers. The attributes of less frequent plastic deformation by mechanical twinning are unusual localization of the M2 centers and, in some cases, the N1 centers in microtwinned

  18. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  19. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report provides information collected for an oceanographic field study that occurred during January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, North Carolina. The objective of this report is to make the data available in digital form and to provide information to facilitate further analysis of the data. The report describes the background, experimental setup, equipment, and locations of the sensor deployments. The edited data are presented in time-series plots for rapid visualization of the data set, and in data files that are in the Network Common Data Format (netcdf). Supporting observational data are also included.

  20. Amino-modified diamond as a durable stationary phase for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gaurav; Yang, Li; Lee, Milton L; Dadson, Andrew; Vail, Michael A; Linford, Matthew R

    2008-08-15

    We report the formation of a highly stable amino stationary phase on diamond and demonstrate its use in solid-phase extraction (SPE). This process consists of spontaneous and self-limiting adsorption of polyallylamine (PAAm) from aqueous solution onto oxidized diamond. Thermal curing under reduced pressure or chemical cross-linking with a diepoxide was shown to fix the polymer to the particles. The resulting adsorbents are stable under even extreme pH conditions (from at least pH 0-14) and significantly more stable than a commercially available amino SPE adsorbent. Coated diamond particles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Model silicon surfaces were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry and wetting. Solid-phase extraction was demonstrated using cholesterol, hexadecanedioic acid, and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine as analytes, and these results were compared to those obtained with commercially available materials. Breakthrough curves indicate that, as expected, porous diamond particles have higher analyte capacity than nonporous solid particles.

  1. A molecular dynamics study of energetic particle bombardment on diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongbin; Dai Yongbing; Hu Xiaojun; Shen Hesheng; He Xianchang

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations, utilizing the Tersoff many-body potential, are used to investigate the microscopic processes of a single boron atom with an energy of 500 eV implanted into the diamond (001) 2 x 1 reconstructed surface. By calculating the variation of the mean coordination number with time, the lifetime of a thermal spike created by B bombardment is about 0.18 ps. Formation of the split-interstitial composed of projectile and lattice atom (B-C) is observed. The total potential energy of the system decreases about 0.56 eV with a stable B split-interstitial existing in diamond. Lattice relaxations in the diamond (001) 2 x 1 reconstructed surface or near surface of the simulated have been discussed, and the results show that the outermost layer atoms tend to move inward and other atoms move outward, while the interplanar distance between the outermost layer and the second layer has been shortened by 15%, compared with its starting interplanar distance. Stress distribution in the calculated diamond configuration is inhomogeneous. After boron implanted into diamond with an energy of 500 eV, there is an excess of compressively stressed atoms in the lattice, which induces the total stress being compressive

  2. Real time monitoring of filament-assisted chemically vapor deposited diamond by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Cong; An, I.; Vedam, K.; Collins, R.W.; Nguyen, H.V.; Messier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry over the range 1.5-4.5 eV was applied as a real time probe of the processes occurring in the initial nucleation of thin film diamond by heated-filament assisted chemical vapor deposition. Using both untreated and diamond-polished c-Si substrates, as well as both carburized and uncarburized tungsten filaments, it was possible to separate and characterize competing phenomena, including the increase in surface temperature induced by filament ignition, the formation of carbide layers, contamination of the substrate by tungsten from the filament, annealing of diamond polishing damage, and, finally, diamond nucleation. An accurate measurement of the true temperature of the substrate surface averaged over the top 500 A can be obtained from the energy position of critical points in the c-Si band structure. For diamond deposition, we operated with an initial excess flow of CH 4 to stimulate nucleation. We applied real time feedback and manual control to reduce the CH 4 flow in the first monolayers of deposition. The thickness of diamond and an estimate of its nucleation density can be obtained from real time spectra, and the latter was in good agreement with that obtained from scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  3. INTRODUCTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANICS OF THE DIAMOND GRINDING PROCESS WITH THE ACCOUNT OF WEAR OF WHEEL GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feodor NOVIKOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the theoretical analysis of the mechanics of the diamond grinding process, taking into account the wear of the wheel grains for scientifically based choice of optimal processing conditions. A multiplicative probabilistic approach to the generalization of the cutting profile of a diamond grinding wheel in its consideration in a state of some steady wear during processing is considered. This is achieved by working the wheel in a mode of properly established self-sharpening or with the use of effective dressing methods. In this case, the linear wear of individual grains of diamond abrasive located on the working surface of the grinding wheel and opened to mechanical contact with the material being processed is assumed to proportionally to the depth of the introduction of grain into it. The analytical dependence of the maximum thickness of the cut is presented, and the relationship between the maximum grain wear and the accepted universal relative characteristic of the steady wear with the operational parameters of the tool and the grinding mode is shown. The obtained results can be used in the development of analytical models of processing productivity and microgeometric engineering of the treated surface, new approaches to increasing the efficiency of diamond grinding. The research is based on modern technical possibilities of controlling the state of the cutting relief of diamond-abrasive tools, especially in electro-physical-mechanical grinding technologies, for example, using the diamond-spark method developed at the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute.

  4. A multilayer innovative solution to improve the adhesion of nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulon-Quintin, A., E-mail: poulon@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Faure, C.; Teulé-Gay, L.; Manaud, J.P. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of the NCD adhesion on WC-12%Co substrates for tooling applications using a multi-interlayer additional system. • Reduction of the graphite layer thickness and continuity at the interface with the diamond. • Transmission electron microscopy study for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films grown under negative biased substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are widely used as surface overlay coating onto cermet WC-Co cutting tools to get better performances. To improve the diamond adhesion to the cermet substrate, suitable multi-layer systems have been added. They are composed of a cobalt diffusion barrier close to the substrate (single and sequenced nitrides layers) coated with a nucleation extra layer to improve the nucleus density of diamond during CVD processing. For all systems, before and after diamond deposition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been performed for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces and to evaluate the presence of graphitic species at the interface with the diamond. Innovative multilayer system dedicated to the regulation of cobalt diffusion coated with a bilayer system optimized for the carbon diffusion control, is shown as an efficient solution to significantly reduce the graphite layer formation at the interface with the diamond down to 10 nm thick and to increase the adhesion of NCD diamond layer as scratch-tests confirm.

  5. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao

    2015-04-01

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) - tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  6. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao, E-mail: h.ye@aston.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin [Miba Coating Group: Teer Coatings Ltd, West-Stone-House, West-Stone, Berry-Hill-Industrial-Estate, WR9 9AS, Droitwich (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) – tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  7. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kundrát

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42 substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo – tungsten (W interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  8. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  9. Physical-chemical model of nanodiamond formation at explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, A.P.; Lukyanchikov, L.A.; Lyakhov, N.Z.; Pruuel, E.R.; Sheromov, M.A.; Ten, K.A.; Titov, V.M.; Tolochko, B.P.; Zhogin, I.L.; Zubkov, P.I.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a principally new physical-chemical model of nanodiamond formation at explosion, which describes adequately all the existing experimental data on detonation synthesis of diamonds. According to this model, the detonation wave (DW) performs activation rapidly; then the reaction mixture composition keeps varying. In the diagram C-H-O, this process results in continual motion of the point imaging the reaction mixture composition. The ratio of the diamond phase amount to the condensed carbon (CC) quantity in the explosion products is defined by the width of the section this point passes over in the diamond formation zone. Motion of the point in the area below the line H-CO results in decrease of the CC amount. Diamonds are formed by the free-radical mechanism in the unloading wave, beyond the Chapman-Jouguet plane, in a media close to a liquid state

  10. Physical-chemical model of nanodiamond formation at explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, A.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation); Lukyanchikov, L.A. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lyakhov, N.Z. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Pruuel, E.R. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Sheromov, M.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Ten, K.A. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Titov, V.M. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Tolochko, B.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: b.p.tolochko@inp.nsk.su; Zhogin, I.L. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Zubkov, P.I. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    This article presents a principally new physical-chemical model of nanodiamond formation at explosion, which describes adequately all the existing experimental data on detonation synthesis of diamonds. According to this model, the detonation wave (DW) performs activation rapidly; then the reaction mixture composition keeps varying. In the diagram C-H-O, this process results in continual motion of the point imaging the reaction mixture composition. The ratio of the diamond phase amount to the condensed carbon (CC) quantity in the explosion products is defined by the width of the section this point passes over in the diamond formation zone. Motion of the point in the area below the line H-CO results in decrease of the CC amount. Diamonds are formed by the free-radical mechanism in the unloading wave, beyond the Chapman-Jouguet plane, in a media close to a liquid state.

  11. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2015-12-01

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  12. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A J; Buseck, Peter R

    2015-12-16

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  13. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S; Nugent, K W; Bettiol, A A; Kostidis, L I; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 μm 2 . After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs

  16. Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    reduction of this redox couple modifying completely the mechanism of its reduction process. Photoelectrochemical studies using 1,4-benzoquinone in aqueous solution suggest that oxygen terminated surface of diamond is under the influence of the boron elemental states originated during the growing process. Diamond used as a heat sink allows developing a couple of new techniques to perform impedance and ac voltammetry measurements. These techniques do not depend on electrical components giving the possibility of high frequency studies without disruption from the instruments. These studies are just a grain in the dessert, further studies will be required to characterise this amazing electrode material. (author)

  17. Indirect Voltammetric Sensing Platforms For Fluoride Detection on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode Mediated via [FeF6]3− and [CeF6]2− Complexes Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culková, Eva; Tomčík, Peter; Švorc, Ľubomír; Cinková, Kristína; Chomisteková, Zuzana; Durdiak, Jaroslav; Rievaj, Miroslav; Bustin, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Very simple and sensitive electroanalytical technique based on synergistic combination of reaction electrochemistry (specificity) and bare boron-doped diamond electrode (sensitivity) for the detection of fluorides in drinking water was developed as variant based on dynamic electrochemistry to ISE analysis. It is based on the formation of electroinactive fluoride complexes with Fe(III) and Ce(IV) ions decreasing such diffusion current of free metal on boron-doped diamond electrode. Due to low background signal of boron-doped diamond electrode reasonably low detection limits of the order of 10 −6 mol L −1 for linear sweep voltammetric method using formation of [FeF 6 ] 3− and 10 −7 mol L −1 in a square-wave variant of this technique have been achieved. This is approximately 1–2 orders lower than in the case of platinum comb-shaped interdigitated microelectrode array. Linear sweep voltammetric method based on [CeF 6 ] 2− complex formation has lower sensitivity and may be suitable for samples with higher content of fluoride and not to analysis of drinking water

  18. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  19. Combination process of diamond machining and roll-to-roll UV-replication for thin film micro- and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väyrynen, J.; Mönkkönen, K.; Siitonen, S.

    2016-09-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) ultraviolet (UV) curable embossing replication process is a highly accurate and cost effective way to replicate large quantities of thin film polymer parts. These structures can be used for microfluidics, LED-optics, light guides, displays, cameras, diffusers, decorative, laser sensing and measuring devices. In the R2R UV-process, plastic thin film coated with UV-curable lacquer, passes through an imprinting embossing drum and is then hardened by an UV-lamp. One key element for mastering this process is the ability to manufacture a rotating drum containing micro- and nanostructures. Depending on the pattern shapes, the drum can be directly machined by diamond machining or it can be done through wafer level lithographical process. Due to the shrinkage of UV-curable lacquer, the R2R drum pattern process needs to be prototyped few times, in order to get the desired performance and shape from the R2R produced part. To speed up the prototyping and overall process we have developed a combination process where planar diamond machining patterns are being turned into a drum roller. Initially diamond machined patterns from a planar surface are replicated on a polymer sheet using UV-replication. Secondly, a nickel stamper shim is grown form the polymer sheet and at the end the stamper is turned into a roller and used in the R2R process. This process allows various micro milled, turned, grooved and ruled structures to be made at thin film products through the R2R process. In this paper, the process flow and examples of fabricating R2R embossed UVcurable thin film micro- and nanostructures from planar diamond machined patterns, is reported.

  20. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Mohlfeld, A.; Gey, C.; Winkler, J.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  1. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin, E-mail: xin.jiang@uni-siegen.de

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite gradient interlayers were synthesized. • The interlayer features a cross-sectional gradient with increasing diamond content. • Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process. • The adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. • The stress was suppressed by manipulating the distribution of diamond and silicon carbide. - Abstract: Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co{sub 2}Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  2. Anomalous Fe and Mn heterogeneity observed in microscopic inclusions in diamond using nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Hart, R.J.; Connell, S.H.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Tredoux, M.

    1999-01-01

    A Fe and Mn heterogeneity effect was observed in microscopic garnet inclusion in diamond using micro-PIXE. Results are presented and the implications of these disequilibrium element distributions during growth of garnets are discussed. The occurrence of zoning or any type of chemical inhomogeneity within inclusions encapsulated within diamond has implications on the age of formation of the inclusion and the diamond. It is believed that the age of the inclusion is that of the diamond formation itself, with subsequent isolation of the inclusion from the mantle by the diamond. The significance of the chemical heterogeneity or zoning is that it should not exist given the high temperature and long time of encapsulation

  3. Drilling of optical glass with electroplated diamond tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A. J.; Luan, C. G.; Yu, A. B.

    2010-10-01

    K9 optical glass drilling experiments were carried out. Bright nickel electroplated diamond tools with small slots and under heat treatment in different temperature were fabricated. Scan electro microscope was applied to analyze the wear of electroplated diamond tool. The material removal rate and grinding ratio were calculated. Machining quality was observed. Bond coating hardness was measured. The experimental results show that coolant is needed for the drilling processes of optical glasses. Heat treatment temperature of diamond tool has influence on wearability of diamond tool and grinding ratio. There were two wear types of electroplated diamond tool, diamond grit wear and bond wear. With the machining processes, wear of diamond grits included fracture, blunt and pull-out, and electroplated bond was gradually worn out. High material removal rates could be obtained by using diamond tool with suitable slot numbers. Bright nickel coating bond presents smallest grains and has better mechanical properties. Bright nickel electroplated diamond tool with slot structure and heat treatment under 200°C was suitable for optical glass drilling.

  4. Engineering NV centres in Synthetic Diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthew Markham

    2014-01-01

    The quantum properties of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond has prompted rapid growth in diamond research. This initial growth was driven by the fact the NV centre provides an 'easy' to manipulate quantum system along with opening up the possibility of a new material to deliver a solid state quantum computer. The NV defect is now moving from a quantum curiosity to a commercial development platform for a range of application such as as gyroscopes, timing and magnetometry as well as the more traditional quantum technologies such as quantum encryption and quantum simulation. These technologies are pushing the development needs of the material, and the processing of that material. The paper will describes the advances in CVD diamond synthesis with special attention to getting NV defects close to the surface of the diamond and how to process the material for diamond quantum optical applications. (author)

  5. Correction method for the error of diamond tool's radius in ultra-precision cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Jing-chi

    2010-10-01

    The compensation method for the error of diamond tool's cutting edge is a bottle-neck technology to hinder the high accuracy aspheric surface's directly formation after single diamond turning. Traditional compensation was done according to the measurement result from profile meter, which took long measurement time and caused low processing efficiency. A new compensation method was firstly put forward in the article, in which the correction of the error of diamond tool's cutting edge was done according to measurement result from digital interferometer. First, detailed theoretical calculation related with compensation method was deduced. Then, the effect after compensation was simulated by computer. Finally, φ50 mm work piece finished its diamond turning and new correction turning under Nanotech 250. Testing surface achieved high shape accuracy pv 0.137λ and rms=0.011λ, which approved the new compensation method agreed with predictive analysis, high accuracy and fast speed of error convergence.

  6. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-05-25

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  7. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  8. Phase diagram of carbon and the factors limiting the quantity and size of natural diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Vladimir D.; Churkin, Valentin D.; Kulnitskiy, Boris A.; Perezhogin, Igor A.; Kirichenko, Alexey N.; Denisov, Viktor N.; Erohin, Sergey V.; Sorokin, Pavel B.; Popov, Mikhail Yu

    2018-03-01

    Phase diagrams of carbon, and those focusing on the graphite-to-diamond transitional conditions in particular, are of great interest for fundamental and applied research. The present study introduces a number of experiments carried out to convert graphite under high-pressure conditions, showing a formation of stable phase of fullerene-type onions cross-linked by sp3-bonds in the 55-115 GPa pressure range instead of diamonds formation (even at temperature 2000-3000 K) and the already formed diamonds turn into carbon onions. Our results refute the widespread idea that diamonds can form at any pressure from 2.2 to 1000 GPa. The phase diagram built within this study allows us not only to explain the existing numerous experimental data on the formation of diamond from graphite, but also to make assumptions about the conditions of its growth in Earth’s crust.

  9. Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, R; Csiki, R; Wiesinger, M; Sachsenhauser, M; Stutzmann, M; Garrido, J A; Cattani-Scholz, A; Speranza, Giorgio; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K

    2014-08-27

    The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.

  10. Photonic Architecture for Scalable Quantum Information Processing in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nemoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Physics and information are intimately connected, and the ultimate information processing devices will be those that harness the principles of quantum mechanics. Many physical systems have been identified as candidates for quantum information processing, but none of them are immune from errors. The challenge remains to find a path from the experiments of today to a reliable and scalable quantum computer. Here, we develop an architecture based on a simple module comprising an optical cavity containing a single negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Modules are connected by photons propagating in a fiber-optical network and collectively used to generate a topological cluster state, a robust substrate for quantum information processing. In principle, all processes in the architecture can be deterministic, but current limitations lead to processes that are probabilistic but heralded. We find that the architecture enables large-scale quantum information processing with existing technology.

  11. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Jackson, Mark; Woodwards, Robert; Polini, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 μm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools

  13. I12: the Joint Engineering, Environment and Processing (JEEP) beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Reinhard, Christina; Atwood, Robert; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Vo, Nghia; Hart, Michael; Connor, Leigh; Humphreys, Bob; Howell, George; Davies, Steve; Hill, Tim; Wilkin, Guy; Pedersen, Ulrik; Foster, Andrew; De Maio, Nicoletta; Basham, Mark; Yuan, Fajin; Wanelik, Kaz

    2015-05-01

    I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50-150 keV. The beam energy enables good penetration through large or dense samples, combined with a large beam size (1 mrad horizontally × 0.3 mrad vertically). The beam characteristics permit the study of materials and processes inside environmental chambers without unacceptable attenuation of the beam and without the need to use sample sizes which are atypically small for the process under study. X-ray techniques available to users are radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Since commencing operations in November 2009, I12 has established a broad user community in materials science and processing, chemical processing, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, environmental science, palaeontology and physics.

  14. A nitrogen doped low-dislocation density free-standing single crystal diamond plate fabricated by a lift-off process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki, E-mail: mokuno-y@aist.go.jp; Kato, Yukako; Tsubouchi, Nobuteru; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Hideaki; Shikata, Shinichi [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    A nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond plate with a low dislocation density is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a high pressure high temperature synthetic type IIa seed substrate by ion implantation and lift-off processes. To avoid sub-surface damage, the seed surface was subjected to deep ion beam etching. In addition, we introduced a nitrogen flow during the CVD step to grow low-strain diamond at a relatively high growth rate. This resulted in a plate with low birefringence and a dislocation density as low as 400 cm{sup −2}, which is the lowest reported value for a lift-off plate. Reproducing this lift-off process may allow mass-production of single crystal CVD diamond plates with low dislocation density and consistent quality.

  15. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly

  16. UV detectors based on epitaxial diamond films grown on single-crystal diamond substrates by vapor-phase synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharonov, G.V.; Petrov, S.A.; Bol'shakov, A.P.; Ral'chenko, V.G.; Kazyuchits, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for use of CVD-technology for epitaxial growth of single-crystal diamond films of instrumental quality in UHF plasma for the production of optoelectronic devices are discussed. A technology for processing diamond single crystals that provides a perfect surface crystal structure with roughness less than 0,5 nm was developed. It was demonstrated that selective UV detectors based on synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates coated with single-crystal films can be produced. A criterion for selecting clean and structurally perfect single crystals of synthetic diamond was developed for the epitaxial growth technology. (authors)

  17. Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)

  18. The uniquely high-temperature character of Cullinan diamonds: A signature of the Bushveld mantle plume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, N. M.; Kopylova, M.; Bussweiler, Y.; Pearson, D. G.; Gurney, J.; Davidson, J.

    2018-04-01

    The mantle beneath the Cullinan kimberlite (formerly known as "Premier") is a unique occurrence of diamondiferous cratonic mantle where diamonds were generated contemporaneously and shortly following a mantle upwelling that led to the formation of a Large Igneous Province that produced the world's largest igneous intrusion - the 2056 Ma Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC). We studied 332 diamond inclusions from 202 Cullinan diamonds to investigate mantle thermal effects imposed by the formation of the BIC. The overwhelming majority of diamonds come from three parageneses: (1) lithospheric eclogitic (69%), (2) lithospheric peridotitic (21%), and (3) sublithospheric mafic (9%). The lithospheric eclogitic paragenesis is represented by clinopyroxene, garnet, coesite and kyanite. Main minerals of the lithospheric peridotitic paragenesis are forsterite, enstatite, Cr-pyrope, Cr-augite and spinel; the sublithospheric mafic association includes majorite, CaSiO3 phases and omphacite. Diamond formation conditions were calculated using an Al-in-olivine thermometer, a garnet-clinopyroxene thermometer, as well as majorite and Raman barometers. The Cullinan diamonds may be unique on the global stage in recording a cold geotherm of 40 mW/m2 in cratonic lithosphere that was in contact with underlying convecting mantle at temperatures of 1450-1550 °C. The studied Cullinan diamonds contain a high proportion of inclusions equilibrated at temperatures exceeding the ambient 1327 °C adiabat, i.e. 54% of eclogitic diamonds and 41% of peridotitic diamonds. By contrast, ≤ 1% of peridotitic diamond inclusions globally yield equally high temperatures. We propose that the Cullinan diamond inclusions recorded transient, slow-dissipating thermal perturbations associated with the plume-related formation of the 2 Ga Bushveld igneous province. The presence of inclusions in diamond from the mantle transition zone at 300-650 km supports this view. Cullinan xenoliths indicative of the thermal state of

  19. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  20. Graphitization of diamond with a metallic coating on ferritic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Stenio Cavalier; Oliveira, Hellen Cristine Prata de; Filgueira, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a strong catalyst of graphitization of diamonds. This graphitization occurs mainly during the processing of composites - conventional sintering or hot pressing, and during cutting operations. Aiming to avoid or minimize this deleterious effect, there is increasing use of diamond coated with metallic materials in the production of diamond tools processed via powder metallurgy. This work studies the influence of Fe on diamond graphitization diamond-coated Ti after mixing of Fe-diamonds, hot pressing parameters were performed with 3 minutes/35MPa/900 deg C - this is the condition of pressing hot used in industry for production of diamond tools. Microstructural features were observed by SEM, diffusion of Fe in diamond was studied by EDS. Graphitization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe not activate graphitization on the diamond under the conditions of hot pressing. (author)

  1. Carbon isotope fractionation during diamond growth in depleted peridotite: Counterintuitive insights from modelling water-maximum CHO fluids as multi-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Chacko, T.; Luth, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    Because of the inability of depleted cratonic peridotites to effectively buffer oxygen fugacities when infiltrated by CHO or carbonatitic fluids, it has been proposed recently (Luth and Stachel, 2014) that diamond formation in peridotites typically does not occur by rock-buffered redox reactions as previously thought but by an oxygen-conserving reaction in which minor coexisting CH4 and CO2 components in a water-rich fluid react to form diamond (CO2 + CH4 = 2C + 2H2O). In such fluid-buffered systems, carbon isotope fractionation during diamond precipitation occurs in the presence of two dominant fluid carbon species. Carbon isotope modelling of diamond precipitation from mixed CH4- and CO2-bearing fluids reveals unexpected fundamental differences relative to diamond crystallization from a single carbon fluid species: (1) irrespective of which carbon fluid species (CH4 or CO2) is dominant in the initial fluid, diamond formation is invariably associated with progressive minor (diamond in 13C as crystallization proceeds. This is in contrast to diamond precipitation by rock-buffered redox processes from a fluid containing only a single carbon species, which can result in either progressive 13C enrichment (CO2 or carbonate fluids) or 13C depletion (CH4 fluids) in the diamond. (2) Fluid speciation is the key factor controlling diamond δ13 C values; as XCO2 (XCO2 = CO2/[CO2 + CH4]) in the initial fluid increases from 0.1 to 0.9 (corresponding to an increase in fO2 of 0.8 log units), the carbon isotope composition of the first-precipitated diamond decreases by 3.7‰. The tight mode in δ13C of - 5 ± 1 ‰ for diamonds worldwide places strict constraints on the dominant range of XCO2 in water-rich fluids responsible for diamond formation. Specifically, precipitation of diamonds with δ13C values in the range -4 to -6‰ from mantle-derived fluids with an average δ13C value of -5‰ (derived from evidence not related to diamonds) requires that diamond-forming fluids were

  2. Depth of Formation of Ferropericlase Included in Super-Deep Diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolini, C.; Nestola, F.; Gianese, A.; Nimis, P.; Harris, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Super-deep diamonds are believed to have formed at depths of at least 300 km depth (Harte, 2010). A common mineral inclusion in these diamonds is ferropericlase, (Mg,Fe)O (see Kaminsky, 2012 and references therein). Ferropericlase (fPer) is the second most abundant mineral in the lower mantle, comprising approximately 16-20 wt% (660 to 2900 km depth), and inclusions of fPer in diamond are often considered to indicate a lower-mantle origin (Harte et al., 1999). Samples from São Luiz/Juina, Brazil, are noteworthy for containing nanometer-sized magnesioferrite (Harte et al., 1999; Wirth et al., 2014; Kaminsky et al., 2015; Palot et al., 2016). Based upon a phase diagram valid for 1 atm, such exsolutions would place the origin of this assemblage in the uppermost part of the lower mantle. However, a newly reported phase diagram for magnesioferrite demonstrates that the latter is not stable at such pressures and, thus, it cannot exsolve directly from fPer at lower-mantle conditions (Uenver-Thiele et al., 2017). Here we report the investigation of two fPer inclusions, extracted from a single São Luiz diamond, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Both techniques showed micrometer-sized exsolutions of magnesioferrite within the two fPers. We also completed elastic geobarometry (see Angel et al., 2015), which determined an estimate for the depth of entrapment of the two ferropericlase - diamond pairs. In the temperature range between 1273 and 1773 K, pressures varied between 9.88 and 12.34 GPa (325-410 km depth) for one inclusion and between 10.69 and 13.16 GPa (350-440 km depth) for the other one. These results strengthen the hypothesis that solitary fPer inclusions might not be reliable markers for a lower-mantle provenance. This work was supported by Fondazione CaRiPaRo and ERC-2012-StG 307322 to FN. Angel, R.J., et al. (2015) Russ Geol Geophys, 56, 211-220; Harte, B. (2010) Mineral Mag, 74, 189-215; Harte, B., et al

  3. Process of optical excitation and relaxation of color center in synthetic diamond and its application to optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of high-pressure synthesized diamond is carried out by using a nuclear reactor or a linac. Then, the effect of annealing on the color centers is observed. A study is made to identify different color centers and to provide techniques to control their introduction. Investigations cover the relation of color center formation with annealing temperature, dependence of color center formation on radiation dose, migration of H3 center and hydrogen, and applicability of five different color centers to optoelectronics. Next, a study is made of the formation and relaxation of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a metastable excited state produced by optical excitation. An optical gain is essential to provide laser. Optical amplification is measured at the vibronic emission band of the NV center. An increase in absorption is detected, indicating that the NV center will not provide laser. In the optical excitation-relaxation process, the relaxation proceeds via a metastable state. Finally, hole burning of ZPL of the NV center is observed in the temperature range from 20K to 80K, and some of its features are described. (N.K.)

  4. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  5. Thin diamond films for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.S.; Meilunas, R.; Ong, T.P.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diamond films have been deposited on Si, Mo and many other substrates by microwave and radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Although the adhesion between the diamond film and most of the metal substrates is poor due to residual thermal stress from the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients, the authors have developed processes to promote the growth of uniform and continuous diamond films with enhanced adhesion to metal substrates for tribological applications. The tribological properties of these films are measured using a ring-on-block tribotester. The coefficients of friction of diamond films sliding against a 52100 steel ring under the same experimental conditions are found to be significantly different depending on the morphology, grain size and roughness of the diamond films. However, under all cases tested, it is found that for uniform and continuous diamond films with small grain size of 1-3 micrometers, the coefficient of friction of the diamond film sliding against a steel ring under lubrication of a jet of mineral oil is about 0.04

  6. Graphene grown out of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhi; Li, Wuxia; Xu, Jing; Xu, Shicong; Lu, Chao; Xu, Lifang; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-10-01

    Most applications of graphene need a suitable support substrate to present its excellent properties. But transferring graphene onto insulators or growing graphene on foreign substrates could cause properties diminishing. This paper reports the graphene growth directly out of diamond (111) by B doping, guided by first-principles calculations. The spontaneous graphene formation occurred due to the reconstruction of the diamond surface when the B doping density and profile are adequate. The resulting materials are defect free with high phase purity/carrier mobility, controllable layer number, and good uniformity, which can be potentially used directly for device fabrication, e.g., high-performance devices requiring good thermal conductivity.

  7. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz Alfaro, Marco Antonio; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Vong, Yunny Meas

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes. (author)

  8. Optimizing biosensing properties on undecylenic Acid-functionalized diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu Lin; Chong, Kwok Feng; May, Paul W; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2007-05-08

    The optimization of biosensing efficiency on a diamond platform depends on the successful coupling of biomolecules on the surface, and also on effective signal transduction in the biorecognition events. In terms of biofunctionalization of diamond surfaces, surface electrochemical studies of diamond modified with undecylenic acid (UA), with and without headgroup protection, were performed. The direct photochemical coupling method employing UA was found to impart a higher density of carboxylic acid groups on the diamond surface compared to that using trifluoroethyl undecenoate (TFEU) as the protecting group during the coupling process. Non-faradic impedimetric DNA sensing revealed that lightly doped diamond gives better signal transduction sensitivity compared to highly doped diamond.

  9. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaro Marco Antonio Quiroz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes.

  10. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  11. Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    1995-01-01

    What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)

  12. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D; Livramento, V; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Carvalho, P A; Shohoji, N; Correia, J B

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamondDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  13. CN distribution in flame deposition of diamond and its relation to the growth rate, morphology, and nitrogen incorporation of the diamond layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Schermer, J.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) measurements areapplied to the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond by anoxyacetylene flame to visualize the distribution of CN in the gas phaseduring the diamond growth process. The obtained diamond deposits arecharacterized by optical as

  14. Surface Texturing of CVD Diamond Assisted by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele M. Trucchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a wide bandgap semiconductor with excellent physical properties which allow it to operate under extreme conditions. However, the technological use of diamond was mostly conceived for the fabrication of ultraviolet, ionizing radiation and nuclear detectors, of electron emitters, and of power electronic devices. The use of nanosecond pulse excimer lasers enabled the microstructuring of diamond surfaces, and refined techniques such as controlled ablation through graphitization and etching by two-photon surface excitation are being exploited for the nanostructuring of diamond. On the other hand, ultrashort pulse lasers paved the way for a more accurate diamond microstructuring, due to reduced thermal effects, as well as an effective surface nanostructuring, based on the formation of periodic structures at the nanoscale. It resulted in drastic modifications of the optical and electronic properties of diamond, of which “black diamond” films are an example for future high-temperature solar cells as well as for advanced optoelectronic platforms. Although experiments on diamond nanostructuring started almost 20 years ago, real applications are only today under implementation.

  15. Determination of high-strength materials diamond grinding rational modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, P. V.; Lobanov, D. V.; Rychkov, D. A.; Yanyushkin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of methods of high-strength materials abrasive processing is carried out. This method made it possible to determine the necessary directions and prospects for the development of shaping combined methods. The need to use metal bonded diamond abrasive tools in combination with a different kind of energy is noted to improve the processing efficiency and reduce the complexity of operations. The complex of experimental research on revealing the importance of mechanical and electrical components of cutting regimes, on the cutting ability of diamond tools, as well as the need to reduce the specific consumption of an abrasive wheel as one of the important economic indicators of the processing process is performed. It is established that combined diamond grinding with simultaneous continuous correction of the abrasive wheel contributes to an increase in the cutting ability of metal bonded diamond abrasive tools when processing high-strength materials by an average of 30% compared to diamond grinding. Particular recommendations on the designation of technological factors are developed depending on specific production problems.

  16. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  17. Regrowth zones in laser annealed radiation damaged diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Kalish, R.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa

    1993-01-01

    Focused laser annealing of ion implanted diamond with a 15 μm diameter laser spot produces as variety of effects that depend on the power density of the laser. Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) provides a relatively straight forward, rapid, method to analyse the annealed regions of the diamond to characterize the effects. In order of increasing laser power density, effects that are observed include: regrowth of the end of range damage of the ion implantation, formation of a buried graphitic layer and complete graphitization of the surface of the diamond down to the bottom of the original damage layer. Information provided by CCM leads to an understanding the causes of these effects and provides insight into the carbon phase diagram in the neighbourhood of the graphite to diamond phase transition. Analysis of the effects of laser annealing by CCM are complicated by the swelling of the diamond lattice caused by the original ion implantation, compaction following regrowth and the effect of the analysis beam irradiation itself. 12 refs., 5 figs

  18. Investigation of carbon near the graphite-diamond-liquid triple point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    Pulsed laser irradiation is used to heat deeply buried damage layers in diamond. Over a small range of laser powers, damage annealing, formation of buried graphitic layers, and melting of diamond followed by its conversion upon cooling into graphite are observed. The diagnostics employed are Channeling Contrast Microscopy, optical absorption, surface profilometry, and scanning and optical microscopies. The results are explained in terms of the behaviour of carbon under high internal pressures close to the diamond-graphite-liquid carbon triple point in the phase diagram. 17 refs., 3 figs

  19. Prospects for the synthesis of large single-crystal diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnitskiy, R A

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of diamond have stimulated the study of and search for its applications in many fields, including optics, optoelectronics, electronics, biology, and electrochemistry. Whereas chemical vapor deposition allows the growth of polycrystalline diamond plates more than 200 mm in diameter, most current diamond application technologies require large-size (25 mm and more) single-crystal diamond substrates or films suitable for the photolithography process. This is quite a challenge, because the largest diamond crystals currently available are 10 mm or less in size. This review examines three promising approaches to fabricating large-size diamond single crystals: growing large-size single crystals, the deposition of heteroepitaxial diamond films on single-crystal substrates, and the preparation of composite diamond substrates. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Fluorination of Boron-Doped Diamond Film Electrodes for Minimization of Perchlorate Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Pralay; Chaplin, Brian P

    2017-08-23

    This research investigated the effects of surface fluorination on both rates of organic compound oxidation (phenol and terephthalic acid (TA)) and ClO 4 - formation at boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anodes at 22 °C. Different fluorination methods (i.e., electrochemical oxidation with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), radio frequency plasma, and silanization) were used to incorporate fluorinated moieties on the BDD surface, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The silanization method was found to be the most effective fluorination method using a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane precursor to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the oxygenated BDD surface. The ClO 4 - formation decreased from rates of 0.45 ± 0.03 mmol m -2 min -1 during 1 mM NaClO 3 oxidation and 0.28 ± 0.01 mmol m -2 min -1 during 10 mM NaCl oxidation on the BDD electrode to below detectable levels (layer on the BDD surface that inhibited charge transfer via steric hindrance and hydrophobic effects. The surface coverages and thicknesses of the fluorinated films controlled the charge transfer rates, which was confirmed by estimates of film thicknesses using XPS and density functional theory simulations. The aliphatic silanized electrode also showed very high stability during OH • production. Perchlorate formation rates were below the detection limit (<0.12 μmoles m -2 min -1 ) for up to 10 consecutive NaClO 3 oxidation experiments.

  1. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  2. Highly charged ion impact induced nanodefects in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, T.N., E-mail: thuto.makgato@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Microscopy and Microanalysis Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Schenkel, T. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ritter, R.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien-Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.; Bernitt, S.; Beilmann, C.; Ginzel, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of slow highly charged ion (SHCI) beams with insulating type Ib diamond (1 1 1) surfaces. Bismuth and Xenon SHCI beams produced using an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) and an Electron Cyclotron Resonance source (ECR) respectively, are accelerated onto type Ib diamond (1 1 1) surfaces with impact velocities up to ≈0.4 υ{sub Bohr}. SHCIs with charge states corresponding to potential energies between 4.5 keV and 110 keV are produced for this purpose. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis (AFM) of the diamond surfaces following SHCI impact reveals surface morphological modifications characterized as nanoscale craters (nano-craters). To interpret the results from Tapping Mode AFM analysis of the irradiated diamond surfaces we discuss the interplay between kinetic and potential energy in nano-crater formation using empirical data together with Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo Simulations.

  3. Influence of the microstructure of a diamond-containing composite material on the tool cutting ability when grinding a diamond single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kuzei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the methods of electronic scanning microstructure and X-ray analysis, the influence of the structure of diamond-containing composite materials on the cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond single crystals has been studied. It is shown that the use of an oxide-hydroxide glass with a spreading temperature of 570–590 K as a precursor of the binder leads to the formation of melt films on the surface of silicon carbide and diamond particles at 600–630 K and the glass content in the batch is 10 vol. %. The conversion of oxidehydroxide glass films to oxide films proceeds at 700–775 K during the sintering of the composite material. Depending on the volume content of the glass in the charge, the porosity of the compact, three types of structure of composite materials are distinguished: a volumetric skeleton of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with pores at the sites of multiple compounds; a frame made of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with glass pores in places of multiple connections; a matrix of glass and the particles of diamond, silicon carbide and pores located in it. The maximum cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond is provided by a composite material with a structure of the first type.

  4. Preparation of diamond like carbon thin film on stainless steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diamond-like carbon; buffer layer; plasma CVD; surface characterization; biomedical applications. Abstract. We report the formation of a very smooth, continuous and homogeneous diamond-like carbon DLC thin coating over a bare stainless steel surface without the need for a thin Si/Cr/Ni/Mo/W/TiN/TiC interfacial layer.

  5. Biomineralized diamond-like carbon films with incorporated titanium dioxide nanoparticles improved bioactivity properties and reduced biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F S; Oliveira, J R; Milani, J; Oliveira, L D; Machado, J P B; Trava-Airoldi, V J; Lobo, A O; Marciano, F R

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the development of coatings to protect biomedical alloys from oxidation, passivation and to reduce the ability for a bacterial biofilm to form after implantation has emerged. Diamond-like carbon films are commonly used for implanted medical due to their physical and chemical characteristics, showing good interactions with the biological environment. However, these properties can be significantly improved when titanium dioxide nanoparticles are included, especially to enhance the bactericidal properties of the films. So far, the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the film surface has been studied in order to improve biocompatibility and bioactive behavior. Herein, we developed a new route to obtain a homogeneous and crystalline apatite coating on diamond-like carbon films grown on 304 biomedical stainless steel and evaluated its antibacterial effect. For this purpose, films containing two different concentrations of titanium dioxide (0.1 and 0.3g/L) were obtained by chemical vapor deposition. To obtain the apatite layer, the samples were soaked in simulated body fluid solution for up to 21days. The antibacterial activity of the films was evaluated by bacterial eradication tests using Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and goniometry showed that homogeneous, crystalline, and hydrophilic apatite films were formed independently of the titanium dioxide concentration. Interestingly, the diamond-like films containing titanium dioxide and hydroxyapatite reduced the biofilm formation compared to controls. A synergism between hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide that provided an antimicrobial effect against opportunistic pathogens was clearly observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Employed as Seeds for the Induction of Microcrystalline Diamond Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resto Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. X-ray diffraction, visible, and ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy , electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were employed to study the carbon bonding nature of the films and to analyze the carbon clustering around the seed nanoparticles leading to diamond synthesis. The results indicate that iron oxide nanoparticles lose the O atoms, becoming thus active C traps that induce the formation of a dense region of trigonally and tetrahedrally bonded carbon around them with the ensuing precipitation of diamond-type bonds that develop into microcrystalline diamond films under chemical vapor deposition conditions. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  7. Sedimentary processes in the Carnot Formation (Central African Republic) related to the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, Claude; Lang, Jacques

    1999-08-01

    The depositional environment, provenance and processes of emplacement of the detrital material of the Mesozoic Carnot Formation are defined, by bedding and sedimentological analysis of its main facies, and are reconstructed within the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa. The clastic material was laid down between probably the Albian and the end of the Cretaceous, in a NNW-oriented braided stream fluvial system that drained into the Doba Trough (Chad) and probably also into the Touboro Basin (Cameroon). The material was derived from weathering of the underlying Devonian-Carboniferous Mambéré Glacial Formation and of the Precambrian schist-quartzite complex located to the south of the Carnot Formation. These results provide useful indications as to the provenance of diamonds mined in the southwest Central African Republic.

  8. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraimovitch, D., E-mail: dimitryf@mail.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Lefeuvre, G. [Micron Semiconductor Ltd. Royal Buildings, Marlborough Road, Lancing Business Park, BN15 8SJ (United Kingdom); Ruzin, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  9. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  10. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  11. Effects of the shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sichen; Yin, Jianfeng; Tang, Rujun; Zhang, Wenxu; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-11-01

    The effects of the planar shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process (MRP) of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films have been investigated by micromagnetic simulations. Results show that when the length to width ratio (LWR) of the diamond-shaped film is small, the MRP of the diamond-shaped films are sensitive to LWR. But when LWR is larger than 2, a stable domain switching mode is observed which nucleates from the center of the diamond and then expands to the edges. At a fixed LWR, the magnitude of the switching fields decrease with the increase of the biasing field, but the domain switching mode is not affected by the biasing field. Further analysis shows that demagnetization energy dominates over the MRP of the diamond-shaped films. The above LWR dependence of MRP can be well explained by a variation of the shape anisotropic factor with LWR.

  12. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruslinda, A. Rahim, E-mail: ruslindarahim@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jln Kgr-Alor Setar, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan); Ishiyama, Y. [Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan); Penmatsa, V. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H. [Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We report the effect of fluorine plasma treatment on diamond thin film to resist the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. • The diamond thin film were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m. • The repulsive effect shows excellent binding efficiency for both DNA and HIV-1 Tat protein. - Abstract: The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m.

  13. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Ishiyama, Y.; Penmatsa, V.; Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the effect of fluorine plasma treatment on diamond thin film to resist the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. • The diamond thin film were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m. • The repulsive effect shows excellent binding efficiency for both DNA and HIV-1 Tat protein. - Abstract: The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m

  14. Diamonds are forever : roller bits once ruled the roost, but PDC drillbits have emerged as oilpatch champions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2008-06-15

    Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are used in over 60 per cent of wells currently being drilled. PDC bits use thumb-sized diamond-impregnated cutters fixed into the body of the bit in order to shear the rock. Certain rock formations that contain large amounts of chert or pyrite can destroy PDCs, which are ideally suited for use in offshore wells which have soft, homogenous rock sections. This article discussed recent research programs conducted to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of PDCs and improve their cutting efficiency through the analysis of cutter geometry, material composition, and processing conditions. Researchers have now discovered that diamond chips of 10 microns performed better than chips of 70 microns. Cutters were found to be more durable when cobalt was used as a binder to sinter the diamond chips. PDCs are now being used extensively by the oil sands industry due to their abrasion resistance. Research is ongoing in order to improve the performance of PDC drill bits. 2 figs.

  15. THIN DIAMOND FILMS FOR SNS H INJECTIONS STRIPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAW, R.W.; HERR, A.D.; FEIGERLE, C.S.; CUTLER, R.J.; LIAW, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the preparation and testing of thin diamond foils for use in stripping the SNS H - Linac beam. A long useful lifetime for these foils is desirable to improve operational efficiency. Preliminary data presented at PAC 2001 indicated that diamond foils were superior to conventional evaporated carbon foils, exhibiting lifetimes approximately five-fold longer [1]. That work employed a fully supported diamond foil, a format that is not acceptable for the SNS application; at least two edges of the approximately 1 x 1 cm foils must be free standing to allow for beam rastering. Residual stress in a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond foil results in film distortion (scrolling) when the film is released from its silicon growth substrate. We have attacked this problem by initially patterning the surface of CVD growth substrates with a 50 or 100 line/inch trapezoidal grating, followed by conformal diamond film growth on the patterned substrate. Then removal of the substrate by chemical etching produced a foil that possessed improved mechanical integrity due to its corrugation. The high nucleation density required to grow continuous, pinhole free diamond foils of the desired thickness (1 (micro)m, 350 (micro)g/cm 2 ) was achieved by a combination of substrate surface scratching and seeding. A variety of diamond foils have been tested using the BNL 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole H - beam to simulate energy loss in the SNS. Those include flat, corrugated, microcrystalline, and nanocrystalline foils. Foil lifetimes are reported

  16. Effect of pretreatment and deposition parameters on diamond nucleation in CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim, E.; Izman, S.; Ourdjini, A.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond films on cemented carbide (WC) has aroused great interest in recent years. The combination of toughness from the WC and the high hardness of diamond results in outstanding wear resistance. This will increase the lifetime and better technical performance of the components made of diamond coated carbide. One of the important steps in the growth of diamond film is the nucleation of diamond as its density strongly influences the diamond growth process, film quality and morphology. In this paper the various effects of surface pretreatment and diamond deposition conditions on the diamond nucleation density are reviewed. (author)

  17. Effect of Nano-Ni Catalyst on the Growth and Characterization of Diamond Films by HFCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Teng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different catalysts, nanodiamond seed, nano-Ni, diamond powder, and mixture of nano-Ni/diamond powder, were used to activate Si wafers for diamond film growth by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD. Diamond crystals were shown to grow directly on both large diamond powder and small nanodiamond seed, but a better crystallinity of diamond film was observed on the ultrasonicated nanodiamond seeded Si substrate. On the other hand, nano-Ni nanocatalysts seem to promote the formation of amorphous carbon but suppress transpolyacetylene (t-PA phases at the initial growth of diamond films. The subsequent nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on the amorphous carbon layer leads to generation of the spherical diamond particles and clusters prior to coalescence into continuous diamond films based on the CH3 addition mechanism as characterized by XRD, Raman, ATR/FT-IR, XPS, TEM, SEM, and AFM techniques. Moreover, a 36% reduction in surface roughness of diamond film assisted by nano-Ni catalyst is quite significant.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of boron implanted into diamond (0 0 1) 2 x 1 reconstruction surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongbin; Dai Yongbin; Hu Xiaojun; Sheng Heshen; He Xianchang

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations, utilizing the Tersoff many-body potential, are used to investigate the microscopic processes of a single boron atom with energy of 500 eV implanted into the diamond (0 0 1) 2 x 1 reconstruction surface. The lifetime of thermal spike created by B bombardment is about 0.18 ps by calculating the variation of the mean coordination numbers with time. The formation of the split-interstitial composed of projectile and lattice atom (B-C) is observed. The total potential energy of the system decreases about 0.56 eV with a stable B split-interstitial in diamond. The lattice relaxations in the diamond (0 0 1) 2 x 1 reconstruction surface or near surface of simulated have been discussed. The outermost layer atoms tend to move inward, and the other atoms move outward. The interplanar distance between the outermost layer and the second layer has been shortened by 15% compared with its starting interplanar distance. Stress distribution in the calculated diamond configuration is inhomogeneous. After boron implanted into diamond with the energy of 500 eV, there is an excess of compressively stressed atoms in the lattice, which induces the total stress being compressive

  19. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.; Plum, Michael A.; Wilson, Leslie L.; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I.; Takagi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 (micro)g/cm 2 foils as large as 17 x 25 mm 2 have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 (micro)C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H - ) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  20. Novel morphology of chemical vapor deposited diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, C.J. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, A.J.S.; Abe, I.; Pinto, J.L. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Gracio, J. [TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Buijnsters, J.G. [Institute for Molecules and Materials (IMM), Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    We have obtained simultaneously nanocrystalline and {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted large-grained polycrystalline diamond films not only on different substrates but also on the same substrate in only one deposition run using a novel approach for substrate arrangement. Furthermore, interesting unusual morphologies and microstructures composed by non-faceted nanostructures and terminated with large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt are found near the edges of the top square sample. The morphology variation is likely caused by the so called edge effect, where a strong variation in temperature is also present. We have modelled the temperature distribution on the substrates by computer simulations using the finite element method. The novel feature, namely the coexistence of oval non-faceted nanocrystalline diamond grains and large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt in one diamond grain, is in the transition from {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted polycrystalline diamond to cauliflower-like nanocrystalline diamond. The formation mechanism is discussed based on the temperature analysis and other simulation results described in the literature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. A stacking-fault based microscopic model for platelets in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Alex; Nunes, Ricardo

    2005-03-01

    We propose a new microscopic model for the 001 planar defects in diamond commonly called platelets. This model is based on the formation of a metastable stacking fault, which can occur because of the ability of carbon to stabilize in different bonding configurations. In our model the core of the planar defect is basically a double layer of three-fold coordinated sp^2 carbon atoms embedded in the common sp^3 diamond structure. The properties of the model were determined using ab initio total energy calculations. All significant experimental signatures attributed to the platelets, namely, the lattice displacement along the [001] direction, the asymmetry between the [110] and the [11 0] directions, the infrared absorption peak B^' , and broad luminescence lines that indicate the introduction of levels in the band gap, are naturally accounted for in our model. The model is also very appealing from the point of view of kinetics, since naturally occurring shearing processes will lead to the formation of the metastable fault.Authors acknowledge financial support from the Brazilian agencies FAPESP, CNPq, FAEP-UNICAMP, FAPEMIG, and Instituto do Milênio em Nanociências-MCT

  2. Diamond identifaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    X-ray topography on diamonds allows for unique identification of diamonds. The method described consists of the registration of crystal defects, inclusions etc. of a diamond, resulting in a 'finger print' of the individual jewel which can only be changed by its complete destruction

  3. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  4. Development of Diamond-like Carbon Fibre Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏源迁; 山口勝美; 洞口巌; 竹内雅之

    2004-01-01

    A unique diamond-like carbon (DLC) grinding wheel was developed, in which the DLC fibres were made by rolling Al sheets coated with DLC films and aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface by laminating Al sheets together with DLC fibres. In this paper, the formation process of DLC fibres and the fabrication process of a DLC fibre wheel were investigated. Many grinding experiments were also carried out on a precision NC plane milling machine using a newly developed DLC wheel. Grinding of specimens of silicon wafers, optical glasses, quartz, granites and hardened die steel SKD11 demonstrated the capabilities of nanometer surface finish. A smooth surface with a roughness value of Ra2.5nm (Ry26nm) was achieved.

  5. Optical patterning of trapped charge in nitrogen-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Harishankar; Henshaw, Jacob; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Manson, Neil B.; Albu, Remus; Doherty, Marcus W.; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-08-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond is emerging as a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing and nanoscale metrology. Of interest in these applications is the manipulation of the NV charge, which can be attained by optical excitation. Here, we use two-colour optical microscopy to investigate the dynamics of NV photo-ionization, charge diffusion and trapping in type-1b diamond. We combine fixed-point laser excitation and scanning fluorescence imaging to locally alter the concentration of negatively charged NVs, and to subsequently probe the corresponding redistribution of charge. We uncover the formation of spatial patterns of trapped charge, which we qualitatively reproduce via a model of the interplay between photo-excited carriers and atomic defects. Further, by using the NV as a probe, we map the relative fraction of positively charged nitrogen on localized optical excitation. These observations may prove important to transporting quantum information between NVs or to developing three-dimensional, charge-based memories.

  6. Effect of cutting temperature on hardness of SiC and diamond in the nano-cutting process of monocrystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiachun; Li, Yuntao; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Lv, Maoqiang

    2016-10-01

    In the process of cutting silicon by natural diamond tools, groove wear happens on the flank face of cutting tool frequently.Scholars believe that one of the wear reasons is mechanical scratching effect by hard particles like SiC. To reveal the mechanical scratching mechanism, it is essential to study changes in the mechanical properties of hard particles and diamond, especially the effect of cutting temperature on hardness of diamond and hard particles. Molecular dynamics (MD) model that contact-zone temperature between tool and workpiece was calculated by dividing zone while nano-cutting monocrystalline silicon was established, cutting temperature values in different regions were computed as the simulation was carried out.On this basis, the models of molecular dynamics simulation of SiC and diamond were established separately with setting the initial temperature to room temperature. The laws of length change of C-C bond and Si-C bond varing with increase of simulation temperature were studied. And drawing on predecessors' research on theoretical calculation of hardness of covalent crystals and the relationship between crystal valence electron density and bond length, the curves that the hardness of diamond and SiC varing with bond length were obtained. The effect of temperature on the hardness was calculated. Results show that, local cutting temperature can reach 1300K.The rise in cutting temperature leaded to a decrease in the diamond local atomic clusters hardness,SiC local atomic clusters hardness increased. As the cutting temperature was more than 1100K,diamond began to soften, the local clusters hardness was less than that of SiC.

  7. 3D characterisation of tool wear whilst diamond turning silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Durazo-Cardenas, Isidro Sergio; Shore, Paul; Luo, X.; Jacklin, T.; Impey, S. A.; Cox, A.

    2006-01-01

    Nanometrically smooth infrared silicon optics can be manufactured by the diamond turning process. Due to its relatively low density, silicon is an ideal optical material for weight sensitive infrared (IR) applications. However, rapid diamond tool edge degradation and the effect on the achieved surface have prevented significant exploitation. With the aim of developing a process model to optimise the diamond turning of silicon optics, a series of experimental trials were devi...

  8. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have

  9. Modeling of diamond radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries

  10. Diamond identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of producing sets of records of the internal defects of diamonds as a means of identification of the gems by x-ray topography are described. To obtain the records one can either use (a) monochromatic x-radiation reflected at the Bragg angle from crystallographically equivalent planes of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections from each such plane being recorded from a number of directions of view, or (b) white x-radiation incident upon the diamond in directions having a constant angular relationship to each equivalent axis of symmetry of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections being recorded for each direction of the incident x-radiation. By either method an overall point-to-point three dimensional representation of the diamond is produced. (U.K.)

  11. I12: the Joint Engineering, Environment and Processing (JEEP) beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Reinhard, Christina; Atwood, Robert; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Vo, Nghia; Hart, Michael; Connor, Leigh; Humphreys, Bob; Howell, George; Davies, Steve; Hill, Tim; Wilkin, Guy; Pedersen, Ulrik; Foster, Andrew; De Maio, Nicoletta; Basham, Mark; Yuan, Fajin; Wanelik, Kaz

    2015-01-01

    JEEP is a high-energy (50–150 keV) multi-purpose beamline offering polychromatic and monochromatic modes. It can accommodate large samples and experimental rigs, enabling in situ studies using radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50–150 keV. The beam energy enables good penetration through large or dense samples, combined with a large beam size (1 mrad horizontally × 0.3 mrad vertically). The beam characteristics permit the study of materials and processes inside environmental chambers without unacceptable attenuation of the beam and without the need to use sample sizes which are atypically small for the process under study. X-ray techniques available to users are radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Since commencing operations in November 2009, I12 has established a broad user community in materials science and processing, chemical processing, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, environmental science, palaeontology and physics

  12. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a nanocrystalline diamond aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Laurence, Ted A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Wang, Yinmin; Willey, Trevor M.; Visbeck, Kenneth S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Evans, William J.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2011-07-06

    Aerogel materials have myriad scientific and technological applications due to their large intrinsic surface areas and ultralow densities. However, creating a nanodiamond aerogel matrix has remained an outstanding and intriguing challenge. Here we report the high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis of a diamond aerogel from an amorphous carbon aerogel precursor using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Neon is used as a chemically inert, near-hydrostatic pressure medium that prevents collapse of the aerogel under pressure by conformally filling the aerogel's void volume. Electron and X-ray spectromicroscopy confirm the aerogel morphology and composition of the nanodiamond matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of recovered material reveal the formation of both nitrogen- and silicon- vacancy point-defects, suggesting a broad range of applications for this nanocrystalline diamond aerogel.

  14. Crack formation mechanisms during micro and macro indentation of diamond-like carbon coatings on elastic-plastic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Fischer-Cripps, A.C.; Swain, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    of cracking and the fracture mechanisms taking place. In the study various diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited onto stainless steel and tool steel were investigated. Results primarily for one DLC system will be presented here. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.......In the present study crack formation is investigated on both micro and macro scale using spherical indenter tips. in particular, systems consisting of elastic coatings that are well adhered to elastic-plastic substrates are studied. Depth sensing indentation is used on the micro scale and Rockwell...... indentation on the macro scale. The predominant driving force for coating failure and crack formation during indentation is plastic deformation of the underlying substrate. The aim is to relate the mechanisms creating both delamination and cohesive cracking on both scales with fracture mechanical models...

  15. Machinability of lithium disilicate glass ceramic in in vitro dental diamond bur adjusting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Ren, Hai-Tao; Yin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Esthetic high-strength lithium disilicate glass ceramics (LDGC) are used for monolithic crowns and bridges produced in dental CAD/CAM and oral adjusting processes, which machinability affects the restorative quality. A machinability study has been made in the simulated oral clinical machining of LDGC with a dental handpiece and diamond burs, regarding the diamond tool wear and chip control, machining forces and energy, surface finish and integrity. Machining forces, speeds and energy in in vitro dental adjusting of LDGC were measured by a high-speed data acquisition and force sensor system. Machined LDGC surfaces were assessed using three-dimensional non-contact chromatic confocal optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Diamond bur morphology and LDGC chip shapes were also examined using SEM. Minimum tool wear but significant LDGC chip accumulations were found. Machining forces and energy significantly depended on machining conditions (pceramics (pceramics (pceramics. Surface roughness for machined LDGC was comparable for other glass ceramics. The removal mechanisms of LDGC were dominated by penetration-induced brittle fracture and shear-induced plastic deformation. Unlike most other glass ceramics, distinct intergranular and transgranular fractures of lithium disilicate crystals were found in LDGC. This research provides the fundamental data for dental clinicians on the machinability of LDGC in intraoral adjustments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron field emission for ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A. R.; Auciello, O.; Ding, M. Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Huang, Y.; Zhirnov, V. V.; Givargizov, E. I.; Breskin, A.; Chechen, R.; Shefer, E. (and others)

    2001-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films 0.1--2.4 {mu}m thick were conformally deposited on sharp single Si microtip emitters, using microwave CH{sub 4}--Ar plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in combination with a dielectrophoretic seeding process. Field-emission studies exhibited stable, extremely high (60--100 {mu}A/tip) emission current, with little variation in threshold fields as a function of film thickness or Si tip radius. The electron emission properties of high aspect ratio Si microtips, coated with diamond using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process were found to be very different from those of the UNCD-coated tips. For the HFCVD process, there is a strong dependence of the emission threshold on both the diamond coating thickness and Si tip radius. Quantum photoyield measurements of the UNCD films revealed that these films have an enhanced density of states within the bulk diamond band gap that is correlated with a reduction in the threshold field for electron emission. In addition, scanning tunneling microscopy studies indicate that the emission sites from UNCD films are related to minima or inflection points in the surface topography, and not to surface asperities. These data, in conjunction with tight binding pseudopotential calculations, indicate that grain boundaries play a critical role in the electron emission properties of UNCD films, such that these boundaries: (a) provide a conducting path from the substrate to the diamond--vacuum interface, (b) produce a geometric enhancement in the local electric field via internal structures, rather than surface topography, and (c) produce an enhancement in the local density of states within the bulk diamond band gap.

  17. Diamond brazing - interfacial reactions and wetting; Loeten von Diamant - Grenzflaechenreaktionen und Benetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillmann, W.; Osmanda, A.M.; Yurchenko, S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstofftechnologie, Universitaet Dortmund, Leonhard-Euler-Str. 2, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Theisen, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl Werkstofftechnik (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Diamond tools are increasingly gaining importance as cutting materials for various construction materials. The quality of synthetic diamonds, monocrystalline as well as polycrystalline or CVD-diamonds has been significantly improved over the last years. Integrating these cutting materials requires adequate joining technologies that produce sound joints without exposing the temperature sensitive diamond to too elevated temperatures. The paper highlights current developments in the joining of synthetic diamonds to steel and cemented carbide. Owing to their covalent atomic bonding diamonds cannot easily be wetted and joined by employing conventional brazing alloys. Hence, active agents are needed to foster an interfacial reaction. Different active filler concepts are presented and discussed regarding their joint formation. The brazing temperatures influence not only possible diamond degradation but also the interfacial decomposition of the diamond due to the formation of corresponding reaction layers.Active brazing, monocrystalline. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Diamantwerkstoffe erlangen zunehmend Bedeutung als Schneidmaterialien in Diamantwerkzeugen fuer die Bearbeitung verschiedener Konstruktionswerkstoffe. Die Qualitaet von synthetischen Diamanten, sowohl monokristallinen als auch polykristallinen oder CVD-Diamantschichten konnte in den letzten Jahren deutlich verbessert werden. Die Integration dieser Schneidstoffe erfordert eine angepasste Fuegetechnologie, die fehlerfreie Verbunde bereitstellt, ohne die gegenueber hohen Temperaturen empfindlichen Diamanten zu hohen Temperaturen auszusetzen. Der Beitrag zeigt aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Fuegetechnik von synthetischen Diamanten mit Stahl und Hartmetall auf. Infolge ihrer kovalenten atomaren Bindungen koennen Diamanten nicht ohne weiteres mit herkoemmlichen Lotwerkstoffen benetzt und gefuegt werden. Daher sind reaktive Elemente notwendig, die eine Grenzflaechenreaktion forcieren

  18. Diamond Windows for High Powered Microwave Transmission. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, R.

    2011-01-01

    This phase II SBIR developed technology for manufacturing diamond windows for use in high energy density photon transmission e.g. microwave or laser light photons. Microwave sources used in fusion research require microwave extraction windows with high thermal conductivity, low microwave absorption, and low resistance to thermal cracking. Newly developed, man made diamond windows have all three of these properties, but these windows are prohibitively expensive. This limits the natural progress of these important technologies to higher powers and slows the development of additional applications. This project developed a lower cost process for manufacturing diamond windows using microwave plasma. Diamond windows were deposited. A grinding process was used to provide optical smoothness for 2 cm diameter diamond windows that met the parallelism specifications for fusion beam windows. The microwave transmission performance (loss tangent) of one of the windows was measured at 95GHz to be less than 10-4, meeting specifications for utilization in the ITER tokamak.

  19. Photoluminescent properties of single crystal diamond microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, Sergey A.; Ismagilov, Rinat R.; Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Fedotov, Pavel V.; Ermakova, Anna; Siyushev, Petr; Katamadze, Konstantin G.; Jelezko, Fedor; Rakovich, Yury P.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Single crystal needle-like diamonds shaped as rectangular pyramids were produced by combination of chemical vapor deposition and selective oxidation with dimensions and geometrical characteristics depending on the deposition process parameters. Photoluminescence spectra and their dependencies on wavelength of excitation radiation reveal presence of nitrogen- and silicon-vacancy color centers in the diamond crystallites. Photoluminescence spectra, intensity mapping, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy indicate that silicon-vacancy centers are concentrated at the crystallites apex while nitrogen-vacancy centers are distributed over the whole crystallite. Dependence of the photoluminescence on excitation radiation intensity demonstrates saturation and allows estimation of the color centers density. The combination of structural parameters, geometry and photoluminescent characteristics are prospective for advantageous applications of these diamond crystallites in quantum information processing and optical sensing.

  20. Improvements in or relating to artefacts incorporating industrial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, N.E.W.; Poole, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A process for improving the wear characteristics of industrial diamonds is described which consists of implanting into the surface regions of the diamonds, ions of a material having an atomic weight greater than one and such as to affect the surface properties of the diamonds. Examples of the invention, in which N + and C + ions have been used, are cited. (U.K.)

  1. Genesis of diamond inclusions: An integrated cathodoluminescence (CL) and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) study on eclogitic and peridotitic inclusions and their diamond host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Quint; Matveev, Sergei; Drury, Martyn; Gress, Michael; Chinn, Ingrid; Davies, Gareth

    2017-04-01

    Diamond inclusions are potentially fundamental to understanding the formation conditions of diamond and the volatile cycles in the deep mantle. In order to fully understand the implications of the compositional information recorded by inclusions it is vital to know whether the inclusions are proto-, syn-, or epigenetic and the extent to which they have equilibrated with diamond forming fluids. In previous studies, the widespread assumption was made that the majority of diamond inclusions are syngenetic, based upon observation of cubo-octahedral morphology imposed on the inclusions. Recent work has reported the crystallographic relationship between inclusions and the host diamond to be highly complex and the lack of crystallographic relationships between inclusions and diamonds has led some to question the significance of imposed cubo-octahedral morphology. This study presents an integrated EBSD and CL study of 9 diamonds containing 20 pyropes, 2 diopsides, 1 forsterite and 1 rutile from the Jwaneng and Letlhakane kimberlite clusters, Botswana. A new method was developed to analyze the crystallographic orientation of the host diamond and the inclusions with EBSD. Diamonds plates were sequentially polished to expose inclusions at different levels in the diamond. CL imaging at different depths was performed in order to produce a 3D view of diamond growth zones around the inclusions. Standard diamond polishing techniques proved too aggressive for silicate inclusions as they were damaged to such a degree that EBSD measurements on the inclusions were impossible. The inclusions were milled with a Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) at a 12° angle to clean the surface for EBSD measurements. Of the 24 inclusions, 9 have an imposed cubo-octahedral morphology. Of these inclusions, 6 have faces orientated parallel to diamond growth zones and/or appear to have nucleated on a diamond growth surface, implying syngenesis. In contrast, other diamonds record resorption events such that

  2. Detection of diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.; Blondeel, E.J.G.; Taylor, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond particles are distinguished from non-diamond, associated particles on the basis of their higher refractive index. The particles are brought to a specific location, typically in a stream of water flowing full in a vertical duct, and a beam of collimated electromagnetic radiation is directed at them. An array of radiation detectors is provided to detect refracted and/or reflected radiation. The array is so configured that the responses of the detectors, considered collectively, will be indicative of the presence of a diamond when a diamond is in fact present. However, when a particle having a substantially lower refractive index is present, the responses of the detectors will not be so indicative. The diamond and non-diamond particles can subsequently be sorted from one another

  3. Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The promising applications of the microwave plasmas have been appearing in the fields of chemical processes and semiconductor manufacturing. Applications include surface deposition of all types including diamond/diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings, etching of semiconductors, promotion of organic reactions, ...

  4. Improved stability of titanium based boron-doped chemical vapor deposited diamond thin-film electrode by modifying titanium substrate surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, P.Y.; Lin, F.Y.; Shih, H.C.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Varnin, V.P.; Pleskov, Yu.V.; Hsu, S.F.; Chou, S.S.; Hsu, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    The film quality and electrochemical properties of BDD (boron-doped diamond) thin films grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique on titanium substrates that had been subjected to a range of pre-treatment processes were evaluated. The pre-roughened Ti-substrates are shown to support more adherent BDD films. It is evident that acid-etching the Ti-substrate involves surface hydrogenation that enhances nucleation and formation of diamond thereon. The prepared BDD film exhibits wide potential window and electrochemical reversibility. It also demonstrated a better long-term electrochemical stability based on the low variation in voltametric background current upon the exposing of the electrodes to repeated cycles of electrochemical metal deposition/stripping process

  5. Synthetic diamond in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskov, Yurii V

    1999-01-01

    The results of studies on the electrochemistry of diamond carried out during the last decade are reviewed. Methods for the preparation, the crystalline structure and the main electrophysical properties of diamond thin films are considered. Depending on the doping conditions, the diamond behaves as a superwide-gap semiconductor or as a semimetal. It is shown that the 'metal-like' diamond is corrosion-resistant and can be used advantageously as an electrode in the electrosynthesis (in particular, for the electroreduction of compounds that are difficult to reduce) and electroanalysis. Kinetic characteristics of some redox reactions and the impedance parameters for diamond electrodes are presented. The results of comparative studies of the electrodes made of diamond single crystals, polycrystalline diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon, which reveal the effect of the crystalline structure (e.g., the influence of intercrystallite boundaries) on the electrochemical properties of diamond, are presented. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  6. Carbon nanostructure formation driven by energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyuan; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures, especially carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been envisaged to be the building blocks of a variety of nanoscale devices and materials. The inherent nanometer-size and ability of being either metallic or semiconductive of CNTs lead to their application in nanoelectronics. Excellent mechanical characteristics of CNTs suggest their use as structural reinforcements. However, to fully exploit the potential applications, effective means of tailoring CNT properties must be developed. Irradiation of materials with energetic particles beams (ions and electrons) is a standard and important tool for modifying material properties. Irradiation makes it possible to dope the samples, to create local amorphous region or vice versa, recrystallize the lattice and even drive a phase transition. In this paper, we report our results of (1) phase transfromation from carbon nanotubes to nanocrystalline diamond driven by hydrogen plasma, (2) onion-like nanostructure from carbon nanotubes driven by ion beams of several tens keV, and (3) amorphous carbon nanowire network formation by ion beam irradiation. Structural phase transformation from multiwalled carbon nanotubes to nanocrystalline diamond by hydrogen plasma post-treatment was carried out. Ultrahigh equivalent diamond nucleation density of more than 1011 nuclei/cm 2 was obtained. The diamond formation and growth mechanisms were proposed to be the consequence of the formation of sp3 bonded amorphous carbon clusters. The hydrogen chemisorption on curved graphite network and the energy deposited on CNTs by continuous impingement of activated molecular or atomic hydrogen are responsible for the formation of amorphous carbon matrix. Diamond nucleates and grows in the way similar to that of diamond chemical vapor deposition processes on amorphous carbon films. Furthermore, single crystalline diamond nanorods of 4-8 nm in diameter and up to 200 nm in length have been successfully synthesized by hydrogen plasma post

  7. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  8. Diamond semiconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polowczyk, M.; Klugmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Many efforts to apply the semiconducting diamond for construction of electronic elements: resistors, thermistors, photoresistors, piezoresistors, hallotrons, pn diodes, Schottky diodes, IMPATT diodes, npn transistor, MESFETs and MISFETs are reviewed. Considering the possibilities of acceptor and donor doping, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of diamond as well as high electric-field breakdown points, that diamond devices could be used at about 30-times higher frequency and more then 8200 times power than silicon devices. Except that, due to high heat resistant of diamond, it is concluded that diamond devices can be used in environment at high temperature, range of 600 o C. (author)

  9. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond coated on titanium for osteoblast adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh; Yang, Lei; Kothari, Abhishek; Sirinrath, Sirivisoot; Xiao, Xingcheng; Sheldon, Brian W; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    Diamond coatings with superior chemical stability, antiwear, and cytocompatibility properties have been considered for lengthening the lifetime of metallic orthopedic implants for over a decade. In this study, an attempt to tailor the surface properties of diamond films on titanium to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) adhesion was reported. The surface properties investigated here included the size of diamond surface features, topography, wettability, and surface chemistry, all of which were controlled during microwave plasma enhanced chemical-vapor-deposition (MPCVD) processes using CH4-Ar-H2 gas mixtures. The hardness and elastic modulus of the diamond films were also determined. H2 concentration in the plasma was altered to control the crystallinity, grain size, and topography of the diamond coatings, and specific plasma gases (O2 and NH3) were introduced to change the surface chemistry of the diamond coatings. To understand the impact of the altered surface properties on osteoblast responses, cell adhesion tests were performed on the various diamond-coated titanium. The results revealed that nanocrystalline diamond (grain sizes diamond and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic applications. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  10. Diamond ages from Victor (Superior Craton): Intra-mantle cycling of volatiles (C, N, S) during supercontinent reorganisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, S.; Creaser, Robert A.; Stachel, Thomas; Heaman, Larry M.; Chinn, Ingrid L.; Kong, Julie

    2018-05-01

    The central Superior Craton hosts both the diamondiferous 1.1 Ga Kyle Lake and Jurassic Attawapiskat kimberlites. A major thermal event related to the Midcontinent Rift at ca. 1.1 Ga induced an elevated geothermal gradient that largely destroyed an older generation of diamonds, raising the question of when, and how, the diamond inventory beneath Attawapiskat was formed. We determined Re-Os isotope systematics of sulphides included in diamonds from Victor by isotope dilution negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in order to obtain insights into the age and nature of the diamond source in the context of regional tectonothermal evolution. Regression of the peridotitic inclusion data (n = 14 of 16) yields a 718 ± 49 Ma age, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1177 ± 0.0016, i.e. depleted at the time of formation (γOs -3.7 ± 1.3). Consequently, Re depletion model ages calculated for these samples are systematically overestimated. Given that reported 187Os/188Os in olivine from Attawapiskat xenoliths varies strongly (0.1012-0.1821), the low and nearly identical initial Os of sulphide inclusions combined with their high 187Re/188Os (median 0.34) suggest metasomatic formation from a mixed source. This was likely facilitated by percolation of amounts of melt sufficient to homogenise Os, (re)crystallise sulphide and (co)precipitate diamond; that is, the sulphide inclusions and their diamond host are synchronous if not syngenetic. The ∼720 Ma age corresponds to rifting beyond the northern craton margin during Rodinia break-up. This suggests mobilisation of volatiles (C, N, S) and Os due to attendant mantle stretching and metasomatism by initially oxidising and S-undersaturated melts, which ultimately produced lherzolitic diamonds with high N contents compared to older Kyle Lake diamonds. Thus, some rift-influenced settings are prospective with respect to diamond formation. They are also important sites of hidden, intra-lithospheric volatile redistribution

  11. Improvement on p-type CVD diamond semiconducting properties by fabricating thin heavily-boron-doped multi-layer clusters isolated each other in unintentionally boron-doped diamond layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Osamu; Tabuchi, Tomohiro; Ito, Toshimichi

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a new fabrication process to decrease the effective activation energy of B atoms doped in diamond without a significant decrease in the carrier mobility by fabricating heavily B-doped clusters with very low mobility which are embedded in lightly-B-doped diamond layers. The resistivities of the heavily B-doped and unintentionally B-doped diamond stacked layers had almost no temperature dependence, suggesting the presence of an impurity-band conduction in these diamond layers. On the other hand, the resistivities of the samples after the embedding growth process of the stacked layers that had been appropriately divided to innumerable small clusters by means of a suitable etching process increased with decreasing the temperature from 330 to 130 K. The effective activation energies and Hall mobilities at room temperature of both samples were estimated to be 0.21 eV, 106 cm2 V-1 s-1 for micron-sized clusters and 0.23 eV, 470 cm2 V-1 s-1 for nano-sized clusters, respectively, indicating that the diamond film structure fabricated in this work is effective for the improvement of the p-type performance for the B-doped CVD diamond.

  12. Diamond film deposition on WC–Co and steel substrates with a CrN interlayer for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Maneesh; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The most renowned property of diamond is its exceptional hardness. By depositing diamond films on tungsten carbide (WC–Co) and steel substrates, the hardness of diamond can be combined with the toughness of these materials, resulting in an excellent wear resistance material for tribological applications. However, poor adhesion of diamond coating on these substrates leads to a lesser lifetime for the diamond coated tools than expected. The prime reasons for the lack of proper adhesion are the preferential formation of graphitic layer at the interface due to the catalytic activities of cobalt/iron and the interfacial residual stresses due to the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of diamond (1.5  ×  10 −6 K −1 ) and WC–Co (5.2  ×  10 −6 K −1 ) or steel (12  ×  10 −6 K −1 ). In this review, we discuss the possibility of using a Cr–N interlayer as a diffusion barrier to prevent the catalytic activities of cobalt/iron and also to relax the interfacial residual stresses to some extent to enhance the adhesion of diamond coatings on these substrates. An overview of the most pertinent results of the last two decades, including the recent progress is introduced. We describe in detail how the Cr–N interlayer with the desired properties is fabricated. We give a concise overview of diamond deposition process, including the methods to vary the grain size from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline, which are suitable for some tribological applications. We describe in detail on surface and interface analysis, residual stress measurements, assessment adhesion strength and tribological performance of diamond coated WC–Co and steel substrates using various characterization techniques. We conclude by highlighting the current progress and future perspectives of diamond coatings on these substrates for tribological applications. (topical review)

  13. The modeling and synthesis of nanodiamonds by laser ablation of graphite and diamond-like carbon in liquid-confined ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, L.; Gorrini, F.; Bazzanella, N.; Cazzanelli, M.; Dorigoni, C.; Bifone, A.; Miotello, A.

    2018-01-01

    Nanodiamonds have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in quantum computation, sensing, and bioimaging. However, synthesis of nanodiamonds typically requires high pressures and temperatures, and is still a challenge. Here, we demonstrate production of nanodiamonds by pulsed laser ablation of graphite and diamond-like carbon in water. Importantly, this technique enables production of nanocrystalline diamonds at room temperature and standard pressure conditions. Moreover, we propose a method for the purification of nanodiamonds from graphitic and amorphous carbon phases that do not require strong acids and harsh chemical conditions. Finally, we present a thermodynamic model that describes the formation of nanodiamonds during pulsed laser ablation. We show that synthesis of the crystalline phase is driven by a graphite-liquid-diamond transition process that occurs at the extreme thermodynamic conditions reached inside the ablation plume.

  14. Advances in diamond tools for working lithoid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, M.; Ugues, D.; Valle, A.

    2001-01-01

    Lithoid material is a general definition to indicate a wide category of ornamental materials: they can be divided into natural (i.e. granite) or artificial (i.e. conglomerates and ceramics). All the lithoid materials are subjected to surface machining operations in order to obtain final work piece ready to be introduced an the market in form of slabs or tiles. This paper deals with the attempts of producing a machining diamond tools using a sintered steel binder. The opportunity of using a steel binder has been already highly studied by diamond tools industry, but with not satisfying outcomes and not longer developed, basically due to the catalysis action of iron and to the diamond degradation mechanism provided by high processing temperature. The binding matrix was produced by infiltration sintering. Infiltration requires the pore structure to be open and interconnected; thus, the sintered solid skeleton must have an at least 10 % porosity. Therefore, the infiltration sintering of the steel skeleton uses a temperature lower than the usually required for steel sintering one. Using the suitable infiltration agent will result in low infiltration temperature levels too (1). This should give the opportunity to work with a steel binder for diamond dispersed machining tools, without causing excessive damages to the diamond mechanical properties. The paper aims at overcoming the diamond degradation by lowering the production temperature using a definitively controlled infiltration sintering process. (author)

  15. Application of heat treatment and dispersive strengthening concept in interlayer deposition to enhance diamond film adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Chiiruey [Tatung Inst. of Technol., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Kuo Chengtzu; Chang Rueyming [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30050 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-10-31

    Two different deposition processes were carried out to enhance adherence of diamond films on WC+3-5%Co substrate with Ti-Si as the interlayer. One process can be called two-step diamond deposition process. Another process can be called interlayer heat treatment process. Diamond films were deposited by a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. Ti and Si interlayer are deposited by DC sputter and an E-gun, respectively. Film morphologies, interface structure and film quality were examined by SEM, XRD, Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The residual stresses and adhesion strengths of the films were determined by Raman spectroscopy and indentation adhesion testing, respectively. Comparing the regular one-step diamond deposition process with the present two different new processes, the average dP/dX values, which are a measure of the adherence of the film, are 354 kgf/mm, 494 kgf/mm and 787 kgf/mm, respectively. In other words, the interlayer heat treatment process gives the best film adherence on average. For the two-step diamond deposition process, the interlayer thickness and the percent diamond surface coverage of the first diamond deposition step are the main parameters, and there exists an optimum Ti thickness and percent diamond coverage for the best film adherence. The main contribution to better film adherence is not a large difference in residual stress, but is due to the following reasons. The interlayer heat treatment can transform amorphous Si to polycrystalline Si, and may form strong TiC and SiC bonding. The polycrystalline Si and the diamond particles from the first diamond deposition step can be an effective seeds to enhance diamond nucleation. (orig.) 11 refs.

  16. Transient photoresponse of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes in saline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnood, Arman, E-mail: arman.ahnood@unimelb.edu.au; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Prawer, Steven [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Simonov, Alexandr N.; Spiccia, Leone [School of Chemistry and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Laird, Jamie S. [CSIRO, Minerals Resources Flagship, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Maturana, Matias I. [National Vision Research Institute, Australian College of Optometry, Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); NeuroEngineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ibbotson, Michael R. [National Vision Research Institute, Australian College of Optometry, Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function, Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2016-03-07

    Beyond conventional electrically-driven neuronal stimulation methods, there is a growing interest in optically-driven approaches. In recent years, nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) has emerged as a strong material candidate for use in electrically-driven stimulation electrodes. This work investigates the electrochemical activity of N-UNCD in response to pulsed illumination, to assess its potential for use as an optically-driven stimulation electrode. Whilst N-UNCD in the as-grown state exhibits a weak photoresponse, the oxygen plasma treated film exhibits two orders of magnitude enhancement in its sub-bandgap open circuit photovoltage response. The enhancement is attributed to the formation of a dense network of oxygen-terminated diamond nanocrystals at the N-UNCD surface. Electrically connected to the N-UNCD bulk via sub-surface graphitic grain boundaries, these diamond nanocrystals introduce a semiconducting barrier between the sub-surface graphitic semimetal and the electrolyte solution, leading to a photovoltage under irradiation with wavelengths of λ = 450 nm and shorter. Within the safe optical exposure limit of 2 mW mm{sup −2}, charge injection capacity of 0.01 mC cm{sup −2} is achieved using a 15 × 15 μm electrode, meeting the requirements for extracellular and intercellular stimulation. The nanoscale nature of processes presented here along with the diamond's biocompatibility and biostability open an avenue for the use of oxygen treated N-UNCD as optically driven stimulating electrodes.

  17. Transient photoresponse of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes in saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Prawer, Steven; Simonov, Alexandr N.; Spiccia, Leone; Laird, Jamie S.; Maturana, Matias I.; Ibbotson, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Beyond conventional electrically-driven neuronal stimulation methods, there is a growing interest in optically-driven approaches. In recent years, nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) has emerged as a strong material candidate for use in electrically-driven stimulation electrodes. This work investigates the electrochemical activity of N-UNCD in response to pulsed illumination, to assess its potential for use as an optically-driven stimulation electrode. Whilst N-UNCD in the as-grown state exhibits a weak photoresponse, the oxygen plasma treated film exhibits two orders of magnitude enhancement in its sub-bandgap open circuit photovoltage response. The enhancement is attributed to the formation of a dense network of oxygen-terminated diamond nanocrystals at the N-UNCD surface. Electrically connected to the N-UNCD bulk via sub-surface graphitic grain boundaries, these diamond nanocrystals introduce a semiconducting barrier between the sub-surface graphitic semimetal and the electrolyte solution, leading to a photovoltage under irradiation with wavelengths of λ = 450 nm and shorter. Within the safe optical exposure limit of 2 mW mm"−"2, charge injection capacity of 0.01 mC cm"−"2 is achieved using a 15 × 15 μm electrode, meeting the requirements for extracellular and intercellular stimulation. The nanoscale nature of processes presented here along with the diamond's biocompatibility and biostability open an avenue for the use of oxygen treated N-UNCD as optically driven stimulating electrodes.

  18. Hydrogen content and density in nanocrystalline carbon films of a predominant diamond character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.; Heiman, A.; Akhvlediani, R.; Lakin, E.; Zolotoyabko, E.; Cyterman, C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon films possessing a prevailing diamond or graphite character, depending on substrate temperature, can be deposited from a methane hydrogen mixture by the direct current glow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition method. While at a temperature of ∼880 deg. C, following the formation of a thin precursor graphitic film, diamond nucleation occurs and a nanodiamond film grows, at higher and lower deposition temperatures the films maintain their graphitic character. In this study the hydrogen content, density and nanocrystalline phase composition of films deposited at various temperatures are investigated. We aim to elucidate the role of hydrogen in nanocrystalline films with a predominant diamond character. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a considerable increase of the hydrogen concentration in the films that accompanies the growth of nanodiamond. It correlates with near edge x-ray adsorption spectroscopy measurements, that showed an appearance of spectroscopic features associated with the diamond structure, and with a substantial increase of the film density detected by x-ray reflectivity. Electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that nanocrystalline diamond films can be deposited from a CH 4 /H 2 mixture with hydrogen concentration in the 80%-95% range. For a deposition temperature of 880 deg. C, the highest diamond character of the films was found for a hydrogen concentration of 91% of H 2 . The deposition temperature plays an important role in diamond formation, strongly influencing the content of adsorbed hydrogen with an optimum at 880 deg. C. It is suggested that diamond nucleation and growth of the nanodiamond phase is driven by densification of the deposited graphitic films which results in high local compressive stresses. Nanodiamond formation is accompanied by an increase of hydrogen concentration in the films. It is suggested that hydrogen retention is critical for stabilization of nanodiamond crystallites. At lower

  19. LOW-TEMPERATURE SURFACE HARDENING FOR DIAMOND TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shmatov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of cutting diamond tools subjected to thermo-hydro-chemical treatment are examined in the paper. The process involves a chemical treatment of tools in a specially prepared aqueous suspension of oxides Ti, Mo and other ingredients and subsequent heat treatment (minimal process temperature 130 °C. Thermo-hydro-chemical method permits to increase a wear resistance of cutting diamond tools by the factor of 1.3–4.0 in comparison with traditional one.

  20. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    reactor has been developed to grow diamond films which are subsequently processed to fabricate a few different electronic devices, these include high-breakdown Schottky barrier junctions, silicon-diamond heterojunctions, light emitting diodes, photoconductors. The growth technique and characterizations of diamond material as well as the processing and measurements of the diamond-based devices are studied and presented in this thesis.

  1. Fabrication of Diamond Based Sensors for Use in Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi K. Samudrala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and magnetic sensors can be lithographically fabricated on top of diamond substrates and encapsulated in a protective layer of chemical vapor deposited single crystalline diamond. This process when carried out on single crystal diamond anvils employed in high pressure research is termed as designer diamond anvil fabrication. These designer diamond anvils allow researchers to study electrical and magnetic properties of materials under extreme conditions without any possibility of damaging the sensing elements. We describe a novel method for the fabrication of designer diamond anvils with the use of maskless lithography and chemical vapor deposition in this paper. This method can be utilized to produce diamond based sensors which can function in extreme environments of high pressures, high and low temperatures, corrosive and high radiation conditions. We demonstrate applicability of these diamonds under extreme environments by performing electrical resistance measurements during superconducting transition in rare earth doped iron-based compounds under high pressures to 12 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K.

  2. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  3. The influence of sterilization on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Tran, Phong A; Turnley, Ann M; Aramesh, Morteza; Prawer, Steven; Brandt, Milan; Fox, Kate

    2016-04-01

    Diamond has shown great potential in different biomedical applications, but the effects of sterilization on its properties have not been investigated. Here, we studied the influence of five sterilization techniques (solvent cleaning, oxygen plasma, UV irradiation, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide) on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond. The chemical modification of the diamond surface was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp(2) bonded carbon etching were found following all sterilization techniques, resulting in an increase of hydrophilicity. Higher viabilities of in vitro mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat cortical neuron cells were observed on oxygen plasma, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide sterilized diamond, which correlated with their higher hydrophilicity. By examination of apatite formation in simulated body fluid, in vivo bioactivity was predicted to be best on those surfaces which have been oxygen plasma treated and lowest on those which have been exposed to UV irradiation. The charge injection properties were also altered by the sterilization process and there appears to be a correlation between these changes and the degree of oxygen termination of the surface. We find that the modification brought by autoclave, oxygen plasma and hydrogen peroxide were most consistent with the use of N-UNCD in biological applications as compared to samples sterilized by solvent cleaning or UV exposure or indeed non-sterilized. A two-step process of sterilization by hydrogen peroxide following oxygen plasma treatment was then suggested. However, the final choice of sterilization technique will depend on the intended end application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Creation and characterization of He-related color centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: forneris@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Tengattini, A.; Tchernij, S. Ditalia [Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Picollo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Battiato, A. [Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Traina, P.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Moreva, E.; Brida, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); and others

    2016-11-15

    Diamond is a promising material for the development of emerging applications in quantum optics, quantum information and quantum sensing. The fabrication and characterization of novel luminescent defects with suitable opto-physical properties is therefore of primary importance for further advances in these research fields. In this work we report on the investigation in the formation of photoluminescent (PL) defects upon MeV He implantation in diamond. Such color centers, previously reported only in electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence regime, exhibited two sharp emission lines at 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm, without significant phonon sidebands. A strong correlation between the PL intensities of the above-mentioned emission lines and the He implantation fluence was found in the 10{sup 15}–10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} fluence range. The PL emission features were not detected in control samples, i.e. samples that were either unirradiated or irradiated with different ion species (H, C). Therefore, the PL features are attributed to optically active defects in the diamond matrix associated with He impurities. The intensity of the 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm emission lines was investigated as a function of the annealing temperature of the diamond substrate. The emission was observed upon annealing at temperatures higher than 500 °C, at the expenses of the concurrently decreasing neutral-vacancy-related GR1 emission intensity. Therefore, our findings indicate that the luminescence originates from the formation of a stable lattice defect. Finally, photoluminescence from He-related defects was observed under different laser excitations wavelengths (i.e. 532 nm and 405 nm), thus providing promising evidence of a broad spectral range for optical stimulation. - Highlights: • Creation of luminescent defects in single-crystal diamond upon He implantation. • First observation of photoluminescent emission from two sharp emission lines at 536.5 and 560.5 nm. • Attribution of the

  5. Creation and characterization of He-related color centers in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forneris, J.; Tengattini, A.; Tchernij, S. Ditalia; Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Traina, P.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Moreva, E.; Brida, G.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material for the development of emerging applications in quantum optics, quantum information and quantum sensing. The fabrication and characterization of novel luminescent defects with suitable opto-physical properties is therefore of primary importance for further advances in these research fields. In this work we report on the investigation in the formation of photoluminescent (PL) defects upon MeV He implantation in diamond. Such color centers, previously reported only in electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence regime, exhibited two sharp emission lines at 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm, without significant phonon sidebands. A strong correlation between the PL intensities of the above-mentioned emission lines and the He implantation fluence was found in the 10 15 –10 17 cm −2 fluence range. The PL emission features were not detected in control samples, i.e. samples that were either unirradiated or irradiated with different ion species (H, C). Therefore, the PL features are attributed to optically active defects in the diamond matrix associated with He impurities. The intensity of the 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm emission lines was investigated as a function of the annealing temperature of the diamond substrate. The emission was observed upon annealing at temperatures higher than 500 °C, at the expenses of the concurrently decreasing neutral-vacancy-related GR1 emission intensity. Therefore, our findings indicate that the luminescence originates from the formation of a stable lattice defect. Finally, photoluminescence from He-related defects was observed under different laser excitations wavelengths (i.e. 532 nm and 405 nm), thus providing promising evidence of a broad spectral range for optical stimulation. - Highlights: • Creation of luminescent defects in single-crystal diamond upon He implantation. • First observation of photoluminescent emission from two sharp emission lines at 536.5 and 560.5 nm. • Attribution of the emission lines to

  6. Thermal diffusivity of diamond films using a laser pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, S.; Winfree, W.P.; Crews, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. A laser pulse technique was developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate. The effective thermal diffusivity of a diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by laser pulses. An analytical model is presented to calculate the effective inplane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two-layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film

  7. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuezhang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wei Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yu Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nucleation density was increased to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  8. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuezhang; Wei Qiuping; Yu Zhiming; Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. ► The nucleation density was increased to 10 11 cm −2 . ► Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. ► Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp 3 -bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10 11 cm −2 , and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  9. Fabrication of an infrared Shack-Hartmann sensor by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Wenchen; Naples, Neil J; Yi, Allen Y

    2018-05-01

    A novel fabrication method by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes for fabrication of discontinuous freeform microlens arrays was proposed. Compared with slow tool servo diamond broaching, high-speed single-point diamond milling was selected for its flexibility in the fabrication of true 3D optical surfaces with discontinuous features. The advantage of single-point diamond milling is that the surface features can be constructed sequentially by spacing the axes of a virtual spindle at arbitrary positions based on the combination of rotational and translational motions of both the high-speed spindle and linear slides. By employing this method, each micro-lenslet was regarded as a microstructure cell by passing the axis of the virtual spindle through the vertex of each cell. An optimization arithmetic based on minimum-area fabrication was introduced to the machining process to further increase the machining efficiency. After the mold insert was machined, it was employed to replicate the microlens array onto chalcogenide glass. In the ensuing optical measurement, the self-built Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was proven to be accurate in detecting an infrared wavefront by both experiments and numerical simulation. The combined results showed that precision compression molding of chalcogenide glasses could be an economic and precision optical fabrication technology for high-volume production of infrared optics.

  10. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  11. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  12. Study of imperfect natural diamonds with the application of the X-ray synchrotron radiation (the 'Laue-SR' method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylov, G.M.; Yefimova, E.S.; Sobolev, N.V.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Kondratyev, V.I.; Tolochko, B.P.; Sharafutdinov, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Laue-SR' method has been realised for fast gathering experimental data in the study of imperfect natural and synthesised diamonds which are hard to investigate with the conventional X-ray methods. Time to obtain a diffraction pattern with the use of the polychromatic SR is shorter by several orders; the resolution of the image of substructure defects of a crystal lattice (as compared to the conventional Laue method) is improved by an order and does not vanish even at large disorientation or other non-coherent disturbances of the crystal lattice. The 'Laue-SR' method is especially appropriate for the study of intact, sufficiently large diamond crystals (up to 5 mm), since the diamond has a small coefficient of the X-ray absorption and is practically transparent in the operational range of the SR waves, λ=0.5-1.5 A. This method was shown to be applied successfully for an accelerated study of a large bulk of imperfect natural diamond crystals without any preliminary preparation and without their destruction, which enlarges the information output in the study and, besides that, increases significantly the efficiency of the work. X-ray 'Laue-SR' topograms of imperfect diamonds with different types of distortions of the crystal lattice by natural processes during the formation of the diamonds and by epigenetic impacts are shown

  13. U-Pb ages in zircon of the Grao Mogol diamond-bearing conglomerate (Espinhaco supergroup): implications for the diamond origin in the Espinhaco range in Minas Gerais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Mario Luiz de Sa Carneiro; Silva, Marcio Celio Rodrigues da; Babinski, Marly; Scholz, Rixcardo

    2013-01-01

    The Espinhaco Range in the Grao Mogol region, center-north of Minas Gerais state, is composed by fine grained quartzites with large cross stratifications (Resplandescente Formation), which are covered with erosional unconformity by monomictic conglomerates, and medium to coarse grained quartzites (Grao Mogol Formation), both units belonging to the Espinhaco Supergroup, of Proterozoic age. At the locality known as 'Pedra Rica' (signify Rich Rock, an old diamond digging), rocks of these formations were sampled and separated detrital zircons to acquire U-Pb by Laser Ablation Inductively LA-ICPMS) ages. The analyzed grains are rounded to slightly rounded and show oscillatory zoning. The obtained results indicate a maximum depositional age of 1,595±20 Ma for the Resplandescente Formation, and 1,052±50 Ma for the Grao Mogol Formation. The comparison between the obtained data and the available ages for the Diamantina region and proximities, in the same diamond province, indicates a strong evidence for the existence of at least two primary mineralizing events in the basin, in the age range of 1.35 to 1.05 Ga. (author)

  14. Study of process of trueing diamond grinding wheels on metal bonds by method of free abrasive after processing of leucosapphire blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedonin, O. N.; Handozhko, A. V.; Fedukov, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of mechanical processing, in particular, grinding products from leucosapphire, is considered. The main problem with this treatment is the need to adjust the diamond tool. One of the methods of tool trueing using loose abrasive technique is considered. The results of a study on restoring the tool cutting ability, its shape and profile after straightening are given.

  15. The influence of sterilization on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Wei; Tran, Phong A.; Turnley, Ann M.; Aramesh, Morteza; Prawer, Steven; Brandt, Milan; Fox, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Diamond has shown great potential in different biomedical applications, but the effects of sterilization on its properties have not been investigated. Here, we studied the influence of five sterilization techniques (solvent cleaning, oxygen plasma, UV irradiation, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide) on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond. The chemical modification of the diamond surface was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp 2 bonded carbon etching were found following all sterilization techniques, resulting in an increase of hydrophilicity. Higher viabilities of in vitro mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat cortical neuron cells were observed on oxygen plasma, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide sterilized diamond, which correlated with their higher hydrophilicity. By examination of apatite formation in simulated body fluid, in vivo bioactivity was predicted to be best on those surfaces which have been oxygen plasma treated and lowest on those which have been exposed to UV irradiation. The charge injection properties were also altered by the sterilization process and there appears to be a correlation between these changes and the degree of oxygen termination of the surface. We find that the modification brought by autoclave, oxygen plasma and hydrogen peroxide were most consistent with the use of N-UNCD in biological applications as compared to samples sterilized by solvent cleaning or UV exposure or indeed non-sterilized. A two-step process of sterilization by hydrogen peroxide following oxygen plasma treatment was then suggested. However, the final choice of sterilization technique will depend on the intended end application. - Highlights: • We test for the first time the effect of 5 sterilization techniques on nitrogen included ultrananocrystalline diamond. • Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp 2 bonded carbon etching were found to

  16. The influence of sterilization on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wei [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phong A. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland (Australia); Turnley, Ann M. [Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Aramesh, Morteza [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); School of Chemistry, Physics, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Prawer, Steven [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Brandt, Milan [Centre for Additive Manufacturing, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Fox, Kate, E-mail: kate.fox@rmit.edu.au [Centre for Additive Manufacturing, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-04-01

    Diamond has shown great potential in different biomedical applications, but the effects of sterilization on its properties have not been investigated. Here, we studied the influence of five sterilization techniques (solvent cleaning, oxygen plasma, UV irradiation, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide) on nitrogen-included ultrananocrystalline diamond. The chemical modification of the diamond surface was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp{sup 2} bonded carbon etching were found following all sterilization techniques, resulting in an increase of hydrophilicity. Higher viabilities of in vitro mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and rat cortical neuron cells were observed on oxygen plasma, autoclave and hydrogen peroxide sterilized diamond, which correlated with their higher hydrophilicity. By examination of apatite formation in simulated body fluid, in vivo bioactivity was predicted to be best on those surfaces which have been oxygen plasma treated and lowest on those which have been exposed to UV irradiation. The charge injection properties were also altered by the sterilization process and there appears to be a correlation between these changes and the degree of oxygen termination of the surface. We find that the modification brought by autoclave, oxygen plasma and hydrogen peroxide were most consistent with the use of N-UNCD in biological applications as compared to samples sterilized by solvent cleaning or UV exposure or indeed non-sterilized. A two-step process of sterilization by hydrogen peroxide following oxygen plasma treatment was then suggested. However, the final choice of sterilization technique will depend on the intended end application. - Highlights: • We test for the first time the effect of 5 sterilization techniques on nitrogen included ultrananocrystalline diamond. • Different degrees of surface oxidation and selective sp{sup 2} bonded carbon etching were

  17. Diamond-based single-photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Simpson, D A; Su, C-H; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum information-thereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.

  18. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  19. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  20. Use of natural diamonds to monitor 14C AMS instrument backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.; Southon, John

    2007-01-01

    To examine one component of the instrument-based background in University of California Keck Carbon Cycle AMS spectrometer, we have obtained measurements on a set of natural diamonds pressed into sample holders. Natural diamond samples (N = 14) from different sources within rock formations with geological ages greatly in excess of 100 Ma yielded a range of currents (∼110-250 μA 12 C - where filamentous graphite typically yields ∼150 μA 12 C - ) and apparent 14 C ages (64.9 ± 0.4 ka BP [0.00031 ± 0.00002 fm] to 80.0 ± 1.1 ka BP [0.00005 ± 0.00001 fm]). Six fragments cut from a single diamond exhibited essentially identical 14 C values - 69.3 ± 0.5 ka-70.6 ± 0.5 ka BP. The oldest 14 C age equivalents were measured on natural diamonds which exhibited the highest current yields

  1. Surface structuring of boron doped CVD diamond by micro electrical discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, A.; Berger, T.; Martin, A.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Treffkorn, N.; Kühn, R.

    2018-05-01

    Boron doped diamond materials, which are generated by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), offer a great potential for the application on highly stressed tools, e. g. in cutting or forming processes. As a result of the CVD process rough surfaces arise, which require a finishing treatment in particular for the application in forming tools. Cutting techniques such as milling and grinding are hardly applicable for the finish machining because of the high strength of diamond. Due to its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is independent of hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. EDM is a suitable technology for machining and structuring CVD diamond, since boron doped CVD diamond is electrically conductive. In this study the ablation characteristics of boron doped CVD diamond by micro electrical discharge machining are investigated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different process parameters on the machining result. The impact of tool-polarity, voltage and discharge energy on the resulting erosion geometry and the tool wear was analyzed. A variation in path overlapping during the erosion of planar areas leads to different microstructures. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for finishing of boron doped CVD diamond.

  2. Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setasuwon P.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.

  3. Evaluating Sustainable Competitive Advantages in Brazilian and U.S. Processed Citrus Supply Chains: An Application of Porter’s Diamond Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Sterns

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The processed citrus industries of Sao Paulo, Brazil and Florida, United States collectively account for over 80 percent of world orange juice production. In recent years, both industries have been confronted with serious plant disease outbreaks. Porter’s Diamond framework is used to assess the strenghts and weakness of the processed citrus industry in each country to confront the combined challenge of effectively combating these diseases while maintaining market competitiveness. Although Sao Paulo and Florida produce a similar product, the Porter’s Diamond framework reveals that there are significant diffences in the organizational structure of the two industries. The article concludes with an analysis of how these differences will impact each industry’s ability to sustain its global leadership in the international processed citrus market.

  4. Friction between silicon and diamond at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Lichun; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Wang, Xu; Srolovitz, David J; Zhou, Kun

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the nanoscale friction between diamond-structure silicon (Si) and diamond via molecular dynamics simulation. The interaction between the interfaces is considered as strong covalent bonds. The effects of load, sliding velocity, temperature and lattice orientation are investigated. Results show that the friction can be divided into two stages: the static friction and the kinetic friction. During the static friction stage, the load, lattice orientation and temperature dramatically affects the friction by changing the elastic limit of Si. Large elastic deformation is induced in the Si block, which eventually leads to the formation of a thin layer of amorphous Si near the Si-diamond interface and thus the beginning of the kinetic friction stage. During the kinetic friction stage, only temperature and velocity have an effect on the friction. The investigation of the microstructural evolution of Si demonstrated that the kinetic friction can be categorized into two modes (stick-slip and smooth sliding) depending on the temperature of the fracture region. (paper)

  5. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hoffman, A. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry; Evan, P.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Paterson, P.J.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  6. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Paterson, P.J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs

  7. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hoffman, A [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry; Evan, P J [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Paterson, P J.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  9. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  10. Studies on synthesis of diamond at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailath, Ansu J.

    Diamond is an essential material of modern industry and probably the most versatile abrasive available today. It also has many other industrial applications attributable to its unique mechanical, optical, thermal and electrical properties. Its usage has grown to the extent that there is hardly a production process in modern industry in which industrial diamond does not play a part. Bulk diamond production today is a major industry. Diamonds can be produced in its thermodynamically stable regions either by direct static conversion, or shock-wave conversion. The pressures and temperatures required for direct static conversion are very high. In the catalyst-solvent method, the material used establishes a reaction path with lower activation energy than for direct transformation. This helps in a quicker transformation under more benign conditions. Hence, catalyst-solvent synthesis is readily accomplished and is now a viable and successful industrial process. Diamonds produced by shock wave are very small (approximately 60mu). Therefore this diamond is limited to applications such as polishing compounds only. The quality, quantity, size and morphology of the crystals synthesized by catalyst-solvent process depend on different conditions employed for synthesis. These details, because of commercial reasons are not disclosed in published literature. Hence, systematic studies have been planned to investigate the effect of various growth parameters on the synthesized crystals. During the growth of synthetic diamond crystals, some catalyst-solvent is retained into the crystals in some form and behaves like an impurity. Several physico-mechanical properties of the crystals are found to depend on the total quantity and distribution of these inclusions. Thus, detailed investigation of the crystallization medium and inclusions in synthesized diamonds was also undertaken in the present work. The work incorporated in this thesis has been divided into seven chapters. The first

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  12. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of the amorphous and crystalline modifications of carbon and the metastable synthesis of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guencheva, V.; Grantscharova, E.; Gutzow, I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    The temperature dependencies of the thermodynamic properties of the little known (or even hypothetical) undercooled carbon melt and of the glasses that could be obtained from it at appropriate cooling rates are constructed. This is done using both a general thermodynamic formalism to estimate equilibrium properties of undercooled glass-forming melts and the expected analogy in properties of Fourth Group Elements. A comparison of the hypothetical carbon glasses with amorphous materials, obtained by the pyrolisis of organic resins, usually called vitreous (or glassy) carbon, is made. It turns out that from a thermodynamic point of view existing vitreous carbon materials, although characterized by an amorphous, frozen-in structure, differ significantly from the carbon glasses, which could be obtained by a splat-cool-quench of the carbon melt. It is shown also that the hypothetical carbon glasses should have at any temperature a thermodynamic potential, significantly higher than that of diamond. Thus they could be used as a source of constant supersaturation in metastable diamond synthesis. Existing amorphous carbon materials, although showing considerably lower thermodynamic potentials than the hypothetical carbon glasses, could also be used as sources of constant supersaturation in a process of isothermal diamond synthesis if their thermodynamic potential is additionally increased (e.g. by mechano-chemical treatment or by dispersion into nano-size scale). Theoretical estimates made in terms of Ostwald's Rule of Stages indicate that in processes of metastable isothermal diamond synthesis additional kinetic factors (e.g. influencing the formation of sp{sup 3} - carbon structures in the ambient phase) and the introduction of active substrates (e.g. diamond powder) are to be of significance in the realization of this thermodynamic possibility. (orig.)

  14. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  15. Application of printed nanocrystalline diamond film for electron emission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuxia; Wei Shuyi; Lei Chongmin; Wei Jie; Lu Bingheng; Ding Yucheng; Zhu Changchun

    2011-01-01

    The low-cost and large area screen-printed nano-diamond film (NDF) for electronic emission was fabricated. The edges and corners of nanocrystalline diamond are natural field-emitters. The nano-diamond paste for screen-printing was fabricated of mixing nano-graphite and other inorganic or organic vehicles. Through enough disperse in isopropyl alcohol by ultrasonic nano-diamond paste was screen-printed on the substrates to form NDF. SEM images showed that the surface morphology of NDF was improved, and the nano-diamond emitters were exposed from NDF through the special thermal-sintering technique and post-treatment process. The field emission characteristics of NDF were measured under all conditions with 10 -6 Pa pressure. The results indicated that the field emission stability and emission uniformity of NDF were improved through hydrogen plasma post-treatment process. The turn-on field decreased from 1.60 V/μm to 1.25 V/μm. The screen-printed NDF can be applied to the displays electronic emission cathode for low-cost outdoor in large area.

  16. Growth, microstructure, and field-emission properties of synthesized diamond film on adamantane-coated silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Rajanish N.; Chang Li

    2010-01-01

    Diamond nucleation on unscratched Si surface is great importance for its growth, and detailed understanding of this process is therefore desired for many applications. The pretreatment of the substrate surface may influence the initial growth period. In this study, diamond films have been synthesized on adamantane-coated crystalline silicon {100} substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from a gaseous mixture of methane and hydrogen gases without the application of a bias voltage to the substrates. Prior to adamantane coating, the Si substrates were not pretreated such as abraded/scratched. The substrate temperature was ∼530 deg. C during diamond deposition. The deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These measurements provide definitive evidence for high-crystalline quality diamond film, which is synthesized on a SiC rather than clean Si substrate. Characterization through atomic force microscope allows establishing fine quality criteria of the film according to the grain size of nanodiamond along with SiC. The diamond films exhibit a low-threshold (55 V/μm) and high current-density (1.6 mA/cm 2 ) field-emission (FE) display. The possible mechanism of formation of diamond films and their FE properties have been demonstrated.

  17. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.

  18. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry

  19. Modified diamond electrodes for electrolysis and electroanalysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Rika; Olivia, Herlambang; Shin, Dongchan; Ivandini, T.A.; Fujishima, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The outstanding properties of diamond make it a very attractive material for use in many potential applications. In particular, the superior electrochemical properties of highly boron-doped conductive diamond films, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, have received attention from electrochemists. This paper reports several diversified applications of boron-doped diamond electrodes; highly sensitive and interference-free microfiber electrodes with over-oxidized polypyrrole modification, integrated electrochemical detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE), and smoothing treatments of micro-polycrystalline surface. Studies have been made of the electrochemical properties of each system and their application in electroanalysis is discussed

  20. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdic, A; Lugstein, A; Bertagnolli, E [Solid State Electronics Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Wu, M; Gollas, B [Competence Centre for Electrochemical Surface Technology, Viktor Kaplan Strasse 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pobelov, I; Wandlowski, T [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leonhardt, K; Denuault, G, E-mail: alois.lugstein@tuwien.ac.at [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-08

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes.

  1. Ion and electron beam studies and applications of natural and synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellschop, J.P.F.; Connell, S.H.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Stemmet, M.C.; Naidoo, S.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Haricharun, H.

    1992-01-01

    'Nuclear' probes are shown to be powerful diagnostic analytical tools for the interrogation of diamond, whether natural or synthetic. The full sweep of such probes ranges from electrons to heavy ions, and spans energies over the keV to GeV range. Neutrons are singularly appropriate for the bulk trace element analysis of diamond, while charged particle (activation) analysis is appropriate for lighter element determination, and for surface and depth profiling specification. Energetic ions are effectively deployed for the study of the amorpisation and extrusion of diamond, and for ion implantation with the view to the production of devices in diamond. Resonant nuclear reactions are used effectively in establishing the 'macroscopic' distribution of dopants, while the used of pulsed ion beams in time dependent perturbed angular distribution studies gives information on 'microscopic' lattice location of impurities. Ion channeling in diamond sets near-theoretical parameterization of Lindhard channeling theory. Electron and positron channeling is interesting in its own right, and in the former case is shown to give rise to channeling radiation for few-MeV electron energies. At GeV electron energies, channeling is important as a powerful, polarized monochromatic photon source. Muons are an elegant tool in diamond studies, and the formation of muonium permits of (radiation damage-free) hydrogen-equivalent studies. Two relatively unused nuclear techniques, Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation, are shown to give unique information on diamond. Finally the use of diamond as a detector of radiation is indicated. (author)

  2. Diamond deposition using a planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Tucker, D. A.; Stoner, B. R.; Glass, J. T.; Hooke, W. M.

    1995-06-01

    A planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma has been used to deposit diamond onto scratched silicon. This plasma source has been developed recently for use in large area semiconductor processing and holds promise as a method for scale up of diamond growth reactors. Deposition occurs in an annulus which coincides with the area of most intense optical emission from the plasma. Well-faceted diamond particles are produced when the substrate is immersed in the plasma.

  3. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  4. Study on effect of plasma surface treatments for diamond deposition by DC arc plasmatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In-Je; Joa, Sang-Beom; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2013-11-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity and wear resistance of ceramic materials in the field of renewable energy technologies, diamond coating by plasma processing has been carried out in recent years. This study's goal is to improve diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates by plasma surface treatments. Before diamond deposition was carried out in a vacuum, plasma surface treatments using Ar gas were conducted to improve conditions for deposition. We also conducted plasma processing for diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates using a DC arc Plasmatron. The Al2O3 ceramic substrates with diamond film (5 x 15 mm2), were investigated by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). Then, the C-H stretching of synthetic diamond films by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was studied. We identified nanocrystalline diamond films on the Al2O3 ceramic substrates. The results showed us that the deposition rate of diamond films was 2.3 microm/h after plasma surface treatments. Comparing the above result with untreated ceramic substrates, the deposition rate improved with the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films.

  5. 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)

  6. Deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of CVD-diamond layers incorporated with silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R.; Berger, T.; Prieske, M.; Börner, R.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Zeidler, H.; Schubert, A.

    2017-10-01

    In metal forming, lubricants have to be used to prevent corrosion or to reduce friction and tool wear. From an economical and ecological point of view, the aim is to avoid the usage of lubricants. For dry deep drawing of aluminum sheets it is intended to apply locally micro-structured wear-resistant carbon based coatings onto steel tools. One type of these coatings are diamond layers prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Due to the high strength of diamond, milling processes are unsuitable for micro-structuring of these layers. In contrast to this, micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a suitable process for micro-structuring CVD-diamond layers. Due to its non-contact nature and its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, it is independent of the hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. In this study the deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond (Si-CVD-diamond) layers were presented. For this, 10 µm thick layers were deposited on molybdenum plates by a laser-induced plasma CVD process (LaPlas-CVD). For the characterization of the coatings RAMAN- and EDX-analyses were conducted. Experiments in EDM were carried out with a tungsten carbide tool electrode with a diameter of 90 µm to investigate the micro-structuring of Si-CVD-diamond. The impact of voltage, discharge energy and tool polarity on process speed and resulting erosion geometry were analyzed. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for micro-structuring of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond layers.

  7. Invasion of Hydrous Fluids Predates Kimberlite Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, M. G.; Wang, Q.; Smith, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Petrological observations on diamonds and peridotite xenoliths in kimberlites point towards an influx of hydrous metasomatic fluids shortly predating kimberlite formation. Diamonds may grow at different times within the same segment of the cratonic mantle, and diamonds that form shortly before (diamonds typically contain 10-25 wt.% water in fluid inclusions, while older octahedrally-grown diamonds host "dry" N2-CO2 fluids. Our recent studies of fluids in diamond now show that many different kinds of diamonds can contain fluid inclusions. Specifically, we found a new way to observe and analyze fluids in octahedrally-grown, non-fibrous diamonds by examining healed fractures. This is a new textural context for fluid inclusions that reveals a valuable physical record of infiltrating mantle fluids, that postdate diamond growth, but equilibrate within the diamond stability field at depths beyond 150 km. Another sign of the aqueous fluids influx is the formation of distinct peridotite textures shortly predating the kimberlite. Kimberlites entrain peridotite xenoliths with several types of textures: older coarse metamorphic textures and younger, sheared textures. The preserved contrast in grain sizes between porphyroclasts and neoblasts in sheared peridotites constrain the maximum duration of annealing. Experimental estimates of the annealing time vary from 7x107 sec (2 years) to 106 years (1 My) depending on olivine hydration, strain rate, pressure, temperature and, ultimately, the annealing mechanism. Kimberlite sampling of sheared peridotites from the lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary (LAB) implies their formation no earlier than 1 My prior to the kimberlite ascent. Water contents of olivine measured by FTIR spectrometry using polarized light demonstrated contrasting hydration of coarse and sheared samples. Olivine from sheared peridotite samples has the average water content of 78±3 ppm, in contrast to the less hydrated coarse peridotites (33±6 ppm). LAB hydration

  8. Trapezoidal diffraction grating beam splitters in single crystal diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Marcell; Graziosi, Teodoro; Quack, Niels

    2018-02-01

    Single Crystal Diamond has been recognized as a prime material for optical components in high power applications due to low absorption and high thermal conductivity. However, diamond microstructuring remains challenging. Here, we report on the fabrication and characterization of optical diffraction gratings exhibiting a symmetric trapezoidal profile etched into a single crystal diamond substrate. The optimized grating geometry diffracts the transmitted optical power into precisely defined proportions, performing as an effective beam splitter. We fabricate our gratings in commercially available single crystal CVD diamond plates (2.6mm x 2.6mm x 0.3mm). Using a sputter deposited hard mask and patterning by contact lithography, the diamond is etched in an inductively coupled oxygen plasma with zero platen power. The etch process effectively reveals the characteristic {111} diamond crystal planes, creating a precisely defined angled (54.7°) profile. SEM and AFM measurements of the fabricated gratings evidence the trapezoidal shape with a pitch of 3.82μm, depth of 170 nm and duty cycle of 35.5%. Optical characterization is performed in transmission using a 650nm laser source perpendicular to the sample. The recorded transmitted optical power as function of detector rotation angle shows a distribution of 21.1% in the 0th order and 23.6% in each +/-1st order (16.1% reflected, 16.6% in higher orders). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of diffraction gratings with trapezoidal profile in single crystal diamond. The fabrication process will enable beam splitter gratings of custom defined optical power distribution profiles, while antireflection coatings can increase the efficiency.

  9. Raman spectroscopy study of the influence of processing conditions on the structure of polycrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurti, R.; Shanov, V.; Singh, R.N.; Mamedov, S.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond films are prepared by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on Si (100) substrates using the H 2 -Ar-CH 4 gases. Raman scattering data, including the peak position, intensity, area, and width, are analyzed in depth and used to obtain the sp 3 - and sp 2 -bonded carbon contents and the nature of internal stresses in the films. Polarization behavior of the Raman peaks is analyzed to assess its role on the quantitative analysis of the diamond films, which suggested that the 1150 cm -1 Raman peak in nanocrystalline diamond films could be attributed to sp 2 -bonded carbon. The role of the H 2 /Ar content in the gas mixture and substrate temperature on the characteristics of the diamond film is studied. Thickness and grain size of diamond films are also determined by scanning electron microscopy and related to the deposition conditions and Raman results. Deposition conditions, which led to highest sp 3 -bonded carbon content and growth rate, are identified

  10. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  11. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  12. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  13. Investigation of low-resistivity from hydrogenated lightly B-doped diamond by ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xia Yan et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implanted boron (B ions (dosage: 5×1014 cm-2 into diamond and then hydrogenated the sample by implantating hydrogen ions at room temperature. A p-type diamond material with a low resistivity of 7.37 mΩ cm has been obtained in our experiment, which suggests that the hydrogenation of B-doped diamond results in a low-resistivity p-type material. Interestingly, inverse annealing, in which carrier concentration decreased with increasing annealing temperature, was observed at annealing temperatures above 600 °C. In addition, the formation mechanism of a low-resistivity material has been studied by density functional theory calculation using a plane wave method.

  14. Diamond nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Beha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.

  15. Fabrication of single optical centres in diamond-a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orwa, J.O.; Greentree, A.D.; Aharonovich, I.; Alves, A.D.C.; Van Donkelaar, J.; Stacey, A.; Prawer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Colour centres in diamond are rapidly becoming one of the leading platforms for solid-state quantum information processing applications. This is due in large part to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy colour centre. From initial demonstrations of room-temperature single photon generation and spin single spin readout and quantum control, diamond nanocrystals are also finding application in magnetometry and biosensing. This review discusses the state of the art in the creation of isolated and small ensembles of optically active diamond defect centres, including nitrogen and nickel-related centres.

  16. Understanding the chemical vapor deposition of diamond: recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J E; Mankelevich, Y A; Cheesman, A; Ma, Jie; Ashfold, M N R

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review and provide an overview to the understanding of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond materials with a particular focus on the commonly used microwave plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The major topics covered are experimental measurements in situ to diamond CVD reactors, and MPCVD in particular, coupled with models of the gas phase chemical and plasma kinetics to provide insight into the distribution of critical chemical species throughout the reactor, followed by a discussion of the surface chemical process involved in diamond growth.

  17. Stochastic model explains formation of cell arrays on H/O-diamond patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ukraintsev, Egor; Brož, A.; Hubálek Kalbáčová, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), "041006-1"-"041006-9" ISSN 1934-8630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cell migration * biofilm array * diamond surface * stochastic simulations Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2015

  18. Clinopyroxenes still trapped in diamonds: high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction as a chemical probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Nicola; Nestola, Fabrizio; Alvaro, Matteo; Wilhelm, Heribert; Kleppe, Annette; Nimis, Paolo; Harris, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxenes are mainly Ca-Na-Fe-Mg-silicates constituting a significant portion of the Earth's upper mantle up to 20% of such shell of our planet. They could be found as typical mineral inclusions in diamonds being diopsidic and omphacitic in composition and, together with garnets, cover a key role in providing indications concerning the source rock in which the diamond crystallize. In detail, it is well known that eclogitic diamonds are characterized by clinopyroxenes with omphacitic compositions (about Ca0.5Na0.5Mg0.5Al0.5Si2O6) whereas peridotitic diamonds show clinopyroxenes very rich in the diopside end-member (CaMgSi2O6). In order to get direct chemical composition on the inclusions, and therefore on the diamond origin source, it is obviously necessary to extract them breaking and/or polishing the diamond host. However, a non-destructive investigation of an inclusion still trapped in a diamond is useful and important for different reasons: (1) the inclusions could be under pressure and their crystal structure can be modified if the pressure is released by the extraction; (2) the residual pressure on the inclusion can provide information about the formation pressure of the diamond (e.g. Nestola et al. 2011 and references therein); (3) the morphology and growth relationships of the inclusion with the host diamond can provide indications about its protogenetic vs. syngenetic and/or epigenetic nature; and (4) preservation of the diamond surface growth features can maintain crucial information on late oxidation processes (Fedortchouk et al. 2011). However the available methods to measure the composition of the inclusions implies to destroy the sample. The aim of this work is to obtain chemical information on the inclusions still trapped in their diamond host and therefore to indicate the diamond origin without extracting the inclusions. The work was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction using a new experimental approach by high energy synchrotron

  19. Diamond films deposited by oxygen-enhanced linear plasma chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Ižák, Tibor; Varga, Marián; Davydova, Marina; Krátká, Marie; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 509-514 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond films * process gas chemistry * pulsed microwave plasma * surface conductivity of diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Deepak; Morell, Gerardo; Palomino, Javier; Resto, Oscar; Gil, Jennifer; Weiner, Brad R.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production

  1. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  2. Development of CVD Diamond for Industrial Applications Final Report CRADA No. TC-2047-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olstad, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jory, H. [Communications and Power Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Vikharov, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-08

    This project was a collaborative effort to develop and demonstrate a new millimeter microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition(CVD) process for manufacturing large diamond disks with greatly reduced processing times and costs from those now available. In the CVD process, carbon based gases (methane) and hydrogen are dissociated into plasma using microwave discharge and then deposited layer by layer as polycrystalline diamond onto a substrate. The available low frequency (2.45GHz) microwave sources used elsewhere (De Beers) result in low density plasmas and low deposition rates: 4 inch diamond disks take 6-8 weeks to process. The new system developed in this project uses a high frequency 30GHz Gyrotron as the microwave source and a quasi-optical CVD chamber resulting in a much higher density plasma which greatly reduced the diamond processing times (1-2 weeks)

  3. Diamond turning on advanced machine tool prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Specular-quality metal mirrors are being machined for use in laser optical systems. The fabrication process incorporates special quality diamond tools and specially constructed turning machines. The machines are controlled by advanced control techniques and are housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory to insure ultimate machine stability and positional accuracy. The materials from which these mirrors are primarily produced are the softer face-center-cubic structure metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Mirror manufacturing by the single-point diamond machining process is in an early stage of development, but it is anticipated that this method will become the most economical way for producing high-quality metal mirrors. (U.S.)

  4. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  5. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C G; Griffin, W L; Win, T T [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth`s upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr (`G10`) garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant `G10` garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world`s largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Griffin, W.L.; Win, T.T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth`s upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr (`G10`) garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant `G10` garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world`s largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Presolar Diamond in Meteorites

    OpenAIRE

    Amari, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    Presolar diamond, the carrier of the isotopically anomalous Xe component Xe-HL, was the first mineral type of presolar dust that was isolated from meteorites. The excesses in the light, p-process only isotopes 124Xe and 126Xe, and in the heavy, r-process only isotopes 134Xe and 136Xe relative to the solar ratios indicate that Xe-HL was produced in supernovae: they are the only stellar source where these two processes are believed to take place. Although these processes occur in supernovae, th...

  8. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  9. HFCVD Diamond-Coated Mechanical Seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Simões

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical seal promotes the connection between systems or mechanisms, preventing the escape of fluids to the exterior. Nonetheless, due to extreme working conditions, premature failure can occur. Diamond, due to its excellent properties, is heralded as an excellent choice to cover the surface of these devices and extend their lifetime. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to deposit diamond films over mechanical seals and test the coated seals on a water pump, under real working conditions. The coatings were created by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD and two consecutive layers of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond were deposited. One of the main difficulties is the attainment of a good adhesion between the diamond films and the mechanical seal material (WC-Co. Nucleation, deposition conditions, and pre-treatments were studied to enhance the coating. Superficial wear or delamination of the film was investigated using SEM and Raman characterization techniques, in order to draw conclusions about the feasibility of these coatings in the WC-Co mechanical seals with the purpose of increasing their performance and life time. The results obtained gave a good indication about the feasibility of this process and the deposition conditions used, with the mechanical seals showing no wear and no film delamination after a real work environment test.

  10. Coupling ultraviolet light and ultrasound irradiation with Conductive-Diamond Electrochemical Oxidation for the removal of progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidales, María J. Martín de; Barba, Silvia; Sáez, Cristina; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single sonolysis and photolysis technologies entail a slight progesterone removal and nil mineralization. • Synergistic effects of irradiating UV light and US are clearly observed in the oxidation rate. • The energy required by CDSEO and CDSPEO prevents against their application. • CDSEO mainly favors the mass transfer of organics to the conductive-diamond surface. • CDPEO promotes the formation of radicals in the bulk solution. - Abstract: This work focusses on the improvement of the efficiency of Conductive Diamond Electrochemical Oxidation (CDEO) by coupling US and UV irradiation in the degradation of progesterone from wastewater. Results show that CDEO is a promising technology for the degradation of progesterone, just the opposite of that observed for single sonolysis and photolysis technologies, which only entail a slight removal of progesterone and nil mineralization. Coupling UV light and US irradiations with CDEO seems to have a very positive effect, improving results obtained by single CDEO very significantly. Conductive Diamond Sono Electrochemical Oxidation (CDSEO) mainly seems to improve the transfer of pollutants to the conductive-diamond surface, while Conductive Diamond Photo Electrochemical Oxidation (CDPEO) seems to promote the formation of radicals from oxidants produced electrochemically. Soft oxidation conditions are obtained with the single application of both irradiation technologies, whereas an efficient mineralization is attained with CDEO, CDSEO, CDPEO and Conductive Diamond Sono-Photo Electrochemical Oxidation (CDSPEO). However, the high energy demands of US irradiation technologies advices against the use of CDSEO and CDSPEO

  11. SERS activity of Ag decorated nanodiamond and nano-β-SiC, diamond-like-carbon and thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva; Ravulapalli, Satyavathi; Gangadharini, Upender; Ojha, Harish; Desai, Narayana Rao; Bansal, Chandrahas

    2015-09-07

    In the recent past surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based bio-sensing has gained prominence owing to the simplicity and efficiency of the SERS technique. Dedicated and continuous research efforts have been made to develop SERS substrates that are not only stable, durable and reproducible but also facilitate real-time bio-sensing. In this context diamond, β-SiC and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and other related thin films have been promoted as excellent candidates for bio-technological applications including real time bio-sensing. In this work, SERS activities of nanodiamond, nano-β-SiC, DLC, thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces were examined. DLC and thermally annealed diamond thin films were found to show SERS activity without any metal nanostructures on their surfaces. The observed SERS activities of the considered surfaces are explained in terms of the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism and charge transfer resonance process.

  12. Towards a Room-Temperature Spin Quantum Bus in Diamond via Electron Photoionization, Transport, and Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Doherty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a proven solid-state platform for spin-based quantum technology. The nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond has been used to realize small-scale quantum information processing and quantum sensing under ambient conditions. A major barrier in the development of large-scale quantum information processing in diamond is the connection of nitrogen-vacancy spin registers by a quantum bus at room temperature. Given that diamond is expected to be an ideal spin transport material, the coherent transport of spin directly between the spin registers offers a potential solution. Yet, there has been no demonstration of spin transport in diamond due to difficulties in achieving spin injection and detection via conventional methods. Here, we exploit detailed knowledge of the paramagnetic defects in diamond to identify novel mechanisms to photoionize, transport, and capture spin-polarized electrons in diamond at room temperature. Having identified these mechanisms, we explore how they may be combined to realize an on-chip spin quantum bus.

  13. Atomic composition of WC/ and Zr/O-terminated diamond Schottky interfaces close to ideality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñero, J.C., E-mail: josecarlos.pinero@uca.es [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Araújo, D. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Fiori, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Traoré, A. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Villar, M.P. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Eon, D.; Muret, P.; Pernot, J. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Teraji, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Metal/O-terminated diamond interfaces are analyzed by a variety of TEM techniques. • Thermal treatment is shown to modify structural and chemical interface properties. • Electrical behavior vs annealing is shown to be related with interface modification. • Interfaces are characterized with atomic resolution to probe inhomogeneities. • Oxide formation and modification is demonstrated in both Schottky diodes. - Abstract: Electrical and nano-structural properties of Zr and WC-based Schottky power diodes are compared and used for investigating oxide-related effects at the diamond/metal interface. Differences in Schottky barrier heights and ideality factors of both structures are shown to be related with the modification of the oxygen-terminated diamond/metal interface configuration. Oxide formation, oxide thickness variations and interfacial oxygen redistribution, associated with thermal treatment are demonstrated. Ideality factors close to ideality (n{sub WC} = 1.02 and n{sub Zr} = 1.16) are obtained after thermal treatment and are shown to be related with the relative oxygen content at the surface (OCR{sub WC} = 3.03 and OCR{sub Zr} = 1.5). Indeed, thermal treatment at higher temperatures is shown to promote an escape of oxygen for the case of the WC diode, while it generates a sharper accumulation of oxygen at the metal/diamond interface for the case of Zr diode. Therefore, the metal-oxygen affinity is shown to be a key parameter to improve diamond-based Schottky diodes.

  14. Diagnostics in dusty C-H-O plasmas with diamond and graphitic nanoparticle generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, T; Vandenbulcke, L; De Persis, S; Rouzaud, J N

    2010-01-01

    A decrease in electron density and a strong increase of electron energy, which induce the enhancement of excitation rates, have been observed in CH 4 -CO 2 plasmas when the inlet methane concentration is high enough and the input microwave power sufficiently low. Together with the decrease in the electron density with plasma duration, they are characteristic of dust formation in these plasmas. In these conditions, the formation of hydrocarbon radicals which are well known precursors of soot and the formation of first stable aromatics are reported, as observed by molecular beam mass spectrometry. Modelling of the chemistry in the plasma is carried out, which can also predict the formation of low concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. These species could be involved in the homogeneous nucleation process of carbon. As a function of the plasma duration, various carbon nanostructures are observed in the particles collected downstream of the plasma. For short durations, nanodiamond grains are formed with the size range 15-100 nm. They are composed of diamond nanocrystals of about 2-10 nm in size; these values are generally observed for all diamond nanocrystals formed in extraterrestrial and terrestrial conditions. For longer plasma durations, sp 2 -hybridized carbons are obtained. Their structure varies from soot to more ordered graphitic carbons nearly similar to 'onions' and structures similar to those observed in tokamaks. The control of the size and the microstructure of the nanodiamond grains are especially important as this could open possibilities for applications in a wide range of fields.

  15. Profiling of Current Transients in Capacitor Type Diamond Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Kazuchits, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The operational characteristics of capacitor-type detectors based on HPHT and CVD diamond have been investigated using perpendicular and parallel injection of carrier domain regimes. Simulations of the drift-diffusion current transients have been implemented by using dynamic models based on Shockley-Ramo’s theorem, under injection of localized surface domains and of bulk charge carriers. The bipolar drift-diffusion regimes have been analyzed for the photo-induced bulk domain (packet) of excess carriers. The surface charge formation and polarization effects dependent on detector biasing voltage have been revealed. The screening effects ascribed to surface charge and to dynamics of extraction of the injected bulk excess carrier domain have been separated and explained. The parameters of drift mobility of the electrons μe = 4000 cm2/Vs and holes μh = 3800 cm2/Vs have been evaluated for CVD diamond using the perpendicular profiling of currents. The coefficient of carrier ambipolar diffusion Da = 97 cm2/s and the carrier recombination lifetime τR,CVD ≌ 110 ns in CVD diamond were extracted by combining analysis of the transients of the sensor current and the microwave probed photoconductivity. The carrier trapping with inherent lifetime τR,HPHT ≌ 2 ns prevails in HPHT diamond. PMID:26061200

  16. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Michael John

    inventory of luminescent defect centers (many with direct optical access to highly coherent electron and nuclear spins). Diamond has many potential applications ranging from radio frequency nanoelectromechanical systems (RF-NEMS), to all-optical signal processing and quantum optics. Despite the commercial availability of wafer-scale nanocrystalline diamond thin films on foreign substrates (namely SiO2), this diamond-on-insulator (DOI) platform typically exhibits inferior material properties due to friction, scattering, and absorption losses at grain boundaries, significant surface roughness, and large interfacial stresses. In the absence of suitable heteroepitaxial diamond growth, substantial research and development efforts have focused on novel processing techniques to yield nanoscale single-crystal diamond mechanical and optical elements. In this thesis, we demonstrate a scalable 'angled-etching' nanofabrication method for realizing nanomechanical systems and nanophotonic networks starting from bulk single-crystal diamond substrates. Angled-etching employs anisotropic oxygen-based plasma etching at an oblique angle to the substrate surface, resulting in suspended optical structures with triangular cross-sections. Using this approach, we first realize single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonant structures. These nanoscale diamond resonators exhibit high mechanical quality-factors (approaching Q ~ 105) with mechanical resonances up to 10 MHz. Next, we demonstrate engineered nanophotonic structures, specifically racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities, in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical Q-factors, in excess of 10 5, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics. Beyond isolated nanophotonic

  17. Fabrication of planarised conductively patterned diamond for bio-applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Wei [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Fox, Kate, E-mail: kfox@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Ganesan, Kumaravelu [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Turnley, Ann M. [Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Shimoni, Olga [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Tran, Phong A. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Lohrmann, Alexander; McFarlane, Thomas; Ahnood, Arman; Garrett, David J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Meffin, Hamish [National Information and Communication Technology Australia, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); O' Brien-Simpson, Neil M.; Reynolds, Eric C. [Oral Health Cooperative Research Centre, Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, 720 Swanston Street, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Prawer, Steven [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The development of smooth, featureless surfaces for biomedical microelectronics is a challenging feat. Other than the traditional electronic materials like silicon, few microelectronic circuits can be produced with conductive features without compromising the surface topography and/or biocompatibility. Diamond is fast becoming a highly sought after biomaterial for electrical stimulation, however, its inherent surface roughness introduced by the growth process limits its applications in electronic circuitry. In this study, we introduce a fabrication method for developing conductive features in an insulating diamond substrate whilst maintaining a planar topography. Using a combination of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, secondary diamond growth and silicon wet-etching, we have produced a patterned substrate in which the surface roughness at the interface between the conducting and insulating diamond is approximately 3 nm. We also show that the patterned smooth topography is capable of neuronal cell adhesion and growth whilst restricting bacterial adhesion. - Highlights: • We have fabricated a planar diamond device with conducting and insulating features. • A precise method is provided using CVD and RIE techniques to develop the substrate. • The step between conducting and insulating features is less than 3 nm. • Planar topography promotes neuronal cell adhesion and restricts bacterial adhesion. • Neuronal cells prefer conductive diamond (N-UNCD) to non-conductive diamond (UNCD)

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond films on titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catledge, Shane Aaron

    The primary focus of this dissertation is the investigation of the processing-structure-property relationships of diamond films deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). By depositing a well-adhered protective layer of diamond on an alloy component, its hardness, wear-resistance, performance, and overall lifetime could be significantly increased. However, due to the large thermal expansion mismatch between the diamond film and metal (and the corresponding residual stress induced in the film), film adhesion is typically unsatisfactory and often results in immediate delamination after processing. Therefore, it is a major goal of this research to improve adhesion of the diamond film to the alloy substrate. Through the use of innovative processing techniques involving MPCVD deposition conditions and methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2) chemistry, we have achieved diamond films which consistently adhere to the alloy substrate. In addition, we have discovered that, with the appropriate choice of deposition conditions, the film structure can be tailored to range from highly crystalline, well-faceted diamond to nanocrystalline diamond with extremely low surface roughness (as low as 27 nm). The relationship between processing and structure was studied using in-situ optical emission spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, surface profilometry, glancing-angle x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. We observe that when nitrogen is added to the H2/CH4 feedgas mixture, a carbon-nitrogen (CN) emission band arises and its relative abundance to the carbon dimer (C2) gas species is shown to have a pronounced influence on the diamond film structure. By appropriate choice of deposition chemistry and conditions, we can tailor the diamond film structure and its corresponding properties. The mechanical properties of interest in this thesis are those relating to the integrity of the film/substrate interface, as well as the

  19. Fabrication and characterization of composite TiO{sub 2} nanotubes/boron-doped diamond electrodes towards enhanced supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobaszek, M. [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, K.; Sawczak, M. [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St., 80-231 Gdansk (Poland); Ryl, J. [Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Material Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Bogdanowicz, R., E-mail: rbogdan@eti.pg.gda.pl [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-02-29

    The composite TiO{sub 2} nanotubes/boron-doped diamond electrodes were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition resulting in the improved electrochemical performance. This composite electrode can deliver high specific capacitance of 7.46 mF cm{sup −2} comparing to boron-doped diamond (BDD) deposited onto flat Ti plate (0.11 mF cm{sup −2}).The morphology and composition of composite electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. According to XPS and Raman analyses, the structure of TiO{sub 2} was greatly changed during Chemical Vapor Deposition process: formation of Ti{sup 3+} sites, partial anatase to rutile transformation and titanium carbide phase formation. This effect is attributed to the simultaneous presence of activated hydrogen and carbon in the plasma leading to enhanced dehydration of NTs (nanotubes) followed by carbon bonding. The enhanced capacitive effect of TiO{sub 2} NT/BDD could be recognized as: (1) the unique synergistic morphology of NTs and BDD providing more efficient conducting pathway for the diffusion of ions and (2) partial decomposition of NTs and transformation towards to TiC and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} fractions. Finally, highly ordered titania nanotubes produced via simply, quick and controllable method — anodization, could act as promising substrate for conductive BDD layer deposition and further application of such composites for supercapacitor construction. - Highlights: • The TiO{sub 2} nanotube (NT)/diamond electrode delivers capacitance of 7.46 mF cm{sup −2}. • The NTs are not affected by diamond growth process and keep their pristine shape. • The BDD overlayer fully encapsulates TiO{sub 2} NTs exhibiting typical columnar growth. • The activated hydrogen and carbon in the plasma lead to enhanced dehydration of NTs. • The presence of TiC and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} fractions introducing additional capacitance.

  20. Thermal applications of low-pressure diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the last decade several applications of low-pressure diamond were developed. Main products are diamond heat-spreaders using its high thermal conductivity, diamond windows with their high transparency over a wide range of wavelengths and wear resistant tool coatings because of diamonds superhardness. A short description of the most efficient diamond deposition methods (microwave, DC-glow discharge, plasma-jet and arc discharge) is given. The production and applications of diamond layers with high thermal conductivity will be described. Problems of reproducibility of diamond deposition, the influence of impurities, the heat conductivity in electronic packages, reliability and economical mass production will be discussed. (author)

  1. 1.06 μm 150 psec laser damage study of diamond turned, diamond turned/polished and polished metal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.T.; Milam, D.; Baker, P.; Murphy, G.

    1975-01-01

    Using a well characterized 1.06 μm 150 ps glass laser pulse the damage characteristics for diamond turned, diamond turned/ polished, and polished copper and silver mirrors less than 5 cm diameter were studied. Although most samples were tested with a normal angle of incidence, some were tested at 45 0 with different linear polarization showing an increase in damage threshold for S polarization. Different damage mechanisms observed will be discussed. Laser damage is related to residual surface influences of the fabrication process. First attempts to polish diamond turned surfaces resulted in a significant decrease in laser damage threshold. The importance of including the heat of fusion in the one dimensional heat analysis of the theoretical damage threshold and how close the samples came to the theoretical damage threshold is discussed. (auth)

  2. Diamond machining of micro-optical components and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläbe, Ralf; Riemer, Oltmann

    2010-05-01

    Diamond machining originates from the 1950s to 1970s in the USA. This technology was originally designed for machining of metal optics at macroscopic dimensions with so far unreached tolerances. During the following decades the machine tools, the monocrystalline diamond cutting tools, the workpiece materials and the machining processes advanced to even higher precision and flexibility. For this reason also the fabrication of small functional components like micro optics at a large spectrum of geometries became technologically and economically feasible. Today, several kinds of fast tool machining and multi axis machining operations can be applied for diamond machining of micro optical components as well as diffractive optical elements. These parts can either be machined directly as single or individual component or as mold insert for mass production by plastic replication. Examples are multi lens arrays, micro mirror arrays and fiber coupling lenses. This paper will give an overview about the potentials and limits of the current diamond machining technology with respect to micro optical components.

  3. The role of ion-implantation in the realization of spintronic devices in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Rafi, E-mail: kalish@si-sun1.technion.ac.il [Physics Department and Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2012-02-01

    The application of single photons emitted by specific quantum systems is promising for quantum computers, cryptography and for other future nano-applications. These heavily rely on ion implantation both for selective single ion implantations as well as for the introduction of controlled damage with specific properties. Of particular promise is the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV{sup -}) defect center in diamond. This center has many desirable luminescence properties required for spintronic devices operational at room temperature, including a long relaxation time of the color center, emission of photons in the visible and the fact that it is produced in diamond, a material with outstanding mechanical and optical properties. This center is usually realized by nitrogen and/or vacancy producing ion implantations into diamond which, following annealing, leads to the formation of the desired NV{sup -} center. The single photons emitted by the decay of this center have to be transported to allow their exploitation. This can be best done by realizing very thin wave guides in single crystal diamond with/or without nano-scale cavities in the same diamond in which NV centers are produced. For this, advantage is taken of the unique property of heavily ion-damaged diamond to be converted, following annealing, to etchable graphite. Thus a free standing submicron thick diamond membrane containing the NV center can be obtained. If desirable, specific photonic crystal structures can be realized in them by the use of FIB. The various ion-implantation schemes used to produce NV centers in diamond, free standing diamond membranes, and photonic crystal structures in them are reviewed. The scientific problems and the technological challenges that have to be solved before actual practical realization of diamond based spintronic devices can be produced are discussed.

  4. Atomic structure and potential energy of β-Si3N4/diamond interface in the process of detachment: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Naichao; Chen, Yingchao; Ai, Jun; Li, Cheng; He, Ping; Ren, Jianxing; Zhu, Quanjun

    2018-03-01

    Peeling is regarded as a main technique barrier for the application of coating. Many factors affects the peeling of coating. Among them, the interfacial properties between coating and substrate plays a vital role. In this work, the β-Si3N4/diamond interface is conducted as the sample to study the changes in atomic structure and potential energy in the process of detachment by the first-principles calculations. The β-Si3N4/diamond (2 × 2) crystal unit is used as the calculated model. The detachment is simulated by moving up β-Si3N4 far from diamond by the 0.1 Å of each step. The results show that in the beginning of detachment, the bonds in the interface keep a constant length, rather than extension like spring. When the distance between β-Si3N4 and diamond reaches a certain distance, the interfacial bonds would suddenly break, and the elongated β-Si3N4 resumes its original statues indicating that the interface between two surfaces may exist a threshold value to control the peeling. When the external force is less than this threshold value, the peeling of coating would not occur. However, once the external force is greater than this one, the peeling would immediately present. The interface presents the brittle failure in the process of detachment, which is in good agreement with the experimental observation. Meanwhile, the different physical properties between van der Waals and quantum effects lead to the transient status in the process of detachment, where although the interfacial bonds are broken, the adhesive strength is still strong due to its low negative adsorption energy.

  5. Tribology: Diamonds are forever - or are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The friction and wear of materials is part of our everyday experience, and yet these processes are not well understood. The example of diamond highlights wear processes that result from bumping atoms, showing that the devil is indeed in the details.

  6. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel applications of this versatile material. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications. Functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces is discussed, followed by biotribology and biological behaviour of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two then goes on to review biomedical applications of diamond based materials, beginning with nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. Topics explored include ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmologi...

  7. Diamond coating deposition by synergy of thermal and laser methods-A problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, Gordana S.; Trtica, Milan S.; Bogdanov, Zarko D.; Romcevic, Nebojsa Z.; Miljanic, Scepan S.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond coatings were deposited by synergy of the hot filament CVD method and the pulse TEA CO 2 laser, in spectroactive and spectroinactive diamond precursor atmospheres. Resulting diamond coatings are interpreted relying on evidence of scanning electron microscopy as well as microRaman spectroscopy. Thermal synergy component (hot filament) possesses an activating agent for diamond deposition, and contributes significantly to quality and extent of diamond deposition. Laser synergy component comprises a solid surface modification as well as the spectroactive gaseous atmosphere modification. Surface modification consists in changes of the diamond coating being deposited and, at the same time, in changes of the substrate surface structure. Laser modification of the spectroactive diamond precursor atmosphere means specific consumption of the precursor, which enables to skip the deposition on a defined substrate location. The resulting process of diamond coating elimination from certain, desired locations using the CO 2 laser might contribute to tailoring diamond coatings for particular applications. Additionally, the substrate laser modification could be optimized by choice of a proper spectroactive precursor concentration, or by a laser radiation multiple pass through an absorbing medium

  8. Nitrogen aggregation in Ib type synthetic diamonds at low pressure and high-temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazyuchits, N.M.; Rusetskij, M.S.; Latushko, Ya.I.; Kazyuchits, V.N.; Zajtsev, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A new technique for annealing of diamonds at low pressure and high temperature (LPHT) is considered. The absorption spectra of synthetic Ib diamonds are given before and after annealing. This is evident from a comparison of the spectra that nitrogen aggregation process takes place at the LPHT annealing diamond. (authors)

  9. Co-electrodeposition of hard Ni-W/diamond nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Qin, Jiaqian; Das, Malay Kumar; Hao, Ruru; Zhong, Hua; Thueploy, Adisak; Limpanart, Sarintorn; Boonyongmaneerat, Yuttanant; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2016-02-01

    Electroplated hard chrome coating is widely used as a wear resistant coating to prolong the life of mechanical components. However, the electroplating process generates hexavalent chromium ion which is known carcinogen. Hence, there is a major effort throughout the electroplating industry to replace hard chrome coating. Composite coating has been identified as suitable materials for replacement of hard chrome coating, while deposition coating prepared using traditional co-deposition techniques have relatively low particles content, but the content of particles incorporated into a coating may fundamentally affect its properties. In the present work, Ni-W/diamond composite coatings were prepared by sediment co-electrodeposition from Ni-W plating bath, containing suspended diamond particles. This study indicates that higher diamond contents could be successfully co-deposited and uniformly distributed in the Ni-W alloy matrix. The maximum hardness of Ni-W/diamond composite coatings is found to be 2249 ± 23 Hv due to the highest diamond content of 64 wt.%. The hardness could be further enhanced up to 2647 ± 25 Hv with heat treatment at 873 K for 1 h in Ar gas, which is comparable to hard chrome coatings. Moreover, the addition of diamond particles could significantly enhance the wear resistance of the coatings.

  10. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased

  11. Advanced Fabrication of Single-Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Challier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many promising applications of single crystal diamond and its color centers as sensor platform and in photonics require free-standing membranes with a thickness ranging from several micrometers to the few 100 nm range. In this work, we present an approach to conveniently fabricate such thin membranes with up to about one millimeter in size. We use commercially available diamond plates (thickness 50 μ m in an inductively coupled reactive ion etching process which is based on argon, oxygen and SF 6 . We thus avoid using toxic, corrosive feed gases and add an alternative to previously presented recipes involving chlorine-based etching steps. Our membranes are smooth (RMS roughness <1 nm and show moderate thickness variation (central part: <1 μ m over ≈200 × 200 μ m 2 . Due to an improved etch mask geometry, our membranes stay reliably attached to the diamond plate in our chlorine-based as well as SF 6 -based processes. Our results thus open the route towards higher reliability in diamond device fabrication and up-scaling.

  12. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This history of CVD diamond synthesis goes back to the fifties of the last century. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties, intensive worldwide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications was launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. This article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)

  13. Development of a templated approach to fabricate diamond patterns on various substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Olga; Cervenka, Jiri; Karle, Timothy J; Fox, Kate; Gibson, Brant C; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Greentree, Andrew D; Prawer, Steven

    2014-06-11

    We demonstrate a robust templated approach to pattern thin films of chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline diamond grown from monodispersed nanodiamond (mdND) seeds. The method works on a range of substrates, and we herein demonstrate the method using silicon, aluminum nitride (AlN), and sapphire substrates. Patterns are defined using photo- and e-beam lithography, which are seeded with mdND colloids and subsequently introduced into microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor to grow patterned nanocrystalline diamond films. In this study, we investigate various factors that affect the selective seeding of different substrates to create high quality diamond thin films, including mdND surface termination, zeta potential, surface treatment, and plasma cleaning. Although the electrostatic interaction between mdND colloids and substrates is the main process driving adherence, we found that chemical reaction (esterification) or hydrogen bonding can potentially dominate the seeding process. Leveraging the knowledge on these different interactions, we optimize fabrication protocols to eliminate unwanted diamond nucleation outside the patterned areas. Furthermore, we have achieved the deposition of patterned diamond films and arrays over a range of feature sizes. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mdND-substrate interaction that will enable the fabrication of integrated nanocrystalline diamond thin films for microelectronics, sensors, and tissue culturing applications.

  14. Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nad, Shreya [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Gu, Yajun; Asmussen, Jes [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100–260 Torr pressure range and 1.5–2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (η{sub coup}) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance.

  15. Phenomenological effets of tantalum incorporation into diamond films: Experimental and first principle studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Mahtab, E-mail: mahtabullah@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Ahmad, E. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Raza, Rizwan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore-54000 (Pakistan); Hussain, Fayyaz [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan (Pakistan); Hussain, Akhtar; Iqbal, Muhammad [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of tantalum incorporated diamonds films using HFCVD technique. • Decrease in resistivity by increasing tantalum content in diamond thin films. • Electronic structure calculations of tantalum incorporated diamonds films through VASP code. • A rise of bond length and bond angles by addition of tantalum in the diamond lattice. • Confirmation of decrease of resistivity by adding tantalum due to creation of impurity states in the bandgap. - Abstract: Tantalum (Ta) incorporated diamond films are synthesized on silicon substrate by chemical vapor deposition under gas mixture of CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. Characterizations of the resulting films indicate that morphology and resistivity of as-grown diamond films are significantly influenced by the process parameters and the amount of tantalum incorporated in the diamond films. XRD plots reveal that diamond films are composed of TaC along with diamond for higher concentration of tantalum and Ta{sub 2}C phases for lower concentration of tantalum. EDS spectra confirms the existence of tantalum in the diamond films. Resistivity measurements illustrate a sudden fall of about two orders of magnitude by the addition of tantalum in the diamond films. Band structure of Ta-incorporated diamond has been investigated based on density functional theory (DFT) using VASP code. Band structure calculations lead to the semiconducting behavior of Ta-incorporated diamond films because of the creation of defects states inside the band gap extending towards conduction band minimum. Present DFT results support experimental trend of resistivity that with the incorporation of tantalum into diamond lattice causes a decrease in the resistivity of diamond films so that tantalum-incorporated diamond films behave like a good semiconductor.

  16. Diamond: a material for acoustic devices

    OpenAIRE

    MORTET, Vincent; WILLIAMS, Oliver; HAENEN, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Diamond has been foreseen to replace silicon for high power, high frequency electronic applications or for devices that operates in harsh environments. However, diamond electronic devices are still in the laboratory stage due to the lack of large substrates and the complexity of diamond doping. On another hand, surface acoustic wave filters based on diamond are commercially available. Diamond is especially suited for acoustic applications because of its exceptional mechanical properties. The ...

  17. Reinforcement architectures and thermal fatigue in diamond particle-reinforced aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoebel, M., E-mail: michaels@mail.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Degischer, H.P. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Vaucher, S. [Advanced Materials Processing, EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Hofmann, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Cloetens, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2010-11-15

    Aluminum reinforced by 60 vol.% diamond particles has been investigated as a potential heat sink material for high power electronics. Diamond (CD) is used as reinforcement contributing its high thermal conductivity (TC {approx} 1000 W mK{sup -1}) and low coefficient thermal expansion (CTE {approx} 1 ppm K{sup -1}). An Al matrix enables shaping and joining of the composite components. Interface bonding is improved by limited carbide formation induced by heat treatment and even more by SiC coating of diamond particles. An AlSi7 matrix forms an interpenetrating composite three-dimensional (3D) network of diamond particles linked by Si bridges percolated by a ductile {alpha}-Al matrix. Internal stresses are generated during temperature changes due to the CTE mismatch of the constituents. The stress evolution was determined in situ by neutron diffraction during thermal cycling between room temperature and 350 deg. C (soldering temperature). Tensile stresses build up in the Al/CD composites: during cooling <100 MPa in a pure Al matrix, but around 200 MPa in the Al in an AlSi7 matrix. Compressive stresses build up in Al during heating of the composite. The stress evolution causes changes in the void volume fraction and interface debonding by visco-plastic deformation of the Al matrix. Thermal fatigue damage has been revealed by high resolution synchrotron tomography. An interconnected diamond-Si 3D network formed with an AlSi7 matrix promises higher stability with respect to cycling temperature exposure.

  18. Diamond growth on Fe-Cr-Al alloy by H2-plasma enhanced graphite etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. S.; Hirose, A.

    2007-01-01

    Without intermediate layer and surface pretreatment, adherent diamond films with high initial nucleation density have been deposited on Fe-15Cr-5Al (wt. %) alloy substrate. The deposition was performed using microwave hydrogen plasma enhanced graphite etching in a wide temperature range from 370 to 740 degree sign C. The high nucleation density and growth rate of diamond are primarily attributed to the unique precursors used (hydrogen plasma etched graphite) and the chemical nature of the substrate. The improvement in diamond adhesion to steel alloys is ascribed to the important role played by Al, mitigation of the catalytic function of iron by suppressing the preferential formation of loose graphite intermediate phase on steel surface

  19. Application of Chlorine-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chenyu; Altemir, David A.; Margrave, John L.; Hauge, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Low temperature deposition of diamond has been achieved by a chlorine-assisted diamond chemical vapor deposition (CA-CVD) process. This method begins with the thermal dissociation of molecular chlorine into atomic chlorine in a resistively heated graphite furnace at temperatures between 1300 and 1500 deg. C. The atomic chlorine, upon mixing, subsequently reacts with molecular hydrogen and hydrocarbons. The rapid exchange reactions between the atomic chlorine, molecular hydrogen, and hydrocarbons give rise to the atomic hydrogen and carbon precursors required for diamond deposition. Homoepitaxial diamond growth on diamond substrates has been studied over the substrate temperature range of 100-950 C. It was found that the diamond growth rates are approximately 0.2 microns/hr in the temperature range between 102 and 300 C and that the growth rates do not decrease significantly with a decrease in substrate temperature. This is unique because the traditional diamond deposition using H2/CH4 systems usually disappears at substrate temperatures below approx. 500 deg. C. This opens up a possible route to the deposition of diamond on low-melting point materials such as aluminum and its alloys.

  20. Morphological Features of Diamond Crystals Dissolved in Fe0.7S0.3 Melt at 4 GPa and 1400°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonin, V. M.; Zhimulev, E. I.; Pomazanskiy, B. S.; Zemnuhov, A. L.; Chepurov, A. A.; Afanasiev, V. P.; Chepurov, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    An experimental study of the dissolution of natural and synthetic diamonds in a sulfur-bearing iron melt (Fe0.7S0.3) with high P-T parameters (4 GPa, 1400°C) was performed. The results demonstrated that under these conditions, octahedral crystals with flat faces and rounded tetrahexahedral diamond crystals are transformed into rounded octahedroids, which have morphological characteristics similar to those of natural diamonds from kimberlite. It was suggested that, taking into account the complex history of individual natural diamond crystals, including the dissolution stages, sulfur-bearing metal melts up to sulfide melts were not only diamond-forming media during the early evolution of the Earth, but also natural solvents of diamond in the mantle environment before the formation of kimberlitic melts.

  1. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Influence of chemical pretreatment of hard metal substrates for diamond deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, V.; Kluwe, H.; Schmiler, B.; Deuerler, F.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond coated cutting tools are of increasing importance in the fields of high speed cutting, dry machining or machining of special materials such as metal-matrix-composites. A well known problem is the poor adhesion of diamond films on hard metals due to the Co- or Ni-binder that catalyzes the formation of graphite. Several methods - such as the application of intermediate layers or mechanical or chemical pretreatment of the hard metal substrate - have been developed to overcome this effect. Usually chemical pretreatment is used in order to reduce the concentration of binder phase on the surface that is to be coated. Surprisingly pretreatment with agents such as Murakami's solution result in improved adhesion and nucleation of diamond films while the concentration of the binder phase on the surface is enhanced. This 'contradiction' can be explained by proving that the surface is converted into a very thin oxide/hydroxide film. (author)

  3. Graphitization of diamond with a metallic coating on ferritic matrix; Grafitizacao do diamante com revestimento metalico em matriz ferritica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Stenio Cavalier; Oliveira, Hellen Cristine Prata de; Filgueira, Marcello, E-mail: stenio@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (PPGECM/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Iron is a strong catalyst of graphitization of diamonds. This graphitization occurs mainly during the processing of composites - conventional sintering or hot pressing, and during cutting operations. Aiming to avoid or minimize this deleterious effect, there is increasing use of diamond coated with metallic materials in the production of diamond tools processed via powder metallurgy. This work studies the influence of Fe on diamond graphitization diamond-coated Ti after mixing of Fe-diamonds, hot pressing parameters were performed with 3 minutes/35MPa/900 deg C - this is the condition of pressing hot used in industry for production of diamond tools. Microstructural features were observed by SEM, diffusion of Fe in diamond was studied by EDS. Graphitization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe not activate graphitization on the diamond under the conditions of hot pressing. (author)

  4. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  5. Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K. [US Synthetic, 1260 South 1600 West, Orem, UT 84058 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

  6. Investigation on the formation of lonsdaleite from graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greshnyakov, V. A.; Belenkov, E. A., E-mail: belenkov@csu.ru [Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Structural stability and the possible pathways to experimental formation of lonsdaleite—a hexagonal 2H polytype of diamond—have been studied in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). It is established that the structural transformation of orthorhombic Cmmm graphite to 2H polytype of diamond must take place at a pressure of 61 GPa, while the formation of lonsdaleite from hexagonal P6/mmm graphite must take place at 56 GPa. The minimum potential barrier height separating the 2H polytype state from graphite is only 0.003 eV/atom smaller than that for the cubic diamond. The high potential barrier is indicative of the possibility of stable existence of the hexagonal diamond under normal conditions. In this work, we have also analyzed the X-ray diffraction and electron-microscopic data available for nanodiamonds found in meteorite impact craters in search for the presence of hexagonal diamond. Results of this analysis showed that pure 3C and 2H polytypes are not contained in the carbon materials of impact origin, the structure of nanocrystals found representing diamonds with randomly packed layers. The term “lonsdaleite,” used to denote carbon materials found in meteorite impact craters and diamond crystals with 2H polytype structure, is rather ambiguous, since no pure hexagonal diamond has been identified in carbon phases found at meteorite fall sites.

  7. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  8. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  9. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  10. The Response of HeLa Cells to Fluorescent NanoDiamond Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Hemelaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent nanodiamonds are promising probes for nanoscale magnetic resonance measurements. Their physical properties predict them to have particularly useful applications in intracellular analysis. Before using them in intracellular experiments however, it should be clear whether diamond particles influence cell biology. While cytotoxicity has already been ruled out in previous studies, we consider the non-fatal influence of fluorescent nanodiamonds on the formation of reactive oxygen species (an important stress indicator and potential target for intracellular sensing for the first time. We investigated the influence of different sizes, shapes and concentrations of nanodiamonds on the genetic and protein level involved in oxidative stress-related pathways of the HeLa cell, an important model cell line in research. The changes in viability of the cells and the difference in intracellular levels of free radicals, after diamond uptake, are surprisingly small. At lower diamond concentrations, the cellular metabolism cannot be distinguished from that of untreated cells. This research supports the claims of non-toxicity and includes less obvious non-fatal responses. Finally, we give a handhold concerning the diamond concentration and size to use for non-toxic, intracellular measurements in favour of (cancer research in HeLa cells.

  11. The Response of HeLa Cells to Fluorescent NanoDiamond Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelaar, Simon R; Saspaanithy, Babujhi; L'Hommelet, Severin R M; Perona Martinez, Felipe P; van der Laan, Kiran J; Schirhagl, Romana

    2018-01-26

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds are promising probes for nanoscale magnetic resonance measurements. Their physical properties predict them to have particularly useful applications in intracellular analysis. Before using them in intracellular experiments however, it should be clear whether diamond particles influence cell biology. While cytotoxicity has already been ruled out in previous studies, we consider the non-fatal influence of fluorescent nanodiamonds on the formation of reactive oxygen species (an important stress indicator and potential target for intracellular sensing) for the first time. We investigated the influence of different sizes, shapes and concentrations of nanodiamonds on the genetic and protein level involved in oxidative stress-related pathways of the HeLa cell, an important model cell line in research. The changes in viability of the cells and the difference in intracellular levels of free radicals, after diamond uptake, are surprisingly small. At lower diamond concentrations, the cellular metabolism cannot be distinguished from that of untreated cells. This research supports the claims of non-toxicity and includes less obvious non-fatal responses. Finally, we give a handhold concerning the diamond concentration and size to use for non-toxic, intracellular measurements in favour of (cancer) research in HeLa cells.

  12. Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu,Q.

    2008-10-01

    The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a novel approach to generating electrons. By following the primary electron beam, which is generated by traditional electron sources, with an amplifier, the electron beam available to the eventual application is increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in current. Diamond has a very wide band gap of 5.47eV which allows for a good negative electron affinity with simple hydrogenation, diamond can hold more than 2000MV/m field before breakdown. Diamond also provides the best rigidity among all materials. These two characters offer the capability of applying high voltage across very thin diamond film to achieve high SEY and desired emission phase. The diamond amplifier also is capable of handling a large heat load by conduction and sub-nanosecond pulse input. The preparation of the diamond amplifier includes thinning and polishing, cleaning with acid etching, metallization, and hydrogenation. The best mechanical polishing available can provide high purity single crystal diamond films with no less than 100 {micro}m thickness and <15 nm Ra surface roughness. The ideal thickness for 700MHz beam is {approx}30 {micro}m, which requires further thinning with RIE or laser ablation. RIE can achieve atomic layer removal precision and roughness eventually, but the time consumption for this procedure is very significant. Laser ablation proved that with <266nm ps laser beam, the ablation process on the diamond can easily achieve removing a few microns per hour from the surface and <100nm roughness. For amplifier application, laser ablation is an adequate and efficient process to make ultra thin diamond wafers following mechanical polishing. Hydrogenation will terminate the diamond surface with monolayer of hydrogen, and form NEA so that secondary electrons in the conduction band can escape into the vacuum. The method is using hydrogen cracker to strike hydrogen atoms onto the bare diamond surface to form H-C bonds. Two independent

  13. Facile fabrication of single-crystal-diamond nanostructures with ultrahigh aspect ratio.

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Ye; Degen Christian

    2013-01-01

    A robust and facile approach for making single crystal diamond MEMS and NEMS devices is presented. The approach relies entirely on commercial diamond material and standard cleanroom processes. As an example batch fabrication of cantilever beams of thickness down to 45 nm and aspect ratios exceeding 2000:1 is demonstrated.

  14. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko

    2013-02-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.

  15. Optical characterization of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Li-fu; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Jun-jun; Liu, Jin-long; Li, Cheng-ming; Lü, Fan-xiu

    2017-12-01

    Optical centers of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were examined using a low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) technique. The results show that most of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes are present as NV- centers, although some H2 and H3 centers and B-aggregates are also present in the single-crystal diamond because of nitrogen aggregation resulting from high N2 incorporation and the high mobility of vacancies under growth temperatures of 950-1000°C. Furthermore, emissions of radiation-induced defects were also detected at 389, 467.5, 550, and 588.6 nm in the PL spectra. The reason for the formation of these radiation-induced defects is not clear. Although a Ni-based alloy was used during the diamond growth, Ni-related emissions were not detected in the PL spectra. In addition, the silicon-vacancy (Si-V)-related emission line at 737 nm, which has been observed in the spectra of many previously reported microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) synthetic diamonds, was absent in the PL spectra of the single-crystal diamond prepared in this work. The high density of NV- centers, along with the absence of Ni-related defects and Si-V centers, makes the single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD a promising material for applications in quantum computing.

  16. Effect of pulse biasing on the morphology of diamond films grown by hot filament CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beake, B.D.; Hussain, I.U.; Rego, C.; Ahmed, W.

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond due to its unique mechanical, optical and electronic properties, which make it useful for many applications. For use in optical and electronic applications further developments in the CVD process are required to control the surface morphology and crystal size of the diamond films. These will require a detailed understanding of both the nucleation and growth processes that effect the properties. The technique of bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) of diamond offers better reproducibility than conventional pre-treatment methods such as mechanical abrasion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used study the surface modification of diamond films on silicon substrates during pulse biased growth in a hot filament CVD reactor. Pre-abraded silicon substrates were subjected to a three-step sequential growth process: (i) diamond deposition under standard CVD conditions, (ii) bias pre-treatment and (iii) deposition under standard conditions. The results show that the bias pre-treatment time is a critical parameter controlling the surface morphology and roughness of the diamond films deposited. Biasing reduces the surface roughness from 152 nm for standard CVD diamond to 68 nm for the 2.5 minutes pulse biased film. Further increase in the bias time results in an increase in surface roughness and crystallite size. (author)

  17. CDApps: integrated software for experimental planning and data processing at beamline B23, Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Benning, Kristian; Javorfi, Tamas; Longo, Edoardo; Rudd, Timothy R; Pulford, Bill; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2015-03-01

    The B23 Circular Dichroism beamline at Diamond Light Source has been operational since 2009 and has seen visits from more than 200 user groups, who have generated large amounts of data. Based on the experience of overseeing the users' progress at B23, four key areas requiring the most assistance are identified: planning of experiments and note-keeping; designing titration experiments; processing and analysis of the collected data; and production of experimental reports. To streamline these processes an integrated software package has been developed and made available for the users. The subsequent article summarizes the main features of the software.

  18. STABILIZATION OF TEMPERATURE REGIMES WHILE SYNTHESIZING DIAMOND POWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Dudiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers peculiar features of artificial diamond powder synthesis process and also direct and indirect methods for temperature measurement in a reaction cell of high-pressure apparatus. Differences in temperature regimes of diamond synthesis associated with time fixation of strain and heating power have been analyzed in the paper. The paper  reveals their impracticability.Theoretical methodology for temperature correction in the reaction cell has been proposed in the paper. An algorithm controlling cell material heating has been developed on the basis of a microcontroller and it makes it possible to stabilize temperature in the reaction mixture that permits to improve quality and strength characteristics of the obtained diamond powders. The paper contains a graphic interpretation of calculation results with the help of the proposed algorithm. 

  19. The Magnetic Properties Of Aggregate Polycrystalline Diamond: Implications For Carbonado Petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleteschka, Gunther; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wasilewski, Peter J.; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Carbonados are a type of diamond, which are made up of many aggregrates of small crystalline diamonds or microdiamonds. The term "carbonado" comes from the Portuguese word carbonated. They are only found in sedimentary deposits in the Central African Republic (CAR) and the Bahia Province of Brazil. They were once the source of the world's supply of industrial diamonds. Their origin is uncertain but several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed. This theories are: (1) extraterrestrial, that is they formed from the dust cloud of original solar nebulae; (2) produced by the high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle; (3) or as the result of an extra-terrestrial impact into a carbon rich layer of sediment. Our study was done to further the understanding of their origin. We measured the magnetic properties on some twenty samples from the CAR. An earlier study was done on whole samples of carbonados and the "common" or kimberlitic diamond. Our work differed in that we started at the surface and subsequently removed the surface layers (by days of acid immersion) into the interior; measuring the magnetic properties at each interval. This procedure permits us to monitor the distribution of magnetic substances within the samples. Our results showed that the magnetic carriers are distributed on the surface including the open pores and that the carbonado interior is essentially non-magnetic. This result suggests that the initial formation environment was deficient in magnetic particles. Such a situation could indicate that their formation was the result of an extra-terrestrial body impacting carbon-rich sediment. Obviously, more work will be required on isotopic and chemical analyses before a more detailed ori-in can be determined.

  20. The Many Facets of Diamond Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri N. Palyanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is intended to serve as a multidisciplinary forum covering broad aspects of the science, technology, and application of synthetic and natural diamonds. This special issue contains 12 papers, which highlight recent investigations and developments in diamond research related to the diverse problems of natural diamond genesis, diamond synthesis and growth using CVD and HPHT techniques, and the use of diamond in both traditional applications, such as mechanical machining of materials, and the new recently emerged areas, such as quantum technologies. The results presented in the contributions collected in this special issue clearly demonstrate that diamond occupies a very special place in modern science and technology. After decades of research, this structurally very simple material still poses many intriguing scientific questions and technological challenges. It seems undoubted that diamond will remain the center of attraction for many researchers for many years to come.

  1. Effect of copper content on the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of Al–Cu/diamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianhua; Zhang, Hailong; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jianwei; Wang, Xitao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Al–Cu/diamond composites have been produced by a squeeze casting method. ► Cu alloying is an effective approach to promoting interface bonding between metal matrix and diamond. ► Alloying Cu to Al matrix improves thermal conductivity and reduces coefficient of thermal expansion of the composites. -- Abstract: Al–Cu matrix composites reinforced with diamond particles (Al–Cu/diamond composites) have been produced by a squeeze casting method. Cu content added to Al matrix was varied from 0 to 3.0 wt.% to detect the effect on thermal conductivity and thermal expansion behavior of the resultant Al–Cu/diamond composites. The measured thermal conductivity for the Al–Cu/diamond composites increased from 210 to 330 W/m/K with increasing Cu content from 0 to 3.0 wt.%. Accordingly, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was tailored from 13 × 10 −6 to 6 × 10 −6 /K, which is compatible with the CTE of semiconductors in electronic packaging applications. The enhanced thermal conductivity and reduced coefficient of thermal expansion were ascribed to strong interface bonding in the Al–Cu/diamond composites. Cu addition has lowered the melting point and resulted in the formation of Al 2 Cu phase in Al matrix. This is the underlying mechanism responsible for the strengthening of Al–Cu/diamond interface. The results show that Cu alloying is an effective approach to promoting interface bonding between Al and diamond.

  2. Fabrication of planarised conductively patterned diamond for bio-applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Fox, Kate; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Turnley, Ann M; Shimoni, Olga; Tran, Phong A; Lohrmann, Alexander; McFarlane, Thomas; Ahnood, Arman; Garrett, David J; Meffin, Hamish; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; Prawer, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The development of smooth, featureless surfaces for biomedical microelectronics is a challenging feat. Other than the traditional electronic materials like silicon, few microelectronic circuits can be produced with conductive features without compromising the surface topography and/or biocompatibility. Diamond is fast becoming a highly sought after biomaterial for electrical stimulation, however, its inherent surface roughness introduced by the growth process limits its applications in electronic circuitry. In this study, we introduce a fabrication method for developing conductive features in an insulating diamond substrate whilst maintaining a planar topography. Using a combination of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, secondary diamond growth and silicon wet-etching, we have produced a patterned substrate in which the surface roughness at the interface between the conducting and insulating diamond is approximately 3 nm. We also show that the patterned smooth topography is capable of neuronal cell adhesion and growth whilst restricting bacterial adhesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft Service... GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems: Docket No...

  4. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  5. Diamond films on stainless steel substrates with an interlayer applied by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin, Andre; Alves, Kenya Aparecida; Damm, Djoille Denner; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Corat, Evaldo Jose, E-mail: andrecontin@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (LAS/INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais; Campos, Raonei Alves [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UNIFESSPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Getulio de [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (DedALO/IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Desenvolvimento de Aplicacoes de Lasers e Optica

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this work is the Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) of diamond films on stainless steel substrates using a new technique for intermediate barrier forming, made by laser cladding process. In this technique, a powder layer is irradiated by a laser beam to melt the powder layer and the substrate surface layer to create the interlayer. The control of the laser beam parameters allows creating homogeneous coating layers, in rather large area in few seconds. In this work, the silicon carbide powder (SiC) was used to create an intermediate layer. Before the diamond growth, the samples were subjected to the seeding process with diamond powder. The diamond deposition was performed using Hot-Filament CVD reactor and the characterizations were Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman Scattering Spectroscopy and Scratch Test. (author)

  6. Technics study on high accuracy crush dressing and sharpening of diamond grinding wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunhai; Lu, Xuejun; Li, Jiangang; Zhu, Lixin; Song, Yingjie

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical grinding of artificial diamond grinding wheel was traditional wheel dressing process. The rotate speed and infeed depth of tool wheel were main technics parameters. The suitable technics parameters of metals-bonded diamond grinding wheel and resin-bonded diamond grinding wheel high accuracy crush dressing were obtained by a mount of experiment in super-hard material wheel dressing grind machine and by analysis of grinding force. In the same time, the effect of machine sharpening and sprinkle granule sharpening was contrasted. These analyses and lots of experiments had extent instruction significance to artificial diamond grinding wheel accuracy crush dressing.

  7. Fabrication of Ni-Al/diamond composite based on layered and gradient structures of SHS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jiafeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper layered and gradient structures of Ni-Al SHS system were adopted to manufacture Ni-Al/diamond composites. The effect of the layered and the diamond mesh gradient structures of Ni-Al/diamond on the SHS process and the microstructure of the composites were investigated. It is found that with the increasing of the number of layers, the combustion wave velocity is decreased. The combustion wave velocity for diamond mesh size gradient structure of Ni-Al SHS is faster than that for the layered structure. A well bonding can be formed between diamond and the matrix in layered and gradient structure Ni-Al/diamond composites due to the melt of Ni-Cr brazing alloy.

  8. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  9. Fabrication of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond nanoflowers based on 3D Cu(OH)2 dendritic architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Huijun; Hong, Sukin; Lee, Seungkoo; Lim, Daesoon; Jin, Juneon; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2012-01-01

    Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used to prepare boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDND) nanoflowers on a Cu substrate with a Cu(OH) 2 dendritic architecture that had been formed by using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) method with nanodiamond particles. The formation of diamond nanoflowers is controlled by the reaction time between the Cu(OH) 2 nanoflowers and the polymeric linker for the electrostatic attachment of nanodiamonds and by the deposition time for CVD diamond growth with a high nucleation density. Through analysis by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of BDND nanoflowers are determined, and a possible explanation is provided.

  10. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  11. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Roger J Narayan; Ryan D. Boehm; Anirudha V. Sumant

    2011-01-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and...

  12. Analysis of the influence of tool dynamics in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S.C.; Luttrell, D.E.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the progress in defining the role of machine and interface dynamics on the surface finish in diamond turning. It contains a review of literature from conventional and diamond machining processes relating tool dynamics, material interactions and tool wear to surface finish. Data from experimental measurements of tool/work piece interface dynamics are presented as well as machine dynamics for the DTM at the Center.

  13. Studies of defects on ion irradiated diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, P.F.; Prawer, S.; Spargo, A.E.C.; Bursill, L.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    It is known that diamond is amorphized or graphitized when irradiated above a critical dose. Above this critical dose, D{sub c}, the resistance R is found to drop very rapidly due to the formation of graphite regions which overlap at D{sub c} to form a semi-continuous electrically conducting pathway through the sample. One particularly interesting method of studying this transformation is electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Using EELS, the different phases of carbon can be identified and distinguished from each other using the extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) of the core-loss part of the spectrum. EELS is a sensitive method for determining the electronic structure of small areas of a sample. In this paper, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EELS measurements of the ion irradiated diamond were combined in an attempt to correlate the microstructural nature of the ion-beam induced damage to the changes in the electrical and other properties. 7 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Studies of defects on ion irradiated diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, P F; Prawer, S; Spargo, A E.C.; Bursill, L A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    It is known that diamond is amorphized or graphitized when irradiated above a critical dose. Above this critical dose, D{sub c}, the resistance R is found to drop very rapidly due to the formation of graphite regions which overlap at D{sub c} to form a semi-continuous electrically conducting pathway through the sample. One particularly interesting method of studying this transformation is electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Using EELS, the different phases of carbon can be identified and distinguished from each other using the extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) of the core-loss part of the spectrum. EELS is a sensitive method for determining the electronic structure of small areas of a sample. In this paper, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EELS measurements of the ion irradiated diamond were combined in an attempt to correlate the microstructural nature of the ion-beam induced damage to the changes in the electrical and other properties. 7 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Diamond Sensors for Energy Frontier Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetzer, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of diamond sensors in high-energy, high-i ntensity collider experiments. Re- sults from diamond sensor based beam conditions monitors in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and pla ns for diamond based luminosity monitors for the upcoming LHC run are described. We describe recent measurements on single crystal diamond sensors that indicate a polarization effec t that causes a reduction of charge col- lection efficiency as a function of particle flux. We conclude by describing new developments on the promising technology of 3D diamond sensors.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  17. Investigation of element contents of natural diamond crystals of different gemological features by INAA and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamrayeva, D.S.; Ulugmuradov, S.; Didyk, A.Y.; Gasanov, M.; Solodova, J.P.; Sedova, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The work presented aims at understanding the role of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities on the natural diamond ( Type Ι ) quality, microstructure and morphology having different gemological features for identification their deposit. An according of the Kimberly Process there is Certification Scheme for regulating trade in diamonds to exclude 'bloody' diamonds. The 'four C's' criteria (color, clarity, carat weight, cut) had for decades been used by gemologists worldwide to evaluate precious gem diamonds. Those four parameters were believed to determine the value of the stones. Some 10 years ago gemologists added to those traditional criteria a fifth C, signifying Confidence. The role of the fifth C in pricing precious stones increased over time. An according of the Kimberly Process it is necessary to determine diamond deposit. Impurity content of natural diamonds is basic feature to for identification their deposit. We have used autoradiographic technique for investigation of spatial impurity distributions in natural diamond crystals. It is based on the secondary beta irradiation registration. Impurities were identified by energy lines of the gamma spectra obtained and by half-life periods. We bring information which allow to clarify the spatial distributions of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities depended inner morphology of diamond crystal. It was established several types of impurity distributions depending from inner morphology of diamond crystals. Results of INAA and autoradiographic study of natural diamonds use for to make of international data for identification their deposit

  18. Modelling of diamond deposition microwave cavity generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassouni, K; Silva, F; Gicquel, A

    2010-01-01

    Some aspects of the numerical modelling of diamond deposition plasmas generated using microwave cavity systems are discussed. The paper mainly focuses on those models that allow (i) designing microwave cavities in order to optimize the power deposition in the discharge and (ii) estimating the detailed plasma composition in the vicinity of the substrate surface. The development of hydrogen plasma models that may be used for the self-consistent simulation of microwave cavity discharge is first discussed. The use of these models for determining the plasma configuration, composition and temperature is illustrated. Examples showing how to use these models in order to optimize the cavity structure and to obtain stable process operations are also given. A transport model for the highly reactive H 2 /CH 4 moderate pressure discharges is then presented. This model makes possible the determination of the time variation of plasma composition and temperature on a one-dimensional domain located on the plasma axis. The use of this model to analyse the transport phenomena and the chemical process in diamond deposition plasmas is illustrated. The model is also utilized to analyse pulsed mode discharges and the benefit they can bring as far as diamond growth rate and quality enhancement are concerned. We, in particular, show how the model can be employed to optimize the pulse waveform in order to improve the deposition process. Illustrations on how the model can give estimates of the species density at the growing substrate surface over a wide domain of deposition conditions are also given. This brings us to discuss the implication of the model prediction in terms of diamond growth rate and quality. (topical review)

  19. X-ray absorption and emission studies of diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buuren, T.; Willey, T.; Raty, J.Y.; Galli, G.; Terminello, L.J.; Bostedt, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new family of carbon nanopaticles produced in detonations, are found to have a core of diamond with a coating fullerene- like carbon. X-ray diffraction and TEM show that the nanodiamond powder is crystalline and approximately 4 nm in diameter. These nano-sized diamonds do not display the characteristic property of other group IV nanoparticles: a strong widening of the energy gap between the conduction and valence bands owing to quantum-confinement effects. For nano-sized diamond with a size distribution of 4 nm, there is no shift of the band energies relative to bulk diamond. Although the C1s core exciton feature clearly observed in the K-edge absorption edge of bulk diamond is shifted and broadening due to increased overlap of the excited electron with the core holein the small particle. Also the depth of the second gap in the nanodiamond spectra is shallower than that of bulk diamond. A feature at lower energy in the X-ray absorption spectra that is not present in the bulk samples is consistent with a fullerene like surface reconstruction. By exposing the diamond nanoparticles to an Argon /Oxygen plasma then annealing in a UHV environment we have obtained a hydrogen free surface. The nanodiamonds processed in this manner show an increase fullerene type contribution in the carbon x-ray absorption pre-edge. High spatial resolution EELS measurements of the empty states of a single nanodiamond particle acquired with a ld emission TEM also show the core of the particle is bulk diamond like where as the surface has a fullerene like structure. Standard density-functional calculations on clusters in which the diamond surface bonds are terminated with hydrogen atoms, show that the bandgap begins to increase above the bulk value only for clusters smaller than 1 nm. Surface hydrogen atoms are found to be about as close as they do in molecular hydrogen and can escape as H 2 , forcing the respective carbon atoms to rearrange. A series of such rearrangements can

  20. Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission from nitrogen doped and undoped polycrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfimchev, S., E-mail: sergeyel@tx.technion.ac.il; Chandran, M.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen related centers in diamond film are mainly responsible for visible sub-band-gap photoelectron emission. • The influence of film thickness and substrate on the measured photoelectron emission yields was not found. • Nanocrystalline diamonds have low electron emission yields most likely because of high amount of defects. • Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission may increase with temperature due to electron trapping/detrapping processes. - Abstract: In this study the origin of visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission (PEE) from polycrystalline diamond films is investigated. The PEE yields as a function of temperature were studied in the wavelengths range of 360–520 nm. Based on the comparison of electron emission yields from diamond films deposited on silicon and molybdenum substrates, with different thicknesses and nitrogen doping levels, we suggested that photoelectrons are generated from nitrogen related centers in diamond. Our results show that diamond film thickness and substrate material have no significant influence on the PEE yield. We found that nanocrystalline diamond films have low electron emission yields, compared to microcrystalline diamond, due to the presence of high amount of defects in the former, which trap excited electrons before escaping into the vacuum. However, the low PEE yield of nanocrystalline diamond films was found to increase with temperature. The phenomenon was explained by the trap assisted photon enhanced thermionic emission (ta-PETE) model. According to the ta-PETE model, photoelectrons are trapped by shallow traps, followed by thermal excitation at elevated temperatures and escape into the vacuum. Activation energies of trap levels were estimated for undoped nanocrystalline, undoped microcrystalline and N-doped diamond films using the Richardson-Dushman equation, which gives 0.13, 0.39 and 0.04 eV, respectively. Such low activation energy of trap levels makes the ta-PETE process very

  1. SiC interlayer by laser-cladding on WC-Co substrates for CVD diamond deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin, Andre; Fraga, Mariana Amorim; Vieira, Jose; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Corat, Evaldo Jose, E-mail: andrecontin@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, Raonei Alves [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UNIFESSPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Getulio [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Despite their huge industrial potential and commercial interest, the direct diamond coating on cemented carbide (WC-Co) is limited, mainly because of the catalytic effect of Cobalt (Co) and the high difference in thermal expansion coefficient [1]. This results in poor adherence between diamond and WC-Co. In addition, the low diamond film adhesion to the cemented carbide useless for machining applications. Removal of Co binder from the substrate surface by superficial etching is one of the techniques used to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC-Co. For the present study, diamond films were deposited on WC-Co substrates with an intermediate barrier to block the Co diffusion to the surface substrate. The laser cladding process produced the SiC barrier, in which a powder layer is melted by a laser irradiation to create the coating on the substrate. The use of laser cladding is the novel method for an intermediate barrier for cemented carbides. The advantages of laser cladding include a faster processing speed, precision, versatility. We reported the application of pretreatment method called ESND (Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond). The nucleation density was around 10{sup 11}part/cm{sup 2}. Diamond films were grown by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. Characterization of samples included Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Scattering Spectroscopy. Results showed that laser irradiation formed stable Co compounds in the interfacial barrier. It is because nucleation and good quality of diamond film since the cobalt are no longer free to migrate to the surface during the CVD diamond deposition. Reference: [1] Y. X. Cui, B. Shen, F. H. Sun. Diamond deposition on WC–Co substrate with amorphous SiC interlayer, Surface Engineering, 30, (2014) 237-243. (author)

  2. Effect of magnetic and electric coupling fields on micro- and nano- structure of carbon films in the CVD diamond process and their electron field emission property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijia; Li, Jiaxin; Hu, Naixiu; Jiang, Yunlu; Wei, Qiuping; Yu, Zhiming; Long, Hangyu; Zhu, Hekang; Xie, Youneng; Ma, Li; Lin, Cheng-Te; Su, Weitao

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, both electric field and magnetic field were used to assist the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) and we systematically investigated the effects of which on the (1) phase composition, (2) grain size, (3) thickness and (4) preferred orientation of diamond films through SEM, Raman and XRD. The application of magnetic field in electric field, so called ‘the magnetic and electric coupling fields’, enhanced the graphitization and refinement of diamond crystals, slowed down the decrease of film thickness along with the increase of bias current, and suppressed diamond (100) orientation. During the deposition process, the electric field provided additional energy to HFCVD system and generated large number of energetic particles which might annihilate at the substrate and lose kinetic energy, while the Lorentz force, provided by magnetic field, could constrict charged particles (including electrons) to do spiral movement, which prolonged their moving path and life, thus the system energy increased. With the graphitization of diamond films intensified, the preferred orientation of diamond films completely evolved from (110) to (100), until the orientation and diamond phase disappeared, which can be attributed to (I) the distribution and concentration ratio of carbon precursors (C2H2 and CH3) and (II) graphitization sequence of diamond crystal facets. Since the electron field emission property of carbon film is sensitive to the phase composition, thickness and preferred orientation, nano- carbon cones, prepared by the negative bias current of 20 mA and magnetic field strength of 80 Gauss, exhibited the lowest turn-on field of 6.1 V -1 μm-1.

  3. Low temperature diamond growth by linear antenna plasma CVD over large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izak, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Potocky, Stepan; Kromka, Alexander; Varga, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there is a great effort to increase the deposition area and decrease the process temperature for diamond growth which will enlarge its applications including use of temperature sensitive substrates. In this work, we report on the large area (20 x 30 cm 2 ) and low temperature (250 C) polycrystalline diamond growth by pulsed linear antenna microwave plasma system. The influence of substrate temperature varied from 250 to 680 C, as controlled by the table heater and/or by microwave power, is studied. It was found that the growth rate, film morphology and diamond to non-diamond phases (sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds) are influenced by the growth temperature, as confirmed by SEM and Raman measurements. The surface chemistry and growth processes were studied in terms of activation energies (E a ) calculated from Arrhenius plots. The activation energies of growth processes were very low (1.7 and 7.8 kcal mol -1 ) indicating an energetically favourable growth process from the CO 2 -CH 4 -H 2 gas mixture. In addition, from activation energies two different growth regimes were observed at low and high temperatures, indicating different growth mechanism. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Diamond network: template-free fabrication and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Nianjun; Fu, Haiyuan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chun; Huang, Nan; Jiang, Xin

    2015-03-11

    A porous diamond network with three-dimensionally interconnected pores is of technical importance but difficult to be produced. In this contribution, we demonstrate a simple, controllable, and "template-free" approach to fabricate diamond networks. It combines the deposition of diamond/β-SiC nanocomposite film with a wet-chemical selective etching of the β-SiC phase. The porosity of these networks was tuned from 15 to 68%, determined by the ratio of the β-SiC phase in the composite films. The electrochemical working potential and the reactivity of redox probes on the diamond networks are similar to those of a flat nanocrystalline diamond film, while their surface areas are hundreds of times larger than that of a flat diamond film (e.g., 490-fold enhancement for a 3 μm thick diamond network). The marriage of the unprecedented physical/chemical features of diamond with inherent advantages of the porous structure makes the diamond network a potential candidate for various applications such as water treatment, energy conversion (batteries or fuel cells), and storage (capacitors), as well as electrochemical and biochemical sensing.

  5. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  6. Diamond-like nanoparticles influence on flavonoids transport: molecular modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastun, Inna L.; Agandeeva, Ksenia E.; Bokarev, Andrey N.; Zenkin, Nikita S.

    2017-03-01

    Intermolecular interaction of diamond-like nanoparticles and flavonoids is investigated by numerical simulation. Using molecular modelling by the density functional theory method, we analyze hydrogen bonds formation and their influence on IR - spectra and structure of molecular complex which is formed due to interaction between flavonoids and nanodiamonds surrounded with carboxylic groups. Enriched adamantane (1,3,5,7 - adamantanetetracarboxylic acid) is used as an example of diamond-like nanoparticles. Intermolecular forces and structure of hydrogen bonds are investigated. IR - spectra and structure parameters of quercetin - adamantanetetracarboxylic acid molecular complex are obtained by numerical simulation using the Gaussian software complex. Received data coincide well with experimental results. Intermolecular interactions and hydrogen bonding structure in the obtained molecular complex are examined. Possibilities of flavonoids interaction with DNA at the molecular level are also considered.

  7. Electrochemically grafted polypyrrole changes photoluminescence of electronic states inside nanocrystalline diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galář, P., E-mail: pavel.galar@mff.cuni.cz; Malý, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague 121 16 (Czech Republic); Čermák, J.; Kromka, A.; Rezek, B. [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Cukrovarnická 10, Prague 160 00 (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-14

    Hybrid diamond-organic interfaces are considered attractive for diverse applications ranging from electronics and energy conversion to medicine. Here we use time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy in visible spectral range (380–700 nm) to study electronic processes in H-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) with 150 nm thin, electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) layer. We observe changes in dynamics of NCD photoluminescence as well as in its time-integrated spectra after polymer deposition. The effect is reversible. We propose a model where the PPy layer on the NCD surface promotes spatial separation of photo-generated charge carriers both in non-diamond carbon phase and in bulk diamond. By comparing different NCD thicknesses we show that the effect goes as much as 200 nm deep inside the NCD film.

  8. A large planetary body inferred from diamond inclusions in a ureilite meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiei, Farhang; Badro, James; Dennenwaldt, Teresa; Oveisi, Emad; Cantoni, Marco; Hébert, Cécile; El Goresy, Ahmed; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Gillet, Philippe

    2018-04-17

    Planetary formation models show that terrestrial planets are formed by the accretion of tens of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos through energetic giant impacts. However, relics of these large proto-planets are yet to be found. Ureilites are one of the main families of achondritic meteorites and their parent body is believed to have been catastrophically disrupted by an impact during the first 10 million years of the solar system. Here we studied a section of the Almahata Sitta ureilite using transmission electron microscopy, where large diamonds were formed at high pressure inside the parent body. We discovered chromite, phosphate, and (Fe,Ni)-sulfide inclusions embedded in diamond. The composition and morphology of the inclusions can only be explained if the formation pressure was higher than 20 GPa. Such pressures suggest that the ureilite parent body was a Mercury- to Mars-sized planetary embryo.

  9. Nanostructured Diamond-Like Carbon Films Grown by Off-Axis Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Shan Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC films instead of the ultrasmooth film were obtained by pulsed laser ablation of pyrolytic graphite. Deposition was performed at room temperature in vacuum with substrates placed at off-axis position. The configuration utilized high density plasma plume arriving at low effective angle for the formation of nanostructured DLC. Nanostructures with maximum size of 50 nm were deposited as compared to the ultrasmooth DLC films obtained in a conventional deposition. The Raman spectra of the films confirmed that the films were diamond-like/amorphous in nature. Although grown at an angle, ion energy of >35 eV was obtained at the off-axis position. This was proposed to be responsible for subplantation growth of sp3 hybridized carbon. The condensation of energetic clusters and oblique angle deposition correspondingly gave rise to the formation of nanostructured DLC in this study.

  10. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  11. Development of Diamond Tracking Detectors for High Luminosity Experiments at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Kerbikov, B; Cumalat, J P; Mandic, I; Kagan, H P; Grigoriev, E; Mikuz, M; Oh, A; Martemiyanov, A; Golubev, A; Gorisek, A; Seidel, S C; Eusebi, R

    2002-01-01

    \\\\ \\\\% RD42 \\\\ \\\\Diamond, grown in a chemical vapour deposition process, can be used as a particle detector. The RD42 collaboration investigates its application in experiments at the Large Hadron Collider for particle tracking very close to the interaction region. Diamond is known to be radiation hard, in particular to photons and electrons up to at least 100 MRad. Irradiations with pions, protons and neutrons at room temperature show that diamond can resist higher fluences than silicon devices. An irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons on diamond samples shows no degradation up to fluences of 1 x 10$^{15} \\emph{p}$/cm$^{2}$ and a decrease in signal of only 40\\% at 5 x 10$^{15} \\emph{p}$/cm$^{2}$.\\\\ \\\\The signal response to a minimum ionizing particle in the best diamond samples is 9000 electon-hole-pairs which corresponds to a charge collection distance of 250 $\\mu$m.\\\\ \\\\Diamond strip detectors with sizes from 1 x 1 cm$^{2}$ to 2 x 4 cm$^{2}$ are routinely tested in particle beams using low noise VA readout elec...

  12. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...

  13. Fluorine and boron co-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by pulsed glow discharge plasma immersion ion processing

    CERN Document Server

    He, X M; Peters, A M; Taylor, B; Nastasi, M

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine (F) and boron (B) co-doped diamond-like carbon (FB-DLC) films were prepared on different substrates by the plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP) technique. A pulse glow discharge plasma was used for the PIIP deposition and was produced at a pressure of 1.33 Pa from acetylene (C sub 2 H sub 2), diborane (B sub 2 H sub 6), and hexafluoroethane (C sub 2 F sub 6) gas. Films of FB-DLC were deposited with different chemical compositions by varying the flow ratios of the C sub 2 H sub 2 , B sub 2 H sub 6 , and C sub 2 F sub 6 source gases. The incorporation of B sub 2 H sub 6 and C sub 2 F sub 6 into PIIP deposited DLC resulted in the formation of F-C and B-C hybridized bonding structures. The levels of the F and B concentrations effected the chemical bonding and the physical properties as was evident from the changes observed in density, hardness, stress, friction coefficient, and contact angle of water on films. Compared to B-doped or F-doped DLC films, the F and B co-doping of DLC during PIIP deposition...

  14. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km

  15. Plasma boriding of a cobalt–chromium alloy as an interlayer for nanostructured diamond growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Jubinsky, Matthew; Catledge, Shane A., E-mail: catledge@uab.edu

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Metal-boride layer creates a compatible surface for NSD deposition. • PECVD boriding on CoCrMo produces robust metal-boride layer. • Deposition temperature comparison shows 750 °C boriding masks surface cobalt. • EDS shows boron diffusion as well as deposition. • Nanoindentation hardness of CoCrMo substantially increases after boriding. - Abstract: Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond coatings can potentially improve the wear resistance of cobalt–chromium medical implant surfaces, but the high cobalt content in these alloys acts as a catalyst to form graphitic carbon. Boriding by high temperature liquid baths and powder packing has been shown to improve CVD diamond compatibility with cobalt alloys. We use the microwave plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD process to deposit interlayers composed primarily of the borides of cobalt and chromium. The use of diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) in the plasma feedgas allows for the formation of a robust boride interlayer for suppressing graphitic carbon during subsequent CVD of nano-structured diamond (NSD). This metal–boride interlayer is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt for improving nucleation and adhesion of NSD coatings on a CoCrMo alloy. Migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer is significantly reduced and undetectable on the surface of the subsequently-grown NSD coating. The effects of PECVD boriding are compared for a range of substrate temperatures and deposition times and are evaluated using glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Boriding of CoCrMo results in adhered nanostructured diamond coatings with low surface roughness.

  16. Laser spectroscopy of highly doped NV- centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shova D.; Fedorov, Vladimir V.; Peppers, Jeremy; Martyshkin, Dmitry V.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Shao, Linbo; Loncar, Marko

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, prospects of using diamond with NV- centers as a gain medium have been studied. Spectroscopic characterization of NV- centers in diamond as well as absorption saturation and pump-probe experiments have been carried out. Absorption and emission cross-sections were estimated to be 2.8 × 10-17 cm2 and 4.3 × 10-17 cm2 at the maximum of absorption and emission bands, respectively. It was observed from emission spectra under pulse excitation that some NV- are photoionized to NV0 centers with ZPL at 575 nm. Room temperature luminescence lifetime of NV- centers was measured to be 12ns, which is close to the previously reported lifetime in bulk diamond ( 13ns). Saturated transmission was only about 11% of calculated values even at energy fluence much higher than the saturation flux. Two excited state absorptions (ESAs) with different relaxation times ("fast-decay" and "slow-decay with relaxation times of 500 ns and several tens of microseconds, respectively) were revealed in transmission decay kinetics at 632 nm. Kinetics of transmission at 670 nm was dominated by "slow-decay" ESA process. Kinetics of dk/k0 in shorter wavelength were strongly dominated by "fast-decay" ESA process. These results definitively indicate that stimulated emission of NV- centers is suppressed by photoionization and ESAs and the possibility of diamond lasers based on NV- centers is low.

  17. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  18. Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  19. Electrochemical Behavior of Biomedical Titanium Alloys Coated with Diamond Carbon in Hanks' Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanavel, S.; Ponnusamy, S.; Mohan, L.; Radhika, R.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Ramasubramanian, K.

    2018-03-01

    Biomedical implants in the knee and hip are frequent failures because of corrosion and stress on the joints. To solve this important problem, metal implants can be coated with diamond carbon, and this coating plays a critical role in providing an increased resistance to implants toward corrosion. In this study, we have employed diamond carbon coating over Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys using hot filament chemical vapor deposition method which is well-established coating process that significantly improves the resistance toward corrosion, wears and hardness. The diamond carbon-coated Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy showed an increased microhardness in the range of 850 HV. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization studies in SBF solution (simulated body fluid solution) were carried out to understand the in vitro behavior of uncoated as well as coated titanium alloys. The experimental results showed that the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy is relatively higher when compared with diamond carbon-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys due to the presence of β phase in the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. Electrochemical impedance results showed that the diamond carbon-coated alloys behave as an ideal capacitor in the body fluid solution. Moreover, the stability in mechanical properties during the corrosion process was maintained for diamond carbon-coated titanium alloys.

  20. Silicon-vacancy centre as an artificial atom in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachlan Rogers

    2014-01-01

    A transition at 738 nm in diamond has been attributed to the silicon vacancy (SiV) colour centre. Much less is known about this defect site than the famous nitrogen-vacancy centre, but it appears to have advantages for some applications It is particularly promising as a single-photon source, due to a bright optical transition which has most of its intensity in the zero-phonon-line and only a small phonon sideband. A number of results will be reported for single SiV sites in bulk diamond, complementing recent activity on SiV in nanodiamonds. Individual SiV sites in the low-strain environment of bulk diamond show almost no variation in photoluminescence spectra. By fabricating a solid-immersion lens in the diamond over a SiV site we have enhanced the photon collection rate by nearly a factor of ten. In order to identify whether the SiV centre could be useful for broader quantum information processing application, it is first necessary to establish its electronic structure. Recent experimental developments in this direction will be discussed. (author)

  1. Fabrication and characterization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond-coated MEMS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Sobaszek, Michał; Ficek, Mateusz; Kopiec, Daniel; Moczała, Magdalena; Orłowska, Karolina; Sawczak, Mirosław; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication processes of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) films on silicon-based micro- and nano-electromechanical structures have been investigated. B-NCD films were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method. The variation in B-NCD morphology, structure and optical parameters was particularly investigated. The use of truncated cone-shaped substrate holder enabled to grow thin fully encapsulated nanocrystalline diamond film with a thickness of approx. 60 nm and RMS roughness of 17 nm. Raman spectra present the typical boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond line recorded at 1148 cm-1. Moreover, the change in mechanical parameters of silicon cantilevers over-coated with boron-doped diamond films was investigated with laser vibrometer. The increase of resonance to frequency of over-coated cantilever is attributed to the change in spring constant caused by B-NCD coating. Topography and electrical parameters of boron-doped diamond films were investigated by tapping mode AFM and electrical mode of AFM-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The crystallite-grain size was recorded at 153 and 238 nm for boron-doped film and undoped, respectively. Based on the contact potential difference data from the KPFM measurements, the work function of diamond layers was estimated. For the undoped diamond films, average CPD of 650 mV and for boron-doped layer 155 mV were achieved. Based on CPD values, the values of work functions were calculated as 4.65 and 5.15 eV for doped and undoped diamond film, respectively. Boron doping increases the carrier density and the conductivity of the material and, consequently, the Fermi level.

  2. Superior quality diamond heel inserts improve cutting structure and seal life in abrasive and directional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Tyler; Scott, Dan; Nelms, Derek [Society of Petroleum Engineers (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, continuous improvements over the last century have led to the development of increasingly efficient drilling equipment. Among the new technologies is the polycrystalline diamond compact bit which has become more efficient than roller cone bits for several applications; the utilization of roller cone bits is now restricted to tough applications such as directional drilling and drilling through hard and abrasive formations. The aim of this paper is to present the development of improved roller cone bits using new designs and diamond inserts of superior quality. Two case studies on the use of improved roller cone bits are presented herein. Results showed that the novel diamond inserts combined with the design improvements provide better wear resistance. This paper demonstrated that roller cone bits have achieved greater reliability and longevity thanks to the new generation of diamond inserts and to design improvements.

  3. Substitutional Boron in Nanodiamond, Bucky-Diamond, and Nanocrystalline Diamond Grain Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Sternberg, Michael G.

    2006-10-05

    Although boron has been known for many years to be a successful dopant in bulk diamond, efficient doping of nanocrystalline diamond with boron is still being developed. In general, the location, configuration, and bonding structure of boron in nanodiamond is still unknown, including the fundamental question of whether it is located within grains or grain boundaries of thin films and whether it is within the core or at the surface of nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration, potential energy surface, and electronic charge of substitutional boron in various types of nanocrystalline diamond. The results predict that boron is likely to be positioned at the surface of isolated particles and at the grain boundary of thin-film samples.

  4. Nanophotonic quantum interface for nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiwen Chu

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have emerged as a promising solid-state platform for quantum communication, quantum information processing and nanoscale sensing with optical read-out. Engineering light-matter interactions is crucial for the practical realization of these systems. I will present our work toward realizing individual NV centers embedded in nanofabricated hybrid photonic crystal cavities consisting of single crystal diamond and PMMA based Bragg structures. Devices with quality factors up to 3,000 coupled to NV centers have been implemented, leading to substantial Purcell enhancement of zero-phonon line. We investigate the optical coherence properties of NV centers inside these nanoscale structures and report on first cavity QED experiments with such systems. Applications of diamond nanophotonic devices for quantum networks and nonlinear optics with single photons will be discussed. (author)

  5. Investigation of the Mechanical Behaviour of Metal Diamond Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Bertarelli, A; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Bizzaro, S

    2012-01-01

    Metal-Diamond Composites (Me-CD) are a novel class of materials which has typical applications in the field of thermal management. Usually, due to the high volume fraction of diamonds inside the matrix, the mechanical behavior of such materials is quite brittle with low level of fracture stress and strain. However, with advanced innovations in the sintering processes, it is possible to obtain composite materials with a good level of strength and toughness. The great advantage of these materials is the possibility to combine the high thermal and electrical conductivity of diamonds with the strength of metals. Aim of this work is the investigation of the mechanical behavior of Me-CD from quasi-static to high strain-rate loading conditions. The temperature influence on mechanical properties is also evaluated.

  6. Cold cathodes on ultra-dispersed diamond base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimova, A.N.; Zhirnov, V.V.; Chubun, N.N.; Belobrov, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    Prospects of application of nano diamond powders for fabrication of cold cathodes are discussed.Cold cathodes based on silicon pointed structures with nano diamond coatings were prepared.The deposition technique of diamond coating was dielectrophoresis from suspension of nano diamond powder in organic liquids.The cathodes were tested in sealed prototypes of vacuum electronic devices

  7. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H{sub 2} into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH, H{sub β}, and H{sub α} were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T{sub 2g} phonon at 1333 cm{sup −1} peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  8. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  9. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  10. Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fisch, D; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zoeller, M M

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are presented in terms of collection distance, $d=\\mu E \\tau$, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart under the influence of an electric field, where $\\mu$ is the sum of carrier mo bilities, $E$ is the applied electric field, and $\\tau$ is the mobility weighted carrier lifetime. Over the last two years the collection distance increased from $\\sim$ 75 $\\mu$m to over 200 $\\mu$ m. With this high quality CVD diamond a series of micro-strip and pixel particle detectors have been constructed. These devices were tested to determine their position resolution and signal to n oise performance. Diamond detectors w...

  11. Processing of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for thermal management of wide-bandgap semiconductor power electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraju, N.; Singh, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Studied effect of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) deposition on device metallization. → Deposited NCD on to top of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) and Si devices. → Temperatures below 290 deg. C for Si devices and 320 deg. C for HEMTs prevent metal damage. → Development of novel NCD-based thermal management for power electronics feasible. - Abstract: High current densities in wide-bandgap semiconductor electronics operating at high power levels results in significant self-heating of devices, which necessitates the development thermal management technologies to effectively dissipate the generated heat. This paper lays the foundation for the development of such technology by ascertaining process conditions for depositing nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) on AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) with no visible damage to device metallization. NCD deposition is carried out on Si and GaN HEMTs with Au/Ni metallization. Raman spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy are used to evaluate the quality of the deposited NCD films. Si device metallization is used as a test bed for developing process conditions for NCD deposition on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Results indicate that no visible damage occurs to the device metallization for deposition conditions below 290 deg. C for Si devices and below 320 deg. C for the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Possible mechanisms for metallization damage above the deposition temperature are enumerated. Electrical testing of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs indicates that it is indeed possible to deposit NCD on GaN-based devices with no significant degradation in device performance.

  12. Direct diamond turning of steel molds for optical replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Dambon, Olaf; Bulla, Benjamin; Heselhaus, Michael

    2009-05-01

    In this paper the most recent investigations in ultrasonic assisted diamond machining of hardened steel at the Fraunhofer IPT is presented. The goal of this technology is to unify the outrageous specifications of diamond machining process with steel material. The focus lies on the kinematic influence of the discrete frequencies 40 kHz and 60 kHz. Special interest is given to the reachable surface roughness depending on process parameters. The machined steel (1.2083, X40Cr14, STAVAX ESU) is a common mold die material for optical replication processes.Results of the accomplished investigations show the potential of the ultrasonic assisted process and recent developments. By increasing the frequency from 40 kHz to 60 kHz the overall process stability is increased. This makes the process less vulnerable towards feed rate variation or towards the variation of machined material hardness. Furthermore no tool wear is detected at high material removal rates or high cutting distances during component machining.

  13. Diamond nanowires: fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2014-12-22

    C(sp(3) )C-bonded diamond nanowires are wide band gap semiconductors that exhibit a combination of superior properties such as negative electron affinity, chemical inertness, high Young's modulus, the highest hardness, and room-temperature thermal conductivity. The creation of 1D diamond nanowires with their giant surface-to-volume ratio enhancements makes it possible to control and enhance the fundamental properties of diamond. Although theoretical comparisons with carbon nanotubes have shown that diamond nanowires are energetically and mechanically viable structures, reproducibly synthesizing the crystalline diamond nanowires has remained challenging. We present a comprehensive, up-to-date review of diamond nanowires, including a discussion of their synthesis along with their structures, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Measurement and model on thermal properties of sintered diamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Tala; Garnier, Bertrand; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermal properties of sintered diamond used for grinding is studied. ► Flash method with infrared temperature measurement is used to investigate. ► Thermal conductivity increases with the amount of diamond. ► It is very sensitive to binder conductivity. ► Results agree with models assuming imperfect contact between matrix and particles. - Abstract: A prelude to the thermal management of grinding processes is measurement of the thermal properties of working materials. Indeed, tool materials must be chosen not only for their mechanical properties (abrasion performance, lifetime…) but also for thermal concerns (thermal conductivity) for efficient cooling that avoids excessive temperatures in the tool and workpiece. Sintered diamond is currently used for grinding tools since it yields higher performances and longer lifetimes than conventional materials (mineral or silicon carbide abrasives), but its thermal properties are not yet well known. Here the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density of sintered diamond are measured as functions of the diamond content in composites and for two types of metallic binders: hard tungsten-based and soft cobalt-based binders. The measurement technique for thermal conductivity is derived from the flash method. After pulse heating, the temperature of the rear of the sample is measured with a noncontact method (infrared camera). A parameter estimation method associated with a three-layer nonstationary thermal model is used to obtain sample thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and absorbed energy. With the hard metallic binder, the thermal conductivity of sintered diamond increased by up to 64% for a diamond content increasing from 0 to 25%. The increase is much less for the soft binder: 35% for diamond volumes up to 25%. In addition, experimental data were found that were far below the value predicted by conventional analytical models for effective thermal conductivity. A possible explanation

  15. Homogenisation of sulphide inclusions within diamonds: A new approach to diamond inclusion geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Iain; Hughes, Hannah S. R.; Butler, Ian B.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Muir, Duncan

    2017-11-01

    Base metal sulphide (BMS) inclusions in diamonds provide a unique insight into the chalcophile and highly siderophile element composition of the mantle. Entombed within their diamond hosts, these provide a more robust (closed system) sample, from which to determine the trace element, Re-Os and S-isotopic compositions of the mantle than mantle xenoliths or orogenic peridotites, as they are shielded from alteration during ascent to the Earth's crust and subsequent surface weathering. However, at temperatures below 1100 °C some BMS inclusions undergo subsolidus re-equilibration from an original monosulphide solid solution (Mss) and this causes fractionation of the major and trace elements within the inclusions. Thus to study the subjects noted above, current techniques require the entire BMS inclusion to be extracted for analyses. Unfortunately, 'flaking' of inclusions during break-out is a frequent occurrence and hence the risk of accidentally under-sampling a portion of the BMS inclusion is inherent in current practices. This loss may have significant implications for Re-Os isotope analyses where incomplete sampling of a Re-rich phase, such as chalcopyrite that typically occurs at the outer margins of BMS inclusions, may induce significant bias in the Re-Os and 187Os/188Os measurements and resulting model and isochron ages. We have developed a method for the homogenisation of BMS inclusions in diamond prior to their break-out from the host stone. Diamonds are heated to 1100 °C and then quenched to chemically homogenise any sulphide inclusions for both major and trace elements. Using X-ray Computed Microtomography (μCT) we determine the shape and spatial setting of multiple inclusions within a host stone and crucially show that the volume of a BMS inclusion is the same both before and after homogenisation. We show that the homogenisation process significantly reduces the inherent variability of in situ analysis when compared with unhomogenised BMS, thereby

  16. Note: Evaluation of microfracture strength of diamond materials using nano-polycrystalline diamond spherical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, H.; Hamaki, K.; Harano, K.

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-hard and high-strength spherical indenters with high precision and sphericity were successfully prepared from nanopolycrystalline diamond (NPD) synthesized by direct conversion sintering from graphite under high pressure and high temperature. It was shown that highly accurate and stable microfracture strength tests can be performed on various super-hard diamond materials by using the NPD spherical indenters. It was also verified that this technique enables quantitative evaluation of the strength characteristics of single crystal diamonds and NPDs which have been quite difficult to evaluate.

  17. Recent Advances in the Deposition of Diamond Coatings on Co-Cemented Tungsten Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Polini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-cemented tungsten carbides, namely, hard metals are largely used to manufacture high wear resistant components in several manufacturing segments. Coating hard metals with superhard materials like diamond is of utmost interest as it can further extend their useful lifespan. The deposition of diamond coatings onto WC-Co can be extremely complicated as a result of poor adhesion. This can be essentially ascribed to (i the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients between diamond and WC-Co, at the typical high temperatures inside the chemical vapour deposition (CVD chamber, generates large residual stresses at the interface; (ii the role of surface Co inside the WC-Co matrix during diamond CVD, which promotes carbon dissolution and diffusion. The present investigation reviews the techniques by which Co-cemented tungsten carbides can be treated to make them prone to receive diamond coatings by CVD. Further, it proposes interesting ecofriendly and sustainable alternatives to further improve the diamond deposition process as well as the overall performance of the coated hard metals.

  18. Structural evolution of Ti destroyable interlayer in large-size diamond film deposition by DC arc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianchao; Li, Chengming; Liu, Jinlong; Wei, Junjun; Chen, Liangxian; Hua, Chenyi; Yan, Xiongbo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of titanium (Ti) interlayer was verified to reduce the residual stress of diamond films by self-fracturing and facilitate the harvest of a crack-free free-standing diamond film prepared by direct current (DC) arc plasma jet. In this study, the evolution of the Ti interlayer between large-area diamond film and substrate was studied and modeled in detail. The evolution of the interlayer was found to be relevant to the distribution of the DC arc plasma, which can be divided into three areas (arc center, arc main, and arc edge). The formation rate of titanium carbide (TiC) in the arc main was faster than in the other two areas and resulted in the preferred generation of crack in the diamond film in the arc main during cooling. Sandwich structures were formed along with the growth of TiC until the complete transformation of the Ti interlayer. The interlayer released stress via self-fracture. Avoiding uneven fragile regions that formed locally in the interlayer and achieving cooperatively released stress are crucial for the preparation of large crack-free diamond films.

  19. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2017-01-01

    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  20. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczemska, Anna T.; Witkowski, Dariusz; Ralchenko, Victor; Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry; Lysko, Jan M.; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Hassard, John

    2011-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare TM was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  1. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: anna.karczemska@p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: ralchenko@nsc.gpi.ru [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: jmlysko@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: petr.louda@vslib.cz [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.bodzenta@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: j.hassard@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  2. Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-10-26

    In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.

  3. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  4. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  5. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  6. Fabrication of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond nanoflowers based on 3D Cu(OH){sub 2} dendritic architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Huijun; Hong, Sukin; Lee, Seungkoo; Lim, Daesoon; Jin, Juneon; Hwang, Sungwoo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used to prepare boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BDND) nanoflowers on a Cu substrate with a Cu(OH){sub 2} dendritic architecture that had been formed by using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) method with nanodiamond particles. The formation of diamond nanoflowers is controlled by the reaction time between the Cu(OH){sub 2} nanoflowers and the polymeric linker for the electrostatic attachment of nanodiamonds and by the deposition time for CVD diamond growth with a high nucleation density. Through analysis by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of BDND nanoflowers are determined, and a possible explanation is provided.

  7. Panel 2 - properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.; Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ajayi, O.O.; Liu, Y.Y.; Purohit, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bartelt, P.F. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Baughman, R.H. [Allied Signal, Morristown, NJ (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Cooper, C.V. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dugger, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freedman, A. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Larsen-Basse, J. [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States); McGuire, N.R. [Caterpillar, Peoria, IL (United States); Messier, R.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Noble, G.L.; Ostrowki, M.H. [John Crane, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States); Sartwell, B.D. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Wei, R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This panel attempted to identify and prioritize research and development needs in determining the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films (D/DLCF). Three specific goals were established. They were: (1) To identify problem areas which produce concern and require a better knowledge of D/DLCF properties. (2) To identify and prioritize key properties of D/DLCF to promote transportation applications. (3) To identify needs for improvement in properties-measurement methods. Each of these goals is addressed subsequently.

  8. New High Pressure Phase of CaCO3: Implication for the Deep Diamond Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Z.; Li, X.; Zhang, Z.; Lin, J. F.; Ni, H.; Prakapenka, V.

    2017-12-01

    Surface carbon can be transported to the Earth's deep interior through sinking subduction slabs. Carbonates, including CaCO3, MgCO3 and MgCa(CO3)2, are important carbon carriers for the deep carbon cycle. Experimental studies on the phase stability of carbonates with coexisting mantle minerals at relevant pressure and temperature conditions are thus important for understanding the deep carbon cycle. In particular, recent petrological studies have revealed the evidence for the transportation of CaCO3 to the depth at least of the top lower mantle by analyzing the diamond inclusions. Yet the phase stability of CaCO3 at relevant pressure and temperature conditions of the top lower mantle is still unclear. Previous single-crystal study has shown that CaCO3 transforms from the CaCO3-III structure to CaCO3-VI at 15 GPa and 300 K. The CaCO3-VI is stable at least up to 40 GPa at 300 K. At high temperatures, CaCO3 in the aragonite structure will directly transform into the post-aragonite structure at 40 GPa. However, a recent theoretical study predicted a new phase of CaCO3 with a space group of P21/c between 32 and 48 GPa which is different from previous experimental results. In this study, we have investigated the phase stability of CaCO3 at high pressure-temperature conditions using synchrotron X-ray diffraction in laser-heated diamond anvil cells. We report the discovery of a new phase of CaCO3 at relevant pressure-temperature conditions of the top lower mantle which is consistent with previous theoretical predictions. This new phase is an important carrier for the transportation of carbon to the Earth's lower mantle and crucial for growing deep diamonds in the region.

  9. Functional foam coatings inside tubing and custom developed diamond ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawedeit, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The development of inertial confinement fusion targets requires new efficient ablator materials and characteristic temperature measurements during confinement. Here, an aerogel coating process is developed to coat inside spheres and cylinders. The characteristic emission spectrum of doped aerogel inside diamond targets is used as temperature gauge during confinement. Coatings inside metal cylinders confirmed the generality of the coating procedure. In addition artificial diamond is characterized which represents an interesting ablator material.

  10. Effect of low-damage inductively coupled plasma on shallow nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Momenzadeh, S. Ali; Wang, Ya; Denisenko, Andrej, E-mail: a.denisenko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de [3. Institute of Physics, Research Center SCoPE and IQST, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Konuma, Mitsuharu [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M. [Element Six Innovation, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QR (United Kingdom); Wrachtrup, Jörg [3. Institute of Physics, Research Center SCoPE and IQST, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-08-17

    Near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have been successfully employed as atomic-sized magnetic field sensors for external spins over the last years. A key challenge is still to develop a method to bring NV centers at nanometer proximity to the diamond surface while preserving their optical and spin properties. To that aim we present a method of controlled diamond etching with nanometric precision using an oxygen inductively coupled plasma process. Importantly, no traces of plasma-induced damages to the etched surface could be detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confocal photoluminescence microscopy techniques. In addition, by profiling the depth of NV centers created by 5.0 keV of nitrogen implantation energy, no plasma-induced quenching in their fluorescence could be observed. Moreover, the developed etching process allowed even the channeling tail in their depth distribution to be resolved. Furthermore, treating a {sup 12}C isotopically purified diamond revealed a threefold increase in T{sub 2} times for NV centers with <4 nm of depth (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance signal from protons at the diamond surface) in comparison to the initial oxygen-terminated surface.

  11. Growth, characterization and properties of CVD diamond films for applications as radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciorti, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to give a picture of the current state of the art of CVD (chemical vapour deposition) diamond. The interest is due to the capability to grow over large areas a material with physical properties suitable for an impressive number of applications. The authors focuses on the potential of diamond as a radiation detector and gets into details of the huge field that extends from the thermochemistry of the deposition process to the test of a diamond-based tracker with a fast readout electronics

  12. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  13. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J

    2010-12-01

    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  14. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  15. Decrease of FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool used in nano cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Zongwei, E-mail: zongweixu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fang, Fengzhou, E-mail: fzfang@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Bing; Xiao, Yinjing; Chen, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Xibin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Hongzhong [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We mainly aim to characterize and decrease the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • Raman and XPS methods were used to characterize the nanoscale FIB-induced damage. • Lower energy FIB can effectively lessen the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • The diamond tools’ performance was greatly improved after FIB process optimization. • 6 nm chip thickness of copper was achieved by diamond tool with 22 nm edge radius. - Abstract: Diamond cutting tools with nanometric edge radius used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) technology. However, due to the nanoscale effects, the diamond tools performance and the cutting edge lifetime in nano cutting would be degraded because of the FIB-induced nanoscale lateral damage. In this study, the methods of how to effectively characterize and decrease the FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool are intensively studied. Based on the performance optimization diamond machining tools, the controllable chip thickness of less than 10 nm was achieved on a single-crystal copper in nano cutting. In addition, the ratio of minimum thickness of chip (MTC) to tool edge radius of around 0.3–0.4 in nano cutting is achieved. Methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools and adding coolant during the nano cutting are very beneficial in improving the research of nano cutting and MTC. The nano cutting experiments based on the sharp and high performance of diamond tools would validate the nano cutting mechanisms that many molecular dynamic simulation studies have put forward and provide new findings for nano cutting.

  16. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  17. Active brazed diamond and cubic boron nitride interfacial nanostructure and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, U.E.; Elsener, H.R.; Elsener, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    Active brazing is an effective technique for joining diamond or cBN grit onto metallic substrates. Current use of this technique is being made for super abrasive, high performance tools. The lecture will give an overview over different aspects such as (i) tool performance in selected applications, (ii) interfacial nanostructure between super abrasive grit and brazing alloys matrix, (iii) attempts to computer model such interface reactions and (iv) recent improvements of the abrasion resistance of the brazing alloy itself. Super abrasive tools with outstanding performance in applications such as grinding, honing or stone cutting can be manufactured by a single-layer of brazed diamond or cBN grit. A method to obtain regular grit patterns will be presented. Examples of prototype tools and their performance in different applications will be shown. The investigation of interface reactions between diamond and active brazing alloys plays an important role to further improve the brazing process and resulting tool performance. The interfacial nanostructure is characterised by a thin reaction layer of Ti with diamond and cBN, respectively. Results for Ag- and Cu-based brazing alloys will be presented and discussed in view of the influence of brazing process parameters and brazing alloy matrix. Computer modelling of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the interface reactions may allow optimising the process parameters. This requires reliable databases currently being built up. The potential of such methods in ceramic to metal joining will be described. The abrasion resistance of brazing alloys itself plays an important role for tool performance. A new method to achieve a dispersion of nano sized TiC precipitates in the alloy matrix by addition of an organic binder, decomposing during brazing will be presented. In an outlook further applications of brazed diamond grit, such as thermal management materials will be discussed. (author)

  18. CVD of alternated microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films on WC-TIC-CO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel

    2010-01-01

    CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)

  19. Nucleation and adhesion of diamond films on Co cemented tungsten carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, R.; Santarelli, M.; Traversa, E.

    1999-12-01

    Diamond deposits were grown using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on pretreated Co cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates with an average grain size of 6 {micro}m. Depositions were performed with 0.5 or 1.0% methane concentration and with substrate temperatures ranging from 750 to 1,000 C. Diamond nucleation densities were measured by scanning electron microscopy. Scratched and bias-enhanced nucleation pretreated substrates showed the larger nucleation densities. Etching of the WC performed by Murakami's reagent, followed by surface-Co dissolution (MP pretreatment), led to a roughened but scarcely nucleating surface. The performance of a scratching prior to the MP pretreatment allowed one to increase the nucleation density, due scratching-induced defects, confined in the outermost layer of WC grains, which act as nucleation sites. Smaller nucleation densities were observed with increasing the substrate temperature and reducing the methane concentration, confirming that diamond nucleates via a heterogeneous process. The adhesion of continuous films was evaluated by the reciprocal of the slope of crack radius-indentation load functions. The substrate pretreatments mainly affected the film adhesion, while the influence of CVD process conditions was minor. The two main factors that improve the diamond film adhesion are the coating-substrate contact area and the surface-Co removal.

  20. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Kock Kiam

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using diamond detect or s has matured from devices based on a rather large pads to highly granular pixelated device s . The ATLAS experiment has recently installed a diamond pixel detector, the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), to measure the luminosity in the upgraded LHC with higher instantaneous luminosity. Polycrystalline diamonds were used to fabricate the diamond pixel modules. The design , production, and test beam result s are described. CMS also has a similar plan to construct a diamond based luminosity monitor, the Pixel Luminos ity Telescope s (PLT) . In a pilot run using single crystal diamond, the pulse height was found to depend on the luminosity . Consequently the collaboration decided to use silicon instead due to time constrain ts .

  1. Electrolysis with diamond anodes: Eventually, there are refractory species!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Ismael F; Cotillas, Salvador; Díaz, Elena; Sáez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Juan J; Cañizares, P; Mohedano, Ángel F; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2018-03-01

    In this work, synthetic wastewater polluted with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (Bmim) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf 2 ) undergoes four electrolytic treatments with diamond anodes (bare electrolysis, electrolysis enhanced with peroxosulfate promoters, irradiated with UV light and with US) and results obtained were compared with those obtained with the application of Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation (CWPO). Despite its complex heterocyclic structure, Bmim + cation is successfully depleted with the five technologies tested, being transformed into intermediates that eventually can be mineralized. Photoelectrolysis attained the lowest concentration of intermediates, while CWPO is the technology less efficient in their degradation. However, the most surprising result is that concentration of NTf 2 - anion does not change during the five advanced oxidation processes tested, pointing out its strong refractory character, being the first species that exhibits this character in wastewater undergoing electrolysis with diamond. This means that the hydroxyl and sulfate radicals mediated oxidation and the direct electrolysis are inefficient for breaking the C-S, C-F and S-N bounds of the NTf 2 - anion, which is a very interesting mechanistic information to understand the complex processes undergone in electrolysis with diamond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biofunctionalization of diamond microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitinger, Andreas Adam; Lud, Simon Quartus; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Hutter, Naima Aurelia; Richter, Gerhard; Jordan, Rainer [WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present two main routes for the biofunctionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films, aiming at the application of diamond microelectrodes as amperometric biosensors. We report on direct covalent grafting of biomolecules on nanocrystalline diamond films via diazonium monophenyls and biphenyls as well as other linker molecules, forming self-assembled monolayers on the diamond surface. Monolayers with different functional head groups have been characterized. Patterning of the available functional groups using electron beam-induced chemical lithography allows the selective preparation of well-localized docking sites for the immobilization of biomolecules. Furthermore, polymer brushes are expected to enable novel paths for designing more advanced biosensing schemes, incorporating multifunctional groups and a higher loading capacity for biomolecules. Here, we focus on the preparation of polymer grafts by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization. Further chemical modification of the grafted polymer brushes results in the introduction of additional functional molecules, paving the way for the incorporation of more complex molecular structures such as proteins. In a comparative study we investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.

  3. Tribological performance of polycrystalline tantalum-carbide-incorporated diamond films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mahtab; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Ahmed, E.; Malik, Abdul Sattar; Shah, Z. A.; Ahmad, Naseeb; Mehtab, Ujala; Raza, Rizwan

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline tantalum-carbide-incorporated diamond coatings have been made on unpolished side of Si (100) wafer by hot filament chemical vapor deposition process. Morphology of the coatings has been found to vary from (111) triangular-facetted to predominantly (111) square-faceted by increasing the concentration of tantalum carbide. The results have been compared to those of a diamond reference coating with no tantalum content. An increase in roughness has been observed with the increase of tantalum carbide (TaC) due to change in morphology of the diamond films. It is noticed that roughness of the coatings increases as grains become more square-faceted. It is found that diamond coatings involving tantalum carbide are not as resistant as diamond films with no TaC content and the coefficient of friction for such coatings with microcrystalline grains can be manipulated to 0·33 under high vacuum of 10-7 Torr. Such a low friction coefficient value enhances tribological behavior of unpolished Si substrates and can possibly be used in sliding applications.

  4. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hébert, Clément, E-mail: clement.hebert@cea.fr [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine [INSERM, U836, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Garçon, Laurie Amandine [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CEA/INAC/SPrAM/CREAB, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mermoux, Michel [Université Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Eon, David [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mailley, Pascal [CEA-LETI-DTBS Minatec, 17 rue des Martyres, 38054 Grenoble (France); Omnès, Franck [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of all-diamond microelectrode array • Evaluation of as-grown nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond for electrical neural interfacing • MRI compatibility of nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond.

  5. Interlayers Applied to CVD Diamond Deposition on Steel Substrate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoille Denner Damm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Academics and industry have sought after combining the exceptional properties of diamonds with the toughness of steel. Since the early 1990s several partial solutions have been found but chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond deposition on steel substrate continues to be a persistent problem. The main drawbacks are the high carbon diffusion from gas phase into substrate, the transition metals on the material surface that catalyze sp2 bond formation, instead of sp3 bonds, and the high thermal expansion coefficient (TEC mismatch between diamond and steels. An intermediate layer has been found necessary to increase diamond adhesion. Literature has proposed many efficient intermediate layers as a diffusion barrier for both, carbon and iron, but most intermediate layers shown have not solved TEC mismatch. In this review, we briefly discuss the solutions that exclusively work as diffusion barrier and discuss in a broader way the ones that also solve, or may potentially solve, the TEC mismatch problem. We examine some multilayers, the iron borides, the chromium carbides, and vanadium carbides. We go through the most relevant results of the last two and a half decades, including recent advances in our group. Vanadium carbide looks promising since it has shown excellent diffusion barrier properties, its TEC is intermediary between diamond and steel and, it has been thickened to manage thermal stress relief. We also review a new deposition technique to set up intermediate layers: laser cladding. It is promising because of its versatility in mixing different materials and fusing and/or sintering them on a steel surface. We conclude by remarking on new perspectives.

  6. Study on the Effect of Diamond Grain Size on Wear of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rani, A. M.; Che Sidid, Adib Akmal Bin; Adzis, Azri Hamim Ab

    2018-03-01

    Drilling operation is one of the most crucial step in oil and gas industry as it proves the availability of oil and gas under the ground. Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bit is a type of bit which is gaining popularity due to its high Rate of Penetration (ROP). However, PDC bit can easily wear off especially when drilling hard rock. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the grain sizes of the diamond and wear rate of the PDC cutter using simulation-based study with FEA software (ABAQUS). The wear rates of a PDC cutter with a different diamond grain sizes were calculated from simulated cuttings of cutters against granite. The result of this study shows that the smaller the diamond grain size, the higher the wear resistivity of PDC cutter.

  7. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, T.N., E-mail: Thuto.Makgato@students.wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Ramos, M.A. [CMAM, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); García-Hernández, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A. [CMAM, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Erasmus, R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa)

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1–2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1–1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μ{sub eff}~(0.1–0.2)μ{sub B}. No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. - Highlights: • Proton macro-irradiation of pure diamond creates fluence dependent paramagnetism. • The effective magnetic moment is found to be in the range μ{sub eff}~(0.1–0.2)μ{sub B}. • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed.

  8. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, T.N.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Ramos, M.A.; García-Hernández, M.; Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; Shrivastava, S.; Erasmus, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1–2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1–1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μ eff ~(0.1–0.2)μ B . No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. - Highlights: • Proton macro-irradiation of pure diamond creates fluence dependent paramagnetism. • The effective magnetic moment is found to be in the range μ eff ~(0.1–0.2)μ B . • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed.

  9. Self-assembling hybrid diamond-biological quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Koplovitz, G.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Yochelis, S.; Porath, D.; Nevo, Y.; Shoseyov, O.; Paltiel, Y.; Plenio, M. B.

    2014-09-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-centers in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited by the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach for creating an arrangement of NV-centers, based on the self-assembling capabilities of biological systems and their beneficial nanometer spatial resolution. Here, a self-assembled protein structure serves as a structural scaffold for surface functionalized nanodiamonds, in this way allowing for the controlled creation of NV-structures on the nanoscale and providing a new avenue towards bridging the bio-nano interface. One-, two- as well as three-dimensional structures are within the scope of biological structural assembling techniques. We realized experimentally the formation of regular structures by interconnecting nanodiamonds using biological protein scaffolds. Based on the achievable NV-center distances of 11 nm, we evaluate the expected dipolar coupling interaction with neighboring NV-centers as well as the expected decoherence time. Moreover, by exploiting these couplings, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the viability of multiqubit quantum operations, suggest the possibility of individual addressing based on the random distribution of the NV intrinsic symmetry axes and address the challenges posed by decoherence and imperfect couplings. We then demonstrate in the last part that our scheme allows for the high-fidelity creation of entanglement, cluster states and quantum simulation applications.

  10. The new designs of diamond drill bits for composite polymers tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Yu. Melentiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author explores the drilling operation of some new engineering materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP and other polymers that have an anisotropic structure, high-strength and elastic properties combined with low heat endurance. Such combination of properties makes impossible the simple transfer of the existing technologies for classic materials working to considered new class. At the same time, the existing tools cannot assure the specified quality of tooled products at the current productivity and tool life. Aim: The aim of this research is to increase the process efficiency of diamond drilling in composite polymers by developing the new designs of diamond drill bits. Materials and Methods: One of the most promising directions to solve this problem is the diamond coated abrasive type tool. This paper addresses and classifies the existing types of diamond drill bits according to their application and operation. The literature data analysis of known disadvantages during drilling operation, the quality of surface and joining face was performed. Results: The experimental researches of the author prove the negative meaning of the already known but kept out fact – the drill core blocking. The most important factors and structural features affecting the CFRP drilling process are revealed. The accounting of these factors allowed creating the set of unique designs of diamond drill bits for different purposes. The presented patented models has different allowance distribution schemes and cutting forces, thus satisfy the mechanical requirements of quality, productivity, tool life and hole geometry in the tooling of the specified material class.

  11. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: tshgl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  12. Short-range order in irradiated diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, S.S.; Glazkov, V.P.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Somenkov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes in irradiated diamond with a change in its density were studied. Natural diamond powders with average particle size from 14-20 μm to 0.5 mm, irradiated in beryllium block of the MR reactor up to a fluence of 1.51 x 10 21 were used as samples. Using the neutron-diffraction method, it has been established that, when density in irradiated diamonds varies, a transition from a diamond-like amorphous structure to a graphite-like structure occurs. The transition occurs at a density ρ ∼ 2.7-2.9 g/cm 3 and is accompanied by a sharp change in resistivity [ru

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of diamond onto iron based substrates. The use of barrier layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.

    1995-01-01

    When Fe is exposed to the plasma environment suitable for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond, the surface is rapidly covered with a thick layer graphitic soot and C swiftly diffuses into the Fe substrate. Once the soot reaches a critical thickness, diamond films nucleate and grow on top of it. However, adhesion of the film to the substrate is poor due to the lack of structural integrity of the soot layer, A thin coating of TiN on the Fe can act to prevent diffusion and soot formation. Diamond readily grows upon the TiN via an a-C interface layer, but the a-C/TiN interface is weak and delamination occurs at this interface. In order to try and improve the adhesion, the use of a high dose Ti implant was investigated to replace the TiN coating. 7 refs., 6 figs

  14. Vertically aligned nanowires from boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nianjun; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Osawa, Eiji; Nebel, Christoph E

    2008-11-01

    Vertically aligned diamond nanowires with controlled geometrical properties like length and distance between wires were fabricated by use of nanodiamond particles as a hard mask and by use of reactive ion etching. The surface structure, electronic properties, and electrochemical functionalization of diamond nanowires were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as electrochemical techniques. AFM and STM experiments show that diamond nanowire etched for 10 s have wire-typed structures with 3-10 nm in length and with typically 11 nm spacing in between. The electrode active area of diamond nanowires is enhanced by a factor of 2. The functionalization of nanowire tips with nitrophenyl molecules is characterized by STM on clean and on nitrophenyl molecule-modified diamond nanowires. Tip-modified diamond nanowires are promising with respect to biosensor applications where controlled biomolecule bonding is required to improve chemical stability and sensing significantly.

  15. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Raabe, Dierk; Zaefferer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD). The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB) unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  16. The chemo-mechanical effect of cutting fluid on material removal in diamond scribing of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arkadeep; Melkote, Shreyes N.

    2017-07-01

    The mechanical integrity of silicon wafers cut by diamond wire sawing depends on the damage (e.g., micro-cracks) caused by the cutting process. The damage type and extent depends on the material removal mode, i.e., ductile or brittle. This paper investigates the effect of cutting fluid on the mode of material removal in diamond scribing of single crystal silicon, which simulates the material removal process in diamond wire sawing of silicon wafers. We conducted scribing experiments with a diamond tipped indenter in the absence (dry) and in the presence of a water-based cutting fluid. We found that the cutting mode is more ductile when scribing in the presence of cutting fluid compared to dry scribing. We explain the experimental observations by the chemo-mechanical effect of the cutting fluid on silicon, which lowers its hardness and promotes ductile mode material removal.

  17. Diamond-like-carbon nanoparticle production and agglomeration following UV multi-photon excitation of static naphthalene/helium gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, A. J.; Ruth, A. A., E-mail: a.ruth@ucc.ie [Physics Department and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-07-14

    We report the formation of nanoparticles with significant diamond character after UV multi-photon laser excitation of gaseous naphthalene, buffered in static helium gas, at room temperature. The nanoparticles are identified in situ by their absorption and scattering spectra between 400 and 850 nm, which are modeled using Mie theory. Comparisons of the particles’ spectroscopic and optical properties with those of carbonaceous materials indicate a sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridization ratio of 8:1 of the particles formed. The particle extinction in the closed static (unstirred) gas-phase system exhibits a complex and quasi-oscillatory time dependence for the duration of up to several hours with periods ranging from seconds to many minutes. The extinction dynamics of the system is based on a combination of transport features and particle interaction, predominantly agglomeration. The relatively long period of agglomeration allows for a unique analysis of the agglomeration process of diamond-like carbon nanoparticles in situ.

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional new technology creation R and D. First year report. Functional molds with highly polished diamond coatings; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki shingijutsu soshutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Kyomen diamond maku wo yusuru kokino kanagata (shonendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of the technology to form the uniform diamond coating on mold with the complicated shape and also to highly polish it by a new chemical polishing method. The new chemical polishing method is a method using TiAlX intermetallic compounds as grindstone. Reaction with each other of Ti and C by frictional heat expedites diamond polishing. 1) development of the controlling technology of diamond coating interface; 2) development of the 3-D diamond polishing system; 3) demonstrative test on diamond coating; 4) study of a possibility of the commercialization. 1) was divided into the development of the controlling technology of diamond coating interface and the survey of super-hard alloys suitable for diamond coating formation. In the latter, it was found out that the highly Co containing particular WC super-hard alloys were bad in adhesiveness to diamond coating. Therefore, studies were made on the manufacturing of super-hard alloys which use coarse WC only near the surface and does not have much Co and on the use of SiC excellent in adhesiveness both to super-hard alloys and diamond for intermediate layer. (NEDO)

  19. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  20. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  1. Wear resistance of nano- and micro-crystalline diamond coatings onto WC-Co with Cr/CrN interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy); Barletta, Massimiliano, E-mail: barletta@ing.uniroma2.i [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy); Cristofanilli, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Rome, 00133 (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    Cr/CrN bi-layers have been used recently to promote the growth of high quality Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD) diamond coatings onto Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-6 wt.%Co) substrates. In the present investigation, the influence of the crystalline size of the diamond coatings on their wear endurance is looked into. Nano- (NDC) and micro-crystalline Diamond Coatings (MDC) were deposited by HFCVD onto untreated and Fluidized Bed (FB) treated Cr/CrN interlayers. NDCs, characterized by a cauliflower-like morphology, showed improved wear resistance. However, the superimposition of NDCs onto Cr/CrN interlayers micro-corrugated by FB treatment was found to be the most promising choice, leading to the formation of highly adherent and wear resistant coatings.

  2. Perfect alignment and preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers during chemical vapor deposition diamond growth on (111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michl, Julia; Zaiser, Sebastian; Jakobi, Ingmar; Waldherr, Gerald; Dolde, Florian; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Doherty, Marcus W.; Manson, Neil B.; Isoya, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic diamond production is a key to the development of quantum metrology and quantum information applications of diamond. The major quantum sensor and qubit candidate in diamond is the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center. This lattice defect comes in four different crystallographic orientations leading to an intrinsic inhomogeneity among NV centers, which is undesirable in some applications. Here, we report a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond growth technique on (111)-oriented substrates, which yields perfect alignment (94% ± 2%) of as-grown NV centers along a single crystallographic direction. In addition, clear evidence is found that the majority (74% ± 4%) of the aligned NV centers were formed by the nitrogen being first included in the (111) growth surface and then followed by the formation of a neighboring vacancy on top. The achieved homogeneity of the grown NV centers will tremendously benefit quantum information and metrology applications

  3. Diamond carbon sources: a comparison of carbon isotope models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkley, M.B.; Otter, M.L.; Gurney, J.J.; Hill, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of approximately 500 inclusion-bearing diamonds have been determined in the past decade. 98 percent of these diamonds readily fall into two broad categories on the basis of their inclusion mineralogies and compositions. These categories are peridotitic diamonds and eclogitic diamonds. Most peridotitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -10 and -1 permil, whereas eclogitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -28 and +2 permil. Peridotitic diamonds may represent primordial carbon, however, it is proposed that initially inhomogeneous δ 13 C values were subsequently homogenized, e.g. during melting and convection that is postulated to have occurred during the first billion years of the earth's existence. If this is the case, then the wider range of δ 13 C values exhibited by eclogitic diamonds requires a different explanation. Both the fractionation model and the subduction model can account for the range of observed δ 13 C values in eclogitic diamonds. 16 refs., 2 figs

  4. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of shock compressed heterogeneous materials. II. The graphite/diamond transition case for astrophysics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, N.; Soulard, L.; Colombet, L.; Carrard, T.; Pellé, A.; Gillet, Ph.; Clérouin, J.

    2015-03-01

    We present a series of molecular dynamics simulations of the shock compression of copper matrices containing a single graphite inclusion: these model systems can be related to some specific carbon-rich rocks which, after a meteoritic impact, are found to contain small fractions of nanodiamonds embedded in graphite in the vicinity of high impedance minerals. We show that the graphite to diamond transformation occurs readily for nanometer-sized graphite inclusions, via a shock accumulation process, provided the pressure threshold of the bulk graphite/diamond transition is overcome, independently of the shape or size of the inclusion. Although high diamond yields (˜80%) are found after a few picoseconds in all cases, the transition is non-isotropic and depends substantially on the relative orientation of the graphite stack with respect to the shock propagation, leading to distinct nucleation processes and size-distributions of the diamond grains. A substantial regraphitization process occurs upon release and only inclusions with favorable orientations likely lead to the preservation of a fraction of this diamond phase. These results agree qualitatively well with the recent experimental observations of meteoritic impact samples.

  6. CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors

  7. Diamond sensors for future high energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmair, Felix, E-mail: bachmair@phys.ethz.ch

    2016-09-21

    With the planned upgrade of the LHC to High-Luminosity-LHC [1], the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation tolerant technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond sensors are an established technology as beam condition monitors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. The RD42-collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to use CVD diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in extreme radiation environments. An overview of the latest developments from RD42 is presented including the present status of diamond sensor production, a study of pulse height dependencies on incident particle flux and the development of 3D diamond sensors.

  8. Process for fracturing underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O M

    1974-01-25

    This invention concerns a process for fracturing underground formations and has as one object the mixing of viscous compositions. Through a borehole, a fluid is injected into the formation. This fluid contains a complex prepared by the reaction of an aliphatic quaternary ammonium compound with a water-soluble compound chosen from monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, polysaccharides, and synthetic hydroxylated polymers with long chains. These complexes are formed at temperatures between 20/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/C. The process also includes production of formation fluid into the borehole.

  9. The Influence of Tool Composite's Structure During Process of Diamond Grinding of Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the tests performed during the grinding process of the ceramic materials: – polycrystalline ceramics (Zirconium ZrO2 and mono-crystalline ceramics (sapphire α-Al2O3 by the diamond tools. Studies have shown that the concentration (thickening of the tool composite changes the tool's pore structure when using suitable wetted adamantine additives. Such modified composite has positive impact on tribological properties of the subsurface layer of the machined components. This is manifested by the reduction of the surface roughness and reduction of the vibration amplitude of the coefficient of friction. The possibilities of the positive effects when using wetted additives on the tool's composite during the pressing (briquetting stage confirm the study results.

  10. Diamond based adsorbents and their application in chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristyy, Anton A; Fedyanina, Olga N; Paull, Brett; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2014-08-29

    The idea of using diamond and diamond containing materials in separation sciences has attracted a strong interest in the past decade. The combination of a unique range of properties, such as chemical inertness, mechanical, thermal and hydrolytic stability, excellent thermal conductivity with minimal thermal expansion and intriguing adsorption properties makes diamond a promising material for use in various modes of chromatography. This review summarises the recent research on the preparation of diamond and diamond based stationary phases, their properties and chromatographic performance. Special attention is devoted to the dominant retention mechanisms evident for particular diamond containing phases, and their subsequent applicability to various modes of chromatography, including chromatography carried out under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Boron doped diamond synthesized from detonation nanodiamond in a C-O-H fluid at high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhov, Fedor M.; Abyzov, Andrey M.; Takai, Kazuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) was synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) of 7 GPa, 1230 °C in a short time of 10 s from a powder mixtures of detonation nanodiamond (DND), pentaerythritol C5H8(OH)4 and amorphous boron. SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy indicated that BDD nano- and micro-crystals have formed by consolidation of DND particles (4 nm in size). XRD showed the enlargement of crystallites size to 6-80 nm and the increase in diamond lattice parameter by 0.02-0.07% without appearance of any microstrains. Raman spectroscopy was used to estimate the content of boron atoms embedded in the diamond lattice. It was found that the Raman diamond peak shifts significantly from 1332 cm-1 to 1290 cm-1 without appearance of any non-diamond carbon. The correlation between Raman peak position, its width, and boron content in diamond is proposed. Hydrogenated diamond carbon in significant amount was detected by IR spectroscopy and XPS. Due to the doping with boron content of about 0.1 at%, the electrical conductivity of the diamond achieved approximately 0.2 Ω-1 cm-1. Reaction mechanism of diamond growth (models of recrystallization and oriented attachment) is discussed, including the initial stages of pentaerythritol pyrolysis and thermal desorption of functional groups from the surface of DND particles with the generation of supercritical fluid of low-molecular substances (H2O, CH4, CO, CO2, etc.), as well as byproducts formation (B2O3, B4C).

  12. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu, Dierk Raabe and Stefan Zaefferer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD. The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  13. Surface temperature measurements of diamond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity among known materials, and as such finds uses as an industrial tool in areas where dissipation of excess heat is a requirement. In this investigation we set up a laser system to heat a diamond sample...

  14. Response of CVD diamond detectors to alpha radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souw, E.-K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Meilunas, R.J. [Northrop-Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714-3582 (United States)

    1997-11-21

    This article describes some results from an experiment with CVD diamond films used as {alpha} particle detectors. It demonstrates that bulk polarization can be effectively stopped within a reasonable time interval. This will enable detector calibration and quantitative measurement. A possible mechanism for the observed polarization quenching is discussed. It involves two types of carrier traps and a tentative band-gap model derived from the results of photoconductive current measurements. The experiment was set up mainly to investigate {alpha} detection properties of polycrystalline diamond films grown by the technique of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. For comparison, two commercially purchased diamond wafers were also investigated, i.e., one grown by the DC arc jet method, and the other, a type-IIa natural diamond wafer (not preselected). The best response to {alpha} particles was obtained using diamond thin-films grown by the microwave PECVD method, followed by the type-IIa natural diamond, and finally, the CVD diamond grown by the DC arc jet technique. (orig.). 43 refs.

  15. Adhesive bonding and brazing of nanocrystalline diamond foil onto different substrate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodes, Matthias A.; Sailer, Stefan; Rosiwal, Stefan M.; Singer, Robert F.

    2013-10-01

    Diamond coatings are used in heavily stressed industrial applications to reduce friction and wear. Hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) is the favourable coating method, as it allows a coating of large surface areas with high homogeneity. Due to the high temperatures occurring in this CVD-process, the selection of substrate materials is limited. With the desire to coat light materials, steels and polymers a new approach has been developed. First, by using temperature-stable templates in the HFCVD and stripping off the diamond layer afterwards, a flexible, up to 150 μm thick and free standing nanocrystalline diamond foil (NCDF) can be produced. Afterwards, these NCDF can be applied on technical components through bonding and brazing, allowing any material as substrate. This two-step process offers the possibility to join a diamond layer on any desired surface. With a modified scratch test and Rockwell indentation testing the adhesion strength of NCDF on aluminium and steel is analysed. The results show that sufficient adhesion strength is reached both on steel and aluminium. The thermal stress in the substrates is very low and if failure occurs, cracks grow undercritically. Adhesion strength is even higher for the brazed samples, but here crack growth is critical, delaminating the diamond layer to some extent. In comparison to a sample directly coated with diamond, using a high-temperature CVD interlayer, the brazed as well as the adhesively bonded samples show very good performance, proving their competitiveness. A high support of the bonding layer could be identified as crucial, though in some cases a lower stiffness of the latter might be acceptable considering the possibility to completely avoid thermal stresses which occur during joining at higher temperatures.

  16. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, James B., E-mail: jim@jamessund.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Causey, Corey P. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Parker, Charles B., E-mail: charles.parker@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Stoner, Brian R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Toone, Eric J. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Glass, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  17. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis

  18. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  19. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  20. Novel diamond-coated tools for dental drilling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M J; Sein, H; Ahmed, W; Woodwards, R

    2007-01-01

    The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools has been the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life in orthodontic applications. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co metal and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size of 1 - 3 microm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates it is necessary to etch cobalt from the surface and prepare it for subsequent diamond growth. Alternatively, a titanium nitride (TiN) interlayer can be used prior to diamond deposition. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films to TiN and etched WC substrates. Diamond film quality and purity has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. The performances of diamond-coated WC-Co tools, uncoated WC-Co tools, and diamond embedded (sintered) tools have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human tooth, borosilicate glass, and acrylic tooth materials. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools when machining biomedical materials such as those described above. It is shown that using an interlayer such as TiN prior to diamond deposition provides the best surface preparation for producing dental tools.

  1. Diamond grinding wheels production study with the use of the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrák, J; Fedorovich, V; Markopoulos, A P; Pyzhov, I; Kryukova, N

    2016-11-01

    Research results on 3D modeling of the diamond grain and its bearing layer when sintering diamond grinding wheels are provided in this paper. The influence of the main characteristics of the wheel materials and the wheel production process, namely the quantity of metallic phase within diamond grain, coefficient of thermal expansion of the metallic phase, the modulus of elasticity of bond material and sintering temperature, on the internal stresses arising in grains is investigated. The results indicate that the stresses in the grains are higher in the areas around the metallic phase. Additionally, sintering temperature has the greatest impact on the stresses of the grain-metallic phase-bond system regardless of the type of the bond. Furthermore, by employing factorial design for the carried out finite element model, a mathematical model that reflects the impact of these factors on the deflected mode of the diamond grain-metallic phase-bond material system is obtained. The results of the analysis allow for the identification of optimal conditions for the efficient production of improved diamond grinding wheels. More specifically, the smallest stresses are observed when using the metal bond with modulus of elasticity 204 GPa, the quantity of metallic phase in diamond grain of not higher than 7% and coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.32 × 10 -5  1/K or lower. The results obtained from the proposed 3D model can lead to the increase in the diamond grains utilization and improve the overall efficiency of diamond grinding.

  2. Mechanism-Based FE Simulation of Tool Wear in Diamond Drilling of SiCp/Al Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junfeng; Pang, Siqin; Xie, Lijing; Gao, Feinong; Hu, Xin; Yi, Jie; Hu, Fang

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this work is to analyze the micro mechanisms underlying the wear of macroscale tools during diamond machining of SiC p /Al6063 composites and to develop the mechanism-based diamond wear model in relation to the dominant wear behaviors. During drilling, high volume fraction SiC p /Al6063 composites containing Cu, the dominant wear mechanisms of diamond tool involve thermodynamically activated physicochemical wear due to diamond-graphite transformation catalyzed by Cu in air atmosphere and mechanically driven abrasive wear due to high-frequency scrape of hard SiC reinforcement on tool surface. An analytical diamond wear model, coupling Usui abrasive wear model and Arrhenius extended graphitization wear model was proposed and implemented through a user-defined subroutine for tool wear estimates. Tool wear estimate in diamond drilling of SiC p /Al6063 composites was achieved by incorporating the combined abrasive-chemical tool wear subroutine into the coupled thermomechanical FE model of 3D drilling. The developed drilling FE model for reproducing diamond tool wear was validated for feasibility and reliability by comparing numerically simulated tool wear morphology and experimentally observed results after drilling a hole using brazed polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated tools. A fairly good agreement of experimental and simulated results in cutting forces, chip and tool wear morphologies demonstrates that the developed 3D drilling FE model, combined with a subroutine for diamond tool wear estimate can provide a more accurate analysis not only in cutting forces and chip shape but also in tool wear behavior during drilling SiC p /Al6063 composites. Once validated and calibrated, the developed diamond tool wear model in conjunction with other machining FE models can be easily extended to the investigation of tool wear evolution with various diamond tool geometries and other machining processes in cutting different

  3. Application of CVD diamond film for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Haiyang; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhan Rujuan

    2005-01-01

    With the development of diamond synthesis at low pressure, the CVD diamond properties including electronic characteristics have improved continuously. Now the fabrication of electronic devices based on the CVD diamond has been one of hot research subjects in this field. Due to many unique advantages, such as high signal-noise ratio, fast time response, and normal output in extremely harsh surrounding, the CVD diamond radiation detector has attracted more and more interest. In this paper, we have reviewed the development and status of the CVD diamond radiation detector. The prospect of this detector is described. (authors)

  4. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  5. Comparison of Finite Element Modeling and Experimental Pressure Distribution in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'yev, Andreiy I.; Murphy, Michael J.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2002-10-01

    Ultra high pressures can be obtained in a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) device by optimizing the geometrical shape of diamond anvil and by use of high strength gasket materials. Radial pressure distribution in a diamond-coated rhenium gasket was measured by the micro-collimated X-ray diffraction techniques at NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory up to peak pressure of 220 GPa. The process of DAC compression was described by finite element analysis using NIKE-2D software. The mechanical properties of the diamond-coated gasket material were modeled and radial pressure distribution obtained was in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated shear stress in diamond in the axial direction was shown to depend strongly on the yield strength of the gasket material and may limit the ultimate pressure that can be obtained with the use of high strength gasket materials. Supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. DMR-0203779.

  6. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Jung, E-mail: dslim@korea.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Device Materials, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-17

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a {zeta}-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and {approx} 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  7. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon; Song, Min-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a ζ-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and ∼ 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 ± 0.4 x 10 11 cm -2 ) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  8. A Novel Porous Diamond - Titanium Biomaterial: Structure, Microstructure, Physico-Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULMIRA A.S. GUIMARÃES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the aim of introducing permanent prostheses with main properties equivalent to cortical human bone, Ti-diamond composites were processed through powder metallurgy. Grade 1 titanium and mixtures of Ti powder with 2%, 5% and 10 wt% diamond were compacted at 100MPa, and then sintered at 1250°C/2hr/10-6mbar. Sintered samples were studied in the point of view of their microstructures, structures, yield strength and elastic modulus. The results showed that the best addition of diamonds was 2 wt%, which led to a uniform porosity, yield strength of 370MPa and elastic modulus of 13.9 GPa. Samples of Ti and Ti-2% diamond were subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity test, using cultures of VERO cells, and it resulted in a biocompatible and nontoxic composite material.

  9. Formation of continuous nanocrystalline diamond layer on glass and silicon at low temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Remeš, Zdeněk; Michalka, M.; Ledinský, Martin; Zemek, Josef; Potměšil, Jiří; Vaněček, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, 7-8 (2008), s. 181-186 ISSN 0948-1907 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Grant - others:Marie Curie RTN DRIVE(XE) MRTN-CT-2004-512224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : AFM * low temperature growth * nanocrystalline diamond * SEM * XPS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2008

  10. Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trischuk, W.

    2008-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one t...

  11. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Lake, David P.; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm . The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7 ×105 and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm /√{Hz } sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  12. Modified diamond dies for laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, R.A.

    1978-06-21

    A modified wire drawing die for spatial filtering techniques is described. It was designed for use in high power laser systems. The diamond aperture is capable of enduring high intensity laser frequency without damaging the laser beam profile. The diamond is mounted at the beam focus in a vacuum of 1 x 10/sup -5/ Torr. The vacuum prevents plasma forming at the diamond aperture, thus enabling the beam to pass through without damaging the holder or aperture. The spatial filters are fitted with a manipulator that has three electronic stepping motors, can position the aperture in three orthogonal directions, and is capable of 3.2 ..mu..m resolution. Shiva laser system is using 105 diamond apertures for shaping the High Energy Laser Beam.

  13. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for mechanical seals applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A; Neto, V F; Ruch, D; Grácio, J

    2012-08-01

    A mechanical seal is a type of seal used in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors. It consists of a mechanism that assists the connection of the rotating shaft to the housings of the equipments, preventing leakage or avoiding contamination. A common cause of failure of these devices is end face wear out, thus the use of a hard, smooth and wear resistant coating such as nanocrystalline diamond would be of great importance to improve their working performance and increase their lifetime. In this paper, different diamond coatings were deposited by the HFCVD process, using different deposition conditions. Additionally, the as-grown films were characterized for, quality, morphology and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The topography and the roughness of the films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  14. First principles calculation of lithium-phosphorus co-doped diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.Y. Shao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the density of states (DOS and the Mulliken population of the diamond and the co-doped diamonds with different concentrations of lithium (Li and phosphorus (P by the method of the density functional theory, and analyze the bonding situations of the Li-P co-doped diamond thin films and the impacts of the Li-P co-doping on the diamond conductivities. The results show that the Li-P atoms can promote the split of the diamond energy band near the Fermi level, and improve the electron conductivities of the Li-P co-doped diamond thin films, or even make the Li-P co-doped diamond from semiconductor to conductor. The affection of Li-P co-doping concentration on the orbital charge distributions, bond lengths and bond populations is analyzed. The Li atom may promote the split of the energy band near the Fermi level and also may favorably regulate the diamond lattice distortion and expansion caused by the P atom.

  15. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansley, S. P.; Betzel, G.T.; Meyer, J.; Metcalf, P.; Reinisch, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolu tion resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kY), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MY). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response S. P. Lansley () . G. T. Betzel . J. Meyer Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand e-mail: stuart.lansley canterbury.ac.nz S. P. Lansley The Macdiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand P. Metcalfe Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia L. Reinisch Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL, USA with dose (at 100 kY) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 Y compared to a bias of 61.75 Y used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the syn thetic diamond detector. Overall

  16. Treating soil-washing fluids polluted with oxyfluorfen by sono-electrolysis with diamond anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dos Santos, E; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Martínez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-01-01

    This works is focused on the treatment by sono-electrolysis of the liquid effluents produced during the Surfactant-Aided Soil-Washing (SASW) of soils spiked with herbicide oxyfluorfen. Results show that this combined technology is very efficient and attains the complete mineralization of the waste, regardless of the surfactant/soil radio applied in the SASW process (which is the main parameter of the soil remediation process and leads to very different wastes). Both the surfactant and the herbicide are completely degraded, even when single electrolysis is used; and only two intermediates are detected by HPLC in very low concentrations. Conversely, the efficiency of single sonolysis approach, for the oxidation of pollutant, is very low and just small changes in the herbicides and surfactant concentrations are observed during the tests carried out. Sono-electrolysis with diamond electrodes achieved higher degradation rates than those obtained by single sonolysis and/or single electrolysis with diamond anodes. A key role of sulfate is developed, when it is released after the electrochemical degradation of surfactant. The efficient catalytic effect observed which can be explained by the anodic formation of persulfate and the later, a sono-activation is attained to produce highly efficient sulfate radicals. The effect of irradiating US is more importantly observed in the pesticide than in the surfactant, in agreement with the well-known behavior of these radicals which are known to oxidize more efficiently aromatic compounds than aliphatic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of laser ablation of CVD diamond film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Choung-Lii; Chou, W. C.; Ma, Kung-Jen; Chen, Ta-Tung; Liu, Y. M.; Kuo, Y. S.; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2005-04-01

    Diamond, having many advanced physical and mechanical properties, is one of the most important materials used in the mechanical, telecommunication and optoelectronic industry. However, high hardness value and extreme brittleness have made diamond extremely difficult to be machined by conventional mechanical grinding and polishing. In the present study, the microwave CVD method was employed to produce epitaxial diamond films on silicon single crystal. Laser ablation experiments were then conducted on the obtained diamond films. The underlying material removal mechanisms, microstructure of the machined surface and related machining conditions were also investigated. It was found that during the laser ablation, peaks of the diamond grains were removed mainly by the photo-thermal effects introduced by excimer laser. The diamond structures of the protruded diamond grains were transformed by the laser photonic energy into graphite, amorphous diamond and amorphous carbon which were removed by the subsequent laser shots. As the protruding peaks gradually removed from the surface the removal rate decreased. Surface roughness (Ra) was improved from above 1μm to around 0.1μm in few minutes time in this study. However, a scanning technique would be required if a large area was to be polished by laser and, as a consequence, it could be very time consuming.

  18. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  19. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Z.; Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A.; Girard, H. A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000-1500 cm-1 spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  20. Thermochemical micro imprinting of single-crystal diamond surface using a nickel mold under high-pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imoto, Yuji; Yan, Jiwang, E-mail: yan@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2017-05-15

    Graphical abstract: A Ni mold and thermochemically imprinted microstructures on diamond. - Highlights: • A thermochemical method for micro machining/patterning of diamond is proposed. • Various kinds of microstructures were imprinted on diamond using a Ni mold. • A graphite layer is formed during imprinting which can be removed by acid. • The processing depth depends strongly on pressure and temperature. - Abstract: Single-crystal diamond is an important material for cutting tools, micro electro mechanical systems, optical devices, and semiconductor substrates. However, the techniques for producing microstructures on diamond surface with high efficiency and accuracy have not been established. This paper proposes a thermochemical imprinting method for transferring microstructures from a nickel (Ni) mold onto single-crystal diamond surface. The Ni mold was micro-structured by a nanoindenter and then pressed against the diamond surface under high temperature and pressure in argon atmosphere. Results show that microstructures on the Ni mold were successfully transferred onto the diamond surface, and their depth increased with both pressure and temperature. Laser micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses indicate that a graphite layer was formed over the contact area between diamond and Ni during pressing, and after washing by a mixed acid, the graphite layer could be completely removed. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a cost-efficient fabrication method for large-area microstructures on single-crystal diamond.

  1. Localized chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanley, Toby W.; Martin, Aiden A.; Aharonovich, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Aharonovich@uts.edu.au; Toth, Milos, E-mail: Milos.Toth@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2014-08-11

    We present a direct-write chemical technique for controlling the charge state of near-surface nitrogen vacancy centers (NVs) in diamond by surface fluorination. Fluorination of H-terminated diamond is realized by electron beam stimulated desorption of H{sub 2}O in the presence of NF{sub 3} and verified with environmental photoyield spectroscopy (EPYS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL spectra of shallow NVs in H- and F-terminated nanodiamonds show the expected dependence of the NV charge state on their energetic position with respect to the Fermi-level. EPYS reveals a corresponding difference between the ionization potential of H- and F-terminated diamond. The electron beam fluorination process is highly localized and can be used to fluorinate H-terminated diamond, and to increase the population of negatively charged NV centers.

  2. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procházka, Václav, E-mail: prochazkav@fzu.cz [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Cifra, Michal [Institute of Photonics and Electronics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Chaberská 57, 182 51 Prague (Czech Republic); Kulha, Pavel [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Ižák, Tibor [Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Rezek, Bohuslav [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, 16627 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Kromka, Alexander [Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 16629 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Interaction of non-adherent yeast cells with H-terminated diamond described. • Effect of cell culture solutions on H-diamond SGFET (positive potential shifts). • H-diamond sensitive to metabolic activity of yeast cells (negative potential shift). - Abstract: Diamond thin films provide unique features as substrates for cell cultures and as bio-electronic sensors. Here we employ solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFET) based on nanocrystalline diamond thin films with H-terminated surface which exhibits the sub-surface p-type conductive channel. We study an influence of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on electrical characteristics of the diamond SGFETs. Two different cell culture solutions (sucrose and yeast peptone dextrose–YPD) are used, with and without the cells. We have found that transfer characteristics of the SGFETs exhibit a negative shift of the gate voltage by −26 mV and −42 mV for sucrose and YPD with cells in comparison to blank solutions without the cells. This effect is attributed to a local pH change in close vicinity of the H-terminated diamond surface due to metabolic processes of the yeast cells. The pH sensitivity of the diamond-based SGFETs, the role of cell and protein adhesion on the gate surface and the role of negative surface charge of yeast cells on the SGFETs electrical characteristics are discussed as well.

  3. Influence of non-adherent yeast cells on electrical characteristics of diamond-based field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procházka, Václav; Cifra, Michal; Kulha, Pavel; Ižák, Tibor; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Interaction of non-adherent yeast cells with H-terminated diamond described. • Effect of cell culture solutions on H-diamond SGFET (positive potential shifts). • H-diamond sensitive to metabolic activity of yeast cells (negative potential shift). - Abstract: Diamond thin films provide unique features as substrates for cell cultures and as bio-electronic sensors. Here we employ solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFET) based on nanocrystalline diamond thin films with H-terminated surface which exhibits the sub-surface p-type conductive channel. We study an influence of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on electrical characteristics of the diamond SGFETs. Two different cell culture solutions (sucrose and yeast peptone dextrose–YPD) are used, with and without the cells. We have found that transfer characteristics of the SGFETs exhibit a negative shift of the gate voltage by −26 mV and −42 mV for sucrose and YPD with cells in comparison to blank solutions without the cells. This effect is attributed to a local pH change in close vicinity of the H-terminated diamond surface due to metabolic processes of the yeast cells. The pH sensitivity of the diamond-based SGFETs, the role of cell and protein adhesion on the gate surface and the role of negative surface charge of yeast cells on the SGFETs electrical characteristics are discussed as well.

  4. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Khanaliloo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200  nm. The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7×10^{5} and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5  fm/sqrt[Hz] sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  5. Micro-machining of optical glasses – A review of diamond-cutting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    it is critical to determine the transition point from brittle mode to ductile mode. ... The process of using a single point diamond tool (SPDT) can be used to ... The manufacturing process requires that the raw materials be heated to a temperature.

  6. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of chemically vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Weiser, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Polarized micro-Raman spectra of chemically vapour deposited diamond films are presented. It is shown that important parameters often extracted from the Raman spectra such as the ratio of the diamond to non-diamond component of the films and the estimation of the level of residual stress depend on the orientation of the diamond crystallites with respect to the polarization of the incident laser beam. The dependence originates from the fact that the Raman scattering from the non-diamond components in the films is almost completely depolarized whilst the scattering from the diamond components is strongly polarized. The results demonstrate the importance of taking polarization into account when attempting to use Raman spectroscopy in even a semi-quantitative fashion for the assessment of the purity, perfection and stress in CVD diamond films. 8 refs., 1 tab. 2 figs

  7. Physics and applications of CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nesladek, Milos

    2008-01-01

    Here, leading scientists report on why and how diamond can be optimized for applications in bioelectronic and electronics. They cover such topics as growth techniques, new and conventional doping mechanisms, superconductivity in diamond, and excitonic properties, while application aspects include quantum electronics at room temperature, biosensors as well as diamond nanocantilevers and SAWs.Written in a review style to make the topic accessible for a wider community of scientists working in interdisciplinary fields with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, this is e

  8. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  9. Use of the diamond to the detection of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, C.; Tromson, D.; Brambilla, A.; Foulon, F.; Guizard, B.; Bergonzo

    2001-01-01

    Diamond synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a valuable material for the detection of particles: broad forbidden energy band, high mobility of electron-hole pairs, and a short life-time of charge carriers. Diamond layers have been used in alpha detectors or gamma dose ratemeters designed to be used in hostile environment. Diamond presents a high resistance to radiation and corrosion. The properties of diamond concerning the detection of particles are spoilt by the existence of crystal defects even in high quality natural or synthesized diamond. This article presents recent works that have been performed in CEA laboratories in order to optimize the use of CVD diamond in particle detectors. (A.C.)

  10. Controlled surface chemistry of diamond/β-SiC composite films for preferential protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Yang, Yang; Zhuang, Hao; Schlemper, Christoph; Wesner, Daniel; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Wenjun; Jiang, Xin

    2014-02-04

    Diamond and SiC both process extraordinary biocompatible, electronic, and chemical properties. A combination of diamond and SiC may lead to highly stable materials, e.g., for implants or biosensors with excellent sensing properties. Here we report on the controllable surface chemistry of diamond/β-SiC composite films and its effect on protein adsorption. For systematic and high-throughput investigations, novel diamond/β-SiC composite films with gradient composition have been synthesized using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the diamond/β-SiC ratio of the composite films shows a continuous change from pure diamond to β-SiC over a length of ∼ 10 mm on the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was employed to unveil the surface termination of chemically oxidized and hydrogen treated surfaces. The surface chemistry of the composite films was found to depend on diamond/β-SiC ratio and the surface treatment. As observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, albumin and fibrinogen were preferentially adsorbed from buffer: after surface oxidation, the proteins preferred to adsorb on diamond rather than on β-SiC, resulting in an increasing amount of proteins adsorbed to the gradient surfaces with increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. By contrast, for hydrogen-treated surfaces, the proteins preferentially adsorbed on β-SiC, leading to a decreasing amount of albumin adsorbed on the gradient surfaces with increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. The mechanism of preferential protein adsorption is discussed by considering the hydrogen bonding of the water self-association network to OH-terminated surfaces and the change of the polar surface energy component, which was determined according to the van Oss method. These results suggest that the diamond/β-SiC gradient film can be a promising material for biomedical applications which

  11. Electrochemical treatment of wastewaters containing 4-chlororesorcinol using boron doped diamond anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, B.; Abdelatif, G.

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of aqueous wastes polluted with 4-chlororesorcinol has been studied on boron-doped diamond electrodes on acidic medium. The voltammetric results showed that in the potential region where the supporting electrolyte is stable, reactions occur, resulting in the loss of activity due to electrode fouling. Galvanostatic electrolysis study showed that the oxidation of these wastes in single-compartment electrochemical flow cell with boron doped diamond anodes deal to the complete mineralization of the organics but is no indication of electrode fouling. Resorcinol, 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, benzoquinone, maleic, fumaric, and oxalic acids have been detected as soluble organics and chlorides (Cl - ) and hypochlorites (ClO - ) as mineral products during the electrolysis of 4-chlororesorcinol. The electrochemical oxidation of 4-chlororesorcinol consists of a sequence of steps: Release of Cl and/or hydroxylation of the aromatic ring; formation of quinonic compounds; oxidative opening of aromatic ring to form carboxylic acids; and oxidation of carboxylic acids to carbon dioxide. Both, direct oxidation at boron doped diamond surface and mediated oxidation by powerful oxidants electrogenerated from electrolyte oxidation at anode surface are involved in these stages. (author)

  12. Nanomechanical resonant structures in single-crystal diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Burek, Michael J.; Ramos, Daniel; Patel, Parth; Frank, Ian W.; Lončar, Marko

    2013-01-01

    With its host of outstanding material properties, single-crystal diamond is an attractive material for nanomechanical systems. Here, the mechanical resonance characteristics of freestanding, single-crystal diamond nanobeams fabricated by an angled-etching methodology are reported. Resonance frequencies displayed evidence of significant compressive stress in doubly clamped diamond nanobeams, while cantilever resonance modes followed the expected inverse-length-squared trend. Q-factors on the o...

  13. The water decomposition reactions on boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suffredini, Hugo B.; Machado, Sergio A.S; Avaca, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical processes occurring at both edges of the wide electrochemical window of the boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode were studied by polarization curves experiments to evaluate the apparent energy of activation for the rate determining step in each reaction. It was found that the hydrogen evolution reaction occurs by a Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism with the first step being the RDS. Moreover, the apparent energy of activation calculated from the Tafel plots presented a value as high as 150 kJ mol -1 , indicating the formation of the M-H intermediate that is characteristic for the Volmer step. On the other hand, the apparent energy of activation for the oxygen evolution reaction was found to be 106 kJ mol -1 suggesting that the RDS in this mechanism is the initial adsorption step. In this way, it was demonstrated that the interaction between water molecules and the electrode surface is strongly inhibited on BDD thus justifying the extended potential window observed for this material. (author)

  14. The water decomposition reactions on boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffredini Hugo B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical processes occurring at both edges of the wide electrochemical window of the boron doped diamond (BDD electrode were studied by polarization curves experiments to evaluate the apparent energy of activation for the rate determining step in each reaction. It was found that the hydrogen evolution reaction occurs by a Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism with the first step being the RDS. Moreover, the apparent energy of activation calculated from the Tafel plots presented a value as high as 150 kJ mol-1, indicating the formation of the M-H intermediate that is characteristic for the Volmer step. On the other hand, the apparent energy of activation for the oxygen evolution reaction was found to be 106 kJ mol-1 suggesting that the RDS in this mechanism is the initial adsorption step. In this way, it was demonstrated that the interaction between water molecules and the electrode surface is strongly inhibited on BDD thus justifying the extended potential window observed for this material.

  15. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  16. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Quanchao; Peng, Jinghui; Xu, Lei; Srinivasakannan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  17. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quanchao [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yunnan Copper Smelting and Processing Complex, Yunnan Copper (Group) CO., LTD., Kunming 650102 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng, Jinghui [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Department, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  18. A Review on the Low-Dimensional and Hybridized Nanostructured Diamond Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, besides the breakthrough of high-rate growth of chemical vapor deposited single-crystal diamonds, numerous nanostructured diamond films have been rapidly developed in the research fields of the diamond-based sciences and industrial applications. The low-dimensional diamonds of two-dimensional atomic-thick nanofilms and nanostructural diamond on the surface of bulk diamond films have been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In addition, the diamond-related hybrid nanostructures of n-type oxide/p-type diamond and n-type nitride/p-type diamond, having high performance physical and chemical properties, are proposed for further applications. In this review, we first briefly introduce the three categories of diamond nanostructures and then outline the current advances in these topics, including their design, fabrication, characterization, and properties. Finally, we address the remaining challenges in the research field and the future activities.

  19. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, S.; Buttar, C.M.; Conway, J.; Whitehead, A.J.; Sussman, R.S.; Hill, G.; Walker, S.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and