WorldWideScience

Sample records for diamond color centers

  1. Optical properties of implanted Xe color centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Russell; Ke, Li; Martin, Aiden; Wang, Ziyu; Kianinia, Mehran; Green, Ben; Gao, Wei-bo; Aharonovich, Igor

    2018-03-01

    Optical properties of color centers in diamond have been the subject of intense research due to their promising applications in quantum photonics. In this work we study the optical properties of Xe related color centers implanted into nitrogen rich (type IIA) and an ultrapure, electronic grade diamond. The Xe defect has two zero phonon lines at ∼794 nm and 811 nm, which can be effectively excited using both green and red excitation, however, its emission in the nitrogen rich diamond is brighter. Near resonant excitation is performed at cryogenic temperatures and luminescence is probed under strong magnetic field. Our results are important towards the understanding of the Xe related defect and other near infrared color centers in diamond.

  2. Si-related color centers in nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Holovský, Jakub; Remeš, Zdeněk; Müller, Martin; Kočka, Jan; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 12 (2014), s. 2603-2606 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011740; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapor deposition * color center * diamond * photoluminescence * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  3. Marshak Lectureship: Vibrational properties of isolated color centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkauskas, Audrius

    In this talk we review our recent work on first-principles calculations of vibrational properties of isolated defect spin qubits and single photon emitters in diamond. These properties include local vibrational spectra, luminescence lineshapes, and electron-phonon coupling. They are key in understanding physical mechanisms behind spin-selective optical initialization and read-out, quantum efficiency of single-photon emitters, as well as in the experimental identification of as yet unknown centers. We first present the methodology to calculate and analyze vibrational properties of effectively isolated defect centers. We then apply the methodology to the nitrogen-vacancy and the silicon-vacancy centers in diamond. First-principles calculations yield important new insights about these important defects. Work performed in collaboration with M. W. Doherty, A. Gali, E. Londero, L. Razinkovas, and C. G. Van de Walle. Supported by the Research Council of Lithuania (Grant M-ERA.NET-1/2015).

  4. Optical determination and magnetic manipulation of a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond nanocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diep Lai, Ngoc; Zheng, Dingwei; Treussart, François; Roch, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    The controlled and coherent manipulation of individual quantum systems is fundamental for the development of quantum information processing. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond is a promising system since its photoluminescence is perfectly stable at room temperature and its electron spin can be optically read out at the individual level. We review here the experiments currently realized in our laboratory concerning the use of a single NV color center as the single photon source and the coherent magnetic manipulation of the electron spin associated with a single NV color center. Furthermore, we demonstrate a nanoscopy experiment based on the saturation absorption effect, which allows to optically pin-point a single NV color center at sub-λ resolution. This offers the possibility to independently address two or multiple magnetically coupled single NV color centers, which is a necessary step towards the realization of a diamond-based quantum computer

  5. Bragg superlattice for obtaining individual photoluminescence of diamond color centers in dense 3D ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A way to significantly increase the spatial resolution of the color center photoluminescence collection in chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond at a fixed exciting beam focal volume is suggested. It is based on the creation of a narrow waveguide for the color center photoluminescence with a small number of allowed vertical indices of guided modes. The waveguide is formed between the top surface of a CVD diamond film and an underlaid mirror—a Bragg superlattice made of interchanging high- and low boron-doped layers of CVD diamond. The guided color center photoluminescence is extracted through the top surface of a CVD diamond film with the frustrated total internal reflection method. According to the results of simulation made for a case when color centers are nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers, the suggested way allows to increase the maximal value of the NV center concentration still compatible with selective collection of their photoluminescence by several times at a fixed exciting beam focal volume. This increase is provided without the deterioration of the NV center photoluminescence collection efficiency.

  6. Nitrogen-Vacancy color center in diamond-emerging nanoscale applications in bioimaging and biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Lazariev, Andrii; Arumugam, Sri Ranjini; Duan, De-Wen

    2014-06-01

    Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center in diamond is a flourishing research area that, in recent years, has displayed remarkable progress. The system offers great potential for realizing futuristic applications in nanoscience, benefiting a range of fields from bioimaging to quantum-sensing. The ability to image single NV color centers in a nanodiamond and manipulate NV electron spin optically under ambient condition is the main driving force behind developments in nanoscale sensing and novel imaging techniques. In this article we discuss current status on the applications of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) for optical super resolution nanoscopy, magneto-optical (spin-assisted) sub-wavelength localization and imaging. We present emerging applications such as single molecule spin imaging, nanoscale imaging of biomagnetic fields, sensing molecular fluctuations and temperatures in live cellular environments. We summarize other current advances and future prospects of NV diamond for imaging and sensing pertaining to bio-medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of SiV- and GeV- color center in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häußler, Stefan; Thiering, Gergő; Dietrich, Andreas; Waasem, Niklas; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Isoya, Junichi; Iwasaki, Takayuki; Hatano, Mutsuko; Jelezko, Fedor; Gali, Adam; Kubanek, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Color centers in diamond are important quantum emitters for a broad range of applications ranging from quantum sensing to quantum optics. Understanding the internal energy level structure is of fundamental importance for future applications. We experimentally investigate the level structure of an ensemble of few negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV-) and germanium-vacancy (GeV-) centers in bulk diamond at room temperature by photoluminescence (PL) and excitation (PLE) spectroscopy over a broad wavelength range from 460 to 650 {nm} and perform power-dependent saturation measurements. For SiV- our experimental results confirm the presence of a higher energy transition at ˜ 2.31 {eV}. By comparison with detailed theoretical simulations of the imaginary dielectric function we interpret the transition as a dipole-allowed transition from {}2{E}g-state to {}2{A}2u-state where the corresponding a 2u -level lies deeply inside the diamond valence band. Therefore, the transition is broadened by the diamond band. At higher excitation power of 10 {mW} we indicate signs of a parity-conserving transition at ˜ 2.03 {eV} supported by saturation measurements. For GeV- we demonstrate that the PLE spectrum is in good agreement with the mirror image of the PL spectrum of the zero-phonon line. Experimentally we do not observe a higher lying energy level up to a transition wavelength of 460 {nm}. The observed PL spectra are identical, independent of excitation wavelength, suggesting a rapid decay to {}2{E}u excited state and followed by optical transition to {}2{E}g ground state. Our investigations convey important insights for future quantum optics and quantum sensing experiments based on SiV--center and GeV--center in diamond.

  8. Multiphoton-Excited Fluorescence of Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, J. M.; Perreault, J. D.; Acosta, V. M.; Belthangady, C.; Lebel, P.; Kim, M. H.; Nguyen, K.; Demas, V.; Bajaj, V.; Santori, C.

    2017-05-01

    Silicon-vacancy color centers in nanodiamonds are promising as fluorescent labels for biological applications, with a narrow, nonbleaching emission line at 738 nm. Two-photon excitation of this fluorescence offers the possibility of low-background detection at significant tissue depth with high three-dimensional spatial resolution. We measure the two-photon fluorescence cross section of a negatively charged silicon vacancy (Si -V- ) in ion-implanted bulk diamond to be 0.74 (19 )×10-50 cm4 s /photon at an excitation wavelength of 1040 nm. Compared to the diamond nitrogen-vacancy center, the expected detection threshold of a two-photon excited Si -V center is more than an order of magnitude lower, largely due to its much narrower linewidth. We also present measurements of two- and three-photon excitation spectra, finding an increase in the two-photon cross section with decreasing wavelength, and we discuss the physical interpretation of the spectra in the context of existing models of the Si -V energy-level structure.

  9. Ultrathin Nanocrystalline Diamond Films with Silicon Vacancy Color Centers via Seeding by 2 nm Detonation Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Stepan; Varga, Marian; Stenclova, Pavla; Ondic, Lukas; Ledinsky, Martin; Pangrac, Jiri; Vanek, Ondrej; Lipov, Jan; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2017-11-08

    Color centers in diamonds have shown excellent potential for applications in quantum information processing, photonics, and biology. Here we report chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films as thin as 5-6 nm with photoluminescence (PL) from silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers at 739 nm. Instead of conventional 4-6 nm detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs), we prepared and employed hydrogenated 2 nm DNDs (zeta potential = +36 mV) to form extremely dense (∼1.3 × 10 13 cm -2 ), thin (2 ± 1 nm), and smooth (RMS roughness < 0.8 nm) nucleation layers on an Si/SiO x substrate, which enabled the CVD growth of such ultrathin NCD films in two different and complementary microwave (MW) CVD systems: (i) focused MW plasma with an ellipsoidal cavity resonator and (ii) pulsed MW plasma with a linear antenna arrangement. Analytical ultracentrifuge, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy are used for detailed characterization of the 2 nm H-DNDs and the nucleation layer as well as the ultrathin NCD films. We also demonstrate on/off switching of the SiV center PL in the NCD films thinner than 10 nm, which is achieved by changing their surface chemistry.

  10. Creation and characterization of He-related color centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: forneris@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Tengattini, A.; Tchernij, S. Ditalia [Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Picollo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Battiato, A. [Physics Department and “NIS” Inter-departmental Centre - University of Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Traina, P.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Moreva, E.; Brida, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); and others

    2016-11-15

    Diamond is a promising material for the development of emerging applications in quantum optics, quantum information and quantum sensing. The fabrication and characterization of novel luminescent defects with suitable opto-physical properties is therefore of primary importance for further advances in these research fields. In this work we report on the investigation in the formation of photoluminescent (PL) defects upon MeV He implantation in diamond. Such color centers, previously reported only in electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence regime, exhibited two sharp emission lines at 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm, without significant phonon sidebands. A strong correlation between the PL intensities of the above-mentioned emission lines and the He implantation fluence was found in the 10{sup 15}–10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} fluence range. The PL emission features were not detected in control samples, i.e. samples that were either unirradiated or irradiated with different ion species (H, C). Therefore, the PL features are attributed to optically active defects in the diamond matrix associated with He impurities. The intensity of the 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm emission lines was investigated as a function of the annealing temperature of the diamond substrate. The emission was observed upon annealing at temperatures higher than 500 °C, at the expenses of the concurrently decreasing neutral-vacancy-related GR1 emission intensity. Therefore, our findings indicate that the luminescence originates from the formation of a stable lattice defect. Finally, photoluminescence from He-related defects was observed under different laser excitations wavelengths (i.e. 532 nm and 405 nm), thus providing promising evidence of a broad spectral range for optical stimulation. - Highlights: • Creation of luminescent defects in single-crystal diamond upon He implantation. • First observation of photoluminescent emission from two sharp emission lines at 536.5 and 560.5 nm. • Attribution of the

  11. Creation and characterization of He-related color centers in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forneris, J.; Tengattini, A.; Tchernij, S. Ditalia; Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Traina, P.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Moreva, E.; Brida, G.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material for the development of emerging applications in quantum optics, quantum information and quantum sensing. The fabrication and characterization of novel luminescent defects with suitable opto-physical properties is therefore of primary importance for further advances in these research fields. In this work we report on the investigation in the formation of photoluminescent (PL) defects upon MeV He implantation in diamond. Such color centers, previously reported only in electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence regime, exhibited two sharp emission lines at 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm, without significant phonon sidebands. A strong correlation between the PL intensities of the above-mentioned emission lines and the He implantation fluence was found in the 10 15 –10 17 cm −2 fluence range. The PL emission features were not detected in control samples, i.e. samples that were either unirradiated or irradiated with different ion species (H, C). Therefore, the PL features are attributed to optically active defects in the diamond matrix associated with He impurities. The intensity of the 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm emission lines was investigated as a function of the annealing temperature of the diamond substrate. The emission was observed upon annealing at temperatures higher than 500 °C, at the expenses of the concurrently decreasing neutral-vacancy-related GR1 emission intensity. Therefore, our findings indicate that the luminescence originates from the formation of a stable lattice defect. Finally, photoluminescence from He-related defects was observed under different laser excitations wavelengths (i.e. 532 nm and 405 nm), thus providing promising evidence of a broad spectral range for optical stimulation. - Highlights: • Creation of luminescent defects in single-crystal diamond upon He implantation. • First observation of photoluminescent emission from two sharp emission lines at 536.5 and 560.5 nm. • Attribution of the emission lines to

  12. Process of optical excitation and relaxation of color center in synthetic diamond and its application to optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of high-pressure synthesized diamond is carried out by using a nuclear reactor or a linac. Then, the effect of annealing on the color centers is observed. A study is made to identify different color centers and to provide techniques to control their introduction. Investigations cover the relation of color center formation with annealing temperature, dependence of color center formation on radiation dose, migration of H3 center and hydrogen, and applicability of five different color centers to optoelectronics. Next, a study is made of the formation and relaxation of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a metastable excited state produced by optical excitation. An optical gain is essential to provide laser. Optical amplification is measured at the vibronic emission band of the NV center. An increase in absorption is detected, indicating that the NV center will not provide laser. In the optical excitation-relaxation process, the relaxation proceeds via a metastable state. Finally, hole burning of ZPL of the NV center is observed in the temperature range from 20K to 80K, and some of its features are described. (N.K.)

  13. Influence of gas chemistry on Si-V color centers in diamond films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Ižák, Tibor; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2580-2584 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapor deposition * diamond * photoluminescence * plasma * silicon optical centers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  14. Ultrathin nanocrystalline diamond films with silicon vacancy color centers via seeding by 2 nm detonation nanodiamonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Štěpán; Varga, Marián; Štenclová, Pavla; Ondič, Lukáš; Ledinský, Martin; Pangrác, Jiří; Vaňek, O.; Lipov, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 44 (2017), s. 38842-38853 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15003; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : detonation nanodiamond * surface chemistry * hydrogenation * zeta potential * nucleation density * nanocrystalline diamond * SiV center Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  15. Dynamical nuclear polarization using multi-colour control of color centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pengcheng [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Center for Quantum Optical Science, Wuhan (China); Plenio, Martin B. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ulm (Germany); Universitaet Ulm, Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm (Germany); Cai, Jianming [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Center for Quantum Optical Science, Wuhan (China); Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ulm (Germany); Universitaet Ulm, Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Dynamical nuclear polarization (DNP) transfers the polarization of electron spins at cryogenic temperatures to achieve strong nuclear polarization for applications in nuclear magnetic resonance. Recently introduced approaches employ optical pumping of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to achieve DNP even at ambient temperatures. In such schemes microwave radiation is used to establish a Hartmann-Hahn condition between the NV electron spin and proximal nuclear spins to facilitate polarization transfer. For a single monochromatic microwave driving field, the Hartmann-Hahn condition cannot be satisfied for an ensemble of NV centers due to inhomogeneous broadening and reduces significantly the overall efficiency of dynamical nuclear polarization using an ensemble of NV centers. Here, we adopt generalized Hartmann-Hahn type dynamical nuclear polarization schemes by applying microwave driving fields with (multiple) time-modulated frequencies. We show that it is possible to enhance the effective coupling between an ensemble of NV center spins with inhomogeneous broadening and nuclear spins, thereby improving significantly the overall efficiency of dynamical nuclear polarization. This approach can also be used to achieve dynamical nuclear polarization of an ensemble of nuclei with a distribution of Larmor frequencies, which would be helpful in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a single NV spin sensor. (orig.)

  16. Efficient coupling of a single diamond color center to propagating plasmonic gap modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2013-01-01

    We report on coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a nanodiamond to the propagating gap mode of two parallel placed chemically grown silver nanowires. The coupled NV-center nanowire system is made by manipulating nanodiamonds and nanowires with the tip of an atomic force microscope...

  17. Magnetic Field Sensing with Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    8217d from r.haracteristic time of the der.ay enwlop<’. as shown in Figm<’ 1.7(b). For an ensemble of NV centers , inhomogeneities stemming from the...Backgnmnd a initialization detection optical _.J:.D ____. __________ __._n....__ b 350 "E 300 ~ 250 (jj §, 200 Cll Ŕ 150 l!l ~ 100 ~ 50 0...Free Precession Time-r (J.IS) II) ---(ij c .2’ (/) Cll (J c :!l e 0 ::J u: 0 0.5 15 2 Static Magnetic Field B (G) Figurr A. 2

  18. SiV color centers in Si-doped isotopically enriched {sup 12}C and {sup 13}C CVD diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedov, Vadim; Bolshakov, Andrey [General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyrev, Kirill [Institute of Spectroscopy, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krivobok, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Sergei [Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khomich, Alex [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS, Fryazino (Russian Federation); Khomich, Andrew [General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS, Fryazino (Russian Federation); Krasilnikov, Anatoly [Institution ' ' ProjectCenter ITER' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Ralchenko, Victor [General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2017-11-15

    The effect of isotopic modification of diamond lattice on photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption spectra of ensembles of SiV{sup -} centers was studied. Thin epitaxial diamond layers were grown by a microwave plasma CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixtures using methane enriched to 99.96% for either {sup 12}C or {sup 13}C isotopes, while the Si doping was performed by adding a small percentage of silane SiH{sub 4} into the plasma. Temperature dependent SiV{sup -} ZPL spectra in absorption were measured at 3-80 K to monitor the evolution of the ZPL fine structure. It is found that the SiV{sup -} ZPL at 736.9 nm observed in PL for {sup 12}C diamond at T = 5 K, exhibits a blue shift of 1.78 meV, to 736.1 nm in {sup 13}C diamond matrix. Narrow ZPL with the width (FWHM) of 0.09 meV (21 GHz) was measured in absorption spectra at T = 3-30 K in the Si-doped {sup 13}C diamond. Besides the charged SiV{sup -} center, the absorption of the neutral SiV{sup 0} defect at 946 nm wavelength has also been detected. From changes observed in SiV{sup -} phonon band structure in PL with isotopic modification, the band at 64 meV was confirmed to be a local vibration mode (LVM) involving a Si atom. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Cooperative effects between color centers in diamond: applications to optical tweezers and optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Carlo; Prasanna Venkatesh, B.; Besga, Benjamin; Johnsson, Mattias; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Volz, Thomas; Juan, Mathieu L.

    2017-08-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970,1 optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads2 or single atoms.3 Interestingly, both an atom and a lump of dielectric material can be manipulated through the same mechanism: the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In the case of atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength while it is given by the bulk polarisability for mesoscopic particles. This difference lead to two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings,4 the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms5 in the field of quantum optics. In this context, solid state artificial atoms present the interesting opportunity to combine these two aspects of optical manipulation. We are particularly interested in nanodiamonds as they constitute a bulk dielectric object by themselves, but also contain artificial atoms such as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) or silicon-vacancy (SiV) colour centers. With this system, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same time even at room temperature. In this work, we demonstrate that the resonant force from the optical transition of NV centres at 637 nm can be measured in a nanodiamond trapped in water. This additional contribution to the total force is significant, reaching up to 10%. In addition, due to the very large density of NV centres in a sub-wavelength crystal, collective effects between centres have an important effect on the magnitude of the resonant force.6 The possibility to observe such cooperatively enhanced optical force at room temperature is also theoretically confirmed.7 This approach may enable the study of cooperativity in various nanoscale solid-state systems and the use of atomic physics techniques in the field of nano-manipulation and opto-mechanics.

  20. Many-electron states of the N2 and N3 color centers in diamond: A first- principles and many-body study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babamoradi, Mohsen, E-mail: babamoradi@iust.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak,16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asgari, Sussan [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak,16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbar, Ahmad [Computational Materials Science Research Team, RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Belosludov, Rodion V. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yunoki, Seiji [Computational Materials Science Research Team, RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Computational Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Computational Quantum Matter Research Team, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    A new model is applied to calculate the many-body properties of the neutral N3 color center in diamond. This model is based on the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and cluster method, which is combined with the generalized Hubbard model. In contrast to the previous models for N3 centers, our model does not require the configuration interaction (CI) and molecular orbital (MO) techniques. The N3 defect in diamond is simulated with an empty site next to three substitutional nitrogen atoms in the center of a hydrogen-terminated diamond cluster. The method is shown to be highly accurate for describing the symmetries and spin properties of the ground state and the first dipole-allowed excited state for the N3 center. We obtain the transition energy as 412 nm for the first dipole-allowed transition, which is in good agreement with the corresponding experimental value as 415 nm. We assigned the dipole-allowed transition between the first and second excited states as the N2 optical peak, and evaluated the N2 optical peak to be 463 nm, which is close to the experimental value as 478 nm.

  1. Feasibility and resolution limits of opto-magnetic imaging of neural network activity in brain slices using color centers in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadas, Mürsel; Wojciechowski, Adam M.; Huck, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We suggest a novel approach for wide-field imaging of the neural network dynamics of brain slices that uses highly sensitivity magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Invitro recordings in brain slices is a proven method for the characterization of electrical neural activi...... cell. Our results suggest that imaging of slice activity will be possible with the upcoming generation of NV magnetic field sensors, while single-shot imaging of planar cell activity remains challenging....

  2. Enhancement of color and clarity in topaz and diamonds by nuclear radiation, safety and security concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshad Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Inducement of color and clarity in gemstone Topaz, otherwise devoid of these attributes, has been achieved by synergistic utilization of neutron irradiation, electron beam irradiation and heat. The transformation of the colorless, cheaply available topaz into desirable deep blue topaz is a significant value addition, not achievable by other contending techniques .Likewise colorless and unclear diamonds, available in trade at throw away price, have been transformed by neutron irradiation into colored diamonds, known as fancy diamonds. The enhanced gems may possess stable or unstable colors depending on the nature of the color centers produced. In the case of blue topaz and fancy diamonds the colors produced were stable and heating at elevated temperatures can only lead to fading of colors. The enhancement of gems by neutron irradiation is commercially viable provided appropriate equipment and tools are used .In the paper are described the processes of the enhancement of topaz and diamonds along with the instrumentation involved. However, in view of the radioactivity generated as a result of the exposure of gems to the neutrons, and the likelihood of undue exposure of the users, operators etc to the radioactive gems, safety aspects command serious attention. In the paper, the strategies to avoid or to mitigate the radioactivity generated have been discussed. Also documented are the methodologies and the controls to ensure that the radioactive gems are not released before ensuring that the radioactivity, if any, in the irradiated materials is not above the permissible levels in conformity with the international standards. Safety, security and safeguard of these materials are thus appropriately addressed. (Authors)

  3. Generation of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond with Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jin-Ming; Chen Xiang-Dong; Gong Zhao-Jun; Sun Fang-Wen; Han Zheng-Fu; Guo Guang-Can; Fan Le-Le; Zou Chong-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy defect color centers are created in a high purity single crystal diamond by nitrogen-ion implantation. Both optical spectrum and optically detected magnetic resonance are measured for these artificial quantum emitters. Moreover, with a suitable mask, a lattice composed of nitrogen-vacancy centers is fabricated. Rabi oscillation driven by micro-waves is carried out to show the quality of the ion implantation and potential in quantum manipulation. Along with compatible standard lithography, such an implantation technique shows high potential in future to make structures with nitrogen-vacancy centers for diamond photonics and integrated photonic quantum chip

  4. Vector magnetic field microscopy using nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maertz, B.J.; Wijnheijmer, A.P.; Fuchs, G.D.; Nowakowski, M.E.; Awschalom, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    The localized spin triplet ground state of a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond can be used in atomic-scale detection of local magnetic fields. Here we present a technique using ensembles of these defects in diamond to image fields around magnetic structures. We extract the local magnetic field

  5. Diamond nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Beha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.

  6. Perfect alignment and preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers during chemical vapor deposition diamond growth on (111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michl, Julia; Zaiser, Sebastian; Jakobi, Ingmar; Waldherr, Gerald; Dolde, Florian; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Doherty, Marcus W.; Manson, Neil B.; Isoya, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic diamond production is a key to the development of quantum metrology and quantum information applications of diamond. The major quantum sensor and qubit candidate in diamond is the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center. This lattice defect comes in four different crystallographic orientations leading to an intrinsic inhomogeneity among NV centers, which is undesirable in some applications. Here, we report a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond growth technique on (111)-oriented substrates, which yields perfect alignment (94% ± 2%) of as-grown NV centers along a single crystallographic direction. In addition, clear evidence is found that the majority (74% ± 4%) of the aligned NV centers were formed by the nitrogen being first included in the (111) growth surface and then followed by the formation of a neighboring vacancy on top. The achieved homogeneity of the grown NV centers will tremendously benefit quantum information and metrology applications

  7. Nanophotonic quantum interface for nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiwen Chu

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have emerged as a promising solid-state platform for quantum communication, quantum information processing and nanoscale sensing with optical read-out. Engineering light-matter interactions is crucial for the practical realization of these systems. I will present our work toward realizing individual NV centers embedded in nanofabricated hybrid photonic crystal cavities consisting of single crystal diamond and PMMA based Bragg structures. Devices with quality factors up to 3,000 coupled to NV centers have been implemented, leading to substantial Purcell enhancement of zero-phonon line. We investigate the optical coherence properties of NV centers inside these nanoscale structures and report on first cavity QED experiments with such systems. Applications of diamond nanophotonic devices for quantum networks and nonlinear optics with single photons will be discussed. (author)

  8. Laser spectroscopy of highly doped NV- centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shova D.; Fedorov, Vladimir V.; Peppers, Jeremy; Martyshkin, Dmitry V.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Shao, Linbo; Loncar, Marko

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, prospects of using diamond with NV- centers as a gain medium have been studied. Spectroscopic characterization of NV- centers in diamond as well as absorption saturation and pump-probe experiments have been carried out. Absorption and emission cross-sections were estimated to be 2.8 × 10-17 cm2 and 4.3 × 10-17 cm2 at the maximum of absorption and emission bands, respectively. It was observed from emission spectra under pulse excitation that some NV- are photoionized to NV0 centers with ZPL at 575 nm. Room temperature luminescence lifetime of NV- centers was measured to be 12ns, which is close to the previously reported lifetime in bulk diamond ( 13ns). Saturated transmission was only about 11% of calculated values even at energy fluence much higher than the saturation flux. Two excited state absorptions (ESAs) with different relaxation times ("fast-decay" and "slow-decay with relaxation times of 500 ns and several tens of microseconds, respectively) were revealed in transmission decay kinetics at 632 nm. Kinetics of transmission at 670 nm was dominated by "slow-decay" ESA process. Kinetics of dk/k0 in shorter wavelength were strongly dominated by "fast-decay" ESA process. These results definitively indicate that stimulated emission of NV- centers is suppressed by photoionization and ESAs and the possibility of diamond lasers based on NV- centers is low.

  9. Improved generation of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naydenov, Boris; Beck, Johannes; Steiner, Matthias; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg [3. Institute of Physics, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Richter, Vladimir; Kalish, Rafi [Solid State Institute, Technion City, Haifa (Israel); Achard, Jocelyn [Laboratoire d' Ingenieurie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions, CNRS, Villetaneuse (France)

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently attracted the attention of many research groups due to their possible application as quantum bits (qubits), ultra low magnetic field sensors and single photon sources. These color centers can be produced by nitrogen ion implantation, although the yield is usually below 5 % at low ion energies. Here we report an increase of the NV production efficiency by subsequently implanting carbon ions in the area of implanted nitrogen ions. This method improves the production yield by more than 50 %. We also show that very low nitrogen concentration (below 0.1 ppb) in diamond can be determined by converting the intrinsic nitrogen atoms to single NV centers and detecting the latter using a confocal microscope.

  10. Color center formation in plutonium electrorefining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Eller, P.G.; Hobart, D.E.; Eastman, M.P.; McCurry, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium electrorefining residues containing Pu(III) in KCl exhibit dramatic reversible, light-induced color changes. Similar color changes were observed in Ln-doped (Ln = La, Nd, Gd, and Lu) and undoped KCl samples which were subjected to intense gamma irradiation. Diffuse reflectance electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were used to show conclusively that Pu(III) is present in both the bleached and unbleached plutonium-bearing residues and the spectacular color changes are the result of color center formation and alternation by visible light. (orig.)

  11. Vacancy-impurity centers in diamond: prospects for synthesis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekimov, E. A.; Kondrin, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    The bright luminescence of impurity-vacancy complexes, combined with high chemical and radiation resistance, makes diamond an attractive platform for the production of single-photon emitters and luminescent biomarkers for applications in nanoelectronics and medicine. Two representatives of this kind of defects in diamond, silicon-vacancy (SiV) and germanium-vacancy (GeV) centers, are discussed in this review; their similarities and differences are demonstrated in terms of the more thoroughly studied nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes. The recent discovery of GeV luminescent centers opens a unique opportunity for the controlled synthesis of single-photon emitters in nanodiamonds. We demonstrate prospects for the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) technique to create single-photon emitters, not only as an auxiliary to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ion-implantation methods but also as a primary synthesis tool for producing color centers in nanodiamonds. Besides practical applications, comparative studies of these two complexes, which belong to the same structural class of defects, have a fundamental importance for deeper understanding of shelving levels, the electronic structure, and optical properties of these centers. In conclusion, we discuss several open problems regarding the structure, charge state, and practical application of these centers, which still require a solution.

  12. Alignment of the diamond nitrogen vacancy center by strain engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karin, Todd [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dunham, Scott [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fu, Kai-Mei [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a sensitive probe of magnetic field and a promising qubit candidate for quantum information processing. The performance of many NV-based devices improves by aligning the NV(s) parallel to a single crystallographic direction. Using ab initio theoretical techniques, we show that NV orientation can be controlled by high-temperature annealing in the presence of strain under currently accessible experimental conditions. We find that (89 ± 7)% of NVs align along the [111] crystallographic direction under 2% compressive biaxial strain (perpendicular to [111]) and an annealing temperature of 970 °C.

  13. Enhancing the brightness of electrically driven single-photon sources using color centers in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Igor A.; Vyshnevyy, Andrey A.; Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Practical applications of quantum information technologies exploiting the quantum nature of light require efficient and bright true single-photon sources which operate under ambient conditions. Currently, point defects in the crystal lattice of diamond known as color centers have taken the lead in the race for the most promising quantum system for practical non-classical light sources. This work is focused on a different quantum optoelectronic material, namely a color center in silicon carbide, and reveals the physics behind the process of single-photon emission from color centers in SiC under electrical pumping. We show that color centers in silicon carbide can be far superior to any other quantum light emitter under electrical control at room temperature. Using a comprehensive theoretical approach and rigorous numerical simulations, we demonstrate that at room temperature, the photon emission rate from a p-i-n silicon carbide single-photon emitting diode can exceed 5 Gcounts/s, which is higher than what can be achieved with electrically driven color centers in diamond or epitaxial quantum dots. These findings lay the foundation for the development of practical photonic quantum devices which can be produced in a well-developed CMOS compatible process flow.

  14. Entanglement transfer from microwaves to diamond NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Angela V.; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Strong candidates to create quantum entangled states in solid-state environments are the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. By the combination of radiation from different wavelength (optical, microwave and radio-frequency), several protocols have been proposed to create entangled states of different NVs. Recently, experimental sources of non-classical microwave radiation have been successfully realized. Here, we consider the entanglement transfer from spatially separated two-mode microwave squeezed (entangled) photons to a pair of NV centers by exploiting the fact that the spin triplet ground state of a NV has a natural splitting with a frequency on the order of GHz (microwave range). We first demonstrate that the transfer process in the simplest case of a single pair of spatially separated NVs is feasible. Moreover, we proceed to extend the previous results to more realistic scenarios where 13C nuclear spin baths surrounding each NV are included, quantifying the degradation of the entanglement transfer by the dephasing/dissipation effects produced by the nuclear baths. Finally, we address the issue of assessing the possibility of entanglement transfer from the squeezed microwave light to two nuclear spins closely linked to different NV center electrons. Facultad de Ciencias Uniandes.

  15. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: A facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Remi

    2013-01-01

    We present a facile method for the production of fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (DNCs) of different sizes and efficiently quantify the concentration of emitting defect color centers (DCCs) of each DNC size. We prepared the DNCs by ball-milling commercially available micrometer-sized synthetic (high pressure, high temperature (HPHT)) diamonds and then separated the as-produced DNCs by density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) into size-controlled fractions. A protocol to enhance the uniformity of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in the diamonds was devised by depositing the DNCs as a dense monolayer on amino-silanized silicon substrates and then subjecting the monolayer to He+ beam irradiation. Using a standard confocal setup, we analyzed the average number of NV centers per crystal, and obtained a quantitative relationship between the DNC particle size and the NV number per crystal. This relationship was in good agreement with results from previous studies that used more elaborate setups. Our findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color centers and new strategies to create them. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. The double luminescence of Color Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    An experiment on the luminescence of Color Centers (CCs) carried out in 1987 at the ENEA Laboratories in Frascati had a negative result, but subsequent investigations showed that it was not a failure but rather a discovery of a new phenomenon. Since the coming of lasers, CCs in alkali halides have been successfully used as optically active materials, in particular FA Centers. One of these centers, well known for its medium infrared laser emission at 77 K, cooled further to 2 K emitted in the near infrared and without laser effect. Further investigations showed that the double luminescence was a fundamental property unknown until that time. This important discovery was achieved in Frascati because of the existence since 1973 of a solid and extensive expertise in the field of CCs, which continued over time and later on applied to the modern miniaturized photonic devices [it

  17. V color centers in electrolytically colored hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Han Li

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using pointed anode and flat cathode at various temperatures and under various electric field strengths. V 2 and V 3 color centers were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V 2 and V 3 color center migration was determined. Production of the V 2 and V 3 color centers and formation of current zones for the electrolytic colorations of the hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals are explained

  18. Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyushev, Petr; Metsch, Mathias H.; Ijaz, Aroosa; Binder, Jan M.; Bhaskar, Mihir K.; Sukachev, Denis D.; Sipahigil, Alp; Evans, Ruffin E.; Nguyen, Christian T.; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Hemmer, Philip R.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Borzdov, Yuri M.; Rogers, Lachlan J.; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-08-01

    A solid-state system combining a stable spin degree of freedom with an efficient optical interface is highly desirable as an element for integrated quantum-optical and quantum-information systems. We demonstrate a bright color center in diamond with excellent optical properties and controllable electronic spin states. Specifically, we carry out detailed optical spectroscopy of a germanium-vacancy (GeV ) color center demonstrating optical spectral stability. Using an external magnetic field to lift the electronic spin degeneracy, we explore the spin degree of freedom as a controllable qubit. Spin polarization is achieved using optical pumping, and a spin relaxation time in excess of 20 μ s is demonstrated. We report resonant microwave control of spin transitions, and use this as a probe to measure the Autler-Townes effect in a microwave-optical double-resonance experiment. Superposition spin states were prepared using coherent population trapping, and a pure dephasing time of about 19 ns was observed at a temperature of 2.0 K.

  19. Color centers inside crystallic active media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Kaczmarek, Slawomir M.; Kopczynski, Krzysztof

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents research results on color centers induced by radiation of a xenon lamp in non doped crystals of yttrium aluminum garnet Y3Al5O12 (YAG), strontium- lanthanum aluminate SrLaAlO4 (SLAO), strontium-lanthanum gallate SrLaGa3O7 (SLGO), and in doped crystals: Nd:YAG, Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG (CTH:YAG), Nd:SLAO and Nd:SLGO. In all these investigated crystals under the influence of intensive exposure by xenon lamp radiation additional bands connected with centers O-2, O2 and centers F came up near the short-wave absorption edge. In the case of doped crystals the observed processes are much more complicated. In crystals CTH:YAG the greatest perturbations in relation to basic state are present at the short-wave absorption edge, as well as on areas of absorption bands of ions Cr+3 and Tm+3 conditioning the sensibilization process of ions Ho+3. These spectral structure disturbances essentially influence the efficiency of this process, as proven during generating investigations. In the case of SrLaGa3O7:Nd+3 under the influence of exposure substantial changes of absorption spectrum occurred on spectral areas 346 divided by 368 nm, 429 divided by 441 nm and 450 divided by 490 nm. Those changes have an irreversible character. They disappear not before the plate is being held at oxidizing atmosphere. Investigations of laser rods Nd:SLGO, CTH:YAG, and Nd:YAG in a free generation demonstrated that the color centers of these crystals are induced by pomp radiation from the spectral area up to 450 nm.

  20. Radiation color and electron-hole centers of serpentines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutoev, V.P.; Yukhtanov, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-induced coloring of serpentine (Mg 3 [Si 2 O 5 ](OH) 4 ), gamma radiation dose being 30 Mrad, is studied by the ESR and absorption spectroscopy methods. It is ascertained that ionizing radiation gives rise to formation of radiation centers on the mineral basic structural elements. paramagnetic centers and coloring centers, relating to radiation centers, stem from the same type of defects - O - oxygen centers, formed as a result of radiation-induced break of OH-bonds [ru

  1. Localized chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanley, Toby W.; Martin, Aiden A.; Aharonovich, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Aharonovich@uts.edu.au; Toth, Milos, E-mail: Milos.Toth@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2014-08-11

    We present a direct-write chemical technique for controlling the charge state of near-surface nitrogen vacancy centers (NVs) in diamond by surface fluorination. Fluorination of H-terminated diamond is realized by electron beam stimulated desorption of H{sub 2}O in the presence of NF{sub 3} and verified with environmental photoyield spectroscopy (EPYS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL spectra of shallow NVs in H- and F-terminated nanodiamonds show the expected dependence of the NV charge state on their energetic position with respect to the Fermi-level. EPYS reveals a corresponding difference between the ionization potential of H- and F-terminated diamond. The electron beam fluorination process is highly localized and can be used to fluorinate H-terminated diamond, and to increase the population of negatively charged NV centers.

  2. On-Demand Generation of Neutral and Negatively Charged Silicon-Vacancy Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Zangara, Pablo R.; Henshaw, Jacob; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2018-03-01

    Point defects in wide-band-gap semiconductors are emerging as versatile resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information science, but our understanding of the photoionization dynamics is presently incomplete. Here, we use two-color confocal microscopy to investigate the dynamics of charge in type 1b diamond hosting nitrogen-vacancy (NV) and silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers. By examining the nonlocal fluorescence patterns emerging from local laser excitation, we show that, in the simultaneous presence of photogenerated electrons and holes, SiV (NV) centers selectively transform into the negative (neutral) charge state. Unlike NVs, 532 nm illumination ionizes SiV- via a single-photon process, thus hinting at a comparatively shallower ground state. In particular, slower ionization rates at longer wavelengths suggest the latter lies approximately ˜1.9 eV below the conduction band minimum. Building on the above observations, we demonstrate on-demand SiV and NV charge initialization over large areas via green laser illumination of variable intensity.

  3. El Knowledge Center de DiamondCluster International

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio i Morata, Iria

    2001-01-01

    Es descriu el centre de documentació de DiamondCluster International i l'evolució que ha seguit des de la seva creació fins ara. S'expliquen els processos bàsics, l'estructura i el paper que té dins l'organització.

  4. Radiation Induced Color Centers in a La Doped PWO Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Qun

    1998-01-01

    This report presents result of a study on radiation induced color center densities in a La doped lead tungstate ( PWO) crystal. The creation and annihilation constants of radiation induced color centers were determined by using transmittance data measured for a PWO sample before and during Co-60 gamma ray irradiation at a dose rate of 15 rad/hr. Following a model of color center kinetics, these constants were used to calculate color center densities under irradiations at 100 rad/hr. The result was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data, indicating that this model of color center kinetics can be used to predict behavior of PWO crystals under irradiation.

  5. Effect of low-damage inductively coupled plasma on shallow nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Momenzadeh, S. Ali; Wang, Ya; Denisenko, Andrej, E-mail: a.denisenko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de [3. Institute of Physics, Research Center SCoPE and IQST, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Konuma, Mitsuharu [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M. [Element Six Innovation, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QR (United Kingdom); Wrachtrup, Jörg [3. Institute of Physics, Research Center SCoPE and IQST, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-08-17

    Near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have been successfully employed as atomic-sized magnetic field sensors for external spins over the last years. A key challenge is still to develop a method to bring NV centers at nanometer proximity to the diamond surface while preserving their optical and spin properties. To that aim we present a method of controlled diamond etching with nanometric precision using an oxygen inductively coupled plasma process. Importantly, no traces of plasma-induced damages to the etched surface could be detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confocal photoluminescence microscopy techniques. In addition, by profiling the depth of NV centers created by 5.0 keV of nitrogen implantation energy, no plasma-induced quenching in their fluorescence could be observed. Moreover, the developed etching process allowed even the channeling tail in their depth distribution to be resolved. Furthermore, treating a {sup 12}C isotopically purified diamond revealed a threefold increase in T{sub 2} times for NV centers with <4 nm of depth (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance signal from protons at the diamond surface) in comparison to the initial oxygen-terminated surface.

  6. Color centers in KCN: a structural analysis of crystalline domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, L.C.S. do.

    1976-03-01

    Pure singlecrystals of KCN exposed to X-rays showed several color centers detected by EPR. The F center was identified through the correlation of its optical absorption band which satisfies the Ivey law for the KCN lattice parameter and the EPR spectrum typical of a center in an anionic site. Two other color centers were identified: N - 2 and HCN - . Two centers assigned to hydrogen atoms have their models proposed: U 2 and U 3 centers. Two other centers remain unidentified: an anionic and an extrinsic centers. The orthorhombic character of the N - 2 center EPR parameters allowed an structural analysis of the crystal line domains in the orthorhombic phase. The optical absorption spectrum of the HCN - center in KCl matrix was investigated and showed a set of resolved bands with a constant energy splitting; this splitting was associated to a vibrational mode of the excited state of this molecular ion. (author) [pt

  7. Plasmon resonance enhanced temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Si-V centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shaoheng [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Song, Jie; Wang, Qiliang; Liu, Junsong; Li, Hongdong, E-mail: hdli@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Baolin [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-11-23

    Temperature dependent optical property of diamond has been considered as a very important factor for realizing high performance diamond-based optoelectronic devices. The photoluminescence feature of the zero phonon line of silicon-vacancy (Si-V) centers in Si-doped chemical vapor deposited single crystal diamond (SCD) with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) induced by gold nanoparticles has been studied at temperatures ranging from liquid nitrogen temperature to 473 K, as compared with that of the SCD counterpart in absence of the LSPR. It is found that with LSPR the emission intensities of Si-V centers are significantly enhanced by factors of tens and the magnitudes of the redshift (width) of the emissions become smaller (narrower), in comparison with those of normal emissions without plasmon resonance. More interestingly, these strong Si-V emissions appear remarkably at temperatures up to 473 K, while the spectral feature was not reported in previous studies on the intrinsic Si-doped diamonds when temperatures are higher than room temperature. These findings would lead to reaching high performance diamond-based devices, such as single photon emitter, quantum cryptography, biomarker, and so forth, working under high temperature conditions.

  8. Strain coupling between nitrogen vacancy centers and the mechanical motion of a diamond optomechanical crystal resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J. V.; Lee, K. W.; Ovartchaiyapong, P.; Bleszynski Jayich, A. C.

    Several experiments have recently demonstrated coupling between nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond and mechanical resonators via crystal strain. In the strong coupling regime, such devices could realize applications critical to emerging quantum technologies, including phonon-mediated spin-spin interactions and mechanical cooling with the NV center1. An outstanding challenge for these devices is generating higher strain coupling in high frequency devices while maintaining the excellent coherence properties of the NV center and high mechanical quality factors. As a step toward these objectives, we demonstrate single-crystal diamond optomechanical crystal resonators with embedded NV centers. These devices host highly-confined GHz-scale mechanical modes that are isolated from mechanical clamping losses and generate strain profiles that allow for large strain coupling to NV centers far from noise-inducing surfaces.

  9. Color centers in heavily irradiated CsI(Tl) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, V.; Meleshko, A.; Trefilova, L.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption and luminescence properties of CsI(Tl) crystals colored by irradiation are studied by the method of the time-resolved spectroscopy. The scheme of the electron transitions in CsI(Tl) crystal is suggested to explain the appearance of the color centers under exposure to the near-UV light. It is established that either of the two types activator color centers holds the charge carrier with opposite sign. The model of the hole Tl 2+ v c - activator color center is suggested. According to the model the positive charge of Tl 2+ ion is compensated by the negative charge of a close cation vacancy v c - . The color center emission reveals in the cathode-luminescence spectrum of the colored CsI(Tl) crystal. The high-dose irradiation of CsI(Tl) crystal results in the reduction of the decay time of the near-thallium self-trapped excitons (STE) emission. The decay kinetics of Tl 2+ v c - emission contains the time components typical for the decay kinetics of near-thallium STE emission. The reason of the observed effects is the energy transfer from the near-thallium STE excitons to the color centers via the inductive-resonant mechanism

  10. Electron spin resonance from NV centers in diamonds levitating in an ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delord, T; Nicolas, L; Schwab, L; Hétet, G

    2017-01-01

    We report observations of the electron spin resonance (ESR) of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamonds that are levitating in an ion trap. Using a needle Paul trap operating under ambient conditions, we demonstrate efficient microwave driving of the electronic spin and show that the spin properties of deposited diamond particles measured by the ESR are retained in the Paul trap. We also exploit the ESR signal to show angle stability of single trapped mono-crystals, a necessary step towards spin-controlled levitating macroscopic objects. (paper)

  11. Electron Spin Resonance Shift and Linewidth Broadening of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond as a Function of Electron Irradiation Dose

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Edwin; Acosta, Victor M.; Bauch, Erik; Budker, Dmitry; Hemmer, Philip R.

    2009-01-01

    A high-nitrogen-concentration diamond sample was subject to 200-keV electron irradiation using a transmission electron microscope. The optical and spin-resonance properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers were investigated as a function of the irradiation dose up to 6.4\\times1021 e-/cm2. The microwave transition frequency of the NV- center was found to shift by up to 0.6% (17.1 MHz) and the linewidth broadened with increasing electron-irradiation dose. Unexpectedly, the measured ma...

  12. Observation of Diamond Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Photoluminescence under High Vacuum in a Magneto-Gravitational Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Hsu, Jen-Feng; Lewandowski, Charles W.; Dutt, M. V. Gurudev; D'Urso, Brian

    2016-05-01

    We report the observation of photoluminescence from nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond nanocrystals levitated in a magneto-gravitational trap. The trap utilizes a combination of strong magnetic field gradients and gravity to confine diamagnetic particles in three dimensions. The well-characterized NV centers in trapped diamond nanocrystals provide an ideal built-in sensor to measure the trap magnetic field and the temperature of the trapped diamond nanocrystal. In the future, the NV center spin state could be coupled to the mechanical motion through magnetic field gradients, enabling in an ideal quantum interface between NV center spin and the mechanical motion. National Science Foundation, Grant No. 1540879.

  13. Diamond-based structures to collect and guide light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelletto, S [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H 34 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Harrison, J P; Marseglia, L; Stanley-Clarke, A C; Hadden, J P; Ho, Y-L D; O' Brien, J L; Rarity, J G [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H H Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Gibson, B C; Fairchild, B A; Ganesan, K; Huntington, S T; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC 3010 (Australia); Hiscocks, M P; Ladouceur, F, E-mail: scastelletto@swin.edu.au, E-mail: luca.marseglia@bristol.ac.uk [School of EE and T, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    We examine some promising photonic structures for collecting and guiding light in bulk diamond. The aim of this work is to optimize single photon sources and single spin read-out from diamond color centers, specifically NV{sup -} centers. We review the modeling and fabrication (by focused ion beam and reactive ion etching) of solid immersion lenses, waveguides and photonic crystal cavities in monolithic diamond.

  14. Complete Quantum Control of a Single Silicon-Vacancy Center in a Diamond Nanopillar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Dory, Constantin; Radulaski, Marina; Kelaita, Yousif; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Chu, Steven; Vuckovic, Jelena

    Coherent quantum control of a quantum bit (qubit) is an important step towards its use in a quantum network. SiV- center in diamond offers excellent physical qualities such as low inhomogeneous broadening, fast photon emission, and a large Debye-Waller factor, while the fast spin manipulation and techniques to extend the spin coherence time are under active investigation. Here, we demonstrate full coherent control over the state of a single SiV- center in a diamond nanopillar using ultrafast optical pulses. The high quality of the chemical vapor deposition grown SiV- centers allows us to coherently manipulate and quasi-resonantly read out the state of the single SiV- center. Moreover, the SiV- centers being coherently controlled are integrated into diamond nanopillar arrays in a site-controlled, individually addressable manner with high yield, low strain, and high spectral stability, which paves the way for scalable on chip optically accessible quantum system in a quantum photonic network. Financial support is provided by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences through Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  15. Coupling nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to superconducting flux qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos, D.; Wubs, Martijn; Taylor, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to achieve coherent coupling between nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond and superconducting (SC) flux qubits. The resulting coupling can be used to create a coherent interaction between the spin states of distant NV centers mediated by the flux qubit. Furthermore......, the magnetic coupling can be used to achieve a coherent transfer of quantum information between the flux qubit and an ensemble of NV centers. This enables a long-term memory for a SC quantum processor and possibly an interface between SC qubits and light....

  16. Orbital State Manipulation of a Diamond Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Using a Mechanical Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Y.; MacQuarrie, E. R.; Fuchs, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    We study the resonant optical transitions of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center that is coherently dressed by a strong mechanical drive. Using a gigahertz-frequency diamond mechanical resonator that is strain coupled to a NV center's orbital states, we demonstrate coherent Raman sidebands out to the ninth order and orbital-phonon interactions that mix the two excited-state orbital branches. These interactions are spectroscopically revealed through a multiphonon Rabi splitting of the orbital branches which scales as a function of resonator driving amplitude and is successfully reproduced in a quantum model. Finally, we discuss the application of mechanical driving to engineering NV-center orbital states.

  17. Loading an Optical Trap with Diamond Nanocrystals Containing Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers from a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Ji, Peng; Dutt, M. V. Gurudev; D'Urso, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple and effective method of loading particles into an optical trap. Our primary application of this method is loading photoluminescent material, such as diamond nanocrystals containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers, for coupling the mechanical motion of the trapped crystal with the spin of the NV centers. Highly absorptive material at the trapping laser frequency, such as tartrazine dye, is used as media to attach nanodiamonds and burn into a cloud of air-borne particles as the material is swept near the trapping laser focus on a glass slide. Particles are then trapped with the laser used for burning or transferred to a second laser trap at a different wavelength. Evidence of successful loading diamond nanocrystals into the trap presented includes high sensitivity of the photoluminecscence (PL) to the excitation laser and the PL spectra of the optically trapped particles

  18. Towards single photon generation using NV centers in diamond coupled to thin layer optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tashima

    2014-01-01

    Single photon emitters like the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond are important for quantum communication such as quantum cryptography and quantum metrology. In this context, e.g. tapered optical nano-fibers are a promising approach as they allow efficient coupling of single photons into a single spatial mode. Yet, integration of such fibers in a compact integrated quantum circuit is demanding. Here we propose a NV defect center in diamond as a single photon emitter coupled to a thin layer photonic waveguide. The benefit is to allow smaller size devices while having a similar strong evanescent field like tapered nano-optical fibers. We present numerical simulations and fabrication steps of such structures. (author)

  19. Hybrid quantum gates between flying photon and diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers assisted by optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Lu Long, Gui

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid quantum gates hold great promise for quantum information processing since they preserve the advantages of different quantum systems. Here we present compact quantum circuits to deterministically implement controlled-NOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates between a flying photon qubit and diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers assisted by microcavities. The target qubits of these universal quantum gates are encoded on the spins of the electrons associated with the diamond NV centers and they have long coherence time for storing information, and the control qubit is encoded on the polarizations of the flying photon and can be easily manipulated. Our quantum circuits are compact, economic, and simple. Moreover, they do not require additional qubits. The complexity of our schemes for universal three-qubit gates is much reduced, compared to the synthesis with two-qubit entangling gates. These schemes have high fidelities and efficiencies, and they are feasible in experiment. PMID:26271899

  20. Strain cupling of a nitrogen-vacancy center spin to a diamond mechanical oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Teissier, J.; Barfuss, A.; Appel, P.; Neu, E.; Maletinsky, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report on single electronic spins coupled to the motion of mechanical resonators by a novel mechanism based on crystal strain. Our device consists of single-crystal diamond cantilevers with embedded nitrogen-vacancy center spins. Using optically detected electron spin resonance, we determine the unknown spin-strain coupling constants and demonstrate that our system resides well within the resolved sideband regime. We realize coupling strengths exceeding 10 MHz under mechanical driving and ...

  1. Generation of Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Pairs in Bulk Diamond by Molecular Nitrogen Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-Jun Gong; Xiang-Dong Chen; Cong-Cong Li; Shen Li; Bo-Wen Zhao; Fang-Wen Sun

    2016-01-01

    The coupled negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV − ) center system is a promising candidate for scalable quantum information techniques. In this work, ionized nitrogen molecules are implanted into bulk diamond to generate coupled NV − center pairs. The two-photon autocorrelation measurement and optically detected magnetic resonance measurement are carried out to confirm the production of the NV − center pair. Also, both 1.3 μs decoherence time and 4.9 kHz magnetic coupling strength of the NV − center pair are measured by controlling and detecting the spin states. Along with nanoscale manipulation and detection methods, such coupled NV − centers through short distance dipole-dipole interaction would show high potential in scalable quantum information processes. (paper)

  2. Characterization of color centers in quartz induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttler, Rainer A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of gamma ray irradiators in Brazil increased the possibilities of treatments of gemstones for color enhancements. One of the minerals with a very high potential of these treatments is quartz, a very widespread mineral with much colored commercial varieties. Quartz occurs in Brazil mainly in two geological environments, called pegmatitic and hydrothermal. The detailed mechanism of color center formation of these two types of quartz will be investigated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis. Until yet, it can be shown that due to chemical differences of the nature of mineral forming fluids, the two types behave differently. All quartzes contain mainly traces of Iron, Aluminum, Lithium and some amounts of Water. The quartz of hydrothermal origin incorporated much structurally bound water, and despite some similarities with the chemical composition of pegmatitic quartz, this high water content is the reason for the formation of Silanol radicals, giving the green color to the quartz. The main difference in chemical composition of pegmatitic quartz is the presence of higher amounts of Al and Li , responsible for the brownish and yellowish colors formed by irradiation. Since each pegmatite is different, the quartz will behave differently. This explains the formation of the famous 'Green Gold' of quartz from Sao Jose da Safira , and the more yellowish, Citrine type, color of quartz from the Coluna deposit, near Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais. (author)

  3. Characterization of color centers in quartz induced by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttler, Rainer A.S., E-mail: rainersg@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rela, Paulo R., E-mail: prela@ipen.b, E-mail: cteiti@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The availability of gamma ray irradiators in Brazil increased the possibilities of treatments of gemstones for color enhancements. One of the minerals with a very high potential of these treatments is quartz, a very widespread mineral with much colored commercial varieties. Quartz occurs in Brazil mainly in two geological environments, called pegmatitic and hydrothermal. The detailed mechanism of color center formation of these two types of quartz will be investigated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis. Until yet, it can be shown that due to chemical differences of the nature of mineral forming fluids, the two types behave differently. All quartzes contain mainly traces of Iron, Aluminum, Lithium and some amounts of Water. The quartz of hydrothermal origin incorporated much structurally bound water, and despite some similarities with the chemical composition of pegmatitic quartz, this high water content is the reason for the formation of Silanol radicals, giving the green color to the quartz. The main difference in chemical composition of pegmatitic quartz is the presence of higher amounts of Al and Li , responsible for the brownish and yellowish colors formed by irradiation. Since each pegmatite is different, the quartz will behave differently. This explains the formation of the famous 'Green Gold' of quartz from Sao Jose da Safira , and the more yellowish, Citrine type, color of quartz from the Coluna deposit, near Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais. (author)

  4. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  5. Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Soccolich, C.E.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Sauer, N.; Chang, T.Y.; Miller, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how, using multiple quantum well (MQW) saturable absorbers, the authors passively mode locked a NaCl color center laser to produce 275 fs transform-limited, pedestal-free pulses with as high as 3.7 kW peak power. The pulses are tunable from λ = 1.59 to 1.7 μm by choosing MQW's with different bandgaps. They shortened the output pulses from the laser to 25 fs using the technique of soliton compression in a fiber. The steady-state operation of the laser requires the combination of a fast saturable absorber and gain saturation. In addition to the NaCl laser, they passively mode locked a Tl 0 (1):KCl color center laser and produced -- 22 ps pulses. Although the 275 fs pulses from the NaCl laser are Gaussian, when broadened, the pulses acquire an asymmetric spectrum because of carrier-induced refractive index changes

  6. Luminescence of color centers in MgF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhidov, Sh.A.; Nuritdinov, I.; Musaeva, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The photoluminescence characteristics of the proper radiation color centers of the MgF 2 crystals are studied. The samples were irradiated by the 60 Co source γ-rays up to the dose 10 7 Gy. The bands with the maxima in the area of 420, 460, 550 and 620 nm were identified, which are excited correspondingly in the bands with the maxima of 370, 320, 410 and 480 nm

  7. All-Optical Nanoscale Thermometry using Silicon-Vacancy Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christian; Evans, Ruffin; Sipahigil, Alp; Bhaskar, Mihir; Sukachev, Denis; Lukin, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Accurate thermometry at the nanoscale is a difficult challenge, but building such a thermometer would be a powerful tool for discovering and understanding new processes in biology, chemistry and physics. Applications include cell-selective treatment of disease, engineering of more efficient integrated circuits, or even the development of new chemical and biological reactions. In this work, we study how the bulk properties of the Silicon Vacancy center (SiV) in diamond depend on temperature, and use them to measure temperature with 100mK accuracy. Using SiVs in 200 nm nanodiamonds, we measure the temperature with 100 nm spatial resolution over a 10 μm area.

  8. Photoluminescent properties of single crystal diamond microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, Sergey A.; Ismagilov, Rinat R.; Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Fedotov, Pavel V.; Ermakova, Anna; Siyushev, Petr; Katamadze, Konstantin G.; Jelezko, Fedor; Rakovich, Yury P.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Single crystal needle-like diamonds shaped as rectangular pyramids were produced by combination of chemical vapor deposition and selective oxidation with dimensions and geometrical characteristics depending on the deposition process parameters. Photoluminescence spectra and their dependencies on wavelength of excitation radiation reveal presence of nitrogen- and silicon-vacancy color centers in the diamond crystallites. Photoluminescence spectra, intensity mapping, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy indicate that silicon-vacancy centers are concentrated at the crystallites apex while nitrogen-vacancy centers are distributed over the whole crystallite. Dependence of the photoluminescence on excitation radiation intensity demonstrates saturation and allows estimation of the color centers density. The combination of structural parameters, geometry and photoluminescent characteristics are prospective for advantageous applications of these diamond crystallites in quantum information processing and optical sensing.

  9. Electron color centers in SrF2-Na crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachan, S.I.; Chornij, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    A radiation-induced memory effect in SrF 2 -Na crystals is studied. It was shown that optical bleaching of M + A color centers at 80 K in SrF 2 -Na crystals causes the core of an M + A -center to transform into the V + a Me + V + a configuration, in which all three point defects are arranged diagonally in the cube cell. Reirradiation of an optically bleached crystal by X-rays generates F D centers in it. The F D →M + A transformation in SrF 2 -Na crystals occurs at T = 135 K, in contrast to the F A →M + A transformations, which take place at T > 200 K [ru

  10. Experimental investigation of vector static magnetic field detection using an NV center with a single first-shell 13C nuclear spin in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng-Jian; Ye, Jian-Feng; Jiao, Zheng; Jiang, Jun; Ma, Kun; Yan, Xin-Hu; Lv, Hai-Jiang

    2018-05-01

    We perform a proof-of-principle experiment that uses a single negatively charged nitrogen–vacancy (NV) color center with a nearest neighbor 13C nuclear spin in diamond to detect the strength and direction (including both polar and azimuth angles) of a static vector magnetic field by optical detection magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique. With the known hyperfine coupling tensor between an NV center and a nearest neighbor 13C nuclear spin, we show that the information of static vector magnetic field could be extracted by observing the pulsed continuous wave (CW) spectrum. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11305074, 11135002, and 11275083), the Key Program of the Education Department Outstanding Youth Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. gxyqZD2017080), and the Education Department Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJHS2015B09).

  11. Little bits of diamond: Optically detected magnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haimei; Belvin, Carina; Li, Wanyi; Wang, Jennifer; Wainwright, Julia; Berg, Robbie; Bridger, Joshua

    2018-03-01

    We give instructions for the construction and operation of a simple apparatus for performing optically detected magnetic resonance measurements on diamond samples containing high concentrations of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. Each NV center has a spin degree of freedom that can be manipulated and monitored by a combination of visible and microwave radiation. We observe Zeeman shifts in the presence of small external magnetic fields and describe a simple method to optically measure magnetic field strengths with a spatial resolution of several microns. The activities described are suitable for use in an advanced undergraduate lab course, powerfully connecting core quantum concepts to cutting edge applications. An even simpler setup, appropriate for use in more introductory settings, is also presented.

  12. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy resolves individual nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond nanocrystals.

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Camejo, S.; Adam, M.; Besbes, M.; Hugonin, J.; Jaques, V.; Greffet, J.; Roch, J.; Hell, S.; Treussart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in nanodiamonds are highly promising for bioimaging and sensing. However, resolving individual NV centers within nanodiamond particles and the controlled addressing and readout of their spin state has remained a major challenge. Spatially stochastic super-resolution techniques cannot provide this capability in principle, whereas coordinate-controlled super-resolution imaging methods, like stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, have been predicted ...

  13. Splitting of photoluminescent emission from nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond induced by ion-damage-induced stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero, P; Bosia, F; Fairchild, B A; Gibson, B C; Greentree, A D; Spizzirri, P; Prawer, S

    2013-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation on the spectral splitting of negatively charged, nitrogen–vacancy (NV − ) photoluminescent emission in single-crystal diamond induced by strain engineering. The stress fields arise from MeV ion-induced conversion of diamond to amorphous and graphitic material in regions proximal to the centers of interest. In low-nitrogen sectors of a high-pressure–high-temperature diamond, clearly distinguishable spectral components in the NV − emission develop over a range of ∼4.8 THz corresponding to distinct alignment of sub-ensembles which were mapped with micron spatial resolution. This method provides opportunities for the creation and selection of aligned NV − centers for ensemble quantum information protocols. (paper)

  14. Selective deposition of polycrystalline diamond films using photolithography with addition of nanodiamonds as nucleation centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhotnikov, V V; Linnik, S A; Gaidaichuk, A V; Shashev, D V; Nazarova, G Yu; Yurchenko, V I

    2016-01-01

    A new method of selective deposition of polycrystalline diamond has been developed and studied. The diamond coatings with a complex, predetermined geometry and resolution up to 5 μm were obtained. A high density of polycrystallites in the coating area was reached (up to 32·10 7 pcs/cm 2 ). The uniformity of the film reached 100%, and the degree of the surface contamination by parasitic crystals did not exceed 2%. The technology was based on the application of the standard photolithography with an addition of nanodiamond suspension into the photoresist that provided the creation of the centers of further nucleation in the areas which require further overgrowth. The films were deposited onto monocrystalline silicon substrates using the method of “hot filaments” in the CVD reactor. The properties of the coating and the impact of the nanodiamond suspension concentration in the photoresist were also studied. The potential use of the given method includes a high resolution, technological efficiency, and low labor costs compared to the standard methods (laser treatment, chemical etching in aggressive environments,). (paper)

  15. Selective deposition of polycrystalline diamond films using photolithography with addition of nanodiamonds as nucleation centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhotnikov, V. V.; Linnik, S. A.; Gaidaichuk, A. V.; Shashev, D. V.; Nazarova, G. Yu; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    A new method of selective deposition of polycrystalline diamond has been developed and studied. The diamond coatings with a complex, predetermined geometry and resolution up to 5 μm were obtained. A high density of polycrystallites in the coating area was reached (up to 32·107 pcs/cm2). The uniformity of the film reached 100%, and the degree of the surface contamination by parasitic crystals did not exceed 2%. The technology was based on the application of the standard photolithography with an addition of nanodiamond suspension into the photoresist that provided the creation of the centers of further nucleation in the areas which require further overgrowth. The films were deposited onto monocrystalline silicon substrates using the method of “hot filaments” in the CVD reactor. The properties of the coating and the impact of the nanodiamond suspension concentration in the photoresist were also studied. The potential use of the given method includes a high resolution, technological efficiency, and low labor costs compared to the standard methods (laser treatment, chemical etching in aggressive environments,).

  16. Deterministic Electrical Charge-State Initialization of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from applications in classical information-processing devices, the electrical control of atomic defects in solids at room temperature will have a tremendous impact on quantum devices that are based on such defects. In this study, we demonstrate the electrical manipulation of individual prominent representatives of such atomic solid-state defects, namely, the negative charge state of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers (NV^{−} in diamond. We experimentally demonstrate, deterministic, purely electrical charge-state initialization of individual NV centers. The NV centers are placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode structure that facilitates the delivery of charge carriers to the defect for charge-state switching. The charge-state dynamics of a single NV center were investigated by time-resolved measurements and a nondestructive single-shot readout of the charge state. Fast charge-state switching rates (from negative to neutrally charged defects, which are greater than 0.72 ± 0.10  μs^{−1}, were realized. Furthermore, in no-operation mode, the realized charge states were stable for presumably much more than 0.45 s. We believe that the results obtained are useful not only for ultrafast electrical control of qubits, long T_{2} quantum memory, and quantum sensors associated with single NV centers but also for classical memory devices based on single atomic storage bits working under ambient conditions.

  17. Spin properties of dense near-surface ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetienne, J.-P.; de Gille, R. W.; Broadway, D. A.; Teraji, T.; Lillie, S. E.; McCoey, J. M.; Dontschuk, N.; Hall, L. T.; Stacey, A.; Simpson, D. A.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of the spin properties of dense layers of near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond created by nitrogen ion implantation. The optically detected magnetic resonance contrast and linewidth, spin coherence time, and spin relaxation time, are measured as a function of implantation energy, dose, annealing temperature, and surface treatment. To track the presence of damage and surface-related spin defects, we perform in situ electron spin resonance spectroscopy through both double electron-electron resonance and cross-relaxation spectroscopy on the NV centers. We find that, for the energy (4 -30 keV) and dose (5 ×1011-1013ions/cm 2 ) ranges considered, the NV spin properties are mainly governed by the dose via residual implantation-induced paramagnetic defects, but that the resulting magnetic sensitivity is essentially independent of both dose and energy. We then show that the magnetic sensitivity is significantly improved by high-temperature annealing at ≥1100 ∘C . Moreover, the spin properties are not significantly affected by oxygen annealing, apart from the spin relaxation time, which is dramatically decreased. Finally, the average NV depth is determined by nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, giving ≈10 -17 nm at 4-6 keV implantation energy. This study sheds light on the optimal conditions to create dense layers of near-surface NV centers for high-sensitivity sensing and imaging applications.

  18. Creation of quantum entanglement with two separate diamond nitrogen vacancy centers coupled to a photonic molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Siping [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Yu, Rong, E-mail: rong-yu2013@163.com [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: huajia-li@163.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Ying [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-12-28

    We explore the entanglement generation and the corresponding dynamics between two separate nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond nanocrystal coupled to a photonic molecule consisting of a pair of coupled photonic crystal (PC) cavities. By calculating the entanglement concurrence with readily available experimental parameters, it is found that the entanglement degree strongly depends on the cavity-cavity hopping strength and the NV-center-cavity detuning. High concurrence peak and long-lived entanglement plateau can be achieved by properly adjusting practical system parameters. Meanwhile, we also discuss the influence of the coupling strength between the NV centers and the cavity modes on the behavior of the concurrence. Such a PC-NV system can be employed for quantum entanglement generation and represents a building block for an integrated nanophotonic network in a solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics platform. In addition, the present theory can also be applied to other similar systems, such as two single quantum emitters positioned close to a microtoroidal resonator with the whispering-gallery-mode fields propagating inside the resonator.

  19. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko

    2013-02-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.

  20. The dynamics of the optically driven Lambda transition of the 15N-V- center in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N

    2010-07-09

    Recent experimental results demonstrate the possibility of writing quantum information in the ground state triplet of the (15)N-V(-) center in diamond by means of an optically driven spin non-conserving two-photon Lambda transition in the presence of a strong applied electric field. Our calculations show that the hyperfine interaction in the (15)N-V(-) center is capable of mediating such a transition. We use a density matrix approach to describe the exact dynamics for the allowed optical spin non-conserving transitions between two sublevels of the ground state triplet. This approach allows us to calculate the Rabi oscillations, by means of which we obtain a Rabi frequency with an upper bound determined by the hyperfine interaction. This result is crucial for the success of implementing optically driven quantum information processing with the N-V center in diamond.

  1. Efficient Extraction of Light from a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in a Diamond Parabolic Reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Noel H; Shields, Brendan J; Kim, Donggyu; Mouradian, Sara; Lienhard, Benjamin; Walsh, Michael; Bakhru, Hassaram; Schröder, Tim; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Quantum emitters in solids are being developed for a range of quantum technologies, including quantum networks, computing, and sensing. However, a remaining challenge is the poor photon collection due to the high refractive index of most host materials. Here we overcome this limitation by introducing monolithic parabolic reflectors as an efficient geometry for broadband photon extraction from quantum emitter and experimentally demonstrate this device for the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Simulations indicate a photon collection efficiency exceeding 75% across the visible spectrum and experimental devices, fabricated using a high-throughput gray scale lithography process, demonstrating a photon extraction efficiency of (41 ± 5)%. This device enables a raw experimental detection efficiency of (12 ± 1)% with fluorescence detection rates as high as (4.114 ± 0.003) × 10 6 counts per second (cps) from a single NV center. Enabled by our deterministic emitter localization and fabrication process, we find a high number of exceptional devices with an average count rate of (3.1 ± 0.9) × 10 6 cps.

  2. Broadband, large-area microwave antenna for optically detected magnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Kento; Monnai, Yasuaki; Saijo, Soya; Fujita, Ryushiro; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Itoh, Kohei M., E-mail: kitoh@appi.keio.ac.jp; Abe, Eisuke, E-mail: e-abe@keio.jp [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Watanabe, Hideyuki [Correlated Electronics Group, Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We report on a microwave planar ring antenna specifically designed for optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. It has the resonance frequency at around 2.87 GHz with the bandwidth of 400 MHz, ensuring that ODMR can be observed under external magnetic fields up to 100 G without the need of adjustment of the resonance frequency. It is also spatially uniform within the 1-mm-diameter center hole, enabling the magnetic-field imaging in the wide spatial range. These features facilitate the experiments on quantum sensing and imaging using NV centers at room temperature.

  3. Cooling the center-of-mass motion of a diamond nanocrystal in a magneto-gravitational trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Feng

    A magneto-gravitational trap for micro/nanometer sized diamagnetic particles, such as diamond nanocrystals, is tested and characterized. After exploring various other systems, such as a suspended graphene beam and an optical trap, this magneto-gravitational nanomechanical trapping system for diamond with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers presents unique advantages for experiments in fundamental quantum mechanics. Those include, for example, the generation of large quantum superposition states and tests of quantum gravity. Features are demonstrated for this system, such as stable and passive levitation from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum, low resonant frequencies and damping rates, and cooling of the center-of-mass motions to below 1 K. The construction of the trap, vacuum system, optics, and motion detection electronics are described in detail.

  4. DFT study of anisotropy effects on the electronic properties of diamond nanowires with nitrogen-vacancy center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Jesús Ramírez; Baños, Alejandro Trejo; Durán, Álvaro Miranda; Quiroz, Eliel Carvajal; Irisson, Miguel Cruz

    2017-09-26

    In the development of quantum computing and communications, improvements in materials capable of single photon emission are of great importance. Advances in single photon emission have been achieved experimentally by introducing nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers on diamond nanostructures. However, theoretical modeling of the anisotropic effects on the electronic properties of these materials is almost nonexistent. In this study, the electronic band structure and density of states of diamond nanowires with N-V defects were analyzed through first principles approach using the density functional theory and the supercell scheme. The nanowires were modeled on two growth directions [001] and [111]. All surface dangling bonds were passivated with hydrogen (H) atoms. The results show that the N-V introduces multiple trap states within the energy band gap of the diamond nanowire. The energy difference between these states is influenced by the growth direction of the nanowires, which could contribute to the emission of photons with different wavelengths. The presence of these trap states could reduce the recombination rate between the conduction and the valence band, thus favoring the single photon emission. Graphical abstract Diamond nanowires with nitrogen-vacancy centerᅟ.

  5. Silicon-Vacancy Color Centers in Nanodiamonds: Cathodoluminescence Imaging Marker in the Near Infrared

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huiliang; Aharonovich, Igor; Glenn, David R.; Schalek, R.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that nanodiamonds fabricated to incorporate silicon-vacancy (Si-V) color centers provide bright, spectrally narrow, and stable cathodoluminescence (CL) in the near-infrared. Si-V color centers containing nanodiamonds are promising as non-bleaching optical markers for correlated CL and secondary electron microscopy, including applications to nanoscale bioimaging.

  6. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy resolves individual nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Camejo, Silvia; Adam, Marie-Pierre; Besbes, Mondher; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Jacques, Vincent; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Roch, Jean-François; Hell, Stefan W; Treussart, François

    2013-12-23

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in nanodiamonds are highly promising for bioimaging and sensing. However, resolving individual NV centers within nanodiamond particles and the controlled addressing and readout of their spin state has remained a major challenge. Spatially stochastic super-resolution techniques cannot provide this capability in principle, whereas coordinate-controlled super-resolution imaging methods, like stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, have been predicted to fail in nanodiamonds. Here we show that, contrary to these predictions, STED can resolve single NV centers in 40-250 nm sized nanodiamonds with a resolution of ≈10 nm. Even multiple adjacent NVs located in single nanodiamonds can be imaged individually down to relative distances of ≈15 nm. Far-field optical super-resolution of NVs inside nanodiamonds is highly relevant for bioimaging applications of these fluorescent nanolabels. The targeted addressing and readout of individual NV(-) spins inside nanodiamonds by STED should also be of high significance for quantum sensing and information applications.

  7. A comparative study on optical and magnetic resonance properties of near-surface NV centers in nano and bulk diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico Brandao

    2014-01-01

    Using shallow nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond for applications in magnetometry requires the generation of stable defects in the NV charge state in sufficiently high density and high quality spin properties. Recent studies reported about NV defects close to the surface created by ion implantation or during chemical vapor deposition growth technique and in nanodiamonds point to a scenario where defects are stabilized in the neutral charge state and that the minority of negatively charged state defects have poor spin properties, i.e.g shorter coherence times compared to NV defects deeply localized in bulk diamond. This undesirable behavior appears to result from the interaction with rapidly fluctuating electric fields created by moving charges at the surface and with interface effects associated with the termination of the diamond surface. Here we report studies of photoluminescence and magnetic resonance properties of shallow NV ensembles created by low energy nitrogen ion implantation in electronic grade diamond substrate and nanodiamonds with low nitrogen concentration. We verified the shallow NV center spin properties through pulsed optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) protocols and found longitudinal time constant (T1) of a few milliseconds and transversal relaxation time constant (T2) of a few microseconds for shallow defects implanted in bulk diamond. For nanodiamonds, the T2 coherence time is similar to the case in bulk sample but on the other hand the T1 coherence time is ten times shorter than in bulk. Additionally was found the T2* is around one microsecond for shallow NV defects in bulk samples meanwhile in nanodiamonds it is around twenty nanoseconds. It worth to mention that all the measurements were performed in NV ensembles which show just two ODMR resonance lines with applied magnetic field as if they were magnetically equivalent. In that sense we are trying to apply chirped pulses and Ramsey pulse sequence to check this assumption

  8. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  9. Radiation-induced color centers in La-doped PbWO sub 4 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Q; Zhu, R Y

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the result of a study on radiation-induced color center densities in La-doped lead tungstate (PbWO sub 4) crystals. The creation and annihilation constants of radiation-induced color centers were determined by using transmittance data measured for a PbWO sub 4 sample before and during sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 15 rad/h. Following a model of color center kinetics, these constants were used to calculate color center densities under irradiations at 100 rad/h. The result was found to be in good agreement with experimental data, indicating that the behaviour of PbWO sub 4 crystals under irradiation can be predicted according to this model.

  10. Nanoscale quantum gyroscope using a single 13C nuclear spin coupled with a nearby NV center in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Feng, Fupan; Lou, Liren; Diao, Wenting; Duan, Chongdi

    2018-03-01

    Developing gyroscopes based on quantum systems are important for inertial sensing applications, and its underlying physics is of fundamental interest. In this paper, we proposed a new type of gyroscope based on the Berry phase generated during rotation of the quantum system by using a single 13C nuclear spin coupled with a nearby nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Due to the atom-scale size of the quantum system, rotation information can be obtained with high spatial resolution. The gyroscope can be manipulated at room temperature and without the need for a strong magnetic field, which is also beneficial to its further applications.

  11. Enhanced extraction of silicon-vacancy centers light emission using bottom-up engineered polycrystalline diamond photonic crystal slabs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondič, Lukáš; Varga, Marián; Hruška, Karel; Fait, J.; Kapusta, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2017), s. 2972-2981 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-09692Y; GA MŠk LD15003; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : photonic crystal * diamond * silicon vacancy center Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  12. Optical properties of color centers in calcium-stabilized gadolinium gallium garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogatshnik, G.J.; Cain, L.S.; Chen, Y.; Evans, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of calcium during the crystal growth of large-diameter, gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) crystals creates color centers that absorb in the near-uv region of the spectrum. Ultraviolet and γ-ray irradiation of the crystals produced changes in the intensities of the uv color-center bands along with a broad absorption throughout the visible spectrum. The color center that gives rise to an absorption band at 350 nm serves as a photoionizable donor center so that uv excitation results in a visible coloration of the crystals. The effects of oxidation and reduction treatments on the strength of the color-center bands and on the radiation response of the material were examined. Photoluminescence bands were observed in both reduced GGG crystals as well as crystals that were irradiated with neutrons. Visible coloration is likely to occur during flashlamp pumping of laser rods that utilize large-diameter GGG crystals as the laser host. The changes in the optical properties of the material under uv excitation indicate that the addition of small amounts of calcium to assist in the growth of large-diameter crystals is likely to result in the degradation of laser performance

  13. Formation of H a - hydrogen centers upon additive coloration of alkaline-earth fluoride crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzhabov, E. A.; Egranov, A. V.; Shendrik, R. Yu.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanism of coloration of alkaline-earth fluoride crystals CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 in calcium vapors in an autoclave with a cold zone is studied. It was found that the pressure in the autoclave upon constant evacuation by a vacuum pump within the temperature range of 500-800°C increases due to evaporation of metal calcium. In addition to the optical-absorption bands of color centers in the additively colored undoped crystals or to the bands of divalent ions in the crystals doped with rare-earth Sm, Yb, and Tm elements, there appear intense bands in the vacuum ultraviolet region at 7.7, 7.0, and 6.025 eV in CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2, respectively. These bands belong to the Ha - hydrogen centers. The formation of hydrogen centers is also confirmed by the appearance of the EPR signal of interstitial hydrogen atoms after X-ray irradiation of the additively colored crystals. Grinding of the outer edges of the colored crystals leads to a decrease in the hydrogen absorption-band intensity with depth to complete disappearance. The rate of hydrogen penetration inside the crystal is lower than the corresponding rate of color centers (anion vacancies) by a factor of tens. The visible color density of the outer regions of the hydrogen-containing crystals is several times lower than that of the inner region due to the competition between the color centers and hydrogen centers.

  14. Excited-state lifetime measurement of silicon vacancy centers in diamond by single-photon frequency upconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Youying; Ma, Jianhui; Chen, Lingxiao; Liu, Yan; Siyushev, Petr; Wu, Botao; Pan, Haifeng; Jelezko, Fedor; Wu, E.; Zeng, Heping

    2018-05-01

    We report a method with high time resolution to measure the excited-state lifetime of silicon vacancy centers in bulk diamond avoiding timing jitter from the single-photon detectors. Frequency upconversion of the fluorescence emitted from silicon vacancy centers was achieved from 738 nm to 436 nm via sum frequency generation with a short pump pulse. The excited-state lifetime can be obtained by measuring the intensity of upconverted light while the pump delay changes. As a probe, a pump laser with pulse duration of 11 ps provided a high temporal resolution of the measurement. The lifetime extracted from the pump–probe curve was 0.755 ns, which was comparable to the timing jitter of the single-photon detectors.

  15. Coupling of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond nanocrystals to optical antennas and photonic crystal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, Janik; Kewes, Guenter; Schell, Andreas W.; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Nuesse, Nils; Schoengen, Max; Loechel, Bernd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hanke, Tobias; Leitenstorfer, Alfred [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Bratschitsch, Rudolf [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We demonstrate the ability to modify the emission properties and enhance the interaction strength of single-photon emitters coupled to nanophotonic structures based on metals and dielectrics. Assembly of individual diamond nanocrystals, metal nanoparticles, and photonic crystal cavities to meta-structures is introduced. Experiments concerning controlled coupling of single defect centers in nanodiamonds to optical nanoantennas made of gold bowtie structures are reviewed. By placing one and the same emitter at various locations with high precision, a map of decay rate enhancements was obtained. Furthermore, we demonstrate the formation of a hybrid cavity quantum electrodynamics system in which a single defect center is coupled to a single mode of a gallium phosphite photonic crystal cavity. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. The role of ion-implantation in the realization of spintronic devices in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Rafi, E-mail: kalish@si-sun1.technion.ac.il [Physics Department and Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2012-02-01

    The application of single photons emitted by specific quantum systems is promising for quantum computers, cryptography and for other future nano-applications. These heavily rely on ion implantation both for selective single ion implantations as well as for the introduction of controlled damage with specific properties. Of particular promise is the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV{sup -}) defect center in diamond. This center has many desirable luminescence properties required for spintronic devices operational at room temperature, including a long relaxation time of the color center, emission of photons in the visible and the fact that it is produced in diamond, a material with outstanding mechanical and optical properties. This center is usually realized by nitrogen and/or vacancy producing ion implantations into diamond which, following annealing, leads to the formation of the desired NV{sup -} center. The single photons emitted by the decay of this center have to be transported to allow their exploitation. This can be best done by realizing very thin wave guides in single crystal diamond with/or without nano-scale cavities in the same diamond in which NV centers are produced. For this, advantage is taken of the unique property of heavily ion-damaged diamond to be converted, following annealing, to etchable graphite. Thus a free standing submicron thick diamond membrane containing the NV center can be obtained. If desirable, specific photonic crystal structures can be realized in them by the use of FIB. The various ion-implantation schemes used to produce NV centers in diamond, free standing diamond membranes, and photonic crystal structures in them are reviewed. The scientific problems and the technological challenges that have to be solved before actual practical realization of diamond based spintronic devices can be produced are discussed.

  17. Measurable position-sensitive wide-angle interference effects of single photons radiated by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor Varro

    2014-01-01

    Single-photon wide-angle interference phenomena have been studied theoretically for glass-diamond-oil (air) layered structures. As a single optical radiator, one NV-center has been assumed close to the upper surface of a diamond plate, and it was represented by a Hertzian dipole of arbitrary orientation. It has been shown that the far-field interference pattern (of 3/5 or 100% visibility) is sensitive to the vertical position of the NV-center, to that extent that ∼2 nm difference in distance from the upper surface of the diamond results in ∼0.01 degree shift of the pattern, which should be a measurable effect. (author)

  18. Charge Dynamics in near-Surface, Variable-Density Ensembles of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Zangara, Pablo R; Meriles, Carlos A

    2018-06-13

    Although the spin properties of superficial shallow nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers have been the subject of extensive scrutiny, considerably less attention has been devoted to studying the dynamics of NV charge conversion near the diamond surface. Using multicolor confocal microscopy, here we show that near-surface point defects arising from high-density ion implantation dramatically increase the ionization and recombination rates of shallow NVs compared to those in bulk diamond. Further, we find that these rates grow linearly, not quadratically, with laser intensity, indicative of single-photon processes enabled by NV state mixing with other defect states. Accompanying these findings, we observe NV ionization and recombination in the dark, likely the result of charge transfer to neighboring traps. Despite the altered charge dynamics, we show that one can imprint rewritable, long-lasting patterns of charged-initialized, near-surface NVs over large areas, an ability that could be exploited for electrochemical biosensing or to optically store digital data sets with subdiffraction resolution.

  19. Efficiency of Cathodoluminescence Emission by Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers in Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiliang; Glenn, David R; Schalek, Richard; Lichtman, Jeff W; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2017-06-01

    Correlated electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging using functionalized nanoparticles is a promising nanoscale probe of biological structure and function. Nanodiamonds (NDs) that contain CL-emitting color centers are particularly well suited for such applications. The intensity of CL emission from NDs is determined by a combination of factors, including particle size, density of color centers, efficiency of energy deposition by electrons passing through the particle, and conversion efficiency from deposited energy to CL emission. This paper reports experiments and numerical simulations that investigate the relative importance of each of these factors in determining CL emission intensity from NDs containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers. In particular, it is found that CL can be detected from NV-doped NDs with dimensions as small as ≈40 nm, although CL emission decreases significantly for smaller NDs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Color centers in KCN: ferro-elastic alignment and free optical absorption of phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, M.L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Some color centers in KCN pure and KCL or KOH doped are studied. The used tecniques for detection of these color centers were optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). To obtain this color centers crystals were always exposed to X-rays. With an optical absorption technique, one color center was analysed after X-ray irradiation followed by a suitable photochemical process. Throught the EPR technique the F center and three other centers produced by radiation damage were observed through several KCN solid phases. As in the orthorhombic and ferroelastic phase (temperatures between 168K and 83K), the crystals of KCN present one multidomain structure responsable for strong light scattering on the optical absorption spectra and EPR spectra that does not present the resolved lines formed above 168K, one system of aligned domains was obtained through mechanical stress built specifically to be capable of reducing the number of distinct domain, and this allowed us to observe of partially resolved EPR lines. (Auhtor) [pt

  1. Charged dopants in neutral supercells through substitutional donor (acceptor): nitrogen donor charging of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Robin; Pawar, Ravinder; Öberg, Sven; Larsson, J. Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Charged defects are traditionally computed by adding (subtracting) electrons for negative (positive) impurities. When using periodic boundary conditions this results in artificially charged supercells that also require a compensating background charge of the opposite sign, which makes slab supercells problematic because of an arbitrary dependence on the vacuum thickness. In this work, we test the method of using neutral supercells through the use of a substitutional electron donor (acceptor) to describe charged systems. We use density functional theory (DFT) to compare the effects of charging the well-studied NV-center in diamond by a substitutional donor nitrogen. We investigate the influence of the donor-N on the NV-center properties as a function of the distance between them, and find that they converge toward those obtained when adding an electron. We analyze the spin density and conclude that the donor-N has a zero magnetic moment, and thus, will not be seen in electron spin resonance. We validate our DFT energies through comparison to GW simulations. Charging the NV-center with a substitutional donor-N enables accurate calculations of slabs, without the ambiguity of using charged supercells. Implantation of donor-N atoms opens up the possibility to engineer NV-centers with the desired charge state for future ICT and sensor applications.

  2. Ab initio theory of the N2V defect in diamond for quantum memory implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvarhelyi, Péter; Thiering, Gergő; Londero, Elisa; Gali, Adam

    2017-10-01

    The N2V defect in diamond is characterized by means of ab initio methods relying on density functional theory calculated parameters of a Hubbard model Hamiltonian. It is shown that this approach appropriately describes the energy levels of correlated excited states induced by this defect. By determining its critical magneto-optical parameters, we propose to realize a long-living quantum memory by N2V defect, i.e., H 3 color center in diamond.

  3. Nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp Neumann

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel nanoscale temperature sensing technique that is based on single atomic defects in diamonds, namely nitrogen vacancy color centers. Sample sizes range from millimeter down to a few tens of nanometers. In particular nanodiamonds were used as dispersed probes to acquire spatially resolved temperature profiles utilizing the sensitivity of the optically accessible electron spin level structure we achieve a temperature noise floor of 5mK/Mhz for bulk diamond and 130mK/Mhz for nanodiamonds and accuracies of 1mK. To this end we have developed a new decoupling technique in order to suppress to otherwise limiting effect of magnetic field fluctuations. In addition, high purity isotopically enriched 12C artificial diamonds is used. The high sensitivity to temperature changes adds to the well studied sensitivities to magnetic and electric fields and makes NV diamond a multipurpose nanoprobe. (author)

  4. Neutral Silicon-Vacancy Center in Diamond: Spin Polarization and Lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B. L.; Mottishaw, S.; Breeze, B. G.; Edmonds, A. M.; D'Haenens-Johansson, U. F. S.; Doherty, M. W.; Williams, S. D.; Twitchen, D. J.; Newton, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate optical spin polarization of the neutrally charged silicon-vacancy defect in diamond (SiV0 ), an S =1 defect which emits with a zero-phonon line at 946 nm. The spin polarization is found to be most efficient under resonant excitation, but nonzero at below-resonant energies. We measure an ensemble spin coherence time T2>100 μ s at low-temperature, and a spin relaxation limit of T1>25 s . Optical spin-state initialization around 946 nm allows independent initialization of SiV0 and NV- within the same optically addressed volume, and SiV0 emits within the telecoms down-conversion band to 1550 nm: when combined with its high Debye-Waller factor, our initial results suggest that SiV0 is a promising candidate for a long-range quantum communication technology.

  5. Photoluminescence of magnesium-associated color centers in LiF crystals implanted with magnesium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebogin, S. A.; Ivanov, N. A.; Bryukvina, L. I.; V. Shipitsin, N.; E. Rzhechitskii, A.; Papernyi, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the effect of magnesium nanoparticles implanted in a LiF crystal on the optical properties of color centers is studied. The transmittance spectra and AFM images demonstrate effective formation of the color centers and magnesium nanoparticles in an implanted layer of ∼ 60-100 nm in thickness. Under thermal annealing, a periodical structure is formed on the surface of the crystal and in the implanted layer due to self-organization of the magnesium nanoparticles. Upon excitation by argon laser with a wavelength of 488 nm at 5 K, in a LiF crystal, implanted with magnesium ions as well as in heavily γ-irradiated LiF: Mg crystals, luminescence of the color centers at λmax = 640 nm with a zero-phonon line at 601.5 nm is observed. The interaction of magnesium nanoparticles and luminescing color centers in a layer implanted with magnesium ions has been revealed. It is shown that the luminescence intensity of the implanted layer at a wavelength of 640 nm is by more than two thousand times higher than that of a heavily γ-irradiated LiF: Mg crystal. The broadening of the zero-phonon line at 601.5 nm in the spectrum of the implanted layer indicates the interaction of the emitting quantum system with local field of the surface plasmons of magnesium nanoparticles. The focus of this work is to further optimize the processing parameters in a way to result in luminescence great enhancement of color centers by magnesium nanoparticles in LiF.

  6. Color center annealing and ageing in electron and ion-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois

    2005-01-01

    We have used X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements at room-temperature (RT) to study the thermal annealing and RT ageing of color centers induced in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), i.e. ZrO 2 :Y with 9.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 , by swift electron and ion-irradiations. YSZ single crystals with the orientation were irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons, and implanted with 100 MeV 13 C ions. Electron and ion beams produce the same two color centers, namely an F + -type center (singly ionized oxygen vacancy) and the so-called T-center (Zr 3+ in a trigonal oxygen local environment) which is also produced by X-ray irradiations. Isochronal annealing was performed in air up to 973 K. For both electron and ion irradiations, the defect densities are plotted versus temperature or time at various fluences. The influence of a thermal treatment at 1373 K of the YSZ single crystals under vacuum prior to the irradiations was also investigated. In these reduced samples, color centers are found to be more stable than in as-received samples. Two kinds of recovery processes are observed depending on fluence and heat treatment

  7. Influence of chromium ions on the color center formation in crystals with garnet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Zharikov, E.V.; Laptev, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The in fluence of chromium ions on the color center formation in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet, gadolinium-gallium garnet, gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnet, and yttrium-scandium-gallium garnet is studied. In addition to basic activator ions these crystals were coactivated also by chromium ions with two wide bands of fundamental absorption within the range of pump tube radiation with maximas close to 450 and 650 nm. The color centers for γ-irradiated samples were observed at 300 K by measuring the adsorption spectra within the 300-800 nm range. Temperature of destruction of the charge trapping sites was determined by the method of thermoluminescence measuring in the 100-500 K temperature range. Detection of recombination center luminescence was accomplished within the 200-1600 nm wavelength range. Chromium ions are found to hinder the formation of color centers as a result of γ-irradiation at room and higher temperatures within the wavelength range over 300 nm; i.e. Cr 3+ ions increase radiation resistance of all the investigated crystals

  8. Near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals: Luminescence and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P., E-mail: voitovich@imaph.bas-net.by; Kalinov, V.S.; Stupak, A.P.; Novikov, A.N.; Runets, L.P.

    2015-01-15

    Lithium fluoride nanocrystals are irradiated by gamma quanta at 77 K. The radiation color centers formed in a near-surface layer of nanocrystals are studied. Absorption, luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra of the surface defects have been measured. It has been found that the luminescence excitation spectra for aggregated surface centers consist of two or three bands with not very much different intensities. Reactions of the surface centers separately with electrons and with anion vacancies have been investigated. Numbers of anion vacancies and electrons entering into the centers composition have been established and it has been found that F{sub S1}, F{sub S1}{sup −}, F{sub S2}, F{sub S2}{sup −}, F{sub S3}{sup +} and F{sub S3} types of the surface centers are formed. The degree of luminescence polarization has been defined and it has been determined that the polarization degree for F{sub S2}{sup +} centers changes sign under transition from one excitation band to another. It has been shown that during irradiation at 77 K radiation-induced defects are formed more efficiently on the surface than in the bulk. - Highlights: • Radiative color centers were fabricated in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. • The unique absorption and luminescence characteristics are inherent in the centers. • The reactions of these centers with electrons and anion vacancies were studied. • The degree of luminescence polarization was defined. • Numbers of anion vacancies and electrons forming the centers were established.

  9. Radiation-Induced Color Centers in LiF for Dosimetry at High Absorbed Dose Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, Arne; Ellis, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Color centers formed by irradiation of optically clear crystals of pure LiF may be analyzed spectrophotometrically for dosimetry in the absorbed dose range from 102 to 107 Gy. Routine monitoring of intense electron beams is an important application. Both 6LiF and 7LiF forms are commercially...... available, and when used with filters as albedo dosimeters in pairs, they provide discrimination of neutron and gamma-ray doses....

  10. Soft X-ray imaging by optically stimulated luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfigli, F. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: bonfigli@frascati.enea.it; Almaviva, S.; Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R.M. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Tomassetti, G.; Ritucci, A.; Reale, L. [Universita de L' Aquila e INFN, Dip. di Fisica, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Larciprete, R. [ISC-CNR, Sezione Montelibretti, Via Salaria, Km. 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Gregoratti, L.; Kiskinova, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14, Km. 163.5, 34012 Basovizza (TS) (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    An innovative X-ray imaging detector based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride is presented. Regular photoluminescent patterns produced on LiF samples by different intense X-ray sources, like synchrotrons, laser plasma sources and a capillary discharge laser have been investigated by a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. The use of a LiF-based imaging plate for X-ray microscopy is also discussed showing microradiographies of small animals.

  11. Modification of Color Centers by Electron Bombardment: Final Report CRADA No. TC-0460-93-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bibber, Karl [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alger, Don M. [Quali-Tech, Inc., Columbia, MO (United States)

    2000-11-30

    The purpose of the project was to: Identify those electron beam irradiation parameters most relevant to process quality and efficiency, to producing and modifying color centers in topaz. Develop and test improved radiation processing techniques, and evaluate their potential applicability to other types of semi-precious gems. Develop an optimized data base for the process and procedures for identifying and characterizing material from new and diverse sources. Transfer new processing technology to the private sector, and, until they are implemented industrially, to perform radiation dosing to partially satisfy existing excess demand. We planned to define the interaction between sample purity level, the physics of irradiation to achieve color cent-er modification on a reproducible basis and demonstration of the resulting process on a commercially viable basis. The primary deliverable was the increased knowledge base in terms of expanded understanding of the systematics of color center modification in materials, and an extensive database of electron beam parameters which would optimize the efficiency and quality of radiation processing of topaz from diverse sources. The radiation processing of these stones constitutes a deliverable to Quali-Tech by LLNL.

  12. Effective implantation of light emitting centers by plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam methods into nanosized diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himics, L.; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Tóth, A.; Koós, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of nitrogen implantation of nanodiamond using two low ion energy ion implantation methods were compared. • Formation of complex nitrogen-related defect centers was promoted by subsequent helium implantation and heat treatments. • Depth profiles of the implanted ions and the generated vacancies were determined using SRIM calculations. • The presence of nitrogen impurity was demonstrated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. • A new nitrogen related band was detected in the photoluminescence spectrum of the implanted samples that was attributed to the N3 color center in nanodiamond. - Abstract: Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam, were used to introduce nitrogen ions into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of light emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp 2 carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon energies was observed in the light emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen ions and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation

  13. Diamond-based single-photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Simpson, D A; Su, C-H; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum information-thereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.

  14. Native and induced triplet nitrogen-vacancy centers in nano- and micro-diamonds: Half-field electron paramagnetic resonance fingerprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shames, A. I., E-mail: sham@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Osipov, V. Yu.; Vul’, A. Ya. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bardeleben, H.-J. von [Institut des Nano Sciences de Paris-INSP, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/UMR 7588 au CNRS, 7500 Paris (France); Boudou, J.-P.; Treussart, F. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud and ENS Cachan, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-02-10

    Multiple frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of small (4–25 nm) nanodiamonds obtained by various dynamic synthesis techniques reveals systematic presence in the half-field (HF) region a distinctive doublet fingerprint consisting of resolved g{sub HF1} = 4.26 and g{sub HF2} = 4.00 signals. This feature is attributed to “forbidden” ΔM{sub S} = 2 transitions in EPR spectra of two native paramagnetic centers of triplet (S = 1) origin designated as TR1 and TR2, characterized by zero field splitting values D{sub 1} = 0.0950 ± 0.002 cm{sup −1} and D{sub 2} = 0.030 ± 0.005 cm{sup −1}. Nanodiamonds of ∼50 nm particle size, obtained by crushing of Ib type nitrogen rich synthetic diamonds, show only HF TR2 signal whereas the same sample undergone high energy (20 MeV) electron irradiation and thermal annealing demonstrates rise of HF TR1 signal. The same HF TR1 signals appear in the process of fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds from micron-size synthetic diamond precursors. Results obtained allow unambiguous attribution of the half-field TR1 EPR signals with g{sub HF1} = 4.26, observed in nano- and micron-diamond powders, to triplet negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers. These signals are proposed as reliable and convenient fingerprints in both qualitative and quantitative study of fluorescent nano- and micron-diamonds.

  15. Native and induced triplet nitrogen-vacancy centers in nano- and micro-diamonds: Half-field electron paramagnetic resonance fingerprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shames, A. I.; Osipov, V. Yu.; Vul’, A. Ya.; Bardeleben, H.-J. von; Boudou, J.-P.; Treussart, F.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of small (4–25 nm) nanodiamonds obtained by various dynamic synthesis techniques reveals systematic presence in the half-field (HF) region a distinctive doublet fingerprint consisting of resolved g HF1  = 4.26 and g HF2  = 4.00 signals. This feature is attributed to “forbidden” ΔM S  = 2 transitions in EPR spectra of two native paramagnetic centers of triplet (S = 1) origin designated as TR1 and TR2, characterized by zero field splitting values D 1  = 0.0950 ± 0.002 cm −1 and D 2  = 0.030 ± 0.005 cm −1 . Nanodiamonds of ∼50 nm particle size, obtained by crushing of Ib type nitrogen rich synthetic diamonds, show only HF TR2 signal whereas the same sample undergone high energy (20 MeV) electron irradiation and thermal annealing demonstrates rise of HF TR1 signal. The same HF TR1 signals appear in the process of fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds from micron-size synthetic diamond precursors. Results obtained allow unambiguous attribution of the half-field TR1 EPR signals with g HF1  = 4.26, observed in nano- and micron-diamond powders, to triplet negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers. These signals are proposed as reliable and convenient fingerprints in both qualitative and quantitative study of fluorescent nano- and micron-diamonds

  16. Theoretical study of hyperfine interactions and optically detected magnetic resonance spectra by simulation of the C291[NV]-H172 diamond cluster hosting nitrogen-vacancy center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizovtsev, A P; Ya Kilin, S; Pushkarchuk, A L; Pushkarchuk, V A; Jelezko, F

    2014-01-01

    Single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond coupled to neighboring nuclear spins are promising candidates for room-temperature applications in quantum information processing, quantum sensing and metrology. Here we report on a systematic density functional theory simulation of hyperfine coupling of the electronic spin of the NV center to individual 13 C nuclear spins arbitrarily disposed in the H-terminated C 291 [NV] - H 172 cluster hosting the NV center. For the ‘families’ of equivalent positions of the 13 C atom in diamond lattices around the NV center we calculated hyperfine characteristics. For the first time the data are given for a system where the 13 C atom is located on the NV center symmetry axis. Electron paramagnetic resonance transitions in the coupled electron–nuclear spin system 14 NV- 13 C are analyzed as a function of the external magnetic field. Previously reported experimental data from Dréau et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 134107) are described using simulated hyperfine coupling parameters. (paper)

  17. Identification of paramagnetic nitrogen centers (P1) in diamond crystallites synthesized via the sintering of detonation nanodiamonds at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, V. Yu.; Shakhov, F. M.; Efimov, N. N.; Minin, V. V.; Kidalov, S. V.; Vul', A. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    Diamond single crystals synthesized from powder detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) by means of treatment at high pressures ( P 7 GPa) and temperatures ( T > 1300°C) have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A key feature of treatment (high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) sintering) is the use of low molecular weight alcohols in the process. The appearance of a hyperfine EPR signal structure due to "paramagnetic nitrogen" (P1 centers) is explained by the growth of submicron and micron diamond single crystals from DND nanocrystals by the oriented attachment and coalescence mechanism. Such growth and coarsening of crystals appreciably decreases the concentration of paramagnetic centers, the presence of which hinders the detection of a hyperfine structure in the EPR signal from P1 centers, in the near-surface areas of coalesced and grown together DND particles. It has been shown that the concentration of paramagnetic defects of all types decreases to 3.1 × 1018 g-1 ( 60 ppm) during HPHT treatment at T = 1650°C. This causes the successful identification of P1 centers, whose fraction is no less than 40% of the total amount of paramagnetic centers in microcrystals synthesized by HPHT sintering.

  18. Formation and transformation of the radiation-induced nearsurface color centers in sodium and lithium fluorides nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.; Kalinov, V. S.; Radkevich, A. V.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.; Voitovich, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Near-surface color centers in sodium fluoride nanocrystals have been formed. At pre-irradiation annealing of sodium and lithium fluorides samples at temperatures of 623 K and above, the near-surface color centers in them have not been found after γ-irradiation. Annealing lithium fluoride nanocrystals with the near-surface defects leads to their transformation into bulk ones of the same composition.

  19. Diamond identifaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    X-ray topography on diamonds allows for unique identification of diamonds. The method described consists of the registration of crystal defects, inclusions etc. of a diamond, resulting in a 'finger print' of the individual jewel which can only be changed by its complete destruction

  20. Direct detection of light dark matter and solar neutrinos via color center production in crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Budnik, Ranny; Cheshnovsky, Ori; Slone, Oren; Volansky, Tomer

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new low-threshold direct-detection concept for dark matter and for coherent nuclear scattering of solar neutrinos, based on the dissociation of atoms and subsequent creation of color center type defects within a lattice. The novelty in our approach lies in its ability to detect single defects in a macroscopic bulk of material. This class of experiments features ultra-low energy thresholds which allows for the probing of dark matter as light as O(10) MeV through nuclear scattering...

  1. Effect of the melting conditions on the properties of radiation color centers in lanthanum phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, G.O.; Rusan, V.V.; Yashchurzhinskaya, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the spatial effects of ionizing radiation on the radiation processes in phosphate glasses to make a comparative estimate of the radiation yield from the radiation color centers (RCC) of different types. A study is made of their behavior under thermal decoloration. The results of a comparison of the integrated intensities of the ESR signal from trapping centers are given. The ESR spectrum of the glasses are presented--one differs slightly from the others. On the basis of the result of processing the ESR and optical spectra of gamma-irradiated lanthanum phosphate glasses synthesized under various conditions, the radiation yield of the RCC and the behavior of the intensity of their absorption under thermodecoloration are significantly affected by the conditions of synthesis of the glass.

  2. Using clinical simulation centers to test design interventions: a pilot study of lighting and color modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Whitney Austin; Kesten, Karen S; Hurst, Stephen; Day, Tama Duffy; Anderko, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to test design interventions such as lighting, color, and spatial color patterning on nurses' stress, alertness, and satisfaction, and to provide an example of how clinical simulation centers can be used to conduct research. The application of evidence-based design research in healthcare settings requires a transdisciplinary approach. Integrating approaches from multiple fields in real-life settings often proves time consuming and experimentally difficult. However, forums for collaboration such as clinical simulation centers may offer a solution. In these settings, identical operating and patient rooms are used to deliver simulated patient care scenarios using automated mannequins. Two identical rooms were modified in the clinical simulation center. Nurses spent 30 minutes in each room performing simulated cardiac resuscitation. Subjective measures of nurses' stress, alertness, and satisfaction were collected and compared between settings and across time using matched-pair t-test analysis. Nurses reported feeling less stressed after exposure to the experimental room than nurses who were exposed to the control room (2.22, p = .03). Scores post-session indicated a significant reduction in stress and an increase in alertness after exposure to the experimental room as compared to the control room, with significance levels below .10. (Change in stress scores: 3.44, p = .069); (change in alertness scores: 3.6, p = .071). This study reinforces the use of validated survey tools to measure stress, alertness, and satisfaction. Results support human-centered design approaches by evaluating the effect on nurses in an experimental setting.

  3. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  4. Properties of the generation of radiation in the near infrared part of the spectrum with a sapphire crystal laser having radiation-induced color centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Grinkevich, V.E.; Kononov, V.A.; Kromskii, G.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the spectral stability of the color centers in sapphire and the energy of lasers in which the active elements were colored with various techniques. Color centers were produced by neutron irradiation. The absorption spectra of the color centers are shown. The transformation of the spectra shows that the mutual conversions of color centers takes place during the thermal annealing of the sapphire; most of the color centers formed have luminescence. Generation or radiation with a tunable frequency was obtained in the case of transverse or quasi-longitudinal excitation by a ruby laser. The results show that ways for increasing the stability of the energy generated by a sapphire laser with color centers can be found

  5. Studies on color-center formation in glass utilizing measurements made during 1 to 3 MeV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swyler, K.J.; Levy, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The coloring of NBS 710 glass has been studied using a new facility for making optical absorption measurements during and after electron irradiation. The induced absorption contains three Gaussian shaped bands. The color center growth curves contain two saturating exponential and one linear components. After irradiation the coloring decays and can be described by three decreasing exponentials. At room temperature both the coloring curve plateau and coloring rate increase with increasing dose rate. Coloring measurements made at a fixed dose rate but at increasing temperature indicate: (1) the coloring curve plateau decreases with increasing temperature and coloring has not been observed at 400 0 C; (2) the plateau is reached more rapidly as the temperature increases; (3) the decay occurring after irradiation cannot be described by Arrhenius kinetics. At each temperature the coloring can be explained by simple kinetics. The temperature dependence of the decay can be explained if it is assumed that the thermal untrapping is controlled by a distribution of activation energies

  6. Study of the fluorescence blinking behavior of single F2 color centers in LiF crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boichenko, S V; Koenig, K; Zilov, S A; Dresvianskiy, V P; Rakevich, A L; Kuznetsov, A V; Bartul, A V; Martynovich, E F; Voitovich, A P

    2014-01-01

    Using confocal fluorescence microscopy technique, we observed experimentally the luminescence of single F 2 color centers in LiF crystal. It is disclosed that the fluorescence shows blinking behavior. It is shown that this phenomenon is caused by the F 2 center reorientation occurring during the experiment. The ratio of luminescence intensities of differently oriented centers is assessed theoretically for two different experiment configurations. The calculated ratios are in fine agreement with experimental result

  7. Structural defects in natural plastically deformed diamonds: Evidence from EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineeva, R. M.; Titkov, S. V.; Speransky, A. V.

    2009-06-01

    Structural defects formed as a result of plastic deformation in natural diamond crystals have been studied by EPR spectroscopy. The spectra of brown, pink-brown, black-brown, pink-purple, and gray plastically deformed diamonds of type Ia from deposits in Yakutia and the Urals were recorded. The results of EPR spectroscopy allowed us to identify various deformation centers in the structure of natural diamonds and to show that nitrogen centers were transformed under epigenetic mechanical loading. Abundant A centers, consisting of two isomorphic nitrogen atoms located in neighboring structural sites, were destroyed as a result of this process to form a series of N1, N4, W7, M2, and M3 nitrogen centers. Such centers are characterized by an anisotropic spatial distribution and a positive charge, related to the mechanism of their formation. In addition, N2 centers (probably, deformation-produced dislocations decorated by nitrogen) were formed in all plastically deformed diamonds and W10 and W35 centers (the models have not been finally ascertained) were formed in some of them. It has been established that diamonds with various types of deformation-induced color contain characteristic associations of these deformation centers. The diversity of associations of deformation centers indicates appreciable variations in conditions of disintegration of deep-seated rocks, transfer of diamonds to the Earth’s surface, and formation of kimberlitic deposits. Depending on the conditions of mechanical loading, the diamond crystals were plastically deformed by either dislocation gliding or mechanical twinning. Characteristic features of plastic deformation by dislocation gliding are the substantial prevalence of the N2 centers over other deformation centers and the occurrence of the high-spin W10 and W35 centers. The attributes of less frequent plastic deformation by mechanical twinning are unusual localization of the M2 centers and, in some cases, the N1 centers in microtwinned

  8. Memory and neural networks on the basis of color centers in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnacker, Albrecht; Osvet, Andres

    2009-11-01

    Optical data recording is one of the most widely used and efficient systems of memory in the non-living world. The application of color centers in this context offers not only systems of high speed in writing and read-out due to a high degree of parallelism in data handling but also a possibility to set up models of neural networks. In this way, systems with a high potential for image processing, pattern recognition and logical operations can be constructed. A limitation to storage density is given by the diffraction limit of optical data recording. It is shown that this limitation can at least in principle be overcome by the principle of spectral hole burning, which results in systems of storage capacities close to the human brain system.

  9. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  10. Color Fundus Photography versus Fluorescein Angiography in Identification of the Macular Center and Zone in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir N.; Klufas, Michael A.; Ryan, Michael C.; Jonas, Karyn E.; Ostmo, Susan; Martinez-Castellanos, Maria Ana; Berrocal, Audina M.; Chiang, Michael F.; Chan, R.V. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the utility of fluorescein angiography (FA) in identification of the macular center and the diagnosis of zone in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Design Validity and reliability analysis of diagnostic tools Methods 32 sets (16 color fundus photographs; 16 color fundus photographs paired with the corresponding FA) of wide-angle retinal images obtained from 16 eyes of eight infants with ROP were compiled on a secure web site. 9 ROP experts (3 pediatric ophthalmologists; 6 vitreoretinal surgeons) participated in the study. For each image set, experts identified the macular center and provided a diagnosis of zone. Main Outcome Measures (1) Sensitivity and specificity of zone diagnosis (2) “Computer facilitated diagnosis of zone,” based on precise measurement of the macular center, optic disc center, and peripheral ROP. Results Computer facilitated diagnosis of zone agreed with the expert’s diagnosis of zone in 28/45 (62%) cases using color fundus photographs and in 31/45 (69%) cases using FA. Mean (95% CI) sensitivity for detection of zone I by experts as compared to a consensus reference standard diagnosis when interpreting the color fundus images alone versus interpreting the color fundus photographs and FA was 47% (35.3% – 59.3%) and 61.1% (48.9% – 72.4%), respectively, (t(9) ≥ (2.063), p = 0.073). Conclusions There is a marginally significant difference in zone diagnosis when using color fundus photographs compared to using color fundus photographs and the corresponding fluorescein angiograms. There is inconsistency between traditional zone diagnosis (based on ophthalmoscopic exam and image review) compared to a computer-facilitated diagnosis of zone. PMID:25637180

  11. Diamond identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of producing sets of records of the internal defects of diamonds as a means of identification of the gems by x-ray topography are described. To obtain the records one can either use (a) monochromatic x-radiation reflected at the Bragg angle from crystallographically equivalent planes of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections from each such plane being recorded from a number of directions of view, or (b) white x-radiation incident upon the diamond in directions having a constant angular relationship to each equivalent axis of symmetry of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections being recorded for each direction of the incident x-radiation. By either method an overall point-to-point three dimensional representation of the diamond is produced. (U.K.)

  12. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: jacopo.forneris@unito.it [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Picollo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Torino (Italy); Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Roma “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Olivero, P. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He{sup +} micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV{sup 0}, λ{sub ZPL} = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400–500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λ{sub ZPL} = 536.3 nm, λ{sub ZPL} = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  13. Luminescence and color center distributions in K3YB6O12:Ce3+ phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Wan, Yingpeng; Weng, Honggen; Huang, Yanlin; Chen, Cuili; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline Ce 3+ -doped K 3 YB 6 O 12 (1–14 mol%) phosphors were prepared by facile chemical sol–gel synthesis. The phase formation of the phosphors was confirmed by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The photoluminescence excitation spectra (PLE), emission spectra (PL) and the luminescence decay curves were tested. Under the near-UV light, the phosphors present the emission from blue color to yellowish green due to the allowed 4 f  –5 d transitions of Ce 3+ ions. The absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of K 3 YB 6 O 12 :Ce 3+ can reach 53% under the excitation of near-UV light. The luminescence thermal quenching of the phosphor was investigated by the temperature-dependent spectra. The crystallographic site of Ce 3+ ions in the lattice was identified and discussed on the basis of luminescence characteristics and structural data. There is only one isolated Ce 3+ center occupying the Y(II) sites in the lightly doped samples presenting a typical doublet emission profile. While the Ce 3+ multi-centers could be created with the enhancement of the doping levels, which could induce the distinct red-shift of the spectra due to the dipole–dipole interactions. The result in this work could be useful for the further investigation of other rare earth ions in this host. (paper)

  14. Elastic atomic displacements and color center creation in LiF crystals irradiated with 3-, 9- and 12-MeV Au ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, M.V.; Papaleo, R.M.; Schwartz, K.

    2009-01-01

    Creation of color centers in LiF under irradiation with 3-12-MeV Au ions was studied. Comparison of experimental data of color center creation with computer simulation of the energy deposition and elastic atomic displacements reveals the role of elastic collisions in defect creation by these ions, which have comparable magnitudes of electronic and elastic stopping. The experimentally measured efficiency of color center creation and that predicted by the simulation of elastic displacements have a similar dependence on the projectile energy. Thus, the color center creation is mainly associated with the elastic collisions, despite the relatively large values of the electronic stopping power for these ions. (orig.)

  15. An efficient fluorescent single-particle position tracking system for long-term pulsed measurements of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiho; Yun, Jiwon; Lee, Donghyuck; Kim, Dohun

    2018-02-01

    A simple and convenient design enables real-time three-dimensional position tracking of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The system consists entirely of commercially available components (a single-photon counter, a high-speed digital-to-analog converter, a phase-sensitive detector-based feedback device, and a piezo stage), eliminating the need for custom programming or rigorous optimization processes. With a large input range of counters and trackers combined with high sensitivity of single-photon counting, high-speed position tracking (upper bound recovery time of 0.9 s upon 250 nm of step-like positional shift) not only of bright ensembles, but also of low-photon-collection-efficiency single to few NV centers (down to 103 s-1) is possible. The tracking requires position modulation of only 10 nm, which allows simultaneous position tracking and pulsed measurements in the long term. Therefore, this tracking system enables measuring a single-spin magnetic resonance and Rabi oscillations at a very high resolution even without photon collection optimization. The system is widely applicable to various fields related to NV center quantum manipulation research such as NV optical trapping, NV tracking in fluid dynamics, and biological sensing using NV centers inside a biological cell.

  16. Fiber-Optic Magnetometry and Thermometry Using Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance With Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Sean Michael

    Nitrogen--vacancy diamond (NVD) quantum sensors are an emerging technology that has shown great promise in areas like high-resolution thermometry and magnetometry. Optical fibers provide attractive new application paradigms for NVD technology. A detailed description of the fabrication processes associated with the development of novel fiber-optic NVD probes are presented in this work. The demonstrated probes are tested on paradigmatic model systems designed to ascertain their suitability for use in challenging biological environments. Methods employing optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) are used to accurately measure and map temperature distributions of small objects and to demonstrate emergent temperature-dependent phenomena in genetically modified living organisms. These methods are also used to create detailed high resolution spatial maps of both magnetic scalar and magnetic vector field distributions of spatially localized weak field features in the presence of a noisy, high-field background.

  17. The Many Facets of Diamond Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri N. Palyanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is intended to serve as a multidisciplinary forum covering broad aspects of the science, technology, and application of synthetic and natural diamonds. This special issue contains 12 papers, which highlight recent investigations and developments in diamond research related to the diverse problems of natural diamond genesis, diamond synthesis and growth using CVD and HPHT techniques, and the use of diamond in both traditional applications, such as mechanical machining of materials, and the new recently emerged areas, such as quantum technologies. The results presented in the contributions collected in this special issue clearly demonstrate that diamond occupies a very special place in modern science and technology. After decades of research, this structurally very simple material still poses many intriguing scientific questions and technological challenges. It seems undoubted that diamond will remain the center of attraction for many researchers for many years to come.

  18. Size-controlled fluorescent nanodiamonds: A facile method of fabrication and color-center counting

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Remi; Floyd, Daniel L.; Peng, Wei; Choy, Jennifer; Lončar, Marko; Bakr, Osman

    2013-01-01

    findings suggest that nanocrystal size separation by DGU may be used to control the number of defects per nanocrystal. The efficient approaches described herein to control and quantify DCCs are valuable to researchers as they explore applications for color

  19. Towards High Density 3-D Memory in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Jacob; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Meriles, Carlos; Jayakumar, Harishankar

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is presently the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Of great utility is the ability to optically initialize the NV charge state, which has an immediate impact on the center's light emission properties. Here, we use two-color microscopy in NV-rich, type-1b diamond to demonstrate fluorescence-encoded long-term storage of classical information. As a proof of principle, we write, reset, and rewrite various patterns with 2-D binary bit density comparable to present DVD-ROM technology. The strong fluorescence signal originating from the diffraction-limited bit volume allows us to transition from binary to multi-valued encoding, which translates into a significant storage capacity boost. Finally, we show that our technique preserves information written on different planes of the diamond crystal and thus serves as a platform for three-dimensional storage. Substantial enhancement in the bit density could be achieved with the aid of super resolution microscopy techniques already employed to discriminate between NVs with sub-diffraction, nanometer accuracy, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed 1017 bytes/cm3 We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF-1314205.

  20. Primary and aggregate color centers in proton irradiated LiF crystals and thin films for luminescent solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinini, M; Ambrosini, F; Ampollini, A; Bonfigli, F; Libera, S; Picardi, L; Ronsivalle, C; Vincenti, M A; Montereali, R M

    2015-01-01

    Proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by the injector of a linear accelerator for proton therapy, were used to irradiate at room temperature lithium fluoride crystals and polycrystalline thin films grown by thermal evaporation. The irradiation fluence range was 10 11 -10 15 protons/cm 2 . The proton irradiation induced the stable formation of primary and aggregate color centers. Their formation was investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The F 2 and F 3 + photoluminescence intensities, carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films, show linear behaviours up to different maximum values of the irradiation fluence, after which a quenching is observed, depending on the nature of the samples (crystals and films). The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the absorption spectra of colored crystals, allowed to clearly identify the formation of more complex aggregate defects in samples irradiated at highest fluences. (paper)

  1. Primary and aggregate color centers in proton irradiated LiF crystals and thin films for luminescent solid state detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, M.; Ambrosini, F.; Ampollini, A.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by the injector of a linear accelerator for proton therapy, were used to irradiate at room temperature lithium fluoride crystals and polycrystalline thin films grown by thermal evaporation. The irradiation fluence range was 1011-1015 protons/cm2. The proton irradiation induced the stable formation of primary and aggregate color centers. Their formation was investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The F2 and F3+ photoluminescence intensities, carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films, show linear behaviours up to different maximum values of the irradiation fluence, after which a quenching is observed, depending on the nature of the samples (crystals and films). The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the absorption spectra of colored crystals, allowed to clearly identify the formation of more complex aggregate defects in samples irradiated at highest fluences.

  2. Modeling of diamond radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries

  3. Formation and properties of metallic nanoparticles in lithium and sodium fluorides with radiation-induced color centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryukvina, L. I.; Martynovich, E. F.

    2012-12-01

    The specific features of light- and temperature-induced formation of metallic nanoparticles in γ-irradiated LiF and NaF crystals have been investigated. Atomic force microscope images of nanoparticles of different sizes and in different locations have been presented. The relation between the crystal processing regimes and properties of the nanoparticles formed has been revealed. The optical properties of the processed crystals have been analyzed. The thermo- and light-stimulated processes underlying the formation of metallic nanoparticles in aggregation of the color centers and their decay due to the recovery of the crystal lattice have been studied.

  4. Distilling two-center-interference information during tunneling of aligned molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Chen, Y. J.; Xin, G. G.; Liu, J.; Fu, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    When electrons tunnel through a barrier formed by the strong laser field and the two-center potential of a diatomic molecule, a double-slit-like interference can occur. However, this interference effect can not be probed directly right now, as it is strongly coupled with other dynamical processes during tunneling. Here, we show numerically and analytically that orthogonally polarized two-color (OTC) laser fields are capable of resolving the interference effect in tunneling, while leaving clear footprints of this effect in photoelectron momentum distributions. Moreover, this effect can be manipulated by changing the relative field strength of OTC fields.

  5. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  6. Radiation induced color center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Klaffky, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    F-center and colloid particle formation has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals with apparatus for making optical absorption measurements during irradiation. F-center and colloid formation are functions of temperature, dose, dose rate, strain applied prior to irradiation and numerous other factors. Many of the observed properties are in accord with the Jain-Lidiard theory for radiation induced F-center and colloid growth above room temperature

  7. For fashion and health (coloring of gems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    Artificial coloration of colorless jewel grade diamonds can be made by fast neutron irradiation using a research reactor or high energy electron beam bombardment by a linear accelerator. The irradiated color diamonds are from blue to green. After irradiation, the blue-green diamonds change color to yellow or orange by subsequent annealing using an electric furnace. The colored diamond hue depends on the treatment conditions. Fancy hue can be produced under some suitable conditions. Some special absorption bands in the spectrum obtained by a spectrophotometer can discriminate artificially colored diamonds from natural fancy color diamonds. Diamonds become to be radioactive immediately after irradiation by a reactor, but the radioactivity decay rapidly and become safe after a month. Some imported gems without diamond as blue topaz etc. are sometimes discovered to be radioactive artificially. Cultured pearls are covered by 0.4 mm thick nacreous layer on the pearl nucleus made of fresh-water unionidae thick shell. White pearls turn color to silver by 60 Co γ-ray irradiation. The pearl nucleus contained Mn turns color to brown by irradiation and absorbs red light from reflection on the surface, whereas the nacreous layer is little color change by irradiation because of small quantity of Mn and remains the luster. White pearls turn beautiful blue-silver of like natural color pearls seemingly, by γ-ray irradiation in suitable solution. Cubic zirconia made from ZrO 2 is a man-made colorless crystal looked like a diamond. The crystals turn color to orange by irradiation. (J.P.N)

  8. Hard assets : The return on rare diamonds and gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2012-01-01

    This note examines the investment performance of diamonds and other gems (sapphires, rubies, and emeralds) over the period 1999–2010, using a novel data set of auction transactions. Over our time frame, the annualized real USD returns for white and colored diamonds equaled 6.4% and 2.9%,

  9. Hard Assets : The Returns on Rare Diamonds and Gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the investment performance of diamonds and other gems (sapphires, rubies, and emeralds) over the period 1999-2010, using a novel data set of auction transactions. Between 1999 and 2010, the annualized real USD returns for white and colored diamonds equaled 6.4% and 2.9%,

  10. Hard assets : The return of rare diamonds and gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc; Spaenjers, Christophe; Grynberg, Roman; Mbayi, Letsema

    This note examines the investment performance of diamonds and other gems (sapphires, rubies, and emeralds) over the period 1999–2010, using a novel data set of auction transactions. Over our time frame, the annualized real USD returns for white and colored diamonds equaled 6.4% and 2.9%,

  11. Microwave plasma-assisted photoluminescence enhancement in nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties and conductivity of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystal diamond (UNCD films were investigated following treatment with low energy microwave plasma at room temperature. The plasma also generated vacancies in UNCD films and provided heat for mobilizing the vacancies to combine with the impurities, which formed the nitrogen-vacancy defect centers. The generated color centers were distributed uniformly in the samples. The conductivity of nitrogen-doped UNCD films treated by microwave plasma was found to decrease slightly due to the reduced grain boundaries. The photoluminescence emitted by the plasma treated nitrogen-doped UNCD films was enhanced significantly compared to the untreated films.

  12. Non-flipping 13C spins near an NV center in diamond: hyperfine and spatial characteristics by density functional theory simulation of the C510[NV]H252 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, A. P.; Kilin, S. Ya; Pushkarchuk, A. L.; Pushkarchuk, V. A.; Kuten, S. A.; Zhikol, O. A.; Schmitt, S.; Unden, T.; Jelezko, F.

    2018-02-01

    Single NV centers in diamond coupled by hyperfine interaction (hfi) to neighboring 13C nuclear spins are now widely used in emerging quantum technologies as elements of quantum memory adjusted to a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center electron spin qubit. For nuclear spins with low flip-flop rate, single shot readout was demonstrated under ambient conditions. Here we report on a systematic search for such stable NV-13C systems using density functional theory to simulate the hfi and spatial characteristics of all possible NV-13C complexes in the H-terminated cluster C510[NV]-H252 hosting the NV center. Along with the expected stable ‘NV-axial-13C’ systems wherein the 13C nuclear spin is located on the NV axis, we found for the first time new families of positions for the 13C nuclear spin exhibiting negligible hfi-induced flipping rates due to near-symmetric local spin density distribution. Spatially, these positions are located in the diamond bilayer passing through the vacancy of the NV center and being perpendicular to the NV axis. Analysis of available publications showed that, apparently, some of the predicted non-axial near-stable NV-13C systems have already been observed experimentally. A special experiment performed on one of these systems confirmed the prediction made.

  13. Ionizing acceleration of color center transformation in the low radiation dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamontov, A.P.; Starodubtsev, V.A.; Chernov, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the study is investigation of annealing and colour centers transformation of known nature in lithium fluoride crystals at the γ-irradiation low doses. The controlled colour centers have been introduced by LiF monocrystal samples irradiation by protons with 6 MeV energy. The γ-radiation dose rate constitutes 25 Grxssup(-1). The variation of absorption spectra caused by proton and γ-irradiation in initial crystals and in the sample being twice exposed has been studied. It is shown that for LiF monocrystals in the γ-radiation low dose range (below 5 kGr) anomalous dependences of concentration of F-aggregate colour centers on the irradiation dose are observed. High efficiency in defects transformation can be caused by the chain of self-sustaining reactions. The observed N-type dependences caused defects decay and competition of the processes of capture of anionic vacancies by F- and F-aggregate centers

  14. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  15. Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, R; Csiki, R; Wiesinger, M; Sachsenhauser, M; Stutzmann, M; Garrido, J A; Cattani-Scholz, A; Speranza, Giorgio; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K

    2014-08-27

    The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.

  16. Synthetic diamond in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskov, Yurii V

    1999-01-01

    The results of studies on the electrochemistry of diamond carried out during the last decade are reviewed. Methods for the preparation, the crystalline structure and the main electrophysical properties of diamond thin films are considered. Depending on the doping conditions, the diamond behaves as a superwide-gap semiconductor or as a semimetal. It is shown that the 'metal-like' diamond is corrosion-resistant and can be used advantageously as an electrode in the electrosynthesis (in particular, for the electroreduction of compounds that are difficult to reduce) and electroanalysis. Kinetic characteristics of some redox reactions and the impedance parameters for diamond electrodes are presented. The results of comparative studies of the electrodes made of diamond single crystals, polycrystalline diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon, which reveal the effect of the crystalline structure (e.g., the influence of intercrystallite boundaries) on the electrochemical properties of diamond, are presented. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  17. Effect of Pre-Irradiation Annealing and Laser Modification on the Formation of Radiation-Induced Surface Color Centers in Lithium Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Novikov, A. N.; Radkevich, A. V.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.; Tarasenko, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that surface color centers of the same type are formed in the surface layer and in regions with damaged crystal structure inside crystalline lithium fluoride after γ-irradiation. Results are presented from a study of the effect of pre-irradiation annealing on the efficiency with which surface centers are formed in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. Raising the temperature for pre-irradiation annealing from room temperature to 250°C leads to a substantial reduction in the efficiency with which these centers are created. Surface color centers are not detected after γ-irradiation for pre-irradiation annealing temperatures of 300°C and above. Adsorption of atmospheric gases on the crystal surface cannot be regarded as a necessary condition for the formation of radiation-induced surface centers.

  18. Study of the spectral and energy characteristics of lasing in the green spectral region by lithium fluoride with radiation color centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Kalinov, V.S.; Mikhnov, S.A.; Ovseichuk, S.I.

    1987-06-01

    The spectral and energy characteristics of lasers utilizing lithium fluoride with F2 and F3(+) color centers in transverse and longitudinal pumping schemes are studied. The feasibility of obtaining stable narrow-band radiation in the 510-570 nm range using a selective resonator is demonstrated. Consideration is given to the effect of lithium-fluoride crystal processing by excimer laser radiation at a wavelength of 308 nm on the spectroscopic and lasing characteristics of the F3(+) color center. After this processing, the laser efficiency in the green spectral region increases by more than a factor of two (reaching an efficiency of 14 percent). 7 references.

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ...

  20. Advanced Fabrication of Single-Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Challier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many promising applications of single crystal diamond and its color centers as sensor platform and in photonics require free-standing membranes with a thickness ranging from several micrometers to the few 100 nm range. In this work, we present an approach to conveniently fabricate such thin membranes with up to about one millimeter in size. We use commercially available diamond plates (thickness 50 μ m in an inductively coupled reactive ion etching process which is based on argon, oxygen and SF 6 . We thus avoid using toxic, corrosive feed gases and add an alternative to previously presented recipes involving chlorine-based etching steps. Our membranes are smooth (RMS roughness <1 nm and show moderate thickness variation (central part: <1 μ m over ≈200 × 200 μ m 2 . Due to an improved etch mask geometry, our membranes stay reliably attached to the diamond plate in our chlorine-based as well as SF 6 -based processes. Our results thus open the route towards higher reliability in diamond device fabrication and up-scaling.

  1. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  2. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  3. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  4. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccinini, M., E-mail: massimo.piccinini@enea.it; Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, UTAPRAD, Technical Unit for Development and Applications of Radiations, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ambrosini, F. [University Sapienza-Roma I, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, UTTMAT, Technical Unit for Materials Technologies, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy)

    2015-06-29

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 10{sup 3} to about 10{sup 6 }Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  5. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, M.; Ambrosini, F.; Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-06-01

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 1011 to 1015 protons/cm2. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F2 and F3+ laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 103 to about 106 Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  6. Diamond semiconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polowczyk, M.; Klugmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Many efforts to apply the semiconducting diamond for construction of electronic elements: resistors, thermistors, photoresistors, piezoresistors, hallotrons, pn diodes, Schottky diodes, IMPATT diodes, npn transistor, MESFETs and MISFETs are reviewed. Considering the possibilities of acceptor and donor doping, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of diamond as well as high electric-field breakdown points, that diamond devices could be used at about 30-times higher frequency and more then 8200 times power than silicon devices. Except that, due to high heat resistant of diamond, it is concluded that diamond devices can be used in environment at high temperature, range of 600 o C. (author)

  7. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  8. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  9. Effect of air annealing on the color center in Yb:Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics with MgO as sintering additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongwen; Lu, Tiecheng; Wei, Nian; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Benyuan; Qi, Jianqi; Guan, Yongbing; Chen, Xingtao; Wu, Huajun; Zhao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    High quality Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) transparent ceramics were fabricated by vacuum sintering with MgO as sintering aids. The Yb:YAG samples were annealed at 1250-1450 °C for 20 h in air. The experimental results showed that the transparency of Yb:YAG samples declined markedly with the annealing temperatures of 1250-1450 °C. The samples became increasingly orange-yellow in color with the increase of annealing temperature. The potential reasons of discoloration were discussed for the first time. It was attributed to the complex color center [Mg2+F+] formed during the annealing, which was evidenced by optical absorption in the range of 300-500 nm wavelength and the presence of an electron spin resonance (ESR) line at g = 1.9806. The formation mechanism of the complex color center was explained in detail. The complex color center can be eliminated after post-HIP (hot isostatic pressing). And by air annealing and post-HIP, the transmittance of the samples increased from 80.3% to 83.4%.

  10. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  11. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Lake, David P.; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm . The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7 ×105 and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm /√{Hz } sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  12. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Khanaliloo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200  nm. The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7×10^{5} and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5  fm/sqrt[Hz] sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  14. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km

  15. Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry

    OpenAIRE

    Appel Patrick; Neu Elke; Ganzhorn Marc; Barfuss Arne; Batzer Marietta; Gratz Micha; Tschoepe Andreas; Maletinsky Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes s...

  16. Color centers of a borosilicate glass induced by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jishi; Wu, Jiehua; Zhao, Lili; Song, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, Raman spectra of a borosilicate glass after irradiation by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60 Co-γ ray were studied. The process of irradiation inducing color centers in the glass was discussed. The band gap of the glass before and after 60 Co-γ ray irradiation was studied using Mott and Davis's theory, and it was found that calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox, because Mott and Davis's theory on the band gap cannot be adopted in the study on the irradiated glass. - Highlights: ► All the three types of irradiation induce the same types of color centers. ► Calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox. ► Mott and Davis's theory on band gap cannot be adopted in the irradiated glass

  17. Detection of diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.; Blondeel, E.J.G.; Taylor, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond particles are distinguished from non-diamond, associated particles on the basis of their higher refractive index. The particles are brought to a specific location, typically in a stream of water flowing full in a vertical duct, and a beam of collimated electromagnetic radiation is directed at them. An array of radiation detectors is provided to detect refracted and/or reflected radiation. The array is so configured that the responses of the detectors, considered collectively, will be indicative of the presence of a diamond when a diamond is in fact present. However, when a particle having a substantially lower refractive index is present, the responses of the detectors will not be so indicative. The diamond and non-diamond particles can subsequently be sorted from one another

  18. Luminescence of color centers in MgF{sub 2} crystals; Lyuminestsentsiya tsentrov okraski v kristallakh MgF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhidov, Sh A; Nuritdinov, I; Musaeva, M A [Inst. Yadernoj Fizili AN Uzbekistana, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    1999-08-01

    The photoluminescence characteristics of the proper radiation color centers of the MgF{sub 2} crystals are studied. The samples were irradiated by the {sup 60}Co source {gamma}-rays up to the dose 10{sup 7}Gy. The bands with the maxima in the area of 420, 460, 550 and 620 nm were identified, which are excited correspondingly in the bands with the maxima of 370, 320, 410 and 480 nm.

  19. Contribution to the study of the responsable mechanisms by the radiative formation of color centers in doped KBr crystals with alkaline earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments utilizing the tecniques Optical Absorption in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions, thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) in the 120K - 300K temperature range, and Thermoluminescence in the 290K - 620K temperature range - are perform to study radiative production, and thermal and optical destruction of color centers in Sr-droped KBr crystals. Some of the main results are also obtoned from experiments with Ca-deped KBr crystais [pt

  20. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  1. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  2. Study of Tl0(1) and In0(1) defects in alkaline halides: prototype of a color center as active laser medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Junior, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    The optical properties of the Tl 0 (1) and In 0 (1) centers in Kcl crystals in cation sites of the crystal lattice, perturbed by an adjacent anion vacancy. Emphasis is given to the lowest energy levels. Using a tagging optical absorption technique, the absorption bands were identified. The laser action of Tl 0 (1) center in KCl by pumping with Nd: YAG laser in the lowest energy absorption band was obtained. A simple way to achieve continuous single frequency laser operation using a grating as the sole tuning element is described. It is shown that, by proper choice of cavity parameters, the competing hole burning modes can be completely supressed. Experiments were carried out using Tl 0 (1) centers in KCl as the gain medium. The production of pulses via synchronous pumping of Tl 0 (1) color center in KCl are reported. (author) [pt

  3. Circularly polarized microwaves for magnetic resonance study in the GHz range: Application to nitrogen-vacancy in diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrózek, M.; Rudnicki, D. S.; Gawlik, W.; Mlynarczyk, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create time-dependent magnetic fields of controlled polarization is essential for many experiments with magnetic resonance. We describe a microstrip circuit that allows us to generate strong magnetic field at microwave frequencies with arbitrary adjusted polarization. The circuit performance is demonstrated by applying it to an optically detected magnetic resonance and Rabi nutation experiments in nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond. Thanks to high efficiency of the proposed microstrip circuit and degree of circular polarization of 85%; it is possible to address the specific spin states of a diamond sample using a low power microwave generator. The circuit may be applied to a wide range of magnetic resonance experiments with a well-controlled polarization of microwaves

  4. On investigation of optical and spin properties of NV centers in aggregates of detonation nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshedvorskii, S. V.; Vorobyov, V. V.; Soshenko, V. V.; Zeleneev, A.; Sorokin, V. N.; Smolyaninov, A. N.; Akimov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    Quickly developing application of nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond sets demands on cheap and high optical and spin properties nanodiamonds. Among other types, detonation nanodiamonds are easiest for production but often show no NV color centers inside. In this work we show, that aggregates of detonation nanodiamonds could be as good, or even better in terms of brightness and spin properties, than more expensive single crystal nanodiamonds. This way aggregates of detonation nanodiamonds could efficiently serve as cheap and bright source of single photon radiation or sensitive element of biocompatible sensor.

  5. Frequency of color blindness in pre-employment screening in a tertiary health care center in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipa, Shaukat Ali; Hashmi, Farzeen K; Ali, Shehreen; Kamal, Mustafa; Ahmad, Khabir

    2017-01-01

    To describe the frequency of color vision deficiency among Pakistani adults presenting for pre-employment health screening in a tertiary care hospital. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and the data was collected for color vision deficiency, age, gender, and job applied for from pre-employment examination during 2013-2014. IBM SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Three thousand four hundred and thirty seven persons underwent pre-employment screening during 2013 and 2014; 1837 (53.44%) were males and 1600 (46.65%) females. The mean age was 29.01 (±6.53) years. A total of 0.9% (32/3437) persons had color vision deficiency with male being 1.4% and female 0.4%. Color vision deficiency was observed in 0.9% of candidates screened for pre-employment health check up in a tertiary care hospital. The color vision deficiency was predominantly present in male individuals.

  6. Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  7. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  8. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  9. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  10. Quantum sensors based on single diamond defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelezko Fedor

    2014-01-01

    NV centers in diamond are promising sensors able to detect electric and magnetic fields at nanoscale. Here we report on the detection of biomolecules using magnetic noise induced by their electron and nuclear spins. Presented results show first steps towards establishing novel sensing technology for visualizing single proteins and study of their dynamics. (author)

  11. A wear simulation study of nanostructured CVD diamond-on-diamond articulation involving concave/convex mating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul A.; Thompson, Raymond G.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    Using microwave-plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), a 3-micron thick nanostructured-diamond (NSD) layer was deposited onto polished, convex and concave components that were machined from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These components had the same radius of curvature, 25.4mm. Wear testing of the surfaces was performed by rotating articulation of the diamond-deposited surfaces (diamond-on-diamond) with a load of 225N for a total of 5 million cycles in bovine serum resulting in polishing of the diamond surface and formation of very shallow, linear wear grooves of less than 50nm depth. The two diamond surfaces remained adhered to the components and polished each other to an average surface roughness that was reduced by as much as a factor of 80 for the most polished region located at the center of the condyle. Imaging of the surfaces showed that the initial wearing-in phase of diamond was only beginning at the end of the 5 million cycles. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and surface profilometry were used to characterize the surfaces and verify that the diamond remained intact and uniform over the surface, thereby protecting the underlying metal. These wear simulation results show that diamond deposition on Ti alloy has potential application for joint replacement devices with improved longevity over existing devices made of cobalt chrome and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). PMID:26989457

  12. Time-dependent broken-symmetry density functional theory simulation of the optical response of entangled paramagnetic defects: Color centers in lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.

    2018-02-01

    Parameter-free atomistic simulations of entangled solid-state paramagnetic defects may aid in the rational design of devices for quantum information science. This work applies time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) embedded-cluster simulations to a prototype entangled-defect system, namely two adjacent singlet-coupled F color centers in lithium fluoride. TDDFT calculations accurately reproduce the experimental visible absorption of both isolated and coupled F centers. The most accurate results are obtained by combining spin symmetry breaking to simulate strong correlation, a large fraction of exact (Hartree-Fock-like) exchange to minimize the defect electrons' self-interaction error, and a standard semilocal approximation for dynamical correlations between the defect electrons and the surrounding ionic lattice. These results motivate application of two-reference correlated ab initio approximations to the M-center, and application of TDDFT in parameter-free simulations of more complex entangled paramagnetic defect architectures.

  13. Zero-phonon lines and electron–phonon interaction characteristics of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Kalinov, V.S.; Mudryi, A.V.; Pavlovskii, V.N.; Runets, L.P.; Svitsiankou, I.E.

    2016-01-01

    Zero-phonon lines have been registered in photoluminescence spectra of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. They have been assigned to transitions of the definite types centers. The frequencies of phonons participating in the transitions of the different type centers located both in the near-surface layer and in the crystal bulk have been measured and compared. The Huang-Rhys parameters for the transitions of these centers have been determined. It has been found that the Huang-Rhys parameters for the studied transitions in the near-surface layer centers of the certain composition are less than for those in the crystal bulk centers of the same composition. This feature is connected with the difference of the electron density distribution in defects. Temperature dependences of the zero-phonon lines widths and shifts have been measured. It has been determined that both widths and shifts grow faster with the increase of a temperature for the defects transitions with the lesser Huang-Rhys parameters. Phonons lifetimes are estimated from the experimental data.

  14. Zero-phonon lines and electron–phonon interaction characteristics of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitovich, A.P., E-mail: voitovich@ifanbel.bas-net.by [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Kalinov, V.S. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Mudryi, A.V. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 19 Brovka Street, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Pavlovskii, V.N.; Runets, L.P.; Svitsiankou, I.E. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)

    2016-04-15

    Zero-phonon lines have been registered in photoluminescence spectra of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. They have been assigned to transitions of the definite types centers. The frequencies of phonons participating in the transitions of the different type centers located both in the near-surface layer and in the crystal bulk have been measured and compared. The Huang-Rhys parameters for the transitions of these centers have been determined. It has been found that the Huang-Rhys parameters for the studied transitions in the near-surface layer centers of the certain composition are less than for those in the crystal bulk centers of the same composition. This feature is connected with the difference of the electron density distribution in defects. Temperature dependences of the zero-phonon lines widths and shifts have been measured. It has been determined that both widths and shifts grow faster with the increase of a temperature for the defects transitions with the lesser Huang-Rhys parameters. Phonons lifetimes are estimated from the experimental data.

  15. Color centers of a borosilicate glass induced by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jishi; Wu, Jiehua; Zhao, Lili; Song, Lixin

    2013-05-01

    Optical absorption spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, Raman spectra of a borosilicate glass after irradiation by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray were studied. The process of irradiation inducing color centers in the glass was discussed. The band gap of the glass before and after 60Co-γ ray irradiation was studied using Mott and Davis's theory, and it was found that calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox, because Mott and Davis's theory on the band gap cannot be adopted in the study on the irradiated glass.

  16. Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)

  17. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.

    2014-01-01

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  18. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.

    2014-10-21

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  19. Diamond Jubilee Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1994-10-01

    Oct 1, 1994 ... Science, Bangalore, the Diamond Jubilee Annual. Meeting will be held in ... "The fascination of statistics" .... on post Hartree-Fock methods, highly correlated systems ..... Gold Medal of the National Institute of Social. Sciences ...

  20. Quantum Computing in Diamond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prawer, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is to demonstrate the key elements needed to construct a logical qubit in diamond by exploiting the remarkable quantum properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) optical centre...

  1. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  2. Investigation of element contents of natural diamond crystals of different gemological features by INAA and autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamrayeva, D.S.; Ulugmuradov, S.; Didyk, A.Y.; Gasanov, M.; Solodova, J.P.; Sedova, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The work presented aims at understanding the role of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities on the natural diamond ( Type Ι ) quality, microstructure and morphology having different gemological features for identification their deposit. An according of the Kimberly Process there is Certification Scheme for regulating trade in diamonds to exclude 'bloody' diamonds. The 'four C's' criteria (color, clarity, carat weight, cut) had for decades been used by gemologists worldwide to evaluate precious gem diamonds. Those four parameters were believed to determine the value of the stones. Some 10 years ago gemologists added to those traditional criteria a fifth C, signifying Confidence. The role of the fifth C in pricing precious stones increased over time. An according of the Kimberly Process it is necessary to determine diamond deposit. Impurity content of natural diamonds is basic feature to for identification their deposit. We have used autoradiographic technique for investigation of spatial impurity distributions in natural diamond crystals. It is based on the secondary beta irradiation registration. Impurities were identified by energy lines of the gamma spectra obtained and by half-life periods. We bring information which allow to clarify the spatial distributions of Co, Ni, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu impurities depended inner morphology of diamond crystal. It was established several types of impurity distributions depending from inner morphology of diamond crystals. Results of INAA and autoradiographic study of natural diamonds use for to make of international data for identification their deposit

  3. Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.

  4. Analysis of the influence of tool dynamics in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S.C.; Luttrell, D.E.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the progress in defining the role of machine and interface dynamics on the surface finish in diamond turning. It contains a review of literature from conventional and diamond machining processes relating tool dynamics, material interactions and tool wear to surface finish. Data from experimental measurements of tool/work piece interface dynamics are presented as well as machine dynamics for the DTM at the Center.

  5. Single-cell magnetic imaging using a quantum diamond microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, D R; Lee, K; Park, H; Weissleder, R; Yacoby, A; Lukin, M D; Lee, H; Walsworth, R L; Connolly, C B

    2015-08-01

    We apply a quantum diamond microscope for detection and imaging of immunomagnetically labeled cells. This instrument uses nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond for correlated magnetic and fluorescence imaging. Our device provides single-cell resolution and a field of view (∼1 mm(2)) two orders of magnitude larger than that of previous NV imaging technologies, enabling practical applications. To illustrate, we quantified cancer biomarkers expressed by rare tumor cells in a large population of healthy cells.

  6. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  7. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  8. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  9. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This history of CVD diamond synthesis goes back to the fifties of the last century. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties, intensive worldwide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications was launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. This article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)

  11. Spontaneously generated field theories, zero-center modules, colored singletons and the virtues of N = 6 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flato, M.; Fronsdal, C.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is called to an interesting property of the space of one-particle states in some especially important massless field theories: the appearance of a one-particle ghost with zero energy. It appears in conformal as well as de Sitter electrodynamics, in the physical sectors of the field mode representations of the respective symmetry groups. It appears again in super de Sitter electrodynamics based on the superalgebra osp(4/1) and in super conformal electrodynamics based on su(2,2/1). The authors next construct two families of extended super QED, incorporating this property, based on osp(4/N) and on su(2,2/N). There is precisely one osp(4/N) theory and one su(2,2/N) theory of this type for each value of N. The osp(4/6) theory is the same as N = 6 extended supergravity, this is the only one among this family of osp(4/N) theories in which the highest spin is 2. All the one particle states are massless, and in the osp(4/N) theories they can be interpreted as states of two colored singletons. The authors also critically examine the concept of the Witten index in flat space as well as in de Sitter supersymmetric field theories. (Auth.)

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  13. Finite element design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ding, Mingming; Shi, Tongfei

    2018-06-01

    The finite element method is used to simulate the steady-state temperature field in diamond synthesis cell. The 2D and 3D models of the China-type cubic press with large deformation of the synthesis cell was established successfully, which has been verified by situ measurements of synthesis cell. The assembly design, component design and process design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond based on the finite element simulation were presented one by one. The temperature field in a high-pressure synthetic cavity for diamond production is optimized by adjusting the cavity assembly. A series of analysis about the influence of the pressure media parameters on the temperature field are examined through adjusting the model parameters. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of wasteland was studied in detail. It indicates that the wasteland is inevitably exists in the synthesis sample, the distribution of growth region of the diamond with hex-octahedral is move to the center of the synthesis sample from near the heater as the power increasing, and the growth conditions of high quality diamond is locating at the center of the synthesis sample. These works can offer suggestion and advice to the development and optimization of a diamond production process.

  14. Biofunctionalization of diamond microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitinger, Andreas Adam; Lud, Simon Quartus; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Hutter, Naima Aurelia; Richter, Gerhard; Jordan, Rainer [WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present two main routes for the biofunctionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films, aiming at the application of diamond microelectrodes as amperometric biosensors. We report on direct covalent grafting of biomolecules on nanocrystalline diamond films via diazonium monophenyls and biphenyls as well as other linker molecules, forming self-assembled monolayers on the diamond surface. Monolayers with different functional head groups have been characterized. Patterning of the available functional groups using electron beam-induced chemical lithography allows the selective preparation of well-localized docking sites for the immobilization of biomolecules. Furthermore, polymer brushes are expected to enable novel paths for designing more advanced biosensing schemes, incorporating multifunctional groups and a higher loading capacity for biomolecules. Here, we focus on the preparation of polymer grafts by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization. Further chemical modification of the grafted polymer brushes results in the introduction of additional functional molecules, paving the way for the incorporation of more complex molecular structures such as proteins. In a comparative study we investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.

  15. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  16. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  17. Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Y.Y.; Chang, Y.-R.; Lee, H.-Y.; Chang, H.-C.; Lim, T.-S.; Fann Wunshain

    2009-01-01

    The number of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (N-V) - in fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) has been determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulations at the single particle level. By taking account of the random dipole orientation of the multiple (N-V) - fluorophores and simulating the probability distribution of their effective numbers (N e ), we found that the actual number (N a ) of the fluorophores is in linear correlation with N e , with correction factors of 1.8 and 1.2 in measurements using linearly and circularly polarized lights, respectively. We determined N a =8±1 for 28 nm FND particles prepared by 3 MeV proton irradiation

  18. Electrolytic coloration of air-grown sodium fluoride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Han Li; Song Cuiying; Guo Meili; Wang Na

    2007-01-01

    Air-grown sodium fluoride crystals were colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode at various temperatures and electric field strengths, which should mainly benefit appropriate coloration temperatures and electric field strengths. O 2 - , F, M, N 1 , N 2 color centers and O 2- -F + complexes were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V color center migration was determined. The formation of the color centers was explained

  19. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  20. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  1. Efficacy of Polishing Kits on the Surface Roughness and Color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The total color difference (∆E*) between the two color measurements ... apparatus: (a) Frontal view of the assembly, (b) Top view of the special mold b a resins (P ..... prepared by single-use and multi-use diamonds. Am J Dent.

  2. Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.

    2002-06-01

    This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater

  3. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  4. Diamond turning on advanced machine tool prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Specular-quality metal mirrors are being machined for use in laser optical systems. The fabrication process incorporates special quality diamond tools and specially constructed turning machines. The machines are controlled by advanced control techniques and are housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory to insure ultimate machine stability and positional accuracy. The materials from which these mirrors are primarily produced are the softer face-center-cubic structure metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Mirror manufacturing by the single-point diamond machining process is in an early stage of development, but it is anticipated that this method will become the most economical way for producing high-quality metal mirrors. (U.S.)

  5. Photoluminescence and optical transmission of diamond and its imitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, E.I.; Avdeev, S.M.; Tarasenko, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Photoluminescence and optical transmission spectra of several samples of natural and synthetic diamond and its imitators - fianite and corundum - are investigated. The band-A of luminescence at 440 nm, the vibronic N3 system of luminescence and absorption at 415.2 nm, the fundamental absorption edge at 225 nm, and the secondary absorption below 308 nm are the main identifying markers of natural diamonds. For synthetic diamonds, however, such identifying markers are the free-exciton luminescence at 235 nm, the band-A, and the fundamental absorption edge. Fianites can be identified by the structureless wideband at 500 nm and the wide transmission band in the entire visible range. Colored corundum samples with chrome impurities emit the narrow line at 693 nm and show the absorption band in the 500-600 nm spectral range. A new method for diamond express identification is developed on the basis of measurement of photoluminescence and optical transmission spectra of the samples. It is shown that a diamond tester can be designed combining a spectrometer and a KrCl-excilamp radiating at 222 nm.

  6. Fractal kinetics of radiation-induced point-defect formation and decay in amorphous insulators: Application to color centers in silica-based optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscom, David L.

    2001-11-01

    Formalisms have been developed to express the time evolution of bimolecular processes taking place in fractal spaces. These ``stretched-second-order'' solutions are specifically applicable to radiation-induced electron-hole pairs and/or vacancy-interstitial pairs in insulating glasses. Like the analogous Kohlrausch-type (stretched-first-order) expressions, the present solutions are functions of (kt)β, where 0the new second-order formalism and the familiar Kohlrausch approach have been used to fit experimental data (induced optical absorptions in silica-based glasses monitored at selected wavelengths) that serve as proxies for the numbers of color centers created by γ irradiation and/or destroyed by processes involving thermal, optical, or γ-ray activation. Two material systems were investigated: (1) optical fibers with Ge-doped-silica cores and (2) fibers with low-OH/low-chloride pure-silica cores. Successful fits of the growth curves for the Ge-doped-silica-core fibers at four widely separated dose rates were accomplished using solutions for color-center concentrations, N[(kt)β], which approach steady-state values, Nsat, as t-->∞. The parametrization of these fits reveals some unexpected, and potentially useful, empirical rules regarding the dose-rate dependences of β, k, and Nsat in the fractal regime (0the pure-silica-core fibers as well. In both material systems, there appear to be fractal classical phase transitions at certain threshold values of dose rate, below which the dose-rate dependencies of k and Nsat revert to those specified by classical (β=1) first- or second-order kinetics. For ktthe first- and second-order fractal kinetic growth curves become identical, i.e., N((kt)β)~Atβ, where the coefficient A depends on dose rate but not kinetic order. It is found empirically that A depends on the 3β/2 power of dose rate in both first- and second-order kinetics, thus ``accidentally'' becoming linearly proportional to dose rate in cases where β~2

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  8. Diamond turning of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  9. Fast diamond photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results on the response of type Ib and IIa diamond photodetectors to fast laser pulse exposures at 265 and 530 nm are presented. The influence of the applied bias, the laser wavelengths and the light intensity on the detector sensitivity is studied. Also, recent measurements with 1.25 MeV gamma ray pulses are reported. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  11. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  12. The enhanced nucleation factors and field electron emission property of diamond synthesized by RF-PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guangmin [College of Physics, Changchun Normal University, Jilin Province, Changchun 130032 (China); Xu Qiang [Changchun Institute of Technology, Changchun 130021 (China); Wang Xin [Department of Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Mobile Materials, MOE, and State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zheng Weitao, E-mail: wtzheng@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Mobile Materials, MOE, and State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Submicron-diamond, microcrystalline diamond, and nanocrystalline diamond were synthesized using different substrates and pretreatment methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three techniques have been developed to create some density of diamond on substrate surfaces by PECVD deposition procedure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field electron emission property was also investigated. - Abstract: In this work, submicron-diamond (SD), microcrystalline diamond (MD), and nanocrystalline diamond (ND) were synthesized using different substrates and pretreatment methods. In order to investigate influencing factors on nucleation, three techniques have been developed to create some density of diamond on substrate surfaces: (a) with chemical-etching technique (NaOH water solution at 80 Degree-Sign C for 3, 8, 15 min, respectively), (b) (Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}/Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O or Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O/Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O alcohol solution) dripping on silicon substrate, and (c) NaCl substrate directly by following a same PECVD deposition procedure. Furthermore, the field electron emission property was also investigated.

  13. Ion channelling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    1978-06-01

    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  14. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  15. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  16. Surface temperature measurements of diamond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity among known materials, and as such finds uses as an industrial tool in areas where dissipation of excess heat is a requirement. In this investigation we set up a laser system to heat a diamond sample...

  17. Injection Characterization of Packaged Bi-Directional Diamond Shaped Ring Laser at 1550 NM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bussjager, Rebecca; Erdmann, Reinhard; Kovanis, Vassillios; McKeon, Brian; Fanto, Michael; Johns, Steve; Hayduk, Michael J; Osman, Joseph; Morrow, Alan; Green, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory. Binoptics Corp. and Infotonics Technology Center worked collaboratively to package and characterize recently developed diode based ring lasers that operate at 1550 nm in a diamond shaped cavity...

  18. Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Diamond technology has claimed an important role in industry since non-expensive methods of synthesis such as chemical vapour deposition allow to elaborate cheap polycrystalline diamond. This fact has increased the interest in the scientific community due to the outstanding properties of diamond. Since Pleskov published in 1987 the first paper in electrochemistry, many researchers around the world have studied different aspects of diamond electrochemistry such as reactivity, electrical structure, etc. As part of this worldwide interest these studies reveal new information about diamond electrodes. These studies report investigation of diamond electrodes characterized using structural techniques like scanning electrode microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A new electrochemical theory based on surface states is presented that explains the metal and the semiconductor behaviour in terms of the doping level of the diamond electrode. In an effort to characterise the properties of diamond electrodes the band edges for hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface are located in organic solvent, hence avoiding possible interference that are present in aqueous solution. The determination of the band edges is performed by Mott-Schottky studies. These allow the calculation of the flat band potential and therefore the band edges. Additional cyclic voltammetric studies are presented for both types of surface termination. Mott-Schottky data and cyclic voltammograms are compared and explained in terms of the band edge localisation. Non-degenerately p-type semiconductor behaviour is presented for hydrogen terminated boron doped diamond. Graphitic surface states on oxidised surface boron doped diamond are responsible for the electrochemistry of redox couples that posses similar energy. Using the simple redox couple 1,4-benzoquinone effect of surface termination on the chemical behaviour of diamond is presented. Hydrogen sublayers in diamond electrodes seem to play an important role for the

  19. Diamond lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oitmaa, J.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate ground-state and high-temperature properties of the nearest-neighbour Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the three-dimensional diamond lattice, using series expansion methods. The ground-state energy and magnetization, as well as the magnon spectrum, are calculated and found to be in good agreement with first-order spin-wave theory, with a quantum renormalization factor of about 1.13. High-temperature series are derived for the free energy, and physical and staggered susceptibilities for spin S  =  1/2, 1 and 3/2, and analysed to obtain the corresponding Curie and Néel temperatures.

  20. Presolar Diamond in Meteorites

    OpenAIRE

    Amari, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    Presolar diamond, the carrier of the isotopically anomalous Xe component Xe-HL, was the first mineral type of presolar dust that was isolated from meteorites. The excesses in the light, p-process only isotopes 124Xe and 126Xe, and in the heavy, r-process only isotopes 134Xe and 136Xe relative to the solar ratios indicate that Xe-HL was produced in supernovae: they are the only stellar source where these two processes are believed to take place. Although these processes occur in supernovae, th...

  1. Quantum computing with defects in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelezko, F.; Gaebel, T.; Popa, I.; Domhan, M.; Wittmann, C.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Single spins in semiconductors, in particular associated with defect centers, are promising candidates for practical and scalable implementation of quantum computing even at room temperature. Such an implementation may also use the reliable and well known gate constructions from bulk nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computing. Progress in development of quantum processor based on defects in diamond will be discussed. By combining optical microscopy, and magnetic resonance techniques, the first quantum logical operations on single spins in a solid are now demonstrated. The system is perspective for room temperature operation because of a weak dependence of decoherence on temperature (author)

  2. Topical review: spins and mechanics in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Lee, Kenneth W.; Cady, Jeffrey V.; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.

    2017-03-01

    There has been rapidly growing interest in hybrid quantum devices involving a solid-state spin and a macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Such hybrid devices create exciting opportunities to mediate interactions between disparate quantum bits (qubits) and to explore the quantum regime of macroscopic mechanical objects. In particular, a system consisting of the nitrogen-vacancy defect center (NV center) in diamond coupled to a high-quality-factor mechanical oscillator is an appealing candidate for such a hybrid quantum device, as it utilizes the highly coherent and versatile spin properties of the defect center. In this paper, we will review recent experimental progress on diamond-based hybrid quantum devices in which the spin and orbital dynamics of single defects are driven by the motion of a mechanical oscillator. In addition, we discuss prospective applications for this device, including long-range, phonon-mediated spin-spin interactions, and phonon cooling in the quantum regime. We conclude the review by evaluating the experimental limitations of current devices and identifying alternative device architectures that may reach the strong coupling regime.

  3. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  4. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  5. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  6. Diamonds in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, M.

    2004-12-01

    My first science fiction novel, Star Dragon, just recently available in paperback from Tor, features a voyage to the cataclysmic variable star system SS Cygni. My second novel, Spider Star, to appear early in 2006, takes place in and around a dark matter ``planet'' orbiting a neutron star. Both novels are ``hard'' science fiction, relying on accurate physics to inform the tales. It's possible to bring to life abstract concepts like special relativity, and alien environments like accretion disks, by using science fiction. Novels are difficult to use in a science class, but short stories offer intriguing possibilities. I'm planning to edit an anthology of hard science fiction stories that contain accurate science and emphasize fundamental ideas in modern astronomy. The working title is Diamonds in the Sky. The collection will be a mix of original stories and reprints, highlighting challenging concepts covered in a typical introductory astronomy course. Larry Niven's classic story, ``Neutron Star," is an excellent demonstration of extreme tidal forces in an astronomical context. Diamonds in the Sky will include forewards and afterwards to the stories, including discussion questions and mathematical formulas/examples as appropriate. I envision this project will be published electronically or through a print-on-demand publisher, providing long-term availabilty and keeping low cost. I encourage interested parties to suggest previously published stories, or to suggest which topics must be included.

  7. Thermal applications of low-pressure diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the last decade several applications of low-pressure diamond were developed. Main products are diamond heat-spreaders using its high thermal conductivity, diamond windows with their high transparency over a wide range of wavelengths and wear resistant tool coatings because of diamonds superhardness. A short description of the most efficient diamond deposition methods (microwave, DC-glow discharge, plasma-jet and arc discharge) is given. The production and applications of diamond layers with high thermal conductivity will be described. Problems of reproducibility of diamond deposition, the influence of impurities, the heat conductivity in electronic packages, reliability and economical mass production will be discussed. (author)

  8. Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  9. An NV-Diamond Magnetic Imager for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew; Schloss, Jennifer; Bauch, Erik; Hart, Connor; Walsworth, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    We present recent progress towards imaging time-varying magnetic fields from neurons using nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The diamond neuron imager is noninvasive, label-free, and achieves single-cell resolution and state-of-the-art broadband sensitivity. By imaging magnetic fields from injected currents in mammalian neurons, we will map functional neuronal network connections and illuminate biophysical properties of neurons invisible to traditional electrophysiology. Furthermore, through enhancing magnetometer sensitivity, we aim to demonstrate real-time imaging of action potentials from networks of mammalian neurons.

  10. Simulation and visualization of ion-implantation in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Joan; Silverman, Amihai; Ierushalmi, Niv; Sorkin, Anastassia; Kalish, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    We have explored aspects of ion implantation in diamonds with molecular dynamics and tightbinding atomistic simulations. Relevant experiments and their potential applications as well as our computer models and computational approaches are described. Our simulations have been designed to answer questions proposed by experimental researchers concerning optimal laboratory schedules for the preparation of samples with potential applications to diamond membranes and NV centers for quantum computers. Simulation and visualization of results enable us to peek inside samples where experimental techniques cannot tread. In order to provide the requisite Brazilian component a new connection between these models and bootstrap percolation is made

  11. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  12. Exploring Individual and Structural Factors Associated with Employment Among Young Transgender Women of Color Using a No-Cost Transgender Legal Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Rosentel, Kris; Bak, Trevor; Silverman, Michael; Crosby, Richard; Salazar, Laura; Kipke, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual and structural factors associated with employment among young transgender women (TW) of color. Sixty-five trans women of color were recruited from the Transgender Legal Defense and Education Fund to complete a 30-min interviewer-assisted survey assessing sociodemographics, housing, workplace discrimination, job-seeking self-efficacy, self-esteem, perceived public passability, and transactional sex work. Logistic regression models revealed that stable housing (structural factor) and job-seeking self-efficacy (individual factor) were significantly associated with currently being employed. Our findings underscore the need for multilevel approaches to assist TW of color gain employment.

  13. Diamond: a material for acoustic devices

    OpenAIRE

    MORTET, Vincent; WILLIAMS, Oliver; HAENEN, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Diamond has been foreseen to replace silicon for high power, high frequency electronic applications or for devices that operates in harsh environments. However, diamond electronic devices are still in the laboratory stage due to the lack of large substrates and the complexity of diamond doping. On another hand, surface acoustic wave filters based on diamond are commercially available. Diamond is especially suited for acoustic applications because of its exceptional mechanical properties. The ...

  14. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraimovitch, D., E-mail: dimitryf@mail.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Lefeuvre, G. [Micron Semiconductor Ltd. Royal Buildings, Marlborough Road, Lancing Business Park, BN15 8SJ (United Kingdom); Ruzin, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  15. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  16. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films

  17. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  18. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  19. Optical characterization of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Li-fu; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Jun-jun; Liu, Jin-long; Li, Cheng-ming; Lü, Fan-xiu

    2017-12-01

    Optical centers of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were examined using a low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) technique. The results show that most of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes are present as NV- centers, although some H2 and H3 centers and B-aggregates are also present in the single-crystal diamond because of nitrogen aggregation resulting from high N2 incorporation and the high mobility of vacancies under growth temperatures of 950-1000°C. Furthermore, emissions of radiation-induced defects were also detected at 389, 467.5, 550, and 588.6 nm in the PL spectra. The reason for the formation of these radiation-induced defects is not clear. Although a Ni-based alloy was used during the diamond growth, Ni-related emissions were not detected in the PL spectra. In addition, the silicon-vacancy (Si-V)-related emission line at 737 nm, which has been observed in the spectra of many previously reported microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) synthetic diamonds, was absent in the PL spectra of the single-crystal diamond prepared in this work. The high density of NV- centers, along with the absence of Ni-related defects and Si-V centers, makes the single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD a promising material for applications in quantum computing.

  20. Study of the triton-burnup process in different JET scenarios using neutron monitor based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtsev, G., E-mail: g.nemtsev@iterrf.ru; Amosov, V.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R. [Institution “Project center ITER,” Moscow (Russian Federation); Popovichev, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    We present the results of analysis of triton burn-up process using the data from diamond detector. Neutron monitor based on CVD diamond was installed in JET torus hall close to the plasma center. We measure the part of 14 MeV neutrons in scenarios where plasma current varies in a range of 1-3 MA. In this experiment diamond neutron monitor was also able to detect strong gamma bursts produced by runaway electrons arising during the disruptions. We can conclude that CVD diamond detector will contribute to the study of fast particles confinement and help predict the disruption events in future tokamaks.

  1. Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission from nitrogen doped and undoped polycrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfimchev, S., E-mail: sergeyel@tx.technion.ac.il; Chandran, M.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen related centers in diamond film are mainly responsible for visible sub-band-gap photoelectron emission. • The influence of film thickness and substrate on the measured photoelectron emission yields was not found. • Nanocrystalline diamonds have low electron emission yields most likely because of high amount of defects. • Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission may increase with temperature due to electron trapping/detrapping processes. - Abstract: In this study the origin of visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission (PEE) from polycrystalline diamond films is investigated. The PEE yields as a function of temperature were studied in the wavelengths range of 360–520 nm. Based on the comparison of electron emission yields from diamond films deposited on silicon and molybdenum substrates, with different thicknesses and nitrogen doping levels, we suggested that photoelectrons are generated from nitrogen related centers in diamond. Our results show that diamond film thickness and substrate material have no significant influence on the PEE yield. We found that nanocrystalline diamond films have low electron emission yields, compared to microcrystalline diamond, due to the presence of high amount of defects in the former, which trap excited electrons before escaping into the vacuum. However, the low PEE yield of nanocrystalline diamond films was found to increase with temperature. The phenomenon was explained by the trap assisted photon enhanced thermionic emission (ta-PETE) model. According to the ta-PETE model, photoelectrons are trapped by shallow traps, followed by thermal excitation at elevated temperatures and escape into the vacuum. Activation energies of trap levels were estimated for undoped nanocrystalline, undoped microcrystalline and N-doped diamond films using the Richardson-Dushman equation, which gives 0.13, 0.39 and 0.04 eV, respectively. Such low activation energy of trap levels makes the ta-PETE process very

  2. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  3. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko; Faraon, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has

  4. CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors

  5. DIAMONDS: Engineering Distributed Object Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Evan

    1997-01-01

    This report describes DIAMONDS, a research project at Syracuse University, that is dedicated to producing both a methodology and corresponding tools to assist in the development of heterogeneous distributed software...

  6. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  7. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  8. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  9. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  10. Control of spontaneous emission rate in luminescent resonant diamond particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelev, R.; Zalogina, A.; Kudryashov, S.; Ivanova, A.; Levchenko, A.; Makarov, S.; Zuev, D.; Shadrivov, I.

    2018-01-01

    We study the properties of luminescent diamond particles of different sizes (up to ~1.5 μm) containing multiple NV-centers. We theoretically predict that the average liftetime in such particles is decreased by several times as compared to optically small subwavelength nanodiamonds. In our experiments, samples were obtained by milling the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited diamond film, and characterized by Raman spectroscopy and dark- field spectroscopy methods. Time-resolved luminescence measurements of the excited state of NV-centers showed that their average lifetime varies from 10 to 17 ns in different samples. By comparing this data to the values of the lifetime of the NV-centers in optically small nanodiamonds, known from literature, we confirm a severalfold decrease of the lifetime in resonant particles.

  11. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  12. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  13. Handbook of spectral lines in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Dischler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This handbook is a breakthrough in the understanding of the large number of spectral lines in diamond. Data on more than 2000 lines and bands are presented in 200 tables, including many unpublished results. With a novel organization scheme, the search for a specific line is greatly simplified as a benefit for researchers and students. In order to meet the interest in the understanding of the spectra, structure assignments for 80 % of the lines are given, of which 15 % only were published before. The majority of the structures for the 300 centers is explained in most cases for the first time. A key instrument in the interpretation is the analysis by donor-acceptor pair transitions. In a special chapter 95 such centers are listed and discussed, of which only two have been published before, the first one by the present author in 1994.

  14. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  15. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly

  16. Radiation monitoring with CVD diamonds and PIN diodes at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, M. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Burchat, P. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Curry, S. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)], E-mail: scurry@slac.stanford.edu; Edwards, A.J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Kagan, H.; Kass, R. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kirkby, D. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Majewski, S.; Petersen, B.A. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2007-12-11

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  17. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  18. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  19. When Being Deaf Is Centered: d/Deaf Women of Color's Experiences with Racial/Ethnic and d/Deaf Identities in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Lissa

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30% of d/Deaf students are successfully completing college; the reasons for such a low graduation rate is unknown (Destler & Buckly, 2011). Most research on d/Deaf college students lack racial/ethnic diversity within the study; thus, it is unclear how d/Deaf Students of Color are faring in higher education or what experiences…

  20. Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Huang, Houjin; Carlson, Cataleya; Schlager, John J; Omacr Sawa, Eiji; Hussain, Saber M; Dai, Liming

    2007-01-11

    Finely divided carbon particles, including charcoal, lampblack, and diamond particles, have been used for ornamental and official tattoos since ancient times. With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, nanotubes, nanodiamonds) attract a great deal of interest. Owing to their low chemical reactivity and unique physical properties, nanodiamonds could be useful in a variety of biological applications such as carriers for drugs, genes, or proteins; novel imaging techniques; coatings for implantable materials; and biosensors and biomedical nanorobots. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the possible hazards of nanodiamonds to humans and other biological systems. We have, for the first time, assessed the cytotoxicity of nanodiamonds ranging in size from 2 to 10 nm. Assays of cell viability such as mitochondrial function (MTT) and luminescent ATP production showed that nanodiamonds were not toxic to a variety of cell types. Furthermore, nanodiamonds did not produce significant reactive oxygen species. Cells can grow on nanodiamond-coated substrates without morphological changes compared to controls. These results suggest that nanodiamonds could be ideal for many biological applications in a diverse range of cell types.

  1. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  2. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  3. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  4. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  5. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel applications of this versatile material. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications. Functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces is discussed, followed by biotribology and biological behaviour of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two then goes on to review biomedical applications of diamond based materials, beginning with nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. Topics explored include ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmologi...

  6. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  7. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...

  8. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Roger J Narayan; Ryan D. Boehm; Anirudha V. Sumant

    2011-01-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and...

  9. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  10. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  11. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  12. Diamonds at the golden point

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Alongside the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) – installed last month (see here) – lie diamond detectors. No ordinary gems, these lab-grown diamonds will be playing a vital role in Run 2: differentiating signals from collision products with those from the beam background.   The BCM detector's green "c-shaped" printed circuit board is mounted on the PLT/BCM carbon-fibre carriage ready for installation. Earlier this year, the CMS BRIL project installed beam condition monitors (BCM) at the heart of the CMS detector. Designed to measure the online luminosity and beam background as close as possible to the LHC beam pipe, the BCMs use radiation-hard diamonds to differentiate between background and collision signals. The BCM also protects the CMS silicon trackers from damaging beam losses, by aborting the beam if the signal currents measured are above an acceptable threshold. These new BCMs are designed with Run 2 bunches in mind. &ldq...

  13. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; LeNormand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Re, V.; Riester, G. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1998-11-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given.

  14. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  15. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Coherent control of diamond defects for quantum information science and quantum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Peter

    Quantum mechanics, arguably one of the greatest achievements of modern physics, has not only fundamentally changed our understanding of nature but is also taking an ever increasing role in engineering. Today, the control of quantum systems has already had a far-reaching impact on time and frequency metrology. By gaining further control over a large variety of different quantum systems, many potential applications are emerging. Those applications range from the development of quantum sensors and new quantum metrological approaches to the realization of quantum information processors and quantum networks. Unfortunately most quantum systems are very fragile objects that require tremendous experimental effort to avoid dephasing. Being able to control the interaction between a quantum system with its local environment embodies therefore an important aspect for application and hence is at the focus of this thesis. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have recently attracted attention as a room temperature solid state spin system that expresses long coherence times. The electronic spin associated with NV centers can be efficiently manipulated, initialized and readout using microwave and optical techniques. Inspired by these extraordinary properties, much effort has been dedicated to use NV centers as a building block for scalable room temperature quantum information processing and quantum communication as well as a quantum sensing. In the first part of this thesis we demonstrate that by decoupling the spin from the local environment the coherence time of a NV quantum register can be extended by three order of magnitudes. Employing a novel dissipative mechanism in combination with dynamical decoupling, memory times exceeding one second are observed. The second part shows that, based on quantum control, NV centers in nano-diamonds provide a nanoscale temperature sensor with unprecedented accuracy enabling local temperature measurements in living biological cells

  17. Graphene grown out of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhi; Li, Wuxia; Xu, Jing; Xu, Shicong; Lu, Chao; Xu, Lifang; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-10-01

    Most applications of graphene need a suitable support substrate to present its excellent properties. But transferring graphene onto insulators or growing graphene on foreign substrates could cause properties diminishing. This paper reports the graphene growth directly out of diamond (111) by B doping, guided by first-principles calculations. The spontaneous graphene formation occurred due to the reconstruction of the diamond surface when the B doping density and profile are adequate. The resulting materials are defect free with high phase purity/carrier mobility, controllable layer number, and good uniformity, which can be potentially used directly for device fabrication, e.g., high-performance devices requiring good thermal conductivity.

  18. Towards a Room-Temperature Spin Quantum Bus in Diamond via Electron Photoionization, Transport, and Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Doherty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a proven solid-state platform for spin-based quantum technology. The nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond has been used to realize small-scale quantum information processing and quantum sensing under ambient conditions. A major barrier in the development of large-scale quantum information processing in diamond is the connection of nitrogen-vacancy spin registers by a quantum bus at room temperature. Given that diamond is expected to be an ideal spin transport material, the coherent transport of spin directly between the spin registers offers a potential solution. Yet, there has been no demonstration of spin transport in diamond due to difficulties in achieving spin injection and detection via conventional methods. Here, we exploit detailed knowledge of the paramagnetic defects in diamond to identify novel mechanisms to photoionize, transport, and capture spin-polarized electrons in diamond at room temperature. Having identified these mechanisms, we explore how they may be combined to realize an on-chip spin quantum bus.

  19. High-Q/V Monolithic Diamond Microdisks Fabricated with Quasi-isotropic Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C; Barclay, Paul E

    2015-08-12

    Optical microcavities enhance light-matter interactions and are essential for many experiments in solid state quantum optics, optomechanics, and nonlinear optics. Single crystal diamond microcavities are particularly sought after for applications involving diamond quantum emitters, such as nitrogen vacancy centers, and for experiments that benefit from diamond's excellent optical and mechanical properties. Light-matter coupling rates in experiments involving microcavities typically scale with Q/V, where Q and V are the microcavity quality-factor and mode-volume, respectively. Here we demonstrate that microdisk whispering gallery mode cavities with high Q/V can be fabricated directly from bulk single crystal diamond. By using a quasi-isotropic oxygen plasma to etch along diamond crystal planes and undercut passivated diamond structures, we create monolithic diamond microdisks. Fiber taper based measurements show that these devices support TE- and TM-like optical modes with Q > 1.1 × 10(5) and V < 11(λ/n) (3) at a wavelength of 1.5 μm.

  20. Engineered diamond nanopillars as mobile probes for high sensitivity metrology in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, P.; de Las Casas, C. F.; Heremans, F. J.; Awschalom, D. D.; Aleman, B. J.; Ohno, K.; Lee, J. C.; Hu, E. L.

    2015-03-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center`s optical addressability and exceptional spin coherence properties at room temperature, along with diamond`s biocompatibility, has put this defect at the frontier of metrology applications in biological environments. To push the spatial resolution to the nanoscale, extensive research efforts focus on using NV centers embedded in nanodiamonds (NDs). However, this approach has been hindered by degraded spin coherence properties in NDs and the lack of a platform for spatial control of the nanoparticles in fluid. In this work, we combine the use of high quality diamond membranes with a top-down patterning technique to fabricate diamond nanoparticles with engineered and highly reproducible shape, size, and NV center density. We obtain NDs, easily releasable from the substrate into a water suspension, which contain single NV centers exhibiting consistently long spin coherence times (up to 700 μs). Additionally, we demonstrate highly stable, three-dimensional optical trapping of the nanoparticles within a microfluidic circuit. This level of control enables a bulk-like DC magnetic sensitivity and gives access to dynamical decoupling techniques on contactless, miniaturized diamond probes. This work was supported by DARPA, AFOSR, and the DIAMANT program.

  1. Nitrogen terminated diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stacey, A.; O'Donnell, K.M.; Chou, J.P.; Schenk, A.; Tadich, A.; Dontschuk, N.; Červenka, Jiří; Pakes, C.; Gali, A.; Hoffman, A.; Prawer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 10 (2015), s. 1500079 ISSN 2196-7350 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vacancy centers * surface * sensors * xps Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.365, year: 2015

  2. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  3. Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material

  4. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  5. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  6. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  7. Diamond Sensors for Energy Frontier Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetzer, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of diamond sensors in high-energy, high-i ntensity collider experiments. Re- sults from diamond sensor based beam conditions monitors in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and pla ns for diamond based luminosity monitors for the upcoming LHC run are described. We describe recent measurements on single crystal diamond sensors that indicate a polarization effec t that causes a reduction of charge col- lection efficiency as a function of particle flux. We conclude by describing new developments on the promising technology of 3D diamond sensors.

  8. ESR characterization of point defects in amber colored c-BN super abrasive powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, S.V.; Ghica, D.; Stefan, M.; Bouwen, A.; Goovaerts, E.

    2004-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) crystalline superabrasive powder (Borazon ** CBN 400), consisting of 200-300 microns sized amber colored crystallites prepared by HP/HT synthesis, has been examined from 2.1 K to 293 K by X-band ESR spectroscopy. The observed spectrum consists of a component line A1, visible in the whole temperature range, and two component lines A2 and A3, visible at high and low temperatures, respectively. The A1 and A3 lines originate from transitions inside S = 1/2 ground states of distinct paramagnetic species and A2 from transitions inside an excited state of another paramagnetic center. The intensity of the A1 and A3 lines changes differently during in situ low temperature illumination in the UV-VIS range. * Borazon is a registered trademark of Diamond Innovations, Inc. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  10. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  11. Visible to Infrared Diamond Photonics Enabled by Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Sotillo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diamond’s nitrogen-vacancy (NV centers show great promise in sensing applications and quantum computing due to their long electron spin coherence time and because they can be found, manipulated, and read out optically. An important step forward for diamond photonics would be connecting multiple diamond NVs together using optical waveguides. However, the inertness of diamond is a significant hurdle for the fabrication of integrated optics similar to those that revolutionized silicon photonics. In this work, we show the fabrication of optical waveguides in diamond, enabled by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. By optimizing the geometry of the waveguide, we obtain single mode waveguides from the visible to the infrared. Additionally, we show the laser writing of individual NV centers within the bulk of diamond. We use µ-Raman spectroscopy to gain better insight on the stress and the refractive index profile of the optical waveguides. Using optically detected magnetic resonance and confocal photoluminescence characterization, high quality NV properties are observed in waveguides formed in various grades of diamond, making them promising for applications such as magnetometry, quantum information systems, and evanescent field sensors.

  12. Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trischuk, W.

    2008-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one t...

  13. Source assemblage types for cratonic diamonds from X-ray synchrotron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, F.; Alvaro, M.; Casati, M. N.; Wilhelm, H.; Kleppe, A. K.; Jephcoat, A. P.; Domeneghetti, M. C.; Harris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Three single crystals of clinopyroxene trapped within three different gem-quality diamonds from the Udachnaya kimberlite (Siberia, Russia) were analysed in situ by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to obtain information on their chemical composition and infer source assemblage type. A non-destructive approach was used with high-energy (≈ 60 keV; λ ≈ 0.206 Å) at I15, the extreme-conditions beamline at Diamond Light Source. A dedicated protocol was used to center the mineral inclusions located deep inside the diamonds in the X-ray beam. Our results reveal that two of the inclusions can be associated with peridotitic paragenesis whereas the third is eclogitic. This study also demonstrates that this non-destructive experimental approach is extremely efficient in evaluating the origin of minerals trapped in their diamond hosts.

  14. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  15. Synthesis of diamonds in Fe–C systems using nitrogen and hydrogen co-doped impurities under HPHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shi-Shuai; Xu Zhi-Hui; Cui Wen; Jia Xiao-Peng; Ma Hong-An

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of nitrogen and hydrogen impurities on colors, morphologies, impurity structures and synthesis conditions of diamond crystals in Fe–C systems with C 3 N 6 H 6 additives at pressures in the range 5.0–6.5 GPa and temperatures of 1400–1700 °C in detail. Our results reveal that the octahedron diamond nucleation in a Fe–C system is evidently inhibited by co-doped N–H elements, thereby resulting in the increase of minimum pressure and temperature of diamond synthesis by spontaneous nucleation. The octahedron diamond crystals synthesized from a pure Fe–C system are colorless, while they become green in the system with C 3 N 6 H 6 additive. The surface defects of diamond will deteriorate when the nitrogen and hydrogen atoms simultaneously incorporate in the diamond growth environment in the Fe–C system. We believe that this study will provide some important information and be beneficial for the deep understanding of the crystallization of diamonds from different component systems. (paper)

  16. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  17. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  18. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  19. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  20. Quantum measurement of a rapidly rotating spin qubit in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander A; Lilette, Emmanuel; Fein, Yaakov Y; Tomek, Nikolas; McGuinness, Liam P; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Scholten, Robert E; Martin, Andy M

    2018-05-01

    A controlled qubit in a rotating frame opens new opportunities to probe fundamental quantum physics, such as geometric phases in physically rotating frames, and can potentially enhance detection of magnetic fields. Realizing a single qubit that can be measured and controlled during physical rotation is experimentally challenging. We demonstrate quantum control of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center within a diamond rotated at 200,000 rpm, a rotational period comparable to the NV spin coherence time T 2 . We stroboscopically image individual NV centers that execute rapid circular motion in addition to rotation and demonstrate preparation, control, and readout of the qubit quantum state with lasers and microwaves. Using spin-echo interferometry of the rotating qubit, we are able to detect modulation of the NV Zeeman shift arising from the rotating NV axis and an external DC magnetic field. Our work establishes single NV qubits in diamond as quantum sensors in the physically rotating frame and paves the way for the realization of single-qubit diamond-based rotation sensors.

  1. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  2. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  3. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  4. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  5. Adhesion at WC/diamond interfaces - A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, Haricharan; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the adhesion at the interface of face-centered tungsten-carbide (001) and diamond (001) from density-functional calculations. Four high-symmetry model interfaces, representing different lattice orientations for either side of the interface, are constructed to incorporate different degrees of strain arising due to lattice mismatch. The adhesion, estimated from the ideal work of separation, is found to be in the range of 4 - 7 J m −2 and is comparable to that of metal-carbide interfaces. Maximum adhesion occurs when WC and diamond slabs have the same orientation, even though such a growth induces large epitaxial strain at the interface. From electronic structure calculations, we attribute the adhesion to covalent interaction between carbon p-orbitals as well as partial ionic interaction between the tungsten d- and carbon p-orbitals across the interface

  6. Adhesion at WC/diamond interfaces - A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmanabhan, Haricharan [Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai – 600036 (India); Rao, M. S. Ramachandra [Department of Physics and Nano-Functional Materials Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai – 600036 (India); Nanda, B. R. K., E-mail: nandab@iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai – 600036 (India)

    2015-06-24

    We investigate the adhesion at the interface of face-centered tungsten-carbide (001) and diamond (001) from density-functional calculations. Four high-symmetry model interfaces, representing different lattice orientations for either side of the interface, are constructed to incorporate different degrees of strain arising due to lattice mismatch. The adhesion, estimated from the ideal work of separation, is found to be in the range of 4 - 7 J m{sup −2} and is comparable to that of metal-carbide interfaces. Maximum adhesion occurs when WC and diamond slabs have the same orientation, even though such a growth induces large epitaxial strain at the interface. From electronic structure calculations, we attribute the adhesion to covalent interaction between carbon p-orbitals as well as partial ionic interaction between the tungsten d- and carbon p-orbitals across the interface.

  7. Content-Based Image Retrieval Benchmarking: Utilizing color categories and color distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Kisters, Peter M.F.; Vuurpijl, Louis G.

    From a human centered perspective three ingredients for Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) were developed. First, with their existence confirmed by experimental data, 11 color categories were utilized for CBIR and used as input for a new color space segmentation technique. The complete HSI color

  8. Object Detection and Tracking using Modified Diamond Search Block Matching Motion Estimation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Samdurkar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking is one of the main fields within computer vision. Amongst various methods/ approaches for object detection and tracking, the background subtraction approach makes the detection of object easier. To the detected object, apply the proposed block matching algorithm for generating the motion vectors. The existing diamond search (DS and cross diamond search algorithms (CDS are studied and experiments are carried out on various standard video data sets and user defined data sets. Based on the study and analysis of these two existing algorithms a modified diamond search pattern (MDS algorithm is proposed using small diamond shape search pattern in initial step and large diamond shape (LDS in further steps for motion estimation. The initial search pattern consists of five points in small diamond shape pattern and gradually grows into a large diamond shape pattern, based on the point with minimum cost function. The algorithm ends with the small shape pattern at last. The proposed MDS algorithm finds the smaller motion vectors and fewer searching points than the existing DS and CDS algorithms. Further, object detection is carried out by using background subtraction approach and finally, MDS motion estimation algorithm is used for tracking the object in color video sequences. The experiments are carried out by using different video data sets containing a single object. The results are evaluated and compared by using the evaluation parameters like average searching points per frame and average computational time per frame. The experimental results show that the MDS performs better than DS and CDS on average search point and average computation time.

  9. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D; Livramento, V; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Carvalho, P A; Shohoji, N; Correia, J B

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamondDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  10. Diamond nanowires: fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2014-12-22

    C(sp(3) )C-bonded diamond nanowires are wide band gap semiconductors that exhibit a combination of superior properties such as negative electron affinity, chemical inertness, high Young's modulus, the highest hardness, and room-temperature thermal conductivity. The creation of 1D diamond nanowires with their giant surface-to-volume ratio enhancements makes it possible to control and enhance the fundamental properties of diamond. Although theoretical comparisons with carbon nanotubes have shown that diamond nanowires are energetically and mechanically viable structures, reproducibly synthesizing the crystalline diamond nanowires has remained challenging. We present a comprehensive, up-to-date review of diamond nanowires, including a discussion of their synthesis along with their structures, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Toucan's Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Southern constellation Tucana (the Toucan) is probably best known as the home of the Small Magellanic Cloud, one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. But Tucana also hosts another famous object that shines thousands of lights, like a magnificent, oversized diamond in the sky: the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. More popularly known as 47 Tuc, it is surpassed in size and brightness by only one other globular cluster, Omega Centauri. Globular clusters are gigantic families of stars, comprising several tens of thousands of stars, all thought to be born at the same time from the same cloud of gas [1]. As such, they constitute unique laboratories for the study of how stars evolve and interact. This is even more so because they are located at the same distance, so the brightness of different types of stars, at different stages in their evolution can be directly compared. The stars in globular clusters are held together by their mutual gravity which gives them their spherical shape, hence their name. Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in our Milky Way galaxy, and contain therefore mostly old, low-mass stars. ESO PR Photo 20/06 ESO PR Photo 20/06 Globular Cluster 47 Tuc 47 Tucanae is an impressive globular cluster that is visible with the unaided eye from the southern hemisphere. It was discovered in 1751 by the French astronomer Nicholas Louis de Lacaille who cataloged it in his list of southern nebulous objects. Located about 16 000 light years away, it has a total mass of about 1 million times the mass of the Sun and is 120 light years across, making it appear on the sky as big as the full moon. The colour image of 47 Tucanae presented here was taken with FORS1 on ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2001. The image covers only the densest, very central part of the cluster. The globular cluster extends in reality four times further away! As can be seen however, the density of stars rapidly drops off when moving away from the centre. The red

  12. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  13. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  14. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  15. Characterization of diamond amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal diamond has been implanted at 1 MeV with 2 x 10 20 Ar/m 2 . Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeled geometry revealed a broad amorphized region underlying a thin, partially crystalline layer. Raman spectroscopy disclosed modifications in the bonding characteristic of the appearance of non-diamond carbon. The complementary nature of the two analysis techniques is demonstrated. The Knoop hardness of the implanted diamond was reduced by implantation

  16. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  17. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Diamond. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 84, 5160−5163. (31) Ownby, P. D.; Yang, X.; Liu, J. Calculated X-Ray-Diffraction Data for Diamond Polytypes. J. Am. Ceram...Surfaces from Ab-Initio Calculations . Phys. Rev. B 1995, 51, 14669−14685. (39) Ferrari, A. C.; Robertson, J. Raman Spectroscopy of Amorphous, Nanostructured...Y.; Takami, S.; Kubo , M.; Belosludov, R. V.; Miyamoto, A.; Imamura, A.; Gamo, M. N.; Ando, T. First-Principle Study on Reactions of Diamond (100

  18. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  19. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2016-08-29

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  20. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor M. Shakhov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K and 400 W/(m·K, respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon; one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K. Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  1. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  2. Diamond coating in accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.

    1998-08-01

    The future accelerators with 1 GeV/m gradient will give rise to hundreds of degrees instantaneous temperature rise on the copper surface. Due to its extraordinary thermal and electric properties, diamond coating on the surface is suggested to remedy this problem. Multi-layer structure, with the promise of even more temperature reduction, is also discussed, and a proof of principle experiment is being carried out

  3. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  4. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  5. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft Service... GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems: Docket No...

  6. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  7. Wetting of the diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The surface conditions which lead to a wide variation in the wettability of diamond surfaces have been investigated using macroscopic surfaces to allow for the crystal anisotropy. A wetting balance method of calculating adhesion tension and hence contact angle has been used for diamonds having major faces near the [111] and [110] lattice planes. Three classes of behaviour have been identified. Surface analyses by Rutherford Backscattering of helium ions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to define the role of the oxygen coverage of the surface in the transition I → O → H. Ferric ion has a hydrophilizing effect on the diamond surface, thought to be the consequence of attachment to the hydroxyl groups at the surface by a ligand mechanism. Other transition metal ions did not show this effect. The phenomenon of hydration of the surface, i.e. progressively more hydrophilic behaviour on prolonged exposure to liquid water, has been quantified. Imbibition or water penetration at microcracks are thought unlikely, and a water cluster build-up at hydrophilic sites is thought to be the best explanation. Dynamic studies indicate little dependence of the advancing contact angle on velocity for velocities up to 10 -4 m/s, and slight dependence of the receding contact angle. Hence advancing angles by this technique are similar to equilibrated contact angles found by optical techniques, but the receding angles are lower than found by other non-dynamic measurements

  8. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorisek, A. [CERN (Switzerland)]. E-mail: andrej.gorisek@cern.ch; Cindro, V. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fotec (Austria); Griesmayer, E. [Fotec (Austria); Kagan, H. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Korpar, S. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Kramberger, G. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Mandic, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Meyer, M. [CERN (Switzerland); Mikuz, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Pernegger, H. [CERN (Switzerland); Smith, S. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto (Canada); Weilhammer, P. [CERN (Switzerland); Zavrtanik, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2007-03-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm{sup 2} area and 500{mu}m thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented.

  9. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, A.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Kagan, H.; Korpar, S.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Meyer, M.; Mikuz, M.; Pernegger, H.; Smith, S.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm 2 area and 500μm thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented

  10. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterr. Akademie d. Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorferg. 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bauer, C. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R. [LEPSI, CRN Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E. [LEPES, Grenoble (France); Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Foulon, F. [Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Hall-Wilton, R. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Han, S.; Ziock, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Research Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kania, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mishina, M. [FNAL, Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, L.S. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-11-21

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Status of diamond particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R.; Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M.; Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E.; Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Ziock, H.; Kania, D.; Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Mishina, M.; Pan, L.S.; Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J.; Trischuk, W.

    1998-01-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...

  13. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped diamond films deposited using HF CVD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprocki K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural diamond has been considered as a perspective material for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissuebiocompatibility and chemical inertness. However, the use of natural diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price. The recent progress in the development of CVD techniques for diamond synthesis, offering the capability of growing high quality diamond layers, has renewed the interest in using this material in radiation dosimeters having small geometricalsizes. Polycrystalline CVD diamond films have been proposed as detectors and dosimeters of β and α radiation with prospective applications in high-energy photon dosimetry. In this work, we present a study on the TL properties of undoped diamond film samples grown by the hot filament CVD (HF CVD method and exposed to β and α radiation. The glow curves for both types of radiation show similar character and can be decomposed into three components. The dominant TL peaks are centered at around 610 K and exhibit activation energy of the order of 0.90 eV.

  14. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  15. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-05-25

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  16. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  17. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  18. Semiconductor color-center structure and excitation spectra: Equation-of-motion coupled-cluster description of vacancy and transition-metal defect photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jesse J.; Duan, Xiaofeng F.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2018-03-01

    Valence excitation spectra are computed for deep-center silicon-vacancy defects in 3C, 4H, and 6H silicon carbide (SiC), and comparisons are made with literature photoluminescence measurements. Optimizations of nuclear geometries surrounding the defect centers are performed within a Gaussian basis-set framework using many-body perturbation theory or density functional theory (DFT) methods, with computational expenses minimized by a QM/MM technique called SIMOMM. Vertical excitation energies are subsequently obtained by applying excitation-energy, electron-attached, and ionized equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOMCC) methods, where appropriate, as well as time-dependent (TD) DFT, to small models including only a few atoms adjacent to the defect center. We consider the relative quality of various EOMCC and TD-DFT methods for (i) energy-ordering potential ground states differing incrementally in charge and multiplicity, (ii) accurately reproducing experimentally measured photoluminescence peaks, and (iii) energy-ordering defects of different types occurring within a given polytype. The extensibility of this approach to transition-metal defects is also tested by applying it to silicon-substituted chromium defects in SiC and comparing with measurements. It is demonstrated that, when used in conjunction with SIMOMM-optimized geometries, EOMCC-based methods can provide a reliable prediction of the ground-state charge and multiplicity, while also giving a quantitative description of the photoluminescence spectra, accurate to within 0.1 eV of measurement for all cases considered.

  19. Use of Color in Child Care Environments: Application of Color for Wayfinding and Space Definition in Alabama Child Care Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the use of color in physical design features associated with the exterior and interior designs of 101 child care centers in Alabama. Found that color was evidenced on the exterior of the centers at just over half of the sample. The interior environments had warm colors and bright accents in the setting; however, the majority of centers…

  20. Determination of the gamma-ray flux of the stopped WWR-SM reactor by color center production in LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussaeva, M.A.; Kalannov, M.U.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Karabaev, Kh.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Gamma-radiation with a wide energy spectrum, accompanying neutron flux in the nuclear reactor, is known to result in radiation heating of materials. It is usually detected either by calorimetry or by an ionizing chamber maintained in the active zone while the reactor works and high-energy neutrons also contribute into ionization. The aim of this research was to separate the gamma-component from the neutron flux upon stopping the WWR-SM reactor and to determine the gamma-intensity both with the ionization chamber and the well-known dosimeter LiF crystal, and also by comparing with the effect of monochromatic 60 Co gamma-radiation of the known flux and dose. For LiF with small Z the photoelectric effect is weak, and Compton scattering prevails. Both the optical absorption and photo-luminescence techniques together with micro-hardness and X-ray diffraction analysis were used for measuring the structure defect generation rate in the irradiated crystals, which is proportional to the gamma-intensity. Fluorine vacancy trapping electron is the well-known stable F-center responsible for the isolated absorption band at 250 nm and induced by radiolysis mechanism. The sequential irradiations and measurements were done within 150 hours after the moment of the reactor quenching. The dose dependence of the absorption band was found to be linear up to the dose of 10 6 R. The F-center concentration as a measure of an accumulated dose was calculated by the Smakula formula. At higher doses another band at 440 nm appears like that for 60 Co irradiation, which is responsible for unstable F 2 and F 3 centers formed due to coagulation of F-centers. X-diffraction analysis revealed twin structure in (111) plane. Yet the micro-hardness of the gamma-irradiated samples did not change noticeably. For higher doses the photo-luminescence band at 650 nm was also used as a dosimetric item. The luminescence kinetics has a fast nanosecond scale component and a weak tail in a microsecond

  1. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  3. Morphology of Diamond Layers Grown on Different Facets of Single Crystal Diamond Substrates by a Microwave Plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny E. Ashkinazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial growth of diamond films on different facets of synthetic IIa-type single crystal (SC high-pressure high temperature (HPHT diamond substrate by a microwave plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 gas mixture with the high concentration (4% of nitrogen is studied. A beveled SC diamond embraced with low-index {100}, {110}, {111}, {211}, and {311} faces was used as the substrate. Only the {100} face is found to sustain homoepitaxial growth at the present experimental parameters, while nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are produced on other planes. This observation is important for the choice of appropriate growth parameters, in particular, for the production of bi-layer or multilayer NCD-on-microcrystalline diamond (MCD superhard coatings on tools when the deposition of continuous conformal NCD film on all facet is required. The development of the film morphology with growth time is examined with SEM. The structure of hillocks, with or without polycrystalline aggregates, that appear on {100} face is analyzed, and the stress field (up to 0.4 GPa within the hillocks is evaluated based on high-resolution mapping of photoluminescence spectra of nitrogen-vacancy NV optical centers in the film.

  4. Electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Viva R.; Alemán, Benjamín J.; Christle, David J.; Cleland, Andrew N.; Awschalom, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Using an optical tweezers apparatus, we demonstrate three-dimensional control of nanodiamonds in solution with simultaneous readout of ground-state electron-spin resonance (ESR) transitions in an ensemble of diamond nitrogen-vacancy color centers. Despite the motion and random orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers suspended in the optical trap, we observe distinct peaks in the measured ESR spectra qualitatively similar to the same measurement in bulk. Accounting for the random dynamics, we model the ESR spectra observed in an externally applied magnetic field to enable dc magnetometry in solution. We estimate the dc magnetic field sensitivity based on variations in ESR line shapes to be approximately . This technique may provide a pathway for spin-based magnetic, electric, and thermal sensing in fluidic environments and biophysical systems inaccessible to existing scanning probe techniques. PMID:22869706

  5. Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setasuwon P.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.

  6. 2014 - Color & Infrared - Northeastern Vermont (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata record describes the acquisition and production of natural color and color infrared digital ground orthoimagery covering a portion...

  7. 2016 - Color & Infrared - Rutland and Windsor (0.15m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata record describes the acquisition and production of natural color and color infrared digital ground orthoimagery covering a portion...

  8. 2016 - Color & Infrared - Rutland and Windsor (0.3m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata record describes the acquisition and production of natural color and color infrared digital ground orthoimagery covering a portion...

  9. Robust diamond meshes with unique wettability properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong; Cheng, Shaoheng; Zou, Guangtian; Wang, Chuanxi; Lin, Quan

    2014-03-18

    Robust diamond meshes with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties have been fabricated. Superhydrophobicity is observed for water with varying pH from 1 to 14 with good recyclability. Reversible superhydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be easily controlled. The diamond meshes show highly efficient water-oil separation and water pH droplet transference.

  10. Conflict diamonds — unfinished business | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... ... diamonds reached this year will not be effective if it is not monitored, and if the countries ... What we do know is that 75 percent of the world's gem diamonds are mined in ... It makes the Kimberley accord weaker than any other international ... a British NGO, have been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.

  12. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  13. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  14. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  15. Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...

  16. Diamond sensors for future high energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmair, Felix, E-mail: bachmair@phys.ethz.ch

    2016-09-21

    With the planned upgrade of the LHC to High-Luminosity-LHC [1], the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation tolerant technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond sensors are an established technology as beam condition monitors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. The RD42-collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to use CVD diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in extreme radiation environments. An overview of the latest developments from RD42 is presented including the present status of diamond sensor production, a study of pulse height dependencies on incident particle flux and the development of 3D diamond sensors.

  17. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczemska, Anna T.; Witkowski, Dariusz; Ralchenko, Victor; Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry; Lysko, Jan M.; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Hassard, John

    2011-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare TM was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  18. Engineering NV centres in Synthetic Diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthew Markham

    2014-01-01

    The quantum properties of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond has prompted rapid growth in diamond research. This initial growth was driven by the fact the NV centre provides an 'easy' to manipulate quantum system along with opening up the possibility of a new material to deliver a solid state quantum computer. The NV defect is now moving from a quantum curiosity to a commercial development platform for a range of application such as as gyroscopes, timing and magnetometry as well as the more traditional quantum technologies such as quantum encryption and quantum simulation. These technologies are pushing the development needs of the material, and the processing of that material. The paper will describes the advances in CVD diamond synthesis with special attention to getting NV defects close to the surface of the diamond and how to process the material for diamond quantum optical applications. (author)

  19. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2017-01-01

    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  20. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  1. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: anna.karczemska@p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: ralchenko@nsc.gpi.ru [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: jmlysko@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: petr.louda@vslib.cz [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.bodzenta@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: j.hassard@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  2. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  3. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  4. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  5. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  6. Study on the Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Boron and Sulfur Codoped Diamond Films Deposited Using Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atomic-scale microstructure and electron emission properties of boron and sulfur (denoted as B-S codoped diamond films grown on high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP diamond and Si substrates were investigated using atom force microscopy (AFM, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS measurement techniques. The films grown on Si consisted of large grains with secondary nucleation, whereas those on HTHP diamond are composed of well-developed polycrystalline facets with an average size of 10–50 nm. SIMS analyses confirmed that sulfur was successfully introduced into diamond films, and a small amount of boron facilitated sulfur incorporation into diamond. Large tunneling currents were observed at some grain boundaries, and the emission character was better at the grain boundaries than that at the center of the crystal. The films grown on HTHP diamond substrates were much more perfect with higher quality than the films deposited on Si substrates. The local I-V characteristics for films deposited on Si or HTHP diamond substrates indicate n-type conduction.

  7. Learning color receptive fields and color differential structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar Romenij, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the role of brain plasticity, and investigate the emergence and self-emergence of receptive fields from scalar and color natural images by principal component analysis of image patches. We describe the classical experiment on localized PCA on center-surround weighted patches

  8. Cold cathodes on ultra-dispersed diamond base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimova, A.N.; Zhirnov, V.V.; Chubun, N.N.; Belobrov, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    Prospects of application of nano diamond powders for fabrication of cold cathodes are discussed.Cold cathodes based on silicon pointed structures with nano diamond coatings were prepared.The deposition technique of diamond coating was dielectrophoresis from suspension of nano diamond powder in organic liquids.The cathodes were tested in sealed prototypes of vacuum electronic devices

  9. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Brian B; Jerger, Paul C; Shkolnikov, V O; Heremans, F Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D

    2017-10-06

    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  10. Ion implantation and diamond-like coatings of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaczynski, G. W.; Hamdi, A. H.; Elmoursi, A. A.; Qiu, X.

    1997-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the wear resistance of some key automotive components, General Motors Research and Development Center initiated a study to determine the potential of surface modification as a means of improving the tribological properties of automotive parts, and to investigate the feasibility of mass producing such parts. This paper describes the plasma immersion ion implantation system that was designed for the study of various options for surface treatment, and it discusses bench testing procedures used for evaluating the surface-treated samples. In particular, both tribological and microstructural analyses are discussed for nitrogen implants and diamond-like hydrocarbon coatings of some aluminum alloys.

  11. Holonomic Quantum Control by Coherent Optical Excitation in Diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Brian B.; Jerger, Paul C.; Shkolnikov, V. O.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-10-01

    Although geometric phases in quantum evolution are historically overlooked, their active control now stimulates strategies for constructing robust quantum technologies. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary singlequbit holonomic gates from a single cycle of nonadiabatic evolution, eliminating the need to concatenate two separate cycles. Our method varies the amplitude, phase, and detuning of a two-tone optical field to control the non-Abelian geometric phase acquired by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond over a coherent excitation cycle. We demonstrate the enhanced robustness of detuned gates to excited-state decoherence and provide insights for optimizing fast holonomic control in dissipative quantum systems.

  12. Trends on 3d transition metal impurities in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assali, L.V.C.; Machado, W.V.M.; Justo, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a first principles investigation on the electronic properties and chemical trends of 3d transition metal related impurities in diamond. In terms of formation energy, the interstitial site is considerably more unfavorable than the substitutional or divacancy ones. Going from Ti to Ni, the 3d-related energy levels in the gap become deeper toward the valence band in all three sites. However, in the divacancy one, those levels cross with the divacancy-related ones, such that the electronic property of the center depends on the character of the highest occupied level.

  13. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  14. Electrolytic coloration of O22--doped NaCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Wang Na; Guo Meili; Wang Fen; Liu Jia

    2007-01-01

    O 2 2- -doped NaCl crystals are colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode at various temperatures and voltages, which mainly benefit from appropriate coloration temperatures and voltages as well as anode structure of used electrolysis apparatus. Characteristic OH - , U, V 2 m , U A , V 2 , V 3 , O 2- -V a + complex, F, R 1 , R 2 and M absorption bands are observed in absorption spectra of the colored crystals. Production and conversion of color centers in electrolytic coloration is explained. Current-time curves for electrolytic colorations and their relationships with electrolytic colorations were given

  15. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  16. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  17. STRUCTURING OF DIAMOND FILMS USING MICROSPHERE LITHOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Domonkos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  18. Thin diamond films for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.S.; Meilunas, R.; Ong, T.P.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diamond films have been deposited on Si, Mo and many other substrates by microwave and radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Although the adhesion between the diamond film and most of the metal substrates is poor due to residual thermal stress from the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients, the authors have developed processes to promote the growth of uniform and continuous diamond films with enhanced adhesion to metal substrates for tribological applications. The tribological properties of these films are measured using a ring-on-block tribotester. The coefficients of friction of diamond films sliding against a 52100 steel ring under the same experimental conditions are found to be significantly different depending on the morphology, grain size and roughness of the diamond films. However, under all cases tested, it is found that for uniform and continuous diamond films with small grain size of 1-3 micrometers, the coefficient of friction of the diamond film sliding against a steel ring under lubrication of a jet of mineral oil is about 0.04

  19. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  20. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased

  1. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  2. Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-10-26

    In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.

  3. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  4. Creating nitrogen–vacancy ensembles in diamond for coupling with flux qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ya-Rui; Xing Jian; Chang Yan-Chun; Yan Zhi-Guang; Deng Hui; Wu Yu-Lin; Lü Li; Pan Xin-Yu; Zhu Xiao-Bo; Zheng Dong-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid quantum system of negatively charged nitrogen−vacancy (NV − ) centers in diamond and superconducting qubits provide the possibility to extend the performances of both systems. In this work, we numerically simulate the coupling strength between NV − ensembles and superconducting flux qubits and obtain a lower bound of 10 16 cm −3 for NV − concentration to achieve a sufficiently strong coupling of 10 MHz when the gap between NV-ensemble and flux qubit is 0. Moreover, we create NV − ensembles in different types of diamonds by 14 N + and 12 C + ion implantation, electron irradiation, and high temperature annealing. We obtain an NV − concentration of 1.05 × 10 16 cm −3 in the diamond with 1-ppm nitrogen impurity, which is expected to have a long coherence time for the low nitrogen impurity concentration. This shows a step toward performance improvement of flux qubit-NV − hybrid system. (paper)

  5. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Physics and applications of CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nesladek, Milos

    2008-01-01

    Here, leading scientists report on why and how diamond can be optimized for applications in bioelectronic and electronics. They cover such topics as growth techniques, new and conventional doping mechanisms, superconductivity in diamond, and excitonic properties, while application aspects include quantum electronics at room temperature, biosensors as well as diamond nanocantilevers and SAWs.Written in a review style to make the topic accessible for a wider community of scientists working in interdisciplinary fields with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, this is e

  7. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  9. Effects of the shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sichen; Yin, Jianfeng; Tang, Rujun; Zhang, Wenxu; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wanli

    2017-11-01

    The effects of the planar shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process (MRP) of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films have been investigated by micromagnetic simulations. Results show that when the length to width ratio (LWR) of the diamond-shaped film is small, the MRP of the diamond-shaped films are sensitive to LWR. But when LWR is larger than 2, a stable domain switching mode is observed which nucleates from the center of the diamond and then expands to the edges. At a fixed LWR, the magnitude of the switching fields decrease with the increase of the biasing field, but the domain switching mode is not affected by the biasing field. Further analysis shows that demagnetization energy dominates over the MRP of the diamond-shaped films. The above LWR dependence of MRP can be well explained by a variation of the shape anisotropic factor with LWR.

  10. Single Photon, Spin, and Charge in Diamond Semiconductor at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuki Doi

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising candidate for a qubit driven at room temperature. In order to derive potential of NV center, manipulation of their charge state is a very important topic. Here we succeeded to electrically control between single NV-/NV0 by means of current injection. This method allows us to very stable charge state control. (author)

  11. Silicon-Vacancy Spin Qubit in Diamond: A Quantum Memory Exceeding 10 ms with Single-Shot State Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukachev, D. D.; Sipahigil, A.; Nguyen, C. T.; Bhaskar, M. K.; Evans, R. E.; Jelezko, F.; Lukin, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV- ) color center in diamond has recently emerged as a promising system for quantum photonics. Its symmetry-protected optical transitions enable the creation of indistinguishable emitter arrays and deterministic coupling to nanophotonic devices. Despite this, the longest coherence time associated with its electronic spin achieved to date (˜250 ns ) has been limited by coupling to acoustic phonons. We demonstrate coherent control and suppression of phonon-induced dephasing of the SiV- electronic spin coherence by 5 orders of magnitude by operating at temperatures below 500 mK. By aligning the magnetic field along the SiV- symmetry axis, we demonstrate spin-conserving optical transitions and single-shot readout of the SiV- spin with 89% fidelity. Coherent control of the SiV- spin with microwave fields is used to demonstrate a spin coherence time T2 of 13 ms and a spin relaxation time T1 exceeding 1 s at 100 mK. These results establish the SiV- as a promising solid-state candidate for the realization of quantum networks.

  12. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  13. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  16. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  18. Possible influences on color constancy by motion of color targets and by attention-controlled gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lifang; Shinomori, Keizo

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the influence of motion on color constancy using a chromatic stimulus presented in various conditions (static, motion, and rotation). Attention to the stimulus and background was also controlled in different gaze modes, constant fixation of the stimulus, and random viewing of the stimulus. Color constancy was examined in six young observers using a haploscopic view of a computer monitor. The target and background were illuminated in simulation by red, green, blue, and yellow, shifted from daylight (D65) by specific color differences along L - M or S - (L + M) axes on the equiluminance plane. The standard pattern (under D65) and test pattern (under the color illuminant) of a 5-deg square were presented side by side, consisting of 1.2-deg square targets with one of 12 colors at each center, surrounded by 230 background ellipses consisting of eight other colors. The central color targets in both patterns flipped between top and bottom locations at the rate of 3 deg/s in the motion condition. The results indicated an average reduction of color constancy over the 12 test colors by motion. The random viewing parameter indicated better color constancy by more attention to the background, although the difference was not significant. Color constancy of the four color illuminations was better to worse in green, red, yellow, and blue, respectively. The reduction of color constancy by motion could be explained by less contribution of the illumination estimation effect on color constancy. In the motion with constant fixation condition, the retina strongly adapted to the mean chromaticity of the background. However, motion resulted in less attention to the color of the background, causing a weaker effect of the illumination estimation. Conversely, in the static state with a random viewing condition, more attention to the background colors caused a stronger illumination estimation effect, and color constancy was improved overall.

  19. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  20. Ultra-fast calculations using diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2011-01-01

    TU Delft researchers have managed to use a piece of diamond to hold four quantum bits that can be spun, flipped and entangled with each other. This is an important step towards a working quantum computer

  1. Short-range order in irradiated diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, S.S.; Glazkov, V.P.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Somenkov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes in irradiated diamond with a change in its density were studied. Natural diamond powders with average particle size from 14-20 μm to 0.5 mm, irradiated in beryllium block of the MR reactor up to a fluence of 1.51 x 10 21 were used as samples. Using the neutron-diffraction method, it has been established that, when density in irradiated diamonds varies, a transition from a diamond-like amorphous structure to a graphite-like structure occurs. The transition occurs at a density ρ ∼ 2.7-2.9 g/cm 3 and is accompanied by a sharp change in resistivity [ru

  2. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  3. Diamond detectors for high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäni, L.; Alexopoulos, A.; Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Beck, H.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dauvergne, D.; de Boer, W.; Dorfer, C.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Giroletti, C.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grummer, A.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hiti, B.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Hutton, C.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Konovalov, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Lukosi, E.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Muškinja, M.; Oh, A.; Oliviero, P.; Passeri, D.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Reichmann, M.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sanz, D.; Scaringella, M.; Schaefer, D.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Smith, S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Tannenwald, B.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2018-01-01

    Beam test results of the radiation tolerance study of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond against different particle species and energies is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition functionality of poly-crystalline CVD diamond 3D devices was demonstrated in beam tests and 3D diamond detectors are shown to be a promising technology for applications in future high luminosity experiments.

  4. Diamond Detector Technology: Status and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Reichmann, M; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H; Bellini, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; Dauvergne, D; de Boer, W; Dorfer, C; Dünser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kagan, H; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Konovalov, V; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz-Becerra, D A; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Tannenwald, B; Taylor, A; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, S; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2018-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity-LHC will push the luminosity limits above the original design values. Since the current detectors will not be able to cope with this environment ATLAS and CMS are doing research to find more radiation tolerant technologies for their innermost tracking layers. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond is an excellent candidate for this purpose. Detectors out of this material are already established in the highest irradiation regimes for the beam condition monitors at LHC. The RD42 collaboration is leading an effort to use CVD diamonds also as sensor material for the future tracking detectors. The signal behaviour of highly irradiated diamonds is presented as well as the recent study of the signal dependence on incident particle flux. There is also a recent development towards 3D detectors and especially 3D detectors with a pixel readout based on diamond sensors.

  5. Modified diamond dies for laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, R.A.

    1978-06-21

    A modified wire drawing die for spatial filtering techniques is described. It was designed for use in high power laser systems. The diamond aperture is capable of enduring high intensity laser frequency without damaging the laser beam profile. The diamond is mounted at the beam focus in a vacuum of 1 x 10/sup -5/ Torr. The vacuum prevents plasma forming at the diamond aperture, thus enabling the beam to pass through without damaging the holder or aperture. The spatial filters are fitted with a manipulator that has three electronic stepping motors, can position the aperture in three orthogonal directions, and is capable of 3.2 ..mu..m resolution. Shiva laser system is using 105 diamond apertures for shaping the High Energy Laser Beam.

  6. The DIAMOND Model of Peace Support Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Peter

    2005-01-01

    DIAMOND (Diplomatic And Military Operations in a Non-warfighting Domain) is a high-level stochastic simulation developed at Dstl as a key centerpiece within the Peace Support Operations (PSO) 'modelling jigsaw...

  7. Self-assembling hybrid diamond-biological quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Koplovitz, G.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Yochelis, S.; Porath, D.; Nevo, Y.; Shoseyov, O.; Paltiel, Y.; Plenio, M. B.

    2014-09-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-centers in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited by the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach for creating an arrangement of NV-centers, based on the self-assembling capabilities of biological systems and their beneficial nanometer spatial resolution. Here, a self-assembled protein structure serves as a structural scaffold for surface functionalized nanodiamonds, in this way allowing for the controlled creation of NV-structures on the nanoscale and providing a new avenue towards bridging the bio-nano interface. One-, two- as well as three-dimensional structures are within the scope of biological structural assembling techniques. We realized experimentally the formation of regular structures by interconnecting nanodiamonds using biological protein scaffolds. Based on the achievable NV-center distances of 11 nm, we evaluate the expected dipolar coupling interaction with neighboring NV-centers as well as the expected decoherence time. Moreover, by exploiting these couplings, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the viability of multiqubit quantum operations, suggest the possibility of individual addressing based on the random distribution of the NV intrinsic symmetry axes and address the challenges posed by decoherence and imperfect couplings. We then demonstrate in the last part that our scheme allows for the high-fidelity creation of entanglement, cluster states and quantum simulation applications.

  8. Dosimetry in radiotherapy with natural diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Bucciolini, M.; Mazzocchi, S.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide interest in the use of diamond detectors for dosimetry in radiotherapy mainly because of the small dimensions, radiation hardness, nearly tissue equivalence of sensitive material and capability to deliver the dosimetric response 'on line'. In order to assess the dosimetric properties of PTW Riga diamond detectors type 60003, experiments were performed in conventional (high energy photon and electron) therapy beams as well as in proton therapy beams. The main detector features investigated were reproducibility of response, dose-signal relationship, temperature dependence, dose-rate dependence, energy dependence and angular dependence. High energy photons (6-25 MV) and electrons (6-22 MeV), available at the Radiotherapy Department of the Florence University, were used for investigating the general properties. Two different PTW diamond detectors of the same type were used to evidence inter-sample differences. The beam quality dependence of the detector response is probably the most critical point and this statement is of particular relevance for proton dosimetry since the proton LET changes with depth in the medium. Mainly because of the little information available on detector sensitivity variations with beam energy, the use of diamonds for clinical proton dosimetry is not widespread. In two recent papers a sensitivity dependence on proton energy of a natural PTW diamond detector has been reported. Due to the necessity to characterise each diamond detector individually the PTW Riga natural diamond detector in operation at the LNS-INFN, Catania, Italy was tested with the local proton beam line. This experiment is of main concern because this proton beam, produced by a superconducting cyclotron and used for ocular melanoma treatment, is available only since 2001 (CATANA beam). The first patient has been treated in February 2002. Proton irradiations were performed with non modulated and modulated 62 MeV beams. Attention was focused on diamond sensitivity

  9. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  10. Growth and optical spectroscopy of synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudryj, A.V.; Larionova, T.P.; Shakin, I.A.; Gysakov, G.A.; Dubrov, G.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It is studied the growth and optical properties of synthetic diamonds, which may be used for detection of ionizing radiation, optical windows, heat removal, ultraviolet and thermo sensors, optoelectronic devices. Optical properties of diamonds (grown in different technological conditions) were studied in temperature range 78 - 300 K by means of measuring transmission in spectral band 0.2 - 25 μm, photoluminescence and registration of luminescence excitation spectra in spectral band 0.2 - 2 μm

  11. Diamond nanostructured devices for chemical sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the area of CVD single crystal diamond plates of which only recently has been made commercially available saw significant advancements during the last decade. In parallel to that, detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles also now widely made accessible for requisition are provoking a lot of scientific investigations. The remarkable properties of diamond including its extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, high thermal c...

  12. Diamond carbon sources: a comparison of carbon isotope models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkley, M.B.; Otter, M.L.; Gurney, J.J.; Hill, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of approximately 500 inclusion-bearing diamonds have been determined in the past decade. 98 percent of these diamonds readily fall into two broad categories on the basis of their inclusion mineralogies and compositions. These categories are peridotitic diamonds and eclogitic diamonds. Most peridotitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -10 and -1 permil, whereas eclogitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -28 and +2 permil. Peridotitic diamonds may represent primordial carbon, however, it is proposed that initially inhomogeneous δ 13 C values were subsequently homogenized, e.g. during melting and convection that is postulated to have occurred during the first billion years of the earth's existence. If this is the case, then the wider range of δ 13 C values exhibited by eclogitic diamonds requires a different explanation. Both the fractionation model and the subduction model can account for the range of observed δ 13 C values in eclogitic diamonds. 16 refs., 2 figs

  13. Graphitization of diamond with a metallic coating on ferritic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Stenio Cavalier; Oliveira, Hellen Cristine Prata de; Filgueira, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a strong catalyst of graphitization of diamonds. This graphitization occurs mainly during the processing of composites - conventional sintering or hot pressing, and during cutting operations. Aiming to avoid or minimize this deleterious effect, there is increasing use of diamond coated with metallic materials in the production of diamond tools processed via powder metallurgy. This work studies the influence of Fe on diamond graphitization diamond-coated Ti after mixing of Fe-diamonds, hot pressing parameters were performed with 3 minutes/35MPa/900 deg C - this is the condition of pressing hot used in industry for production of diamond tools. Microstructural features were observed by SEM, diffusion of Fe in diamond was studied by EDS. Graphitization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe not activate graphitization on the diamond under the conditions of hot pressing. (author)

  14. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: tshgl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  15. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  16. Strong coupling between a single nitrogen-vacancy spin and the rotational mode of diamonds levitating in an ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, T.; Nicolas, L.; Chassagneux, Y.; Hétet, G.

    2017-12-01

    A scheme for strong coupling between a single atomic spin and the rotational mode of levitating nanoparticles is proposed. The idea is based on spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in aspherical nanodiamonds levitating in an ion trap. We show that the asymmetry of the diamond induces a rotational confinement in the ion trap. Using a weak homogeneous magnetic field and a strong microwave driving we then demonstrate that the spin of the nitrogen-vacancy center can be strongly coupled to the rotational mode of the diamond.

  17. The high-frequency ESR spectra of the syntetic diamond and nanodiamonds type Ib at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsko, E.; Kobets, M.; Dergachev, K.; Kulbickas, A.; Rasteniene, L.; Vaisnoras, R.

    2013-01-01

    The ESR absorption spectra of nonirradiated and irradiated (by electrons with an energy of 2 MeV) bulk diamond and nanodiamond powder of type Ib have been studied at a wide range of frequencies (70-20 GHz) and temperature (4.2-0 K) by ESR method. It is shown, that in the ESR spectrum of bulk diamond absorption lines of ion nickel catalyst Ni +a nd a paramagnetic single center of the nitrogen N 0 is observed. Absorption lines of the paramagnetic centers with dangling bonds on the nanodiamond surface (surface defects) in the ESR spectra are obtained.

  18. Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    1995-01-01

    What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)

  19. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  20. Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fisch, D; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zoeller, M M

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are presented in terms of collection distance, $d=\\mu E \\tau$, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart under the influence of an electric field, where $\\mu$ is the sum of carrier mo bilities, $E$ is the applied electric field, and $\\tau$ is the mobility weighted carrier lifetime. Over the last two years the collection distance increased from $\\sim$ 75 $\\mu$m to over 200 $\\mu$ m. With this high quality CVD diamond a series of micro-strip and pixel particle detectors have been constructed. These devices were tested to determine their position resolution and signal to n oise performance. Diamond detectors w...

  1. Amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhan, Tianrong; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2012-07-03

    Noniridescent coloration by the spongy keratin in parrot feather barbs has fascinated scientists. Nonetheless, its ultimate origin remains as yet unanswered, and a quantitative structural and optical description is still lacking. Here we report on structural and optical characterizations and numerical simulations of the blue feather barbs of the scarlet macaw. We found that the sponge in the feather barbs is an amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal with only short-range order. It possesses an isotropic photonic pseudogap that is ultimately responsible for the brilliant noniridescent coloration. We further unravel an ingenious structural optimization for attaining maximum coloration apparently resulting from natural evolution. Upon increasing the material refractive index above the level provided by nature, there is an interesting transition from a photonic pseudogap to a complete bandgap.

  2. Amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhan, Tianrong; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Noniridescent coloration by the spongy keratin in parrot feather barbs has fascinated scientists. Nonetheless, its ultimate origin remains as yet unanswered, and a quantitative structural and optical description is still lacking. Here we report on structural and optical characterizations and numerical simulations of the blue feather barbs of the scarlet macaw. We found that the sponge in the feather barbs is an amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal with only short-range order. It possesses an isotropic photonic pseudogap that is ultimately responsible for the brilliant noniridescent coloration. We further unravel an ingenious structural optimization for attaining maximum coloration apparently resulting from natural evolution. Upon increasing the material refractive index above the level provided by nature, there is an interesting transition from a photonic pseudogap to a complete bandgap. PMID:22615350

  3. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz Alfaro, Marco Antonio; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Vong, Yunny Meas

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes. (author)

  4. Optimizing biosensing properties on undecylenic Acid-functionalized diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu Lin; Chong, Kwok Feng; May, Paul W; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2007-05-08

    The optimization of biosensing efficiency on a diamond platform depends on the successful coupling of biomolecules on the surface, and also on effective signal transduction in the biorecognition events. In terms of biofunctionalization of diamond surfaces, surface electrochemical studies of diamond modified with undecylenic acid (UA), with and without headgroup protection, were performed. The direct photochemical coupling method employing UA was found to impart a higher density of carboxylic acid groups on the diamond surface compared to that using trifluoroethyl undecenoate (TFEU) as the protecting group during the coupling process. Non-faradic impedimetric DNA sensing revealed that lightly doped diamond gives better signal transduction sensitivity compared to highly doped diamond.

  5. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaro Marco Antonio Quiroz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes.

  6. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  7. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.

  8. Electrolytic coloration and spectral properties of hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Wu Yanru

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystals are colored electrolytically at various temperatures and voltages using a pointed cathode and a flat anode. Characteristic OH - spectral band is observed in the absorption spectrum of uncolored single crystal. Characteristic O - , OH - , U, V 2 , V 3 , O 2- -V a + , F, R 2 and M spectral bands are observed simultaneously in absorption spectra of colored single crystals. Current-time curve for electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystal and its relationship with electrolytic coloration process are given. Production and conversion of color centers are explained. - Highlights: → Expanded the traditional electrolysis method. → Hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride crystals were colored electrolytically for the first time. → Useful V, F and F-aggregate color centers were produced in colored crystals. → V color centers were produced directly and F and F-aggregate color centers indirectly.

  9. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  10. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  11. Cathodoluminescence characteristics of polycrystalline diamond films grown by cyclic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Soo-Hyung; Park, Chang-Kyun; Park, Jin-Seok

    2002-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a cyclic deposition method where the H 2 plasma for etching (t E ) and the CH 4 +H 2 plasma for growing (t G ) are alternately modulated with various modulation ratios (t E /t G ). From the measurement of full width at half maximum and I D /I G intensity ratio obtained from the Raman spectra, it was found that diamond defects and non-diamond carbon phases were reduced a little by adopting the cyclic deposition method. From the cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics measured for deposited films, the nitrogen-related band (centered at approximately 590 nm) as well as the so-called band-A (centered at approximately 430 nm) were observed. As the cyclic ratio t E /t G increased, the relative intensity ratio of band-A to nitrogen-related band (I A /I N ) was found to monotonically decrease. In addition, analysis of X-ray diffraction spectra and scanning electron microscope morphologies showed that CL characteristics of deposited diamond films were closely related to their crystal orientations and morphologies

  12. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  13. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.

  14. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry

  15. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  16. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  17. Diamond NV centers for quantum computing and quantum networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Childress, L.; Hanson, R.

    2013-01-01

    The exotic features of quantum mechanics have the potential to revolutionize information technologies. Using superposition and entanglement, a quantum processor could efficiently tackle problems inaccessible to current-day computers. Nonlocal correlations may be exploited for intrinsically secure

  18. Magnetometry with Ensembles of Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Bulk Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-23

    the ESR curve. Any frequency components of the photodetector signal which are not close to the reference frequency, are filtered out. This mitigates ...indicating that we have not yet run up against thermal or flicker noise for these time scales. 5.3 Details of frequency modulation circuit In order

  19. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  20. Crystallography of color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    We develop the Ginzburg-Landau approach to comparing different possible crystal structures for the crystalline color superconducting phase of QCD, the QCD incarnation of the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase. In this phase, quarks of different flavor with differing Fermi momenta form Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum, yielding a condensate that varies in space like a sum of plane waves. We work at zero temperature, as is relevant for compact star physics. The Ginzburg-Landau approach predicts a strong first-order phase transition (as a function of the chemical potential difference between quarks) and for this reason is not under quantitative control. Nevertheless, by organizing the comparison between different possible arrangements of plane waves (i.e., different crystal structures) it provides considerable qualitative insight into what makes a crystal structure favorable. Together, the qualitative insights and the quantitative, but not controlled, calculations make a compelling case that the favored pairing pattern yields a condensate which is a sum of eight plane waves forming a face-centered cubic structure. They also predict that the phase is quite robust, with gaps comparable in magnitude to the BCS gap that would form if the Fermi momenta were degenerate. These predictions may be tested in ultracold gases made of fermionic atoms. In a QCD context, our results lay the foundation for a calculation of vortex pinning in a crystalline color superconductor, and thus for the analysis of pulsar glitches that may originate within the core of a compact star

  1. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  2. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  3. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  4. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  5. The Diamond machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heron, M.T.; Lay, S.; Chernousko, Y.; Hamadyk, P.; Rotolo, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source Machine Protection System (MPS) manages the hazards from high power photon beams and other hazards to ensure equipment protection on the booster synchrotron and storage ring. The system has a shutdown requirement, on a beam mis-steer of under 1 msec and has to manage in excess of a thousand interlocks. This is realised using a combination of bespoke hardware and programmable logic controllers. The MPS monitors a large number of interlock signals from diagnostics instrumentation, vacuum instrumentation, photon front ends and plant monitoring subsystems. Based on logic it can then remove the source of the energy to ensure protection of equipment. Depending on requirements, interlocks are managed on a Local or a Global basis. The Global system is structured as two layers, and supports fast- and slow-response-time interlock requirements. A Global MPS module takes the interlock permits for a given interlock circuit from each of the cells of the accelerator, and, subject to all interlocks being good, produces a permit to operate the source of energy: the RF amplifier for vessel protection and the PSU for magnet protection. The Local MPS module takes fast Interlock inputs from one cell of the Storage Ring or one quadrant of the Booster. Fast interlocks are those that must drop the beam in under 400 μsec (the maximum speed of the interlock) in the event of failure. EPIC provides the user interface to the MPS system

  6. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  7. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  8. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  9. Critical components for diamond-based quantum coherent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greentree, Andrew D; Olivero, Paolo; Draganski, Martin; Trajkov, Elizabeth; Rabeau, James R; Reichart, Patrick; Gibson, Brant C; Rubanov, Sergey; Huntington, Shane T; Jamieson, David N; Prawer, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The necessary elements for practical devices exploiting quantum coherence in diamond materials are summarized, and progress towards their realization documented. A brief review of future prospects for diamond-based devices is also provided

  10. Prospects for the synthesis of large single-crystal diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnitskiy, R A

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of diamond have stimulated the study of and search for its applications in many fields, including optics, optoelectronics, electronics, biology, and electrochemistry. Whereas chemical vapor deposition allows the growth of polycrystalline diamond plates more than 200 mm in diameter, most current diamond application technologies require large-size (25 mm and more) single-crystal diamond substrates or films suitable for the photolithography process. This is quite a challenge, because the largest diamond crystals currently available are 10 mm or less in size. This review examines three promising approaches to fabricating large-size diamond single crystals: growing large-size single crystals, the deposition of heteroepitaxial diamond films on single-crystal substrates, and the preparation of composite diamond substrates. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Architecting boron nanostructure on the diamond particle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Yu, J.H.; Nishimura, K.; Sasaoka, S.; Jiang, N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides an efficient approach for nano-functionalization of diamond powders. Boron nanostructure can be grown on diamond particle entire surface by a simple heat-treatment process. After treatment, various boron nanoforms were grown on the diamond particle surface at different processing temperature. High-density boron nanowires (BNWs) grow on the diamond particle entire surface at 1333 K, while nanopillars cover diamond powders when the heat treatment process is performed at 1393 K. The influence of the pretreatment temperature on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites were investigated. Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of 670 W (m K) −1 was obtained, which was achieved by the formation of large number of nanowires and nanopillars on the diamond particle surface.

  12. Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ... chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any .... CVD diamond coated carbide tools, Ph D Thesis, Indian.

  13. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Michael John

    inventory of luminescent defect centers (many with direct optical access to highly coherent electron and nuclear spins). Diamond has many potential applications ranging from radio frequency nanoelectromechanical systems (RF-NEMS), to all-optical signal processing and quantum optics. Despite the commercial availability of wafer-scale nanocrystalline diamond thin films on foreign substrates (namely SiO2), this diamond-on-insulator (DOI) platform typically exhibits inferior material properties due to friction, scattering, and absorption losses at grain boundaries, significant surface roughness, and large interfacial stresses. In the absence of suitable heteroepitaxial diamond growth, substantial research and development efforts have focused on novel processing techniques to yield nanoscale single-crystal diamond mechanical and optical elements. In this thesis, we demonstrate a scalable 'angled-etching' nanofabrication method for realizing nanomechanical systems and nanophotonic networks starting from bulk single-crystal diamond substrates. Angled-etching employs anisotropic oxygen-based plasma etching at an oblique angle to the substrate surface, resulting in suspended optical structures with triangular cross-sections. Using this approach, we first realize single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonant structures. These nanoscale diamond resonators exhibit high mechanical quality-factors (approaching Q ~ 105) with mechanical resonances up to 10 MHz. Next, we demonstrate engineered nanophotonic structures, specifically racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities, in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical Q-factors, in excess of 10 5, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics. Beyond isolated nanophotonic

  14. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  15. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  16. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  17. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  18. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University)

    2008-06-24

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  19. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, T.N., E-mail: Thuto.Makgato@students.wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Ramos, M.A. [CMAM, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); García-Hernández, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A. [CMAM, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Erasmus, R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa)

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1–2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1–1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μ{sub eff}~(0.1–0.2)μ{sub B}. No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. - Highlights: • Proton macro-irradiation of pure diamond creates fluence dependent paramagnetism. • The effective magnetic moment is found to be in the range μ{sub eff}~(0.1–0.2)μ{sub B}. • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed.

  20. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, T.N.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Ramos, M.A.; García-Hernández, M.; Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; Shrivastava, S.; Erasmus, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1–2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1–1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μ eff ~(0.1–0.2)μ B . No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. - Highlights: • Proton macro-irradiation of pure diamond creates fluence dependent paramagnetism. • The effective magnetic moment is found to be in the range μ eff ~(0.1–0.2)μ B . • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Glaucoma Education Center Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ...

  2. Improvements in or relating to artefacts incorporating industrial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, N.E.W.; Poole, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A process for improving the wear characteristics of industrial diamonds is described which consists of implanting into the surface regions of the diamonds, ions of a material having an atomic weight greater than one and such as to affect the surface properties of the diamonds. Examples of the invention, in which N + and C + ions have been used, are cited. (U.K.)

  3. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, S.; Buttar, C.M.; Conway, J.; Whitehead, A.J.; Sussman, R.S.; Hill, G.; Walker, S.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (CVD1 and CVD2) of CVD diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of CVD1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after ∼6 Gy. The diamond devices of CVD2 type had a response at low fields ( 1162.8 V/cm), the CVD2-type devices showed polarisation and dose-rate dependence. The sensitivity of the CVD diamond devices varied between 82 and 1300 nC/Gy depending upon the sample type and the applied voltage. The sensitivity of CVD diamond devices was significantly higher than that of natural diamond and silicon dosimeters. The results suggest that CVD diamond devices can be fabricated for successful use in radiotherapy applications

  4. Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via coupling to microtoroidal resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiong; Yang Wanli; Feng Mang; Du Jiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    We propose a potentially practical scheme to entangle negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers in distant diamonds. Each diamond is supposed to be fixed on the exterior surface of a microtoroidal resonator, and the single-photon input-output process - a currently available technique - could entangle separate N-V centers in a scalable fashion. The feasibility of our scheme and the experimental challenge are discussed by considering currently available techniques for qualified N-V centers and cavities.

  5. Coesite inclusions in diamonds of Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardukhinov, L. D.; Spetsius, Z. V.; Monkhorov, R. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the study of diamonds with inclusions of high-pressure modification of SiO2 (coesite) by Raman spectroscopy are reported. It is established that the octahedral crystal from the Zapolyarnaya pipe is characterized by the highest residual pressure (2.7 ± 0.07 GPa). An intermediate value of this parameter (2.1 ± 0.07 GPa) was obtained for a crystal of transitional habit from the Maiskaya pipe. The minimal Raman shift was registered for coesite in diamond from the Komsomol'skaya-Magnitnaya pipe and provided a calculated residual pressure of 1.8 ± 0.03 GPa. The residual pressures for crystals from the placer deposits of the Kuoika and Bol'shaya Kuonamka rivers are 2.7 ± 0.07 and 3.1 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively. Octahedral crystals were formed in the mantle at a higher pressure than rhombododecahedral diamonds.

  6. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M; Bauer, C; Berfermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2*4 cm/sup 2/ have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a beta source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (16 refs).

  7. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-08-01

    We present recent results on the use of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 {mu}s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2 x 4 cm{sup 2} diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch.

  8. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results on the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1*1 cm/sup 2/ diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 mu s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2*4 cm/sup 2/ diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch. (6 refs).

  9. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M. E-mail: markus.friedl@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2x4 cm{sup 2} have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a {beta} source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (author)

  10. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2×4 cm2 have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a β source or in a testbeam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5×10 15 cm-2 to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics.

  11. Diamond as a scaffold for bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Palamara, Joseph; Judge, Roy; Greentree, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Diamond is an attractive material for biomedical implants. In this work, we investigate its capacity as a bone scaffold. It is well established that the bioactivity of a material can be evaluated by examining its capacity to form apatite-like calcium phosphate phases on its surface when exposed to simulated body fluid. Accordingly, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition were exposed to simulated body fluid and assessed for apatite growth when compared to the bulk silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both UNCD and PCD are capable of acting as a bone scaffold. The composition of deposited apatite suggests that UNCD and PCD are suitable for in vivo implantation with UNCD possible favoured in applications where rapid osseointegration is essential.

  12. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  13. Note: Evaluation of microfracture strength of diamond materials using nano-polycrystalline diamond spherical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, H.; Hamaki, K.; Harano, K.

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-hard and high-strength spherical indenters with high precision and sphericity were successfully prepared from nanopolycrystalline diamond (NPD) synthesized by direct conversion sintering from graphite under high pressure and high temperature. It was shown that highly accurate and stable microfracture strength tests can be performed on various super-hard diamond materials by using the NPD spherical indenters. It was also verified that this technique enables quantitative evaluation of the strength characteristics of single crystal diamonds and NPDs which have been quite difficult to evaluate.

  14. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  15. Quantum chemical simulation of hydrogen like states in silicon and diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, R.B.; Gordeev, V.A.; Gorelkinskij, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum-chemical methods of the complete neglect of differential overlap (CNDO) and intermediate neglect of differential overlap (INDO) are used to calculate the electronic structure of atomic hydrogen (muonium) located at different interstital sites of the silicon and diamond crystal lattices. The electronic g- and hyperfine interaction tensors of the impure atom are determined.The results obtained are compared with the experimental data on the 'normal' (Mu') and 'anomalous' (Mu * ) muonium centers as well as on the hydrogen-bearing Si-AA9 EPR center which is a hydrogen-bearing analogue of (Mu * ). The most likely localization sites for hydrogen (muonium) atoms in silicon and diamond crystals are established. 22 refs

  16. Towards a Quantum Interface between Diamond Spin Qubits and Phonons in an Optical Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Momeen, M. Ummal; Hsu, Jen-Feng; D'Urso, Brian; Dutt, Gurudev

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a method to optically levitate a pre-selected nanodiamond crystal in air or vacuum. The nanodiamond containing nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers is suspended on a monolayer of graphene transferred onto a patterned substrate. Laser light is focused onto the sample, using a home-built confocal microscope with a high numerical aperture (NA = 0.9) objective, simultaneously burning the graphene and creating a 3D optical trap that captures the falling nano-diamond at the beam waist. The trapped diamond is an ultra-high-Q mechanical oscillator, allowing us to engineer strong linear and quadratic coupling between the spin of the NV center and the phonon mode. The system could result in an ideal quantum interface between a spin qubit and vibrational phonon mode, potentially enabling applications in quantum information processing and sensing the development of quantum information storage and processing.

  17. Electron field emission for ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A. R.; Auciello, O.; Ding, M. Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Huang, Y.; Zhirnov, V. V.; Givargizov, E. I.; Breskin, A.; Chechen, R.; Shefer, E. (and others)

    2001-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films 0.1--2.4 {mu}m thick were conformally deposited on sharp single Si microtip emitters, using microwave CH{sub 4}--Ar plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in combination with a dielectrophoretic seeding process. Field-emission studies exhibited stable, extremely high (60--100 {mu}A/tip) emission current, with little variation in threshold fields as a function of film thickness or Si tip radius. The electron emission properties of high aspect ratio Si microtips, coated with diamond using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process were found to be very different from those of the UNCD-coated tips. For the HFCVD process, there is a strong dependence of the emission threshold on both the diamond coating thickness and Si tip radius. Quantum photoyield measurements of the UNCD films revealed that these films have an enhanced density of states within the bulk diamond band gap that is correlated with a reduction in the threshold field for electron emission. In addition, scanning tunneling microscopy studies indicate that the emission sites from UNCD films are related to minima or inflection points in the surface topography, and not to surface asperities. These data, in conjunction with tight binding pseudopotential calculations, indicate that grain boundaries play a critical role in the electron emission properties of UNCD films, such that these boundaries: (a) provide a conducting path from the substrate to the diamond--vacuum interface, (b) produce a geometric enhancement in the local electric field via internal structures, rather than surface topography, and (c) produce an enhancement in the local density of states within the bulk diamond band gap.

  18. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  19. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling and fast quantum state preparation for strongly pulsed spin qubits in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    Qubits driven by resonant strong pulses are studied and a parameter regime is explored in which the dynamics can be solved in closed form. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling can be seen for longer pulses, whereas shorter pulses allow a fast preparation of the qubit state. Results...... are compared with recent experiments of pulsed nitrogen-vacancy center spin qubits in diamond....

  20. Clinical dosimeter based on diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervjakov, A.M.; Ljalina, L.I.; Ljutina, G.J.; Khrunov, V.S.; Martynov, S.S.; Popov, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Diamond detectors have found application in the relative dosimetry and their parameters have been described elsewhere. Today, the exclusive producer of the diamond detector is the Institute of Physical and Technical Problems, Russia, and exclusive dealer is the PTW-Freiburg. The main features of the diamond detector are good long time stability, suitable range of the energy dependence for photon and electron beams in clinical use, independence of the measured date from temperature and pressure. The high sensitivity per volume unit of the diamond detector (1500 times higher than ionization chamber) allowed using detectors with very small volume (1-5 mm 3 ) and rather simple electronics for ionization current registration. The new dosimeter consists of the diamond detector itself, 40 m registration cable, pre-amplifier, micro-processor block for data handling and absorbed dose calculation using the calibration factor of diamond detector in terms of absorbed dose to water. Dosimeter has the possibility to work with PC using standard RS-232 interface. The main features of the dosimeter are as follows: the range of dose rate measurements for photon, electron and proton beams is within 0.01-1.0 Gy/s; the energy ranges for photons are 0.08-25 MeV, and 4-25 MeV for electrons, with energy dependence no more than ±2%; the main uncertainty of the dose measurements is within ±2%; the pre-irradiation dose for diamond detector is no more than 10 Gy; the sensitive volume of the used diamond detectors is within 1-5 mm 3 ; the weight of the dosimeter no more than 2 kg. The new dosimeter was evaluated at the Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, St. Petersburg, Russia to verify its performance. The dosimeter was used as a reference instrument for dose measurements at Cobalt-60 unit, SL75-5 and SL-20 linear accelerators and the test results have shown that the device have met the specifications. It is planned to produce dosimeter as serial device by