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Sample records for diagnostic techniques digestive system

  1. Mechanical system diagnostics using vibration testing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, Catherine D.; Raju, P. K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The 'Cepstrum' technique of vibration-path identification allows the recovery of the transfer function of a system with little knowledge as to its excitation force, by means of a mathematical manipulation of the system output in conjunction with subtraction of part of the output and suitable signal processing. An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the usefulness of this technique in the cases of simple, cantilever-beam and free-free plate structures as well as in that of a complex mechanical system. On the basis of the transfer functions thus recovered, it was possible to evaluate the shifts in the resonance frequencies of a structure due to the presence of defects.

  2. A Meta-Analysis of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Circular RNAs in Digestive System Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Long; Han, Guoyong; Zuo, Xueliang; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Qin; Wu, Jindao; Wang, Xuehao

    2018-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of noncoding RNAs, have been found to be dysregulated in various cancers. However, the clinical application value of these circRNAs in digestive system cancers remains to be clarified. We aimed to comprehensively explore the potential role of circRNAs as diagnostic indicators in digestive system malignancies. Relevant studies were systematically retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. The data that were required to complete 2 × 2 contingency tables were obtained from the included studies. Stratified analyses by cancer type, sample size and publication year were performed. Thirteen studies with 2,276 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of circRNAs in the diagnosis of digestive system malignancy were 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.77] and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.72-0.81), respectively. The overall positive likelihood ratio was 3.09 (95% CI: 2.64-3.62), and the overall negative likelihood ratio was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.31-0.44). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 8.38 (95% CI: 6.86-10.25), and the overall area under the curve was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.84), indicating good discriminative ability of circRNAs as biomarkers for digestive system malignancy. circRNAs distinguish patients with digestive system cancer from controls with relatively high diagnostic accuracy. circRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of digestive system malignancy. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  4. Bayer Digester Optimization Studies using Computer Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jan J.; Schleider, Victor H.

    Theoretically required heat transfer performance by the multistaged flash heat reclaim system of a high pressure Bayer digester unit is determined for various conditions of discharge temperature, excess flash vapor and indirect steam addition. Solution of simultaneous heat balances around the digester vessels and the heat reclaim system yields the magnitude of available heat for representation of each case on a temperature-enthalpy diagram, where graphical fit of the number of flash stages fixes the heater requirements. Both the heat balances and the trial-and-error graphical solution are adapted to solution by digital computer techniques.

  5. The application of DECnet TTT technique in beam diagnostical system of SSC central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guixu; Huang Tuanhua

    1997-01-01

    The DECnet TTT technique and the real time network communication based on DECnet TTT are presented. Information can be transferred between console and diagnostical system via DECnet communication, so all kinds of operation can be done on console. The working computer of HIRFL console is VAX8350

  6. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  7. Aquaporins in Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Ran, Jianhua; Yang, Baoxue; Mei, Zhechuan

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigation is necessary for specific locations and functions of AQPs in digestive system.

  8. Picosecond high power laser systems and picosecond diagnostic technique in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hiroto; Masuko, H.; Maekawa, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yoshiji; Sugiyama, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Highly repetitive, high power YAG and Glass laser systems have been developed and been successfully used for the studies of laser-plasma interactions. Various picosecond diagnostic techniques have been developed for such purposes in the regions from optical to X-ray frequency. Recently highly sensitive X-ray (1 - 10 KeV) streak camera for highly repetitive operations have been developed. Preliminary experiment shows the achievement of 28ps temporal resolution (100μm slit) and good sensitivity with detectable minimum number of 10E3-1KeV photons/shot/slit area. (author)

  9. Probabilistic techniques using Monte Carlo sampling for multi- component system diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Lee, J.C.; Akcasu, A.Z.

    1995-01-01

    We outline the structure of a new approach at multi-component system fault diagnostics which utilizes detailed system simulation models, uncertain system observation data, statistical knowledge of system parameters, expert opinion, and component reliability data in an effort to identify incipient component performance degradations of arbitrary number and magnitude. The technique involves the use of multiple adaptive Kalman filters for fault estimation, the results of which are screened using standard hypothesis testing procedures to define a set of component events that could have transpired. Latin Hypercube sample each of these feasible component events in terms of uncertain component reliability data and filter estimates. The capabilities of the procedure are demonstrated through the analysis of a simulated small magnitude binary component fault in a boiling water reactor balance of plant. The results show that the procedure has the potential to be a very effective tool for incipient component fault diagnosis

  10. IERIAS: inference engine for reactor accident diagnostic system using knowledge engineering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobayashi, Masao; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kohsaka, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Minoru.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes an inference engine IERIAS which has been devoloped for a diagnostic system to identify the cause and type of an abnormal transient of a reactor plant. This system using knowledge engineering technique consists of a knowledge base and an inference engine. The inference engine IERIAS is designed so as to treat time-varying data of a plant. The major features of IERIAS are ; (1) histroy of transients can be treated, (2) knowledge base can be divided into some knowledge units, (3) program language UTILISP is used which is suitable for symbolic data manipulation. Inference was made using IERIAS with a knowledge base which was created from simulated results of various transients by a PWR plant simulator. The results showed a good applicability of IERIAS for reactor diagnosis. (author)

  11. The Diagnostic Challenge Competition: Probabilistic Techniques for Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Brian W.; Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable systems health management is an important research area of NASA. A health management system that can accurately and quickly diagnose faults in various on-board systems of a vehicle will play a key role in the success of current and future NASA missions. We introduce in this paper the ProDiagnose algorithm, a diagnostic algorithm that uses a probabilistic approach, accomplished with Bayesian Network models compiled to Arithmetic Circuits, to diagnose these systems. We describe the ProDiagnose algorithm, how it works, and the probabilistic models involved. We show by experimentation on two Electrical Power Systems based on the ADAPT testbed, used in the Diagnostic Challenge Competition (DX 09), that ProDiagnose can produce results with over 96% accuracy and less than 1 second mean diagnostic time.

  12. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Your Digestive System & How it Works What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ... you eat or drink each day. Why is digestion important? Digestion is important because your body needs ...

  13. Your Digestive System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dig That Digestive System Print en español Tu sistema digestivo So there you are, sitting at lunch, ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  14. An efficient diagnostic technique for distribution systems based on under fault voltages and currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoccia, A.; Di Silvestre, M.L.; Incontrera, I.; Riva Sanseverino, E. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Spoto, G. [Centro per la Ricerca Elettronica in Sicilia, Monreale, Via Regione Siciliana 49, 90046 Palermo (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    Service continuity is one of the major aspects in the definition of the quality of the electrical energy, for this reason the research in the field of faults diagnostic for distribution systems is spreading ever more. Moreover the increasing interest around modern distribution systems automation for management purposes gives faults diagnostics more tools to detect outages precisely and in short times. In this paper, the applicability of an efficient fault location and characterization methodology within a centralized monitoring system is discussed. The methodology, appropriate for any kind of fault, is based on the use of the analytical model of the network lines and uses the fundamental components rms values taken from the transient measures of line currents and voltages at the MV/LV substations. The fault location and identification algorithm, proposed by the authors and suitably restated, has been implemented on a microprocessor-based device that can be installed at each MV/LV substation. The speed and precision of the algorithm have been tested against the errors deriving from the fundamental extraction within the prescribed fault clearing times and against the inherent precision of the electronic device used for computation. The tests have been carried out using Matlab Simulink for simulating the faulted system. (author)

  15. Advanced Surveillance, Diagnostic and Prognostic Techniques in Monitoring Structures, Systems and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    direction of research, development and demonstration in this area. The technologies discussed in this project are intended to establish the state of the art in surveillance, diagnostics and prognostics (SDP) technologies for equipment and process health monitoring in nuclear facilities. It is also intended to identify technology gaps and research needs of the nuclear industry in the area of SDP. The report draws on the conventional SDP technologies, as well as the latest tools, algorithms and techniques that have emerged over the last few years, especially in enabling technologies including fast data acquisition, data storage, data qualification and data analysis algorithms, such as empirical and physical modelling techniques. These new tools have made it possible to identify problems earlier and with better resolution. The significance of the material presented in this report is that it contributes not only to the current needs of the nuclear industry but also to the design improvements of the next generation of reactors. For example, the nuclear industry is currently striving to operate the plants for up to 80 years or more, as the value of nuclear assets has risen in recent years, resulting partly from environmental concerns with fossil energy production, as well as increased future demand for base load electricity. This long term operation (LTO) or life extension goal of the nuclear industry has stimulated renewed interest in more frequent monitoring of equipment to guard against ageing effects, not to mention the economic benefits that SDP implementation can produce, and contributions to radiation exposure that is as low as reasonably achievable, reduction of human errors, and optimized maintenance. Together with capabilities that enhance situational awareness, the technologies described in this report will enable more holistic management of plant structures, systems and components (SSCs), maintain high capacity factor in LTO and enable higher levels of safe operation

  16. Advanced Surveillance, Diagnostic and Prognostic Techniques in Monitoring Structures, Systems and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    direction of research, development and demonstration in this area. The technologies discussed in this project are intended to establish the state of the art in surveillance, diagnostics and prognostics (SDP) technologies for equipment and process health monitoring in nuclear facilities. It is also intended to identify technology gaps and research needs of the nuclear industry in the area of SDP. The report draws on the conventional SDP technologies, as well as the latest tools, algorithms and techniques that have emerged over the last few years, especially in enabling technologies including fast data acquisition, data storage, data qualification and data analysis algorithms, such as empirical and physical modelling techniques. These new tools have made it possible to identify problems earlier and with better resolution. The significance of the material presented in this report is that it contributes not only to the current needs of the nuclear industry but also to the design improvements of the next generation of reactors. For example, the nuclear industry is currently striving to operate the plants for up to 80 years or more, as the value of nuclear assets has risen in recent years, resulting partly from environmental concerns with fossil energy production, as well as increased future demand for base load electricity. This long term operation (LTO) or life extension goal of the nuclear industry has stimulated renewed interest in more frequent monitoring of equipment to guard against ageing effects, not to mention the economic benefits that SDP implementation can produce, and contributions to radiation exposure that is as low as reasonably achievable, reduction of human errors, and optimized maintenance. Together with capabilities that enhance situational awareness, the technologies described in this report will enable more holistic management of plant structures, systems and components (SSCs), maintain high capacity factor in LTO and enable higher levels of safe operation

  17. Digestive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the stomach. Sometimes, though, a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori or the chronic use of certain medications weakens ... can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus as well ... organs to produce enzymes and other substances that aid in digestion. ...

  18. Development of reactor accident diagnostic system DISKET using knowledge engineering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobayashi, Masao; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kohsaka, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Minoru.

    1986-01-01

    An accident diagnostic system DISKET has been developed to identify the cause and the type of an abnormal transient of a nuclear power plant. The system is based on the knowledge engineering (KE) and consists of an inference engine IERIAS and a knowledge base. The main features of DISKET are the following : (1) Time-varying characteristics of transients can be treated. (2) Knowledge base can be divided into several knowledge units to handle a lot of rules effectively. (3) Programming language UTILISP, which is a dialect of LISP, is used to manipulate symbolic data effectively. For the verification of DISKET, performance tests have been conducted for several types of accidents. The knowledge base used in the tests was generated from the data of various types of transients produced by a PWR plant simulator. The results of verification studies showed a good applicability of DISKET to reactor accident diagnosis. (author)

  19. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Lactose Intolerance Additional Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro ... and Biliary Tract Large Intestine Rectum and Anus Effects of Aging on the Digestive System (See also ...

  20. Technique of infrared synchrotron acceleration diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, A.A.; Mal'tsev, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques of measuring of current and geometric parameters and evaluating of energy parameters of the ring bunch of relativistic low-energy electrons have been presented. They have been based on using the synchrotron radiation effect in its infrared spectral part. Fast infrared detectors have provided radiation detection in the spectral range Δλ ≅ 0.3-45 μm. The descriptions of some data monitoring and measuring systems developed in JINR for the realization of techniques of the infrared synchrotron acceleration diagnostics have been given. Infrared optics elements specially developed have been used in these systems

  1. Rheostatic control of tryptic digestion in a microscale fluidic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, Andrew J.; Schriemer, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated fluidic systems that unite bottom-up and top-down proteomic approaches have the potential to deliver complete protein characterization. To circumvent fraction collection, as is conducted in current blended approaches, a technique to regulate digestion efficiency in a flow-through system is required. The present study examined the concept of regulating tryptic digestion in an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER), incorporating mixed solvent systems for digestion acceleration. Using ovalbumin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin as protein standards, we demonstrate that tryptic digestion can be efficiently regulated between complete digestion and no digestion extremes by oscillating between 45 and 0% acetonitrile in the fluid stream. Solvent composition was tuned using programmable solvent waveforms in a closed system consisting of the IMER, a sample delivery stream, a dual gradient pumping system and a mass spectrometer. Operation in this rheostatic digestion mode provides access to novel peptide mass maps (due to substrate unfolding hysteresis) as well as the intact protein, in a reproducible and stable fashion. Although cycle times were on the order of 90 s for testing purposes, we show that regulated digestion is sufficiently rapid to be limited by solvent switching efficiency and kinetics of substrate unfolding/folding. Thus, regulated digestion should be useful in blending bottom-up and top-down proteomics in a single closed fluidic system.

  2. Techniques for fabricating an infrared optical pyrometry system for pulsed electron beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of an infrared optical pyrometry system which was designed to make fast time resolved temperature measurements. The purpose of this equipment is to determine the amount of energy from an electron beam or some other type of pulsed energy deposition that is absorbed in a target. The system is capable of measuring energy deposition levels up to 4000 J/g in carbon, which corresponds to a graphite target temperature of 2200 0 C. Methods of fabrication, alignment, and calibration are presented. The measurement of absorbed energy in a target as a function of position and depth is discussed as a possible application, and several measurements are described which permit a comparison of results from this system with those taken by other methods

  3. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  4. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome†

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1) niche availability and habitat space and 2) a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determi...

  5. Novel Nonlinear Laser Diagnostic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    a thermometric probe of reactive flows. Since the two-photon pump laser couples a Doppler broadened ground state velocity distribution to the excited...rism, and passed unfocused into an aluminum cell con- in frequency space. Regions for line fitting are found by taining 99% pure NO. The gas mixture...of ASE as a More recently, ASE has prompted interest as an thermometric probe of combustion environments optical diagnostic of combustion environments

  6. Modeling and diagnostic techniques applicable to the analysis of pressure noise in pressurized water reactors and pressure-sensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullens, J.A.; Thie, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure noise data from a PWR are interpreted by means of a computer-implemented model. The model's parameters, namely hydraulic impedances and noise sources, are either calculated or deduced from fits to data. Its accuracy is encouraging and raises the possibility of diagnostic assistance for nuclear plant monitoring. A number of specific applications of pressure noise in the primary system of a PWR and in a pressure sensing system are suggested

  7. Use of proficiency samples to assess diagnostic laboratories in France performing a Trichinella digestion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Isabelle; Macé, Pauline; Forbes, Lorry; Scandrett, Brad; Durand, Benoit; Gajadhar, Alvin; Boireau, Pascal

    2007-07-01

    Routine diagnosis of animal trichinellosis for food safety and trade relies on a method of artificial digestion to free Trichinella muscle larvae from meat for subsequent identification by microscopy. As part of a quality control system, the French National Reference Laboratory (NRL) initiated ring trials to determine the sensitivity of the test performed in the 72 routine diagnostic laboratories in France. A method was devised to obtain calibrated meat samples containing known numbers of capsules with Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. This method was based on an incomplete artificial digestion of Trichinella-infected mice carcasses to allow the collection of intact Trichinella capsules. Capsules were placed into a meatball of 100 +/- 2 g of pork and horsemeat to produce proficiency samples. Three categories of samples were prepared: small (3 to 5 capsules), medium (7 to 10), and large (12 to 15). The sensitivity was expressed as the percentage of muscle larvae recovered from each proficiency sample. Reproducibility was tested with ring trials organized between two NRLs (France and Canada), and a reference sensitivity of 84.9% was established. National ring trials were then organized in France, with the 72 routine diagnostic laboratories each receiving four proficiency samples per session. After five sessions, an improvement in the digest test sensitivity was observed. Results at the fifth session indicated sensitivities of 78.60% +/- 23.70%, 81.19% +/- 19.59%, and 80.52% +/- 14.71% muscle larvae for small, medium, and large samples, respectively. This study supports the use of proficiency samples to accurately evaluate the performance of routine diagnostic laboratories that conduct digestion tests for animal trichinellosis diagnosis.

  8. Mammography: Technique and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Ja; Bahk, Yong Whee; Lee, Don Young

    1974-01-01

    Mammography is now in world wide use, But this has received rather scanty attention in Korea. The purposes of the present communication are twofold: (1) Detailing of technical and photographic aspects of mam in ography and (2) an assessment of its diagnostic accuracy as experienced by us. The clinical materials consisted of 88 cases of mammography performed at the Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the 2 years-period from April 1972. We used nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine- grain films, and a special mammographic device that can be attached to any of the ordinary radiographic machine. Technical factors are shown in Table II. Of 88 cases 19 were operated on or biopsied. There were 7 cases of carcinoma. 8 cases of inflammatory diseases, and 4 cases of benign tumor. Mammographic diagnosis was correct in 85.7% of carcinoma and 87.5% of inflammatory diseases. One misdiagnosis of 7 cases of carcinoma was turned out to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Of 4 cases of benign tumors 2 were correctly diagnosed, and the other 2 mistaken for either inflammatory disease or simple lactating breast. However, none of the benign conditions were diagnosed as malignant process. We found that nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine-grain films, and hand-processing were necessary in obtaining the mammograms of desirable quality

  9. High throughput techniques to reveal the molecular physiology and evolution of digestion in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2016-09-07

    Spiders are known for their predatory efficiency and for their high capacity of digesting relatively large prey. They do this by combining both extracorporeal and intracellular digestion. Whereas many high throughput ("-omics") techniques focus on biomolecules in spider venom, so far this approach has not yet been applied to investigate the protein composition of spider midgut diverticula (MD) and digestive fluid (DF). We here report on our investigations of both MD and DF of the spider Nephilingis (Nephilengys) cruentata through the use of next generation sequencing and shotgun proteomics. This shows that the DF is composed of a variety of hydrolases including peptidases, carbohydrases, lipases and nuclease, as well as of toxins and regulatory proteins. We detect 25 astacins in the DF. Phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding transcript(s) in Arachnida suggests that astacins have acquired an unprecedented role for extracorporeal digestion in Araneae, with different orthologs used by each family. The results of a comparative study of spiders in distinct physiological conditions allow us to propose some digestion mechanisms in this interesting animal taxon. All the high throughput data allowed the demonstration that DF is a secretion originating from the MD. We identified enzymes involved in the extracellular and intracellular phases of digestion. Besides that, data analyses show a large gene duplication event in Araneae digestive process evolution, mainly of astacin genes. We were also able to identify proteins expressed and translated in the digestive system, which until now had been exclusively associated to venom glands.

  10. Progress in diagnostic techniques for sc cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    While routinely achieved performance characteristics of superconducting cavities have now reached a level which makes them useful in large scale applications, achieving this level has come only through the knowledge gained by systematic studies of performance limiting phenomena. Despite the very real progress that has been made, the routine performance of superconducting cavities still falls far short of both the theoretical expectations and the performance of a few exception examples. It is the task of systematically applied diagnostic techniques to reveal additional information concerning the response of superconducting surfaces to applied RF fields. Here recent developments in diagnostic techniques are discussed. 18 references, 12 figures

  11. [Advances of Molecular Diagnostic Techniques Application in Clinical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Bin-Wu

    2016-11-01

    Over the past 20 years,clinical molecular diagnostic technology has made rapid development,and became the most promising field in clinical laboratory medicine.In particular,with the development of genomics,clinical molecular diagnostic methods will reveal the nature of clinical diseases in a deeper level,thus guiding the clinical diagnosis and treatments.Many molecular diagnostic projects have been routinely applied in clinical works.This paper reviews the advances on application of clinical diagnostic techniques in infectious disease,tumor and genetic disorders,including nucleic acid amplification,biochip,next-generation sequencing,and automation molecular system,and so on.

  12. Alternative diagnostic technique for carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsuhiko; Nakane, Takashi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Shibata, Kunio

    2002-01-01

    Compressive and entrapment neuropathies are common clinical syndromes characterized by neurologic deficits due to mechanical or dynamic compression of peripheral nerves. However, the definitive diagnosis based on clinical symptoms alone is difficult in many cases, and the electrophysiological diagnostic method is solely used as a supplementary diagnostic method at present. As a new diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy, the present study investigated the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome. On enhanced MRI of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, contrast-enhancement in the median nerve was found in 30 of 34 hands (88.2%). Enhanced MRI allows to visualize intraneural edema in the nerve easily on the naked eye. Therefore, this technique supplied useful information for making definitive diagnosis and is promising as a non-invasive diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy. (author)

  13. Alternative diagnostic technique for carpal tunnel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsuhiko; Nakane, Takashi [Aiko Orthopaedic Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeru; Shibata, Kunio [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Compressive and entrapment neuropathies are common clinical syndromes characterized by neurologic deficits due to mechanical or dynamic compression of peripheral nerves. However, the definitive diagnosis based on clinical symptoms alone is difficult in many cases, and the electrophysiological diagnostic method is solely used as a supplementary diagnostic method at present. As a new diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy, the present study investigated the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome. On enhanced MRI of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, contrast-enhancement in the median nerve was found in 30 of 34 hands (88.2%). Enhanced MRI allows to visualize intraneural edema in the nerve easily on the naked eye. Therefore, this technique supplied useful information for making definitive diagnosis and is promising as a non-invasive diagnostic method for entrapment neuropathy. (author)

  14. A REVIEW ON DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR BRUCELLOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... Brucellosis presents with many clinical manifestation that make its diagnosis a difficult task. Ever since the report of the first serologic test for brucellosis, a definitive diagnostic technique has been actively pursued. The most widely used methods of diagnosis are based on serology, which measures the.

  15. Adaptive techniques for diagnostics of vibrating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skormin, V.A.; Sankar, S.

    1983-01-01

    An adaptive diagnostic procedure for vibrating structures based on correspondence between current estimates of stiffness matrix and structure status is proposed. Procedure employs adaptive mathematical description of the vibrating structure in frequency domain, statistical techniques for detection and location of changes of structure properties, 'recognition' and prediction of defects. (orig.)

  16. Electroencephalography as a diagnostic technique for canine neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzosek Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG is a non-invasive examination method for the assessment of functional central nervous system (CNS disturbances. In human medicine it has a special importance as a diagnostic tool for epilepsy. Although many studies were done on the use of EEG for diagnostics of canine central nervous system disorders, the technique is still not applied routinely. The purpose of this paper was to review the use of the electroencephalography in canine neurological disorders of central nervous system diagnosis and assess the future perspectives of this technique in veterinary medicine.

  17. MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment] plasma diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Hooper, E.B.; Brooksby, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, a general overview of the MTX plasma diagnostics system is given. This includes a description of the MTX machine configuration and the overall facility layout. The data acquisition system and techniques for diagnostic signal transmission are also discussed. In addition, the diagnostic instruments planned for both an initial ohmic-heating set and a second FEL-heating set are described. The expected range of plasma parameters along with the planned plasma measurements will be reviewed. 7 refs., 5 figs

  18. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  19. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MiR-139 in digestive system tumor diagnosis and detection: Bioinformatics and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Hui; Ji, Jia; Weng, Hong; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2018-06-05

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that microRNAs play important roles in the initiation and progression of digestive system tumors. However, previous studies suggest that the accuracy of miRNA detection in digestive system tumors was inconsistent. The candidate miRNAs were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these miRNAs in digestive system tumors. Furthermore, the potential target genes of the miRNAs were predicted and assessed with functional analysis. According to TCGA data, miR-139 was a common biomarker of digestive system tumors. It was markedly reduced in tumor tissues as compared with non-cancerous tissues in digestive system tumors. In the meta-analysis, the pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and AUC was 57.51 (95% CI: 14.25-232.04) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.97), respectively. Furthermore, the overall sensitivity and specificity was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.73-0.96) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.75-0.97), respectively. The diagnostic value of tissue miR-139 was higher than the diagnostic value of blood miR-139. In particular, miR-139 was a superior marker for distinguishing colorectal cancer. miR-139 could be a potential biomarker for diagnosis of digestive system tumors especially colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  3. Archaeal community of cattle digestive system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, Anna; Elhottová, Dana; Gattinger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 233 ISSN 0009-0646. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : archaeal community * cattle digestive system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  5. The functional role of long non-coding RNA in digestive system carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Yu; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yan-Qiao

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Recent evidences suggest that lncRNAs play a very important role in digestive system carcinomas. However, the biological function of lncRNAs in the vast majority of digestive system carcinomas remains unclear. Recently, increasing studies has begun to explore their molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks that they are implicated in tumorigenesis. In this review, we highlight the emerging functional role of lncRNAs in digestive system carcinomas. It is becoming clear that lncRNAs will be exciting and potentially useful for diagnosis and treatment of digestive system carcinomas, some of these lncRNAs might function as both diagnostic markers and the treatment targets of digestive system carcinomas.

  6. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  7. A new techniques in the physics of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The basic physics involved in the generation of X-rays and in the energy dependence of their interaction with matter are reviewed. Some applications of those ideas in both conventional X-ray imaging and in new imaging techniques are studied. Methods for the optimization of X-ray diagnostic imaging system are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathel, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Colston, B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Armitage, G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  9. Systematic application of flame diagnostics techniques for performance and emissions development of modern combustion systems; Systematischer Einsatz der Flammendiagnostik fuer die Leistungs- und Emissionsentwicklung moderner Brennverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, E.; Beidl, C.; Hirsch, A.; Piock, W. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    In engine engineering, the information and benefits gained from optical flame diagnostics, especially in the combination with thermodynamic and CFD analysis of airflow and combustion are well accepted. It is, however, a specific challenge to implement techniques which are well established in basic engine R and D into the processes of series development or engine calibration. Any technique taken over from successfull predevelopment applications, is expected to equally well support series development. But in order to do this, it must also be suited to easily blend into the procedures of standard multicylinder engine tests. Development speed and results quality improve consideraly, whenever engineers within their routine engine tests gain knowledge about and evaluation of flame properties which allow identification of possible improvements of combustion efficiency, power density and emissions in an early, upfront development phase. Diagnostic systems employed for such tasks make use of fiber optic sensors which in spark ignited engines may be implanted into the bodies of sensor spark plugs. Their mechanic, thermal and electric properties comply with those of the originals, thus enabling their continuous use on the test bed. The arrangement of standard fiber optic channels allows flame radiation monitoring either within the axial proximity of the sensor plug, or of the entire combustion chamber compression volume. Signal recording and signal analysis is accomplished with Visiolution system techniques. Test results are evaluated on the basis of Visiolution algorithms. Data reduction schemes provide numerical figures of merit, describing, e. g. direction, velocity and symmetry of a spark ignited flame kernel. When knock center distribution is analysed, actual distribution statistics are checked against best concept distributions, whenever diffusion flames are detected against expectations of ideal premixed flames, their position, timing and intensity is evaluated. Such

  10. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-05-01

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  11. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  12. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  13. Selection of suitable diagnostic techniques for an RF atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, M.G.; Deng, X.T.

    2001-01-01

    As an early report of our study, this paper summaries the RF atmospheric pressure plasma system we intend to characterize and a number of diagnostic techniques presently under assessment for our plasma rig. By discussing the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic techniques at this meeting, we hope to gain feedback and comments to improve our choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques as well as our subsequent application of these techniques to nonthermal RF atmospheric pressure plasmas

  14. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  15. A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

  16. Psychometric perspectives on diagnostic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.

    2008-01-01

    The author identifies four conceptualizations of the relation between symptoms and disorders as utilized in diagnostic systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): A constructivist perspective, which holds

  17. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.M.; Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Drevon, J.M.; Encheva, A.; Kashchuk, Y.; Maquet, Ph.; Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10 −7 Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10 −10 Pa m 3 s −1 . In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions will be described

  18. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K.M., E-mail: Kaushal.Patel@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Drevon, J.M. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Encheva, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kashchuk, Y. [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow (Russian Federation); Maquet, Ph. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10{sup −7} Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10{sup −10} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}. In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions

  19. Noninvasive Diagnostic Technique in Stenotic Coronary Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Vasilyev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the sensitivity and specificity of combined stress echocardiography (EchoCG using dipyri-damole and dobutamine in diagnosing and defining the extent of stenotic coronary lesions in coronary heart disease (CHD in a group of critically ill patients who are unable to perform a physical exercise.Materials and methods: the study included 57 male patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome who underwent stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in high doses in combination with dobutamine, as well as coronary angiography.Results: stress EchoCG could bring up to the diagnostic criteria in all the patients, of whom 9 patients were found at coronary angiography to have no coronary lesion, 34 and 14 patients had one- and many-vessel lesions, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of combined stress EchoCG were significantly higher than those of EchoCG used in the diagnosis of CHD.Conclusion: stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in combination with dobutamine is a highly informative safe noninvasive technique for diagnosing CHD, its helps to identify patients with atypical acute coronary syndrome and to form a group of patients to be subject to urgent coronarography and angiosurgical intervention. The pattern of segmental contractile disorders at the height of exercise during combined stress Echo-CG makes it possible to define the site of stenotic coronary atherosclerosis with 97.3% sensitivity and to diagnose many-vessel lesion with 100% sensitivity and 100%specificity.

  20. Student Teachers' Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…

  1. Modeling flow inside an anaerobic digester by CFD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Alexandra Martinez; Jimenez, P. Amparo Lopez [Departmento do Ingenieria Hidralica y Medio Ambiente, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera S/N 46022 (Spain); Martinez, Tatiana Montoya; Monanana, Vincente Fajardo [Grupo Aquas de Valencia. Avenida Marques del Turia 19 46005 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Anaerobic processes are used to treat high strength organic wastewater as well as for the treatment of primary and secondary sludge from conventional wastewater treatment plants. In these processes, heterotrophic microorganisms convert biodegradable organic matter to methane and carbon dioxide in the absence of dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Some of the most important aspects of the design of anaerobic digesters are related to hydraulic considerations. In spite of its important role in performance, hydraulics of flow inside digesters has not been quantified or adequately characterized. In this contribution a three-dimensional steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been performed for a particular anaerobic digester, in order to visualize the flow patterns. Flow and velocities profiles have been represented inside the digester to identify possible dead zones or stratifications. The geometry of a real digester installed in Valencia Waste Water Treatment Plant (located in Quart-Benager, Valencia, Spain) has been used in order to consider the proposed methodology.

  2. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable...

  3. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  4. The hydro digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheil, Hermann [Itaipu Mondig, Power Generation Group (KWU), Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    Digest WK is an analysis and diagnostics system for turbine generators in large hydroelectric plant: it was developed from the Digest system which has been used in steam turbine plants for many years. The system is in use at the world's biggest hydro plant in Itaipu Binacional between Paraguay and Brazil. The system is described under the sub-headings of (a) monitoring concept; (b) the Digest WK system; (c) vibration monitoring; (d) generator temperature analysis and (e) outlook.

  5. Imaging systems for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestel, E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides physicians and clinical physicists with detailed information on today's imaging modalities and assists them in selecting the optimal system for each clinical application. Physicists, engineers and computer specialists engaged in research and development and sales departments will also find this book to be of considerable use. It may also be employed at universities, training centers and in technical seminars. The physiological and physical fundamentals are explained in part 1. The technical solutions contained in part 2 illustrate the numerous possibilities available in X-ray diagnostics, computed tomography, nuclear medical diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography and biomagnetic diagnostics. (orig.)

  6. Some novel diagnostic techniques for plasma chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1976-01-01

    In order to probe the mechanisms of chemical transformations in electric discharges it is most useful to monitor concentrations of reactants, products and reactive intermediates as a function of discharge parameters. Mass spectrometry, a popular technique for observing intermediates in chemical reactions, meets with particular difficulty when applied to discharges, due to the presence of excited molecules as well as free radicals in such systems. Molecular beam analysis, a synthesis of mass spectrometry with molecular beam measurements of electric and magnetic moments and velocity distributions, is a technique developed in the laboratory which offers distinct advantages for the analysis of intermediates in electric discharges. In low pressure discharges, end-product analysis can be facilitated by sample compression. A chromatographic sampling system which employs compression in order to achieve sensitivity has been developed and evaluated. There is some question concerning the appropriate discharge parameters to be employed in correlating measured variations in concentrations. An investigation is being made of the use of discharge 'actinometers' as a means of measuring the intensity of electric discharges. In discharges the intensity (number and energy of the electrons) and the chemistry are strongly coupled. Thus, it is necessary that the actinometer be present in the reactor; it is not permissible to substitute vessels as is customary in photochemical investigations. Since the actinometer is to measure only the discharge intensity, it must not participate in any chemical reactions with molecules and intermediates in the discharge. Finally, the ratio of the rates of the primary interactions of the actinometer and reactant with the discharge must be independent of discharge parameters. (author)

  7. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  8. Residual heat removal system diagnostic advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) Diagnostic Advisor which is an expert system designed to alert the operators to abnormal conditions that exits in the RHRS and offer advice about the cause of the abnormal conditions. The Advisor uses a combination of rule-based and model-based diagnostic techniques to perform its functions. This diagnostic approach leads to a deeper understanding of the RHRS by the Advisor and consequently makes it more robust to unexpected conditions. The main window of the interactive graphic display is a schematic diagram of the RHRS piping system. When a conclusion about a failed component can be reached, the operator can bring up windows that describe the failure mode of the component and a brief explanation about how the Advisor arrived at its conclusion

  9. Noise diagnostic: An advanced technique in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the main steps of the noise analysis technique implementation in our country from 1988. The review identifies two main areas, improvements of Nuclear Power Plant operational surveillance techniques and non-nuclear industrial applications. Also reported are some of the on going researches programs including projects on noise analysis instrumentation developments at the Higher Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technology

  10. Diagnostic, reliablility and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leondes

    2014-01-01

    1. Explicit-Model-Based Fault Detection Method in Industrial Plants 2. Soft Sensor: An Effective Approach to Improve Control 3. Techniques in Soft Computing and Their Utilization in Mechatronic Products 4. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants 5. A Mechatronic Systems Approach to Controlling Robotic Systems with Actuator Dynamics 6. Process and Control Design for Fast Coordinate Measuring Machines 7. Techniques in the Stability of Mechatronic Systems with Sensor or Actuator Failure.

  11. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  12. The Awareness of Health Professionals in Diagnostic Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    clear that most reviewed articles used the same conventional methods in ... Knowledge about the possible correlation of occult blood with reasons other than ... diagnostic techniques used in the examination of intestinal parasites in Gaza Strip.

  13. Surgical techniques for quantitative nutrient digestion and absorbtion studies in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Serena, Anja; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2010-01-01

    Surgical techniques allow quantitative measurement of nutrient digestion and absorption in pigs. The present paper presents our updated techniques for anaesthesia and surgery. The surgery technique of catheterization of the portal vein, mesenteric vein and mesenteric artery, as well as the fitting...

  14. Counseling Families from a Systems Perspective. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary

    This digest briefly reviews theoretical models for counseling dysfunctional familes, then discusses the use of systems theory in counseling families. It lists the characteristics of a dysfunctional family, explains family systems intervention, discusses the goals of family treatment, and describes several family systems counseling techniques. (NB)

  15. A Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Woo

    1999-01-01

    The ability to see the internal organs of the human body in a noninvasive way is a powerful diagnostic tool of modern medicine. Among these imaging modalities such as X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound. MRI and ultrasound are presenting much less risk of undesirable damage of both patient and examiner. In fact, no deleterious effects have been reported as a result of clinical examination by using MRI and ultrasound diagnostic equipment. As a result, their market volume has been rapidly increased. MRI has a good resolution. but there are a few disadvantages such as high price. non-real-time imaging capability. and expensive diagnostic cost. On the other hand, the ultrasound imaging system has inherently poor resolution as compared with X-ray and MRI. In spite of its poor resolution, the ultrasound diagnostic equipment is lower in price and has an ability of real-time imaging as compared with the others. As a result, the ultrasound imaging system has become general and essential modality for imaging the internal organs of human body. In this review various researches and developments to enhance the resolution of the ultrasound images are explained and future trends of the ultrasound imaging technology are described

  16. Essentials of diagnostic and interventional angiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlock, A.J.; Mirfakhraee, M.

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents coverage of basic angiographic techniques and shows how to get to the point of taking the angiogram, and tells how to avoid pitfalls. Particularly valuable is the information on how to get out of trouble if an error is made while manipulating the catheter

  17. Noninvasive Remote Sensing Techniques for Infrastructures Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the potentialities of noninvasive remote sensing techniques used for detecting the conservation status of infrastructures. The applied remote sensing techniques are ground-based microwave radar interferometer and InfraRed Thermography (IRT to study a particular structure planned and made in the framework of the ISTIMES project (funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme. To exploit the effectiveness of the high-resolution remote sensing techniques applied we will use the high-frequency thermal camera to measure the structures oscillations by high-frequency analysis and ground-based microwave radar interferometer to measure the dynamic displacement of several points belonging to a large structure. The paper describes the preliminary research results and discusses on the future applicability and techniques developments for integrating high-frequency time series data of the thermal imagery and ground-based microwave radar interferometer data.

  18. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, Rick [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hampton, Nigel [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Perkel, Josh [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hernandez, JC [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Elledge, Stacy [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); del Valle, Yamille [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Grimaldo, Jose [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Deku, Kodzo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  19. Diagnostic techniques in deflagration and detonation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proud, William G; Williamson, David M; Field, John E; Walley, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    Advances in experimental, high-speed techniques can be used to explore the processes occurring within energetic materials. This review describes techniques used to study a wide range of processes: hot-spot formation, ignition thresholds, deflagration, sensitivity and finally the detonation process. As this is a wide field the focus will be on small-scale experiments and quantitative studies. It is important that such studies are linked to predictive models, which inform the experimental design process. The stimuli range includes, thermal ignition, drop-weight, Hopkinson Bar and Plate Impact studies. Studies made with inert simulants are also included as these are important in differentiating between reactive response and purely mechanical behaviour.

  20. Diagnostic techniques in cerebral artery occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, P

    1972-01-01

    In two-thrids of the cases of cerebral artery occlusions ophthalmodynamotry, thermography, and the fluorescein test are sufficient. In cases where these give insufficient data, scintigraphy is the preferred screening method. For determination of the regional blood flow /sup 133/Xe is used. Angiographic investigation, however, is the method that gives the most clinically valuable data. The techniques used and the risks inherent in the method are described. (JSR)

  1. Intelligent neural network diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, artificial neural network (ANN) has made a significant mark in the domain of diagnostic applications. Neural networks are used to implement complex non-linear mappings (functions) using simple elementary units interrelated through connections with adaptive weights. The performance of the ANN is mainly depending on their topology structure and weights. Some systems have been developed using genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the topology of the ANN. But, they suffer from some limitations. They are : (1) The computation time requires for training the ANN several time reaching for the average weight required, (2) Slowness of GA for optimization process and (3) Fitness noise appeared in the optimization of ANN. This research suggests new issues to overcome these limitations for finding optimal neural network architectures to learn particular problems. This proposed methodology is used to develop a diagnostic neural network system. It has been applied for a 600 MW turbo-generator as a case of real complex systems. The proposed system has proved its significant performance compared to two common methods used in the diagnostic applications.

  2. Development of JT-60 diagnostics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The various kinds of plasma diagnostics have been developed and utilized in the JT-60 experiments. The features of JT-60 diagnostics system and the historical proceeding of the development are described in this paper. Taking account of the design consideration, JT-60 diagnostics system is sorted out into eight groups, which include six diagnostics systems, the data processing system and diagnostics supporting system. The all devices in the JT-60 diagnostics system were instrumented on schedule in the end of the fiscal year of 1985 and have contributed to JT-60 experiments. (author)

  3. Oncologic applications of diagnostic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Before appropriate therapy can be instituted for a cancer patient, the presence and extent of tumor must be evaluated. Deciding which imaging technique to use depends on tumor location, type, and biologic behavior. Conventional radiography provides important information at a relatively low cost compared with other imaging modalities. Ultrasound is a valuable adjunct to radiography, but does not replace it because both imaging modalities provide unique information. Nuclear medicine procedures contribute additional, unique data by providing physiological information, but specificity is lacking. Both CT and MRI provide images with exquisite anatomic detail, but availability and cost prohibit their general use

  4. Techniques for evaluating digestibility of energy, amino acids, phosphorus, and calcium in feed ingredients for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrui; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2017-12-01

    Sound feed formulation is dependent upon precise evaluation of energy and nutrients values in feed ingredients. Hence the methodology to determine the digestibility of energy and nutrients in feedstuffs should be chosen carefully before conducting experiments. The direct and difference procedures are widely used to determine the digestibility of energy and nutrients in feedstuffs. The direct procedure is normally considered when the test feedstuff can be formulated as the sole source of the component of interest in the test diet. However, in some cases where test ingredients can only be formulated to replace a portion of the basal diet to provide the component of interest, the difference procedure can be applied to get equally robust values. Based on components of interest, ileal digesta or feces can be collected, and different sample collection processes can be used. For example, for amino acids (AA), to avoid the interference of fermentation in the hind gut, ileal digesta samples are collected to determine the ileal digestibility and simple T-cannula and index method are commonly used techniques for AA digestibility analysis. For energy, phosphorus, and calcium, normally fecal samples will be collected to determine the total tract digestibility, and therefore the total collection method is recommended to obtain more accurate estimates. Concerns with the use of apparent digestibility values include different estimated values from different inclusion level and non-additivity in mixtures of feed ingredients. These concerns can be overcome by using standardized digestibility, or true digestibility, by correcting endogenous losses of components from apparent digestibility values. In this review, methodologies used to determine energy and nutrients digestibility in pigs are discussed. It is suggested that the methodology should be carefully selected based on the component of interest, feed ingredients, and available experimental facilities.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim

    2013-09-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  6. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  7. Role of microRNA-7 in digestive system malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Qun; Hu, Ling; Chen, Geng-Xin; Deng, Hai-Xia

    2016-01-15

    There are several malignancies of the digestive system (including gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma), which are the most common types of cancer and a major cause of death worldwide. MicroRNA (miR)-7 is abundant in the pancreas, playing an important role in pancreatic development and endocrine function. Expression of miR-7 is downregulated in digestive system malignancies compared with normal tissue. Although there are contrasting results for miR-7 expression, almost all research reveals that miR-7 is a tumor suppressor, by targeting various genes in specific pathways. Moreover, miR-7 can target different genes simultaneously in different malignancies of the digestive system. By acting on many cytokines, miR-7 is also involved in many gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases as a significant carcinogenic factor. Consequently, miR-7 might be a biomarker or therapeutic target gene in digestive system malignancies.

  8. The digestive system of the stony coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Bahat, M; Douek, J; Moiseeva, E; Peters, E C; Rinkevich, B

    2017-05-01

    Because hermatypic species use symbiotic algal photosynthesis, most of the literature in this field focuses on this autotrophic mode and very little research has studied the morphology of the coral's digestive system or the digestion process of particulate food. Using histology and histochemestry, our research reveals that Stylophora pistillata's digestive system is concentrated at the corals' peristome, actinopharynx and mesenterial filaments (MF). We used in-situ hybridization (ISH) of the RNA transcript of the gene that codes for the S. pistillata digestive enzyme, chymotrypsinogen, to shed light on the functionality of the digestive system. Both the histochemistry and the ISH pointed to the MF being specialized digestive organs, equipped with large numbers of acidophilic and basophilic granular gland cells, as well as acidophilic non-granular gland cells, some of which produce chymotrypsinogen. We identified two types of MF: short, trilobed MF and unilobed, long and convoluted MF. Each S. pistillata polyp harbors two long convoluted MF and 10 short MF. While the short MF have neither secreting nor stinging cells, each of the convoluted MF display gradual cytological changes along their longitudinal axis, alternating between stinging and secreting cells and three distinctive types of secretory cells. These observations indicate the important digestive role of the long convoluted MF. They also indicate the existence of novel feeding compartments in the gastric cavity of the polyp, primarily in the nutritionally active peristome, in the actinopharynx and in three regions of the MF that differ from each other in their cellular components, general morphology and chymotrypsinogen excretion.

  9. Medical X-ray techniques in diagnostic radiography. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaats, G.J. van der; Vijlbrief, P.

    1980-01-01

    A step by step account is given of every aspect of the technical factors involved in the production of X-ray images. Chapter titles include, methods of image formation and laws of projection, sharpness and unsharpness, contrast, perceptibility of detail in the radiographic image-image quality, properties of fluoroscopic screens, radiographic films, intensifying screens and cassettes, image intensification and X-ray television, processing technique, fluoroscopy and radiographic technique in general, special radiographic techniques, radiographic examinations using contrast media, exposure and exposure tables and automatic density control, diagnostic X-ray apparatus, and diagnostic stands and accessories. (C.F.)

  10. Nitrogen removal from digested slurries using a simplified ammonia stripping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provolo, Giorgio; Perazzolo, Francesca; Mattachini, Gabriele; Finzi, Alberto; Naldi, Ezio; Riva, Elisabetta

    2017-11-01

    This study assessed a novel technique for removing nitrogen from digested organic waste based on a slow release of ammonia that was promoted by continuous mixing of the digestate and delivering a continuous air stream across the surface of the liquid. Three 10-day experiments were conducted using two 50-L reactors. In the first two, nitrogen removal efficiencies were evaluated from identical digestates maintained at different temperatures (30°C and 40°C). At the start of the first experiment, the digestates were adjusted to pH 9 using sodium hydroxide, while in the second experiment pH was not adjusted. The highest ammonia removal efficiency (87%) was obtained at 40°C with pH adjustment. However at 40°C without pH adjustment, removal efficiencies of 69% for ammonia and 47% for total nitrogen were obtained. In the third experiment two different digestates were tested at 50°C without pH adjustment. Although the initial chemical characteristics of the digestates were different in this experiment, the ammonia removal efficiencies were very similar (approximately 85%). Despite ammonia removal, the pH increased in all experiments, most likely due to carbon dioxide stripping that was promoted by temperature and mixing. The technique proved to be suitable for removing nitrogen following anaerobic digestion of livestock manure because effective removal was obtained at natural pH (≈8) and 40°C, common operating conditions at typical biogas plants that process manure. Furthermore, the electrical energy requirement to operate the process is limited (estimated to be 3.8kWhm -3 digestate). Further improvements may increase the efficiency and reduce the processing time of this treatment technique. Even without these advances slow-rate air stripping of ammonia is a viable option for reducing the environmental impact associated with animal manure management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Positron Emission Tomography. A diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, P.

    2001-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a new imaging modality, which is able to assess non-invasively the biochemical mechanisms, underlying physiological and pathophysiological processes in vivo in humans. The technique relies on the administration of radioactive tracers labeled with short-lived positron emitters, which need to be produced on site via a particle accelerator (cyclotron). Radionuclides are produced upon request and formulated into biologically active organic molecules having precise pharmacokinetics and specificity. The radiotracer can be detected by the PET scanner and represented as tomographic sections (images of body sections) showing its regional distribution and concentration. This makes it possible to address clinical questions concerning occurrence and evolution of many diseases as well as their response to therapy. The ability to image (measure) biological processes and not only anatomy enables PET to explore diseases in the very early stage, including those diseases which are not related to modifications of organ structure (e.g. psychiatric diseases, metabolic disorders, biochemical disfunction). PET plays a major role, in conjunction with the other imaging modalities, to improve diagnosis capabilities and disease mechanism understanding [it

  12. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  13. Laser-based techniques for combustion diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, N.

    1997-04-01

    Two-photon-induced Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing, DFWM, was applied for the first time to the detection of CO, and NH{sub 3} molecules. Measurements were performed in a cell, and in atmospheric-pressure flames. In the cell measurements, the signal dependence on the pressure and on the laser beam intensity was studied. The possibility of simultaneous detection of NH{sub 3} and OH was investigated. Carbon monoxide and ammonia were also detected employing two-photon-induced Polarization Spectroscopy, PS. In the measurements performed in a cold gas flow, the signal strength dependence on the laser intensity, and on the polarization of the pump beam, was investigated. An approach to improve the spatial resolution of the Amplified Stimulated Emission, ASE, was developed. In this approach, two laser beams at different frequencies were crossed in the sample. If the sum of the frequencies of the two laser beams matches a two photon resonance of the investigated species, only the molecules in the intersection volume will be excited. NH{sub 3} molecules and C atoms were studied. The potential of using two-photon LIF for two-dimensional imaging of combustion species was investigated. Although LIF is species specific, several species can be detected simultaneously by utilizing spectral coincidences. Combining one- and two-photon process, OH, NO, and O were detected simultaneously, as well as OH, NO, and NH{sub 3}. Collisional quenching is the major source of uncertainty in quantitative applications of LIF. A technique for two-dimensional, absolute species concentration measurements, circumventing the problems associated with collisional quenching, was developed. By applying simple mathematics to the ratio of two LIF signals generated from two counterpropagating laser beams, the absolute species concentration could be obtained. 41 refs

  14. MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throop, A.L.; Goerz, D.A.; Thomas, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the current design status of the plasma diagnostic system for MFTF-B. In this paper we describe the system requirement changes which have occurred as a result of the funded rescoping of the original MFTF facility into MFTF-B. We outline the diagnostic instruments which are currently planned, and present an overview of the diagnostic system

  15. Development of process diagnostic techniques for piping and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsutsuji, Mitoshi

    1987-01-01

    The thing required for using the facilities composing a plant for a long period without anxiety is to quantitatively grasp the quantities of the present condition of the facilities and to take the necessary measures beforehand. For this purpose, the diagnostic techniques for quickly and accurately detect the quantities of the condition of facilities are necessary, and the development of process diagnostic techniques has been desired. The process diagnostic techniques mentioned here mean those for diagnosing the contamination, clogging and performance of towers, tanks, heat exchangers and others. Idemitsu Engineering Co. had developed a simplified diagnostic equipment for detecting the state of fouling in piping in 1982, which is the gamma ray transmission diagnosis named Scale Checker. By further improving it, the process diagnostic techniques for piping and equipment were developed. In this report, the course of development and examination, the principle of detection, the constitution and the examination of remodeling of the Scale Checker are reported. As the cases of process diagnosis in plant facilities, the diagnosis of the clogging in process piping and the diagnosis of the performance of a distillation tower were carried out. The contents of the diagnosis and the results of those cases are explained. (Kako, I.)

  16. Effectiveness of relaxation techniques before diagnostic screening of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Aiger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological arousal was observed in cancer patients during the application of relaxation techniques prior to a diagnostic scan (PET-CT. The aim of the study is twofold: firstly, it is sought to establish whether such techniques can minimize patient arousal before diagnostic screening begins, and secondly to measure which of them are most effective. The dependent variable is electrodermal activity, recording the attentional level and emotional response, and the independent variable comprises the relaxation techniques used, namely Jacobson, breathing and visualization. The 39 patients were split into experimental groups to whom the relaxation techniques (Jacobson, breathing exercises, and visualization were applied before they went for the PET-CT. An activity-module procedure was applied to track electrodermal activity during the relaxation sessions, consisting of instructions, timeout; wait, task; relaxation and end of the recording session. The control group received no relaxation techniques before the PET-CT. Session-end results show that patients who perform relaxation techniques achieve greater attentional focus using Jacobson's technique (M = .212 and enhanced emotional containment using visualization (M = .206. It is concluded that relaxation techniques minimize the state of activation during the waiting period before a diagnostic scan.

  17. Analytical system availability techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.; Verbeek, P.H.J.; Thomson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical techniques are presented to assess the probability distributions and related statistical parameters of loss of production from equipment networks subject to random failures and repairs. The techniques are based on a theoretical model for system availability, which was further developed

  18. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  19. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  20. Use of remifentanil to reduce propofol injection pain and the required propofol dose in upper digestive tract endoscopy diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliana, Gustavo Nadal; Tambara, Elizabeth Milla; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) as a sedative agent has transformed the area of sedation for endoscopic procedures. However, a major drawback of sedation with the use of propofol is its high incidence of injection pain. The most widely used technique in reducing propofol injection pain is through the association of other drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of remifentanil-propofol combination on the incidence of propofol injection pain and its influence on the total dose of propofol required for sedation in upper digestive tract endoscopy (UDE) diagnostic tests. One hundred and five patients undergoing upper digestive tract endoscopy were evaluated and randomly divided into 3 groups of 35 patients each. The Control Group received propofol alone; Study-group 1 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.2mg/kg combined with propofol; Study-group 2 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.3mg/kg combined with propofol. The incidence of propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol required for the test were evaluated. The sample was very similar regarding age, weight, height, sex, and physical status. Statistical analysis was performed according to the nature of the evaluated data. Student's t-test was used to compare the mean of age, weight, height (cm), and dose (mg/kg) variables between groups. The χ(2) test was used to compare sex, physical status, and propofol injection pain between groups. The significance level was αpain and total dose of propofol (mg/kg) used. However, there were no statistical differences between the two study groups for these parameters. We conclude that the use of remifentanil at doses of 0.2mg/kg and 0.3mg/kg was effective for reducing both the propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol used. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic techniques used in controlled thermonuclear research at Harwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, G N; Dellis, A N; Gibson, A; Jones, B; Lees, D J; McWhirter, R W.P.; Ramsden, S A; Ward, S [UK Atomic Energy Authority, AERE, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1958-07-01

    This paper is a general survey of the lines along which diagnostic methods (spectroscopy, electrical measurements, and the study of high energy radiations) are developing at Harwell, and indicates the results which have been obtained so far. Many of the techniques are in a rudimentary state, and most of the Zeta experiments are incomplete.

  2. Case-based reasoning diagnostic technique based on multi-attribute similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto, Takahashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Akio, Gofuku [Okayama University, Okayamaa (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Case-based diagnostic technique has been developed based on the multi-attribute similarity. Specific feature of the developed system is to use multiple attributes of process signals for similarity evaluation to retrieve a similar case stored in a case base. The present technique has been applied to the measurement data from Monju with some simulated anomalies. The results of numerical experiments showed that the present technique can be utilizes as one of the methods for a hybrid-type diagnosis system.

  3. A technique for studying digestion by grasshoppers using a 103Ruthenium-labelled marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandar, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    103 Ru-labelled tris (I,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (II) chloride has proved to be a convenient marker in investigating digestion in grasshoppers. Assimilation efficiencies and the retension time of the food in the gut were measured. It is surmised that the technique described in this paper will be applicable to studies of a variety of chewing herbivorous insects. (author)

  4. RUMINAL AND INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF MAIZE (Zea mays AND SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L. MOENCH USING DIFFERENT DIGESTIBILITY TECHNIQUES (IN VIVO, IN VITRO AND IN SACCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises A Gonzalez Garcia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the digestibility of the food is basic to establish its nutritive value and bioavailability of the nutrients. Numerous laboratory tests have been used to estimate the ruminal and intestinal digestion of the food such as in vitro (Gas and Daisy production and in sacco, to be compared with the in vivo method. Sorghum presented the highest (P 0.05 were found between grains. With regard to the digestibility methods, the DMD was lower (P 0.01 for the in sacco and in vitro methods (Daisy. The production of VFA's was similar for both cereals. In situ and in vitro techniques (DaisyII® allow the determination of digestibility quick and easy compared to conventional methods. Sorghum grinding improves its nutritional value by increasing its digestibility, which represents an alternative to maize for feeding calves for fattening.

  5. Imaging nuclear medicine techniques for diagnostic evaluation of arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, B.M.; Linss, G.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial hypertension may be caused by a malfunction of organs and in turn may lead to secondary organic lesions. Modern diagnostic nuclear medicine is applied for function studies in order to detect or exclude secondary hypertension and functional or perfusion disturbances due to hypertension, or to assess and follow up hemodynamic conditions and cardiac functions prior to and during therapy. The article presents a survey of imaging diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques for the eamination of the heart, the brain, the kidneys and endocrine glands in patients with arterial hypertension, discussing the methods with a view to obtainable information, limits of detection, and indications. (orig.) [de

  6. Progress in diagnostic techniques for SC [superconducting] cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the very real progress that has been made, the routine performance of superconducting cavities still falls far short of both the theoretical expectations and the performance of afew exceptional examples. It is the task of systematically applied diagnostic techniques to reveal additional information concerning the response of superconducting surfaces to applied RF fields. In this paper we will direct our attention to discussions of recent developments in diagnostic techniqeus, such as thermometry in superfluid helium, and scanning laser acoustic microscopy. 18 refs., 12 figs

  7. REXS : A financial risk diagnostic expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Richter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Artificial intelligence techniques are rapidly emerging as important contributors to more effective management. One of the greatest growth areas probably lies in the use of Expert System methodology for supporting managerial decision processes.
    Existing Decision Support Systems often attempt to apply analytical techniques in combination with traditional data access and retrieval functions. One of the problems usually encountered while developing such decision support systems is the need to transform an unstructured problem environment into a structured analytical model. Using an expert system approach to strategic decision making in such unstructured problem environments may provide significant advantages.
    The financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS concentrates on Financial Risk Analysis. Based on a Forecasting Model the system will, with the support of several expert system knowledge bases, attempt to evaluate the financial risk of a business and provide guidelines for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnieke gebaseer op Kunsmatige Intelligensie toon tans die belofte om belangrike bydraes te maak tot meerBestaande Besluitsteunstelsels poog dikwels om analitiese tegnieke en lradisionele datatoegang- en onttrekkingsfunksies te kombineer. Een van die probleme wat gewoonlik ondervind word gedurende die ontwikkeling van '0 besluitsteunstelsel bestaan uit die behoefte om 'n ongestruktueerde probleemomgewing te transformeer na 'n gestruktueerde analitiese model. 'n Ekspertstelselbenadering lot strategiese besluitneming in 'n ongeSlruktureerde probleemomgewing mag betekenisvolle voordele inhou.
    Die "financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS" konsentreer op fmansiele risiko-analise. Uitgaande vanaf 'n Vooruitskattingsmode~ en deur gebruik te maak van verskeie ekspertstelselkennisbasisse, poog die stelsel om die fmansiele risiko van 'n onderneming te evalueer en riglyne vir moontlike verbetering

  8. 75 FR 82428 - VASRD Improvement Forum-Updating Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders and... Disability Criteria for the Genitourinary System, Digestive System, Dental Conditions, and Infectious... 4.88-4.89), (2) the Digestive System (38 CFR 4.110-4.114), (3) the Genitourinary System (38 CFR 4...

  9. Review of Physicochemical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janvier Sylvestre N’cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A power transformer outage has a dramatic financial consequence not only for electric power systems utilities but also for interconnected customers. The service reliability of this important asset largely depends upon the condition of the oil-paper insulation. Therefore, by keeping the qualities of oil-paper insulation system in pristine condition, the maintenance planners can reduce the decline rate of internal faults. Accurate diagnostic methods for analyzing the condition of transformers are therefore essential. Currently, there are various electrical and physicochemical diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. This paper is aimed at the description, analysis and interpretation of modern physicochemical diagnostics techniques for assessing insulation condition in aged transformers. Since fields and laboratory experiences have shown that transformer oil contains about 70% of diagnostic information, the physicochemical analyses of oil samples can therefore be extremely useful in monitoring the condition of power transformers.

  10. Monte Carlo techniques in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, H.

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques have become one of the most popular tools in different areas of medical radiation physics following the development and subsequent implementation of powerful computing systems for clinical use. In particular, they have been extensively applied to simulate processes involving random behaviour and to quantify physical parameters that are difficult or even impossible to calculate analytically or to determine by experimental measurements. The use of the Monte Carlo method to simulate radiation transport turned out to be the most accurate means of predicting absorbed dose distributions and other quantities of interest in the radiation treatment of cancer patients using either external or radionuclide radiotherapy. The same trend has occurred for the estimation of the absorbed dose in diagnostic procedures using radionuclides. There is broad consensus in accepting that the earliest Monte Carlo calculations in medical radiation physics were made in the area of nuclear medicine, where the technique was used for dosimetry modelling and computations. Formalism and data based on Monte Carlo calculations, developed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, were published in a series of supplements to the Journal of Nuclear Medicine, the first one being released in 1968. Some of these pamphlets made extensive use of Monte Carlo calculations to derive specific absorbed fractions for electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in organs of mathematical phantoms. Interest in Monte Carlo-based dose calculations with β-emitters has been revived with the application of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies to radioimmunotherapy. As a consequence of this generalized use, many questions are being raised primarily about the need and potential of Monte Carlo techniques, but also about how accurate it really is, what would it take to apply it clinically and make it available widely to the medical physics

  11. The EnVision++ system: a new immunohistochemical method for diagnostics and research. Critical comparison with the APAAP, ChemMate, CSA, LABC, and SABC techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabattini, E; Bisgaard, K; Ascani, S; Poggi, S; Piccioli, M; Ceccarelli, C; Pieri, F; Fraternali-Orcioni, G; Pileri, S A

    1998-07-01

    To assess a newly developed immunohistochemical detection system, the EnVision++. A large series of differently processed normal and pathological samples and 53 relevant monoclonal antibodies were chosen. A chessboard titration assay was used to compare the results provided by the EnVision++ system with those of the APAAP, CSA, LSAB, SABC, and ChemMate methods, when applied either manually or in a TechMate 500 immunostainer. With the vast majority of the antibodies, EnVision++ allowed two- to fivefold higher dilutions than the APAAP, LSAB, SABC, and ChemMate techniques, the staining intensity and percentage of expected positive cells being the same. With some critical antibodies (such as the anti-CD5), it turned out to be superior in that it achieved consistently reproducible results with differently fixed or overfixed samples. Only the CSA method, which includes tyramide based enhancement, allowed the same dilutions as the EnVision++ system, and in one instance (with the anti-cyclin D1 antibody) represented the gold standard. The EnVision++ is an easy to use system, which avoids the possibility of disturbing endogenous biotin and lowers the cost per test by increasing the dilutions of the primary antibodies. Being a two step procedure, it reduces both the assay time and the workload.

  12. Using Pattern Classification and Recognition Techniques for Diagnostic and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORARIU, N.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the joint use of classification and recognition techniques for the activity evolution diagnostication and prediction by means of a set of indexes. Starting from the indexes set there is defined a measure on the patterns set, measure representing a scalar value that characterizes the activity analyzed at each time moment. A pattern is defined by the values of the indexes set at a given time. Over the classes set obtained by means of the classification and recognition techniques is defined a relation that allows the representation of the evolution from negative evolution towards positive evolution. For the diagnostication and prediction the following tools are used: pattern recognition and multilayer perceptron. The data set used in experiments describes the pollution due to CO2 emission from the consumption of fuels in Europe. The paper also presents the REFORME software written by the authors and the results of the experiment obtained with this software.

  13. A clinicopathological study of various oral cancer diagnostic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ulaganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignant tumors in the head and neck regions with high incident rate and mortality rate in the developed countries than in the developing countries. Generally, the survival rate of cancer patients may increase when diagnosed at early stage, followed by prompt treatment and therapy. Recently, cancer diagnosis and therapy design for a specific cancer patient have been performed with the advanced computer-aided techniques. The responses of the cancer therapy could be continuously monitored to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment process that hardly requires diagnostic result as quick as possible to improve the quality and patient care. This paper gives an overview of oral cancer occurrence, different types, and various diagnostic techniques. In addition, a brief introduction is given to various stages of immunoanalysis including tissue image preparation, whole slide imaging, and microscopic image analysis.

  14. Fusion alpha loss diagnostic for ITER using activation technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R.; Vermaercke, P.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1298-1301 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT) /26th./. Port o, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * fusion product * burning plasma diagnostics * alpha losses * activation technique Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611002778

  15. ATA diagnostic data handling system: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F.W.; Kallman, J.; McDonald, J.; Slominski, M.

    1984-01-01

    The functions to be performed by the ATA diagnostic data handling system are discussed. The capabilities of the present data acquisition system (System 0) are presented. The goals for the next generation acquisition system (System 1), currently under design, are discussed. Facilities on the Octopus system for data handling are reviewed. Finally, we discuss what has been learned about diagnostics and computer based data handling during the past year

  16. Student Science Teachers' Ideas of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to reveal the levels of understanding of student science teachers regarding the digestive system. In this research, 116 student science teachers were tested by applying the drawing method. Upon the analysis of the drawings they made, it was found that some of them had misconceptions such as "the organs of the…

  17. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  18. Expert system for fast reactor diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parcy, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    A general description of expert systems is given. The operation of a fast reactor is reviewed. The expert system to the diagnosis of breakdowns limited to the reactor core. The structure of the system is described: specification of the diagnostics; structure of the data bank and evaluation of the rules; specification of the prediagnostics and evaluation; explanation of the diagnostics; time evolution of the system; comparison with other expert systems. Applications to some cases of faults are finally presented [fr

  19. Scaling-Up the Functional Diagnostic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Functional diagnostic systems received a lot of attention in the last decade. They have proven their powerful for diagnosis the new faults of some complex systems. But, they still have some complexity in both the representation and reasoning about the large-scale systems. This paper introduces a new functional diagnostic system that can divide its small functions into main and auxiliary ones. This process enables the diagnostic system to scale -up the representation of the tested system and simplify the diagnostic mechanism tasks. Thus, it can improve both the representation and reasoning complexity. Also,it can decrease the required analysis, cost, and time. Proposed system can be applied for a wide area of the large-scale systems. It has been proven its acceptance to be applied practically for the Complex real-time systems

  20. Reg proteins and their roles in inflammation and cancer of the human digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Hao; Lai, Maode

    2013-01-01

    The regenerating gene (Reg) family is a group of small molecules that includes four members found in various species, although only three are found in human tissues. Their expression is stimulated by certain growth factors or cytokines. The Reg family plays different roles in proliferation, migration, and anti-apoptosis through activating different signaling pathways. Their dysexpression is closely associated with a number of human conditions and diseases such as inflammation and cancer, especially in the human digestive system. Clinically, upregulation of Reg proteins is usually demonstrated in histological sections and sera from cancer patients. Therefore, Reg proteins can predict the progression and prognosis of cancers, especially those of the digestive tract, and can also act as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  1. Imaging mammary diagnostics. Diagnostic techniques, archetypical findings, differential diagnostcs and interventions. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, S.; Schreer, I.

    2008-01-01

    The book includes the following chapters: I. Methodology: anamnesis and interview; clinical evidence, mammography, sonography, magnetic resonance tomography, new imaging techniques (scintigraphy, PET), transcutaneous biopsy, pre-operative marking; II. phenotypes: normal mammary glands, mastopathics, cysts, benign tumors, inflammatory diseases, in-situ carcinomas, invasive carcinomas, lymphomas, other semi-malign and malign tumors, post-traumatic, post-surgical and post-therapeutic changes, skin changes, male mamma, screening, continuative diagnostics of screening evidence and problem solving for symptomatic patients

  2. LeRC rail accelerators: test designs and diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zana, L.M.; Kerslake, W.R.; Sturman, J.C.; Wang, S.Y.; Terdan, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed. 15 references

  3. Diagnostic imaging techniques in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, A.; Carcione, A.; Benenati, A.; Albano, S.; Rubino, F.P.; Reina, C.; Verde, V.; Giuffre, L.; Corsello, G.; Cammarata, M.; Piccione, M.

    1991-01-01

    Both etiology and pathogenesis of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) are still questionable, even though a genetic factor seems to be certain. A typical face, psychomotor delay, and thumb and halluces abnormalities (big, prevalently short, and often 'spoon-like' toes) are the main characteristic patterns of RTS. Eight subjects (4 male and 3 female children aged 26 days-7 years, and a 31-year old woman, mother of 1 of the affected children) with different signs of RTS were studied over the last 3 years. The results are here reported, with a special emphasis on malformations detected with conventional radiography (Rx), Computerized Tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US). Evaluated parameters were thumbs and halluces (Rx), bone age and skeleton (Rx), cranium (Rx) and encephalon (US, CT), cryptochidism (US, CT), and urogical (Rx, US) and carciovascolar (US) system. Atypical face and psycomotor delay were found in all cases, while thumb and halluces abnormalities were observed only in 6 cases. Among several clinical signs of RTS, we found: severe (<3rd centile) bone maturation delay in 4 cases; skull volume reduction (<50th centile) in 3 subjects and microcrania in 4; skeletal abnormalities in 7 cases (5 of them positive for bilateral coxofemoral abnormalities); urinary tract (4 cases) and cardiovascular (3 cases) malformation; and cryptorcidism in 3 of 4 males. A case was diagnosed during neonatal period (within the first month of life) it was a rare case associated with a variant form of Dandy-Walker anomaly; semiologic similarities were observed between mother and daughter patients. X-rays, US and CT rarely play an important role in the diagnosis of RTS, considering the several clinical signs, mainly tha face, affecting the patients. However, diagnostic imaging techniques help diagnose hidden malformations and confirm and integrate clinical signs

  4. Functional and comparative digestive system anatomy of Arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Hofmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary niche, feeding type classification and seasonal strategies of Rangifer tarandus and Ovibos moschatus discussed in relation to the anatomy of their digestive system. Classification criteria for the flexible feeding type system, originally established in bovids and later adapted to cervids, are substantiated and critically discussed in the light of recent attempts to invalidate the system. Eurasian mountain reindeer, North American barren-ground caribou, Svalbard reindeer and Victoria Island caribou are seasonally adaptable, opportunistic ruminants of the intermediate feeding type but the long evolutionary sepatation of Svalbard reindeer has modified several morphological features for winter survival without lichen, resulting in better adaptation to fibrous forage. Muskoxen, despite their seasonal selectivity, are typical grass and roughage eaters with extremely long mean retention time. Detailed data on the entire digestive system from muzzle to anus on both species are still insufficient and extended studies are worthwhile for understanding their nutritional niche and feeding adaptations.

  5. Evaluation of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of HWR pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Efficient and accurate inspection and diagnostic techniques for various reactor components and systems, especially pressure tubes for Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), are an important factor in assuring reliable and safe plant operation. To foster international collaboration in the efficient and safe use of nuclear power, the IAEA conducted a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Inter-comparison of Techniques for HWR Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics. The objective of the CRP was to inter-compare inspection and diagnostic techniques, in use and being developed, for structural integrity assessment of HWR pressure tubes. During the first phase of the CRP, participants investigated the capability of different techniques to detect and characterize flaws. During the second phase, participants collaborated to determine the hydrogen concentration and to detect and characterize hydride blisters in zirconium alloy pressure tubes. Eight organizations from six countries, which operate HWRs, have participated in this CRP, Most of the techniques examined are well established and many of them are regularly used during in-service inspection of pressure tubes. The inter-comparison of these techniques provides a platform for identifying a particular technique (or a set of techniques), which is more accurate and reliable as compared to others for a specified task. The CRP also witnessed some new methodologies, which can be implemented on in-service inspection tools. These new techniques could complement the existing ones to overcome their limitations, thereby improving the reliability and accuracy of in-service inspection. This CRP also identified future areas of research and development. (author)

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of new imaging techniques in breast diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordenne, W; Bauduin, E [Liege Univ. (Belgium)

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, the hypothetical carcinogenic effects of mammography have lead to new technical developments in X-ray diagnosis and to use of other imaging techniques such as ultrasonography (US), transillumination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many preliminary studies were published but few clinical trials are really convincing. According to the definition of a diagnostic tool, none of these new modalities is supposed to supplant mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Improvements are expected by digital mammography in the near future. (Authors).

  7. The complexities of hydrolytic enzymes from the termite digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, Anas

    2014-06-01

    The main challenge in second generation bioethanol production is the efficient breakdown of cellulose to sugar monomers (hydrolysis). Due to the recalcitrant character of cellulose, feedstock pretreatment and adapted hydrolysis steps are needed to obtain fermentable sugar monomers. The conventional industrial production process of second-generation bioethanol from biomass comprises several steps: thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar fermentation. This process is undergoing continuous optimization in order to increase the bioethanol yield and reduce the economic cost. Therefore, the discovery of new enzymes with high lignocellulytic activity or new strategies is extremely important. In nature, wood-feeding termites have developed a sophisticated and efficient cellulose degrading system in terms of the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis and exploitation. This system, which represents a model for digestive symbiosis has attracted the attention of biofuel researchers. This review describes the termite digestive system, gut symbionts, termite enzyme resources, in vitro studies of isolated enzymes and lignin degradation in termites.

  8. Systems Theory and the Earth Systems Approach in Science Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyongyong

    The systems approach provides a framework for integrating different scientific disciplines. This approach is used often in Earth Systems Education. This ERIC Digest describes the systems theory and its influence on science education. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  9. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E. [Fachverband Biogas, Obermarchtat (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  10. Histological development of the digestive system of the Amazonian pimelodid catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, E; Moreira, C; Castro-Ruiz, D; Oztürk, S; Fernández, C; Gilles, S; Nuñez, J; Duponchelle, F; Tello, S; Renno, J F; García-Dávila, C; Darias, M J

    2014-11-01

    The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this

  11. Improvement of Railroad Roller Bearing Test Procedures & Development of Roller Bearing Diagnostic Techniques. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive review of existing basic diagnostic techniques applicable to the railcar roller bearing defect and failure problem was made. Of the potentially feasible diagnostic techniques identified, high frequency vibration was selected for exper...

  12. New diagnostic technique for Zeeman-compensated atomic beam slowing: technique and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.; Metcalf, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the study of Zeeman-compensated slowing of an alkali atomic beam. Our time-of-flight technique measures the longitudinal veloc- ity distribution of the slowed atoms with a resolution below the Doppler limit of 30 cm/s. Furthermore, it can map

  13. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases. Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed, being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy. However, individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging...... evaluation, but also on sensitive monitoring of microvascular changes during treatment. State-of-the-art imaging techniques have the potential to visualize and characterize angiogenesis, although the technology and methodologies employed are recent and need further validation. The aim of this series...... of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers, used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy (including anti-angiogenic therapies), as well as for the precise targeting of drugs...

  14. Field-based systems and advanced diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryurek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Detection and characterization of anomalies in an industrial plant provide improved plant availability and plant efficiency thus yielding increased economic efficiency. Traditionally, detection of process anomalies is done at a high-level control system through various signal validation methods. These signal validation techniques rely on data from transmitters, which measure related process variables. Correlating these signals and deducing anomalies often is a very time consuming and a difficult task. Delays in detecting these anomalies can be costly during plant operation. Conventional centralized approaches also suffer from their dependence on detailed mathematical models of the processes. Smart field devices have the advantage of providing the necessary information directly to the control system as anomalies develop during operation of the processes enabling operators to take necessary steps to either prevent an unnecessary shut down before the problem becomes serious or schedule maintenance on the problematic loop. Fisher-Rosemount's PlantWeb TM architecture addresses 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field'. PlantWeb TM builds open process management systems by networking intelligent field devices, scalable control and systems platforms, and integrated modular software. A description of PlantWeb TM and how it improves various process conditions and reduces operating cost of a plant as well as a high level description of 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field', will be provided in this paper. PlantWeb TM is the trademark for Fisher-Rosemount's new field-based architecture that uses emerging technologies to utilize the power of intelligent field devices and deliver critical process and equipment information to improve plant performance. (author)

  15. Digestive system complications among hospitalized children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    least common complication, occurring in one (3.3%) of the cases studied. Conclusion: Acute ... Keywords: Acute abdominal crisis, children, haemoglobin, hospitalization, multi-systemic ... improvement of the management of such children.

  16. Plant Lectins as Medical Tools against Digestive System Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Laura Elena; Moreno-Celis, Ulisses; Cervantes-Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferriz-Martínez, Roberto Augusto; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; García-Gasca, Teresa

    2017-07-03

    Digestive system cancers-those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas-are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities. The present report integrates existing information on the activity of plant lectins on various types of digestive system cancers, and surveys the current state of research into their properties for diagnosis and selective treatment.

  17. Plant Lectins as Medical Tools against Digestive System Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elena Estrada-Martínez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Digestive system cancers—those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas—are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities. The present report integrates existing information on the activity of plant lectins on various types of digestive system cancers, and surveys the current state of research into their properties for diagnosis and selective treatment.

  18. Application of diagnostic system for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Takeshi; Hayashi, Haruji; Usui, Hiromi; Tsuruzono, Atsuya; Matsuda, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) began to implement Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) for rotating components (pumps, fans and electric motors) from 1999 and, also has begun to apply diesel engine diagnostic techniques at our three nuclear power plants since 2004. This paper provides a description of the CBM methods used for diesel engines in nuclear standby service, a summary of the procedures to introduce these diagnostic techniques to our nuclear power plants, and experience with the application of these methods to JAPC nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a technique for combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, M.A.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Romanovskii, Yu.V.

    2015-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a proven method of rapid gas diagnostics. In the present review an overview of the state of the art of TDL-based sensors and their applications for measurements of temperature, pressure, and species concentrations of gas components in harsh environments is given. In particular, the contemporary tunable diode laser systems, various methods of absorption detection (direct absorption measurements, wavelength modulation based phase sensitive detection), and relevant algorithms for data processing that improve accuracy and accelerate the diagnostics cycle are discussed in detail. The paper demonstrates how the recent developments of these methods and algorithms made it possible to extend the functionality of TDLAS in the tomographic imaging of combustion processes. Some prominent examples of applications of TDL-based sensors in a wide range of practical combustion aggregates, including scramjet engines and facilities, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation combustors, and coal gasifiers, are given in the final part of the review. - Highlights: • Overview of modern TDL-based sensors for combustion • TDL systems, methods of absorption detection and algorithms of data processing • Prominent examples of TDLAS diagnostics of the combustion facilities • Extension of the TDLAS on the tomographic imaging of combustion processes

  20. Design parameters and operating characteristics of animal waste anaerobic digestion systems - swine and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D T

    1983-01-01

    The development and validation of a comprehensive dynamic simulation model of the anaerobic fermentation of animal waste have been described by Hill. This model has proved to be highly accurate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in predicting the steady-state methane productivity of conventional fermentation plants and in simulating the transient-state response of semi-batch fed digesters. Simulation studies using this model have been performed and results have been used to develop design recommendations for steady-state operations. These simulation studies have also produced a start-up procedure that will ensure successful initial operation of the digestion system and, more importantly, have allowed determination of the operational techniques that will provide recovery from failure due to organic overloading or excessively short detention time. This paper describes the results of these studies for swine and poultry (caged layer) waste and presents the design recommendations and operating techniques developed from the simulations. (Refs. 11).

  1. Reliability and diagnostic of modular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kohlas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and diagnostic are in general two problems discussed separately. Yet the two problems are in fact closely related to each other. Here, this relation is considered in the simple case of modular systems. We show, how the computation of reliability and diagnostic can efficiently be done within the same Bayesian network induced by the modularity of the structure function of the system.

  2. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Towards the centralization of digestive oncologic surgery: changes in activity, techniques and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tebé

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine changes in the activity, surgical techniques and results from the process of centralization of complex digestive oncologic surgery in 2005-2012 as compared to 1996-2000. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study employing the minimum basic data set of hospital discharge (MBDSHD 1996-2012 from public centers in Catalonia (Spain was performed. The population consisted of individuals aged > 18 who underwent digestive oncologic surgery (esophagus, pancreas, liver, stomach or rectum. Medical centers were divided into low, medium, and high-volume centers (≤ 5, 6-10, and > 10 interventions/year, respectively. The tendency Chi-squared test was used to assess the centralization of patients in high-volume centers and hospital mortality evolution during the study period. Logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between volume and outcome. Results: A centralization of complex oncologic digestive surgery between 10% (liver and 46% (esophagus was obtained by means of a reduction in the number of hospitals that perform these interventions and a significant rise in the number of patients operated in high-volume centers (all types p ≤ 0.0001, except for esophagus. A significant decrease in mortality was observed, especially in esophagus (from 15% in 1996/2000 to 7% in 2009/12, p = 0.003 and pancreas (from 12% in 1996/2000 to 6% in 2009/12, p trend < 0.0001. Conclusions: A centralization of oncologic digestive surgery in high-volume centers and a reduction of hospital mortality in Catalonia were reported among esophageal and pancreatic cancers. However, no significant changes were found for others cancer types.

  4. Renal diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Blitz, H.; Kuester, W.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1989-02-01

    The involvement of kidneys in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) is one of the most frequent causes of death in this disease. Using clinical criteria and laboratory tests only the frequency of kidney involvement would be clearly underestimated. Invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy and angiography can not be applied in those patients. Nuclear medicine techniques (hippurate clearance, DMSA-scan), however, offer non invasive and sensitive methods in the diagnosis of renal involvement in PSS patients. In our study 46 of 76 patients (60%) revealed pathologic findings. The mentioned diagnostic techniques show a high sensitivity and are in agreement with pathological findings described in PSS.

  5. Renal diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Blitz, H.; Kuester, W.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of kidneys in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) is one of the most frequent causes of death in this disease. Using clinical criteria and laboratory tests only the frequency of kidney involvement would be clearly underestimated. Invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy and angiography can not be applied in those patients. Nuclear medicine techniques (hippurate clearance, DMSA-scan), however, offer non invasive and sensitive methods in the diagnosis of renal involvement in PSS patients. In our study 46 of 76 patients (60%) revealed pathologic findings. The mentioned diagnostic techniques show a high sensitivity and are in agreement with pathological findings described in PSS. (orig.) [de

  6. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Daniels, R.E.; PPL Computer Division

    1985-01-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man--machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ''groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development

  7. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  8. Comparison based on environmental effects of nitrogen management techniques in a manure digestate case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccanelli, Nicola; Teli, Aronne; Scaglione, Davide; Insabato, Gabriele; Casula, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate issues and favourable energy market, biogas is spreading as a manure management technique. Digestate is rich in nutrient and has to be handled in order to respect the 'nitrate directive' that limits nitrogen field application in areas defined as vulnerable. In this study, we compared different nitrogen management scenarios: a non-treatment option, a biological short-cut nitrification, a complete autotrophic process (anammox) and ammonia stripping from membrane filtration concentrate. The environmental effect comparison was obtained with 'Cross media effects analysis' and life cycle assessment (LCA). The results were different in some aspects, especially the impacts on eutrophication. According to cross media, the best process is DENO 2, while LCA shows similar impacts for all techniques and the best solution would be the no-treatment option. The main reason to adopt a digestate treatment technique is the lack of area for a correct disposal. If LCA eutrophication results are multiplied with the hectares necessary for each technology, a result similar to that of cross media is obtained.

  9. Resonant laser techniques for combustion and flow diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzon, Rolf

    1998-05-01

    This thesis presents results from two areas of research. Firstly, the resonant coherent laser techniques polarization spectroscopy (PS), degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) and stimulated emission (SE) have been developed in the general field of combustion diagnostics. Secondly, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) has been developed and applied for the visualization of mixture fractions in turbulent non reacting flows. PS was developed for instantaneous two-dimensional imaging of minor species in flames, the technique being demonstrated on OH and NO. Various aspects of imaging and of detection in general were investigated. Two-photon induced PS was demonstrated for the detection of NH{sub 3}, CO and N{sub 2} molecules. LIF was monitored simultaneously to allow a quantitative comparison between the techniques. Furthermore, PS and DFWM were developed for instantaneous two-dimensional OH temperature imaging. Through a novel experimental approach based on the use of a dual-wavelength dye laser and a diffraction grating the temperature imaging measurements were performed using only one laser and one CCD camera. A comparison between the two techniques was made. SE was through a crossed-beam arrangement developed for spatially resolved detection of flame species. Two-dimensional LIF was developed and applied for measuring mixture fractions in the shear layer between two co-flowing turbulent gaseous jets. The technique was further applied in a study of the mixing of a turbulent water jet impinging orthogonally onto a flat surface. Average concentration fields in the center-plane of the jet was compared with results from large eddy simulations and with data from the literature 221 refs, 48 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Laser diagnodent: a comparative study with other diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, Reugma Rego

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the Diagnodent equipment (Kavo Company, Germany) for the occlusal caries detection was dane through the comparison with other conventional diagnostic techniques, such as visual inspection, intra-oral micro camera and digital X-ray. The effectiveness of the equipment in the detection of hidden caries and its viability as a diagnosis method for caries in their initial stage was also studied. Fifty eight permanent molars and premolars teeth from patients with age between 6 and 30 years were studied. The obtained results indicated that the conventional methods employed for the caries diagnosis are unable to detect the carious lesion in its initial stage. The Diagnodent equipment has this capability to detect caries presenting a flawless surface, specially the hidden caries, allowing the dentist to decide between a preventive ar a conservative procedure. The main advantage of the Diagnodent is to be an objective method, compared to the visual and radiographic ones, that are dependent on the professional interpretation. The Diagnodent is, therefore, a promising alternative as an objective and standardized diagnosis method for the final diagnostic. (author)

  11. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  12. Reliability of diagnostic imaging techniques in suspected acute appendicitis: proposed diagnostic protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura del, J. L.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.; Vela, A. C.; Ibanez, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    To study the utility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) in case of suspected appendicitis. To determine the diagnostic yield in terms of different clinical contexts and patient characteristics. to assess the costs and benefits of introducing these techniques and propose a protocol for their use. Negative appendectomies, complications and length of hospital stay in a group of 152 patients with suspected appendicitis who underwent ultrasound and CT were compared with those of 180 patients who underwent appendectomy during the same time period, but had not been selected for the first group: these patients costs for each group were calculated. In the first group, the diagnostic value of the clinical signs was also evaluated. The reliability of the clinical signs was limited, while the results with ultrasound and CT were excellent. The incidence of negative appendectomy was 9.6% in the study group and 12.2% in the control group. Moreover, there were fewer complications and a shorter hospital stay in the first group. Among men, however, the rate of negative appendectomy was lower in the control group. The cost of using ultrasound and CT in the management of appendicitis was only slightly higher than that of the control group. Although ultrasound and CT are not necessary in cases in which the probability of appendicitis is low or in men presenting clear clinical evidence, the use of these techniques is indicated in the remaining cases in which appendicitis is suspected. In children, ultrasound is the technique of choice. In all other patients, if negative results are obtained with one of the two techniques, the other should be performed. (Author) 49 refs

  13. Shiva and Argus target diagnostics vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Mayo, S.E.; Campbell, D.; Holeman, D.

    1978-09-01

    The normal operation of LLL's Argus and Shiva laser irradiation facilities demand a main vacuum system for the target chamber and a separate local vacuum system for each of the larger appendage dianostics. This paper will describe the Argus and Shiva main vacuum systems, their respective auxiliary vacuum systems and the individual diagnostics with their respective special vacuum requirements and subsequent vacuum systems. Our latest approach to automatic computer-controlled vacuum systems will be presented

  14. On-line diagnostic techniques for air-operated control valves based on time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenji; Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Shigeru; Komatsu, Yasuki; Satoh, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves - numerous valves of the type which are used in PWR plants. Generally the techniques can detect anomalies by failures in the initial stages for which detection is difficult by conventional surveillance of process parameters measured directly. However, the effectiveness of these techniques depends on the system being diagnosed. The difficulties in applying diagnostic techniques to air-operated control valves seem to come from the reduced sensitivity of their response as compared with hydraulic control systems, as well as the need to identify anomalies in low level signals that fluctuate only slightly but continuously. In this research, simulation tests were performed by setting various kinds of failure modes for a test valve with the same specifications as of a valve actually used in the plants. Actual control signals recorded from an operating plant were then used as input signals for simulation. The results of the tests confirmed the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves. (author)

  15. Some aspects of diagnostic systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    1998-01-01

    The integrity and safety of all nuclear power plant systems and components is guaranteed by the high requirements to quality assurance during all phases of design, fabrication, construction and operation. Many of the countries operating nuclear facilities, introduced advanced, sophisticated diagnostic systems for continuous monitoring safety important process parameters. The licensee should perform an assessment of the existing diagnostic systems, often supplied by the original design, their reliability and the need for the introduction of the additional monitoring/diagnostic systems. The operating experience should be taken into account and the assessment of the further needs. On this field has to be made on the results of PSA studies. In addition to the cost benefit analysis the evaluation of the new diagnostic systems in the light of nuclear safety should be also made. Experience, gained from the utilities, which have already installed this kind of the equipment should be very useful. Introducing new diagnostic systems will require often a safety assessment of the necessary modifications. Licensing process should be based on the existing nuclear legislation with certain additional requirements. (author)

  16. New diagnostic technique for Zeeman-compensated atomic beam slowing: technique and results

    OpenAIRE

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.; Metcalf, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the study of Zeeman-compensated slowing of an alkali atomic beam. Our time-of-flight technique measures the longitudinal veloc- ity distribution of the slowed atoms with a resolution below the Doppler limit of 30 cm/s. Furthermore, it can map the position and velocity distribution of atoms in either ground hyperfine level inside the solenoid without any devices inside the solenoid. The technique reveals the optical pumping ef- fects, and shows in de...

  17. A new digestion and chemical separation technique for rapid and highly reproducible determination of Lu/Hf and Hf isotope ratios in geological materials by mc-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, J.A.; Ulfbeck, D.

    2003-01-01

    for isotopic analysis of the Sm-Nd system and/or the other HFSE (Ti, Zr). Total procedural blanks for this technique are 5 g) samples. We present data from replicate digestions of international rock reference materials which....... The relative simplicity of this technique, coupled with the ease of digestion (and samplespike equilibration) of large difficult-to-dissolve samples, and the speed (2 days) with which samples can be digested and processed through the chemical separation scheme makes it an attractive new method for preparing...

  18. The clinical value of lncRNA NEAT1 in digestive system malignancies: A comprehensive investigation based on 57 microarray and RNA-seq datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dan-Dan; Feng, Zhen-Bo; Cen, Wei-Luan; Zeng, Jing-Jing; Liang, Lu; Tang, Rui-Xue; Gan, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Hai-Wei; Li, Zu-Yun; Chen, Gang; Luo, Dian-Zhong

    2017-03-14

    This comprehensive investigation was performed to evaluate the expression level and potential clinical value of NEAT1 in digestive system malignancies. A total of 57 lncRNA datasets of microarray or RNA-seq and 5 publications were included. The pooled standard mean deviation (SMD) indicated that NEAT1 was down-regulated in esophageal carcinoma (ESCA, SMD = -0.35, 95% CI: -0.5~-0.20, P digestive system malignancies (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.28-1.76, P digestive system cancers and could be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients with digestive system carcinomas. Further and stricter studies with a larger number of cases are necessary to strengthen our conclusions.

  19. MFTF plasma diagnostics data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.E.; Coffield, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    The initial goal of the Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to control 11 instruments chosen as the startup diagnostic set and to collect, process, and display the data that these instruments produce. These instruments are described in a paper by Stan Thomas, et. al. entitled ''MFTF Plasma Diagnostics System.'' The DAS must be modular and flexible enough to allow upgrades in the quantity of data taken by an instrument, and also to allow new instruments to be added to the system. This is particularly necessary to support a research project where needs and requirements may change rapidly as a result of experimental findings. Typically, the startup configuration of the diagnostic instruments will contain only a fraction of the planned detectors, and produce approximately one half the data that the expanded version is designed to generate. Expansion of the system will occur in fiscal year 1982

  20. Gastrointestinal physiology and digestive disorders in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaly, Travis; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic interplay of the digestive system and sleep is an excellent example of brain-body interaction. New advances in measuring techniques provide an opportunity to evaluate physiology that is dependent upon the sleep/wake state or circadian rhythm and potentially differentiate between normal and pathological conditions. Sleep-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology create vulnerabilities to digestive issues such as reflux, whereas disorders such as duodenal ulcers raise the importance of circadian variations in digestive system function. Advances in the area of normal sleep physiology have furthered our understanding of the underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms by which sleep disruption may aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, important early work has shown that the treatment of digestive disorders such as reflux can improve sleep quality just as the improvement in sleep may aid in the treatment of digestive disorders. For the clinician, these forward steps in our knowledge mark the start of an era in which understanding the effects of the sleep/wake state and circadian rhythms on gastrointestinal physiology promise to yield novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  1. Plant utilization against digestive system disorder in Southern Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Prakash Roy; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Mitra, Abhijit; Nath, Deepa; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2015-12-04

    Being one of the most common types of life threatening diseases in Southern Assam, India, the digestive system disorders (DSD) have gained much attention in recent decades. Traditional beliefs and inadequate income of mass population result in the use of alternative phytotherapies to treat the diseases. The present paper documents the medicinal knowledge and utilization of plants for treatment of digestive system disorders in Southern Assam, India by Disease Consensus Index (DCI). It also determines the most suitable plant species used to treat digestive system disorders in the study area. The study was based on ethnomedicinal field survey covering a period of 1 year from 2014-2015. The ethnomedicinal information was collected by using semi-structured questionnaires from different traditional Bengali people having knowledge on medicinal plants. Collected data were analyzed by calculating DCI. During the survey, 29 informants were interviewed and a total of 49 plants under 46 genera belonging to 33 families were listed. Data analysis revealed that Litsea glutinosa, Momordica charantia, Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis, Cleome viscosa, Psidium guajava, Ageratum conyzoides, Cuscuta reflexa, Cynodon dactylon and Carica papaya are the most prominent plants among the people of Southern Assam for treating DSD. This explorative survey emphasizes the need to preserve and document the traditional healing practices for managing DSD inviting for more imminent scientific research on the plants to determine their efficacy as well as safety. With the help of statistical analysis (DCI), we propose 10 priority plants for DSD in present work. Systematic pharmacological study with these plants may contribute significant result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Jing Xie,1,2 Xiao Yan Zhu,1,2 Lu Ming Liu,1,2 Zhi Qiang Meng1,2 1Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues o...

  3. Study for the design method of multi-agent diagnostic system to improve diagnostic performance for similar abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Hirotsugu; Gofuku, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Accidents on industrial plants cause large loss on human, economic, social credibility. In recent, studies of diagnostic methods using techniques of machine learning such as support vector machine is expected to detect the occurrence of abnormality in a plant early and correctly. There were reported that these diagnostic machines has high accuracy to diagnose the operating state of industrial plant under mono abnormality occurrence. But the each diagnostic machine on the multi-agent diagnostic system may misdiagnose similar abnormalities as a same abnormality if abnormalities to diagnose increases. That causes that a single diagnostic machine may show higher diagnostic performance than one of multi-agent diagnostic system because decision-making considering with misdiagnosis is difficult. Therefore, we study the design method for multi-agent diagnostic system to diagnose similar abnormality correctly. This method aimed to realize automatic generation of diagnostic system where the generation process and location of diagnostic machines are optimized to diagnose correctly the similar abnormalities which are evaluated from the similarity of process signals by statistical method. This paper explains our design method and reports the result evaluated our method applied to the process data of the fast-breeder reactor Monju

  4. Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System Distributed Operating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper contains a description of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) Distributed Operating System. The SCDS consists of nine 32-bit minicomputers with shared memory. The system's main purpose is to control a large Mirror Fusion Test Facility

  5. Development trends for diagnostic systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, U.; Pohl, U.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring systems used in nuclear power plants have made remarkable progress over the past four or five years. Development has followed the trends and changes in philosophy for the purpose of monitoring systems in nuclear power plants: They are no longer expected to fulfill only safety tasks, the plant personnel require information on which to base condition-oriented maintenance. A new generation of monitoring and diagnostic systems has been developed by Siemens recently. This new generation, called Series '95, is PC-based. An overview is given for the KUeS '95 loose parts diagnostic system, the SUeS '95 vibration monitoring system, the FLUeS leak detection system and the SIPLUG valve diagnostics system. The objectives behind the development of these new systems are both safety-related and economic. The new systems improve the reliability and quality of monitoring techniques and incorporate better detection and diagnostic capabilities. Progress has also been made in automation of the systems so as to reduce routine work, give higher sensitivity for the monitoring task and reduce the scope of maintenance. (author)

  6. Performance diagnostic system for emergency diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Diesel generators are commonly used for emergency backup power at nuclear stations. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) are subject to both start-up and operating failures, due to infrequent and fast-start use. EDG reliability can be critical to plant safety, particularly when station blackout occurs. This paper describes an expert diagnostic system designed to consistently evaluate the operating performance of diesel generators. The prototype system is comprised of a suite of sensor monitoring, cylinder combustion analyzing, and diagnostic workstation computers. On-demand assessments of generator and auxiliary equipment performance are provided along with color trend displays comparing measured performance to reference-normal conditions

  7. A study of diagnostics expert system for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Y.; Banerji, Anil; Kotaiah, S.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge based techniques are proving to be useful in a number of problem domains which typically requires human expertise. Expert systems employing knowledge based techniques are a recent product of artificial intelligence. Methods developed in the artificial intelligence area can be applied with success for certain classes of problems in accelerator. Accelerators are complex devices with thousands of components. The number of possible faults or problems that can appear is enormous. A diagnostics expert system can provide great help in finding and diagnosing problems in Indus-II accelerator sub-systems. (author)

  8. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B.

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  9. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF TURNOUTS TECHNICAL DIAGNOSTICS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper it is necessary to: 1 find out the causes of turnouts faults to determine diagnostic features failures; 2 consider the requirements structure, purpose components of turnouts, work and technology of their maintenance to determine the construction of the economic activities related to system to the turnout’s maintenance; 3 substantiate the possibility, necessity and prospects of automated diagnostics turnout’s implementation; 4 elaborate a prototype of an automated hardware and software system for the turnouts control parameters and perform diagnostics on them. Methodology. In the paper possible turnouts faults were presented and manifestations and influence on its work were shown. According to the current technology works the process analyze of turnouts’ maintenance was conducted, were defined the basic performed operations during the examination of appearance, parameters and check the repair or replacement of parts and assemblies. Based on the analysis of reasons of turnouts malfunctioning and their fixes were systematized types of damages and ways to deal with them, an information scheme of troubleshooting were created, opportunities and limits of automating the process of diagnostics were identified and compared with the existing method of turnouts maintenance. A diagnostics system block diagram was created, an algorithm of its work was developed and established main basic principles of operation. Software and hardware to determine the turnout’s state considering diagnostic performance of points in use were applied. Findings. During the experiment was created a method of automated turnout’s diagnostics with AC electric drives, managed centrally. The results of automated hardware and software system make it possible to control turnout’s parameters and perform diagnostics on them. Originality. Authors created the method of turnout’s state determination by current curve and its spectral composition in the

  11. BWR recirculation pump diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, S.C.; Morimoto, C.N.; Torres, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    At General Electric (GE), an on-line expert system to support maintenance decisions for BWR recirculation pumps for nuclear power plants has been developed. This diagnostic expert system is an interactive on-line system that furnishes diagnostic information concerning BWR recirculation pump operational problems. It effectively provides the recirculation pump diagnostic expertise in the plant control room continuously 24 hours a day. The expert system is interfaced to an on-line monitoring system, which uses existing plant sensors to acquire non-safety related data in real time. The expert system correlates and evaluates process data and vibration data by applying expert rules to determine the condition of a BWR recirculation pump system by applying knowledge based rules. Any diagnosis will be automatically displayed, indicating which pump may have a problem, the category of the problem, and the degree of concern expressed by the validity index and color hierarchy. The rules incorporate the expert knowledge from various technical sources such as plant experience, engineering principles, and published reports. These rules are installed in IF-THEN formats and the resulting truth values are also expressed in fuzzy terms and a certainty factor called a validity index. This GE Recirculation Pump Expert System uses industry-standard software, hardware, and network access to provide flexible interfaces with other possible data acquisition systems. Gensym G2 Real-Time Expert System is used for the expert shell and provides the graphical user interface, knowledge base, and inference engine capabilities. (author)

  12. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  13. Study on microwave digestion technique of granite with high pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chengjian; Luo Yangming; Fu Zhonghua

    2008-06-01

    The digestion relation of heating time, temperature and pressure for acids is discussed in closed container under microwave field. Some granite samples were digested by microwave in 100 ml closed container. The results show that the best acid to digest granite samples is a combination of HNO 3 and HF, 0.5 g sample powder can be digested completely in 21 minutes, and that the maximum sample mass is 2.0 g using 100 ml closed container. (authors)

  14. Case-Based Fault Diagnostic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, case-based fault diagnostic (CBFD) systems have become important and widely applied problem solving technologies. They are based on the assumption that “similar faults have similar diagnosis”. On the other hand, CBFD systems still suffer from some limitations. Common ones of them are: (1) failure of CBFD to have the needed diagnosis for the new faults that have no similar cases in the case library. (2) Limited memorization when increasing the number of stored cases in the library. The proposed research introduces incorporating the neural network into the case based system to enable the system to diagnose all the faults. Neural networks have proved their success in the classification and diagnosis problems. The suggested system uses the neural network to diagnose the new faults (cases) that cannot be diagnosed by the traditional CBR diagnostic system. Besides, the proposed system can use the another neural network to control adding and deleting the cases in the library to manage the size of the cases in the case library. However, the suggested system has improved the performance of the case based fault diagnostic system when applied for the motor rolling bearing as a case of study

  15. The JET diagnostic fast central acquisition and trigger system (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A. W.; Blackler, K.

    1995-01-01

    Most plasma physics diagnostics sample at a fixed frequency that is normally matched to available memory limits. This technique is not appropriate for long pulse machines such as JET where sampling frequencies of hundreds of kHz are required to diagnose very fast events. As a result of work using real-time event selection within the previous JET soft x-ray diagnostic, a single data acquisition and event triggering system for all suitable fast diagnostics, the fast central acquisition and trigger system (Fast CATS), has been developed for JET. The front-end analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) part samples all channels at 250 kHz, with a 100 kHz pass band and a stop band of 125 kHz. The back-end data collection system is based around Texas Instruments TMS320C40 microprocessors. Within this system, two levels of trigger algorithms are able to evaluate data. The first level typically analyzes data on a per diagnostic and individual channel basis. The second level looks at the data from one or more diagnostics in a window around the time of interest flagged by the first level system. Selection criteria defined by the diagnosticians are then imposed on the results from the second level to decide whether that data should be kept. The use of such a system involving intelligent real time trigger algorithms and fast data analysis will improve both the quantity and quality of JET diagnostic data, while providing valuable input to the design of data acquisition systems for very long pulse machines such as ITER. This paper will give an overview of the various elements of this new system. In addition, first results from this system following the restart of JET operation will be presented.

  16. Electrical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the internal cellulosic paper and oil insulation are of concern for the performance of power transformers. Over the years, a number of methods have been developed to diagnose and monitor the degradation/aging of the transformer internal insulation system. Some of this degradation/aging can be assessed from electrical responses. Currently there are a variety of electrical-based diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. In most cases, the electrical signals being monitored are due to mechanical or electric changes caused by physical changes in resistivity, inductance or capacitance, moisture, contamination or aging by-products in the insulation. This paper presents a description of commonly used and modern electrical-based diagnostic techniques along with their interpretation schemes.

  17. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing P450 in artificial digestive systems : A model for biodetoxication in the human digestive environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquet, S.; Meunier, J.P.; Minekus, M.; Marol-Bonnin, S.; Alric, M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with

  18. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  19. Diagnostic expert system in the PF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Isamu; Nakahara, Kazuo; Kitamura, Masaharu.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype diagnostic expert system (ES) was developed for the Photon Factory 2.5-GeV electron/positron LINAC injector system. The ES has been on-lined with the conventional linac computer network for receiving real data. This project was undertaken in an attempt to reduce the linac operator's mental workload, diagnosis duties, and to explore Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The outlook for ES and its problems, and what has been achieved are outlined in this presentation. (author)

  20. USE OF THE MOBILE NYLON BAG TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING IN SITU DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME SUPPLIES FOOD AND AVOCADO IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ly Carmenatti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mobile nylon bag technique was used for measuring in situ digestibility of conventional feeds and avocado (Persea americana Mills products in three 70 kg pigs fitted with a simple cannula in duodenum. One 3x3 Latin square was used for determining in situ digestibility of soybean, maize and sorghum meal and another 3x3 Latin square for measuring in situ digestibility of seed, peel plus seed meal and the entire Nayaritean avocado fruit of Hass type, as well as of the commercial diet given ad libitum to animals. In a preliminary test conducted with only bags containing a commercial feedstuff, it was found that in situ digestibility of DM was on average 73.01%. In conventional feeds, soybean meal samples showed higher (P0.05 for N digestibility among avocado products, which was generally low (between 28.02 and 34.58%. In situ organic matter digestibility was linked to that of MS (r = 0.915; P<0.001, both in percent, in 42 examined samples, by the following found equation: y = 2.076 + 0.926 x. The herein described studies concerning the utilization of the mobile bag showed that it is possible to obtain a fast response in connection to the nutritive value of non conventional, tropical alimentary resources for pigs. On the other hand, the continuation of studies relative to the nutritive value of avocado products for pigs is highly recommended.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of digestive tract involvement in cystic fibrosis. Part 2: pancreatic and gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Prieto, C.; Miralles, M.; Pozo, G. del; Martinez, A.; Manzanares, J.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal, autosomal recessive disease among the white population. Although recurrent pulmonary infections and pulmonary insufficiency are the major causes of morbidity and mortality, gastrointestinal symptoms generally present earlier and may suggest the diagnosis in the newborn or even prior to birth. The changes are attributed to the secretion of an abnormally thick mucous into the intestinal lumen, leading to the hallmark of diseases of the digestive tract: obstruction. This can be detected at birth in the form of mecanium ileus, ileal atresia, mecanium peritonitis and mecomiun plug, or present later on in childhood and adolescence as distal bowel obstruction syndrome or fibrosing colonopathy. This thick mucous can also trigger intussusception or acute appendicitis. Pancreatic insufficiency or pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is the direct cause of most of these disorders. Plain radiography is of the utmost utility in assessing the digestive tract in CF. When the disease is detected in a newborn, the recommended approach is to perform plain abdominal X-ray, followed by barium enema, always accompanied by ultrasound. In older children and adolescents, enema and ultrasound are usually sufficient, although computed tomography and magnetic resonance may sometimes be necessary. (Author) 52 refs

  2. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed

  3. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  4. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rirang Uranium Ore Processing System Design: Agitated Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erni, R.A.; Susilaningtyas

    1996-01-01

    A closed tank digester equipped with a pitched blades turbine agitator has been designed to facilities Rirang uranium ore dissolution using concentrated sulphuric acid at high temperature. The digester was designed to accommodate the digestion of 6 kg of-65 mesh ore at 200 o C, acid resistant material (SS-3 16). It has the dimension of 33 cm high, 22 cm diameter, and elliptical bottom and height of 4 cm. Moreover, the dimension of the 4 blades agitator is as follows: 8 cm long, 1,6 cm blades width. The distance between the blades and digester required 0, 007 Hp for a 500 rpm agitation speed and + 24. 103 kcal energy equipment for heating. Digestion experiment using the agitated digester yielded data that are in good agreement with laboratory scale experiment

  6. An expert system for turbogenerator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessenyei, Z.; Tomcsanyi, T.; Toth, Z.; Laczay, I.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, an expert system for turbo-generator diagnostics (EST-D) was installed at the 3rd and 4th units of the Paks NPP (Hungary). The expert system is strongly integrated to the ARGUS II vibration monitoring and diagnostics system. The system works on IBM PC AT. The VEIKI's and the NPP's human experts were interviewed to fill up the knowledgebase. The system is able to identify 13 different faults of the parts of a turbogenerator. The knowledgebase consists of ca 200 rules. The rules were built in and the system was verified and validated using a model of the turbines and using the experiences gathered with ARGUS II during the last 3 years. The maintenance personnel is authorized to modify and/or extend the knowledgebase. The input data for evaluation come from measured vibration patterns produced by the ARGUS II system, database of events, and maintenance data input by the maintenance personnel. The expert system is based on the modified GENESYS 2.1 shell (developed by SZAMALK, Hungary). Some limitations from PC application were eliminated, and a new, independent explanation module and man-machine interface were developed. Using this man-machine interface, one of the basic goals of the expert system developments was achieved: the human experts contribution is not necessary for diagnoses. The operator of the diagnostics system is able to produce the reports of diagnoses. Of course the interface allows the human experts to see the diagnoses through. It should be mentioned, at the beginning of 1991, we installed a similar expert system at the 1st 1000 MW WWER type unit of the Kalinin NPP (Soviet Union). In this paper, the operation of the EST-D, the man-machine interface and the operational experiences of the first 4 months work are explained. 2 refs., 14 figs

  7. Sludge digesters - important components of biological sewage treatment systems. Faulbehaelter - wichtige Bausteine der biologischen Abwasserklaerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthen, R [Ing.-Buero Perthen, Schwabach (Germany)

    1992-05-01

    Following some general explanations regarding the function of sludge digesters as components of sewage treatment systems, the paper deals with a sludge digester system in Bottrop. It consists of four egg-shaped reactors with a useful content of 15 000 m[sup 3]. The plant is designed for daily digestion of 3 000 m[sup 3] and a period of digestion of 20 days. Briefly described are the design blueprints tendered, special proposals regarding the construction of the shells and for the design of the base or foundation, as well as the actual construction work and special static and design features. (LU).

  8. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Fermoso, F.G.; Weijma, J.; Zagt, K.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds

  9. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  10. NPP Mochovce units 1 and 2 diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the diagnostic systems (leak detection monitoring, vibration monitoring, lose parts monitoring, fatigue monitoring) of NPP Mochovce units 1 and 2 are presented. All of the designed diagnostic systems are personal computer based systems

  11. Relationships between Digestive, Circulatory, and Urinary Systems in Portuguese Primary Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Clèment, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 63 Portuguese primary schoolbooks (1920-2005) were analyzed. The analysis focused on text information (reference to blood absorption and association of the digestive system to other human systems) and on information from images (presence or absence of image "confusion" (when the sequence of the digestive tract is not…

  12. Nike Facility Diagnostics and Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yung; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Karasik, Max; Kehne, David; Obenschain, Steve; Oh, Jaechul; Serlin, Victor; Weaver, Jim

    2013-10-01

    The Nike laser-target facility is a 56-beam krypton fluoride system that can deliver 2 to 3 kJ of laser energy at 248 nm onto targets inside a two meter diameter vacuum chamber. Nike is used to study physics and technology issues related to laser direct-drive ICF fusion, including hydrodynamic and laser-plasma instabilities, material behavior at extreme pressures, and optical and x-ray diagnostics for laser-heated targets. A suite of laser and target diagnostics are fielded on the Nike facility, including high-speed, high-resolution x-ray and visible imaging cameras, spectrometers and photo-detectors. A centrally-controlled, distributed computerized data acquisition system provides robust data management and near real-time analysis feedback capability during target shots. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  13. Optical fibres for fusion plasma diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brichard, B.

    2005-01-01

    The condition to achieve and maintain the ignition of a thermonuclear fusion plasma ignition calls for the construction of a large scale fusion reactor, namely ITER. This reactor is designed to deliver an average fusion power of 500 MW. The burning of fusion plasma at such high power level will release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of particle fluxes and ionising radiation. This energy release, primarily absorbed by the plasma facing components, can significantly degrade the performances of the plasma diagnostic equipment surrounding the machine. To ensure a correct operation of the Tokamak we need to develop highly radiation-resistance devices. In plasma diagnostic systems, optical fibre is viewed as a convenient tool to transport light from the plasma edge to the diagnostic area. Radiation affects the optical performances of the fibre mainly by the occurrence of radiation-induced absorption and luminescence. Both effects degrade the light signal used for plasma diagnostic. SCK-CEN is currently assessing radiation-resistant glasses for optical fibres and is developing the associated qualification procedure. The main objectives of this study were to increase the lifetime of optical components in high radiation background and to develop a radiation resistance optical fibre capable to operate in the radiation background of ITER

  14. Diagnostic system for combine cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yujiro; Nomura, Masumi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Ito, Ryoji; Kita, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    We developed the Diagnostic System for Combined Cycle Power Plant which enables inexperienced operators as well as experienced operators to cope with abnormal conditions of Combined Cycle Power Plant. The features of this system are the Estimate of Emergency Level for Operation and the Prediction of Subsequent Abnormality, adding to the Diagnosis of Cause and the Operation Guidance. Moreover in this system, Diagnosis of Cause was improved by using our original method and support screens can be displayed for educational means in normal condition as well. (Authors)

  15. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  16. Effect of recirculation rate on methane production and SEBAR system performance using active stage digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubtong, Cheevanuch; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Connor, Michael Anthony; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Nopharatana, Annop

    2010-09-01

    A project was undertaken to examine the feasibility of treating organic wastes from Thai fruit and vegetable markets using the sequential batch anaerobic digester (SEBAR) approach. A key feature of the SEBAR system is the regular interchanging, or recirculation, of portions of leachate between each freshly filled digester and a support digester to which it is coupled until it is ready to operate independently. Leachate transfer from this support digester to the fresh waste digester provides additional alkalinity to help counteract the effects of early high acid release rates; it also helps build a balanced microbial population in the fresh waste digester. To optimize the leachate recirculation process, the effect of varying the quantities of leachate interchanged between freshly filled waste digesters and the still highly active support digesters to which they were coupled was studied. It was found that increasing the recirculation rate accelerated the onset of both waste degradation and methane production. The increasing of recirculation rate from 10% to 20% and 10% to 30% could reduce the SEBAR cycle period by approximately 7% and 22% without significant reduction in the amount of methane obtained from the systems. The methane yields were 0.0063, 0.0068 and 0.0077 l g(-1) VS added in the NEW digester per day using leachate recirculation rates of 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively. This finding has potentially important practical and economic implications for those using the SEBAR system to add value to market waste.

  17. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in a uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation are discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  18. MFTF supervisory control and diagnostics system hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butner, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a multiprocessor minicomputer system designed so that for most single-point failures, the hardware may be quickly reconfigured to provide continued operation of the experiment. The system is made up of nine Perkin-Elmer computers - a mixture of 8/32's and 7/32's. Each computer has ports on a shared memory system consisting of two independent shared memory modules. Each processor can signal other processors through hardware external to the shared memory. The system communicates with the Local Control and Instrumentation System, which consists of approximately 65 microprocessors. Each of the six system processors has facilities for communicating with a group of microprocessors; the groups consist of from four to 24 microprocessors. There are hardware switches so that if an SCDS processor communicating with a group of microprocessors fails, another SCDS processor takes over the communication

  19. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in an uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation is discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  20. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B

    2012-01-01

    -soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces...

  1. Advanced monitoring, fault diagnostics, and maintenance of cryogenic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girone, Mario; Pezzetti, Marco

    In this Thesis, advanced methods and techniques of monitoring, fault diagnostics, and predictive maintenance for cryogenic processes and systems are described. In particular, in Chapter 1, mainstreams in research on measurement systems for cryogenic processes are reviewed with the aim of dening key current trends and possible future evolutions. Then, in Chapter 2, several innovative methods are proposed. A transducer based on a virtual ow meter is presented for monitoring helium distribution and consumption in cryogenic systems for particle accelerators [1]. Furthermore, a comprehensive metrological analysis of the proposed transducer for verifying the metrological performance and pointing out most critical uncertainty sources is described [2]. A model-based method for fault detection and early-stage isolation, able to work with few records of Frequency Response Function (FRF) on an unfaulty compressor, is then proposed [3]. To enrich the proposal, a distributed diagnostic procedure, based on a micro-genetic...

  2. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti

    2012-02-01

    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components.

  3. TOF technique for laser-driven proton beam diagnostics for the ELIMED beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milluzzo, G.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Romano, F.; Napoli, M. De; Dostal, J.; Margarone, D.; Schillaci, F.; Velyhan, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Time of Flight (TOF) method for laser-driven ion beam diagnostics has been extensively investigated so far for low energy ion diagnostics and several works, reported in literature [1,2], have shown its efficiency in the measurement of particle beam characteristics such as ion species, energy spectrum and current. Moreover, such technique allows obtaining a shot-to-shot on-line monitoring of optically accelerated particles, necessary to control the reproducibility of the accelerated beam and to deliver a beam suitable for any kind of applications. For this reason, the ELIMED beamline [3,4], which will be entirely developed at INFN-LNS and installed in 2017 within the ion beamline ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) experimental hall at ELI-Beamlines in Prague, will be equipped with an on-line diagnostics system composed by silicon carbide and diamond detectors, using the TOF technique. In this contribution, the procedure developed for TOF signal analysis will be briefly reported.

  4. Histological Aspects of the Early Development of the Digestive System of Burbot Lota lota L. (Lotidae, Gadiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgała-Selezniow, Grazyna; Jankun, Małgorzata; Kujawa, Roman; Nowosad, Joanna; Biłas, Maria; Kucharczyk, Dariusz; Skrzypczak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically in burbot, Lota lota L., from hatching to 42 days post-hatch (dph). At hatching, the digestive tract consisted of a straight tube with discernible digestive accessory glands (the liver and the pancreas) dorsally attached to the yolk sac. Most of the yolk sac reserves were consumed during the first 12 days and were completely depleted by 17 dph. The first PAS-positive goblet cells appeared at 6 dph, dispersed within the epithelium of the oesophagus and increasing substantially in number and distribution as development progressed. At 12 dph, the first vacuoles (neutral lipids) appeared in the intestine, indicating the functional absorption of nutrients from food. Differentiation of gastric glands was first noticed at 17 dph and was extensive by 27 dph. L. lota larvae have a morphologically complete digestive tract by 32 dph. These findings on the development of the digestive system in L. lota may contribute to a better understanding of its ontogeny and can be useful for improvement of the larval rearing techniques of this promising species for freshwater aquaculture diversification.

  5. Anaerobic sewage treatment in a one-stage UASB reactor and a combined UASB Digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.J.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of sewage at 15°C was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-Digester system. The latter consists of a UASB reactor complemented with a digester for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation. The UASB reactor was operated at a

  6. Evaluation of the dual digestion system 1: overview of the Milnerton experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Messenger, JR

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of advantages are claimed for dual digestion as a system for sewage sludge pasteurisation and stabilisation. In this paper, the first of a series of 4, an overview of a 4-year full-scale (45 m3 aerobic reactor and 500 m3 anaerobic digester...

  7. Three-stage enzymatic digestive system for a gut-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Pim; Ianovska, Margaryta A.; Mathwig, Klaus; Bouwmeester, Hans; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a three-stage microfluidic system as a cell-free model for digestion in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Larger-scale digestion models are currently being used for pharmacological, toxicological and nutritional studies to determine the possible

  8. Critical evaluation of pressurized microwave-assisted digestion efficiency using nitric acid oxidizing systems (M7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The possibilities of enhancement of a medium-pressure microwave-assisted digestion system for sample preparation in trace element analysis of biological material was investigated. Based on optimal digestion conditions for oxidizing systems with nitric acid, different digestion procedures were examined to minimize residual carbon. The substitution of nitric acid and the addition of hydrogen peroxide and ozone to nitric acid was evaluated. The residual carbon content of the digestate was determined coulometrically. Addition of hydrogen peroxide during organic oxidation reactions does not lower the resolved carbon in the solution. Ozone was tested as an additional, potentially non-contaminating, digestion/oxidation system to the nitric acid used in the sample preparation method. (author)

  9. Ontogeny of the digestive system of the Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae (Verril, 1883).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Peraza, Diana Judith; Hernández-Rodríguez, Mónica; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín

    2014-01-01

    The high mortalities registered in the larval stage during octopus culturing are mainly due to nutritional deficiencies of the food provided. To understand the cause of this problem, we studied the ontogenetic development of the digestive system of Octopus bimaculatus paralarvae. An egg batch was obtained from a gravid female collected in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico, and it was incubated in the laboratory during the summer of 2011. We observed that the formation of the digestive system began at 33 days post-laying (DPL). The newly hatched paralarvae had already formed the organs involved in food ingestion and digestion, although it was not possible to know accurately their degree of maturity. The present research constitutes the first description at the histological level of the ontogenic development of the digestive system of the O. bimaculatus paralarvae. This serves as a basis for future studies of the digestive physiology of this species.

  10. Integrated control and diagnostic system architectures for future installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.; March-Leuba, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear reactors of the 21st century will employ increasing levels of automation and fault tolerance to increase availability, reduce accident risk, and lower operating costs. Key developments in control algorithms, fault diagnostics, fault tolerance, and distributed communications are needed to implement the fully automated plant. It will be equally challenging to integrate developments in separate information and control fields into a cohesive system, which collectively achieves the overall goals of improved safety, reliability, maintainability, and cost-effectiveness. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), the US Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to address some of the technical issues involved in meeting the long-range goal of 21st century reactor control systems. This project involves researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Tennessee, and North Carolina State University. The research tasks under this project focus on some of the first-level breakthroughs in control design, diagnostic techniques, and information system design that will provide a path to enable the design process to be automated in the future. This paper describes the conceptual development of an integrated nuclear plant control and information system architecture, which incorporates automated control system development that can be traced to a set of technical requirements. The expectation is that an integrated plant architecture with optimal control and efficient use of diagnostic information can reduce the potential for operational errors and minimize challenges to the plant safety systems

  11. Structure and function of the digestive system of solen grandis dunker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin; Ren, Sulian

    2003-10-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing. Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  12. [Establishment and Management of Multicentral Collection Bio-sample Banks of Malignant Tumors from Digestive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Si; Shen, Junwei; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Dongliang; Yu, Hongyu; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yi

    2015-11-01

    To establish and manage of multicentral collection bio-sample banks of malignant tumors from digestive system, the paper designed a multicentral management system, established the standard operation procedures (SOPs) and leaded ten hospitals nationwide to collect tumor samples. The biobank has been established for half a year, and has collected 695 samples from patients with digestive system malignant tumor. The clinical data is full and complete, labeled in a unified way and classified to be managed. The clinical and molecular biology researches were based on the biobank, and obtained achievements. The biobank provides a research platform for malignant tumor of digestive system from different regions and of different types.

  13. Roles of F-box proteins in human digestive system tumors (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Lv, Liang; Huo, Jirong

    2014-12-01

    F-box proteins (FBPs), the substrate-recognition subunit of E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase, are the important components of Ub proteasome system (UPS). FBPs are involved in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of their target proteins. Many studies have described the roles of FBPs in human cancers. Digestive system tumors account for a large proportion of all the tumors, and their mortality is very high. This review summarizes for the first time the roles of FBPs in digestive system tumorige-nesis and tumor progression, aiming at finding new routes for the rational design of targeted anticancer therapies in digestive system tumors.

  14. Reactor accident diagnostic expert system: DISKET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Yokobayashi, Masao

    1989-11-01

    A reactor accident diagnostic system DISKET has been developed to identify the cause and the type of an abnormal transient of a nuclear power plant. The system is based on the knowledge engineering and consists of an inference engine IERIAS and a knowledge base. The main features of DISKET are the following: Time-varying characteristics of transient can be treated and knowledge base can be divided into several knowledge units to handle a lot of rules effectively. This report has been provided for the convenience of DISKET's users and consists of three parts. The first part is the description of the whole system, the details of the knowledge base of DISKET are described in the second part, and how to use the DISKET system is explained in the third part. (author)

  15. Indications and new diagnostic techniques in micturating cystourethrographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, W.; Bruenger, J.

    1978-01-01

    Urological radiographic procedures on children are of great importance. The frequency of examinations is comparable to the number of Gl tract studies. In diagnosing chronically recurrent urinary tract infections, micturating cystourethrography is a valuable addition to excretory urography. Indications and performance of micturating cystourethrography at juvenile age are described. All measures reducing radiation exposure must be taken into consideration. New technological devices grant improved diagnostic information with a minimal radiation exposure for patients. (orig.) [de

  16. CO-DIGESTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MATURE LANDFILL LEACHATE IN PRE-BIOAUGMENTED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Montusiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate at the volumetric ratio of 95:5% in primarily bioaugmented system. Bioaugmentation was carried out with the use of commercial product Arkea® in the volumetric dose of 5% and lasted three months prior to the co-digestion start-up. Co-digestion was undergone without bioaugmentation. The results indicated that in the first period (of three months following bioaugmentation, co-digestion led to biogas/methane yields only 5-8% lower as compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, and the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, a comparable value of volatile solids removal was obtained. However, the effects became worse over time, i.e. a lower organics removal efficiency of 16% as well as 9.5–13% decreases of biogas/methane yields were achieved by applying co-digestion for a further period (of the same duration. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate could be recognized as quite efficient in the system that was primarily bioaugmented with the use of Arkea®. However, the beneficial impact of bioaugmentation remained for the limited period of three months after its completion. To sustain the favourable effects a periodical, repeatable bioaugmentation of the co-digestion system is required.

  17. Biokinetics and bacterial communities of propionate oxidizing bacteria in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-03-15

    Phased anaerobic digestion is a promising technology and may be a potential source of bio-energy production. Anaerobic digesters are widely used for sewage sludge stabilization and thus a better understanding of the microbial process and kinetics may allow increased volatile solids reduction and methane production through robust process operation. In this study, we analyzed the impact of phase separation and operational conditions on the bio-kinetic characteristics and communities of bacteria associated with four phased anaerobic digestion systems. In addition to significant differences between bacterial communities associated with different digester operating temperatures, our results also revealed that bacterial communities in the phased anaerobic digestion systems differed between the 1st and 2nd phase digesters and we identified strong community composition correlations with several measured physicochemical parameters. The maximum specific growth rates of propionate oxidizing bacteria (POB) in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11 and 23.7 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively, while those of the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters were 6.7 and 18.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively. Hence, the biokinetic characteristics of the POB population were dependent on the digester loading. In addition, we observed that the temperature dependency factor (θ) values were higher for the less heavily loaded digesters as compared to the values obtained for the 1st-phase digesters. Our results suggested the appropriate application of two sets of POB bio-kinetic that reflect the differing growth responses as a function of propionate concentration (and/or organic loading rates). Also, modeling acetogenesis in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems will be improved considering a population shift in separate phases. On the basis of the bio-kinetic values estimated in various digesters, high levels of propionate in the thermophilic digesters may be

  18. Exposure to polystyrene nanoplastic leads to inhibition of anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan-Fei; Ding, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Yun; Li, Yi-Fei; Zhu, Rong; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Zou, Hua

    2018-06-01

    In this study, impacts of nanoplastic on the pure and mixed anaerobic digestion systems were investigated. Results showed the growth and metabolism of Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes were partly inhibited by nanoplastic existed in the pure anaerobic digestion system. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was also obviously inhibited by nanoplastic existed in the mixed anaerobic digestion system. Both the methane yield and methane production rate of the mixed anaerobic digestion system showed negative correlation with the nanoplastic concentration. Compared with anaerobic digestion system without nanoplastic, methane yield and maximum daily methane yield at the nanoplastic concentration of 0.2g/L decreased for 14.4% and 40.7%, respectively. In addition, the start-up of mixed anaerobic digestion system was prolonged by addition of nanoplastic. Microbial community structure analysis indicated the microbial community structures were also affected by nanoplastic existed in the system. At the nanoplastic concentration of 0.2g/L, the relative abundances of family Cloacamonaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Anaerolinaceae and Gracilibacteraceae decreased partly. Conversely, the relative abundances of family Anaerolinaceae, Clostridiaceae, Geobacteraceae, Dethiosulfovibrionaceae and Desulfobulbaceae improved partly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient Probabilistic Diagnostics for Electrical Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole J.; Chavira, Mark; Cascio, Keith; Poll, Scott; Darwiche, Adnan; Uckun, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    We consider in this work the probabilistic approach to model-based diagnosis when applied to electrical power systems (EPSs). Our probabilistic approach is formally well-founded, as it based on Bayesian networks and arithmetic circuits. We investigate the diagnostic task known as fault isolation, and pay special attention to meeting two of the main challenges . model development and real-time reasoning . often associated with real-world application of model-based diagnosis technologies. To address the challenge of model development, we develop a systematic approach to representing electrical power systems as Bayesian networks, supported by an easy-to-use speci.cation language. To address the real-time reasoning challenge, we compile Bayesian networks into arithmetic circuits. Arithmetic circuit evaluation supports real-time diagnosis by being predictable and fast. In essence, we introduce a high-level EPS speci.cation language from which Bayesian networks that can diagnose multiple simultaneous failures are auto-generated, and we illustrate the feasibility of using arithmetic circuits, compiled from Bayesian networks, for real-time diagnosis on real-world EPSs of interest to NASA. The experimental system is a real-world EPS, namely the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) located at the NASA Ames Research Center. In experiments with the ADAPT Bayesian network, which currently contains 503 discrete nodes and 579 edges, we .nd high diagnostic accuracy in scenarios where one to three faults, both in components and sensors, were inserted. The time taken to compute the most probable explanation using arithmetic circuits has a small mean of 0.2625 milliseconds and standard deviation of 0.2028 milliseconds. In experiments with data from ADAPT we also show that arithmetic circuit evaluation substantially outperforms joint tree propagation and variable elimination, two alternative algorithms for diagnosis using Bayesian network inference.

  20. A diagnostic scoring system for myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoveniuc, Geanina; Chandra, Tanu; Sud, Anchal; Sharma, Meeta; Blackman, Marc R; Burman, Kenneth D; Mete, Mihriye; Desale, Sameer; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    To develop diagnostic criteria for myxedema coma (MC), a decompensated state of extreme hypothyroidism with a high mortality rate if untreated, in order to facilitate its early recognition and treatment. The frequencies of characteristics associated with MC were assessed retrospectively in patients from our institutions in order to derive a semiquantitative diagnostic point scale that was further applied on selected patients whose data were retrieved from the literature. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the predictive power of the score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to test the discriminative power of the score. Of the 21 patients examined, 7 were reclassified as not having MC (non-MC), and they were used as controls. The scoring system included a composite of alterations of thermoregulatory, central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems, and presence or absence of a precipitating event. All 14 of our MC patients had a score of ≥60, whereas 6 of 7 non-MC patients had scores of 25 to 50. A total of 16 of 22 MC patients whose data were retrieved from the literature had a score ≥60, and 6 of 22 of these patients scored between 45 and 55. The odds ratio per each score unit increase as a continuum was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.16; P = .019); a score of 60 identified coma, with an odds ratio of 1.22. The area under the ROC curve was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.65 to 1.00), and the score of 60 had 100% sensitivity and 85.71% specificity. A score ≥60 in the proposed scoring system is potentially diagnostic for MC, whereas scores between 45 and 59 could classify patients at risk for MC.

  1. Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandovil, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5 MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H - ions and residual nitrogen in the vacuum chamber cause the nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented. (Author) 5 refs., 7 figs

  2. Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5-MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H-ions and residual nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam-profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented

  3. Filterscope diagnostic system on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z.W.; Gao, W.; Zhang, L.; Huang, J.; Chen, Y.J.; Wu, C.R.; Zhang, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Filterscope diagnostic system, which is designed for monitoring the line emission in fusion plasma has been widely used on fusion devices such as DIII-D, NSTX, CDX-U, KSTAR etc. On EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), a filterscope diagnostic system has been mounted to observe the line emission and visible bremsstrahlung emission in plasma from discharge campaign of 2014. It plays a crucial role in studying Edge Localized Modes (ELM) and H-mode, thanks to its high temporal resolution (0.005ms) and good spatial resolution (∼2cm). Furthermore, multi-channel signals at up to 200kHz sampling rates can be digitized simultaneously. The wavelength covers He II (468.5nm), Li I (670.8nm), Li II (548.3nm), C III (465.0nm), O II (441.5nm), Mo I (386.4nm), W I (400.9nm) and visible bremsstrahlung radiation at 538nm besides Dα (656.1nm) and Dγ (433.9nm) with the corresponding wavelength filters. The new developed filterscope system was operating during the EAST 2014 fall experimental campaign and several types ELMs has been observed. (author)

  4. Design considerations for on-line vibration diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branagan, L.A.; Schjeibel, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The decisions made in the design of a data system for on-line vibration diagnostic system in power plants define how well the system will meet its intended goals. Direct use of the data for performing troubleshooting or developing operating correlations requires an understanding of the subtle impact of the design decisions incorporated in the data system. A data system includes data acquisition, data storage, and data retrieval. Data acquisition includes the selection of sensors, of vibration measurement modes, and of the time stamping format, and the arrangement of data collection cycles. Data storage requires the evaluation of data compression options and of data segregation. Data retrieval design requires an understanding of the data storage and acquisition techniques. Each of these options and design decisions involves compromises, many of which are discussed in this paper. Actual and synthetic data are presented to illustrate these points. The authors' experience with multiple data collection cycles, with frequent monitoring, and with storage by exception suggests that these techniques can be developed into an effective diagnostic system

  5. A review on diagnostic techniques for brucellosis | Kaltungo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but has not been validated for standard laboratory use. This paper highlights useful samples and, especially the different conventional to more sophisticated molecular techniques for the diagnosis of brucellosis. Keywords: Brucellosis, diagnosis, techniques. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 13(1), pp. 1-10, 1 January, ...

  6. Diagnostic imaging of digestive tract involvement in cystic fibrosis. Part 1: hepatobiliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralles, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Serrano, C.; Manzanares, J.; Berrocal, T.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a severe hereditary disease characterized by epithelial chloride channel dysfunction, leading to the production of abnormally thick secretions. The abnormal gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Hepatobiliary involvement derives from ductal obstruction causing cholestasis, steatosis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Biliary sludge, cholelithiasis and gallbladder sclerosis and atrophy are common findings. As the correlation between the hepatobiliary changes and their clinical and analytical impact is very limited, imaging techniques are essential in this disease. Ultrasound is the basic imaging tool, both for initial evaluation and follow-up of the hepatic and biliary involvement, although other techniques such as radionuclide imaging, magnetic resonance and computed tomography can be highly useful. Given the long-term, chronic nature of this disease, the use of aggressive techniques or irradiation should be carefully weighed. (Author) 38 refs

  7. Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-10-01

    Safe and efficient optical alignment is a critical requirement for industrial laser systems used in a high volume manufacturing environment. Of specific interest is the development of techniques to align beam shaping optics within a beam line; having the ability to instantly verify by a qualitative means that each element is in its proper position as the beam shaper module is being aligned. There is a need to reduce these types of alignment techniques down to a level where even a newbie to optical alignment will be able to complete the task. Couple this alignment need with the fact that most laser system manufacturers ship their products worldwide and the introduction of a new set of variables including cultural and language barriers, makes this a top priority for manufacturers. Tools and methodologies for alignment of complex optical systems need to be able to cross these barriers to ensure the highest degree of up time and reduce the cost of maintenance on the production floor. Customers worldwide, who purchase production laser equipment, understand that the majority of costs to a manufacturing facility is spent on system maintenance and is typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. This desire to reduce costs is driving the trend these days towards predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of laser based optical beam delivery systems [10]. With proper diagnostic tools, laser system developers can develop proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic optics failures. Obviously analytical data will provide quantifiable performance standards which are more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall optical system performance [10]. This paper will discuss the use of film and fluorescent mirror devices as diagnostic tools for beam shaper module alignment off line or in-situ. The paper will also provide an overview

  8. Association of Physical Activity by Type and Intensity With Digestive System Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, NaNa; Bao, Ying; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Orav, John; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that common carcinogenic pathways may underlie digestive system cancers. Physical activity may influence these pathways. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the role of physical activity in overall digestive system cancer risk. To examine the association between physical activity and digestive system cancer risk, accounting for amount, type (aerobic vs resistance), and intensity of physical activity. A prospective cohort study followed 43 479 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2012. At enrollment, the eligible participants were 40 years or older, were free of cancer, and reported physical activity. Follow-up rates exceeded 90% in each 2-year cycle. The amount of total physical activity expressed in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-hours/week. Incident cancer of the digestive system encompassing the digestive tract (mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colorectum) and digestive accessory organs (pancreas, gallbladder, and liver). Over 686 924 person-years, we documented 1370 incident digestive system cancers. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower digestive system cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 for ≥63.0 vs ≤8.9 MET-hours/week; 95% CI, 0.59-0.93; P value for trend = .003). The inverse association was more evident with digestive tract cancers (HR, 0.66 for ≥63.0 vs ≤8.9 MET-hours/week; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87) than with digestive accessary organ cancers. Aerobic exercise was particularly beneficial against digestive system cancers, with the optimal benefit observed at approximately 30 MET-hours/week (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.83; P value for nonlinearity = .02). Moreover, as long as the same level of MET-hour score was achieved from aerobic exercise, the magnitude of risk reduction was similar regardless of intensity of aerobic exercise. Physical activity, as indicated by MET-hours/week, was inversely associated with the risk of

  9. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH 4 + -N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm -1 ) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm -1 ) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by

  10. BIOTECHNICAL SYSTEM FOR INTEGRATED OLFACTOMETRY DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Nosova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the process of olfactometric research of a human olfactory function. The object of the study is a biotechnical system which includes a method for increasing the objectivity of olfactometric diagnostics. The goal is to develop a biotechnical system for complex olfactometry, which enables increasing the objectivity of olfactometric studies and connecting breathing parameters with olfactory function by placing an odorant carrier in the airway of the rhinomanometer, as well as by using procedures for determining the energy characteristics of respiration. The methods used are: methods of digital signal processing, the theory of biotechnical systems. The following results are obtained. A structural diagram of a biotechnical system for olfactometric diagnostics of a human olfactory analyser was developed. As a result of the analysis of the cyclogram of nasal breathing, it is found that by changing the frequency and nature of breathing upon reaching the sensitivity threshold, it is possible to objectify the method of assessing respiratory and olfactory disorders according to the energy criterion of pneumatic power when inhaling appropriate odorivectors, and also to study the olfactory and respiratory function with the capability of estimating respiratory cycles in a dynamic mode. The studies were carried out on the basis of typical inspiration cycles: with a quiet breathing in the normal conditions, in the forceful breathing mode with a stiff nasal valve, with a nasal valve with natural functional mobility which restricts the flow of air, and also a stepped inspiration – a short “sipping” of air, which can be characterized as a kind of “sniffing”. Conclusions. Computer olfactometry is one of the most promising methods for diagnosing olfactory disorders of respiratory genesis. The developed biotechnical system is based on the use of a fundamentally new design, combining a rhinomanometer and an olfactometric

  11. Radiation injury in the digestive system after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Yoshio; Hara, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Jiro; Nakano, Haruo

    1975-01-01

    This paper described the investigation of 18 patients with injury in the digestive system who received surgical procedure after radiotherapy of cancer for the past ten years. The patients consisted of 6 males and 12 females with the age ranging 21 to 66 years old. Primary diseases were 9 cancers of the cervix of the uterus, seminoma and cancer of the ovary, the rectum and the other regions. Radiotherapy was applicable to each of the diseases, and more than 3,000 rads of irradiation given for over a month. Symptoms developed 3 months to 4 and a half years after irradiation and the mean period was about a year except one patient in whom cancer of the colon occurred after 13 years. Operation was performed about several months after the onset of disease in the average. Of 18 patients who received operation, cancer was suspected at preoperative diagnosis in all of 3 patients in whom gastric lesion was resected, 3 of 4 in whom the colon was resected, 1 with small intestine lesion and 1 of 4 with rectum lesion. It was characteristic of these lesions that recurrence of cancer was preoperatively suspected in most of the patients. In the patient with rectum lesion, steroids suppository was given postoperatively. In addition, historical background of radiation injury, difference in period of the occurrence of radiation injury, local injury in delayed period, predisposing cause, classification, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury were also mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Radiation injury in the digestive system after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Y; Mishima, Y; Hara, K; Tomiyama, J; Nakano, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    This paper described the investigation of 18 patients with injury in the digestive system who received surgical procedure after radiotherapy of cancer for the past ten years. The patients consisted of 6 males and 12 females with the age ranging 21 to 66 years old. Primary diseases were 9 cancers of the cervix of the uterus, seminoma and cancer of the ovary, the rectum and the other regions. Radiotherapy was applicable to each of the diseases, and more than 3,000 rads of irradiation given for over a month. Symptoms developed 3 months to 4 and a half years after irradiation and the mean period was about a year except one patient in whom cancer of the colon occurred after 13 years. Operation was performed about several months after the onset of disease in the average. Of 18 patients who received operation, cancer was suspected at preoperative diagnosis in all of 3 patients in whom gastric lesion was resected, 3 of 4 in whom the colon was resected, 1 with small intestine lesion and 1 of 4 with rectum lesion. It was characteristic of these lesions that recurrence of cancer was preoperatively suspected in most of the patients. In the patient with rectum lesion, steroids suppository was given postoperatively. In addition, historical background of radiation injury, difference in period of the occurrence of radiation injury, local injury in delayed period, predisposing cause, classification, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury were also mentioned.

  13. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  14. Endoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic alternative technique of taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval Zuleta, Héctor Julián; Company Campins, María M; Dolz Abadía, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Despite a low incidence in developed countries, gastrointestinal taeniasis should be suspected in patients with abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and/or malabsorption of unknown origin, even more so if they come from endemic regions or areas with poor hygienic and alimentary habits. Diagnosis is traditionally reached by identifying the parasite in stools, but more recently both serological and immunological approaches are also available. Based on a patient diagnosed by gastroscopy, a literature review was undertaken of patients diagnosed by endoscopy. We discuss endoscopy as diagnostic modality, and the effectiveness and safety that endoscopic treatment may provide in view of the potential risk for neurocysticercosis.

  15. Endoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic alternative technique of taeniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Julian Canaval-Zuleta

    Full Text Available Despite a low incidence in developed countries, gastrointestinal taeniasis should be suspected in patients with abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and/or malabsorption of unknown origin, even more so if they come from endemic regions or areas with poor hygienic and alimentary habits. Diagnosis is traditionally reached by identifying the parasite in stools, but more recently both serological and immunological approaches are also available. Based on a patient diagnosed by gastroscopy, a literature review was undertaken of patients diagnosed by endoscopy. We discuss endoscopy as diagnostic modality, and the effectiveness and safety that endoscopic treatment may provide in view of the potential risk for neurocysticercosis.

  16. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Santanu, E-mail: s.mukherjee@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom [BASF SE, Crop Protection, 67117, Limburgerhof (Germany); Vereecken, Harry [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Burauel, Peter [Sustainable Campus, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting {sup 14}C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides. - Highlights: • Biochar and digestate significantly affects the dissipation pattern of pesticides. • Addition of digestate enhanced mineralization of

  17. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan; Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting "1"4C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides. - Highlights: • Biochar and digestate significantly affects the dissipation pattern of pesticides. • Addition of digestate enhanced mineralization of

  18. A study on the fault diagnostic techniques for reactor internal structures using neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Jeong, Seong Ho; Park, Jin Ho; Park, Jin Suk

    1994-08-01

    The unfavorable phenomena, such as flow induced vibration and aging process in reactor internals, cause degradation of structural integrity and may result in loosing some mechanical binding components which might impact other equipments and components or cause flow blockage. Since these malfunctions and potential failures change reactor noise signal, it is necessary to analyze reactor noise signal for early fault diagnosis in the point of few of safety and plant economics. The objectives of this study are to establish fault diagnostic and TS(thermal shield), and to develop a data acquisition and signal processing software system. In the first year of this study, an analysis technique for the reactor internal vibration using the reactor noise was proposed. With the technique proposed and the reactor noise signals (ex-core neutron and acceleration), the dynamic characteristics of Ulchin-1 reactor internals were obtained, and compared with those of Tricastin-1 which is the prototype of Ulchin-1. In the second year, a PC-based expert system for reactor internals fault diagnosis is developed, which included data acquisition, signal processing, feature extraction function, and represented diagnostic knowledge by the IF-THEN rule. To know the effect of the faults, the reactor internals of Ulchin-1 is modeled using FEM and simulated with an artificial defect given in the hold-down spring. Trend in the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals is also observed during one fuel cycle to know the effect of boron concentration. 100 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs. (Author)

  19. A beam diagnostic system for ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillo, M.; Althoff, K.H.; Drachenfels, W.; Goetz, T.; Husmann, D.; Neckenig, M.; Picard, M.; Schittko, F.J.; Schauerte, W.; Wenzel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A beam diagnostic system, which is based on capacitive beam-position monitors combined with fast electronics, has been developed for the Bonn ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA. The position signal of each monitor is digitized at an adjustable sampling rate (max.: 10 MHz) and the most recent 8192 position and intensity values are buffered. This allows a wide range of different beam diagnostic measurements. The main purpose is the closed-orbit correction, which can be carried out on various time scales. To optimize the duty factor of the extracted beam, the system can also be used as a fast relative intensity monitor resolving the intensity distribution of the bunches or of the injected beam. It is designed to support betatron tune and phase measurements with very high accuracy, offering the choice to select any of the beam position monitors. This enables the measuring of many optical parameters. Furthermore any pair of suitable monitors can be used for experimental particle tracking or phase space measurements

  20. Action Research to Improve the Learning Space for Diagnostic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ariel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of “knowledge” and “understanding.” The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001, it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed.

  1. Action Research to Improve the Learning Space for Diagnostic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh

    2015-12-01

    The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of "knowledge" and "understanding." The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  2. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Meglinski, I V

    2011-01-01

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  3. System for simulating fluctuation diagnostics for application to turbulence computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravenec, R.V.; Nevins, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Present-day nonlinear microstability codes are able to compute the saturated fluctuations of a turbulent fluid versus space and time, whether the fluid be liquid, gas, or plasma. They are therefore able to determine turbulence-induced fluid (or particle) and energy fluxes. These codes, however, must be tested against experimental data not only with respect to transport but also characteristics of the fluctuations. The latter is challenging because of limitations in the diagnostics (e.g., finite spatial resolution) and the fact that the diagnostics typically do not measure exactly the quantities that the codes compute. In this work, we present a system based on IDL registered analysis and visualization software in which user-supplied 'diagnostic filters' are applied to the code outputs to generate simulated diagnostic signals. The same analysis techniques as applied to the measurements, e.g., digital time-series analysis, may then be applied to the synthesized signals. Their statistical properties, such as rms fluctuation level, mean wave numbers, phase and group velocities, correlation lengths and times, and in some cases full S(k,ω) spectra, can then be compared directly to those of the measurements

  4. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svabcik, A.

    1996-01-01

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer's factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs

  5. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svabcik, A [Atomova Elektraren Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer`s factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs.

  6. Dose classification scheme for digital imaging techniques in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojreh, A.

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: image quality in diagnostic radiology is determined in crucial extent by the signal-noise-ratio, which is proportional to the applied x-ray dose. Onward technological developments in the diagnostic radiology are therefore frequently connected with a dose increase, which subjectively is hardly or even not perceptible. The aim of this work was to define reproducible standards for image quality as a function of dose and expected therapeutical consequence in case of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and the upper and lower jaw (dental CT), whereby practical-clinical purposes are considered. Materials and methods: the image quality of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and dental CT was determined by standard deviation of the CT-numbers (pixel noise) in a region of interest of the phantom of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM phantom) and additionally in the patients CT images. The diagnostic quality of the examination was classified on the basis of patients CT images in three dose levels (low dose, standard dose and high dose). Results: the pixel noise of CT of the paranasal sinuses with soft tissue reconstruction amounts to 19.3 Hounsfield units (HU) for low dose, 8.8 HU for standard dose, and below 8 HU for high dose. The pixel noise of the dental CT with bone (high resolution) reconstruction amounts to 344 HU for low dose, 221 HU for standard dose, and below 200 HU for high dose. Suitable indications for low dose CT are the scanning of body regions with high contrast differences, like the bony delimitations of air-filled spaces of the facial bones, and radiological follow-up examinations with dedicated questions such as axis determination in dental implantology, as well as the images of objects with small diameter such as in case of children. The standard dose CT can be recommended for all cases, in which precise staging of the illness plays an indispensable role for the diagnosis and therapy planning. With high dose

  7. Novel non-intercepting diagnostic techniques for low-emittance relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.J.; Chang, B.

    1988-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams are being generated with emittances low enough that diffraction radiation can be used for beam diagnostics. Techniques based on diffraction radiation can be used to measure the beam transverse momentum distribution and to measure the transverse spatial distribution. The radiation is intense and can be in the visible spectral region where optical diagnostic techniques can be used to maximum advantage. 4 refs. 3 figs

  8. Two cases of colossal heamtometra in old women with a difficult preoperative diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, Kaname; Fukumoto, Satoru

    1980-01-01

    With the progress in diagnostic imaging techniques, the preoperative diagnostic technique for lesion in the pelvic cavity has become comparatively easy and its clinical usefulness is in high estimation. However, in case of an atypical lesion, it is not always easy to recognize the original organ by traditional imaging pattern. In the present report two cases of colossal hematometra in old women which presented a cystic lesion pattern are dealt with and discussed from a point of medical imagings for diagnosis. (author)

  9. Capillaroscopy in diagnostic of systemic autoimmune diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garra, V.; Danese, N.; Rebella, M.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of systemic autoimmune diseases is carried out by combining clinical, paraclinical, imaging and anatomopathological data. However, in many cases is necessary to access other guiding parameters. The capillaroscopy is a technique that consists in the observation of capillary microcirculation in the proximal nail fold hands. The methods used are the videocapillaroscopy (microscopy, stereoscopic)

  10. Diagnostic methods and techniques in cervical cancer prevention Part II: Molecular diagnostics of HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vince,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnostics of HPV infection is based on analytically andclinically validated assays for qualitative detection of HPV DNAfrom high risk genotypes. New generation of HPV DNA assayscombines qualitative detection of 12 high-risk HPV genotypeswith HPV-16 and HPV-18 genotyping. New generation of HPVmolecular assays designed to increase clinical specificity of moleculartesting is based on detection of mRNA for E6 and E7.

  11. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  12. Computer-aided design model for anaerobic-phased-solids digester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, R. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tiangco, V. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic-phased-solids (APS) digester system is a newly developed anaerobic digestion system for converting solid wastes, such as crop residues and food wastes, into biogas for power and heat generation. A computer-aided engineering design model has been developed to design the APS-digester system and study the heat transfer from the reactors and energy production of the system. Simulation results of a case study are presented by using the model to predict the heating energy requirement and biogas energy production for anaerobic digestion of garlic waste. The important factors, such as environmental conditions, insulation properties, and characteristics of the wastes, on net energy production are also investigated. (author)

  13. Digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of Sasang typology: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Suk; Sohn, Kyungwoo; Kim, Yun Hee; Hwang, Min-Woo; Kwon, Young Kyu; Bae, Na Young; Chae, Han

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review clinical studies on digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of each Sasang type to obtain the generalizable typespecific clinical features, which are important for the diagnosis of the Sasang type and subsequent disease treatment. Sasang typology and digestive system symptom-related keywords were used to search through eight domestic and foreign databases up to March 2012. The results were organized and analyzed based on four categories [digestive function, appetite, eating pattern, and body mass index (BMI)] to elucidate type-specific symptoms. Sasang type-specific digestive system-related symptoms were identified by reviewing 30 related articles that were gathered by searching through the databases. The Tae-Eum (TE) type had the highest digestive functions and the So-Eum (SE) type had the lowest. The TE type appeared to have larger volume with fast eating speed compared with the SE type and individuals in the TE category preferred fatty or salty food, which is responsible for the high occurrence rates of organic digestive diseases such as gastritis. Moreover, BMI was higher in the TE type and lower in the SE type. We systematically reviewed previously published clinical reports on digestive functions, which can be used to meet the objective of Sasang-type differentiation and pathophysiological pattern identification.

  14. Digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of Sasang typology: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Suk Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to review clinical studies on digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of each Sasang type to obtain the generalizable typespecific clinical features, which are important for the diagnosis of the Sasang type and subsequent disease treatment. Sasang typology and digestive system symptom-related keywords were used to search through eight domestic and foreign databases up to March 2012. The results were organized and analyzed based on four categories [digestive function, appetite, eating pattern, and body mass index (BMI] to elucidate type-specific symptoms. Sasang type-specific digestive system-related symptoms were identified by reviewing 30 related articles that were gathered by searching through the databases. The Tae-Eum (TE type had the highest digestive functions and the So-Eum (SE type had the lowest. The TE type appeared to have larger volume with fast eating speed compared with the SE type and individuals in the TE category preferred fatty or salty food, which is responsible for the high occurrence rates of organic digestive diseases such as gastritis. Moreover, BMI was higher in the TE type and lower in the SE type. We systematically reviewed previously published clinical reports on digestive functions, which can be used to meet the objective of Sasang-type differentiation and pathophysiological pattern identification.

  15. Computer Tomography: A Novel Diagnostic Technique used in Horses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Veterinary Medicine, Computer Tomography (CT scan) is used more often in dogs and cats than in large animals due to their small size and ease of manipulation. This paper, however, illustrates the use of the technique in horses. CT scan was used in the diagnosis of two conditions of the head and limbs, namely alveolar ...

  16. System control module diagnostic Expert Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Luis M.; Hansen, Roger F.

    1990-01-01

    The Orbiter EXperiments (OEX) Program was established by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to accomplish the precise data collection necessary to support a complete and accurate assessment of Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter performance during all phases of a mission. During a mission, data generated by the various experiments are conveyed to the OEX System Control Module (SCM) which arranges for and monitors storage of the data on the OEX tape recorder. The SCM Diagnostic Expert Assistant (DEA) is an expert system which provides on demand advice to technicians performing repairs of a malfunctioning SCM. The DEA is a self-contained, data-driven knowledge-based system written in the 'C' Language Production System (CLIPS) for a portable micro-computer of the IBM PC/XT class. The DEA reasons about SCM hardware faults at multiple levels; the most detailed layer of encoded knowledge of the SCM is a representation of individual components and layouts of the custom-designed component boards.

  17. Diagnostic system for the nuclear medicine with baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Masao; Wakasa, Shyuichiro

    1982-01-01

    The system of cyclotron nuclear medicine consists of ''RI-production by using the cyclotron'', ''production of radio-pharmaceuticals labeled with RI'', ''positron tomography''. On the other hand, Ultra compact cyclotron (Baby cyclotron) itself, RI production technique and positron tomography have been rapidly developed and advanced. We think that these three functions must be balance in the development in order to spread this system into the routine work in the hospital. However, since the technology of the synthesis for the labeled compounds is not so developed so far, more advance can be strongly expected. In this report, construction of the cyclotron nuclear medicine, utility for the practical use of RI produced by using the cyclotron, technique of RI production, and the studies on automated and efficient productions of radio-pharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived positron emitters for medical diagnostic use are described. (author)

  18. Combined techniques for characterising pasta structure reveals how the gluten network slows enzymic digestion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Sissons, Mike; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G; Warren, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterise the influence of gluten structure on the kinetics of starch hydrolysis in pasta. Spaghetti and powdered pasta were prepared from three different cultivars of durum semolina, and starch was also purified from each cultivar. Digestion kinetic parameters were obtained through logarithm-of-slope analysis, allowing identification of sequential digestion steps. Purified starch and semolina were digested following a single first-order rate constant, while pasta and powdered pasta followed two sequential first-order rate constants. Rate coefficients were altered by pepsin hydrolysis. Confocal microscopy revealed that, following cooking, starch granules were completely swollen for starch, semolina and pasta powder samples. In pasta, they were completely swollen in the external regions, partially swollen in the intermediate region and almost intact in the pasta strand centre. Gluten entrapment accounts for sequential kinetic steps in starch digestion of pasta; the compact microstructure of pasta also reduces digestion rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The prognostic significance of UCA1 for predicting clinical outcome in patients with digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Teng; Dong, Qing; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Ming

    2017-06-20

    Urothelial Carcinoma Associated 1 (UCA1) was an originally identified lncRNA in bladder cancer. Previous studies have reported that UCA1 played a significant role in various types of cancer. This study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. The meta-analysis of 15 studies were included, comprising 1441 patients with digestive system cancers. The pooled results of 14 studies indicated that high expression of UCA1 was significantly associated with poorer OS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.52-2.26). In addition, UCA1 could be as an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS of patients (HR: 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.45-2.25). The pooled results of 3 studies indicated a significant association between UCA1 and DFS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR = 2.50; 95 % CI = 1.30-3.69). Statistical significance was also observed in subgroup meta-analysis. Furthermore, the clinicopathological values of UCA1 were discussed in esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. A comprehensive retrieval was performed to search studies evaluating the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. Many databases were involved, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang database. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed with standard statistical methods and the prognostic significance of UCA1 in digestive system cancers was qualified. Elevated level of UCA1 indicated the poor clinical outcome for patients with digestive system cancers. It may serve as a new biomarker related to prognosis in digestive system cancers.

  20. An Analysis of Pre-service Primary Teachers’ Drawings of the Digestive System

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKICI, Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Thisstudy explores pre-service primary teachers’ drawings of the digestive system.The research data was collected through the use of drawing method with 102third grade pre-service primary teachers studying in the Faculty of Educationat Trakya University during 2016-2017 academic year. The findings revealed thatprimary teacher candidates’ drawings of the digestive system were quite farfrom the scientifically acceptable ones. A small percentage of students (12.7percent) produced a relatively sc...

  1. Mirror fusion test facility plasma diagnostics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Coffield, F.E.; Davis, G.E.; Felker, B.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 25 years, experiments with several magnetic mirror machines were performed as part of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program at LLL. The latest MFE experiment, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), builds on the advances of earlier machines in initiating, stabilizing, heating, and sustaining plasmas formed with deuterium. The goals of this machine are to increase ion and electron temperatures and show a corresponding increase in containment time, to test theoretical scaling laws of plasma instabilities with increased physical dimensions, and to sustain high-beta plasmas for times that are long compared to the energy containment time. This paper describes the diagnostic system being developed to characterize these plasma parameters

  2. Unbiased stereologic techniques for practical use in diagnostic histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1995-01-01

    Grading of malignancy by the examination of morphologic and cytologic details in histologic sections from malignant neoplasms is based exclusively on qualitative features, associated with significant subjectivity, and thus rather poor reproducibility. The traditional way of malignancy grading may...... by introducing quantitative techniques in the histopathologic discipline of malignancy grading. Unbiased stereologic methods, especially based on measurements of nuclear three-dimensional mean size, have during the last decade proved their value in this regard. In this survey, the methods are reviewed regarding...... the basic technique involved, sampling, efficiency, and reproducibility. Various types of cancers, where stereologic grading of malignancy has been used, are reviewed and discussed with regard to the development of a new objective and reproducible basis for carrying out prognosis-related malignancy grading...

  3. Diagnostic analysis of vibration signals using adaptive digital filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, R. E.; Jones, J. H.; Paul, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Signal enhancement techniques are described using recently developed digital adaptive filtering equipment. Adaptive filtering concepts are not new; however, as a result of recent advances in microprocessor-based electronics, hardware has been developed that has stable characteristics and of a size exceeding 1000th order. Selected data processing examples are presented illustrating spectral line enhancement, adaptive noise cancellation, and transfer function estimation in the presence of corrupting noise.

  4. Long non-coding RNA PVT1: Emerging biomarker in digestive system cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan-Dan; Liu, Xiu-Fen; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Pant, Om Prakash; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2017-12-01

    The digestive system cancers are leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and have high risks of morbidity and mortality. More and more long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been studied to be abnormally expressed in cancers and play a key role in the process of digestive system tumour progression. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) seems fairly novel. Since 1984, PVT1 was identified to be an activator of MYC in mice. Its role in human tumour initiation and progression has long been a subject of interest. The expression of PVT1 is elevated in digestive system cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. In this review, we illustrate the various functions of PVT1 during the different stages in the complex process of digestive system tumours (including oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancer). The growing evidence shows the involvement of PVT1 in both proliferation and differentiation process in addition to its involvement in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings lead us to conclude that PVT1 promotes proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis and drug resistance in digestive system cancer cells. We will also discuss PVT1's potential in diagnosis and treatment target of digestive system cancer. There was a great probability PVT1 could be a novel biomarker in screening tumours, prognosis biomarkers and future targeted therapy to improve the survival rate in cancer patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Development Of Electronic Digestive System Module For Effective Teaching And Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Aminu Doko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The digestive system hence digestion of food is usually one of the topics taught at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. Often this topic is taught using teaching aid in the form of diagrams or charts drawn on plane papers. The inanimate nature of these teaching aid employed makes learning less interesting and comprehension difficult. This paper presents the design and construction of a semi animated digestive module with remote control that visualizes the movement and process of food digestion in the body. Basically the system consists of carved wooden digestive organs with light emitting diodes LEDs carefully fixed on the path of digestion. A remote control is also built to aid remote access to the module. These LEDs start to blink indicating swallowing from the mouth down to the anus illustrating the process of digestion which also involves the production of enzymes. A comparison of with the improved teaching aid will make conventional types showed that it aroused student interest during teaching and learning process. It also reduced too much abstract explanation. Thus making teaching more efficient.

  6. Influence of pretreatment techniques on anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill sludge: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluchamy, C; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2017-12-01

    Pulp and paper industry is one of the most polluting, energy and water intensive industries in the world. Produced pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS) faces a major problem for handling and its management. An anaerobic digestion has become an alternative source. This review provides a detailed summary of anaerobic digestion of PPMS - An overview of the developments and improvement opportunities. This paper explores the different pretreatment methods to enhance biogas production from the PPMS. First, the paper gives an overview of PPMS production, and then it reviews PPMS as a substrate for anaerobic digestion with or without pretreatment. Finally, it discuss the optimal condition and concentration of organic and inorganic compounds required for the anaerobic metabolic activity. Future research should focus on the combination of different pretreatment technologies, relationship between sludge composition, reactor design and its operation, and microbial community dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiesko, Ivan; Figedy, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    This paper provides a description of water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system installed at Slovak NPP Jaslovske Bohunice. System has complex architecture and covers laboratory data, chemistry and radiochemistry on-line monitoring data, process data acquisition and processing and diagnostics. Pre-filtered data from process computer and chemistry on-line monitors are recorded together with laboratory data in the ORACLE-based information system CHEMIS with many presentation and processing features. Brief information is given about the basic features of a newly developed diagnostic system for early detection and identification of anomalies incoming in the water chemistry regime of the primary and secondary circuit of VVER-440 type unit. This system, called SACHER (System of Analysis of Chemical Regime) has been installed within the major modernization project at the NPP Bohunice in the Slovak Republic. System SACHER has been developed fully in MATLAB environment. Diagnostic system works exclusively with available on-line data as an operation personnel support application allowing effective response to adverse chemistry events/trends. The availability of prompt information about the chemical conditions of the primary and secondary circuit is very important in order to prevent the undue corrosion and deposit build-up processes within the plant systems. The typical chemical information systems that exist and work at the NPPs give the user values of the measured quantities together with their time trends and other derived values. It is then the experienced user's role to recognize the situation the monitored process is in and make the subsequent decisions and take the measures. The SACHER system, based on the computational intelligence techniques, inserts the elements of intelligence into the overall chemical information system. It has the modular structure with the following most important modules: - normality module- its aim is to recognize that the process

  8. Diagnostics system for the 67 MJ, 50 kV pulsed power capacitor bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galakhov, I V; Gasheev, A S; Gruzin, I A; Gudov, S N; Murugov, V M; Osin, V A; Pankratov, V I; Pegoev, I N [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The diagnostics system is designed for charging and discharging to the load of the large 67 MJ and 50 kV capacitor bank for the iodine laser pulse power of ISKRA-5 facility. Discharging diagnostics of the capacitor bank uses a technique to measure a sequence of times between representative discharge events for 665 discharge circuits of the bank. Benefits of the measurement techniques are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  9. Diagnostics system for the 67 MJ, 50 kV pulsed power capacitor bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galakhov, I.V.; Gasheev, A.S.; Gruzin, I.A.; Gudov, S.N.; Murugov, V.M.; Osin, V.A.; Pankratov, V.I.; Pegoev, I.N.

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostics system is designed for charging and discharging to the load of the large 67 MJ and 50 kV capacitor bank for the iodine laser pulse power of ISKRA-5 facility. Discharging diagnostics of the capacitor bank uses a technique to measure a sequence of times between representative discharge events for 665 discharge circuits of the bank. Benefits of the measurement techniques are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs

  10. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach

  11. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases. Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed, being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy. However, individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging...... of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers, used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy (including anti-angiogenic therapies), as well as for the precise targeting of drugs...

  12. Development of a real time chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Millett, P.J.; Bates, J.; Burns, G.

    1998-01-01

    EPRI has developed SMART chem WORKS, which is capable of operating as a real time chemistry diagnostic and monitoring system. A high degree of plant-specific customization is possible which allows discrimination between normal chemistry and off-normal conditions. The initial implementation of the system has been very successful. State of the art technology has been employed which allows remote administration of the system, a flexible, web page display of the output from the system and instant notification of excursions using email and pagers. The second installation of SMART chem WORKS is currently underway at a BWR plant, Grand Gulf. The SMART chem WORKS techniques can be applied to monitor PWR Primary Chemistry, PWR Secondary Chemistry and BWR steam cycle chemistry. A fossil steam cycle simulator will also be developed for application to fossil plants. (J.P.N.)

  13. Reference Guide for Building Diagnostics Equipment and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    imaging systems, can be cali- 6155 El Camino Real, Carlsbad, Calif. 92008, (619) brated in temperature and radiosity . 931-3617; FUR Systems Inc., 16505...of microproces- or ctigital) in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit or a sor technology, state-of-the-art optical and sight- radiosity display in Btu/ft2

  14. Development of a 2D temperature measurement technique for combustion diagnostics using 2-line atomic fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Johan

    2001-01-01

    The present thesis is concerned with the development and application of a novel planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for temperature measurements in a variety of combusting flows. Accurate measurement of temperature is an essential task in combustion diagnostics, since temperature is one of the most fundamental quantities for the characterization of combustion processes. The technique is based on two-line atomic fluorescence (TLAF) from small quantities of atomic indium (In) seeded into the fuel. It has been developed from small-scale experiments in laboratory flames to the point where practical combustion systems can be studied. The technique is conceptually simple and reveals temperature information in the post-flame regions. The viability of the technique has been tested in three extreme measurement situations: in spark ignition engine combustion, in ultra-lean combustion situations such as lean burning aero-engine concepts and, finally, in fuel-rich combustion. TLAF was successfully applied in an optical Sl engine using isooctane as fuel. The wide temperature sensitivity, 700 - 3000 K, of the technique using indium atoms allowed measurements over the entire combustion cycle in the engine to be performed. In applications in lean combustion a potential problem caused by the strong oxidation processes of indium atoms was encountered. This limits measurement times due to deposits of absorbing indium oxide on measurement windows. The seeding requirement is a disadvantage of the technique and can be a limitation in some applications. The results from experiments performed in sooting flames are very promising for thermometry measurements in such environments. Absorption by hydrocarbons and other native species was found to be negligible. Since low laser energies and low seeding concentrations could be used, the technique did not, unlike most other incoherent optical thermometry techniques, suffer interferences from LII of soot particles or LIF from PAH

  15. Diagnostics of gas behind shock waves by refractive optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.

    In a brief outline of optical methods for measuring neutral gas and plasma parameters, techniques are specifically dealt with based on the interferometric measurement of the refractive index. The investigation is shown of gas density changes in a shock tube using the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. While in a neutral gas the refractive index is determined by gas density, in a plasma the effects of all components, ie., electrons, ions and atoms are additive. The contributions to refraction from the various components may, in view of the different character and frequencies of the components, be resolved by measurement on more than one wavelength. (J.U.)

  16. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delogu, R. S., E-mail: rita.delogu@igi.cnr.it; Pimazzoni, A.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 35127 Padova (Italy); Poggi, C.; Rossi, G. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 1848, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  17. High strength sewage treatment in a UASB reactor and an integrated UASB-digester system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Nidal

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of high strength sewage was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-digester system. The one-stage UASB reactor was operated in Palestine at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10h and at ambient air temperature for a period of more than a year in order to asses the system response to the Mediterranean climatic seasonal temperature fluctuation. Afterwards, the one-stage UASB reactor was modified to a UASB-digester system by incorporating a digester operated at 35 degrees C. The achieved removal efficiencies in the one-stage UASB reactor for total, suspended, colloidal, dissolved and VFA COD were 54, 71, 34, 23%, and -7%, respectively during the first warm six months of the year, and achieved only 32% removal efficiency for COD total over the following cold six months of the year. The modification of the one-stage UASB reactor to a UASB-digester system had remarkably improved the UASB reactor performance as the UASB-digester achieved removal efficiencies for total, suspended, colloidal, dissolved and VFA COD of 72, 74, 74, 62 and 70%. Therefore, the anaerobic treatment of high strength sewage during the hot period in Palestine in a UASB-digester system is very promising.

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FOR CYSTIC FIBROSIS Diagnosing CF is a multistep process. A complete diagnostic evaluation should include a newborn ... Fitness and Nutrition Fitness Nutrition and Your Digestive System Germs and Staying Healthy How Can You Avoid ...

  19. Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood From Kidney Transplant Recipients for the Early Detection of Digestive System Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, M; Okamoto, M; Takenaka, M; Sasaki, H; Fukami, N; Kataoka, K; Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Hoshinaga, K; Shiroki, R

    2017-06-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer in comparison with the general population. To effectively manage post-transplantation malignancies, it is essential to proactively monitor patients. A long-term intensive screening program was associated with a reduced incidence of cancer after transplantation. This study evaluated the usefulness of the gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples obtained from kidney transplant patients and adopted a screening test for detecting cancer of the digestive system (gastric, colon, pancreas, and biliary tract). Nineteen patients were included in this study and a total of 53 gene expression screening tests were performed. The gene expression profiles of blood-delivered total RNA and whole genome human gene expression profiles were obtained. We investigated the expression levels of 2665 genes associated with digestive cancers and counted the number of genes in which expression was altered. A hierarchical clustering analysis was also performed. The final prediction of the cancer possibility was determined according to an algorithm. The number of genes in which expression was altered was significantly increased in the kidney transplant recipients in comparison with the general population (1091 ± 63 vs 823 ± 94; P = .0024). The number of genes with altered expression decreased after the induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (1484 ± 227 vs 883 ± 154; P = .0439). No cases of possible digestive cancer were detected in this study period. The gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples may be a useful and noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows for the early detection of cancer of the digestive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability of Polyphenols Epigallocatechin Gallate and Pentagalloyl Glucose in a Simulated Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, Melanie A.; Hagerman, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols found in foods and beverages are under intense scrutiny for their potential beneficial effects on human health. We examined the stability of two bioactive polyphenols, epigallocatechin-O-gallate (EGCg) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG), in a model digestive system at low oxygen tension with and without added digestive components and foods. Both compounds were stable at pH values of 5–6 and below, indicating gastric stability. Both compounds decomposed at pH 7.0. PGG was stabilized in a model system containing pepsin, pancreatin, bile and lipase, and/or baby food, but was not stabilized by dry cereal. EGCg was not stabilized by the addition of any biomolecule. The effects of polyphenols on human health should be evaluated in the context of their stability in the digestive tract with and without added digestive components and/or food. PMID:23028206

  1. The influence on finite measurement accuracy on the SWE-to-PWE antenna diagnostics technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2006-01-01

    A new antenna diagnostics technique based on the transformation of the spherical wave expansion (SWE) into the plane wave expansion (PWE) is proposed. The new technique allows the recovery of the plane wave spectrum in the visible region, and in principle also in part of the invisible region, from...

  2. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Benjamin J; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I; Kahn, Michael Z; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K; Claflin, Kristin E; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Lutter, Michael L; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-06-11

    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance.

  3. Diagnostics of detector tube impacting with wavelet techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A. [KFKI-AEKI Applied Reactor Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Pazsit, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor Physics

    1997-12-08

    A neutron noise based method is proposed for the detection of impacting of detector tubes in BWRs. The basic idea relies on the assumption that non-stationary transients (e.g. fuel box vibrations) may be induced at impacting. Such short-lived transients are difficult to detect by spectral analysis methods. However, their presence in the detector signal can be detected by wavelet analysis. A simple wavelet technique, the so-called Haar transform, is suggested for the detection of impacting. Tests of the proposed method have been performed with success on both simulated data with controlled impacting as well as with real measurement data. The simulation model as well as the results of the wavelet analysis are reported in this paper. The source code written in MATLAB are available at a public ftp site. The necessary information to reproduce the simulation results is also reported. (author).

  4. Diagnostics of detector tube impacting with wavelet techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.; Pazsit, I

    1998-04-01

    A neutron noise based method is proposed for the detection of impacting of detector tubes in BWRs. The basic idea relies on the assumption that non-stationary transients (e.g. fuel box vibrations) may be induced at impacting. Such short-lived transients are difficult to detect by spectral analysis methods. However, their presence in the detector signal can be detected by wavelet analysis. A simple wavelet technique, the so-called Haar transform, is suggested for the detection of impacting. Tests of the proposed method have been performed with success on both simulated data with controlled impacting as well as with real measurement data. The simulation model as well as the results of the wavelet analysis are reported in this paper. The source codes written in MATLAB[reg] are available at a public ftp site. The necessary information to reproduce the simulation results is also reported.

  5. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M.; Thomann, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [de

  6. Unbiased stereologic techniques for practical use in diagnostic histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1995-01-01

    by introducing quantitative techniques in the histopathologic discipline of malignancy grading. Unbiased stereologic methods, especially based on measurements of nuclear three-dimensional mean size, have during the last decade proved their value in this regard. In this survey, the methods are reviewed regarding......Grading of malignancy by the examination of morphologic and cytologic details in histologic sections from malignant neoplasms is based exclusively on qualitative features, associated with significant subjectivity, and thus rather poor reproducibility. The traditional way of malignancy grading may...... of solid tumors. This new, unbiased attitude to malignancy grading is associated with excellent virtues, which ultimately may help the clinician in the choice of optimal treatment of the individual patient suffering from cancer. Stereologic methods are not solely applicable to the field of malignancy...

  7. Valve Calcification in Aortic Stenosis: Etiology and Diagnostic Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela Izquierdo-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis is the most common valvulopathy in the Western world. Its prevalence has increased significantly in recent years due to population aging; hence, up to 8% of westerners above the age of 84 now have severe aortic stenosis (Lindroos et al., 1993. This causes increased morbidity and mortality and therein lies the importance of adequate diagnosis and stratification of the degree of severity which allows planning the best therapeutic option in each case. Long understood as a passive age-related degenerative process, it is now considered a rather more complex entity involving mechanisms and factors similar to those of atherosclerosis (Stewart et al., 1997. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the disease and analyze the current role of cardiac imaging techniques for diagnosis.

  8. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Gracia [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain); Ainia, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Bioenergía e Higiene Industrial, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Bonmatí, August [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, Belén, E-mail: belen.fernandez@irta.cat [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  9. Protein digestion: An overview of the available techniques and recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Switzar, L.; Giera, M.; Niessen, W.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Several proteomics approaches are available that are defined by the level (protein or peptide) at which analysis takes place. The most widely applied method still is bottom-up proteomics where the protein is digested into peptides that can be efficiently analyzed with a wide range of LC-MS or

  10. [THE CYTOMETRIC TECHNIQUE OF BINDING OF EOSIN-5-MALEIMIDE IN DIAGNOSTIC OF INHERENT SPHEROCYTOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminova, J A; Plyasunova, S A; Jogov, V V; Smetanina, N S

    2016-03-01

    The laboratory diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis is based on detection of spherocytes in peripheral blood, decreasing of index of sphericity, decreasing of osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. The new test of diagnostic of hereditary spherocytosis build on molecular defect was developed on the basis of binding extracellular fragments of protein of band 3 with eosin-5-maleimide (EMA-test). The study was carried out to implement comparative analysis of sensitivity and specificity of techniques applied to diagnose inherent spherocytosis. The sampling of 94 patients with various forms of anemias was analyzed All patients were applied complex clinical laboratory examination including analysis of osmotic resistance of erythrocytes, erythrocytometry and EMA-test as specific techniques of diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis. In 51 out of 94 patients (54%) decreasing of values of EMA-test was detected and in 47 patients diagnosis of inherent spherocytosis was confirmed. The standard values of EMA-test were established in 43 patients (46%) and 12 patients out of them with established diagnosis of inherent spherocytosis. Therefore, sensitivity of EMA-test made up to 79% and specificity - 80%. The most sensitive techniques of diagnostic remain osmotic resistance of erythrocytes (91%) and index of sphericity (up to 96%). But the highest specificity in this respect has EMA-test (80%). Nowadays, none of implemented techniques of diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis can be applied as a universal one. The implementation of complex examination is needed for proper diagnostic of disease.

  11. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of dig...

  12. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  13. The pulses as a diagnostic technique in the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a method of finding physical parameters by studying the pulses in the Sun. For the sake of a mathematical approach, we consider an ideal, highly relevant model which could exist in the Sun with the effects of ionization, due to which there will be a continuous formation of ionized particles. It is observed that the pulse originated at the centre of a dipole field propagates along the magnetic field. We derive a dispersion relation for these types of pulses, propagating from the centre to the solar surface. The time taken by the pulse from its source to the solar surface is also estimated, with due account of the ionization effects on the pulse. Without proper account of these effects, the technique employed in determing the physical parameters may lead to error. Temporal and spatial damping of the pulses lead to estimates of the velocity distribution of the ionized particles and of the amplitude of the magnetic field of the wave in pulse. (orig.)

  14. Proton current measurements using the prompt gamma ray diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Burns, E.J.T.; Johnson, D.J.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray signals from the nuclear reaction 7 Li(p,γ) 8 Be have been used to make time resolved proton current measurements. In these measurements, the proton beam was allowed to strike cylindrical thick lithium metal targets. The time integrated proton current was measured using gamma activation of copper via the reaction 63 Cu(γ,n) 62 Cu(β+). The positron activity of the copper sample was easily measured using coincidence counting techniques. The number of 62 Cu atoms produced per proton incident on a thick Li metal target was determined with separate calibration runs performed on the Sandia 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The time history of the prompt gamma production was measured using six EGG NPM-54 scintillator photomultiplier combinations shielded by 96.5 cm of concrete and 5.1 cm of Pb. The use of six scintillator photomultiplier combinations was necessary to increase the statistical precision of the data. The normalization of the prompt gamma time history data with the total time integrated proton-current measurement yielded the absolute time resolved proton current on target. Data from runs performed on the Sandia Proto I accelerator will be presented

  15. Knowledge acquisition for nuclear power plant unit diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Xi Shuren

    2003-01-01

    The process of acquiring knowledge and building a knowledge base is critical to realize fault diagnostic system at unit level in a nuclear power plant. It directly determines whether the diagnostic system can be applied eventually in a commercial plant. A means to acquire knowledge and its procedures was presented in this paper for fault diagnostic system in a nuclear power plant. The work can be carried out step by step and it is feasible in a commercial nuclear power plant. The knowledge base of the fault diagnostic system for a nuclear power plant can be built after the staff finish the tasks according to the framework presented in this paper

  16. Solid anaerobic digestion batch with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste: Comparison of system performances and identification of microbial guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Barratta, Martino; Bianconi, Francesco; Placidi, Pisana; Passeri, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Solid anaerobic digestion batch (SADB) with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste were experimentally investigated. SADB was operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.55kgVS/m 3 day, generating about 252NL CH 4 /kgVS, whereas the wet digester was operated at an OLR of 0.9kgVS/m 3 day, generating about 320NL CH 4 /kgVS. The initial total volatile fatty acids concentrations for SADB and wet digestion were about 12,500mg/L and 4500mg/L, respectively. There were higher concentrations of ammonium and COD for the SADB compared to the wet one. The genomic analysis performed by high throughput sequencing returned a number of sequences for each sample ranging from 110,619 to 373,307. More than 93% were assigned to the Bacteria domain. Seven and nine major phyla were sequenced for the SADB and wet digestion, respectively, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria being the dominant phyla in both digesters. Taxonomic profiles suggested a methanogenic pathway characterized by a relevant syntrophic acetate-oxidizing metabolism mainly in the liquid digestate of the SADB. This result also confirms the benefits of liquid digestate recirculation for improving the efficiency of AD performed with high solids (>30%w/w) content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion systems for agri-food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, A.; Baldwin, S.; Wang, M. [British Colombia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Activities in British Columbia's Fraser Valley generate an estimated 3 million tones of agriculture and food wastes annually, of which 85 per cent are readily available for anaerobic digestion. The potential for energy generation from biogas through anaerobic digestion is approximately 30 MW. On-farm manure-based systems represent the most likely scenario for the development of anaerobic digestion in British Columbia in the near future. Off-farm food processing wastes may be an alternative option to large centralized industrial complexes. Odour control, pathogen reduction, improved water quality, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and reduced landfill usage are among the environmental benefits of anaerobic digestion. The economical benefits include power and heat generation, biogas upgrading, and further processing of the residues to produce compost or animal bedding. This paper described a newly developed anaerobic digestion (AD) calculator that helps users regarding their investment decision in AD facilities. The calculator classifies various technology options into several major types of AD systems. It also constructs kinetic and economic models for these systems and provides a fair estimation on biogas yield, digester volume, capital cost and annual income. The calculator takes into consideration factors such as the degradability of wastes with different compositions and different operating parameters.

  18. Developmental expression and distribution of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the canine digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shudong; Zhou, Weijuan; Zhang, Xingwang; Wang, Dengfeng; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Meizhen; Gong, Yajing; Ye, Jing; Fang, Fugui

    2016-03-01

    Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is a neuropeptide that plays important roles in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. The distribution of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein and mRNA has not been investigated in the canine digestive system. The present study was conducted to evaluate the expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein and NUCB2 mRNA in the canine digestive organs (esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, liver and pancreas). The tissues of the digestive system were collected from dogs at different developmental stages (infantile, juvenile, pubertal and adult). Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein localization in the organs of adult dogs was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of NUCB2 mRNA at the four developmental stages was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 protein was distributed in the fundic gland region of the stomach, and the islet area and exocrine portions of the pancreas. However, NUCB2 mRNA was found in all digestive organs, although the expression levels in the pancreas and stomach were higher than those in liver, duodenum and other digestive tract tissues (Pdigestive organs. These findings provide the basis of further investigations to elucidate the functions of nefatin-1 in the canine digestive system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncertainty Management for Diagnostics and Prognostics of Batteries using Bayesian Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Goebel, kai

    2007-01-01

    Uncertainty management has always been the key hurdle faced by diagnostics and prognostics algorithms. A Bayesian treatment of this problem provides an elegant and theoretically sound approach to the modern Condition- Based Maintenance (CBM)/Prognostic Health Management (PHM) paradigm. The application of the Bayesian techniques to regression and classification in the form of Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), and to state estimation as in Particle Filters (PF), provides a powerful tool to integrate the diagnosis and prognosis of battery health. The RVM, which is a Bayesian treatment of the Support Vector Machine (SVM), is used for model identification, while the PF framework uses the learnt model, statistical estimates of noise and anticipated operational conditions to provide estimates of remaining useful life (RUL) in the form of a probability density function (PDF). This type of prognostics generates a significant value addition to the management of any operation involving electrical systems.

  20. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  1. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD rem for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  2. Lithium-ion battery diagnostic and prognostic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2009-11-03

    Embodiments provide a method and a system for determining cell imbalance condition of a multi-cell battery including a plurality of cell strings. To determine a cell imbalance condition, a charge current is applied to the battery and is monitored during charging. The charging time for each cell string is determined based on the monitor of the charge current. A charge time difference of any two cell strings in the battery is used to determine the cell imbalance condition by comparing with a predetermined acceptable charge time difference for the cell strings.

  3. Development of technique for diagnostics of social reserves of development of collective labour potential

    OpenAIRE

    Голубєв, Станіслав Миколайович

    2015-01-01

    The problems of diagnostics of social reserves of the collective labour potential are considered in the article. The aim of this study is to develop diagnostic techniques of social reserves of the collective labour potential in the work and the essence of the concept of "social reserves" as a subject of study of economics and their features in the study of collective labour potential. The use of these reserves can increase the efficiency of the labour collective processes by improving coopera...

  4. Ruminally undegradable protein content and digestibility for forages using the mobile bag in situ technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, C D; Klopfenstein, T J; Rolfe, K M; Griffin, W A; Lamothe, M J; Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Schacht, W H; Schroeder, P

    2013-06-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate RUP content and digestibility for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, upland native range, and warm-season grasses. Samples were collected from esophageally cannulated cows or ruminally cannulated steers. Forages were ruminally incubated in in situ bags for durations of time based on 75% of total mean retention time, which was based on IVDMD and rate of passage calculations. One-half of the bags were duodenally incubated and excreted in the feces, and NDIN was analyzed on all bags for RUP calculations. Crude protein was numerically greater early in the growing cycle for grasses compared with later as grasses matured (P ≤ 0.32). The RUP was 13.3%, 13.3%, and 19.7% of CP for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. These values tended to be lower early in the growth cycle and increased (linear P ≤ 0.13) as forages matured for warm-season grasses and subirrigated meadows. Because both CP and RUP content change throughout the growing season, expressing RUP as a percentage of DM gives more consistent averages compared with RUP as a percentage of CP. Coefficient of variation values for RUP as a percentage of DM averaged 0.21 over all 4 experiments compared with 0.26 for RUP as a percentage of CP. Average RUP as a percentage of DM was 2.03%, 1.53%, and 1.94% for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. Total tract indigestible protein (TTIDP) linearly increased with maturity for subirrigated meadow samples (P RUP varied considerably, ranging from 25% to 60%. Subirrigated meadow, native range, and smooth bromegrass samples tended to have linear decreases (P ≤ 0.11) in RUP digestibility throughout the growing season. The amount of digested RUP was fairly consistent across experiments and averages for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range were 0.92%, 0.64%, and 0.49% of DM, respectively. Warm-season grasses in Exp. 2 had

  5. [Correlation analysis of G870A CCND1 gene polymorphism with digestive system tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Min; Shi, Ya-Lin

    2016-11-20

    To study the correlation of G870A CCND1 gene polymorphism and digestive system tumors. From August 2010 to August 2014, 164 digestive system cancer patients (including 82 patients with gastric cancer and 82 with colorectal cancer) and 82 healthy subjects (control group) were examined with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The distribution of CCND1 gene G870A frequency in the 3 groups and its association with tumor staging and grading were analyzed. The frequencies of the GG, GA and AA genotypes in G870A CCND1 gene loci in patients with gastric cancer and colorectal cancer differed significantly from those in the control group (Pdigestive system tumors (Pdigestive system cancer risk than the GG genotype (Pdigestive system tumors. The allele A is associated with an increased risk of digestive system tumors and correlated with the tumor differentiation and staging of the tumor.

  6. [Clinical analysis of 138 multiple primary cancers diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor initially].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, J M; Xiong, H C; Wu, B; Zhou, X Q; Hu, J

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, strategy of treatment and prognosis of multiple primary cancers(MPC) diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor firstly. Methods: From January, 2000 to December, 2015, the clinical, follow-up and prognostic data of 138 MPC patients diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor firstly were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 138 cases were found in 10 580 cases with malignant tumors, and the incidence was 1.30%. There were 129 cases of duplex primary cancers, 8 cases of triple primary cancers and 1 case of quintuple primary cancers. The repetitive primary cancer was occurred in digestive system (61cases, 44.2%) most frequently, with the next in respiratory system (46 cases, 33.3%). 52.2% (72 cases) suffered second primary cancer in 2 years after first primary cancer diagnosed, and 75.4% (104 cases) in 5 years. The median overall survival in patients with all cancer lesions radically treated was 168 months, better than any other treatment (68 months, P digestive system malignant tumor most frequently occurred in the digestive system and respiratory system. More concern should be attracted in follow-up, especially in the first 5 years. The key to improve patient' prognosis was radical treatment to every primary cancer.

  7. ZVI Addition in Continuous Anaerobic Digestion Systems Dramatically Decreases P Recovery Potential: Dynamic Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puyol, D.; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Segura, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the preliminary results of a (dynamic) mathematical model describing the effects of zero valent iron (ZVI) addition during the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems. A modified version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model...... No. 1 (ADM1) upgraded with an improved physico-chemical description, ZVI corrosion, propionate uptake enhancement and multiple mineral precipitation is used as a modelling platform. The proposed approach is tested against two case studies which correspond to two lab scale anaerobic digesters (AD2, AD....... Simulations demonstrate that the model is capable to satisfactorily reproduce the dynamics of hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis, nutrient release, pH and methanogenesis in the control anaerobic digester (AD1). This study also evidences the enhancement of methane production by the influence of ZVI...

  8. Reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Walsh, M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    In order to reliably and safely operate a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to continuously monitor the performance of numerous subsystems to confirm that the plant state is within its prescribed limits. An important function of a properly designed monitoring system is the detection of incipient faults in all subsystems (with the avoidance of false alarms) coupled with an information system that provides the operators with fault diagnosis, prognosis of fault progression and recommended (either automatic or prescriptive) corrective action. In this paper, such a system is described that has been applied to reactor coolant pumps. This system includes a sensitive pattern-recognition technique based upon the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) that detects incipient faults from validated signals, an expert system embodying knowledge bases on pump and sensor performance, extensive hypertext files containing operating and emergency procedures as well as pump and sensor information and a graphical interface providing the operator with easily perceived information on the location and character of the fault as well as recommended corrective action. This system is in the prototype stage and is currently being validated utilizing data from a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (EBR-II). 3 refs., 4 figs

  9. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, K; Hiraki, N; Kawasaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1975-05-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO/sub 2/ laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO/sub 2/ laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described.

  10. Infrared laser scattering system for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Katsunori; Hiraki, Naoji; Kawasaki, Shoji

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of observing the collective scattering of infrared laser light from plasmas is discussed in terms of the laser power requirement, the necessary optical system and the detector performance, and is shown to be feasible with the present day techniques to get the ion temperature by means of a CO 2 laser on theta pinch plasmas. Based on this estimate, the construction of the TEA CO 2 laser and the preparations of the optical components have been started and some preliminary results of these are described. (auth.)

  11. Collected abstracts on particle beam diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of abstracts on work related to particle beam diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. The abstracts were gathered in early 1978 and represent the status of the various programs as of that date. It is not suggested that this is a comprehensive list of all the work that is going on in the development of particle beam diagnostics, but it does provide a representative view of the work in this field. For example, no abstracts were received from the U.S.S.R. even though they have considerable activity in particle beam diagnostics

  12. Upgrades of Diagnostic Techniques and Technologies for JET next D-T Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX - CNR, ENEA, INFN, Universita di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA,Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    . With regard to the fusion products, JET now can deploy a consistent set of techniques to measure the neutron yield and neutron spectra and to diagnose the fast particles. A full calibration of the neutron diagnostics with a 14 MeV source is being considered, after the recent very successful calibration for the 2.45 MeV neutrons. Vertical and horizontal lines of sight are foreseen for neutron and gamma spectrometry, in order to better determine the thermal neutron yield and to separate the trapped and passing components of the alphas. Various gamma ray spectrometers are being developed to cover all the various operational scenarios, from trace tritium to 50-50 D-T operation. The redistribution of the alphas will be measured with the gamma ray cameras, recently upgraded with full digital electronics; new detectors are being considered to bring the time resolution of the system in the ten of ms range. The lost alphas will also be diagnosed with improved spatial and temporal resolution, using Faraday cups and a scintillator probe. From a technological perspective, the D-T campaign will provide a unique opportunity to test ITER relevant technologies. From radiation hard detectors, for example Hall probes, to neutron absorbers and to shielding concepts, the potential of various solutions in a realistic 14 MeV radiation field will be assessed. The effects of neutrons and gamma on ancillary technologies and systems, such as fibre optics and electronics circuits, are also expected to be sufficiently high to derive useful information about the competitive advantage of various alternatives.

  13. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  14. A Research on Determination of Lecithin in Eggs by Applying Microwave Digestion Techniques and Spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Ge, Q.L.; Gao, Y. Sh.; Chen, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    A method to quick detect concentration of lecithin in eggs, namely microwave digestion spectrophotometry, was established in this research. The homogenate of eggs was treated with absolute ethanol to eliminate phosphate protein in eggs which could possibly affect concentration of lecithin examined. A sample then received a new way of pre-treatment, called microwave digestion, before UV-Vis spectrometry was applied to examine the concentration of phosphate at 400 nm. The linear equation was A = 0.08628X (μg), the corresponding coefficient of correlation was 0.9998, the detection limit of phosphorous was 0.2μg (n=11). The content of lecithin in eggs was then obtained. According to the result, the recovery of 90% was secured; therefore the conclusion of high degree of accuracy was reached.

  15. Carbohydrases in the digestive system of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Mahboob; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Darvishzadeh, Ali; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

    2014-04-01

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is a generalist predator of insects and has been used in biological control. However, information on the digestion of food in this insect is lacking. Therefore, we have studied the digestive system in P. maculiventris, and further characterized carbohydrases in the digestive tract. The midgut of all developmental stages was composed of anterior, median, and posterior regions. The volumes of the anterior midgut decreased and the median midgut increased in older instars and adults, suggesting a more important role of the median midgut in food digestion. However, carbohydrase activities were predominant in the anterior midgut. In comparing the specific activity of carbohydrases, α-amylase activity was more in the salivary glands (with two distinct activity bands in zymograms), and glucosidase and galactosidase activities were more in the midgut. Salivary α-amylases were detected in the prey hemolymph, demonstrating the role of these enzymes in extra-oral digestion. However, the catalytic efficiency of midgut α-amylase activity was approximately twofold more than that of the salivary gland enzymes, and was more efficient in digesting soluble starch than glycogen. Midgut α-amylases were developmentally regulated, as one isoform was found in first instar compared to three isoforms in fifth instar nymphs. Starvation significantly affected carbohydrase activities in the midgut, and acarbose inhibited α-amylases from both the salivary glands and midgut in vitro and in vivo. The structural diversity and developmental regulation of carbohydrases in the digestive system of P. maculiventris demonstrate the importance of these enzymes in extra-oral and intra-tract digestion, and may explain the capability of the hemipteran to utilize diverse food sources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mechatronics in design of monitoring and diagnostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, T.; Barszcz, T. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland); Hanc, A. [Energocontrol Ltd., Krakow (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays development of computer engineering in area of hardware and software gives new possibilities of monitoring and diagnostics system design. The paper presents analysis of new possible solutions for design of monitoring and diagnostic systems including; smart sensor design, modular software design and communication modules. New concept of monitoring system based on home page server solution (nano-server) is presented. Smart sensor design concept with embedded hardware for diagnostic application is shown. New software concept for monitoring and diagnostics automation and examples of applications of new design for condition monitoring based on proposed solution are carefully discussed. (orig.)

  17. C -14 analysis in radioactive waste by combustion and digestion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venescu, R. E.; Valeca, M.; Bujoreanu, L.; Bujoreanu, D.; Venescu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-14 is a long lived radionuclide (half life of 5730 years) present in almost all radioactive waste streams generated by a CANDU nuclear power plant. It is a pure beta emitter that decays to 14N by emitting low energy beta-radiation with an average energy of 49.5keV and a maximum energy of 156keV. Before the beta radiation of 14C can be measured from radioactive waste liquid scintillation counting (LSC), the samples must be transformed in a stable, clear and homogeneous solution. Two methods were tested for carbon-14 recovery and analysis in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. The combustion process is a simple automatic method of sample preparation, in which all carbon isotopes, including 14C are oxidized to gaseous carbon dioxide that is subsequently trapped in form of carbonate in a column filled with a carbon dioxide absorbent. The microwave digestion is the method wherein the samples are transformed totally or partially in liquid phase depending on the sample matrix using adequate digestion reagents. The samples were counted with a normal and low level count mode liquid scintillation counter Tri-Carb3110TR. The tests performed on the simulated radwaste showed a 14C recovery of 90% by combustion and higher than 75% by microwave digestion method. (authors)

  18. [Retrospective analysis of correlative factors between digestive system injury and anticoagulant or antiplatelet-agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Luo, Hesheng

    2014-05-27

    To explore the correlative factors and clinical characteristics of digestive system injury during the treatment of anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents. A total of 1 443 hospitalized patients on anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents from January 2010 to December 2013 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were analyzed retrospectively. Their length of hospital stay was from 5 to 27 days. Most of them were elderly males (n = 880, 61.0%) with an average age of (62 ± 6) years. 1 138 patients (78.9%) were farmers, workers or someone without a specific occupation. During the treatment of anticoagulant/antiplatelet-agents, statistical difference existed (P = 0.01) between positively and negatively previous digestive disease groups for actively newly occurring digestive system injury (16.0% (41/256) vs 15.9% (189/1 187)). After the dosing of anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents, 57 (66.3%, 57/86) patients were complicated by hemorrhage of digestive tract, taking 62.9% (61/97) of all positive result patients for Helicobacter pylori test. Comparing preventive PPI group with no PPI group, there was no marked statistical differences (P = 2.67) for digestive system complication (including hemorrhage of digestive tract) while receiving anticoagulant and (or) antiplatelet-agents (13.9% (74/533) vs 17.1% (156/910)). During anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet-agent therapy, 185 patients (12.8%) were complicated by peptic ulcer or peptic ulcer with bleeding, 40 patients (2.8%) had erosive gastritis and 5 (0.3%) developed acute gastric mucosal lesions. And 42 of 76 patients complicated by hemorrhage of digestive tract underwent endoscopic hemostasis while 2 patients were operated. Ninety-seven patients (6.7%) died, including 61 (62.9%, 61/97) from hemorrhage of digestive tract. The remainder became cured, improved and discharged. Moreover, no significant statistical differences existed (P = 2.29) among three combination group (aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin), two

  19. Extraction of intracellular protein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa using a combination of ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilin; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xuewu

    2018-01-01

    Due to the rigid cell wall of Chlorella species, it is still challenging to effectively extract significant amounts of protein. Mass methods were used for the extraction of intracellular protein from microalgae with biological, mechanical and chemical approaches. In this study, based on comparison of different extraction methods, a new protocol was established to maximize extract amounts of protein, which was involved in ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques. Under the optimized conditions, 72.4% of protein was extracted from the microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which should contribute to the research and development of Chlorella protein in functional food and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intelligent systems in technical and medical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Korbicz, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    For many years technical and medical diagnostics has been the area of intensive scientific research. It covers well-established topics as well as emerging developments in control engineering, artificial intelligence, applied mathematics, pattern recognition and statistics. At the same time, a growing number of applications of different fault diagnosis methods, especially in electrical, mechanical, chemical and medical engineering, is being observed. This monograph contains a collection of 44 carefully selected papers contributed by experts in technical and medical diagnostics, and constitutes

  1. Diagnostic system for primary circuits of pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, J.; Majer, J.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnostic system monitors the reactor, the main circulating pipe, the main circulating pump, the main shut-off valve, the steam generator and the pressurizer. Diagnostic signals are obtained from the sensors designed for operation measurements and from sensors for special diagnostic purposes. The following operations are carried out: detection of dangerous dynamic stress of components, detection of damage to functional surfaces of components, detection of occurrence and propagation of defects in component materials, detection of loose particles and foreign bodies, detection of coolant leakage, detection of coolant boiling in the core and detection of impermissible non-homogeneities of fields of physical quantities in the core. The diagnostic system comprises: monitoring, classification of properly investigated effects, periodical tracing and long-term tracing. The operational diagnostics system developed by the SKODA Concern consists of a vibration monitoring system, a spectral analysis system and a central evaluation system. (M.D.)

  2. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  3. Radiation effects in IFMIF Li target diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Vila, R.; Shikama, T.; Horiike, H.; Simakov, S.; Ciotti, M.; Ibarra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostics for the lithium target will be crucial for the operation of IFMIF. Several parameters as the lithium temperature, target thickness or wave pattern must be monitored during operation. Radiation effects may produce malfunctioning in any of these diagnostics due to the exposure to high radiation fields. The main diagnostic systems proposed for the operation of IFMIF are reviewed in this paper from the point of view of radiation damage. The main tools for the assessment of the performance of these diagnostics are the neutronics calculations by using specialised codes and the information accumulated during the last decades on the radiation effects in functional materials, components and diagnostics for ITER. This analysis allows to conclude that the design of some of the diagnostic systems must be revised to assure the high availability required for the target system.

  4. Prognostic value of long noncoding RNA HOTAIR in digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Zhou

    2015-07-01

    HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), a well-known long noncoding RNA, has been found to play significant roles in several tumors. However, the clinical application value of HOTAIR in digestive system malignancies remains to be clarified. We aimed to explore comprehensively the potential role of HOTAIR as a prognostic indicator in digestive system malignancies. Systematic search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science until July 5, 2014. A quantitative meta-analysis was conducted with standard statistical methods for eligible papers on the prognostic value of HOTAIR in digestive system cancers. A total of 1059 patients from 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis. A significant association was found between HOTAIR abundance and poor overall survival (OS) of patients with digestive system malignancies, with pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 2.587 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.054-3.259, P digestive system malignancies. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.; Zeeman, G.; Otterpohl, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems:

  6. Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derting, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

  7. Textbook of focusing techniques in diagnostic radiography. 5. new rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnjakovic-Buescher, S.; Riegler-Bubeck, C.; Zimmer-Brossy, M.; Bast, B.

    1998-01-01

    This 5th edition of the standard work on focusing techniques in diagnostic radiography is a guide for X-ray medical technicians and radiologists wishing to optimize their skills and produce images of high technical standard and diagnostic value. The major part of the textbook deals with the focusing and imaging techniques for evaluation of the skeleton and inner body organs. The new edition includes the current legal provisions for radiological protection and the latest quality assurance legislation. It is an indispensable source of reference for clinical departments, radiographic practice, and training institutions. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Proton storage ring (PSR) diagnostics and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.

    1983-01-01

    When any new accelerator or storage ring is built that advances the state of the art, the diagnostic system becomes extremely important in tuning the facility to full specification. This paper will discuss the various diagnostic devices planned or under construction for the PSR and their connection into the control system

  9. The Digestive System and Nutritional Considerations for Individuals with Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS is a neurodevelopmental syndrome of genetic origin that mainly affects females. Individuals diagnosed with RS exhibit a variety of functional difficulties that impair their quality of life. One of the affected systems is the digestive system, where 74% of persons with RS have abnormal functioning. The affected digestive system causes this population to present an array of problems, such as gastroesophageal reflux (GER, constipation, and malnutrition, leading to failure to thrive (FTT, which resolves in reduced functional ability. Due to the severe effects of the dysfunctional digestive system of individuals with RS, this article will describe the problems common to this population, as well as propose some clinical suggestions for intervention. .

  10. The Digestive System and Nutritional Considerations for Individuals with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Meir; Zysman, Lilit

    2006-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome of genetic origin that mainly affects females. Individuals diagnosed with RS exhibit a variety of functional difficulties that impair their quality of life. One of the affected systems is the digestive system, where 74% of persons with RS have abnormal functioning. The affected digestive system causes this population to present an array of problems, such as gastroesophageal reflux (GER), constipation, and malnutrition, leading to failure to thrive (FTT), which resolves in reduced functional ability. Due to the severe effects of the dysfunctional digestive system of individuals with RS, this article will describe the problems common to this population, as well as propose some clinical suggestions for intervention. . PMID:17195872

  11. Prognostic value of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Li, Xiao-Mei; Maimaiti, Ailifeire; Chen, Qing-Jie; Liao, Wu; Lai, Hong-Mei; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    MALAT1, a newly discovered long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be highly expressed in many types of cancers. This meta-analysis summarizes its potential prognostic value in digestive system malignancies. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for eligible papers on the prognostic impact of MALAT1 in digestive system malignancies from inception to Apr. 25, 2015. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to summarize the effect. Five studies were included in the study, with a total of 527 patients. A significant association was observed between MALAT1 abundance and poor overall survival (OS) of patients with digestive system malignancies, with pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 7.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.32-13.66, Pdigestive system malignancies.

  12. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  13. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-05-10

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of digestive organs, varying subtypes of P2Y receptors may have opposite or synergetic functions on the same cell. Recently, growing lines of evidence strongly suggest the involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of several digestive diseases. In this review, we will focus on their important roles in the development of digestive inflammation and cancer. We anticipate that as the special subtypes of P2Y receptors are studied in depth, specific modulators for them will have good potentials to become promising new drugs to treat human digestive diseases in the near future.

  14. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  15. Digestive recovery of sulfur-methyl-L-methionine and its bioaccessibility in Kimchi cabbages using a simulated in vitro digestion model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Rim; Cho, Sun-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Gun-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2014-01-15

    Sulfur-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) has been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study was to determine both the digestive stability of SMM and the amount released from Kimchi cabbages under a simulated in vitro digestion model system. The in vitro digestion model system simulating a human gastrointestinal tract was carried out for measuring digestive recovery and bioaccessibility of SMM. SMM was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Recovery of an SMM standard after digestion was 0.68 and 0.65% for fasted and fed conditions, respectively, indicating that the digestive stability of the SMM standard was not affected by dietary energy or co-ingested food matrix. The SMM standard was also significantly stable in acidic pH (P < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of SMM from Kimchi cabbages was measured under a fasted condition, resulted in 8.83, 14.71 and 10.88%, for salivary, gastric and small intestinal phases, respectively. Results from our study suggest that SMM from Kimchi cabbages, a component of food sources, is more bioavailable than SMM by itself. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Development of an Accident Diagnostic Scheme Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, M. G.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, D. S.; No, Y. G.; Lee, S. W. [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    As a means to effectively manage the severe nuclear accidents, it is important to identify and diagnose the accident initiating events during an initial short time interval after the accidents by observing the major controlling parameters. Main objective of this study is to develop the diagnostic approach for the accurate prediction of accident initiating events using artificial intelligence techniques. For this, first, a variety of artificial intelligence techniques such as Finn, Gmbh, and Sm were examined through this study. Among them, Sc and Gmbh model were assessed as a useful approach to predict the break location and the break size of Local. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, the 111 accident simulation data (based on Map) were applied to train the Sc and Gmbh models, and the test data was used to independently verify whether or not the SVC and GMDH models work well. The analysis of the maximum errors and RMS errors, and the performance of the GMDH according to the existence of measurement errors and SIS actuation showed that the proposed SVC and GMDH models can accurately classify the break locations and accurately predict the break size. As the time-integrated signals were used for inputs into the GMDH model within a period of 60 second after a reactor scram, the actuation of the safety systems such as safety injection system (SIS), auxiliary feed water system, and containment spray system, were not considered in this study. It is because the initial 60 second time-integrated signals were used and the safety systems usually start to actuate after a more than 60 second time delay after the reactor scram

  17. Development of an Accident Diagnostic Scheme Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, M. G.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, D. S.; No, Y. G.; Lee, S. W.; Ahn, K. I.

    2010-06-01

    As a means to effectively manage the severe nuclear accidents, it is important to identify and diagnose the accident initiating events during an initial short time interval after the accidents by observing the major controlling parameters. Main objective of this study is to develop the diagnostic approach for the accurate prediction of accident initiating events using artificial intelligence techniques. For this, first, a variety of artificial intelligence techniques such as Finn, Gmbh, and Sm were examined through this study. Among them, Sc and Gmbh model were assessed as a useful approach to predict the break location and the break size of Local. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, the 111 accident simulation data (based on Map) were applied to train the Sc and Gmbh models, and the test data was used to independently verify whether or not the SVC and GMDH models work well. The analysis of the maximum errors and RMS errors, and the performance of the GMDH according to the existence of measurement errors and SIS actuation showed that the proposed SVC and GMDH models can accurately classify the break locations and accurately predict the break size. As the time-integrated signals were used for inputs into the GMDH model within a period of 60 second after a reactor scram, the actuation of the safety systems such as safety injection system (SIS), auxiliary feed water system, and containment spray system, were not considered in this study. It is because the initial 60 second time-integrated signals were used and the safety systems usually start to actuate after a more than 60 second time delay after the reactor scram

  18. New techniques in systems neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the recent explosion of experimental tools in neuroscience that now make it possible to manipulate, record, and understand neuronal activity within the intact brain, and which are helping us to learn how the many neurons that comprise a network act together to control behavior. Leaders in the field discuss the latest developments in optogenetics, functional imaging, circuit mapping, and the application of these tools to complex biological problems. New Techniques in Systems Neuroscience Explores cutting-edge methodological developments and their biological motivations Covers state-of-the-art advances in optogenetics, imaging, circuit mapping, and the molecular characterization of individual neurons Describes key examples of how these methods have been applied in different model organisms Is appropriate for experts and those just entering the field alike.

  19. An automated computerized auscultation and diagnostic system for pulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ali; Fahim, Atef

    2010-12-01

    Respiratory sounds are of significance as they provide valuable information on the health of the respiratory system. Sounds emanating from the respiratory system are uneven, and vary significantly from one individual to another and for the same individual over time. In and of themselves they are not a direct proof of an ailment, but rather an inference that one exists. Auscultation diagnosis is an art/skill that is acquired and honed by practice; hence it is common to seek confirmation using invasive and potentially harmful imaging diagnosis techniques like X-rays. This research focuses on developing an automated auscultation diagnostic system that overcomes the limitations inherent in traditional auscultation techniques. The system uses a front end sound signal filtering module that uses adaptive Neural Networks (NN) noise cancellation to eliminate spurious sound signals like those from the heart, intestine, and ambient noise. To date, the core diagnosis module is capable of identifying lung sounds from non-lung sounds, normal lung sounds from abnormal ones, and identifying wheezes from crackles as indicators of different ailments.

  20. HER2 aberrations and heterogeneity in cancers of the digestive system: Implications for pathologists and gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicola; Bosari, Silvano

    2016-09-21

    Management of cancers of the digestive system has progressed rapidly into the molecular era. Despite the significant recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, the number of deaths for these tumors has currently plateaued. Many investigations have assessed the role of HER2 in tumors of the digestive system in both prognostic and therapeutic settings, with heterogeneous results. Novel testing and treatment guidelines are emerging, in particular in gastric and colorectal cancers. However, further advances are needed. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-knowledge of HER2 alterations in the most common tumors of the digestive system and discuss the operational implications of HER2 testing.

  1. Poor prognosis of hexokinase 2 overexpression in solid tumors of digestive system: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayuan; Hu, Liren; Wu, Fenping; Zou, Lei; He, Taiping

    2017-05-09

    Several previous studies have reported the prognostic value of hexokinase 2 (HK2) in digestive system tumors. However, these studies were limited by the small sample sizes and the results were inconsistent among them. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis based on 15 studies with 1932 patients to assess the relationship between HK2 overexpression and overall survival (OS) of digestive system malignancies. The relationship of HK2 and clinicopathological features was also evaluated. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to estimate the effect size. Positive HK2 expression showed poor OS in all tumor types (HR = 1.75 [1.41-2.18], P digestive system cancers.

  2. Prognostic nutritional index as a prognostic biomarker for survival in digestive system carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Peng; Kang, Huafeng; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Yang, Pengtao; Dai, Cong; Liu, Xinghan; Liu, Kang; Zheng, Yi; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-12-27

    The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to correlate with the prognosis in patients with various malignancies. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the predictive potential of PNI in digestive system cancers. Twenty-three studies with a total of 7,384 patients suffering from digestive system carcinomas were involved in this meta-analysis. A lower PNI was significantly associated with the shorter overall survival (OS) [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.83, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.62-2.07], the poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.19-2.89), and the higher rate of post-operative complications (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.63-3.28). In conclusion, PNI was allowed to function as an efficient indicator for the prognosis of patients with digestive system carcinomas.

  3. Prognostic value of pretreatment albumin/globulin ratio in digestive system cancers: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Wen; Yuan, Tang-Zhan; Chen, Jia-Xi; Zheng, Yang

    2018-01-01

    The albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) has been widely reported to be a potential predictor of prognosis in digestive system cancers (DSCs), but convincing conclusions have not been made. Therefore, herein, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies regarding this topic to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with DSCs. Three databases, including PubMed, EMBase, and Web of science, were searched comprehensively for eligible studies through September 8, 2017. The outcomes of interest included overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS). In our meta-analysis, pooled analysis of 13 studies with 9269 patients showed that a low AGR was significantly correlated with poor OS (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.57-2.38; P digestive system cancers. A low pretreatment AGR may be a useful predictive prognostic biomarker in human digestive system cancers.

  4. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in digestive system cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Du, F; Shen, G; Zheng, F; Xu, B

    2015-01-15

    Hypoxia is an all but ubiquitous phenomenon in cancers. Two known hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, primarily mediate the transcriptional response to hypoxia. Despite the high homology between HIF-1α and HIF-2α, emerging evidence suggests differences between both molecules in terms of transcriptional targets as well as impact on multiple physiological pathways and tumorigenesis. To date, much progress has been made toward understanding the roles of HIF-2α in digestive system cancers. Indeed, HIF-2α has been shown to regulate multiple aspects of digestive system cancers, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis, metabolism, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. These findings make HIF-2α a critical regulator of this malignant phenotype. Here we summarize the function of HIF-2 during cancer development as well as its contribution to tumorigenesis in digestive system malignancies.

  5. Effects of continuous addition of nitrate to a thermophilic anaerobic digestion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The biodegradation of complex organic matter is regulated partially by the ability to dump electrons which build up in the form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The effects of the continuous addition of the oxidant, nitrate, were investigated on a single-stage, thermophilic, anaerobic digester. The digester acclimated rapidly to nitrate addition. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in a constant inhibition of total gas (30%) and methane production (36%). Reduction in total gas and methane production was accompanied by increases in sludge pH and acetate, propionate, and ammonium ion pools. Effluent particle size distribution revealed a shift to smaller particle sizes in the nitrate-pumped sludge. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in lower numbers of methanogens and sulfate reducers in the sludge, with increases in nitrate-reducing and cellulose-degrading microorganisms. These findings indicate that added nitrate underwent dissimilatory reduction to ammonium ion, as determined from gas analysis, ammonium pools, and 15 N-nitrate-label experiments. Continuous nitrate addition to a single-phase digestion system was determined to inhibit methane production from biomass and wastes. Thus for the single-stage digestion system in which maximum methane production is desired, the addition of nitrate is not recommended. However, in a multistage digestion system, the continuous addition of nitrate in the primary stage to increase the rate and extent of degradation of organic matter to volatile fatty acids, which then would serve as feed to a second stage, may be advantageous

  6. On-line diagnostics for a real time system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, P.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of an on-line diagnostics is to infuse the ability of self diagnosing in an online computer to enhance its dependability in a real time system. Such a diagnostics evolved for the CDPS of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam is reported. The two phases of the diagnostics, i.e., the malfunction detection and post detection action are described in some detail. (A.K.)

  7. The radiation protection optimisation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the class of artificial sources, X-ray diagnostic techniques irradiate global population with more than 90 % share in total dose. At the same time this is the only area with high possibilities in collective dose reduction without important investments. Exposure of the medical team is mainly related to unnecessary irradiation. Eliminating this unnecessary irradiation quality of diagnostic information remains undisturbed. From the radiation protection point of view the most critical X-ray diagnostic method is angiography. This paper presents the radiation protection optimisation calculation of the protective lead thickness using the Cost - Benefit analysis technique. The obtained numerical results are based on calculated collective dose, the estimated prices of the lead and lead glass thickness and the adopted price for monetary value of the collective dose unit α. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs

  8. The radiation protection optimisation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    In the class of artificial sources, X-ray diagnostic techniques irradiate global population with more than 90 % share in total dose. At the same time this is the only area with high possibilities in collective dose reduction without important investments. Exposure of the medical team is mainly related to unnecessary irradiation. Eliminating this unnecessary irradiation quality of diagnostic information remains undisturbed. From the radiation protection point of view the most critical X-ray diagnostic method is angiography. This paper presents the radiation protection optimisation calculation of the protective lead thickness using the Cost - Benefit analysis technique. The obtained numerical results are based on calculated collective dose, the estimated prices of the lead and lead glass thickness and the adopted price for monetary value of the collective dose unit {alpha}. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs.

  9. Capsule-type pe biogas digester: low-cost and environment friendly system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, M.A.; Aslam, M.; Hussain, Z.

    2005-01-01

    production. The other prevailing problem with the commonly used biogas digester is that the gas pressure is low. In the PE Capsule-type digester, gas is stored in the used rubber tubes, where putting load on the tubes can easily increase the gas pressure. Thus pressure of the gas can be maintained very effectively. Adding inoculums of the methogenic bacteria can increase the production of the gas. Lime has to be added to increase the pH, because methogenic bacteria are effective in neutral to alkaline environment, instead of the acidic environment, which is commonly experienced after adding solid waste into the digester. Temperature is another important parameter for enhancing productivity of biogas. The system is cost-effective, as the total cost is around Rs. 10,000 for a unit producing gas to light a single burner for 40-100 hours. The technology transfer will be easy, as the private plastic companies can market such systems more effectively than the public sector. Four modules of this system more can be installed with the cost of one Indian-type model. (author)

  10. The oldest known digestive system consisting of both paired digestive glands and a crop from exceptionally preserved trilobites of the Guanshan Biota (Early Cambrian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Hopkins

    Full Text Available The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop" under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten. In addition, at least one specimen of Palaeolenus lantenoisi shows the preservation of an unusual combination of digestive structures: a crop and paired digestive glands along the alimentary tract. This combination of digestive structures has also never been observed in trilobites this old, and is rare in general, with prior evidence of it from one juvenile trilobite specimen from the late Cambrian Orsten fauna of Sweden and possibly one adult trilobite specimen from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte. The variation in the fidelity of preservation of digestive structures within and across different Lagerstätten may be due to variation in the type, quality, and point of digestion of food among specimens in addition to differences in mode of preservation. The presence and combination of these digestive features in the Guanshan trilobites contradicts current models of how the trilobite digestive system was structured and evolved over time. Most notably, the crop is not a derived structure as previously proposed, although it is possible that the relative size of the crop increased over the evolutionary history of the clade.

  11. The oldest known digestive system consisting of both paired digestive glands and a crop from exceptionally preserved trilobites of the Guanshan Biota (Early Cambrian, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Melanie J; Chen, Feiyang; Hu, Shixue; Zhang, Zhifei

    2017-01-01

    The early Cambrian Guanshan biota of eastern Yunnan, China, contains exceptionally preserved animals and algae. Most diverse and abundant are the arthropods, of which there are at least 11 species of trilobites represented by numerous specimens. Many trilobite specimens show soft-body preservation via iron oxide pseudomorphs of pyrite replacement. Here we describe digestive structures from two species of trilobite, Palaeolenus lantenoisi and Redlichia mansuyi. Multiple specimens of both species contain the preserved remains of an expanded stomach region (a "crop") under the glabella, a structure which has not been observed in trilobites this old, despite numerous examples of trilobite gut traces from other Cambrian Lagerstätten. In addition, at least one specimen of Palaeolenus lantenoisi shows the preservation of an unusual combination of digestive structures: a crop and paired digestive glands along the alimentary tract. This combination of digestive structures has also never been observed in trilobites this old, and is rare in general, with prior evidence of it from one juvenile trilobite specimen from the late Cambrian Orsten fauna of Sweden and possibly one adult trilobite specimen from the Early Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte. The variation in the fidelity of preservation of digestive structures within and across different Lagerstätten may be due to variation in the type, quality, and point of digestion of food among specimens in addition to differences in mode of preservation. The presence and combination of these digestive features in the Guanshan trilobites contradicts current models of how the trilobite digestive system was structured and evolved over time. Most notably, the crop is not a derived structure as previously proposed, although it is possible that the relative size of the crop increased over the evolutionary history of the clade.

  12. New perineal injection technique for pudendal nerve infiltration in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinschenk, Stefan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pudendal nerve injection is used as a diagnostic procedure in the vulvar region and for therapeutic purposes, such as in vulvodynia. Here, we provide a new, easy-to-perform perineal injection technique. We analyzed 105 perineal injections into the pudendal nerve with a local anesthetic (LA),

  13. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes. Additional information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The reports from Argentina, Canada, India, Korea and Romania are presented concerning the projects carried out under the Coordinated Research Program (CRP) I3.30.10 of the International Agency for Atomic Energy - Vienna related to 'Intercomparison of Techniques for Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics'

  14. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  15. The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

  16. 3D Reconstruction of the Digestive System in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Embryos and Paralarvae during the First Month of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fernández-Gago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Octopus vulgaris aquaculture is limited due to poor biological knowledge of the paralarval stages (e.g., digestive system functionality, their nutritional requirements (e.g., adequate live diet and standardization of rearing techniques. These factors are important in explaining the high mortality rate observed in this developmental stage under culture conditions. For a better understanding of nutrition biology of this species, we investigated the 3D microanatomy of the digestive tract of the embryo and paralarvae during the first month of life. O. vulgaris paralarvae digestive system is similar to that in the adult. The “descending branch” has a dorsal position and is formed by the buccal mass, oesophagus and crop. Ventrally, the “ascending branch” is formed by the intestine and the anus. The digestive gland, the posterior salivary glands and the inner yolk sac (in the case of the embryo and hatched paralarvae are located between the “ascending” and “descending” branches. In the curve of the U-shaped digestive tract, a caecum and the stomach can be found. The reconstructions reveal that anatomically the digestive system is already complete when the paralarvae hatch. The reconstruction of the buccal mass at different post-hatching days has demonstrated that all the necessary structures for food intake are present. However, the radula surface in contact with the pharynx is very small on the first day of life. Although the digestive system has all the structures to feed, the digestive gland and radula take longer to reach full functionality. We have established four development periods: embryonic, early post-hatching, late post-hatching and juvenile-adult. The differentiation between these periods was done by type of feeding (endogenous or exogenous, the state of maturation and hence functionality of the digestive gland, type of growth (linear, no net, or exponential, and measurement of the arm lengths with respect to the mantle

  17. 3D Reconstruction of the Digestive System in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Embryos and Paralarvae during the First Month of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gago, Raquel; Heß, Martin; Gensler, Heidemarie; Rocha, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Octopus vulgaris aquaculture is limited due to poor biological knowledge of the paralarval stages (e.g., digestive system functionality), their nutritional requirements (e.g., adequate live diet) and standardization of rearing techniques. These factors are important in explaining the high mortality rate observed in this developmental stage under culture conditions. For a better understanding of nutrition biology of this species, we investigated the 3D microanatomy of the digestive tract of the embryo and paralarvae during the first month of life. O. vulgaris paralarvae digestive system is similar to that in the adult. The "descending branch" has a dorsal position and is formed by the buccal mass, oesophagus and crop. Ventrally, the "ascending branch" is formed by the intestine and the anus. The digestive gland, the posterior salivary glands and the inner yolk sac (in the case of the embryo and hatched paralarvae) are located between the "ascending" and "descending" branches. In the curve of the U-shaped digestive tract, a caecum and the stomach can be found. The reconstructions reveal that anatomically the digestive system is already complete when the paralarvae hatch. The reconstruction of the buccal mass at different post-hatching days has demonstrated that all the necessary structures for food intake are present. However, the radula surface in contact with the pharynx is very small on the first day of life. Although the digestive system has all the structures to feed, the digestive gland and radula take longer to reach full functionality. We have established four development periods: embryonic, early post-hatching, late post-hatching and juvenile-adult. The differentiation between these periods was done by type of feeding (endogenous or exogenous), the state of maturation and hence functionality of the digestive gland, type of growth (linear, no net, or exponential), and measurement of the arm lengths with respect to the mantle length. 3D reconstruction

  18. Development and applications of laser spectroscopic techniques related to combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alden, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to features as non-intrusiveness combined with high spatial and temporal resolution, various laser diagnostic techniques have during the last decades become of utmost importance for characterization of combustion related phenomena. In the following presentation some further development of the techniques will be highlighted aiming at a) surface temperatures using Thermographic Phosphors, TP, b) species specific, spatially and temporally resolved detection of species absorbing in the IR spectral region using polarization spectroscopy and Laser-induced fluorescence, and finally c) high speed visualization using a special designed laser system in combination with a framing camera. In terms of surface thermometry, Thermographic Phosphors have been used for many years for temperature measurements on solid surfaces. We have during the last years further developed and applied this technique for temperature measurements on burning surfaces and on materials going through phase shifts, e.g. pyrolysis and droplets. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply micron size particles to the surface of interest. By exciting the TP with a short pulse UV laser (ns), the phosphorescence will exhibit a behaviour where the spectral emission as well as the temporal decay are dependent on the temperature. It is thus possible to measure the temperature both in one and two dimensions. The presentation will include basic description of the technique as well as various applications, e.g in fire science, IC engines and gasturbines. Several of the species of interest for combustion/flow diagnostics exhibit a molecular structure which inhibits the use of conventional laser-induced fluorescence for spatially and spectrally resolved measurements. We have during the last years investigated the use of excitation and detection in the infrared region of the spectrum. Here, it is possible to detect both carbonmono/dioxide, water as well as species specific hydrocarbons. The techniques

  19. PPARγ and Its Ligands: Potential Antitumor Agents in the Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Linjing; Huang, Renhuan; Wu, Songtao; Chen, Zhaozhao; Sun, Ke; Jiang, Yan; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a versatile member of the ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors, with expression in several different cell lines, especially in the digestive system. After being activated by its ligand, PPARγ can suppress the growth of oral, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, liver, biliary, and pancreatic tumor cells, suggesting that PPARγ ligand is a potential anticancer agent in PPARγ-expressing tumors. This review highlights key advances in understanding the effects of PPARγ ligands in the treatment of tumors in the digestive system.

  20. Potential Role of Circulating MiR-21 in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Digestive System Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chengqiang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Dang, Yini; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Guoxin

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidences indicate that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit aberrant expression in the plasma of patients suffering from cancer compared to normal individuals, suggesting that it may be a useful noninvasion diagnostic method. MiR-21 plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis and can be served as a biomarker for the detection of various cancers. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the potential role of miR-21 for digestive system cancer. By searching the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for publications concerning the diagnostic value of miR-21 for digestive system cancer, total of 23 publications were included in this meta-analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to check the overall test performance. For prognostic meta-analysis, pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of circulating miR-21 for survival were calculated. Totally 23 eligible publications were included in this meta-analysis (15 articles for diagnosis and 8 articles for prognosis). For diagnostic meta-analysis, the summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.76 (95% CI = 0.70-0.82) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.78-0.89). Besides, the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) is 0.87. For prognostic meta-analysis, the pooled HR of higher miR-21 expression in circulation was 1.94 (95% CI = 0.99-3.82, P = 0.055), which indicated higher miR-21 expression could be likely to predict poorer survival in digestive system cancer. The subgroup analysis implied the higher expression of miR-21 was correlated with worse overall survival in the Asian population in digestive system cancer (HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.21-4.77, P = 0.012). The current evidence suggests circulating miR-21 may be suitable to be a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for digestive system cancer in the Asians.

  1. Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C. J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

  2. Explaining the failure of the Dutch innovation system for biomass digestion-A functional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, Simona O.; Hekkert, Marko P.; Smits, Ruud E.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s research on energy conversion technologies, such as biomass digestion, has been carried out in the Netherlands. However, after 30 years biomass digestion has not been implemented on large scale. The aim of this paper is to create insight into the underlying factors of this troublesome trajectory by applying the 'Functions of Innovation Systems' framework. This results in clear understanding of the (lack of) activities that took place in the innovation system of biomass digestion and the role of government policy in both inducing and blocking this development. The analysis provides several lessons to take into account when developing policies for the acceleration of the development and diffusion of biomass energy

  3. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  4. Role of theoretical dynamics in vibration diagnostics of pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejent, B.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of vibration diagnostics of pipe systems and the relevance of theoretical dynamics are shown using examples. The problems are discussed of vibration diagnostics of the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant with viscous seismic dampers installed. (M.D.) 7 figs., 5 refs

  5. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests

  6. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-01-01

    as mathematical model of clustering technique have been widely used in developing the medical diagnostic systems. The selected features will be classified using mathematical models that embedded engineering theory such as artificial intelligence, support vector machine, neural network and fuzzy-neuro system. These classifiers will provide the diagnostic results without human intervention. Among many publishable researches, several prototypes have been developed namely NeuralPap, Neural Mammo, and Cervix Kit. The former system (NeuralPap) is an automatic intelligent diagnostic system for classifying and distinguishing between the normal and cervical cancerous cells. Meanwhile, the Cervix Kit is a portable Field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based cervical diagnostic kit that could automatically diagnose the cancerous cell based on the images obtained during sampling test. Besides the cervical diagnostic system, the Neural Mammo system is developed to specifically aid the diagnosis of breast cancer using a fine needle aspiration image

  7. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-01

    as mathematical model of clustering technique have been widely used in developing the medical diagnostic systems. The selected features will be classified using mathematical models that embedded engineering theory such as artificial intelligence, support vector machine, neural network and fuzzy-neuro system. These classifiers will provide the diagnostic results without human intervention. Among many publishable researches, several prototypes have been developed namely NeuralPap, Neural Mammo, and Cervix Kit. The former system (NeuralPap) is an automatic intelligent diagnostic system for classifying and distinguishing between the normal and cervical cancerous cells. Meanwhile, the Cervix Kit is a portable Field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based cervical diagnostic kit that could automatically diagnose the cancerous cell based on the images obtained during sampling test. Besides the cervical diagnostic system, the Neural Mammo system is developed to specifically aid the diagnosis of breast cancer using a fine needle aspiration image.

  8. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat [Imaging and Intelligent System Research Team (ISRT), School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    as mathematical model of clustering technique have been widely used in developing the medical diagnostic systems. The selected features will be classified using mathematical models that embedded engineering theory such as artificial intelligence, support vector machine, neural network and fuzzy-neuro system. These classifiers will provide the diagnostic results without human intervention. Among many publishable researches, several prototypes have been developed namely NeuralPap, Neural Mammo, and Cervix Kit. The former system (NeuralPap) is an automatic intelligent diagnostic system for classifying and distinguishing between the normal and cervical cancerous cells. Meanwhile, the Cervix Kit is a portable Field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based cervical diagnostic kit that could automatically diagnose the cancerous cell based on the images obtained during sampling test. Besides the cervical diagnostic system, the Neural Mammo system is developed to specifically aid the diagnosis of breast cancer using a fine needle aspiration image.

  9. Quality systems in veterinary diagnostics laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Branco, Freitas Maia L M

    2007-01-01

    Quality assurance of services provided by veterinary diagnostics laboratories is a fundamental element promoted by international animal health organizations to establish trust, confidence and transparency needed for the trade of animals and their products at domestic and international levels. It requires, among other things, trained personnel, consistent and rigorous methodology, choice of suitable methods as well as appropriate calibration and traceability procedures. An important part of laboratory quality management is addressed by ISO/IEC 17025, which aims to facilitate cooperation among laboratories and their associated parties by assuring the generation of credible and consistent information derived from analytical results. Currently, according to OIE recommendation, veterinary diagnostics laboratories are only subject to voluntary compliance with standard ISO/IEC 17025; however, it is proposed here that OIE reference laboratories and collaboration centres strongly consider its adoption.

  10. Systems for noise diagnostics of WWER nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a short overview of the noise diagnostics system developed by Hungarian firms which are in operation in WWER type NPP Units. Giving a list of systems developed for noise diagnostics of WWER reactors we present their main characteristics, their goal and some of their achievements. The second part deals with the problem of acceptance of noise system by NPP and regulations. (author). 24 refs

  11. PC based diagnostic system for nitrogen production unit of HWP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, D.S.; Rao, V.C.; Krishnan, S.; Kamaraj, T.; Krishnaswamy, C.

    1992-01-01

    The plant diagnostic system monitors the input data from local processing unit and tries to diagnose the cause of the failure. The system is a rule based application program that can perform tasks itself using fault tree model which displays the logical relationships between critical events and their possible ways occurrence, i.e. hardware failure, process faults and human error etc. Unit 37 Nitrogen Plant is taken as a prototype model for trying the plant diagnostics system. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  12. Systems for noise diagnostics of WWER nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Por, G [Technical Univ. of Budapest, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this paper is to give a short overview of the noise diagnostics system developed by Hungarian firms which are in operation in WWER type NPP Units. Giving a list of systems developed for noise diagnostics of WWER reactors we present their main characteristics, their goal and some of their achievements. The second part deals with the problem of acceptance of noise system by NPP and regulations. (author). 24 refs.

  13. Beam diagnostic system for SSC on HIRFL central console

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guixu; Wang Zhen; Huang Tuanhua

    1998-01-01

    The SSC ion beam diagnostic system on the console of HIRFL in institute of modern physics is presented. The information between console and diagnostic system can be transferred via DECnet communication. The central computer for HIRFL console is VAX-8350, the working computer of diagnostic system is changed from IBM PC/XT to COMPAQ 486, and the operating program is rewritten from FORTRAN to C. In order to communicate information, DECnet TTT function is put into both programs on the VAX and PC

  14. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  15. A Comparison between Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Incremental Capacity-Differential Voltage as Li-ion Diagnostic Techniques to Identify and Quantify the Effects of Degradation Modes within Battery Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Fernández, Carlos; Uddin, Kotub; Chouchelamane, Gael H.; Widanage, W. Dhammika; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    Degradation of Lithium-ion batteries is a complex process that is caused by a variety of mechanisms. For simplicity, ageing mechanisms are often grouped into three degradation modes (DMs): conductivity loss (CL), loss of active material (LAM) and loss of lithium inventory (LLI). State of Health (SoH) is typically the parameter used by the Battery Management System (BMS) to quantify battery degradation based on the decrease in capacity and the increase in resistance. However, the definition of SoH within a BMS does not currently include an indication of the underlying DMs causing the degradation. Previous studies have analysed the effects of the DMs using incremental capacity and differential voltage (IC-DV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The aim of this study is to compare IC-DV and EIS on the same data set to evaluate if both techniques provide similar insights into the causes of battery degradation. For an experimental case of parallelized cells aged differently, the effects due to LAM and LLI were found to be the most pertinent, outlining that both techniques are correlated. This approach can be further implemented within a BMS to quantify the causes of battery ageing which would support battery lifetime control strategies and future battery designs.

  16. Studying the influence of vibration exposures on digestives system of workers in a food processing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today’s, defective and faulty equipments lose a large part of them energy as noise and vibration which beside their financial costs can be hazardous to the health of people. Vibration as a physical agent can cause an adverse health effect on human to nervous system. These effects, based on body region can be as specific or general systems. Digestion system has a natural vibration of 3-8Hz frequency. When the digestive system is exposed by such vibration, it can make impairment on that system. This study aimed to study vibration effect on digestion irregularities. . Material and Method: This was a retrospective case-control study conducted in a food industry. The number of 103 workers digestive problem and 431 healthy workers were selected as population study. Exposure to the vibration in the different parts were measured. People with more than 100 dB was considered exposed group. Then, after determining the number of exposed and non exposed groups, data were analyzed using statistical methodologies. .Result: The acceleration level of vibration was 109.8 dB in the packing section, which was less than standard limit (118.8 dB. Study population had a managed of 24-57 years old with 4-15 years of job tenure. In 59.2% of case comparing to 22.7% of control group were exposed to the vibration. The odds ratio (OR of prevalence rate of digestive problem among exposed group was 6.3 times more than non exposed group people, in risk of gastrointestinal complications. .Conclusion: Beside of the other risk factors of digestive problem, vibration can be also an effective cause of adverse health problem: Even by lower level of digestive problem can be seen in the exposed people. So, we suggest in the workplace with vibration risk factor, a digestive health exam be take general medical beside periodic examination. Moreover, it is recommended that researches related to the vibration is widely developed and the vibration standard limits is revised

  17. Imaging nuclear medicine techniques for diagnostic evaluation of arterial hypertension. Bildgebende nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik bei arterieller Hypertonie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, B M; Linss, G

    1989-01-01

    Arterial hypertension may be caused by a malfunction of organs and in turn may lead to secondary organic lesions. Modern diagnostic nuclear medicine is applied for function studies in order to detect or exclude secondary hypertension and functional or perfusion disturbances due to hypertension, or to assess and follow up hemodynamic conditions and cardiac functions prior to and during therapy. The article presents a survey of imaging diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques for the eamination of the heart, the brain, the kidneys and endocrine glands in patients with arterial hypertension, discussing the methods with a view to obtainable information, limits of detection, and indications. (orig.).

  18. Design and integration of lower ports for ITER diagnostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, Natalia, E-mail: Natalia.casal@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90 046 – 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bertalot, Luciano; Cheng, Hao; Drevon, Jean Marc; Duckworth, Philip; Giacomin, Thibaud; Guirao, Julio; Iglesias, Silvia [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90 046 – 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Kochergin, Mikhail [IOFFE Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Martin, Alex [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90 046 – 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); McCarron, Eddie [Oxford Technologies Ltd., Abingdon (United Kingdom); Mokeev, Alexander [Russian Federation Domestic Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mota, Fernando [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Penot, Christophe; Portales, Mickael [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90 046 – 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Kitazawa, Sin-iti [Japanese Domestic Agency, Naka (Japan); Sky, Jack [Oxford Technologies Ltd., Abingdon (United Kingdom); Suarez, Alejandro; Udintsev, Victor; Utin, Yuri [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90 046 – 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Lower port structures are in its conceptual design phase. • Electromagnetic and seismic loads, will dominate all other mechanical loads. • Design allows diagnostics support, neutron shielding while and signals transmission. • Installation and maintenance operations are fully remote handling compatible. - Abstract: All around the ITER vacuum vessel, forty-four ports will provide access to the vacuum vessel for remote handling operations, diagnostic systems, heating, and vacuum systems: 18 upper ports, 17 equatorial ports, and 9 lower ports. Among the lower ports, three of them will be used for the remote handling installation of the ITER divertor. Once the divertor is in place, these ports will host various diagnostic systems mounted in the so-called diagnostic racks. The diagnostic racks must allow the support and cooling of the diagnostics, extraction of the required diagnostic signals, and providing access and maintainability while minimizing the leakage of radiation toward the back of the port where the humans are allowed to enter. A fully integrated inner rack, carrying the near plasma diagnostic components, will be an stainless steel structure, 4.2 m long, with a maximum weight of 10 t. This structure brings water for cooling and baking at maximum temperature of 240 °C and provides connection with gas, vacuum and electric services. Additional racks (placed away from plasma and not requiring cooling) may be required for the support of some particular diagnostic components. The diagnostics racks and its associated ex vessel structures, which are in its conceptual design phase, are being designed to survive the lifetime of ITER of 20 years. This paper presents the current state of development including interfaces, diagnostic integration, operation and maintenance, shielding requirements, remote handling, loads cases and discussion of the main challenges coming from the severe environment and engineering requirements.

  19. Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 as a potential novel biomarker in digestive system cancers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Run J; Zou, Shu B

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a newly discovered long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be overexpressed in various cancers. However, the clinical value of MALAT1 in digestive system cancers is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the potential value of MALAT1 as a prognostic biomarker in digestive system cancers. We searched the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. All studies that explored the correlation between lncRNA MALAT1 expression and survival in digestive system tumors were selected. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed for the correlation between lncRNA MALAT1 expression and survival in digestive system tumors. Five studies were eligible for analysis, which included 547 patients. Meta-analysis showed that high expression of MALAT1 could predict poor overall survival (OS) in digestive system cancers (pooled HR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.41-2.43, Pdigestive system cancers.

  20. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccenini, E; Bettuzzi, M; Brancaccio, R; Casali, F; Morigi, M P; Albertin, F; Petrucci, F

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described

  1. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  2. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  3. Diagnostic value of the fluoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique for primary liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Yong; Chai, Chun-Hua; Xiao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Qi-Dong

    2010-04-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the common malignant tumors. Liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition (LAVA), which allows simultaneous dynamic enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma and vasculature imaging, is of great help in the diagnosis of PLC. This study aimed to evaluate application of the fluoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique in the imaging of PLC and liver vasculature. The clinical data and imaging findings of 38 adults with PLC (22 men and 16 women; average age 52 years), pathologically confirmed by surgical resection or biopsy, were collected and analyzed. All magnetic resonance images were obtained with a 1.5-T system (General Electrics Medical Systems) with an eight-element body array coil and application of the fluoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique. Overall image quality was assessed on a 5-point scale by two experienced radiologists. All the nodules and blood vessel were recorded and compared. The diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of LAVA were evaluated. Thirty-eight patients gave high quality images of 72 nodules in the liver for diagnosis. The accuracy of LAVA was 97.2% (70/72), and the coincidence rate between the extent of tumor judged by dynamic enhancement and pathological examination was 87.5% (63/72). Displayed by the maximum intensity projection reconstruction, nearly all cases gave satisfactory images of branches III and IV of the hepatic artery. Furthermore, small early-stage enhancing hepatic lesions and the parallel portal vein were also well displayed. Sequence of LAVA provides good multi-phase dynamic enhancement scanning of hepatic lesions. Combined with conventional scanning technology, LAVA effectively and safely displays focal hepatic lesions and the relationship between tumor and normal tissues, especially blood vessels.

  4. Diagnostic Neural Network Systems for the Electronic Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Neural Networks is one of the most important artificial intelligent approaches for solving the diagnostic processes. This research concerns with uses the neural networks for diagnosis of the electronic circuits. Modern electronic systems contain both the analog and digital circuits. But, diagnosis of the analog circuits suffers from great complexity due to their nonlinearity. To overcome this problem, the proposed system introduces a diagnostic system that uses the neural network to diagnose both the digital and analog circuits. So, it can face the new requirements for the modern electronic systems. A fault dictionary method was implemented in the system. Experimental results are presented on three electronic systems. They are: artificial kidney, wireless network and personal computer systems. The proposed system has improved the performance of the diagnostic systems when applied for these practical cases

  5. Correlation between duodenogastric reflux and symptoms of digestive system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leja, M.; Reinholds, E.; Brezinskis, G.; Aboltins, A.; Lejnieks, A.

    2004-01-01

    The symptoms of digestive origin potentially indicative for duodenogastric reflux (DGR) have been compared to the results obtained by scintigraphic method, elaborated by the group of authors. The symptoms were registred bu using a specially elaborated questionnaire according to preliminary determined intervals of time with respect to the scintigraphic investigation. No correlation was found between DGR and the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, regurgitation with sour and bitter content, belching, heartburn, burning sensation in the epigastric area, early satiety, flatulence, constipation, dyspepsia and abdominal pain. Diarrhoea in the morning of the investigation and month prior to the investigation was statistically significantly correlating to DGR, while no correlation was confirmed to the symptom a day and a week prior to the investigation. Bittertaste in the mouth had the best correlation to DGR in all the analysed intervals. The conclusion is made that bitter taste in the mouth is the best correlating symptom for DGR, still the low sensitivity and low positive and negative predictive values of the symptom does not make it a useful guide for symptom-based diagnosis of DGR

  6. In vitro versus in vivo protein digestibility techniques for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score) applied to chickpea fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Olga Luisa; Neves, Valdir Augusto; da Silva Júnior, Sinézio Inácio

    2016-11-01

    Seven different in vitro methods to determine the protein digestibility for chickpea proteins were considered and also the application of these methodologies for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score), seeking their correlations with the in vivo methodology. In vitro digestibility of raw and heated samples were determined using pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, considering soluble nitrogen via Kjeldahl (ppKJ) and hydrolysed peptide linkages using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and o-phthaldialdehyde. In vitro digestibility was also determined using trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase (3-Enz) or trypsin, chymotrypsin, peptidase and pronase solution (4-Enz). None of the correlations between in vitro and in vivo digestibilities were significant (at p<0.0500), but, strong correlations were observed between PDCAAS calculated by in vitro and in vivo results. PDCAAS-ppKJ, PDCAAS-3-Enz and PDCAAS-4-Enz presented the highest correlations with in vivo method, r=0.9316, 0.9442 and 0.9649 (p<0.0500), respectively. The use of in vitro methods for calculating PDCAAS may be promising and deserves more discussions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory Information Systems in Molecular Diagnostics: Why Molecular Diagnostics Data are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roy E; Henricks, Walter H; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont J

    2016-03-01

    Molecular diagnostic testing presents new challenges to information management that are yet to be sufficiently addressed by currently available information systems for the molecular laboratory. These challenges relate to unique aspects of molecular genetic testing: molecular test ordering, informed consent issues, diverse specimen types that encompass the full breadth of specimens handled by traditional anatomic and clinical pathology information systems, data structures and data elements specific to molecular testing, varied testing workflows and protocols, diverse instrument outputs, unique needs and requirements of molecular test reporting, and nuances related to the dissemination of molecular pathology test reports. By satisfactorily addressing these needs in molecular test data management, a laboratory information system designed for the unique needs of molecular diagnostics presents a compelling reason to migrate away from the current paper and spreadsheet information management that many molecular laboratories currently use. This paper reviews the issues and challenges of information management in the molecular diagnostics laboratory.

  8. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  9. Thinking about Digestive System in Early Childhood: A Comparative Study about Biological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    AHI, Berat

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to explore how children explain the concepts of biology and how biological knowledge develops across ages by focusing on the structure and functions of the digestive system. The study was conducted with 60 children. The data were collected through the interviews conducted within a think-aloud protocol. The interview data…

  10. The Effects of Swedish Knife Model on Students' Understanding of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrah Ozsevgec, Lale; Artun, Huseyin; Unal, Melike

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of Swedish Knife Model on students' understanding of digestive system. A simple experimental design (pretest-treatment-posttest) was used in the study and internal comparison of the results of the one group was made. The sample consisted of 40 7th grade Turkish students whose ages range from 13 to 15.…

  11. Evaluation of the dual digestion system 2: operation and performance of the pure oxygen aerobic reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Messenger, JR

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available In a comprehensive study of the performance of a full-scale (45 m3) pure oxygen autothermal thermophilic aerobic reactor of a sewage sludge dual digestion system, it was found that: Biological heat generation rate was directly proportional...

  12. Three-stage enzymatic digestive system for a gut-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Pim; Ianovska, Margaryta A.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Several different devices to model the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract have been developed, which may find applications as pharmacological or toxicological model systems.1 To create a fully functional gut-on-a-chip, it is essential to incorporate the digestive functions of the GI tract into such a

  13. A flexible simulator for training an early fault diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsiletti, M.; Santinelli, A.; Zuenkov, M.; Poletykin, A.

    1997-01-01

    An early fault diagnostic system has been developed addressed to timely trouble shooting in process plants during any operational modes. The theory of this diagnostic system is related with the usage of learning methods for automatic generation of knowledge bases. This approach enables the conversion of ''cause→effect'' relations into ''effect→possible-causes'' ones. The diagnostic rules are derived from the operation of a plant simulator according to a specific procedure. Flexibility, accuracy and high speed are the major characteristics of the training simulator, used to generate the diagnostic knowledge base. The simulator structure is very flexible, being based on LEGO code but allowing the use of practically any kind of FORTRAN routines (recently also ACSL macros has been introduced) as plant modules: this permits, when needed, a very accurate description of the malfunctions the diagnostic system should ''known''. The high speed is useful to shorten the ''learning'' phase of the diagnostic system. The feasibility of the overall system has been assessed, using as reference plant the conventional Sampierdarena (Italy) power station, that is a combined cycle plant dedicated to produce both electrical and heat power. The hardware configuration of this prototype system was made up of a network of a Hewlett-Packard workstation and a Digital VAX-Station. The paper illustrates the basic structure of the simulator used for this diagnostic system training purpose, as well as the theoretical background on which the diagnostic system is based. Some evidence of the effectiveness of the concept through the application to Sampierdarena 40 MW cogeneration plant is reported. Finally an outline of an ongoing application to a WWER-1000 plant is given; the operating system is, in this case, UNIX. (author)

  14. Resilient actions in the diagnostic process and system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W; Davis Giardina, Traber; Murphy, Daniel R; Laxmisan, Archana; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-12-01

    Systemic issues can adversely affect the diagnostic process. Many system-related barriers can be masked by 'resilient' actions of frontline providers (ie, actions supporting the safe delivery of care in the presence of pressures that the system cannot readily adapt to). We explored system barriers and resilient actions of primary care providers (PCPs) in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer. We conducted a secondary data analysis of interviews of PCPs involved in diagnostic evaluation of 29 lung and colorectal cancer cases. Cases covered a range of diagnostic timeliness and were analysed to identify barriers for rapid diagnostic evaluation, and PCPs' actions involving elements of resilience addressing those barriers. We rated these actions according to whether they were usual or extraordinary for typical PCP work. Resilient actions and associated barriers were found in 59% of the cases, in all ranges of timeliness, with 40% involving actions rated as beyond typical. Most of the barriers were related to access to specialty services and coordination with patients. Many of the resilient actions involved using additional communication channels to solicit cooperation from other participants in the diagnostic process. Diagnostic evaluation of cancer involves several resilient actions by PCPs targeted at system deficiencies. PCPs' actions can sometimes mitigate system barriers to diagnosis, and thereby impact the sensitivity of 'downstream' measures (eg, delays) in detecting barriers. While resilient actions might enable providers to mitigate system deficiencies in the short run, they can be resource intensive and potentially unsustainable. They complement, rather than substitute for, structural remedies to improve system performance. Measures to detect and fix system performance issues targeted by these resilient actions could facilitate diagnostic safety.

  15. A diagnostic expert system for a boiling water reactor using a dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Y.; Kanemoto, S.; Imaruoka, H.

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic expert system for abnormal disturbances in a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) plant has been developed. The peculiar feature of this system is a diagnostic method which combines artificial intelligence technique with numerical analysis technique. The system has three diagnostic functions, 1) identification of anomaly position (device or sensor), 2) identification of anomaly mode and 3) identification of anomaly cause. Function 1) is implemented as follows. First, a hypothesis about anomaly propagation paths is built up by qualitative reasoning, using knowledge of causal relations among observed signals. Next, the abnormal device or sensor is found by applying model reference method and fuzzy set theory to test the hypothesis, using knowledge of plant structure and function, heuristic strategy of diagnosis and module type dynamic simulator. This simulator is composed of basic transfer function modules. The simulation model for the testing region is built up automatically, according to the requirement from the diagnostic task. Function 2) means identification of dynamic characteristics for an anomaly. It is realized by tuning model parameters so as to reproduce the abnormal signal behavior using the non-linear programing method. Function 3) derives probable anomaly causes from heuristic rules between anomaly mode and cause. A basic plant dynamic model was built up and adjusted to dynamic characteristics for one BWR plant (1100MWe). In order to verify the diagnostic functions of this system, data for several abnormal events was compiled by modifying this model. The diagnostic functions were proved useful, through the simulated abnormal data

  16. Integrated Fault Diagnostics of Networks and IT Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lecture of the Stanford-IVHM lecture series will give an overview of the approaches in building diagnostic solutions for networks and complex systems. The...

  17. A Verification and Validation Tool for Diagnostic Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced diagnostic systems have the potential to improve safety, increase availability, and reduce maintenance costs in aerospace vehicle and a variety of other...

  18. Validation Tools and Methods for Diagnostic Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The potential benefits of advanced algorithms for diagnostics and prognostics, inner-loop control, and other flight critical systems have been demonstrated in a...

  19. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R.T.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Lagin, L.J.; Nelson, J.R.; O'Brien, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  20. The role of choline (Cho) in the diagnostics and differentiation of brain tumours with HMRS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiecka, B.; Urbanik, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of the research was a comprehensive analysis of Cho concentration and Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cho+Cr ratios for the purposes of the diagnostics and differentiation of brain tumours (the type of the pathological lesion in patients with brain tumours) with the use of HMRS technique. Material/Methods: The HMRS examinations were performed with the use of the MRI Signa Excite 1.5 T system, in PRESS technique (TR = 1500 ms, TE = 35 ms) and involved 100 patients with brain tumours (age range: 18 to 81 yrs, mean age 50.61). Spectra were taken from three different locations: tumour centre, the tumour edge and contralateral unchanged cerebral tissue. All patients underwent surgery followed by histopathological analysis, on the basis of which two groups were separated (benign tumours, malignant tumours - 50 cases each). Additionally, 30 healthy volunteers in the age of 20 to 79 years (mean age 40.8) were examined. Results: The comparison of the examined patients with the control group revealed significantly higher Cho concentrations in patients with brain tumours. The analysis of Cho concentration was also performed with consideration of the age factor (under and over 60 years of age). Significantly lower mean Cho concentrations were discovered in a group of patients under 60 years of age. The analysis of Cho concentrations and Cho/Cr ratios reveled statistical significance for two factors: voxel location factor and the type of the pathological lesion. The average of Cho concentration and Cho/Cr ratios were higher in the group of patients with malignant tumours. The highest Cho concentrations and Cho/Cr ratios were observed in the tumour centre. The relative NAA/Cho and NAA/Cho+Cr ratios were statistically significant when taking into consideration the voxel location factor only. The results received from contralateral normal cerebral tissue (the internal model) were compared with control group (the external model). Mean values of Cho concentration were

  1. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L

    2016-01-01

    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (Pdepth of crypts, which might be involved in the compensatory growth and defence mechanism.

  2. Modern Diagnostic Techniques for the Assessment of Ocular Blood Flow in Myopia: Current State of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Ewa; Modrzejewska, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Myopia is the most common refractive error and the subject of interest of various studies assessing ocular blood flow. Increasing refractive error and axial elongation of the eye result in the stretching and thinning of the scleral, choroid, and retinal tissues and the decrease in retinal vessel diameter, disturbing ocular blood flow. Local and systemic factors known to change ocular blood flow include glaucoma, medications and fluctuations in intraocular pressure, and metabolic parameters. Techniques and tools assessing ocular blood flow include, among others, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), retinal function imager (RFI), laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), pulsatile ocular blood flowmeter (POBF), fundus pulsation amplitude (FPA), colour Doppler imaging (CDI), and Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT). Many researchers consistently reported lower blood flow parameters in myopic eyes regardless of the used diagnostic method. It is unclear whether this is a primary change that causes secondary thinning of ocular tissues or quite the opposite; that is, the mechanical stretching of the eye wall reduces its thickness and causes a secondary lower demand of tissues for oxygen. This paper presents a review of studies assessing ocular blood flow in myopes.

  3. Effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process: machine learning and stoichiometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Luz; Atkinson, John; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Roeckel, Marlene

    2018-05-16

    Computational self-adapting methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) are compared with an analytical method in effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Experimental data for the AD of poultry manure were used. The analytical method considers the protein as the only source of ammonia production in AD after degradation. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total volatile solids (TVS) were measured in the influent and effluent of the process. The TAN concentration in the effluent was predicted, this being the most inhibiting and polluting compound in AD. Despite the limited data available, the SVM-based model outperformed the analytical method for the TAN prediction, achieving a relative average error of 15.2% against 43% for the analytical method. Moreover, SVM showed higher prediction accuracy in comparison with Artificial Neural Networks. This result reveals the future promise of SVM for prediction in non-linear and dynamic AD processes. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  4. RANZAR Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, Alexander D.; Penlington, Lisa; Doromal, Darren; Vukolova, Natalia; Slater, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A unified and logical system of descriptors for diagnostic imaging examinations and procedures is a desirable resource for radiology in Australia and New Zealand and is needed to support core activities of RANZCR. Existing descriptor systems available in Australia and New Zealand (including the Medicare DIST and the ACC Schedule) have significant limitations and are inappropriate for broader clinical application. An anatomically based grid was constructed, with anatomical structures arranged in rows and diagnostic imaging modalities arranged in columns (including nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography). The grid was segregated into five body systems. The cells at the intersection of an anatomical structure row and an imaging modality column were populated with short, formulaic descriptors of the applicable diagnostic imaging examinations. Clinically illogical or physically impossible combinations were ‘greyed out’. Where the same examination applied to different anatomical structures, the descriptor was kept identical for the purposes of streamlining. The resulting Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors lists all the reasonably common diagnostic imaging examinations currently performed in Australia and New Zealand using a unified grid structure allowing navigation by both referrers and radiologists. The Framework has been placed on the RANZCR website and is available for access free of charge by registered users. The Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors is a system of descriptors based on relationships between anatomical structures and imaging modalities. The Framework is now available as a resource and reference point for the radiology profession and to support core College activities.

  5. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-06-01

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  7. GM(1,N) method for the prediction of anaerobic digestion system and sensitivity analysis of influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion process has been recognized as a promising way for waste treatment and energy recovery in a sustainable way. Modelling of anaerobic digestion system is significantly important for effectively and accurately controlling, adjusting, and predicting the system for higher methane yield. The GM(1,N) approach which does not need the mechanism or a large number of samples was employed to model the anaerobic digestion system to predict methane yield. In order to illustrate the proposed model, an illustrative case about anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste for methane yield was studied, and the results demonstrate that GM(1,N) model can effectively simulate anaerobic digestion system at the cases of poor information with less computational expense. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective diagnostic DAQ systems to reduce unnecessary data in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taegu, E-mail: glory@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Woongryol; Hong, Jaesic; Park, Kaprai

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • When plasma shots do not successfully perform during the intended target time, the diagnostics systems continue to record these unusable data, contributing to increasing data size. • To overcome this problem, some KSTAR’s library were upgraded to monitor the plasma status in real-time. • With the real-time information of plasma status, some of the KSTAR diagnostic systems stop the acquisition process of unnecessary data. • We were able to reduce the refuse data of approximately 698 GByte in the KSTAR 7th campaign. • It was a very effective way to store useful data, and it was helpful to analysts after shot. - Abstract: The plasma status of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is measured by various diagnostics systems. The measured data size has been increasing every year due to increasing plasma pulse lengths, higher diagnostics operating frequencies, the additions of new diagnostic systems, and an increasing number of diagnostics channels. At times, when plasma shots do not successfully perform during the intended target time, the diagnostics systems continue to record these unusable data, contributing to increasing data size. In addition, the analysis time was affected, as these data need to be separated from the relevant data set. To overcome this problem, KSTAR’s Standard Framework (SFW), Real Time Monitoring (RTMON), and Pulse Automation and Scheduling System (PASS) were upgraded to monitor the plasma status in real-time. When the plasma current is less than 200kA, RTMON sends the plasma status information every second to the SFW via EPICS Channel Access. With the real-time information on plasma status, some of the KSTAR diagnostic systems stop the acquisition process of unnecessary data. This paper describes a method for reducing the storage of unnecessary data and its results in the KSTAR 7th campaign.

  9. ICF implosion hotspot ion temperature diagnostic techniques based on neutron time-of-flight method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qi; Song Zifeng; Chen Jiabin; Zhan Xiayu

    2013-01-01

    Ion temperature of implosion hotspot is a very important parameter for inertial confinement fusion. It reflects the energy level of the hotspot, and it is very sensitive to implosion symmetry and implosion speed. ICF implosion hotspot ion temperature diagnostic techniques based on neutron time-of-flight method were described. A neutron TOF spectrometer was developed using a ultrafast plastic scintillator as the neutron detector. Time response of the spectrometer has 1.1 ns FWHM and 0.5 ns rising time. TOF spectrum resolving method based on deconvolution and low pass filter was illuminated. Implosion hotspot ion temperature in low neutron yield and low ion temperature condition at Shenguang-Ⅲ facility was acquired using the diagnostic techniques. (authors)

  10. Power System Transient Diagnostics Based on Novel Traveling Wave Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Reza Jalilzadeh

    , wind speed, air pressure, and humidity. Therefore, the dead-time (the de-energization duration of the faulty phase) is unpredictable. Accordingly, conservatively long dead-times are usually considered by protection engineers. However, if the exact arc distinction time is determined, the power system stability and quality will enhance. Therefore, a new method for detection of arc extinction times leading to a new ASPAR method utilizing power line carrier (PLC) signals is presented. The efficiency of the proposed ASPAR method is verified through simulations and compared with the existing ASPAR methods. High-sampling measurements are prone to be skewed by the environmental noises and analog-to-digital (A/D) converters quantization errors. Therefore noise-contaminated measurements are the major source of uncertainties and errors in the outcomes of traveling wave-based diagnostic applications. The existing AT-detection methods do not provide enough sensitivity and selectivity at the same time. Therefore, a new AT-detection method based on short-time matrix pencil (STMPM) is developed to accurately detect ATs of the traveling waves with low signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios. As STMPM is based on matrix algebra, it is a challenging to implement this new technique in microprocessor-based fault locators. Hence, a fully recursive and computationally efficient method based on adaptive discrete Kalman filter (ADKF) is introduced for AT-detection, which is proper for microprocessors and able to accomplish accurate AT-detection for online applications such as ultra-high-speed protection. Both proposed AT-detection methods are evaluated based on extensive simulation studies, and the superior outcomes are compared to the existing methods.

  11. Online monitoring and diagnostic system on RA-6 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Peyrano, O. A.; Marticorena, M.; Koch, R. G.; Martinez, J. S; Berruti, G. E.; Nunez, W. M.; Gonzales, L. A.; Tarquini, L. D.; Sotelo, J. P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Online Automatic Monitoring and Diagnostic System for mechanical components, installed on RA-6 Nuclear Reactor (San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina). This system has been designed, installed and set-up by the Vibrations and Mechatronics Laboratory (Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica) and Sitrack.com Argentina SA. This system provides an online mechanical diagnostic of the main reactor components, allowing incipient failures to be early detected and identified, avoiding unscheduled shut-downs and reducing maintenance times. The diagnostic is accomplished by an online analysis of the vibratory signature of the mechanical components, obtained by vibrations sensors on the main pump and the decay tank. The mechanical diagnostic and the main operational parameters are displayed on the reactor control room and published on the internet. [es

  12. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Preston, Rose; Akbarzadeh, Mansoor; Bakthiar, Steven

    2000-01-01

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed

  13. Deregulated HOXB7 expression predicts poor prognosis of patients with malignancies of digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Teng; Chen, Han-Min; Xiong, Ying; Zhu, Zheng-Ming

    2017-07-26

    Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between deregulated HOXB7 expression with the clinical outcome in patients with digestive stem cancers, HOXB7 has showed negative impacts but with varying levels. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate the prediction and prognostic value of HOXB7 in digestive stem cancers. Electronic databases updated to December 1, 2016 were retrieved to collect relevant eligible studies to quantitatively explore the potential roles of HOXB7 as a prognostic indicator in digestive system cancers. A total of 9 studies (n = 1298 patients) was included in this synthetical meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratios suggested that high expression of HOXB7 protein was associated with poor prognosis of OS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.65-2.28, p= 0.000), and HOXB7 protein could act as an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS of patients with digestive system cancers (HR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.69-2.36, p = 0.000). Statistical significance was also observed in subgroup meta-analysis based on the cancer type, histology type, country, sample size and publication date. Furthermore, we examined the correlations between HOXB7 protein and clinicopathological features. It showed that altered expression of HOXB7 protein was correlated with tumor invasion (p = 0.000), lymph node status (p = 0.000), distant metastasis (p = 0.001) and TNM stage (p = 0.000). However, the expression of HOXB7 protein was not associated with age (p = 0.64), gender (p = 0.40) or levels of differentiation (p = 0.19). High expression of HOXB7 protein was associated with poor prognosis of patients with digestive system cancers, as well as clinicopathologic characteristics, including the tumor invasion, lymph node status, distant metastasis and TNM stage. The expression of HOXB7 protein was not associated with age, gender or levels of differentiation. HOXB7 protein expression level in tumor tissue might serve as a novel prognostic marker for

  14. Beam profile diagnostics system for SDUV-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yichao; Han Lifeng; Chen Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    A new beam profile diagnostics system for Shanghai Deep Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (SDUV-FEL) has been developed based on industrial Ethernet, with good versatility and scalability. The system includes three major subsystems for image acquisition,pneumatic control and stepper motor control, respectively. Virtual instrument technology is adopted to drive the devices, and to develop the measurement software. In this paper,we describe the system structure, and its hardware and software design. The results of system commissioning are given as well. As an important diagnostic tool and data acquisition method, the system has been successfully applied to the measurement and control of the SDUV-FEL.(authors)

  15. MR cholangiopancreatography: prospective comparison of a breath-hold 2D projection technique with diagnostic ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomas, D.J.; Bearcroft, P.W.P.; Gimson, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare prospectively a breath-hold projection magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) technique with diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Seventy-six patients with suspected strictures or choledocholithiasis were referred for MRCP and subsequent ERCP examination, which were performed within 4 h of each other. The MRCP technique was performed using fat-suppressed rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) projection images obtained in standardised planes with additional targeted projections as required by the supervising radiologist. Two radiologists (in consensus) assessed the MRCP results prospectively and independently for the presence of bile duct calculi, strictures, non-specific biliary dilatation and pancreatic duct dilatation, and recorded a single primary diagnosis. The ERCP was assessed prospectively and independently by a single endoscopist and used as a gold standard for comparison with MRCP. Diagnostic agreement was assessed by the Kappa statistic. The MRCP technique failed in two patients and ERCP in five. In the remaining 69 referrals ERCP demonstrated normal findings in 23 cases, strictures in 19 cases, choledocholithiasis in 9 cases, non-specific biliary dilatation in 14 cases and chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases. The MRCP technique correctly demonstrated 22 of 23 normal cases, 19 strictures with one false positive (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 98 %), all 9 cases of choledocholithiasis with two false positives (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 97 %), 12 of 14 cases of non-specific biliary dilatation and only 1 of 4 cases of chronic pancreatitis. There was overall good agreement for diagnosis based on a kappa value of 0.88. Breath-hold projection MRCP can provide non-invasively comparable diagnostic information to diagnostic ERCP for suspected choledocholithiasis and biliary strictures and may allow more selective use of therapeutic ERCP. (orig.)

  16. Plasma diagnostic techniques in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Carter, M.R.; Failor, B.H.; Foote, J.H.; Hornady, R.S.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Perkins, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    We review two classes of plasma diagnostic techniques used in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments. The emphasis of the first class is to study mirror-trapped electrons at the thermal-barrier location. The focus of the second class is to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the plasma space potential at various axial locations. The design and operation of the instruments in these two categories are discussed and data that are representative of their performance is presented

  17. The evaluation of the irradiation of medical team in critical X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    A good realized assessment of the irradiation for any exposed group of population serves as the base for the radiation protection measures (emergency radiation preparedness, radiation protection optimization etc.). This is especially important, by the radiation protection point of view, in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques - angiographies. This paper presents the way for the realization of the medical team irradiation assessment, based on originally derived simple equations for the scattered radiation field around patient. (author) 1 fig., 3 figs.

  18. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Eneida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  19. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Astaf'eva, N G; Meglinski, I V

    2014-01-01

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  20. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V [Department of Veterinary Resources, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Astaf' eva, N G [V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Meglinski, I V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  1. Hybrid Techniques for Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krilavicius, T.

    2006-01-01

    Computer controlled systems are almost omnipresent nowadays. We expect such systems to function properly at any time we need them. The malfunctioning of home electronics just irritates us, but glitches in a car, power plant or medical support system may threaten life, and faults in nuclear missile

  2. Optimized design of shields for diagnostic X rays with NCRP 147 technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama T, G.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison among the design techniques of shielding for X-ray diagnostic rooms with the NCRP 49 (1976) report technique, AAPM 39 (1993) Y the one of the NCRP 147 (2005) technique. The designs correspond to a room of conventional X-rays, one of fluoroscopy, one of tomography Y one of mammography. In all the cases it demonstrates that the NCRP 49 technique overestimate the shieldings. The causes of the overestimation of the NCRP 49 can be attributed to: a) high values of the work charge that don't consider the spectral fluence of the photons that are present in each room, b) to the differences in the values of the kerma in air without attenuation for the dispersed primary radiation Y of leakage among both reports. (Author)

  3. Computerized systems for on-line management of failures: a state-of-the-art discussion of alarm systems and diagnostic systems applied in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.

    1994-01-01

    It is now well perceived in the nuclear industry that improving plant information systems is vital for enhancing the operational safety of nuclear power plants. Considerable work is underway worldwide to support operators' decision-making, particularly in their difficult tasks of managing process anomalies on-line. The work includes development of (1) advanced alarm systems, such as various kinds of computer-based alarm processing systems, Critical Function Monitoring System, Success Path Monitoring System and Safety Assessment System II, and (2) real-timer diagnostic systems, such as Disturbance Analysis System, Maryland Operator Advisory System II, Model-Integrated Diagnostic Analysis System, Diagnosis System using Knowledge Engineering Technique, Detailed Diagnosis, and Operator Advisor System. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of plant information systems for on-line management of failures in nuclear power plants, focusing on the methodological features of computerized alarm systems and diagnostic systems. (author)

  4. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes. Determination of hydrogen concentration and blister characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    Heavy water reactors (HWRs) comprise significant numbers of today's operating nuclear power plants, and more are under construction. Efficient and accurate inspection and diagnostic techniques for various reactor components and systems, especially pressure tubes, are an important factor in ensuring reliable and safe plant operation. To foster international collaboration in the efficient and safe use of nuclear power, the IAEA conducted a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Intercomparison of Techniques for HWR Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics. This CRP was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (the TWG-HWR). The TWG-HWR is a group of experts nominated by their governments and designated by the IAEA to provide advice and to support implementation of IAEA's project on advanced technologies for HWRs. The objective of the CRP was to compare non-destructive inspection and diagnostic techniques, in use and being developed, for structural integrity assessment of HWR pressure tubes. During the first phase of this CRP participants investigated the capability of different techniques to detect and characterize flaws. During the second phase participants collaborated to detect and characterize hydride blisters and to determine the hydrogen concentration in zirconium alloys. The intention was to identify the most effective pressure tube inspection and diagnostic methods and to identify further development needs. The organizations which participated in phase 2 of this CRP are: - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Argentina; - Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Canada; - Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India; - Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Republic of Korea; - National Institute for Research and Development for Technical Physics (NIRDTP), Romania; - Nuclear Non-Destructive Testing Research and Services (NNDT), Romania. IAEA-TECDOC-1499

  5. DIAGNOSTIC OF CNC LATHE WITH QC 20 BALLBAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of the influence of the feedmotion speed on the value of selected geometric errors of CNC lathe CTX 310 eco by DMG, indentified by QC 20 Ballbar system. Diagnostically evaluated were: the deviation of the axis squareness, reversal spike, and backlash. These errors determine the forming of the dimensional and shape accuracy of a machine tool. The article discusses the process of the CNC diagnostic test, the diagnostic evaluation and formulates guidelines on further CNC operation. The results of measurements were presented in tables and diagrams.

  6. Structured emulsion-based delivery systems: controlling the digestion and release of lipophilic food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Li, Yan

    2010-09-15

    There is a need for edible delivery systems to encapsulate, protect and release bioactive and functional lipophilic constituents within the food and pharmaceutical industries. These delivery systems could be used for a number of purposes: controlling lipid bioavailability; targeting the delivery of bioactive components within the gastrointestinal tract; and designing food matrices that delay lipid digestion and induce satiety. Emulsion technology is particularly suited for the design and fabrication of delivery systems for lipids. In this article we provide an overview of a number of emulsion-based technologies that can be used as edible delivery systems by the food and other industries, including conventional emulsions, nanoemulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. Each of these delivery systems can be produced from food-grade (GRAS) ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals) using relatively simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, preparation, and utilization of each type of delivery system for controlling lipid digestion are discussed. This knowledge can be used to select the most appropriate emulsion-based delivery system for specific applications, such as encapsulation, controlled digestion, and targeted release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic systems developed in NPPRI (VUJE) Trnava Inc. for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharek, P.

    1998-01-01

    Since foundation of Nuclear Power Plant Research Institute (NPPRI) in 1977, the department of diagnostics has been dealt with problems related to the theoretical, practical and organizatory questions of operational diagnostics connected with PWR type nuclear components. This department acts directly in locality of NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, but there are performances for all NPP in Slovak or Czech Republic (Dukovany, Mochovce, and Temelin). Besides direct services and achievements for NPP there exist advisory, experts and research activities for the government and supervising authorities, too. In 1985, NPPRI began systematically construct and verify technical means for operational diagnostics of main circulating pumps (MCP) with good results, based on own rich practical experiences and contacts with organisations abroad. In recent years NPPRI as one of recognised qualified and authorised institutions in Slovak Republic has begun to develop a new generation of diagnostic systems for NPP on high technical level but with lower procuring costs in comparison with western countries products. This contribution deals with four following types of diagnostic systems which were not only developed but also delivered and installed on Slovak and Czech nuclear units: - Loose part monitoring system (LPMS), - Humidity monitoring system (HUMON), - Reactor coolant pumps monitoring system (RCPMS), - Primary circuit vibration monitoring system (VMS). Main features of new generation from middle of 1990's of these systems are described in this paper and operational experiences with them too. (author)

  8. Overview of data acquisition system for SST-1 diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manika; Mansuri, Imran; Raval, Tushar; Sharma, A.L; Pradhan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An account of architecture and data acquisition activities of SST-1 data acquisition system (DAS) for SST-1 diagnostics and subsystems. • PXI based Data acquisition system and CAMAC based Data acquisition system for slow and fast plasma diagnostics. • SST-1 DAS interface and its communication with SST-1 central control system. Integration of SST-1 DAS with timing system. • SST-1 DAS data archival and data analysis. - Abstract: The recent first phase operations of SST-1 in short pulse mode have provided an excellent opportunity for the essential initial tests and benchmark of the SST-1 Data Acquisition System. This paper describes the SST-1 Data Acquisition systems (DAS), which with its heterogeneous composition and distributed architecture, aims to cover a wide range of slow to fast channels interfaced with a large set of diagnostics. The DAS also provides the essential user interface for data acquisition to cater both on and off-line data usage. The central archiving and retrieval service is based on a dual step architecture involving a combination of Network Attached Server (NAS) and a Storage Area Network (SAN). SST-1 Data Acquisition Systems have been reliably operated in the SST-1 experimental campaigns. At present different distributed DAS caters the need of around 130 channels from different SST-1 diagnostics and its subsystems. PXI based DAS and CAMAC based DAS have been chosen to cater the need, with sampling rates varying from 10Ksamples/sec to 1Msamples/sec. For these large sets of channels acquiring from individual diagnostics and subsystems has been a combined setup, subjected to a gradual phase of optimization and tests resulting into a series of improvisations over the recent operations. In order to facilitate a reliable data acquisition, the model further integrates the objects of the systems with the Central Control System of SST-1 using the TCP/IP communication. The associated DAS software essentially addresses the

  9. Overview of data acquisition system for SST-1 diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manika, E-mail: bithi@ipr.res.in; Mansuri, Imran; Raval, Tushar; Sharma, A.L; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An account of architecture and data acquisition activities of SST-1 data acquisition system (DAS) for SST-1 diagnostics and subsystems. • PXI based Data acquisition system and CAMAC based Data acquisition system for slow and fast plasma diagnostics. • SST-1 DAS interface and its communication with SST-1 central control system. Integration of SST-1 DAS with timing system. • SST-1 DAS data archival and data analysis. - Abstract: The recent first phase operations of SST-1 in short pulse mode have provided an excellent opportunity for the essential initial tests and benchmark of the SST-1 Data Acquisition System. This paper describes the SST-1 Data Acquisition systems (DAS), which with its heterogeneous composition and distributed architecture, aims to cover a wide range of slow to fast channels interfaced with a large set of diagnostics. The DAS also provides the essential user interface for data acquisition to cater both on and off-line data usage. The central archiving and retrieval service is based on a dual step architecture involving a combination of Network Attached Server (NAS) and a Storage Area Network (SAN). SST-1 Data Acquisition Systems have been reliably operated in the SST-1 experimental campaigns. At present different distributed DAS caters the need of around 130 channels from different SST-1 diagnostics and its subsystems. PXI based DAS and CAMAC based DAS have been chosen to cater the need, with sampling rates varying from 10Ksamples/sec to 1Msamples/sec. For these large sets of channels acquiring from individual diagnostics and subsystems has been a combined setup, subjected to a gradual phase of optimization and tests resulting into a series of improvisations over the recent operations. In order to facilitate a reliable data acquisition, the model further integrates the objects of the systems with the Central Control System of SST-1 using the TCP/IP communication. The associated DAS software essentially addresses the

  10. Handbook of technical diagnostics fundamentals and application to structures and systems

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book presents concepts, methods and techniques to examine symptoms of faults and failures of structures, systems and components and to monitor functional performance and structural integrity. The book is organized in five parts. Part A introduces the scope and application of technical diagnostics and gives a comprehensive overview of the physics of failure. Part B presents all relevant methods and techniques for diagnostics and monitoring: from stress, strain, vibration analysis, nondestructive evaluation, thermography and industrial radiology to computed tomography and subsurface microstructural analysis. Part C cores the principles and concepts of technical failure analysis, illustrates case studies, and outlines machinery diagnostics with an emphasis on tribological systems. Part D describes the application of structural health monitoring and performance control to plants and the technical infrastructure, including buildings, bridges, pipelines, electric power stations, offshore wind structures, and r...

  11. Diagnostic information management system for the evaluation of medical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Toshiaki; Torizuka, Kanji; Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Hirakawa, Akina

    1985-04-01

    A practical, small and low-cost diagnostic information management system has been developed for a comparative study of various medical imaging procedures, including ordinary radiography, X-ray computed tomography, emission computed tomography, and so forth. The purpose of the system is to effectively manage the original image data files and diagnostic descriptions during the various imaging procedures. A diagnostic description of each imaging procedure for each patient is made on a hand-sort punched-card with line-drawings and ordinary medical terminology and then coded and computerized using Index for Roentgen Diagnoses (American College of Radiology). A database management software (DB Master) on a personal computer (Apple II) is used for searching for patients' records on hand-sort punched-cards and finally original medical images. Discussed are realistic use of medical images and an effective form of diagnostic descriptions.

  12. Diagnostic information management system for the evaluation of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, Toshiaki; Torizuka, Kanji; Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Hirakawa, Akina.

    1985-01-01

    A practical, small and low-cost diagnostic information management system has been developed for a comparative study of various medical imaging procedures, including ordinary radiography, X-ray computed tomography, emission computed tomography, and so forth. The purpose of the system is to effectively manage the original image data files and diagnostic descriptions during the various imaging procedures. A diagnostic description of each imaging procedure for each patient is made on a hand-sort punched-card with line-drawings and ordinary medical terminology and then coded and computerized using Index for Roentgen Diagnoses (American College of Radiology). A database management software (DB Master) on a personal computer (Apple II) is used for searching for patients' records on hand-sort punched-cards and finally original medical images. Discussed are realistic use of medical images and an effective form of diagnostic descriptions. (author)

  13. System theory in medical diagnostic devices: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baura, Gail D

    2006-01-01

    Medical diagnostics refers to testing conducted either in vitro or in vivo to provide critical health care information for risk assessment, early diagnosis, treatment, or disease management. Typical in vivo diagnostic tests include the computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, and blood pressure screening. Typical in vitro diagnostic tests include cholesterol, Papanicolaou smear, and conventional glucose monitoring tests. Historically, devices associated with both types of diagnostics have used heuristic curve fitting during signal analysis. However, since the early 1990s, a few enterprising engineers and physicians have used system theory to improve their core processing for feature detection and system identification. Current applications include automated Pap smear screening for detection of cervical cancer and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Future applications, such as disease prediction before symptom onset and drug treatment customization, have been catalyzed by the Human Genome Project.

  14. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The wireless diagnostic system for motor operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Haruo; Akiyama, Michiaki; Suzuki, Syunichi

    2010-01-01

    To aim at maintenance optimization, a motor operated valve (MOV) diagnostic system called 'MOVDAS' has been developed by using new sensor technologies incorporating torque sensor into the MOV. It has been introduced into nuclear power plants operated by Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) for the support of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). This system, directly checking the torque behavior of the MOV, accurately diagnoses the condition of the MOV during plant operation. Further for the ease of data collection and manpower saving, the wireless diagnostic system based on MOVDAS utilizing Personal Handyphone System (PHS) has been recently introduced into nuclear power plants in JAPC. (author)

  16. Clinical applications of SONIALVISION 100 digital diagnostic table system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Takeshi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Iinuma, Masao; Takemoto, Hajime; Tanaka, Shuji

    2003-01-01

    This report refers to the clinical applications of our newly developed SONIALVISION 100 fully digitalized X-ray diagnostic table system. The main design concept of the SONIALVISION 100 system is the improvement of workflow in various clinical fields. The development of digital imaging technologies has come to allow fully digitalized X-ray diagnostic table systems to be widely utilized in various clinical applications, including interventional radiology (IVR) and examinations using contrast medium. This report mainly refers to the clinical applications of the Shimadzu SONIALVISION 100 digitalized X-ray diagnostic table system, also presenting some typical image data demonstrating the high efficiency, made available through the use of this new system, in high-speed spot imaging and digital tomography. (author)

  17. Overview of MFTF supervisory control and diagnostics system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is currently the largest mirror fusion research project in the world. Its Control and Diagnostics System is handled by a distributed computer network consisting of nine Interdata minicomputer systems and about 65 microprocessors. One of the design requirements is tolerance of single-point failure. If one of the computer systems becomes inoperative, the experiment can still be carried out, although the system responsiveness to operator command may be degraded. In a normal experiment cycle, the researcher can examine the result of the previous experiment, change any control parameter, fire a shot, collect four million bytes of diagnostics data, perform intershot analysis, and have the result presented - all within five minutes. The software approach adopted for the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System features chief programmer teams and structured programming. Pascal is the standard programming language in this project

  18. Diagnostic system and diagnostic experiences at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, Tamas

    1986-01-01

    The major functions of the diagnostic system of the first two units of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant are as follows: monitoring the mechanical integrity of the reactor and the primary coolant circuit by means of vibration diagnostics; leakage detection of the primary coolant circuit by means of high frequency sonic analysis; loose parts monitoring based on the analysis of high frequency signals of acceleration detectors; and monitoring the vibration state of the turbines and rotary machines by the latter method or by a procedure based on the detection of mechanical vibrations. Up-to-date vibration diagnostics is based on the information supplied by either acceleration detectors or pressure fluctuation detectors, or in-core and ex-core neutron detectors. (V.N.)

  19. Diagnostics systems for the TBR-E tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Ferreira, J.L.; Aso, Y.; Ferreira, J.G.

    1992-08-01

    A general view of the several diagnostics systems proposed for the TBR-E tokamak is given. This project is a joint undertaking of INPE, USP and UNICAMP plasma laboratories. The requirements for the measurements of the plasma produced parameters are described. Special attention is given for diagnostics used to investigate new physical issues on a low aspect ratio tokamak such as TBR-E. (author)

  20. Microbial Insight into a Pilot-Scale Enhanced Two-Stage High-Solid Anaerobic Digestion System Treating Waste Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cao, Zhiping; Hu, Yuying; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Guangqi; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-30

    High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) is a rapidly developed anaerobic digestion technique for treating municipal sludge, and has been widely used in Europe and Asia. Recently, the enhanced HSAD process with thermal treatment showed its advantages in both methane production and VS reduction. However, the understanding of the microbial community is still poor. This study investigated microbial communities in a pilot enhanced two-stage HSAD system that degraded waste activated sludge at 9% solid content. The system employed process "thermal pre-treatment (TPT) at 70 °C, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD)". Hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanothermobacter spp. dominated the system with relative abundance up to about 100% in both TAD and MAD. Syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) bacteria were discovered in TAD, and they converted acetate into H₂ and CO₂ to support hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The microbial composition and conversion route of this system are derived from the high solid content and protein content in raw sludge, as well as the operational conditions. This study could facilitate the understanding of the enhanced HSAD process, and is of academic and industrial importance.

  1. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Silvia S.; Di Santo, Norberto R.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Pucci, Gladys N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    1999-01-01

    . Digestion in open vessels may conduct to analyte losses due to vaporization of volatile compounds. The mineralization in closed vessels, at high pressure, does not allow this losses and increase the efficiency to destroy organic mater due to the combined action of pressure and temperature. This paper describes the development of analytical methodologies to determine boron at trace and ultra trace levels. (author)

  2. Benchmarking Diagnostic Algorithms on an Electrical Power System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Narasimhan, Sriram; Poll, Scott; Garcia, David; Wright, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic algorithms (DAs) are key to enabling automated health management. These algorithms are designed to detect and isolate anomalies of either a component or the whole system based on observations received from sensors. In recent years a wide range of algorithms, both model-based and data-driven, have been developed to increase autonomy and improve system reliability and affordability. However, the lack of support to perform systematic benchmarking of these algorithms continues to create barriers for effective development and deployment of diagnostic technologies. In this paper, we present our efforts to benchmark a set of DAs on a common platform using a framework that was developed to evaluate and compare various performance metrics for diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is an electrical power system, namely the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) developed and located at the NASA Ames Research Center. The paper presents the fundamentals of the benchmarking framework, the ADAPT system, description of faults and data sets, the metrics used for evaluation, and an in-depth analysis of benchmarking results obtained from testing ten diagnostic algorithms on the ADAPT electrical power system testbed.

  3. Environmental assessment of energy and waste systems based on anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehl, Torsten

    2013-08-01

    The results of the studies show that biogas production brings about many or environmental improvements compared to energy generation based on fossil sources when designed and managed properly. Environmental advantages are found for GWP (Global Warming Potential) and energy consumption, disadvantages however for EP (Eutrophication Potential), AP (Acidification Potential) and POCP (Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential). However the large amount of technologies and measures indicate that there is a large potential to reduce the environmental impacts. Another finding is that all life cycle phases and subsystems must be carefully considered, as no single dominating item or aspect in the life cycle can be identified. The most environmentally relevant phases are found to be storage, treatment and field application of manure and digestate. This result is to a large part due to the emission of ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. It can therefore be concluded that from a lifecycle perspective, control and mitigation of nitrogen related emissions will be of utmost importance in the future to improve the environmental performance of biogas systems. Considerable emission reduction potentials are exposed when proper technological modifications (e.g. storage covers, filter technologies, digestate treatment or field application technologies) or adopted management practices (early soil incorporation of digestate) are applied. The environmental analysis also shows that whenever possible the focus of anaerobic digestion should be on the use of organic residues from households, agriculture or food industry instead of using energy crops. In this case conventional waste management systems are replaced and manifold positive effects of anaerobic digestion such as waste stabilization, nutrient recycling and energy generation emerge.

  4. Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediates the toxicity of Paclobutrazol on the digestive system of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Der; Chen, Guan-Ting; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Wu, Chang-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide and plant growth retardant, has been widely used for over 30 years to regulate plant growth and promote early fruit setting. Long-term usage of PBZ in agriculture and natural environments has resulted in residual PBZ in the soil and water. Chronic exposure to waterborne PBZ can cause various physiological effects in fish, including hepatic steatosis, antioxidant activity, and disruption of spermatogenesis. We have previously shown that PBZ also affects the rates of zebrafish embryonic survival and hatching, and causes developmental failure of the head skeleton and eyes; here, we further show that PBZ has embryonic toxic effects on digestive organs of zebrafish, and describe the underlying mechanisms. PBZ treatment of embryos resulted in dose-dependent morphological and functional abnormalities of the digestive organs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were used to show that PBZ strongly induces cyp1a1 expression in the digestive system, and slightly induces ahr2 expression in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of ahr2 with morpholino oligonucleotides prevents PBZ toxicity. Thus, the toxic effect of PBZ on digestive organs is mediated by AhR2, as was previously reported for retene and TCDD. These findings have implications for understanding the potential toxicity of PBZ during embryogenesis, and thus the potential impact of fungicides on public health and the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PWR secondary water chemistry diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, S.; Hattori, T.; Yamauchi, S.; Kato, A.; Suganuma, S.; Yoshikawa, T.

    1989-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the most important tasks in order to maintain the reliability of plant equipments and extend operating life of the plant. We developed an advanced water chemistry management system which is able to monitor and diagnose secondary water chemistry. A prototype system had been installed at one plant in Japan since Nov. 1986 in order to evaluate system performance and man-machine interface. The diagnosis system has been successfully tested off line using synthesized plant data for various cases. We are continuing to improve the applicability and develop new technology which make it evaluate steam generator crevice chemistry. (author)

  7. Estimation of the True Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Dietary Protein in the Small Intestine of Ruminants by the Mobile Bag Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Andersen, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed. The ...

  8. Consideration on the diagnostic ability of various imaging techniques in relation to renal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ike, Katsushi

    1984-01-01

    Radiological diagnosis of renal tumors is being improved with the increased imaging accuracy which has resulted from advancement in the various equipment used and improvement in techniques. However, at the clinical level, diagnostic procedures based on the characteristics of the delineated images are not yet established and the diverse diagnostic procedures are being conducted currently in a stereotyped manner. In this study, the images of 61 cases diagnosed as renal tumor were analysed retrospectively with the purpose of establishing the imaging accuracy, capacity for diagnosis based on image characteristics and a subseguent proper diagnostic procedure. It was found that CT and Angio gave similar diagnostic accuracy. It was further revealed that US images enabled to differentiate renal tumors from the more commonly experienced renal cystic disease. For determination of tunica involucrum infiltration, which is essential to diagnose Stage I and II renal tumors, CT was proved to be superior to Angio. CT and US were also to be so in the determination of metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes which is a Stage III criterion. In recent years, CT and US imaging accuracies have increased, hence the improvement in the capacity to diagnose non-observable renal tumors is highly expected. (author)

  9. Measurement of residence time distribution of liquid phase in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, Meenakshi; Goswami, Sunil; Pant, Harish J; Biswal, Jayashree; Sharma, Vijay K; Chandra, Avinash; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K; Rao, S Madhukar; Dash, A

    2016-05-01

    A series of radiotracer experiments was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase (alkali) in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester in a paper industry in India. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. Experiments were carried out at different biomass and white liquor flow rates. The measured RTD data were treated and mean residence times in individual digester tubes as well in the whole digester were determined. The RTD was also analyzed to identify flow abnormalities and investigate flow dynamics of the liquid phase in the pulp digester. Flow channeling was observed in the first section (tube 1) of the digester. Both axial dispersion and tanks-in-series with backmixing models preceded with a plug flow component were used to simulate the measured RTD and quantify the degree of axial mixing. Based on the study, optimum conditions for operating the digester were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of elevated serum procalcitonin in neuroendocrine neoplasms of digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luohai; Zhang, Yu; Lin, Yuan; Deng, Langhui; Feng, Shiting; Chen, Minhu; Chen, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Elevated serum procalcitonin (PCT) was reported in patients with certain type of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). The aim of this study was to assess the role of elevated serum PCT in NENs from digestive system. Serum PCT and serum CgA level were measured in 155 patients with NENs from digestive system. Elevated serum PCT was found in 63 patients (40.6%). Grade 3 disease was a significant factor associated with elevated serum PCT (OR, 9.24; 95%CI, 3.04-28.08; Pdigestive system, especially in patients with grade 3 disease. Serum PCT level can help evaluate treatment response and its elevation indicates poor prognosis. Combination of serum PCT and CgA can improve outcome prediction. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design techniques for mutlivariable flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Techniques which address the multi-input closely coupled nature of advanced flight control applications and digital implementation issues are described and illustrated through flight control examples. The techniques described seek to exploit the advantages of traditional techniques in treating conventional feedback control design specifications and the simplicity of modern approaches for multivariable control system design.

  12. Development of a neural network technique for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun, E-mail: leesh81@nfri.re.kr; Lee, J. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Yamada, I. [National Institute Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Park, Jae Sun [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Neural networks provide powerful approaches of dealing with nonlinear data and have been successfully applied to fusion plasma diagnostics and control systems. Controlling tokamak plasmas in real time is essential to measure the plasma parameters in situ. However, the χ{sup 2} method traditionally used in Thomson scattering diagnostics hampers real-time measurement due to the complexity of the calculations involved. In this study, we applied a neural network approach to Thomson scattering diagnostics in order to calculate the electron temperature, comparing the results to those obtained with the χ{sup 2} method. The best results were obtained for 10{sup 3} training cycles and eight nodes in the hidden layer. Our neural network approach shows good agreement with the χ{sup 2} method and performs the calculation twenty times faster.

  13. Determining of Degradation and Digestion Coefficients of Canola meal Using of In situ and Gas production Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Tahmazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to the determination of nutritive value of canola meal using naylon bag and cumulative gas production techniques in Gizel sheep. Tow fistulated Gizel sheep with average BW 45±2 kg used in a complete randomized design. The cumulative gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 h and ruminal DM and CP disappearance were measured up to 96 h. Coefficients of soluble CP degradation of canola meal (A, canola meal treated with 0.5% urea (B and canola meal treated with micro wave (C were 4.74, 15.81 and 15%, and for fermentable portion were 31.05, 39.62 and 65.55%, respectively. The cumulative gas production of soluble and insoluble portions (a+b were 252.13, 213.57 and 240.88 ml/g DM. Metabolizable protein of treatments A, B and C were 283.11, 329.33 and 284.39 g/kg DM, that were not significantly different. The relationship between dry matter and cumulative gas production values for treatments obtained about 0.958, 0.976 and 0.932 and this parameter for crude protein and cumulative gas production achieved 0.987, 0.994 and 0.989, respectively. High correlation between in situ and cumulative gas production techniques indicated that digestibility values can be predicted from cumulative gas production data.

  14. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  15. Diagnostic and Measuring Systems of the Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the diagnostic and measuring systems dedicated for complex output tests of power transformers aswell as their diagnostic is dcscribcd. The aim of research in this area was to elaborate the problem of so-called open loop measuring system controlled by PC. The attribute "open" means the possibility to adapt the system for different electric equipment, different measurands and an zdaptation of the way of monitoring, evaluation and distribution of output information according to specific requirements the controlled transformer.

  16. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights

  17. LLNL TMX-U diagnostics data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, C.P.; Clauser, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The TMX-U data system is a general-purpose system for acquiring, analyzing, and output of TMX-U data, and can also apply to any pulsed controlled thermonuclear experiment. In its present implementation, it routinely acquires 3 Mbytes of data per shot at an average rate of one shot every 8 minutes. For increased throughput, the system uses 5 CPUs accessing shared disk memory with a capacity of about 500 Mbytes. All acquisition, analysis, and output of data is handled by a collection of standard program modules (processors), which can be linked together to form chained calculations. Processing for various shots may be allowed to overlap, with higher priority results being available quickly, while lower priority results being allowed to lag behind and catch up in natural lulls in the experiment. Selection of tasks (processor invokations) is done independently by each of the 5 CPUs in the system, and each task can run in any suitable CPU

  18. An on-line diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1987-01-01

    As experience with on-line information systems, experts systems and artificial intelligence tools grows, the authors retreat from the first euphoria that AI could help them solve the problem they were unable to solve with conventional programming. The major effort of the development time goes into building the knowledge-base. There is no such thing as a generic knowledge-base for nuclear power plants as there is, for example, for the diagnosis of a Boeing 747 aircraft. AI-methods, tools and hardware are still in a state which does not optimally lend itself to real-time application. The ability of developing prototype systems to investigate variants otherwise too costly to justify is one advantage that the authors gladly accept. Last, but no least the tools provide a flexible and adaptable user interface (desktop window systems) etc. The development of such tools in a project would be prohibitive and room for experimentation would be limited

  19. Fast infectious diseases diagnostics based on microfluidic biochip system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostics is one of the most important tools currently in use for clinical pathogen detection due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and low consume of sample and reagent is keyword to low cost molecular diagnostics. In this paper, a sensitive DNA isothermal amplification method for fast clinical infectious diseases diagnostics at aM concentrations of DNA was developed using a polycarbonate (PC microfluidic chip. A portable confocal optical fluorescence detector was specifically developed for the microfluidic chip that was capable of highly sensitive real-time detection of amplified products for sequence-specific molecular identification near the optical diffraction limit with low background. The molecular diagnostics of Listeria monocytogenes with nucleic acid extracted from stool samples was performed at a minimum DNA template concentration of 3.65aM, and a detection limit of less than five copies of genomic DNA. Contrast to the general polymerase chain reaction (PCR at eppendorf (EP tube, the detection time in our developed method was reduced from 1.5h to 45min for multi-target parallel detection, the consume of sample and reagent was dropped from 25μL to 1.45μL. This novel microfluidic chip system and method can be used to develop a micro total analysis system as a clinically relevant pathogen molecular diagnostics method via the amplification of targets, with potential applications in biotechnology, medicine, and clinical molecular diagnostics.

  20. Artificial intelligence techniques in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughton, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    Since the early to mid 1980s much of the effort in power systems analysis has turned away from the methodology of formal mathematical modelling which came from the fields of operations research, control theory and numerical analysis to the less rigorous techniques of artificial intelligence (AI). Today the main AI techniques found in power systems applications are those utilising the logic and knowledge representations of expert systems, fuzzy systems, artificial neural networks (ANN) and, more recently, evolutionary computing. These techniques will be outlined in this chapter and the power system applications indicated. (Author)

  1. Vibration monitoring/diagnostic techniques, as applied to reactor coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sculthorpe, B.R.; Johnson, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    With the increased awareness of reactor coolant pump (RCP) cracked shafts, brought about by the catastrophic shaft failure at Crystal River number3, Florida Power and Light Company, in conjunction with Bently Nevada Corporation, undertook a test program at St. Lucie Nuclear Unit number2, to confirm the integrity of all four RCP pump shafts. Reactor coolant pumps play a major roll in the operation of nuclear-powered generation facilities. The time required to disassemble and physically inspect a single RCP shaft would be lengthy, monetarily costly to the utility and its customers, and cause possible unnecessary man-rem exposure to plant personnel. When properly applied, vibration instrumentation can increase unit availability/reliability, as well as provide enhanced diagnostic capability. This paper reviews monitoring benefits and diagnostic techniques applicable to RCPs/motor drives

  2. Virtualization techniques for mobile systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, David; Agarwal, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    This book presents effective ways to partition mobile devices such that the enterprise system access and its information are completely separated from the personal information. For those using mobile devices for personal and business purposes, the ability to keep the data secure and separate is critical. The applications for security in smart platforms range from personal email accounts to global enterprise systems.Several approaches for mobile virtualization are described, all creating secure and secluded environments for enterprise information. The authors present a reference architecture th

  3. Hybrid case-neural network (CNN) diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    recently, the mobile health care has a great attention for the researcher and people all over the world. Case based reasoning (CBR) systems have proved their performance as world wide web (WWW) medical diagnostic systems. They were preferred rather than different reasoning approaches due to their high performance and results' explanation. But, their operations require a complex knowledge acquisition and management processes. On the other hand, it is found that, artificial neural network (ANN) has a great acceptance as a classifier methodology using a little amount of knowledge. But, ANN lacks of an explanation capability .The present research introduces a new web-based hybrid diagnostic system that can use the ANN inside the CBR , cycle.It can provide higher performance for the web diagnostic systems. Besides, the proposed system can be used as a web diagnostic system. It can be applied for diagnosis different types of systems in several domains. It has been applied in diagnosis of the cancer diseases that has a great spreading in recent years as a case of study . However, the suggested system has proved its acceptance in the manner.

  4. Problems of steam turbine diagnostics and the 'Simens' diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserner, V.; Andrea, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostics system, allowing one to detect changes in the state on single turbine elements at an early stage is described. Besides this system allows one to utilize the turbine plant optimally and efficiency from the viewpoint of the equipment durability. Specially oriented monitoring of the turbine plant and equipment element state saves resources necessary to keep up the working order of the equipment

  5. VIBRO-DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM ON BASIS OF PERSONAL COMPUTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bokut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for vibration diagnostics based on a mobile computer and two-channel microprocessor measuring device has been developed. Usage of fast Hartley-Fourier transform allows to increase frequency resolution up to 25000 spectral lines that makes it possible to use the system for wide range of applications. 

  6. Diagnostics of the vibrations of complex rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugraytis, I. Y.; Ragulskis, K. M.; Ionushas, R. A.; Karuzhene, I. P.

    1973-01-01

    The parameters of the imbalance of a complex rotor system, having n parallel rotors and having six degrees of freedom, can be determined from the parameters of the vibrations of two appropriate degrees of freedom. This considerably simplifies diagnostics of the vibrations of complex rotor systems.

  7. Use of sting-response techniques for simulate diagnostics in human esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez, Y.; Valdes, L.; Alfonso, J.A.; Estevez, E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work a study of simulation of the gamma graphic studies that are carried out in human esophagus in the Dept. of Nuclear Medicine of the 'Celestino Hernandez Robau Hospital of Santa Clara is presented. For the investigation tubular reactors were used and sting-response techniques with radioactive tracer of Technetium 99 metastable to a concentration of 1 mCi and several flows were applied. The distribution curves of residences times were obtained, those that respond to an equation of the type: Y = A + B exp (- exp((x-C)/D)) - ((x-C/D)+1). They were also carried out, optimizations studies of the doses of the radioactive to give to the patients from 1 mCi (that is the one used in studies) up to 0,5 mCi, and the influences on the obtained distributions of residence time were analyzed. It was confirmed the possibility to lower the doses with clear information of the signal. It was also carried out a simulation of the attenuation of the radiations that takes place in the patients by the interposition of tissues among the analyzed organ, and the detection equipment. It was used paraffin for tissue simulation. It was found the almost independence of the intensity of the radiations with the thickness, for the assayed doses. Lastly it was found a complex mathematical model that responds to the diagnostic curves obtained in these studies, being correlated the coefficients of the pattern with the most important physical parameters of the system, giving it a practical and useful value, all time that the error among the values that this it predicts and the experimental ones do not surpass of 5%. (Author)

  8. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GOAT KIDS RAISED UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G. Solaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five wether goat kids (BW of 21.76 + 0.76 were randomly assigned to one of three production systems for 14 weeks to evaluate intake, digestibility and goat performance. Production systems were: 1 feedlot (FL, housed in individual pens and fed 40% protein pellets, 40% soybean hulls and 20% bermudagrass hay; 2 grazing continuously on 1 hectare bahiagrass pasture (BP supplemented daily with 150 g of protein pellets/hd; and 3 browsing rotationally on 4, 0.5 hectare mimosa (MB supplemented daily with 100 g cracked corn/hd. Body weights were recorded every two weeks. Feed intake and digestibility were measured on eight goats from each treatment groups. Goats were fitted with canvas fecal collection bags, allowed for 3 days of adjustments followed by 5 days of fecal collection. Feces, feed offered, pasture and browse samples were analyzed for acid insoluble ash to determine digestibility and predict intake. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected to measure volatile fatty acids and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Total feed and medication costs also were recorded. Goats on FL system gained faster (P 0.10 in butyrate and valerate. However, acetate: propionate was lower (P 0.10 BUN. Numerically, browse system was most cost effective and bahaigrass pasture was most expensive in terms of animal production.

  9. An expert system for diesel generator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.C.; Read, J.W.; Kaplan, S.; Liming, J.K.; Brosee, N.M.; Hanley, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The idea of developing artificial intelligence (AI) systems to capture the knowledge of human experts is receiving much attention these days. The idea is even more attractive when important expertise resides within a single individual, especially one who is nearing retirement and who has not otherwise recorded or passed along his important knowledge and thought processes. The diesel generators at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station have performed exceptionally well, primarily due to the care and attention of one man. Therefore, the authors are constructing an expert system for the diagnosis of diesel generator problems at Pilgrim. This paper includes a description of the expert system design and operation, examples from the knowledge base, and sample diagnoses, so the reader can observe the process in action

  10. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian

  11. Biomedical visual data analysis to build an intelligent diagnostic decision support system in medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Kaya; Niranjan, Mahesan; Tunca, Yusuf; Osvank, Erhan; Azim, Tayyaba

    2014-10-01

    In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype-phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype-phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided system for pre-diagnosis can facilitate effective and efficient decision support, particularly when few similar cases are available, or in remote rural districts where diagnostic knowledge of syndromes is not readily available. The proposed methodology, visual diagnostic decision support system (visual diagnostic DSS), employs machine learning (ML) algorithms and digital image processing techniques in a hybrid approach for automated diagnosis in medical genetics. This approach uses facial features in reference images of disorders to identify visual genotype-phenotype interrelationships. Our statistical method describes facial image data as principal component features and diagnoses syndromes using these features. The proposed system was trained using a real dataset of previously published face images of subjects with syndromes, which provided accurate diagnostic information. The method was tested using a leave-one-out cross-validation scheme with 15 different syndromes, each of comprised 5-9 cases, i.e., 92 cases in total. An accuracy rate of 83% was achieved using this automated diagnosis technique, which was statistically significant (pbenefits of using hybrid image processing and ML-based computer-aided diagnostics for identifying facial phenotypes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach of systemic amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, BPC; van Gameren, [No Value; Bijzet, J; Jager, PL; van Rijswijk, MH

    Amyloidosis is a group of diseases, all characterised by deposition of protein fibrils with a beta-sheet structure. This structure generates affinity of amyloid for Congo red dye and is resistant to proteolysis. Three types of systemic amyloidosis are important for the clinician: AA (related to

  14. Biogas production from poultry rendering plant anaerobic digesters: systems comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  15. Evidence-based medical research on diagnostic criteria and screening technique of vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-wei LIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI is the prodromal syndrome of vascular dementia (VaD and key target for drug treatment. There is controversy over the diagnostic criteria and screening tools of VaMCI, which affects its clinical diagnosis. This paper aims to explore the clinical features, diagnostic criteria and screening technique of VaMCI.  Methods Taking "vascular mild cognitive impairment OR vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" as retrieval terms, search in PubMed database from January 1997 to March 2015 and screen relevant literatures concerning VaMCI. According to Guidance for the Preparation of Neurological Management Guidelines revised by European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS in 2004, evidence grading was performed on literatures. Results A total of 32 literatures in English were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 3 guidelines and consensus and 29 clinical studies. Seven literatures (2 on Level Ⅰ, 5 on Level Ⅱ studied on neuropsychological features in VaMCI patients and found reduced processing speed and executive function impairment were main features. Two literatures reported the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI, including VaMCI criteria published by American Heart Association (AHA/American Stroke Association (ASA in 2011 and "Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Cognitive Disorders" published by International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG in 2014. Fifteen literatures (4 on LevelⅠ, 11 on Level Ⅱ described the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI used in clinical research, from which 6 operational diagnostic items were extracted. Fourteen literatures (4 on Level Ⅰ, 10 on Level Ⅱ described neuropsychological assessment tools for VaMCI screening, and found the 5-minute protocol recommended by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN was being good consistency with other neuropsychological

  16. Integration of the ITER diagnostic plant systems with CODAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simrock, S.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Hansalia, C.; Klotz, W.D.; Makijarvi, P.; Reichle, R.; Vayakis, G.; Yonekawa, I.; Walker, C.; Wallander, A.; Walsh, M.; Winter, A.

    2011-01-01

    ITER requires extensive diagnostic systems in order to meet the requirements for machine operation, protection, plasma control and physics studies. The realization of these systems is a major challenge not only because of the harsh environment and the nuclear requirements but also with respect to Instrumentation and Control (I and C) of all the 59 diagnostics plants. The Plant Systems I and C are mostly 'in-kind', i.e. procured by the seven ITER Domestic Agencies (DAs), while the Central I and C Systems are 'in-fund', i.e. procured by ITER Organization (IO). Standardization of Plant Systems I and C is of primary importance and has been one of the highest priority tasks of CODAC. The standards are published in the Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH) which will be followed to ensure a homogeneous design, guarantee high availability and simplify maintenance and support future upgrades. Most important for a successful commissioning and operation of the ITER facility are the concepts of interfacing the diagnostics plant systems with CODAC and the standards for instrumentation and control which must be followed all contributing parties. In this paper, we will elaborate on the concepts of interfacing the diagnostics plant systems with CODAC and the standards that must be followed for the design.

  17. Food consumption and digestion time estimation of spotted scat, Scatophagus argus, using X-radiography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Marina; Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [Marine Ecosystem Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi (Malaysia); Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan M (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    The present study was conducted to investigate the food consumption pattern and gastric emptying time using x-radiography technique in scats fish, Scatophagus argus feeding to satiation in laboratory conditions. Prior to feeding experiment, fish of various sizes were examined their stomach volume, using freshly prepared stomachs ligatured at the tips of the burret, where the maximum amount of distilled water collected in the stomach were measured (ml). Stomach volume is correlated with maximum food intake (S{sub max}) and it can estimate the maximum stomach distension by allometric model i.e volume=0.0000089W{sup 2.93}. Gastric emptying time was estimated using a qualitative X-radiography technique, where the fish of various sizes were fed to satiation at different time since feeding. All the experimental fish was feed into satiation using radio-opaque barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}) paste injected in the wet shrimp in proportion to the body weight. The BaSO{sub 4} was found suitable to track the movement of feed/prey in the stomach over time and gastric emptying time of scats fish can be estimated. The results of qualitative X-Radiography observation of gastric motility, showed the fish (200 gm) that fed to maximum satiation meal (circa 11 gm) completely emptied their stomach within 30 - 36 hrs. The results of the present study will provide the first baseline information on the stomach volume, gastric emptying of scats fish in captivity.

  18. Food consumption and digestion time estimation of spotted scat, Scatophagus argus, using X-radiography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Marina; Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the food consumption pattern and gastric emptying time using x-radiography technique in scats fish, Scatophagus argus feeding to satiation in laboratory conditions. Prior to feeding experiment, fish of various sizes were examined their stomach volume, using freshly prepared stomachs ligatured at the tips of the burret, where the maximum amount of distilled water collected in the stomach were measured (ml). Stomach volume is correlated with maximum food intake (Smax) and it can estimate the maximum stomach distension by allometric model i.e volume=0.0000089W2.93. Gastric emptying time was estimated using a qualitative X-radiography technique, where the fish of various sizes were fed to satiation at different time since feeding. All the experimental fish was feed into satiation using radio-opaque barium sulphate (BaSO4) paste injected in the wet shrimp in proportion to the body weight. The BaSO4 was found suitable to track the movement of feed/prey in the stomach over time and gastric emptying time of scats fish can be estimated. The results of qualitative X-Radiography observation of gastric motility, showed the fish (200 gm) that fed to maximum satiation meal (circa 11 gm) completely emptied their stomach within 30 - 36 hrs. The results of the present study will provide the first baseline information on the stomach volume, gastric emptying of scats fish in captivity.

  19. Food consumption and digestion time estimation of spotted scat, Scatophagus argus, using X-radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Marina; Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the food consumption pattern and gastric emptying time using x-radiography technique in scats fish, Scatophagus argus feeding to satiation in laboratory conditions. Prior to feeding experiment, fish of various sizes were examined their stomach volume, using freshly prepared stomachs ligatured at the tips of the burret, where the maximum amount of distilled water collected in the stomach were measured (ml). Stomach volume is correlated with maximum food intake (S max ) and it can estimate the maximum stomach distension by allometric model i.e volume=0.0000089W 2.93 . Gastric emptying time was estimated using a qualitative X-radiography technique, where the fish of various sizes were fed to satiation at different time since feeding. All the experimental fish was feed into satiation using radio-opaque barium sulphate (BaSO 4 ) paste injected in the wet shrimp in proportion to the body weight. The BaSO 4 was found suitable to track the movement of feed/prey in the stomach over time and gastric emptying time of scats fish can be estimated. The results of qualitative X-Radiography observation of gastric motility, showed the fish (200 gm) that fed to maximum satiation meal (circa 11 gm) completely emptied their stomach within 30 - 36 hrs. The results of the present study will provide the first baseline information on the stomach volume, gastric emptying of scats fish in captivity

  20. XPA A23G polymorphism and risk of digestive system cancers: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Deng, Tao; Luo, Hesheng

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between the A23G polymorphism (rs 1800975) in the xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) gene and risk of digestive system cancers. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between XPA A23G polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancers. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang, and VIP databases up to August 30, 2014. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the fixed or random effects model. A total of 18 case-control studies from 16 publications with 4,170 patients and 6,929 controls were included. Overall, no significant association was found between XPA A23G polymorphism and the risk of digestive system cancers (dominant model: GA + AA versus GG, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.74-1.08; recessive model: AA versus GA + GG, OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.74-1.20; GA versus GG, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77-1.03; and AA versus GG, OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.64-1.19). When the analysis was stratified by ethnicity, similar results were observed among Asians and Caucasians in all genetic models. In stratified analysis based on tumor type, we also failed to detect any association between XPA A23G polymorphism and the risk of esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancers. This meta-analysis indicates that the XPA A23G polymorphism is not associated with a risk of digestive system cancers.

  1. The prognostic significance of HOTAIR for predicting clinical outcome in patients with digestive system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gaoxiang; Wang, Qiaoyan; Lv, Chunye; Qiang, Fulin; Hua, Qiuhan; Chu, Haiyan; Du, Mulong; Tong, Na; Jiang, Yejuan; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Jian; Gong, Weida

    2015-12-01

    Although some studies have assessed the prognostic value of HOTAIR in patients with digestive system tumors, the relationship between the HOTAIR and outcome of digestive system tumors remains unknown. The PubMed was searched to identify the eligible studies. Here, we performed a meta-analysis with 11 studies, including a total of 903 cases. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of HOTAIR for cancer survival were calculated. We found that the pooled HR elevated HOTAIR expression in tumor tissues was 2.36 (95 % CI 1.88-2.97) compared with patients with low HOTAIR expression. Moreover, subgroup analysis revealed that HOTAIR overexpression was also markedly associated with short survival for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.62-2.94) and gastric cancer (HR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.02-2.68). In addition, up-regulated HOTAIR was significantly related to survival of digestive system cancer among the studies with more follow-up time (follow time ≥ 5 years) (HR 2.51, 95 % CI 1.99-3.17). When stratified by HR resource and number of patients, the result indicated consistent results with the overall analysis. Subgroup analysis on ethnicities did not change the prognostic influence of elevated HOTAIR expression. Additionally, we conducted an independent validation cohort including 71 gastric cancer cases, in which patients with up-regulated HOTAIR expression had an unfavorable outcome with HR of 2.10 (95 % CI 1.10-4.03). The results suggest that aberrant HOTAIR expression may serve as a candidate positive marker to predict the prognosis of patients with carcinoma of digestive system.

  2. RANZCR Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexander G; Penlington, Lisa; Doromal, Darren; Slater, Gregory; Vukolova, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    A unified and logical system of descriptors for diagnostic imaging examinations and procedures is a desirable resource for radiology in Australia and New Zealand and is needed to support core activities of RANZCR. Existing descriptor systems available in Australia and New Zealand (including the Medicare DIST and the ACC Schedule) have significant limitations and are inappropriate for broader clinical application. An anatomically based grid was constructed, with anatomical structures arranged in rows and diagnostic imaging modalities arranged in columns (including nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography). The grid was segregated into five body systems. The cells at the intersection of an anatomical structure row and an imaging modality column were populated with short, formulaic descriptors of the applicable diagnostic imaging examinations. Clinically illogical or physically impossible combinations were 'greyed out'. Where the same examination applied to different anatomical structures, the descriptor was kept identical for the purposes of streamlining. The resulting Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors lists all the reasonably common diagnostic imaging examinations currently performed in Australia and New Zealand using a unified grid structure allowing navigation by both referrers and radiologists. The Framework has been placed on the RANZCR website and is available for access free of charge by registered users. The Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors is a system of descriptors based on relationships between anatomical structures and imaging modalities. The Framework is now available as a resource and reference point for the radiology profession and to support core College activities. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  3. Imaging techniques used in the diagnostic workup of acute venous thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilve-Gómez, A; Rodríguez-Fernández, P; Trillo-Fandiño, L; Plasencia-Martínez, J M

    Early diagnosis is one of the most important factors affecting the prognosis of pulmonary embolism (PE); however, the clinical presentation of PE is often very unspecific and it can simulate other diseases. For these reasons, imaging tests, especially computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary arteries, have become the keystone in the diagnostic workup of PE. The wide availability and high diagnostic performance of pulmonary CTA has led to an increase in the number of examinations done and a consequent increase in the population's exposure to radiation and iodinated contrast material. Thus, other techniques such as scintigraphy and venous ultrasonography of the lower limbs, although less accurate, continue to be used in certain circumstances, and optimized protocols have been developed for CTA to reduce the dose of radiation (by decreasing the kilovoltage) and the dose of contrast agents. We describe the technical characteristics and interpretation of the findings for each imaging technique used to diagnose PE and discuss their advantages and limitations; this knowledge will help the best technique to be chosen for each case. Finally, we comment on some data about the increased use of CTA, its clinical repercussions, its "overuse", and doubts about its cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Positron-containing systems and positron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The results of the experimental and theoretical investigations are presented. Considered are quantum-mechanical calculations of wave functions describing the states of positron-containing atomic systems and of cross-sections of the processes characterizing different interactions, and also the calculations of the behaviour of positrons in gases in the presence of an electric field. The results of experimental tests are presented by the data describing the behaviour of positrons and positronium in liquids, polymers and elastomers, complex oxides and in different solids. New equipment and systems developed on the basis of current studies are described. Examined is a possibility of applying the methods of model and effective potentials for studying the bound states of positron systems and for calculating cross-sections of elementary processes of elastic and inelastic collisions with a positron involved. The experimental works described indicate new possibilities of the positron diagnosis method: investigation of thin layers and films of semiconductor materials, defining the nature of chemical bonds in semiconductors, determination of the dislocation density in deformed semiconductors, derivation of important quantitative information of the energy states of radiation defects in them

  5. Measurement of residence time distribution of liquid phase in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheoran, Meenakshi; Goswami, Sunil; Pant, Harish J.; Biswal, Jayashree; Sharma, Vijay K.; Chandra, Avinash; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Rao, S. Madhukar; Dash, A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of radiotracer experiments was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase (alkali) in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester in a paper industry in India. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. Experiments were carried out at different biomass and white liquor flow rates. The measured RTD data were treated and mean residence times in individual digester tubes as well in the whole digester were determined. The RTD was also analyzed to identify flow abnormalities and investigate flow dynamics of the liquid phase in the pulp digester. Flow channeling was observed in the first section (tube 1) of the digester. Both axial dispersion and tanks-in-series with backmixing models preceded with a plug flow component were used to simulate the measured RTD and quantify the degree of axial mixing. Based on the study, optimum conditions for operating the digester were proposed. - Highlights: • Radiotracer experiments were conducted to measure RTD of liquid phase in a pulp digester • Mean residence times of white liquor were measured • Axial dispersion and tanks-in-series models were used to investigate flow patterns • Parallel flow paths were observed in first section of the digester • Optimized flow rates of biomass and liquor were obtained

  6. Nanomedicine strategies for sustained, controlled, and targeted treatment of cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Yuan; Xu, Wei-Heng; Yin, Chuan; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhong, Yan-Qiang; Gao, Jie

    2016-10-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small proportion of the cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability. They have been identified in a variety of tumors, including tumors of the digestive system. CSCs exhibit some unique characteristics, which are responsible for cancer metastasis and recurrence. Consequently, the development of effective therapeutic strategies against CSCs plays a key role in increasing the efficacy of cancer therapy. Several potential approaches to target CSCs of the digestive system have been explored, including targeting CSC surface markers and signaling pathways, inducing the differentiation of CSCs, altering the tumor microenvironment or niche, and inhibiting ATP-driven efflux transporters. However, conventional therapies may not successfully eradicate CSCs owing to various problems, including poor solubility, stability, rapid clearance, poor cellular uptake, and unacceptable cytotoxicity. Nanomedicine strategies, which include drug, gene, targeted, and combinational delivery, could solve these problems and significantly improve the therapeutic index. This review briefly summarizes the ongoing development of strategies and nanomedicine-based therapies against CSCs of the digestive system.

  7. Metabolic routes along digestive system of licorice: multicomponent sequential metabolism method in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Haiyu; Liu, Yang; Dong, Honghuan; Lv, Beiran; Fang, Min; Zhao, Huihui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to establish the multicomponent sequential metabolism (MSM) method based on comparative analysis along the digestive system following oral administration of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., leguminosae), a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for harmonizing other ingredients in a formulae. The licorice water extract (LWE) dissolved in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution (1 g/mL) was used to carry out the experiments and the comparative analysis was performed using HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods. In vitro incubation, in situ closed-loop and in vivo blood sampling were used to measure the LWE metabolic profile along the digestive system. The incubation experiment showed that the LWE was basically stable in digestive juice. A comparative analysis presented the metabolic profile of each prototype and its corresponding metabolites then. Liver was the major metabolic organ for LWE, and the metabolism by the intestinal flora and gut wall was also an important part of the process. The MSM method was practical and could be a potential method to describe the metabolic routes of multiple components before absorption into the systemic blood stream. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. BRCA1 and BRCA2 expression patterns and prognostic significance in digestive system cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Hua; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Huang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is mainly to maintain genome integrity in response to DNA damage through different mechanisms. Deregulation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 is associated with the development of tumor and altered sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we determined protein expression of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 4 digestive system cancers (gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer) by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. A total of 1546 samples of 4 types of cancer tissues, their matched adjacent nontumor tissues, and corresponding benign tissues were studied, respectively. Immunohistochemistry expression patterns of the 2 proteins and their correlation with patients' clinical parameters and overall survival were analyzed. The results showed that low expression of cytoplasmic BRCA1 and BRCA2 was commonly associated with advanced tumor-lymph node-metastasis stage, whereas high expression of nuclear BRCA1 was generally correlated with advanced tumor stages in these cancers. High expression of cytoplasmic BRCA1 and BRCA2 had significantly favorable overall survival in digestive system cancers; in contrast, BRCA1 nuclear expression usually predicted poor outcomes. We conclude that BRCA1 and BRCA2 could be used as clinicopathological biomarkers to evaluate the prognosis of digestive system cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementation of co-digestion and sludge management systems in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Berardino, Santino [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    A solution based on sludge and Olive oil mill effluent (OME) co-digestion, coupled with a management plan, has been implemented, to treat and dispose safely, the mixed residues, into the natural forest and agricultural land. The mixture of up to 25% OME to the sludge improved anaerobic degradation of phenols and fats. High density fat compounds, present in OME, enhanced aggregation, settling and acetoclastic activity of anaerobic sludge. The full scale unit, obtained by modification of a cold digester, allowed to set-up a low capital cost system. The system produced large quantity of biogas and electric energy. Anaerobic degradation of the mixture improved fertilizing properties, making feasible land application of the digested mixture. Regional plan based in Geographical Information System (GIS) selected 800 ha of adequate land area for application near the WWTP. The experience is technically and economically successful. Main incomes are provided by energy use and OME charge. Sludge application in local agriculture does not generate any income, but eliminated landfill costs and reduced transportation costs.

  10. Diagnostic Risk Adjustment for Medicaid: The Disability Payment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Richard; Dreyfus, Tony; Lee, Lora; Zhou, Zhiyuan

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a system of diagnostic categories that Medicaid programs can use for adjusting capitation payments to health plans that enroll people with disability. Medicaid claims from Colorado, Michigan, Missouri, New York, and Ohio are analyzed to demonstrate that the greater predictability of costs among people with disabilities makes risk adjustment more feasible than for a general population and more critical to creating health systems for people with disability. The application of our diagnostic categories to State claims data is described, including estimated effects on subsequent-year costs of various diagnoses. The challenges of implementing adjustment by diagnosis are explored. PMID:10172665

  11. An Advanced Diagnostic Display for Core Protection Calculator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong, See-Chae; Sohn, Se-Do [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The main purpose of a Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Display System is to provide operator's interface for I and C systems. The CPCS display(Shin-Kori 1 and 2) provides operators with 1) plant monitoring values of field input and algorithm variables that reflect the reactor core conditions, 2) operation values that operators can change and 3) CPCS status. It will be an optimal case if operators can understand the plant (including CPCS itself) condition intuitively with the displayed values but it is not easy in CPCS. For example, if the CPCS Channel Trouble light is lit, operators need some amount of time to investigate what caused the trouble light because there are more than hundred causes that can generate the channel trouble. If a Display supports diagnostic information that shows what cause the displayed alarms, it will greatly help operators in easy understanding the CPCS status. To provide these diagnostic information, this paper suggests an active self-explanatory display mechanism. This self-explanatory diagnostic display mechanism utilizes an ontology in XML that describes parent child, sibling relationships of display variables, through which in-depth, in-breadth diagnostic tracking is possible. This paper consists of two parts. First, the key features of CPCS Flat Panel Display System (FPDS) are described. Second, the features of active self explanatory diagnostic display are discussed.

  12. Dynamic Visualization of SNS Diagnostics Summary Report and System Status

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, Willem; Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Embedded Windows XP and LabVIEW. The diagnostics instruments communicate with the control system using the Channel Access (CA) protocol of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). This paper describes the Diagnostics Group's approach to collecting data from the instruments, processing it, and presenting live in a summarized way over the web. Effectively, adding a supervisory level to the diagnostics instruments. One application of this data mining is the "Diagnostics Status Page" that summarizes the insert-able devices, transport efficiencies, and the mode of the accelerator in a compact webpage. The displays on the webpage change automatically to show the latest and/o...

  13. An Advanced Diagnostic Display for Core Protection Calculator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong, See-Chae; Sohn, Se-Do

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of a Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Display System is to provide operator's interface for I and C systems. The CPCS display(Shin-Kori 1 and 2) provides operators with 1) plant monitoring values of field input and algorithm variables that reflect the reactor core conditions, 2) operation values that operators can change and 3) CPCS status. It will be an optimal case if operators can understand the plant (including CPCS itself) condition intuitively with the displayed values but it is not easy in CPCS. For example, if the CPCS Channel Trouble light is lit, operators need some amount of time to investigate what caused the trouble light because there are more than hundred causes that can generate the channel trouble. If a Display supports diagnostic information that shows what cause the displayed alarms, it will greatly help operators in easy understanding the CPCS status. To provide these diagnostic information, this paper suggests an active self-explanatory display mechanism. This self-explanatory diagnostic display mechanism utilizes an ontology in XML that describes parent child, sibling relationships of display variables, through which in-depth, in-breadth diagnostic tracking is possible. This paper consists of two parts. First, the key features of CPCS Flat Panel Display System (FPDS) are described. Second, the features of active self explanatory diagnostic display are discussed

  14. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Vehicle fault diagnostics and management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Jagadeesh; Gowthamsachin

    2017-11-01

    This project is a kind of advanced automatic identification technology, and is more and more widely used in the fields of transportation and logistics. It looks over the main functions with like Vehicle management, Vehicle Speed limit and Control. This system starts with authentication process to keep itself secure. Here we connect sensors to the STM32 board which in turn is connected to the car through Ethernet cable, as Ethernet in capable of sending large amounts of data at high speeds. This technology involved clearly shows how a careful combination of software and hardware can produce an extremely cost-effective solution to a problem.

  16. Diagnostic technique for measuring fusion reaction rate for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Shen Guang-III prototype laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Peng Xiao-Shi; Liu Shen-Ye; Xu Tao; Kang Dong-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A study is conducted using a two-dimensional simulation program (Lared-s) with the goal of developing a technique to evaluate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in a neutron fusion reaction region. Two peaks of fusion reaction rate are simulated by using a two-dimensional simulation program (Lared-s) and confirmed by the experimental results. A neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) system is developed with a high temporal resolution of ∼ 30 ps at the Shen Guang-III (SG-III) prototype laser facility in China, to measure the fusion reaction rate history. With the shape of neutron reaction rate curve and the spherical harmonic function in this paper, the degree of Rayleigh-Taylor growth and the main source of the neutron yield in our experiment can be estimated qualitatively. This technique, including the diagnostic system and the simulation program, may provide important information for obtaining a higher neutron yield in implosion experiments of inertial confinement fusion

  17. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Ryne A.; Vajtai, Petra L.; Hopkins, Katharine L.

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDI vol . Reduced CTDI vol was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAs eff ) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDI vol , size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDI vol was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDI vol and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols. (orig.)

  18. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, Ryne A. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Vajtai, Petra L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Hopkins, Katharine L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-05

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDI{sub vol}. Reduced CTDI{sub vol} was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAs{sub eff}) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDI{sub vol}, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols. (orig.)

  19. Weighted hybrid technique for recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriati, S.; Dwiastuti, Meisyarah; Tulus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recommender system becomes very popular and has important role in an information system or webpages nowadays. A recommender system tries to make a prediction of which item a user may like based on his activity on the system. There are some familiar techniques to build a recommender system, such as content-based filtering and collaborative filtering. Content-based filtering does not involve opinions from human to make the prediction, while collaborative filtering does, so collaborative filtering can predict more accurately. However, collaborative filtering cannot give prediction to items which have never been rated by any user. In order to cover the drawbacks of each approach with the advantages of other approach, both approaches can be combined with an approach known as hybrid technique. Hybrid technique used in this work is weighted technique in which the prediction score is combination linear of scores gained by techniques that are combined.The purpose of this work is to show how an approach of weighted hybrid technique combining content-based filtering and item-based collaborative filtering can work in a movie recommender system and to show the performance comparison when both approachare combined and when each approach works alone. There are three experiments done in this work, combining both techniques with different parameters. The result shows that the weighted hybrid technique that is done in this work does not really boost the performance up, but it helps to give prediction score for unrated movies that are impossible to be recommended by only using collaborative filtering.

  20. Refractive index gradient diagnostics: analysis of different optical systems and application to COBRA ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, B A; Greenly, J B; Hammer, D A; Krastelev, E G [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies; Cuneo, M E [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Different optical system variations for refractive index gradient diagnostics with a laser beam probe have been analyzed. A `three-telescope` optical system which permits simultaneous measurement of both the laser beam centroid deflection by a bi-cell photodiode and the spatial Fourier spectrum of the deflected beam by a streak camera has been implemented on the COBRA ion diode. The dynamics of the anode plasma layer was studied with these techniques. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs.