WorldWideScience

Sample records for diagnostic radiation procedures

  1. Radiation risk of diagnostical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1986-01-01

    The environmental radiation burden of man in Germany is about 1 mGy (Milligray) per year. This is, of course, also valid for children. Due to diagnostical procedures this burden is increased to about 1.3 mGy. The question arises wether this can be neglected, or important consequences have to be drawn. To give a clear answer, the action of ionizing radiation in living cells and in organisms is explained in detail. Many of the radiation actions at the DNA can soon be repaired by the cell, if the radiation dose was small. Some damage, however will remain irreparable for the cell and consequently leads to cell death, to mutations or to cell transformation. The number of these lesion increases or decreases linearily with radiation dose. Therefore, it must be expected that the risk of tumour induction is increased to above the normal background even by the smallest doses. This small but not negligible risk has to be compared with other risks of civilization or with other medical risks. But also the benefit and the efficacy of diagnostic procedures have to be considered. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Evaluation of radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Ezzeldien Mohammed Nour

    2013-05-01

    This study conducted to evaluate the radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in four nuclear medicine departments in Sudan. The evaluated procedures followed in these departments were in accordance with the standards, International Recommendations and code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. The evolution included the optimum design for diagnostic nuclear medicine departments, dealing with radioactive sources, quality assurance and quality control, training and responsibilities for radiation worker taking into account economic factors in Sudan. Evaluation of radiation protection procedures in diagnostic investigations was carried out by taken direct measurements of dose rate and the contamination level in some areas where radiation sources, radiation workers and public are involved. Designated questionnaires covered thirteen areas of radiation protection based on inspection check list for nuclear medicine prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) were used in the evaluation. This questionnaire has been Filled by Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), nuclear medicine technologist, nuclear medicine specialist in the nuclear medicine departments. Four hospitals, two governmental hospital and two private hospitals, have been assisted, the assessment shows that although the diagnostic nuclear medicine department in Sudan are not applying a fully safety and radiation protection procedures, but the level of radiation dose and the contamination level were found within acceptable limits. The private hospital D scored the higher level of protection (85.25%) while the governmental hospital C scored the lower level of protection (59.02%). Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a proper radiation protection

  3. Cumulative ionizing radiation during coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzun C, Carlos; Ramirez, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic ability of ionizing radiation is well known and has led to the development of high speed, high resolution axial tomography, for which we must assume that the patient population is being exposed to ionizing radiation that could become great. In cardiology, especially, we attend patients that have to undergo two or three angio graph, diagnostic and other therapeutic procedures, accumulating radiation doses that are ignored and are not recorded. The skin doses are shown that were received by 18 patients in procedures that included coronary angiography and that were measured with cesium thermoluminescent detectors, varying from 54 to 877 mSv. per procedure. We propose that a personal register be set up in Chile to record the magnitude of the radiation received by a patient (CO)

  4. Radiation protection problems by diagnostic procedures of pediatric nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kletter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Special dosimetry considerations are necessary in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in pediatric nuclear medicine. The influence of differences in irradiation geometry and biokinetic parameters on the radiation dose in children and adults is discussed. Assuming an equal activity concentration, both factors lead rather to a reduced radiation dose than an increased radiation burden in children compared to adults. However, the same radiation dose in children and adults may lead to a different detriment. This is explained by differences in life expectancy and radiation sensitivity for both groups. From special formulas an age dependent reduction factor can be calculated for the application of radiopharmaceuticals in pediatric nuclear medicine. Radiation exposure to hospital staff and parents from children, undergoing nuclear medicine diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, is low. (author)

  5. Radiation doses from medical diagnostic procedures in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, J E; Lentle, B C; Vo, C [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    This document sets out to record and analyze the doses incurred in Canada from medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation in a typical year. Excluded are those doses incurred during therapeutic irradiation, since they differ in scale to such a large degree and because they are used almost exclusively in treating cancer. In this we are following a precedent set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) notes that dose limits should not be applied to medical exposures, it also observes that doses in different settings for the same procedure may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, and that there are considerable opportunities for dose reductions in diagnostic radiology. Because these data do not stand in isolation the report also encompasses a review of the relevant literature and some background comment on the evolving technology of the radiological sciences. Because there is a somewhat incomplete perception of the changes taking place in diagnostic methods we have also provided some introductory explanations of the relevant technologies. In addition, there is an analysis of at least some of the limitations on the completeness of the data which are reported here. (author).

  6. Radiation doses from medical diagnostic procedures in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, J.E.; Lentle, B.C.; Vo, C.

    1997-03-01

    This document sets out to record and analyze the doses incurred in Canada from medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation in a typical year. Excluded are those doses incurred during therapeutic irradiation, since they differ in scale to such a large degree and because they are used almost exclusively in treating cancer. In this we are following a precedent set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) notes that dose limits should not be applied to medical exposures, it also observes that doses in different settings for the same procedure may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, and that there are considerable opportunities for dose reductions in diagnostic radiology. Because these data do not stand in isolation the report also encompasses a review of the relevant literature and some background comment on the evolving technology of the radiological sciences. Because there is a somewhat incomplete perception of the changes taking place in diagnostic methods we have also provided some introductory explanations of the relevant technologies. In addition, there is an analysis of at least some of the limitations on the completeness of the data which are reported here. (author)

  7. New perspective for radiation protection in diagnostic procedure in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosky, R.A.; Gamarra, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Government in Paraguay approved by Decree Law 10754, dated October 6, 2000, its National Regulation on Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, based on the IAEA Safety Standards 115. The primary goal of Patient Protection is to ensure that both Regulatory Authorities and all Responsible parties in Medical Practices observe procedural process in conducting their responsibilities on regulatory and administrative affairs. On one side the Government, 'Department de Proteccion Radiologica', under the Health Ministry and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, and on the other side, the medical practitioner who prescribes or conducts diagnostic or therapeutic treatment, both ensure that the exposure of patients be the minimum. This document describes how the Regulatory Authorities intend to implement this recent act and on the other hand take the advantage of this Conference to understand better this subject, especially on the following subjects: essential requirement for licensing, inspection and enforcement programme in the country's capital and in the interior, where there are more difficulties; workers and medical training and lessons learned applying to developing countries. (author)

  8. Overview of radiation protection programme in nuclear medicine facility for diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ezzeldein Mohammed Nour Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    This project was conducted to review Radiation Protection Program in Nuclear Medicine facility for diagnostic procedures which will provide guide for meeting the standard and regulatory requirements in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The main objective of this project is to keep dose to staff, patient and public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The specific objectives were to review the Radiation Protection Program (RPP) in diagnostic nuclear medicine and to make some recommendation for improving the level of radiation protection in diagnostic nuclear medicine that will help to control normal exposure and prevent or mitigate potential exposure. The methodology used is review of various documents. The review showed that if the Radiation Protection Program is inadequate it leads to unjustified exposure to radiation. Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a qualified Radiation Protection Officer (RPO) should be appointed to lay down and oversee a radiation protection in the nuclear medicine department. The RPO must be given the full authority and the adequate time to enable him to perform his duties effectively. (au)

  9. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.

    2005-01-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  10. Radiation dose to the pediatric population of Slovak Republic from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnikova, S.; Fueriova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The increased number of in vitro diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations has created the need for more precise determination of radiation dose to the population, specially to the children. A questionnaire survey has been performed on all nuclear medicine facilities in Slovak Republic through 1982 to 1994 with a special attention to pediatric patients in 1994. The information obtained was about the age distribution, number of different types of examinations, radiopharmaceuticals used and the value of mean administered radioactivity per exam. These data were used to evaluate the mean effective dose per exam and per capita, the collective effective dose for special type of examinations, for different radiopharmaceuticals and for radionuclides used in diagnostic procedures. In calculations we used the best available biokinetic models of the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in organs as a function of age. The results show that the Slovak Republic appeared favorable in comparison to other countries in the judicious use of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures performed on pediatric population. (author)

  11. Additional radiation dose to population due to X-ray diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Discovery of X rays has revolutionised the medical diagnosis but the fact that the diagnostic radiological procedures contribute about 80 to 90 % of the radiation dose to population as compared to other man made radiation sources cannot be ignored especially when X ray diagnostic facilities are being made available to larger section of the society. The estimated frequency of radiological procedures in India is 12,000 procedures/ year/100,000 population, though it is quite less as compared to developed countries, its increasing day by day. As part of the project, a radiation protection survey of X ray installations and patient radiation dose measurement during various radiological procedures was undertaken. 193 X ray installations were surveyed and the radiation doses received by the patient during various radiological procedure was measured. For measurement of radiation doses, CaSO 4 : Dy thermoluminescence (T.L.) discs of size 13.3 mm diameter and 0.8 mm thickness were used. Pre annealed T.L. discs were fixed by adhesive tape on the patient skin at the center of entrance beam before the exposure. After exposure the T.L. discs were estimated f or entrance skin dose during that particular projection/ examination. 10,000 measurements at different centers during various radiological procedures were done. It was found that chest radiography accounts for 37 % of all radiological procedures and further it was observed that 70 % of the chest X rays were normal with out any pathology indicating scope for curtailing the unwarranted radiological procedures. The special investigations like barium swallow, barium meal and fallow through accounts for about 1.5 % of the total radiological procedures. The entrance skin dose [E.S.D.] during chest radiography was 0.3 + 0.1 mGy where as during K.U.B. and cervical spine radiography it was 6.2 + 1.1 mGy and 5.1 + 0.9 mGy respectively. The details of frequency of various radiological procedures and the

  12. Prenatal radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has the right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data have shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% (ICRP84, 2000) up to 0.14% per 10 mSv (BEIR-V 1990). In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy (ICRP84, 2000), and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; 1. The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. 2. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period

  13. Student and intern awareness of ionising radiation exposure from common diagnostic imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G. Z.; Wong, D. D.; Nguyen, L. K.; Mendelson, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This study aims to evaluate medical student and intern awareness of ionising radiation exposure from common diagnostic imaging procedures and to suggest how education could be improved. Fourth to sixth year medical students enrolled at a Western Australian university and interns from three teaching hospitals in Perth were recruited. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 26 questions on their background, knowledge of ionising radiation doses and learning preferences for future teaching on this subject. A total of 331 completed questionnaires were received (95.9%). Of the 17 questions assessing knowledge of ionising radiation, a mean score of 6.0 was obtained by respondents (95% CI 5.8-6.2). Up to 54.8% of respondents underestimated the radiation dose from commonly requested radiological procedures. Respondents (11.3 and 25.5%) incorrectly believed that ultrasound and MRI emit ionising radiation, respectively. Of the four subgroups of respondents, the intern doctor subgroup performed significantly better (mean score 6.9, P< 0.0001, 95% CI 6.5-7.3) than each of the three medical student subgroups. When asked for the preferred method of teaching for future radiation awareness, a combination of lectures, tutorials and workshops was preferred. This study has clearly shown that awareness of ionising radiation from diagnostic imaging is lacking among senior medical students and interns. The results highlight the need for improved education to minimise unnecessary exposure of patients and the community to radiation. Further studies are required to determine the most effective form of education.

  14. Radiation injury of the skin following diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, T.R.; Wagner, L.K.; Mettler, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Many radiation injuries to the skin, resulting from diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures, have been reported in recent years. In some cases skin damage was severe and debilitating. We analyzed 72 reports of skin injuries for progression and location of injury, type and number of procedures, and contributing patient and operator factors. Most cases (46) were related to coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). A smaller number was documented after cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation (12), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement (7), neuroradiological interventions (3) and other procedures (4). Important factors leading to skin injuries were long exposure times over the same skin area, use of high dose rates, irradiation through thick tissue masses, hypersensitivity to radiation, and positioning of arms or breasts into the radiation entrance beam. Physicians were frequently unaware of the high radiation doses involved and did not recognize the injuries as radiation induced. Based on these findings, recommendations to reduce dose and improve patient care are provided. (author)

  15. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2014-01-01

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  16. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Medical Expertise Unit, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mezzarobba, Myriam [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-HOM/SRBE/LEPID, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  17. Patient radiation dose in diagnostic and interventional procedures for intracranial aneurysms: Experience at a single center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Chang Woo; Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Cheol Hyoun; Ihn, Yon Kwon; Shin, Yong Sam

    2014-01-01

    To assess patient radiation doses during cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms in a large sample size from a single center. We studied a sample of 439 diagnostic and 149 therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms in 480 patients (331 females, 149 males; median age, 57 years; range, 21-88 years), which were performed in 2012 with a biplane unit. Parameters including fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP), and total angiographic image frames were obtained and analyzed. Mean fluoroscopic time, total mean DAP, and total image frames were 12.6 minutes, 136.6 +/- 44.8 Gy-cm 2 , and 251 +/- 49 frames for diagnostic procedures, 52.9 minutes, 226.0 +/- 129.2 Gy-cm 2 , and 241 frames for therapeutic procedures, and 52.2 minutes, 334.5 +/- 184.6 Gy-cm 2 , and 408 frames for when both procedures were performed during the same session. The third quartiles for diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were 14.0, 61.1, and 66.1 minutes for fluoroscopy time, 154.2, 272.8, and 393.8 Gy-cm 2 for DAP, and 272, 276, and 535 for numbers of image frames in diagnostic, therapeutic, and both procedures in the same session, respectively. The proportions of fluoroscopy in DAP for the procedures were 11.4%, 50.5%, and 36.1%, respectively, for the three groups. The mean DAP for each 3-dimensional rotational angiographic acquisition was 19.2 +/- 3.2 Gy-cm 2 . On average, rotational angiography was used 1.4 +/- 0.6 times/session (range, 1-4; n = 580). Radiation dose in our study as measured by DAP, fluoroscopy time and image frames did not differ significantly from other reported DRL studies for cerebral angiography, and DAP was lower with fewer angiographic image frames for embolization. A national registry of radiation-dose data is a necessary next step to refine the dose reference level.

  18. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion

  19. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa [Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion.

  20. Exposure to rays and radiation hazards in connection with diagnostic X-ray procedures in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protzer, K.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, figures and data about radiation exposures for diagnostic purposes are surveyed that were collected in connection with X-ray procedures in children. The data were sorted according to body regions and techniques required for their examination so as to permit separate analyses of procedures in the urogenital tract (intravenous urogramme, micturition cystourethrography), thorax (angiocardiogramme, thoractic aortogramme, examinations using cardiac catheters), gastrointestinal system (fluoroscopy and contrast-enhanced irrigoscopy), pelvis (survey radiography), skull (computed tomography) as well as in miscellaneous group of further origins. The second part of the report discusses the uncertainties surrounding the assessment of radiation hazards and indicated radiation doses. A formula is represented for the calculation of life-time reductions that can be applied to any type of cancer and embraces a number of factors like life expectancy at age X, the patient's age at the time of radiotherapy, the five-year-survival rate for the condition under investigation and the diseased organ. At the end of the study, some methods are pointed out that may be helpful in limiting radiation exposure. (KST) [de

  1. Prenatal Radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.; Hellman, S.; Helmrot, E.; Persliden, J.; Cederlund, T.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data has shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% up to 0.14% per 10 mSv. In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy, and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period. The frequency of foetus exposure is not well documented. In Sweden, there are well-established routines to track down pregnant patients before examinations are being performed. However, there are no general obligations or routines to document the cases either (i) when

  2. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  3. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome.

  4. Thyroid Radiation Dose to Patients from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures over Eight Decades: 1930-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lienard A; Miller, Donald L; Lee, Choonsik; Melo, Dunstana R; Villoing, Daphnée; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Winters, Sarah J; Labrake, Michael; Myers, Charles F; Lim, Hyeyeun; Kitahara, Cari M; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2017-12-01

    This study summarizes and compares estimates of radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid gland for typical patients who underwent diagnostic radiology examinations in the years from 1930 to 2010. The authors estimated the thyroid dose for common examinations, including radiography, mammography, dental radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT). For the most part, a clear downward trend in thyroid dose over time for each procedure was observed. Historically, the highest thyroid doses came from the nuclear medicine thyroid scans in the 1960s (630 mGy), full-mouth series dental radiography (390 mGy) in the early years of the use of x rays in dentistry (1930s), and the barium swallow (esophagram) fluoroscopic exam also in the 1930s (140 mGy). Thyroid uptake nuclear medicine examinations and pancreatic scans also gave relatively high doses to the thyroid (64 mGy and 21 mGy, respectively, in the 1960s). In the 21st century, the highest thyroid doses still result from nuclear medicine thyroid scans (130 mGy), but high thyroid doses are also associated with chest/abdomen/pelvis CT scans (18 and 19 mGy for males and females, respectively). Thyroid doses from CT scans did not exhibit the same downward trend as observed for other examinations. The largest thyroid doses from conventional radiography came from cervical spine and skull examinations. Thyroid doses from mammography (which began in the 1960s) were generally a fraction of 1 mGy. The highest average doses to the thyroid from mammography were about 0.42 mGy, with modestly larger doses associated with imaging of breasts with large compressed thicknesses. Thyroid doses from dental radiographic procedures have decreased markedly throughout the decades, from an average of 390 mGy for a full-mouth series in the 1930s to an average of 0.31 mGy today. Upper GI series fluoroscopy examinations resulted in up to two orders of magnitude lower thyroid doses than the barium swallow. There are

  5. Diagnostic radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, T [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)

    1980-04-01

    A brief discussion on diagnostic radiation risks is given. First some fundamental facts on the concepts and units of radiation measurement are clarified. Medical diagnostic radiation doses are also compared to the radiation doses received annually by man from natural background radiation. The controversy concerning the '10-day rule' in X-raying women of child-bearing age is discussed; it would appear that the risk of malformation in an unborn child due to X-radiation is very much less than the natural level of risk of malformation. The differences in the radiographic techniques and thus the different X-ray doses needed to make adequate X-ray images of different parts of the body are considered. The radiation burden of nuclear medicine investigations compared to X-ray procedures is also discussed. Finally, the problems of using volunteers in radiation research are aired.

  6. The estimation of radiation effective dose from diagnostic medical procedures in general population of northern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabestani Monfared, A.; Abdi, R.

    2006-01-01

    The risks of low-dose Ionizing radiation from radiology and nuclear medicine are not clearly determined. Effective dose to population is a very important factor in risk estimation. The study aimed to determine the effective dose from diagnostic radiation medicine in a northern province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data about various radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures were collected from all radiology and nuclear medicine departments In Mazandaran Province (population = 2,898,031); and using the standard dosimetry tables, the total dose, dose per examination, and annual effective dose per capita as well as the annual gonadal dose per capita were estimated. Results: 655,730 radiologic examinations in a year's period, lead to 1.45 mSv, 0.33 mSv and 0.31 mGy as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public, and annual average gonadal dose per capita, respectively. The frequency of medical radiologic examinations was 2,262 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. However, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations in the same period was 7074, with 4.37 mSv, 9.6 μSv and 9.8 μGy, as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public and annual average gonadal dose per caput, respectively. The frequency of nuclear medicine examination was 24 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. Conclusion: The average effective dose per examination was nearly similar to other studies. However, the average annual effective dose and annual average gonadal dose per capita were less than the similar values in other reports, which could be due to lesser number of radiation medicine examinations in the present study

  7. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures; Unabsichtliche Strahlenexposition in der Schwangerschaft durch nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostic radiation and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.; Fitzgerald, P.

    1983-01-01

    Accidental irradiation of the embryo or fetus in the first trimester is a problem which will occasionally occur. The value of a proper estimation of the radiation dose is emphasised. Very rarely does a single diagnostic procedure result in a uterine dose as high as 50 mGy. An accidental irradiation should rarely be cause for termination of a pregnancy

  9. Children's exposure to ionizing radiations linked with diagnostic procedures in 2010 in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the medical exposure of the French pediatric population to ionizing radiations (IR) in 2010. It only includes diagnostic procedures. Data are mainly provided by the French Health Insurance (CNAM-TS), through a representative sample of about 1% of the French population (the so-called 'EGB' sample). In 2010, more than 100,000 children from 0 to 15 years old were included in this sample. About 600 examinations per 1000 children were performed: 55% are radiological examinations and 42% dental. CT examinations are rather rare (about 2%). Nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent less than 1% of the examinations. Children from 10 to 15 years old and babies from new born to 1 year old are the most examined. Exposure of girls and boys are rather similar. From 10 to 15 years old, dental and limbs examinations are the most frequent. Chest and pelvic examinations are the most frequent examinations performed on babies. CT pediatric examinations concern mainly the head and the neck. In 2010, a third of the French children has been exposed to at least one examination using IR. The mean and median effective doses were respectively equal to 0.65 mSv and 0.025 mSv. These values were respectively 5.7 mSv and 1.7 mSv for the children exposed to at least one CT examination (about 1% of the studied population). This study brings reference data on pediatric exposure to IR, and makes them available for public health and epidemiological purposes. This analysis should be periodically carried out to assess the evolution of the pediatric exposure. (authors)

  10. Radiation exposure of population due to medical diagnostic procedures in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stavitskij, R.V.; Knizhnikov, V.A.; Barkhudarov, R.M.; Korsunskij, V.N.; Popov, V.I.; Tarasenko, Yu.I.; Postnikov, V.A.; Frolov, N.V.; Sidorin, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of radiation doses to population in the ussr on the basis of the data on frequency of 12 main forms of X-ray examinations and the results of measuring absorbed doses on tissue-kquivalent main's phantom are given. The evaluation of radiation exposure due to radiopharmaceutical preparations is based on consumption of 26 types of compounds in 320 national laboratories and i is performed by the methods developed in the framework of the mird committee (usa). In thhe active bone marrow, lungs mammary, glands thyroid and other organs (stomach, liver, spleen, etc.) the equivalent doses are determined and on their base the effective equivalent doses (eed). The average eed from x ray diagnostic examinations is 1.4 mSv per year (140 mrem per year) of which 55.4% falls on X-ray examination, 26.9% on radiography, 17.7% on mass miniature radiography (fluorography). Radionuclide diagnostics contribution is 3.2x10 -2 mSv per year (3.8 mrem per year). Medicinal radiation exposure approximately doubles the natural background, it is comparable with exposure in premises and essentially exceeds the radiation doses to population from other sources

  11. The radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures and the problem of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ftacnikova, S [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper equivalent dose from Auger electron emitters was reevaluated. The presented approach represents a practical step toward the estimation of equivalent dose for incorporated Auger electron emitters, an aspects that has not been given adequate consideration so far. Given the widespread use of this class of radionuclides in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research, the formalism and practical calculation presented here may be of value to assessing the risk associated with this radionuclides (in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures), as well as predicting their therapeutic efficiency. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 11 refs.

  12. Foetal Radiation Dose and Risk from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures: A Multinational Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Ernest K.; Darko, Johnson

    2012-01-01

    In diagnostic radiology examinations there is a benefit that the patient derives from the resulting diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed each year, it is inevitable that there will be occasions when an examination(s) may be inadvertently performed on pregnant patients or occasionally it may become clinically necessary to perform an examination(s) on a pregnant patient. In all these circumstances it is necessary to request an estimation of the foetal dose and risk. We initiated a study to investigate fetal doses from different countries. Exposure techniques on 367 foetuses from 414 examinations were collected and investigated. The FetDoseV4 program was used for all dose and risk estimations. The radiation doses received by the 367 foetuses ranges: <0.001–21.9 mGy depending on examination and technique. The associated probability of induced hereditary effect ranges: <1 in 200000000 (5 × 10 −9 ) to 1 in 10000 (1 × 10 −4 ) and the risk of childhood cancer ranges <1 in 12500000 (8 × 10 −8 ) to 1 in 500 (2 × 10 −3 ). The data indicates that foetal doses from properly conducted diagnostic radiology examinations will not result in any deterministic effect and a negligible risk of causing radiation induced hereditary effect in the descendants of the unborn child

  13. Cancer pancreatis, diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graadal, Oe.; Schlichting, E.; Aasen, A.O.; Stadaas, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    151 patients treated for carcinoma of the pancreas at Ullevaal Hospital (Oslo University) during the period 1980-89 were studied. The most common initial symptom was abdominal pain. Other frequent debut symptoms were loss of weight and jaundice. ERCP and PTC were found to be the best diagnostic procedures. CT or ultrasonography were normal in 10-20% of the patients. Nearly all tumors of the pancreas were found by the ERCP procedure. Also angiography was used to evaluate operability of the pancreas tumor, but was found to be a very uncertain diagnostic method. This method will not be used in the future evaluation of patients with cancer of the pancreas. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Comparison of radiation delivered by current diagnostic procedures for herniated disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasquet, C.; Drouineau, J.; Goubault, F.; Hurmic, A.; Lavigne, B.; Vandermarcq, P.

    1983-01-01

    Three methods are currently employed for the diagnosis of sciatica due to disc lesions: radiculography, spinal phlebography, and computed tomography. Though their indications vary according to the author, it seemed worthwhile to compare radiation delivered by each of them, because of the often young age of the patients. Dosimetric studies using a Rando Phantom enabled calculation of doses to the skin, spinal cord, and gonads. Results indicated that low doses were delivered by the scanner, relatively high doses by spinal phlebography, and intermediate doses by radiculography. These findings suggest that the initial examination preoperatively in cases of simple sciatica due to herniated disc should be a CT scan whenever possible. Phlebography, on the contrary, and particularly in young women, should be used only exceptionally, as a result of the high doses delivered to the ovaries even during technically simple explorations [fr

  15. Exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.; Isac, R.

    2002-01-01

    According to our last national study on population exposures from natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation, 16% of overall annual collective effective dose represent the contribution of diagnostic medical exposures. Of this value, 92% is due to diagnostic X-ray examinations and only 8% arise from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. This small contribution to collective dose is mainly the result of their lower frequency compared to that of the X-ray examinations, doses delivered to patients being, on average, ten times higher. The purpose of this review was to reassess the population exposure from in vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures and to evaluate the temporal trends of diagnostic usage of radiopharmaceuticals in Romania. The current survey is the third one conducted in the last decade. As in the previous ones (1990 and 1995), the contribution of the Radiation Hygiene Laboratories Network of the Ministry of Health and Family in collecting data from nuclear medicine departments in hospitals was very important

  16. Radiation exposure to staff involved in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures in some hospitals in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Lamia Hamza Bashir

    2015-05-01

    Study was performed to evaluate radiation dose to staff involved in nuclear medicine procedures in some hospitals in Sudan. 15 radiation workers were studied in three hospitals. Radiation dose was measured using personal dose equivalent Hp (10), using calibrated electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) worn on the chest and read at the end of the day. Staff doses were monitored in each hospital for a period of four weeks, The measured monthly Hp(10) values to staff ranged between 82.96-83.94μSv (to nurses), 38.81-53.97 μSv (to pharmacists), 16.87-70.21μSv (to technologists), 40.22-76.56μSv (to medical physicists). These mean monthly radiation doses were projected to the annual radiation doses received by the staff. The mean monthly radiation doses were projected to the annual radiation doses were found to be between ranges (185.57-923.34μSv/y). Results found showed that there was no dose that exceeded the limits of annual dose recommended for workers by International Commission on Radiology Protection (ICRP) (20 mSv/year). This study is expected to increase the awareness of staff about the radiation hazards and protection.(Author)

  17. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges.

  18. Radiation exposure in diagnostic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, S.; Michalczak, H.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1995-01-01

    This volume includes the manuscripts of the papers read at the conference as well as a summary and assessment of its results. The scientific discussions were centred upon the following issues: - International surveys and comparisons of rdiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, frequency of the individual diagnostic procedures and age distribution of patients examined; - policies and regulations for the radiation protection of patients, charcteristic dosimetric values and practical usefulness of the effective dose concept during medical examinations; - assessments of the relative benefits and risks and measures to reduce the radiation exposure in the light of quality assurance aspects. The main objective of this conference not only was to evaluate the risks from diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine but also to encourgage a critical analysis and adjustment of examination routines followed in everyday practice. Among the measures recommended were quality assurance, maintenace of international standards, development of guidelines, introduction of standard doses, improved training and professional education of personnel as well as surveys and analyses of certain examination procedures associated with substantial radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Radiation hardening of diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10 16 neutrons per second because of ''spallation'' reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop

  20. MR diagnostics after Ross procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, J.C.; Link, J.; Harringer, W.; Haverich, A.; Heller, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the ability of MRI to diagnose morphological and functional changes in patients after Ross procedure. Material and methods: During one year, 5 patients after Ross procedure were studied by MRI. T 1 -weighted spin-echo sequences in different orientations as well as cine sequences and a VENC-sequence were used. Results: In all patients the morphology including the postoperative changes could be visualised by MRI. The cine sequences provided functional information on valvular and ventricular function. VENC-MR yielded an exact quantification of the regurgitant fraction. Conclusion: MRI is capable of providing all important diagnostic information in patients after Ross procedure such as valvular and ventricular function and valvular and outflow tract morphology in a single examination. (orig.) [de

  1. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  2. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun

    2017-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed

  3. Potential hazards of diagnostic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, C S; Shokeir, M H

    1977-03-01

    There are no precise data for determining the extent of somatic damage from small doses of radiation used in diagnostic radiology. Diagnostic radiation given to pregnant women, knowingly or unknowingly, should rarely reach teratogenic levels causing brain and eye abnormalities. Evidence suggests that it does increase the risk of childhood malignancy, especially leukemia. Although rapidly growing tissues seem most susceptible, all radiation probably carries a very small risk of carcinogenesis. Genetic damage is equally difficult to estimate. Diagnostic radiation of females, even in childhood, may be related to an increased incidence of Down's syndrome in older mothers. Radiation also causes point mutations, which may explain the increase of some genetic abnormalities in progeny of older fathers. Whenever an abdominal or pelvic radiograph is ordered before the end of the reproductive period, there must be a potential benefit to balance the small risk involved.

  4. Radiation dose electrophysiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Armas, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Catalan, A.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Luque Japon, L.; Moral, S.; Barroso, L.; Rfuez-Hdez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper has been to measure and analyse some of the parameters which are directly related with the doses given to patients in two electrophysiology procedures: diagnosis and ablation with radiofrequency. 16 patients were considered in this study. 13 them had an ablation with radiofrequency at the Unit of Electrophysiology at the University Hospital of the Canaries, La Laguna., Tenerife. The results of skin doses, in the ablation cases, were higher than 2 Gy (threshold of some deterministic effects). The average value was 1.1 Gy. The personal doses, measured under the lead apron, for physician and nurses were 4 and 3 micro Sievert. These results emphasised the necessity of radiation protection measures in order to reduce, ad much as possible, the doses to patients. (Author)

  5. Equipment for radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement of the line type of the plotter in an X-ray diagnostics apparatus enabling the production of distinguishable recordings by means of a single plot type. The construction is described explicitly. (UWI) [de

  6. Staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimova, N.U.; Malisheva, E.Yu.; Shosafarova, Sh.G.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics. Data on staff radiation exposure obtained during 2005-2008 years was analyzed. It was found that average individual doses of staff of various occupations in Dushanbe city for 2008 year are at 0.29-2.16 mSv range. They are higher than the average health indicators but lower than maximum permissible dose. It was defined that paramedical personnel receives the highest doses among the various categories of staff.

  7. The Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Protection of the Patient in Medical Imaging Procedures for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Purposes (Excluding Radiotherapy) using X-Rays in Israel - Risk - Cost and Benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1998-10-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. The utilization of devices emitting ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is classified into three categories: a. Radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of malignant and benign tumors. b. Nuclear medicine procedures using radiopharmaceuticals that are introduced into the patient's body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. c. Diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray imaging procedures. This group includes conventional radiography, conventional fluoroscopy, cardiac catheterization, angiography, CT, mammography, dental, and fluoroscopy operation procedures. A survey was carried out on a sample of three major Israeli hospitals in order to: 1. Determine the status of radiation protection of patients in Israel with regard to the use of x-rays in medical imaging and interventional radiology. 2. Assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays, and assess the collective risk in Israel in this relation (based on Icr-60). 3. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 4. Establish a of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. 5. Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel

  8. The Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Protection of the Patient in Medical Imaging Procedures for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Purposes (Excluding Radiotherapy) using X-Rays in Israel - Risk - Cost and Benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Shlomo, A

    1998-10-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. The utilization of devices emitting ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is classified into three categories: a. Radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of malignant and benign tumors. b. Nuclear medicine procedures using radiopharmaceuticals that are introduced into the patient's body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. c. Diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray imaging procedures. This group includes conventional radiography, conventional fluoroscopy, cardiac catheterization, angiography, CT, mammography, dental, and fluoroscopy operation procedures. A survey was carried out on a sample of three major Israeli hospitals in order to: 1. Determine the status of radiation protection of patients in Israel with regard to the use of x-rays in medical imaging and interventional radiology. 2. Assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays, and assess the collective risk in Israel in this relation (based on Icr-60). 3. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 4. Establish a of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. 5. Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel.

  9. Effects of radiation exposure from radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witcofski, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the United States about 90 percent of man-made radiation exposure to the general population is from the use of radiation in diagnostic medicine. Although the doses of radiation from these procedures to individuals are generally quite small, large numbers of people are exposed. Estimates of the radiation doses associated with such use in the healing arts are approximately 15 million person-rem to the general population from diagnostic x ray and 3.3 million person-rem from the diagnostic use of radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose of this paper is to present what is known about the possible effects of radiation from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

  10. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  11. Radiation dose during angiographic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, Ch.; Rasuli, P.

    2001-01-01

    The use of angiographic procedures is becoming more prevalent as new techniques and equipment are developed. There have been concerns in the scientific community about the level of radiation doses received by patients, and indirectly by staff, during some of these radiological procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of radiation dose from angiographic procedures to patient at the Ottawa Hospital, General Campus. Radiation dose measurements, using Thermo-Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), were performed on more than 100 patients on various procedures. The results show that while the patient dose from the great majority of angiographic procedures is less than 2 Gy, a significant number of procedures, especially interventional procedures may have doses greater than 2 Gy and may lead to deterministic effects. (author)

  12. Controlling radiation exposure during interventional procedures in childhood cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Many pediatric cancer patients undergo multiple diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures over the course of their illnesses and are therefore at high risk for radiation exposure. There are a variety of measures that radiologists can employ to reduce this risk. These include limiting the use of radiation whenever possible, using specific strategies to reduce radiation exposure during interventional procedures, using quality assurance programs to ensure compliance, and maintaining continuing staff radiation safety educational programs. Some of the diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiologic procedures that are performed in pediatric oncology patients are discussed here, along with specific tips for managing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  13. Genetic risk from diagnostic X-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1980-01-01

    This essay introduces epidemiologic studies concerned with the question whether diagnostic X-ray procedures might be the cause of an increased genetic risk. All studies have selected Down's syndrome (mongolism) as genetic indicator. They indiscriminately present the opinion of the respective author. Approximately one half of the studies conclude that radiation exposure will not influence the spontaneous incidence of Down's syndrome in diagnostics, the other half finds a positive relationship between frequent radiation exposure and the incidence of the syndrome. For various reasons, explained in detail, the results of the studies under discussion are suitable for forming hypotheses, but should not be viewed as providing evidence. (orig.) [de

  14. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs.

  15. Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: January 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures Ionizing radiation is used daily in hospitals and clinics ...

  16. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.R.; Hecht, F.; Lubs, H.A.; Kimberling, W.; Brown, J.; Gerald, P.S.; Summitt, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, s o radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant. (U.K.)

  17. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, S R; Hecht, F [Dept. of Pediatrics, Child Development and Rehabilitation Center, Univ. of Oregon Health Sciences Center, Portland, Oregon (USA); Lubs, H A; Kimberling, W; Brown, J; Gerald, P S; Summitt, R L

    1977-01-15

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, so radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant.

  18. Establish radiation protection programme for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mboya, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is an effective method used for breast diagnostics and screening. The aim of this project is to review the literature on how to establish radiation protection programme for mammography in order to protect the patients, the occupationally exposed workers and the members of the public from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It reviews some of the trends in mammography doses and dosimetric principles such as average glandular dose in the glandular tissue which is used for description of radiation risk, also the factors affecting patient doses are discussed. However, the average glandular dose should not be used directly to estimate the radiation risk from mammography. Risk is calculated under certain assumptions from determined entrance surface air kerma. Given the increase in population dose, emphasis is placed on the justification and optimization of the mammographic procedures. Protection is optimized by the radiation dose being appropriate with the purpose of the mammographic examination. The need to establish diagnostic reference levels as an optimization is also discussed. In order to obtain high quality mammograms at low dose to the breast, it is necessary to use the correct equipment and perform periodic quality control tests on mammography equipment. It is noted that in order to achieve the goal of this project, the application of radiation protection should begin at the time of requesting for mammography examination, positioning of the patient, irradiation, image processing and interpretation of mammogram. It is recommended that close cooperation between radiology technologists, radiologist, medical physicists, regulatory authority and other support workers be required and established to obtain a consistent and effective level of radiation protection in a mammography facility. (author)

  19. [Diagnostic imaging and radiation hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudon, Michel; Guillaume, Luc

    2015-01-01

    For the last 20 years, the exposure of the population to medical radiation has been increased by 600%, mainly due to the extension of new imaging modalities such as CT or interventional radiology. The risk for radio-induced hazards is especially marked for children, because of the high sensivity of tissues to radiation especially during the first decade of the life. Two main ways allow to better control and reduce the mean effective dose per patient in diagnostic imaging: the introduction of recent technical improvement (i.e. low dose CT scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms, low dose technique for pediatric spine), and the substitution to non-radiating techniques such as ultrasound and MRI. The French National institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety periodically publishes dose reference levels for conventional films and CT examinations, for both adults and pediatric patients. A close relationship between clinicians and radiologists remains essential for a better appreciation of the risk/benefit ratio of each individual examination using X-Rays.

  20. An economic evaluation of the use of rare-earth screens to reduce the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, G.M.; Schlesinger, T.; Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1996-01-01

    In contrasts, reducing the patient dose by using improved radiology equipment will often result in a constant reduction without further managerial effort for the lifetime of the equipment. Changing equipment is administratively far easier than altering long-established work practices. There are several methods available to achieve dose reduction in diagnostic radiology via this second category. For example, dose reductions of between 10% and 20% can be achieved independently by reducing attenuation between patient and image receptor to a minimum by means of carbon fiber components in couch tops, cassette fronts and anti-scatter grids [13-15]. Radiation dosage in film radiography can be reduced by approximately 50% by the use of rare- earth screens, which enable a faster film speed to be utilized (thus reducing exposure time) without significant loss in the diagnostic quality of the image. Rare-earth screens have been found in England to be the most cost-effective method of reducing dosage in film radiography, providing large dose reductions at considerably lower costs than carbon fiber components (authors)

  1. An economic evaluation of the use of rare-earth screens to reduce the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, G M [Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schlesinger, T; Ben-Shlomo, A [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    In contrasts, reducing the patient dose by using improved radiology equipment will often result in a constant reduction without further managerial effort for the lifetime of the equipment. Changing equipment is administratively far easier than altering long-established work practices. There are several methods available to achieve dose reduction in diagnostic radiology via this second category. For example, dose reductions of between 10% and 20% can be achieved independently by reducing attenuation between patient and image receptor to a minimum by means of carbon fiber components in couch tops, cassette fronts and anti-scatter grids [13-15]. Radiation dosage in film radiography can be reduced by approximately 50% by the use of rare- earth screens, which enable a faster film speed to be utilized (thus reducing exposure time) without significant loss in the diagnostic quality of the image. Rare-earth screens have been found in England to be the most cost-effective method of reducing dosage in film radiography, providing large dose reductions at considerably lower costs than carbon fiber components (authors).

  2. Radiation shielding for TFTR DT diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Johnson, D.W.; Liew, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors illustrate the designs of radiation shielding for the TFTR DT diagnostics using the ACX and TVTS systems as specific examples. The main emphasis here is on the radiation transport analyses carried out in support of the designs. Initial results from the DT operation indicate that the diagnostics have been functioning as anticipated and the shielding designs are satisfactory. The experience accumulated in the shielding design for the TFTR DT diagnostics should be useful and applicable to future devices, such as TPX and ITER, where many similar diagnostic systems are expected to be used

  3. Patient radiation doses from neuroradiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Roman, M J; Abreu-Luis, J; Hernandez-Armas, J [Servicio de Fisica Medica, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Prada-Martinez, E [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Following the presentation of radiation-induced deterministic effects by some patients undergoing neuroradiological procedures during successive sessions, such as temporary epilation, in the 'Hospital Universitario de Canarias', measurements were made of dose to patients. The maximum dose-area product measured by ionization chamber during these procedures was 39617 cGy.cm{sup 2} in a diagnostic of aneurysm and the maximum dose to the skin measured by thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) was 462.53 mGy. This can justify certain deterministic effects but it is unlikely that the patients will suffer serious effects from this skin dose. Also, measurements were made of effective dose about two usual procedures, embolisation of tumour und embolisation of aneurysm. These procedures were reproduced with an anthropomorphic phantom Rando and doses were measured with TLDs. Effective doses obtained were 3.79 mSv and 4.11 mSv, respectively. The effective dose valued by the program EFFDOSE was less than values measured with TLDs. (author)

  4. Patient radiation doses from neuroradiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Roman, M.J.; Abreu-Luis, J.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Prada-Martinez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Following the presentation of radiation-induced deterministic effects by some patients undergoing neuroradiological procedures during successive sessions, such as temporary epilation, in the 'Hospital Universitario de Canarias', measurements were made of dose to patients. The maximum dose-area product measured by ionization chamber during these procedures was 39617 cGy.cm 2 in a diagnostic of aneurysm and the maximum dose to the skin measured by thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) was 462.53 mGy. This can justify certain deterministic effects but it is unlikely that the patients will suffer serious effects from this skin dose. Also, measurements were made of effective dose about two usual procedures, embolisation of tumour und embolisation of aneurysm. These procedures were reproduced with an anthropomorphic phantom Rando and doses were measured with TLDs. Effective doses obtained were 3.79 mSv and 4.11 mSv, respectively. The effective dose valued by the program EFFDOSE was less than values measured with TLDs. (author)

  5. Radiation levels in nuclear diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, A.M.T.I.

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the risks for a pregnant radiological worker, radiation level measurements are executed for common nuclear diagnostic techniques. These measurements are combined with the time which the radiologic worker is present during the performance of the diagnostic techniques. It is concluded that a radiologic worker is receiving less than 5 mSv during pregnancy. This is the case with in vivo determination in a department of nuclear medicine with common diagnostic techniques. Reduction of radiation doses during pregnancy is possible by reduction of heart function examinations, skeletal examinations and brain scans. 1 figure; 13 tabs

  6. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, E de; Bejar, M J; Berenguer, R [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Salamanca (Spain); Ruano, R; Tamayo, P [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  7. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, E. de; Bejar, M.J.; Berenguer, R.; Ruano, R.; Tamayo, P.

    2001-01-01

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  8. Diagnostic procedures of the solitary pulmonary nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Kohara, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The spread of computed tomography (CT) brought the frequent further examinations of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). To aim the evaluation of initial data on examinations of SPN for differential diagnosis, we studied retrospective cases. Thirty-one cases of SPN less than 20 mm in diameter were compared in clinical findings and CT image findings and were examined the diagnostic procedures in recent three years in National Sanyo Hospital. The 31 patients consisted of 14 males and 17 females ranging 44 to 79 years old, median 65 years old. The causes of SPN were lung cancer (11 patients), cryptococcosis (4 patients), tuberculoma (3 patients), non-tuberculous mycobacteria (2 patients), pneumoconiosis (2 patients), pneumonia scar (one patient), hamartoma (one patient), and unknown (7 patients). There were no significant differences in laboratory findings between lung cancer and the others. CT findings showed significant differences in four categories. All patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) examinations and 12 patients were determined the diagnosis initial FB. Five patients were established their diagnosis using videoassociated thoracoscopic surgeries. (author)

  9. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS 7044, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  10. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.

    2006-01-01

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostic imaging procedures during pregnancy: what are the fetal risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.

    2008-01-01

    An important facet of health care is the counsel of patients seeking a better understanding of their medical treatment. One of the most challenging scenarios is the management of female patients exposed to ionizing radiation while pregnant. It requires careful consideration of both maternal benefit and fetal risk. Given the increased frequency of diagnostic examinations involving ionizing radiation, this situation has become commonplace. This paper reviews current literature discussing the risk associated with prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The fetal dose received during common radiological procedures is reported in order to emphasize that these doses do not exceed threshold levels for deterministic effects. The definitive cancer risk associated with radiation exposure in utero has yet to be established. This paper will also show that physicians who deal with pregnant women are generally uninformed or misinformed of the doses and risks associated with the exams that they prescribe. This lack of information could be leading to inappropriate advice and actions with respect to patient care. (author)

  12. Diagnostic imaging procedures during pregnancy: what are the fetal risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An important facet of health care is the counsel of patients seeking a better understanding of their medical treatment. One of the most challenging scenarios is the management of female patients exposed to ionizing radiation while pregnant. It requires careful consideration of both maternal benefit and fetal risk. Given the increased frequency of diagnostic examinations involving ionizing radiation, this situation has become commonplace. This paper reviews current literature discussing the risk associated with prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The fetal dose received during common radiological procedures is reported in order to emphasize that these doses do not exceed threshold levels for deterministic effects. The definitive cancer risk associated with radiation exposure in utero has yet to be established. This paper will also show that physicians who deal with pregnant women are generally uninformed or misinformed of the doses and risks associated with the exams that they prescribe. This lack of information could be leading to inappropriate advice and actions with respect to patient care. (author)

  13. Procedure and methodology of Radiation Protection optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1995-01-01

    Optimization of Radiation Protection is one of the most important principles in the system of radiation protection. The paper introduces the basic principles of radiation protection optimization in general, and the procedure of implementing radiation protection optimization and methods of selecting the optimized radiation protection option in details, in accordance with ICRP 55. Finally, some economic concepts relating to estimation of costs are discussed briefly

  14. Measurement of patient radiation doses in certain urography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Barakat, H.; Zailae, A.; Abuderman, A.; Theodorou, K.

    2015-01-01

    Patients are exposed to significant radiation doses during diagnostic and interventional urological procedures. This study aimed to measure patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and to estimate the effective dose during intravenous urography (IVU), extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and ascending urethrogram (ASU) procedures. ESAK was measured in patients using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters, GR200A). Effective doses (E) were calculated using the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. A total of 179 procedures were investigated. 27.9 % of the patients underwent IVU procedures, 27.9 % underwent ESWL procedures and 44.2 % underwent ASU procedures. The mean ESAK was 2.1, 4.18 and 4.9 mGy for IVU, ESWL, and ASU procedures, respectively. Differences in patient ESAK for the same procedure were observed. The mean ESAK values were comparable with those in previous studies. (authors)

  15. Patients exposure assessment for radiographic procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Stankovic, K.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.)

    2007-01-01

    In this work the results of dose assessment for the most frequent radiographic procedures in diagnostic radiology are shown. Entrance surface doses were assessed for 7 radiographic procedures. Three hospitals, six x-ray units in total, were enrolled in investigation. Patient doses were estimated based on results of x-ray tube output measurements. Finally, doses were compared with Diagnostic reference level. Higher dose values were observed for chest examinations. In comparison with results from other countries, doses from this procedure in Serbia are significantly higher. Estimated doses for other procedures were well below Diagnostic reference levels [sr

  16. Variation in radiation doses in paediatric cardiac catheterisation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj, A. N.; Lobriguito, A. M.; Rafeh, W.

    2008-01-01

    Paediatric cardiac catheterisation involves diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that range from simple to complex and can subject paediatric patients to varying radiation doses. The study aims to determine the variation in entrance doses in patients in terms of dose-area product (DAP) values and to investigate the methods for optimising radiation protection. A total of 190 paediatric patients belonging to age groups 0, 1, 5 and 10 y who underwent diagnostic and six selected therapeutic procedures at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) were included in the study. Therapeutic procedures include coarctation (COA), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), radiofrequency ablation, pulmonary, embolisation and septostomy. Fluoroscopy and cine radiography were used in all procedures. Patient demography (weight, age, gender and height), radiographic technique factors, fluoroscopy and cine time, frame rate, and DAP values were taken from patients records. Effective doses for each procedure were estimated from the DAP values. The mean DAP per procedure were analysed for correlation with patient equivalent cylindrical diameter, weight, fluoroscopy time and number of frames. Factors influencing the variation in doses were investigated. Initial results show that PDA occlusion has the highest mean DAP value of 23.21 Gy-cm 2 , while the diagnostic and septostomy procedures have the lowest value of 7.77 and 6.95 Gy-cm 2 , respectively. (authors)

  17. Assessment of the radiation risk from diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.; Mueller, W.U.

    1995-01-01

    In any assessment of radiation risks from diagnostic radiology the main concern is the possible induction of cancer. It now appears to be beyond all doubt that ionizing rays invite the development of cancer in humans. The radiation doses encountered in diagnostic radiology generally vary from 1 to 50 mSv. For this dose range, no measured values are available to ascertain cancer risks from ionizing rays. The effects of such doses must therefore be extrapolated from higher dose levels under consideration of given dose-effect relationships. All relevant figures for diagnostic X-ray measures are therefore mathematically determined approximate values. The stochastic radiation risk following non-homogeneous radiation exposure is assessed on the basis of the effective dose. This dose was originally introduced to ascertain the risk from radioactive substances incorporated at the working place. A secondary intention was to trigger further developmental processes in radiation protection. Due to the difficulties previously outlined and the uncertainties surrounding the determination and assessment of the effective dose from diagnostic X-ray procedures, this dose should merely be used for technological refinements and comaprisons of examination procedures. It appears unreasonable that the effective doses determined for the individual examinations are summed up to obtain a collective effective dose and to multiply this with a risk factor so as to give an approximation of the resulting deaths from cancer. A reasonable alternative is to inform patients subjected to X-ray examinations about the associated radiation dose and to estimate form this the magnitude of the probable radiation risk. (orig./MG) [de

  18. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload

  19. Metrology of radiation doses in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclet, H.

    2016-01-01

    This article recalls how to calculate effective and equivalent doses in radiology from the measured value of the absorbed dose. The 97/43 EURATOM directive defines irradiation standards for diagnostic radiology (NRD) as the value of the radiation dose received by the patient's skin when the diagnostic exam is performed. NRD values are standard values that can be exceeded only with right medical or technical reasons, they are neither limit values nor optimized values. The purpose of NRD values is to avoid the over-irradiation of patients and to homogenize radiologists' practices. French laws impose how and when radiologists have to calculate the radiation dose received by the patient's skin. The calculated values have to be compared with NRD values and any difference has to be justified. A table gives NRD values for all diagnostic exams. (A.C.)

  20. Radiation dose to the operator during fluoroscopically guided spine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccatagliata, Luca; Pravata, Emanuele; Cianfoni, Alessandro [Department of Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano (Switzerland); Presilla, Stefano [Unita di Fisica Medica, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale (EOC), Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2017-09-15

    Fluoroscopy is widely used to guide diagnostic and therapeutic spine procedures. The purpose of this study was to quantify radiation incident on the operator (operator Air Kerma) during a wide range of fluoroscopy-guided spine procedures and its correlation with the amount of radiation incident on the patient (Kerma Area Product - KAP). We retrospectively included 57 consecutive fluoroscopically guided spine procedures. KAP [Gy cm{sup 2}] and total fluoroscopy time were recorded for each procedure. An electronic dosimeter recorded the operator Air Kerma [μGy] for each procedure. Operator Air Kerma for each procedure, correlation between KAP and operator Air Kerma, and between KAP and fluoroscopy time was obtained. Operator Air Kerma was widely variable across procedures, with median value of 6.4 μGy per procedure. Median fluoroscopy time and median KAP per procedure were 2.6 min and 4.7 Gy cm{sup 2}, respectively. There was correlation between operator Air Kerma and KAP (r{sup 2} = 0.60), with a slope of 1.6 μGy Air Kerma per unit Gy cm{sup 2} KAP incident on the patient and between fluoroscopy time and KAP (r{sup 2} = 0.63). Operator Air Kerma during individual fluoroscopy-guided spine procedures can be approximated from the commonly and readily available information of the total amount of radiation incident on the patient, measured as KAP. (orig.)

  1. Diagnostic imaging procedure volume in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Abernathy, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive data on 1979 and 1980 diagnostic imaging procedure volume were collected from a stratified random sample of U.S. short-term general-care hospitals and private practices of radiologists, cardiologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, orthopedic surgeons, and neurologists/neurosurgeons. Approximately 181 million imaging procedures (within the study scope) were performed in 1980. Despite the rapidly increasing use of newer imaging methods, plain film radiography (140.3 million procedures) and contrast studies (22.9 million procedures) continue to comprise the vast majority of diagnostic imaging volume. Ultrasound, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and special procedures make up less than 10% of total diagnostic imaging procedures. Comparison of the data from this study with data from an earlier study indicates that imaging procedure volume in hospitals expanded at an annual growth rate of almost 8% from 1973 to 1980

  2. Pericardiectomy as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik, Ewa; Geske, Jeffrey; Edwards, William; Gersh, Bernard

    2016-11-14

    A 70-year-old man presented with recent onset, predominantly right-sided heart failure. Echocardiogram demonstrated features of hypertensive heart disease and was suggestive of, but non-diagnostic for, constrictive pericarditis (CP). CT demonstrated mild pericardial thickening. Right heart catheterisation showed elevation and equalisation of diastolic pressures in all cardiac chambers with early rapid filling, minimal ventricular interdependence, and no dissociation of intrathoracic and intracardiac pressures. While several features pointed towards CP, the minimal ventricular interdependence and no dissociation of intrathoracic and intracardiac pressures suggested other pathology. Diagnostic pericardiectomy was performed, after which the central venous pressure decreased from 22 to 12 mm Hg. Pathology revealed pericardial fibrosis. The patient experienced sustained resolution of his heart failure. A potential explanation for lack of CP criteria was the presence of hypertensive heart disease. CP needs to be considered when approaching patients with heart failure as diagnostic evaluation can be multifaceted and treatment curative. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. [Causes, Diagnostic and Therapeutical Procedures of Malassimilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Torsten; Kistenmacher, Alina; Smollich, Martin; Sina, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Patients with malassimilation suffer from disturbed exploitation of available nutrients, which can affect macro- and micronutrients. Malassimilation can be subdivided in maldigestion and malabsorption. Many different disorders, especially gastrointestinal diseases, can lead to malassimilation. The wide variety of differential diagnoses necessitates big diagnostic as well as financial efforts in order to assure good clinical care. This review provides an overview on diagnostic as well as therapeutic processes of patients with malassimilation and gives practical advice for their physicians and therapists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Radiation exposure of nuclear medicine procedures in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine procedures offer the possibility to detect abnormalities on the basis of physiological and metabolic changes and to treat a growing number of diseases in human beings. However, the use of radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine examinations causes a significant component of the total radiation exposure of populations. In Germany it is an essential task of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to determinate and assess radiation exposure of the population due to nuclear medicine diagnostics and therapy. An important input for this task is the frequency of nuclear-medical examinations with application of ionising radiation and the radiation exposure of patients related to the various procedures. Additional implementation of age- and gender-specific data today allows more exact risk stratification in focusing on different subgroups of patients. Moreover, the collective effective dose as well as the per caput effective dose of the German population may be estimated and compared with earlier collected data or foreign countries. These data reveal where the indication should be questioned particularly critically and if the dose for the various examinations can be reduced and, thus, contribute to the definition of diagnostic reference levels for nuclear medicine procedures in Germany with the aim of both a sufficient image quality and a minimum of radiation exposure. Exceeding the high- as well as the low-values requires documentation and explanation. (orig.)

  5. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B; Grüber, C

    2004-08-01

    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy.

  6. Collective radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray examination in nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Conclusion: Although the use of ionizing radiation for diagnostic medical procedures is an acceptable ... It is estimated that the adoption of rare earth screen technology might reduce the ... coated in a smooth layer on a plastic support or card.

  7. Calculation of radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology. Method and surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauferrier, R.; Ramee, A.; Ezzeldin, K.; Guibert, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method for evaluating the radiation exposure of the main target organs during various diagnostic radiologic procedures is described. This technique was used for educational purposes: study of exposure variations according to the technical modalities of a given procedure, and study of exposure variations according to various technical protocols (IVU, EGD barium study, etc.). This method was also used for studying exposure of patients during hospitalization in the Rennes Regional Hospital Center (France) in 1982, according to departments (urology, neurology, etc.). This method and results of these three studies are discussed [fr

  8. Quality control procedures of dental diagnostic radiology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Paula Serra Sasaki

    2007-01-01

    This work presents quality control reference procedures for dental diagnostic radiology systems, following the recommendations of the Publication 453 of the Brazilian Health Ministry (PF453), to be applied in dental clinics, in order to achieve an improvement in the radiological image qualities and the patient dose reduction. All tests were applied in an intraoral X rays system, following the methodology developed and the requirements of the PF 453. In order to verify the best quality of the image in relation to the smaller exposition time an object test was also developed in this work. The use of this object allowed the reduction of the exposition time of 0.5 seconds, the maximum value of the linear region of the characteristic curve, for 0.2 seconds. The tested X rays system showed a very good agreement with the applied procedures, detaching the reduction of the skin entrance dose using the film-holding devices. However, the size of the field increased and exceeded the maximum value of 6 cm recommended in the standard. The importance of the quality control in dental diagnostic radiology systems is essential due to the constant use of X radiation in dental clinics. The PF453 recommends the frequency of at least two years for the constancy tests. However, it is suggested that the professional, surgeon-dentist, should be responsible for the internal control of the image quality obtained from the X rays device. This can be done through monthly exposures of the object test developed in this work. (author)

  9. The need for culture sensitive diagnostic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandi, Tekleh; Havenaar, Johan M.; Limburg-Okken, Annechien G.; van Es, Hans; Sidali, Salah; Kadri, Nadia; van den Brink, Wim; Kahn, Rene S.

    Objective We examine the procedural validity of a standardized instrument for the diagnosis of psychotic disorders in Morocco. Method Twenty-nine patients from Casablanca, Morocco, with a psychotic or mood disorder were examined using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) an

  10. Dosimetric methodology and reference system for diagnostic level X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    1999-01-01

    Several methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were developed and established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. These established radiation qualities are recommended by international standards. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. A reference system was proposed using two identical ionization chambers developed at IPEN. They differ only by the collecting electrode material, one of aluminium and the other of graphite. The different energetic dependence of the chamber's response provided a ratio related to the tube potential. The variation of only 0.28%, from 14.3 to 111 keV, on the energetic dependence of the graphite electrode chamber, provided the possibility of air kerma rate determination in the studied radiation beams. (author)

  11. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  12. Radiation doses to adult patients in interventional procedure: the first data for the Biobio region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda, C.A.; Nocetti, D.A.; Robles, I.L.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in interventional cardiology procedures and neurological (diagnostic and therapeutic) in the main public hospital in Chile, in the region of Biobio

  13. Interventional diagnostic breast procedures; Diagnostische Mammainterventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, U. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany); Dept. of Radiology, The Univ. of Chicago (United States); Diekmann, S.; Diekmann, F. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    The comprehensive survey describes in great detail the indications, performance, and advantages and drawbacks of the various biopsy and localization techniques available today for interventional diagnostic evaluation of lesions of the breast. (orig./CB) [German] Die Feinnadelaspirationszytologie ist einfach und rasch durchfuehrbar, ist jedoch insbesondere in der Hand von unerfahrenen Untersuchern mit einer relativ hohen Rate von nicht auswertbaren und falsch-negativen Befunden verbunden. Das Verfahren wird am haeufigsten bei soliden oder zystischen Herdbefunden eingesetzt, die palpabel oder sonographisch nachweisbar sind. Bei inadaequatem Zellmaterial muss eine erneute Biopsie, ggf. mit einem anderen Verfahren, erfolgen. Die Nadelstanzbiopsie ist heutzutage das Verfahren der Wahl bei mammographisch oder sonographisch sichtbaren soliden Herdbefunden. Das Verfahren ist einfach und kostenguenstig durchfuehrbar und weist bei soliden Herdbefunden eine extrem hohe Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet auf. Bei Mikroverkalkungen sollten immer ausreichend viele Stanzen (5 und mehr) entnommen werden. Bei Stanzbiopsien besteht grundsaetzlich die Gefahr einer Unterschaetzung des histologischen Befundes (ADH statt DCIS, in situ statt invasiv). Bei Diagnose ADH in der Stanzbiopsie sollte eine Exzision des Befundes erfolgen. Die vakuumassistierte Stanzbiopsie ist besonders beeignet zur Biopsie von unklaren Mikroverkalkungen, da durch die groessere entnommene Gewebemenge eine hoehere Spezifitaet und Sensitivitaet erreicht werden kann. Fuer MR-gesteuerte Biopsien hat dieses Verfahren den Vorteil, dass die Nadel nur einmal platziert werden muss. Die stereotaktische Exzisionsbiopsie ist ein relativ teures und invasives Verfahren, das insbesondere zur diagnostischen Abklaerung von unklaren Mikroverkalkungen eingesetzt wird. Hierbei steht das Verfahren in direkter Konkurrenz zur vakuumassistierten Stanzbiopsie. Inwieweit es fuer die stereotaktische Exzisionsbiopsie wirklich ein

  14. Occupational radiation doses during interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraeni, N; Hiswara, E; Kartikasari, D; Waris, A; Haryanto, F

    2016-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a type of fluoroscopy technique used in interventional radiology to clearly visualize blood vessels in a bony or dense soft tissue environment. The use of DSA procedures has been increased quite significantly in the Radiology departments in various cities in Indonesia. Various reports showed that both patients and medical staff received a noticeable radiation dose during the course of this procedure. A study had been carried out to measure these doses among interventionalist, nurse and radiographer. The results show that the interventionalist and the nurse, who stood quite close to the X-ray beams compared with the radiographer, received radiation higher than the others. The results also showed that the radiation dose received by medical staff were var depending upon the duration and their position against the X-ray beams. Compared tothe dose limits, however, the radiation dose received by all these three medical staff were still lower than the limits. (paper)

  15. Radiation diagnostics in extremely harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dona, H.; Lee, P.H.Y.; Williams, A.H.; McGurn, J.L.; Veeser, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent Trailmaster experiments have required to use of rather delicate radiation diagnostics in hostile environments. We have developed instrumentation for use high-explosive magnetic flux compression generators and near the noisy environment of high energy capacitor banks. These include some rather unique ''fly-away'' designs for x-ray imaging and spectroscopy, and other optical techniques for plasma temperature and field measurements. We will show some representative data and will also discuss an on-going program for the determination of magnetic field via atomic spectral line splitting and/or broadening

  16. Education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures ICRP 113 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Alshoufi, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) is the primary body in protection against ionizing radiation. Among its latest publication is ICRP publication 113 e ducation and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures . This document introduces diagnostic and interventional medical procedures using ionizing radiations in deep details. The document is approved by the commission in October 2010 and translated into Arabic at December 2011. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translation include WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective, issued by world health organization 2009 and Radiation Protection in Medicine, ICRP Publication 105 2007 that translated into Arabic with support of Arab atomic energy authority at 2011.

  17. Analysis of risk in computerized tomography and other diagnostic radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Medical practice entails continuous risks to the patient taken in good faith by the physician for the benefit of the patient. Risk of radiation induced cancer death approximates 10(-4) per cGy (rad). Assuming an average whole body dose of 0.1 cGy for many diagnostic X-ray procedures, the probability of radiation-induced cancer death is about 10(-5). The purpose of this paper is to compare the risks of common diagnostic X-ray procedures including computerized tomography (CT) with risks of smoking or automobile travel. Such comparisons should be constructive in putting radiation in perspective and facilitating explanation of risk/benefit to patients

  18. Radiation exposures to technologists from nuclear medicine imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloboda, R.S.; Schmid, M.G.; Willis, C.P.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposures incurred by nuclear medicine technologists during diagnostic imaging and gamma camera quality control (QC) were measured on a procedural basis over a three-month period using a portable, low-range, self-reading ion chamber. A total of more than 400 measurements were made for 15 selected procedures. From these, mean procedural exposures and standard deviations were calculated. The results show that daily flood phantom QC, at 0.58 mR, and gated cardiac studies, at 0.45 mR, were the two greatest sources of exposure. Other procedures resulted in exposures varying roughly from 0.10 to 0.20 mR. Difficult patients were responsible for a doubling of technologist exposure for many procedures. Standard deviations were large for all procedures, averaging 65% of the mean values. Comparison of technologist exposure inferred from the procedural measurements with the time coincident collective dose equivalent recorded by the TLD service of the Radiation Protection Bureau indicates that approximately half of the collective technologist exposure arose from patient handling and flood QC

  19. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    This is the third edition of CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 (now CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 114), which is one of a series of standards issued by the Canadian Standards Association under Part II of the Canadian Electrical Code. This edition marks an important shift towards harmonization of Canadian requirements with those of the European community and the United States. Also important to this edition is the expansion of its scope to include the complete range of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment, rather than solely radiation-emitting equipment. In so doing, equipment previously addressed by CSA Standard C22.2 No. 125, Electromedical Equipment, specifically lasers for medical applications and diagnostic ultrasound units, is now dealt with in the new edition. By virtue of this expanded scope, many of the technical requirements in the electromedical equipment standard have been introduced to the new edition, thereby bringing CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 up to date. 14 tabs., 16 figs.

  20. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This is the third edition of CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 (now CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 114), which is one of a series of standards issued by the Canadian Standards Association under Part II of the Canadian Electrical Code. This edition marks an important shift towards harmonization of Canadian requirements with those of the European community and the United States. Also important to this edition is the expansion of its scope to include the complete range of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment, rather than solely radiation-emitting equipment. In so doing, equipment previously addressed by CSA Standard C22.2 No. 125, Electromedical Equipment, specifically lasers for medical applications and diagnostic ultrasound units, is now dealt with in the new edition. By virtue of this expanded scope, many of the technical requirements in the electromedical equipment standard have been introduced to the new edition, thereby bringing CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 up to date. 14 tabs., 16 figs

  1. Diagnostic radiation of potentially reproductive females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Bagi, M E; Al-Mutairi, M S; Al-Thagafi, M A; Al-Masri, N M; Al-Sasi, O [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-03-01

    Objectives: To find out how consistent or variable is the understanding and practice of radiation protection procedures for women of childbearing age at a multispecialty tertiary hospital. Setting: Riyadh Military Hospital Study. Design: Non-clustered population survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed during grand rounds, mid-day clinics and a radiology conference. Questions included which radiation protection rule does the respondent use for females, whether he or she is familiar with those rules and what is his or her source of reference. Further questions were about the radiation dangers to the fetus. Results: Response was 95 (100%). Fifty-seven (60%) were males and 38 (40%) were females. The majority 50 (53%) were Saudis, 16 (17%) Western and 29 (30%) were other nationals. Sixty-two (65%) followed the old rule '10-day rule'; 17 (18%) followed the new '28-day rule' and 16 (17%) didn't know which rule to follow. None of those who followed the '28-day rule' indicated hospital policy as their reference. Conclusions: The understanding and practice of radiation protection guidelines for females is inconsistent. There is significant unfamiliarity with the radiation protection rules among our hospital practitioners. (author)

  2. Diagnostic radiation of potentially reproductive females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Bagi, M.E.; Al-Mutairi, M.S.; Al-Thagafi, M.A.; Al-Masri, N.M.; Al-Sasi, O.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To find out how consistent or variable is the understanding and practice of radiation protection procedures for women of childbearing age at a multispecialty tertiary hospital. Setting: Riyadh Military Hospital Study. Design: Non-clustered population survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed during grand rounds, mid-day clinics and a radiology conference. Questions included which radiation protection rule does the respondent use for females, whether he or she is familiar with those rules and what is his or her source of reference. Further questions were about the radiation dangers to the fetus. Results: Response was 95 (100%). Fifty-seven (60%) were males and 38 (40%) were females. The majority 50 (53%) were Saudis, 16 (17%) Western and 29 (30%) were other nationals. Sixty-two (65%) followed the old rule '10-day rule'; 17 (18%) followed the new '28-day rule' and 16 (17%) didn't know which rule to follow. None of those who followed the '28-day rule' indicated hospital policy as their reference. Conclusions: The understanding and practice of radiation protection guidelines for females is inconsistent. There is significant unfamiliarity with the radiation protection rules among our hospital practitioners. (author)

  3. Diagnostic x-ray equipment compliance and facility survey. Recommended procedures for equipment and facility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Bureau has set out guidelines for the testing of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. This guide provides information for the x-ray inspector, test engineer, technologist, medical physicist and any other person responsible for verifying the regulatory compliance or safety of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. Diagnostic x-radiation is an essential part of present day medical practice. The largest contributor of irradiation to the general population comes from diagnostic x-radiation. Although individual irradiations are usually small, there is a concern of possible excess cancer risk when large populations are irradiated. Unnecessary irradiations to patients from radiological procedures can be significantly reduced with little or no decrease in the value of medical diagnostic information. This can be achieved by using well designed x-ray equipment which is installed, used and maintained by trained personnel, and by the adoption of standardized procedures. In general, when patient surface dose is reduced, there is a corresponding decrease in dose to x-ray equipment operators and other health care personnel. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Diagnostic x-ray equipment compliance and facility survey. Recommended procedures for equipment and facility testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Radiation Protection Bureau has set out guidelines for the testing of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. This guide provides information for the x-ray inspector, test engineer, technologist, medical physicist and any other person responsible for verifying the regulatory compliance or safety of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. Diagnostic x-radiation is an essential part of present day medical practice. The largest contributor of irradiation to the general population comes from diagnostic x-radiation. Although individual irradiations are usually small, there is a concern of possible excess cancer risk when large populations are irradiated. Unnecessary irradiations to patients from radiological procedures can be significantly reduced with little or no decrease in the value of medical diagnostic information. This can be achieved by using well designed x-ray equipment which is installed, used and maintained by trained personnel, and by the adoption of standardized procedures. In general, when patient surface dose is reduced, there is a corresponding decrease in dose to x-ray equipment operators and other health care personnel. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Patient radiation dose audits for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Stephen; Rosenstein, Marvin; Miller, Donald L.; Schueler, Beth; Spelic, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Quality management for any use of medical x-ray imaging should include monitoring of radiation dose. Fluoroscopically guided interventional (FGI) procedures are inherently clinically variable and have the potential for inducing deterministic injuries in patients. The use of a conventional diagnostic reference level is not appropriate for FGI procedures. A similar but more detailed quality process for management of radiation dose in FGI procedures is described. Methods: A method that takes into account both the inherent variability of FGI procedures and the risk of deterministic injuries from these procedures is suggested. The substantial radiation dose level (SRDL) is an absolute action level (with regard to patient follow-up) below which skin injury is highly unlikely and above which skin injury is possible. The quality process for FGI procedures collects data from all instances of a given procedure from a number of facilities into an advisory data set (ADS). An individual facility collects a facility data set (FDS) comprised of all instances of the same procedure at that facility. The individual FDS is then compared to the multifacility ADS with regard to the overall shape of the dose distributions and the percent of instances in both the ADS and the FDS that exceed the SRDL. Results: Samples of an ADS and FDS for percutaneous coronary intervention, using the dose metric of reference air kerma (K a,r ) (i.e., the cumulative air kerma at the reference point), are used to illustrate the proposed quality process for FGI procedures. Investigation is warranted whenever the FDS is noticeably different from the ADS for the specific FGI procedure and particularly in two circumstances: (1) When the facility's local median K a,r exceeds the 75th percentile of the ADS and (2) when the percent of instances where K a,r exceeds the facility-selected SRDL is greater for the FDS than for the ADS. Conclusions: Analysis of the two data sets (ADS and FDS) and of the

  6. Absorbed dose to active red bone marrow from diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The bone-marrow dose arising from radiological procedures as carried out in Australia have been determined as part of a survey of population doses. This paper describes the method of calculation of the radiation doses to the active bone marrow from diagnostic radiography, fluoroscopy and radiotherapy. The results of the calculations are compared with the results of other models of bone-marrow dose for a number of diagnostic X-ray procedures

  7. Radiation exposure during cardiac catheterization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicken, P.J.H.; Huyskens, C.J.; Michels, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    For some time there has been an increased interest in more information about radiation exposure during cardiac catheterization because of: relatively high doses to workers and patient; rapid increase of numbers of examinations; introduction of new procedure-types (e.g. Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angiography, PTCA) and introduction of new techniques (e.g. Digital Subtraction Angiography, DSA). This paper reports about a study on the exposure to medical personnel and patient in two major hospitals in the Netherlands. The Total number of cardiac catheterization procedures in both hospitals amounts to circa 3000 per year (approximately 10% of all cardiac procedures c.q. 20% of all PTCA procedures in the Netherlands). This study is related to 1300 cardiac examinations

  8. Diagnostical Procedure for Logistical Management in Turistical Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Arlen Fergusson-Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design a diagnostic procedure of the logistics management for turistical entities, they could be hotels or not. This procedure was validated in Commercial Branch Caracol Santiago de Cuba and finally, different actions for the detected problems were proposed with the objective of improving the logistics management of the organization. To develop this research various tools and techniques served as support, such as: surveys, SPSS software (Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15.0 version and Decision 1.0 version, exponential smoothing, Cronbach's Alpha, the coefficient of Kendall W, financial and logistical indicators, the ABC or Pareto Method, the matrices for the classification of stocks and suppliers, among others. This research made possible the design of a diagnostic procedure for logistical management for turistical entities. And it was validated in the Comercial Branch Caracol Santiago, which allowed the proposition of improvement actions for increasing customer satisfaction.

  9. Radiation damage in diagnostic windows for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primak, W.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation effects in diagnostic window materials are being estimated and additional experimental data on the radiation behavior are being sought. The materials considered thus far are vitreous silica, crystal quartz, and synthetic sapphire

  10. Renal diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Blitz, H.; Kuester, W.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1989-02-01

    The involvement of kidneys in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) is one of the most frequent causes of death in this disease. Using clinical criteria and laboratory tests only the frequency of kidney involvement would be clearly underestimated. Invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy and angiography can not be applied in those patients. Nuclear medicine techniques (hippurate clearance, DMSA-scan), however, offer non invasive and sensitive methods in the diagnosis of renal involvement in PSS patients. In our study 46 of 76 patients (60%) revealed pathologic findings. The mentioned diagnostic techniques show a high sensitivity and are in agreement with pathological findings described in PSS.

  11. Renal diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Blitz, H.; Kuester, W.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of kidneys in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) is one of the most frequent causes of death in this disease. Using clinical criteria and laboratory tests only the frequency of kidney involvement would be clearly underestimated. Invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy and angiography can not be applied in those patients. Nuclear medicine techniques (hippurate clearance, DMSA-scan), however, offer non invasive and sensitive methods in the diagnosis of renal involvement in PSS patients. In our study 46 of 76 patients (60%) revealed pathologic findings. The mentioned diagnostic techniques show a high sensitivity and are in agreement with pathological findings described in PSS. (orig.) [de

  12. Diagnostic x-ray procedures and risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Morin, M.M.; Glass, A.G.; Friedman, G.D.; Stovall, M.; Hoover, R.N.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to diagnostic x-rays and the risk of leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma were studied within two prepaid health plans. Adult patients with leukemia (n = 565), NHL (n = 318), and multiple myeloma (n = 208) were matched to controls (n = 1390), and over 25,000 x-ray procedures were abstracted from medical records. Dose response was evaluated by assigning each x-ray procedure a score based on estimated bone marrow dose. X-ray exposure was not associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignant conditions never linked to radiation (relative risk [RR], 0.66). For all other forms of leukemia combined (n = 358), there was a slight elevation in risk (RR, 1.17) but no evidence of a dose-response relationship when x-ray procedures near the time of diagnosis were excluded. Similarly, patients with NHL were exposed to diagnostic x-ray procedures more often than controls (RR, 1.32), but the RR fell to 0.99 when the exposure to diagnostic x-ray procedures within 2 years of diagnosis was ignored. For multiple myeloma, overall risk was not significantly high (RR, 1.14), but there was consistent evidence of increasing risk with increasing numbers of diagnostic x-ray procedures. These data suggest that persons with leukemia and NHL undergo x-ray procedures frequently just prior to diagnosis for conditions related to the development or natural history of their disease. There was little evidence that diagnostic x-ray procedures were causally associated with leukemia or NHL. The risk for multiple myeloma, however, was increased among those patients who were frequently exposed to x-rays

  13. Pediatric radiation dose during cardiac catheterization procedures in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nada A.; Nayel, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Children are more radio sensitive than adult. This study aims to assess radiation doses and the associated hazards to pediatric during cardiac catheterization procedures. Radiation dose for 112 patients was estimated in the biggest cardiac center in Sudan. The median KAP in Gy cm"2, CK in mGy, number of frames and fluoroscopy time in minutes were (4.6, 29.0, 340.4, 13.5) and (6.0, 35.0, 318, 9.8) for the diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac procedures, respectively. The median (KAP in Gy cm"2, effective dose in mSv) for different age groups in the intervals of less than 1 year, 1-<5 years, 5-<10 years and 10- 15 years old were (2.2, 4.4), (2.5, 5.0), (4.2, 5.1) and (8.5, 4.1) respectively. Including all the procedures using the multiplicative model of ICRP 60, the mean attributable lifetime risk for stochastic effect was 0.08 and 0.05% for girls and boys, respectively. Training is needed to raise staff awareness about radiation protection. (authors)

  14. Radiation effects in IFMIF Li target diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Vila, R.; Shikama, T.; Horiike, H.; Simakov, S.; Ciotti, M.; Ibarra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostics for the lithium target will be crucial for the operation of IFMIF. Several parameters as the lithium temperature, target thickness or wave pattern must be monitored during operation. Radiation effects may produce malfunctioning in any of these diagnostics due to the exposure to high radiation fields. The main diagnostic systems proposed for the operation of IFMIF are reviewed in this paper from the point of view of radiation damage. The main tools for the assessment of the performance of these diagnostics are the neutronics calculations by using specialised codes and the information accumulated during the last decades on the radiation effects in functional materials, components and diagnostics for ITER. This analysis allows to conclude that the design of some of the diagnostic systems must be revised to assure the high availability required for the target system.

  15. Radiation protection limits and review procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafauti, Sunita; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    The primary means of controlling radiation exposure in planned exposure situations in nuclear facilities/radiological laboratories are by good design of facilities, equipment, operating procedures and by ensuring appropriate training to all plant occupational workers. In planned exposure situations, exposure at some level can be expected to occur. For planned exposure situations, exposures are subject to control for ensuring that the specified dose limits for occupational exposure and those for public exposure are not exceeded and optimization is applied to attain the desired level of protection and safety. The person or organization responsible for any facility or activity that gives rise to radiation exposure should have the prime responsibility for protection and safety, which cannot be delegated

  16. Comparative analysis of diagnostic accuracy of different brain biopsy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Sarkar, Chitra; Gupta, Deepak; Singh, Manmohan; Mahapatra, A K

    2006-12-01

    Image-guided procedures such as computed tomography (CT) guided, neuronavigator-guided and ultrasound-guided methods can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the intraparenchymal lesion of the brain. However, despite improvements in the imaging techniques, an accurate diagnosis of intrinsic lesion requires tissue sampling and histological verification. The present study was carried out to examine the reliability of the diagnoses made on tumor sample obtained via different stereotactic and ultrasound-guided brain biopsy procedures. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all brain biopsies (frame-based and frameless stereotactic and ultrasound-guided) performed in a single tertiary care neurosciences center between 1995 and 2005. The overall diagnostic accuracy achieved on histopathology and correlation with type of biopsy technique was evaluated. A total of 130 cases were included, which consisted of 82 males and 48 females. Age ranged from 4 to 75 years (mean age 39.5 years). Twenty per cent (27 patients) were in the pediatric age group, while 12% (16 patients) were >or= 60-years of age. A definitive histological diagnosis was established in 109 cases (diagnostic yield 80.2%), which encompassed 101 neoplastic and eight nonneoplastic lesions. Frame-based, frameless stereotactic and ultrasound-guided biopsies were done in 95, 15 and 20 patients respectively. Although the numbers of cases were small there was trend for better yield with frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy and maximum diagnostic yield was obtained i.e, 87% (13/15) in comparison to conventional frame-based CT-guided stereotactic biopsy and ultrasound-guided biopsy. Overall, a trend of higher diagnostic yield was seen in cases with frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy. Thus, this small series confirms that frameless neuronavigator-guided stereotactic procedures represent the lesion sufficiently in order to make histopathologic diagnosis.

  17. Radiation protection type testing and licensing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschner, P.; Poulheim, K.F.; Feldheim, W.

    1987-01-01

    The results of more than 10 years experience in type testing and type licensing of diagnostic X-ray equipment with respect to meeting radiation protection requirements as well as the implications for the conduct of these procedures resulting from the introduction of new radiation protection legislation in 1983 and 1984, are described. At present an updated version of the 'Regulation of 16 December 1977 concerning radiation protection type testing and licensing of sealed radiation sources and equipment emitting ionizing radiation' is being prepared. (author)

  18. Children's exposure to diagnostic medical radiation and cancer risk: epidemiologic and dosimetric considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linet, Martha S.; Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kim, Kwang pyo [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kyung Hee University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children's postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies. Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, CT, and fluoroscopically guided procedures. (orig.)

  19. Children's exposure to diagnostic medical radiation and cancer risk: epidemiologic and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, Martha S.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Kim, Kwang pyo

    2009-01-01

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children's postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies. Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, CT, and fluoroscopically guided procedures. (orig.)

  20. Radiation Protection Education in Diagnostic Radiology in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotelo, E.; Paolini, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Uruguay the lack of Radiation Protection (RP) laws makes education in medical use of ionizing radiations at University, a decisive factor of changes. The six years experience in teaching technicians, radiologists, interventional cardiologists and anesthetists in curricular lectures, continuing education courses and workshops, show the importance of a close link between educators and occupationally exposed professionals. Regarding training and education in the optimization of the procedures, it is essential that both teacher and student comprehend the exact meaning of ALARA concept. This implies that although the educator is the one who manages the physical basis of RP, the student is who teaches the educator about the procedures. This turns RP education into a dynamic process in which at the same time, both educator and student learn and teach. After the theoretical lectures, it is essential that students show their ability in applying the acquired knowledge in their everyday practice. Last nut not least, in order to fulfill the first RP principle,all medicine students need to be educated in RP and quality image criteria before the get their medical doctor degree. Our experience shows that RP education in diagnostic radiology requires an expert with both medical physics and Image technology knowledge that allow an approach to students work, language and everyday problems. Despite the fact that the main result of the Education Program is the way professionals improve their practice, another consequence was that the Regulatory Authority of the country called the teacher team to coordinate the first RP national course. (Author) 14 refs

  1. Radiologist and angiographic procedures. Absorbed radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryhus, M.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Kelsey, C.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation dose absorbed by the angiographer during angiographic procedures is of vital importance to the radiologist. Nevertheless, most articles on the subject are incomplete, and few measure gonadal dose. In this study, three TLDs were used for each of the following sites: radiologist's eyes, thyroid, gonads with and without shielding apron, and hands. The average dose during carotid angiograms was 2.6, 4.1, 0.4, 4.7, and 7.1 mrads to the eyes, thyroid, gonads with and without .5 mm of lead shielding, and hands, respectively. Average dose during abdominal and peripheral vascular angiographic procedures was 5.2, 7.5, 1.2, 8.5, and 39.9 mrads to the eyes, thyroid, gonads with and without shielding, and hands, respectively. A literature review demonstrates a significant reduction in radiation dose to the angiographer after the advent of automated injectors. Our measured doses for carotid angiography are compatible with contemporary reported values. There was poor correlation with fluoroscopy time and measured dose to the angiographer

  2. Digital image intensifier radiography: A new diagnostic procedure in traumatology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.; Deininger, H.K.; Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt

    1990-01-01

    Digital image intensifier radiography visualises all traumatological changes of clinical relevance and can therefore be used in traumatology. However, the quality of conventional radiographs cannot be attained as yet. Radiation exposure is markedly reduced, and radiographs are obtained directly after exposure, so that this is an extremely rapid radiographic procedure. Images can be quickly transmitted by video cable to the relevant departments and working places. (orig.) [de

  3. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Ase K; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Wengel, Christina M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible...... of pregnancy diagnoses to the National Patient Registry differed widely in training. For complicated pregnancies, departments ranged from having only specialists reporting all cases to secretaries reporting up to 50%. Cut off limits of blood pressure (BP) and protein loss used to diagnose pre-eclampsia showed...... large differences across departments. The diagnoses given to three case stories showed little correlation to the criteria the departments reported using. CONCLUSION: Even in a small country like Denmark with 34 obstetrical departments, there was little consensus on the diagnostic criteria for pre-eclampsia...

  4. Radiation doses in endoscopic interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Paraskeva, K.; Mathou, N.; Aggelogiannopoulou, P.; Triantopoulou, C.; Karagianis, J.; Giannakopoulos, A.; Paspatis, G.; Voudoukis, E.; Athanasopoulos, N.; Lydakis, I.; Scotiniotis, H.; Georgopoulos, P.; Finou, P.; Kadiloru, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Extensive literature exists on patient radiation doses in various interventional procedures. This does not stand for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) where the literature is very limited. This study compares patient dose during ERCP procedures performed with different types of X-ray systems. Methods and Materials: Four hospitals participated in the study with the following X-ray systems: A) X-ray conventional system (X-ray tube over table), 137 pts, B) X-ray conventional system (X-ray tube under table), 114 pts, C) C-arm system, 79 pts, and D) angiography system, 57 pts. A single experienced endoscopist performed the ERCP in each hospital. Kerma Area Product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (T) and total number of X-ray films (F) were collected. Results: Median patient dose was 6.2 Gy.cm 2 (0.02-130.2 Gy.cm 2 ). Medium linear correlation between KAP and T (0.6) and F (0.4) were observed. Patient doses were 33 % higher than the reference value in UK (4.15 Gy.cm 2 with a sample of 6089 patients). Median KAP for each hospital was: A) 3.1, B) 9.2, C) 3.9 and D) 6.2 Gy.cm 2 . Median T was: A) 2.6, B) 4.1, C) 2.8 and D) 3.4 min. Median F was: A) 2, B) 7, C) 2 and D) 2 films. Conclusion: Patient radiation dose during ERCP depends on: a) fluoroscopy time and films taken, b) the type of the X-ray system used, with the C arm and the conventional over the couch systems carrying the lower patient radiation dose and the angiography system the higher. (authors)

  5. Current diagnostic procedures for diagnosing vertigo and dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Leif Erik

    2017-01-01

    Vertigo is a multisensory syndrome that otolaryngologists are confronted with every day. With regard to the complex functions of the sense of orientation, vertigo is considered today as a disorder of the sense of direction, a disturbed spatial perception of the body. Beside the frequent classical syndromes for which vertigo is the leading symptom (e.g. positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Menière’s disease), vertigo may occur as main or accompanying symptom of a multitude of ENT-related diseases involving the inner ear. It also concerns for example acute and chronic viral or bacterial infections of the ear with serous or bacterial labyrinthitis, disorders due to injury (e.g. barotrauma, fracture of the oto-base, contusion of the labyrinth), chronic-inflammatory bone processes as well as inner ear affections in the perioperative course. In the last years, diagnostics of vertigo have experienced a paradigm shift due to new diagnostic possibilities. In the diagnostics of emergency cases, peripheral and central disorders of vertigo (acute vestibular syndrome) may be differentiated with simple algorithms. The introduction of modern vestibular test procedures (video head impulse test, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials) in the clinical practice led to new diagnostic options that for the first time allow a complex objective assessment of all components of the vestibular organ with relatively low effort. Combined with established methods, a frequency-specific assessment of the function of vestibular reflexes is possible. New classifications allow a clinically better differentiation of vertigo syndromes. Modern radiological procedures such as for example intratympanic gadolinium application for Menière’s disease with visualization of an endolymphatic hydrops also influence current medical standards. Recent methodical developments significantly contributed to the possibilities that nowadays vertigo can be better and more quickly clarified in particular in

  6. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Şimşek

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. Results: The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both. Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%. Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%. Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%. Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%. Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%; bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%; fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%; and BAL, in 2 (11.1%. Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7% of the 18 cases evaluated. Conclusions: In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB.

  7. [Evaluation of quality of HIV diagnostic procedures in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parczewski, Miłosz; Madaliński, Kazimierz; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was quality assessment of HIV diagnostic procedures in Poland, including human and technical resources as well as laboratory practice. Sixty questionnaires were distributed among diagnostic centers to obtain qualitative data. Basing on the survey data serological control using coded panels of HIV-1/2 samples was performed. Thirty-one filled questionnaires were received (50.8%). Surveyed laboratories perform from 350 to 5500 serological screening tests per year. In most of laboratories fourth generation assays are available, while Blood Donation Centers screen the blood both with serological assays and by HIV-RNA detection. Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations and academic laboratories hold the ISO/IEC 17025 or IS0 9001:2001 accreditation, five of the surveyed centers participate in Labquality assurance and two in Quality Control in Molecular Diagnostics programs. Data of control serological testing were received from 21 centers. In the quality control assessment 194 analyses were performed with 91 true negative, 2 false negative, 96 true positive and 5 false positive results. False negative rate of % and false positive rate of 5.2% was noted for this study. Currently, virtually no guidelines related to the HIV-diagnostics quality assurance and control in Poland are in delineated. Development of the national unified quality control system, basing on the central institution is highly desirable. National certification within the frames of the quality control and assurance program should be mandatory for all the diagnostic labs, and aim at improvement of reliability of the result distributed among clinicians and patients.

  8. Radiation risk to patients from nuclear medicine procedures in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, O.; Montalván, A.; Barreras, A.; Hernández, J.

    2015-01-01

    Man-made radiation exposure to the Cuban population predominantly results from the medical use of ionizing radiation. It was therefore the aim of the present study, to provide public health information concerning diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures carried out in Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila provinces between 2000 and 2005. Population radiation dose estimation due to administration of radiopharmaceuticals in Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila provinces was carried out using Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme (MIRD). Data were gathered on the type of radiopharmaceuticals used, the administered activity, the numbers of each kind of examination, and the age and sex of the patients involved during the period 2000 – 2005. The average annual frequency of examinations was estimated to be 3.34 per 1000 population. The results show that imaging nuclear medicine techniques of thyroid and bone explorations with 13.3 and 12.9%, respectively and iodide uptake with 50% are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose which averaged 95 man⋅Sv for the studied period. Radiation risks for the Camagüey-Ciego de Avila population caused by nuclear medicine examinations in the period studied were calculated: the total number of fatal and non-fatal cancers was 34.2 and the number of serious hereditary disturbance was 7.4 as a result of 24139 nuclear medicine procedures, corresponding a total detriment of 1.72 per 1000 examination. (authors)

  9. Diagnostic reference activities for nuclear medicine procedures in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.C.; Towson, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In July 1998 a survey of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Australia and New Zealand was undertaken on behalf of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine (ANZSNM) and the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) in order to establish diagnostic reference activities. A total of 96 responses were received representing 154 practices, comprising 45 public hospital departments, 21 private hospital departments, 87 private practices and 1 unspecified practice. The survey requested the usual activities administered for a standard adult, the method used to determine the activity for children and the minimum activities used for paediatric patients. Data was obtained for 80 different imaging procedures and for 17 non-imaging tracer studies. For those procedures for which information was available from 10 or more practices, 68 in total, the reference activity was calculated as the 75th percentile of the distribution of activities. The Most Common Activity, the Reference Activity, together with the effective dose in both male and female patients, is tabulated for all these procedures. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  10. Characterization of radiation qualities used in diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Zahili, M.; Al Ahmad, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to adjust the radiation beams emitted from X-ray tubes installed at the National Radiation Metrology Laboratory in the field of diagnostic radiology (radiology and mammography) according to the IAEA protocol code number TRS 457, the second goal of this study is to establish various radiation qualities used fordiagnostic radiology applications: RQR, RQA and RQT and the radiation qualities related to mammography applications: RQA-M and RQR-M (author).

  11. The simple analytical method for scattered radiation calculation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    In realization of radiation protection measures for medical staff present during diagnostic procedures, the necessary condition is knowledge of the space - energy distributions of the scattered radiation from the patient. In this paper, the simple calculation procedure for the scattered radiation field of the actual diagnostic energies is presented. Starting from the single Compton scattering model and using the justified transformations the final equations in elementary form are derived. For numerical calculations the computer code ANGIO was created. The calculated results were confirmed by detailed dosimetric measurements of the scattered field around patient (the water phantom) in SSDL in the Institute of nuclear sciences `Vinca`, Belgrade. These results are good base for assessment of irradiation. The main irradiation source for the physician and the other members of the medical team is the back scattered radiation from patient - albedo. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  12. Development of ITER diagnostics: Neutronic analysis and radiation hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukolov, Konstantin, E-mail: vukolov_KY@nrcki.ru; Borisov, Andrey; Deryabina, Natalya; Orlovskiy, Ilya

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Problems of ITER diagnostics caused by neutron radiation from hot DT plasma considered. • Careful neutronic analysis is necessary for ITER diagnostics development. • Effective nuclear shielding for ITER diagnostics in the 11th equatorial port plug proposed. • Requirements for study of radiation hardness of diagnostic elements defined. • Results of optical glasses irradiation tests in a fission reactor given. - Abstract: The paper is dedicated to the problems of ITER diagnostics caused by effects of radiation from hot DT plasma. An effective nuclear shielding must be arranged in diagnostic port plugs to meet the nuclear safety requirements and to provide reliable operation of the diagnostics. This task can be solved with the help of neutronic analysis of the diagnostics environment within the port plugs at the design stage. Problems of neutronic calculations are demonstrated for the 11th equatorial port plug. The numerical simulation includes the calculations of neutron fluxes in the port-plug and in the interspace. Options for nuclear shielding, such as tungsten collimator, boron carbide and water moderators, stainless steel and lead screens are considered. Data on neutron fluxes along diagnostic labyrinths allow to define radiation hardness requirements for the diagnostic components and to specify their materials. Options for windows and lenses materials for optical diagnostics are described. The results of irradiation of flint and silica glasses in nuclear reactor have shown that silica KU-1 and KS-4V retain transparency in visible range after neutron fluence of 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. Flints required for achromatic objectives have much less radiation hardness about 5 × 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.

  13. Patient radiation dose during mammography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Swsan Awd Elkriem

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the patient dose in term of mean glandular dose and assist in optimization of radiation protection in mammographic procedures in Sudan. A total number of 107 patients were included. Four mammographic units were participated. Only one center was using automatic exposure control (AEC). The mean doses in (mGy) for the CC projection were 3.13, 1.24, 2.45 and 0.98 and for the MLO projection was 2.13, 1.26, 1.99 and 1.02 for centers A, B, C, and D, respectively. The total mean dose per breast from both projections was 5.26, 2.50, 4.44 and 1.99 mGy for centers A, B, C and D, respectively. The minimum mean glandular dose was found between the digital system which was operated under AEC and one of the manual selected exposure factors systems, this highlight possible optimization of radiation protection in the other manual selected systems. The kilo volt and the tube current time products should be selected correctly according to the breast thickness in both centers A and C. (author)

  14. Developing diagnostic guidelines for the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kindler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic guidelines seem to be promising for improving medical care. One aspect of a diagnostic guideline for the acute radiation syndrome has been tested against an extensive case history database. Subsequently, the guideline has been optimized for a small set of case histories. The improved performance has been proven by a test against the rest of the case history database

  15. Diagnostic radiation and its prognosis of pineal region tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Aoki, Yukimasa; Akanuma, Atsuo; Machida, Tohru; Iio, Masahiro; Takakura, Kimitomo

    1984-01-01

    20 Gy of local irradiation was performed for the patients with pineal region tumor. We evaluated the tumor volume on X-CT in the pre-radiation and 20 Gy of post-radiation state. If tumor is sensitive enough to radiation therapy, we add 40 Gy of whole brain and 30 to 40 Gy of whole spine irradiation. If not, we transfer patients to neurosurgeons for the purpose of tumor ressection. We call this procedure ''Diagnostic Radiation.'' We proposed the concept of TRR (Tumor Regression Ratio) in order to evaluate our protocol more objctively. TRR is as follows: TRR (%) = [1-Total Tumor Volume (at each dose) / Total Tumor Volume (at o Gy)] x 100 (%) Total Tumor Volume(mm 3 ) = slice thickness(mm) x siguma HDA (mm 2 ) on each slice: where HDA is high density area on enhanced CT. Eleven patients were studied and TRR of each patients was calculated. The relations between TRR, tumor markers, CSF seeding and prognoiss was discussed. From our study, (1) TRR at 20Gy was important and might predict approximate prognosis of each cae case. A) TRR = 100 → very good B) TRR < 20 → poor C) 20 <= TRR < 100 → high possibility (2) Majority of TRR < 100 cases have turned out to be histologically in teratoma category. (3) Good correlation between the level of tumor markers and prognosis was observed. Cases with elevated level of AFP and/or HCG were radio- resistant and had poor prognosis. (4) Distant metastasis must also be kept in mind in the treatment of pineal region tumor. (author)

  16. Prenatal diagnosis--principles of diagnostic procedures and genetic counseling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Slezak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of inherited malformations as well as genetic disorders in newborns account for around 3-5%. These frequency is much higher in early stages of pregnancy, because serious malformations and genetic disorders usually lead to spontaneous abortion. Prenatal diagnosis allowed identification of malformations and/or some genetic syndromes in fetuses during the first trimester of pregnancy. Thereafter, taking into account the severity of the disorders the decision should be taken in regard of subsequent course of the pregnancy taking into account a possibilities of treatment, parent's acceptation of a handicapped child but also, in some cases the possibility of termination of the pregnancy. In prenatal testing, both screening and diagnostic procedures are included. Screening procedures such as first and second trimester biochemical and/or ultrasound screening, first trimester combined ultrasound/biochemical screening and integrated screening should be widely offered to pregnant women. However, interpretation of screening results requires awareness of both sensitivity and predictive value of these procedures. In prenatal diagnosis ultrasound/MRI searching as well as genetic procedures are offered to pregnant women. A variety of approaches for genetic prenatal analyses are now available, including preimplantation diagnosis, chorion villi sampling, amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling as well as promising experimental procedures (e.g. fetal cell and DNA isolation from maternal blood. An incredible progress in genetic methods opened new possibilities for valuable genetic diagnosis. Although karyotyping is widely accepted as golden standard, the discussion is ongoing throughout Europe concerning shifting to new genetic techniques which allow obtaining rapid results in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy (e.g. RAPID-FISH, MLPA, quantitative PCR.

  17. Radiation safety and quality control assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.

    1998-03-01

    The report is based on a seminar course of lectures 'Radiation safety and quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998' organized by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland. The lectures included actual information on X-ray examinations: methods of quality assurance, methods of measuring and calculating patient doses, examination frequencies, patient doses, occupational doses, and radiation risks. Paediatric X-ray examinations and interventional procedures were the most specific topics. The new Council Directive 97/43/Euratom on medical exposure, and the European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images, were discussed in several lectures. Lectures on general radiation threats and preparedness, examples of radiation accidents, and emergency preparedness in hospitals were also included. (editor)

  18. Pediatric radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshandar Asli, I.; Tabeie, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide survey to estimate population exposure to radiation from diagnostic nuclear medicine in Iran, this paper presents the pediatric population radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine examinations in Tehran. Patients and methods: the effective dose equivalent, H E , was used to calculate the collective effective dose in pediatric patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures, and the corresponding data were obtained from thirty out of thirty seven active nuclear medicine departments in Tehran. Results: annually about 5.26% of nuclear medicine examinations were performed on patients under 15 years of age in Tehran. The most frequent was renal examinations (38.2%), followed y thyroid (27.4%) and bone (26.7%). The annual collective H E for patients under 15 was 19.03 human-Sv, which contributed 3.96% to the collective H E for all patients. The contribution of renal, bone and thyroid examinations to the pediatric collective H E were 24.6% 48.8% and 13.5% respectively. The mean effective dose equivalent per pediatric patient was 3.75 mSv.Conclusion: Among the three most frequent examinations, the bone with a relative frequency of 27.4% constituted 48.8% of the collective H E , which was the highest absorbed dose per examination. The mean effective dose per examination for patients younger than 15 years was 67.9% of the adults

  19. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging among patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-03-01

    There are concerns about levels of radiation exposure among patients who undergo diagnostic imaging for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared with other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We quantified imaging studies and estimated the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation received by patients with organic and functional GI disorders. We also identified factors and diagnoses associated with high CEDs.

  20. Radiation safety requirements for training of users of diagnostic X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the aim of requirements regarding the use and ownership of diagnostic medical X-ray equipment is to limit radiation by abiding by the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle. The ignorance of radiographers with regard to radiation safety requirements, however, is currently a cause of ...

  1. Radiation protection calculations for diagnostic medical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueter, R.

    1992-01-01

    The standards DIN 6812 and DIN 6844 define the radiation protection requirements to be met by biomedical radiography equipment or systems for nuclear medicine. The paper explains the use of a specific computer program for radiation protection calculations. The program offers menu-controlled calculation, with free choice of the relevant nuclides. (DG) [de

  2. Transition radiation electron beam diagnostic study at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, X.Z.; Wang, X.J.; Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have started a program to develop transition radiation based electron beam diagnostics at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss a technique to estimate the lower limit in electron beam divergence measurement with single foil transition radiation and two-foil transition radiation interferometer. Preliminary experimental data from 4.5 MeV electron beam will be presented

  3. Usefulness of non-lead aprons in radiation protection for physicians performing interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuguchi, M.; Chida, K.; Taura, M.; Inaba, Y.; Ebata, A.; Yamada, S.

    2008-01-01

    At present, interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures (long radiation duration), and physicians are near to the source of scattered radiation. Hence, shielding is critical in protecting physicians from radiation. Protective aprons and additional lead-shielding devices, such as table-side lead drapes, are important means of protecting the physician from scattered radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether non-lead aprons are effective in protecting physicians from radiation during IVR procedures. In this study, the radiation protection effects of commercially available protective lead and non-lead aprons, when exposed to diagnostic X rays, are compared. The performance of these non-lead and lead aprons was similar for scattered X rays at tube voltages of 60-120 kV. Properly designed non-lead aprons are thus more suitable for physicians because they weigh ∼20% less than the lead aprons, and are non-toxic. (authors)

  4. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... for diagnostic testing. (b) The authorized laboratory must identify each egg as to the breeding flock...

  5. Fast infrared detectors for beam diagnostics with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, A.; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.; Drago, A.; Piccinini, M.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; De Sio, A.; Sali, D.; Morini, P.; Piotrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Beam diagnostic is a fundamental constituent of any particle accelerators either dedicated to high-energy physics or to synchrotron radiation experiments. All storage rings emit radiations. Actually they are high brilliant sources of radiation: the synchrotron radiation emission covers from the infrared range to the X-ray domain with a pulsed structure depending on the temporal characteristics of the stored beam. The time structure of the emitted radiation is extremely useful as a tool to perform time-resolved experiments. However, this radiation can be also used for beam diagnostic to determine the beam stability and to measure the dimensions of the e - or e + beam. Because of the temporal structure of the synchrotron radiation to perform diagnostic, we need very fast detectors. Indeed, the detectors required for the diagnostics of the stored particle bunches at third generation synchrotron radiation sources and FEL need response times in the sub-ns and even ps range. To resolve the bunch length and detect bunch instabilities, X-ray and visible photon detectors may be used achieving response times of a few picoseconds. Recently, photon uncooled infrared devices optimized for the mid-IR range realized with HgCdTe semiconductors allowed to obtain sub-nanosecond response times. These devices can be used for fast detection of intense IRSR sources and for beam diagnostic. We present here preliminary experimental data of the pulsed synchrotron radiation emission of DAΦNE, the electron positron collider of the LNF laboratory of the INFN, performed with new uncooled IR detectors with a time resolution of a few hundreds of picoseconds

  6. Diagnostic radiation exposure in pediatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Marissa A; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Nabaweesi, Rosemary; Locke, Paul; Ziegfeld, Susan; Brown, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The amount of imaging studies performed for disease diagnosis has been rapidly increasing. We examined the amount of radiation exposure that pediatric trauma patients receive because they are an at-risk population. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trauma patients are exposed to high levels of radiation during a single hospital visit. Retrospective review of children who presented to Johns Hopkins Pediatric Trauma Center from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. Radiographic studies were recorded for each patient and doses were calculated to give a total effective dose of radiation. All radiographic studies that each child received during evaluation, including any associated hospital admission, were included. A total of 945 children were evaluated during the study year. A total of 719 children were included in the analysis. Mean age was 7.8 (±4.6) years. Four thousand six hundred three radiographic studies were performed; 1,457 were computed tomography (CT) studies (31.7%). Average radiation dose was 12.8 (±12) mSv. We found that while CT accounted for only 31.7% of the radiologic studies performed, it accounted for 91% of the total radiation dose. Mean dose for admitted children was 17.9 (±13.8) mSv. Mean dose for discharged children was 8.4 (±7.8) mSv (pcumulative radiation exposure can be high. In young children with relatively long life spans, the benefit of each imaging study and the cumulative radiation dose should be weighed against the long-term risks of increased exposure.

  7. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Libo; Luo Yunxiao; Wang Jianfeng; Chen Dawei; Cheng Guanghui; Jin Yuke

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Thyroid Diseases has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, this standard was enacted according to the relevant laws and regulations. It is mainly used for diagnosis of thyroid diseases caused by occupational radiation, and it also can serve as a guide to diagnose thyroid disease induced by medical radiation. To implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the radiation thyroid diseases patient correctly and timely, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  8. Attitudes of Kuwaiti public towards the radiation risks of nuclear medicine diagnositic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgazzar, AH; Al-Ghani, HE; Collier, BD; Al-Saeedi, F; Al-Shammari, J; Mahmoud, AM; Omar, A

    2004-01-01

    Public perception of radiation risks of diagnostic imaging procedures differs from that of professionals working in the field. The perception probably varies among societies and may vary within the same society. The objective of this study is to determine the public perception in Kuwait represented by patients referred for nuclear medicine diagnostic studies. With the assistance of Arabic speaking investigators, 239 patients (139 males and 100 females) with a mean age of 37 years (Range of 15 to 90 years) completed a questionnaire about their opinion of radiation fear from the nuclear medicine procedures as well as their education, income, ability to speak English and foreign travel experience. Radiation phobia was measured by asking the patient to to the statement 'Radiation from nuclear medicine examination is likely to harm my body' by one of 5 choices, 1 strongly agree, 2 somewhat agree, 3 uncertain, 4 somewhat disagree, 5 strongly disagree. Responses 1 and 2 were classified as radiation phobia. Pearson correlation coefficient and logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis. Forty four percent of patients had radiation phobia. Only education significantly correlated with radiation phobia. Income, ability to speak English, age, gender or travel experience did not show significant correlation. Our study indicates that radiation phobia is common and is probably widespread throughout the society. Patient education should emphasize radiation benefits and actual risks and include the entire community. (authors)

  9. Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation as a pulse length diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, Smith-Purcell radiation has been studied as a candidate for laser-type radiation production in the submillimeter regime. With appropriate choices of beam energy, impact parameter, and grating spacing, there is good coupling to strongly polarized, forward directed radiation. Another regime of possible interest is to use Smith-Purcell radiation as a pulse length diagnostic for medium to high energy electron beams of extremely short pulse duration, on the order of tens of femtoseconds to 1000 fs. Strongly in favor of development of such a diagnostic is its relatively non-destructive nature. With the electron beam passing near, but not through, a metal grating, reaction of the beam distribution itself to the production of the radiation is reduced relative to the much stronger scattering induced by passage through a foil. By careful choice of parameters usable diagnostic radiation ought to be produced with acceptably small emittance growth for an on-line beam monitor, even for the extremely bright electron beams proposed for X-ray FELs, Compton backscatter X-ray sources, or laser/plasma accelerator schemes. In this paper coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation is examined for reasonable operating parameters of the SATURNUS system at UCLA, with comparisons with results reported from the accelerator test facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. (orig.)

  10. Sphincter-saving procedure for radiation-injuried rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Yoshihiro; Koyama, Yasuo; Hojo, Keiichi

    1982-01-01

    Up to this time the sigmoid colostomy has been widely accepted and conventional treatment for radiation-injured rectum, but patients without residual malignancy strongly desire to live without colostomy. We have tried to remove the involved rectal segments by sphincter-saving procedures. Four patients underwent these procedures, pull-through procedure in three and low anterior resection in one. Among sphincter-saving procedures, pull-through procedure was most adequate. Provided the following five conditions are fulfilled, pull-through procedure should be considered for severe radiation-injured rectum. (1) No recurrence of initial malignancy in the pelvis. (2) More than 2 cm intact rectal segment above dentate line may be preserved. (3) No radiation-injured segment in upper sigmoid. (4) No severe radiation damage in small intestine. (5) Patients under 70 year-old, with normal tonus of anal sphincter. (author)

  11. Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1997-05-12

    The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime.

  12. Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime

  13. Medical radiation exposure and usage for diagnostic radiology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Rassiah, Premavathy; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Wang, Hwee-Beng; Shariff Hambali, Ahmad; Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany; Sivalingam, S.

    2001-01-01

    A national dose survey of routine X-ray examinations in Malaysia (a Level II country) from 1993 to 1995 had established baseline data for seven common types of x-ray examinations. A total of 12 randomly selected public hospitals and 867 patients were included in this survey. Survey results are generally comparable with those reported in the UK, USA and IAEA. The findings support the importance of the ongoing national quality assurance programme to ensure doses are kept to a level consistent with optimum image quality. The data was useful in the formulation of national guidance levels as recommended by the IAEA. The medical radiation exposure and usage for diagnostic radiology (1990-1994) enabled a comparison to be made for the first time with the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. In 1994, the number of physicians, radiologists, x-ray units and x-ray examinations per 1000 population was 0.45, 0.005, 0.065 and 183, respectively; 3.6 million x-ray examinations were performed; the annual effective dose per capita was 0.05 mSv and collective dose was 1000 person-Sv. Chest examinations contributed 63% of the total. Almost all examinations experienced increasing frequency except for barium studies, cholecystography, and intravenous urography (-23%, -36%, -51%). Notable increases were observed in computed tomography (161%), cardiac procedures (190%), and mammography (240%). (author)

  14. Plasma diagnostics using synchrotron radiation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Granata, G.

    1995-09-01

    This report deal with the use of synchrotron radiation in tokamaks. The main advantage of this new method is that it enables to overcome several deficiencies, caused by cut-off, refraction, and harmonic overlap. It also makes it possible to enhance the informative contents of the familiar low harmonic scheme. The basic theory of the method is presented and illustrated by numerical applications, for plasma parameters of relevance in present and next step tokamaks. (TEC). 10 refs., 13 figs

  15. Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.

    2008-01-01

    The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of P rad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to P rad determined using resistive bolometers.

  16. Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.

    2008-10-01

    The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of Prad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to Prad determined using resistive bolometers.

  17. Counseling Patients Exposed to Ionizing Radiation in Diagnostic Radiology During Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brnic, Z.; Leder, N.I.; Popic Ramac, J.; Vidjak, V.; Knezevic, Z.

    2013-01-01

    There are many false assumptions regarding influence of radiation on pregnant patients and fetus during diagnostic procedures in spite of scientific facts based on studies (both in general population and among physicians). These false assumptions are mostly based on the idea that every diagnostic procedure that uses ionizing radiation is a cause for serious concern and consideration for artificial abortion as a possible solution. We have analysed the data of counselling of pregnant patients exposed to ionizing radiation during diagnostic procedures in University Hospital Merkur, during a period of four years. In this period we had 26 patients come in counselling due to exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy. Results show that most of these patients have been exposed to radiation between 2nd and 3rd week of gestation (36 %), between 4th and 5th week - 32 %; before 2nd week - 24%; and after 6th week of gestation less than 8 %. Average doses were: up to 0.01 cGy in 46.2 % patients; 0.01 - 0.15 cGy in 19.2 % patients; 0.2 - 1 cGy in 26.9 % and 1 cGy or more in 7.7 % of patients. No one of the counselled patients had a medical indication for abortion, even though in a small percentage of patients abortion was a personal subjective decision. Considering that there are no Croatian guidelines for counselling patients exposed to ionizing radiation during pregnancy, recommendation is to use International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidelines for management of pregnant patients exposed to ionizing radiation.(author)

  18. [Radiation protection in medical research : Licensing requirement for the use of radiation and advice for the application procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, V; Klammer, H; Brix, G

    2017-07-01

    In Germany, persons who are to be exposed to radiation for medical research purposes are protected by a licensing requirement. However, there are considerable uncertainties on the part of the applicants as to whether licensing by the competent Federal Office for Radiation Protection is necessary, and regarding the choice of application procedure. The article provides explanatory notes and practical assistance for applicants and an outlook on the forthcoming new regulations concerning the law on radiation protection of persons in the field of medical research. Questions and typical mistakes in the application process were identified and evaluated. The qualified physicians involved in a study are responsible for deciding whether a license is required for the intended application of radiation. The decision can be guided by answering the key question whether the study participants would undergo the same exposures regarding type and extent if they had not taken part in the study. When physicians are still unsure about their decision, they can seek the advisory service provided by the professional medical societies. Certain groups of people are particularly protected through the prohibition or restriction of radiation exposure. A simplified licensing procedure is used for a proportion of diagnostic procedures involving radiation when all related requirements are met; otherwise, the regular licensing procedure should be used. The new radiation protection law, which will enter into force on the 31st of december 2018, provides a notification procedure in addition to deadlines for both the notification and the licensing procedures. In the article, the authors consider how eligible studies involving applications of radiation that are legally not admissible at present may be feasible in the future, while still ensuring a high protection level for study participants.

  19. The design of diagnostic medical facilities using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This Code, setting out the general principles of radiological protection as applied to diagnostic radiation facilities in hospitals and clinics, is intended as a guide to architects and to works departments concerned with their design and construction, and with the modification of existing units

  20. Radiation protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Ziliukas, J.

    2001-01-01

    The situation in control of exposure due to general diagnostic radiological examinations in Lithuania is described. Experience in creation of legal basis for radiation protection, results of measurements of patients' doses and quality control tests of x-ray units are given. The main problems encountered in implementation of international recommendations and requirements of European Medical Exposure Directive are discussed. (author)

  1. Internal radiation dose in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedler, H D; Kaul, A; Hine, G J

    1978-01-01

    Absorbed dose values per unit administered activity for the most frequently used radipharmaceuticals and methods were calculated according to the MIRD concept or compiled from literature and were tabulated in conventional as well as in the SI-units recently introduced. The data are given for critical or investigated organs, ovaries, testes and red bone marrow. Where available, dose values for newborns, infants and children are included. Additionally, mean values of administered activity are listed. The manner in which to estimate the radiation dose to the patient is to multiply the tabulated dose values per unit administered activity with the corresponding mean or the actually administered activity. The methods are arranged in correlation with the following nuclear medical subspecialities: 1. Endocrinology 2. Neurology, 3. Osteomyology, 4. Gastroenterology, 5. Nephrology, 6. Pulmonology, 7. Hematology, 8. Cardiology/Angiology.

  2. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy services (summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, J.

    1982-01-01

    In keeping with the mandate of the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-641) and its Amendments of 1979 (P.L. 96-79), the Radiation Services Planning Task Force of the Orange County Health Planning Council has developed a series of planning components. Each component consists of a technical description and extensive analyses of the separate services compiled from a local survey as well as data obtained from state sources. This report provides an overview as well as a brief description and analyses of each service. Most reference citations are included only in the individual service components. Goals, policy statements, and suggested recommendations are included in each section. The appendices include tables, glossary, selected references, and pertinent documents

  3. Synchrotron radiation from magnetic undulators as a prospective diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.; Ginnessi, L.

    1989-01-01

    The brightness of the radiation emitted by an ultrarelativistic e-beam passing through a magnetic undulator is sensitive to the beam quality (namely, energy spread and emittances) and to the undulator characteristics (i.e., possible random errors both in intensity and direction of magnetization, etc.) The spectrum distortion induced by the above effects and the possibility of using the undulator radiation as a diagnostic tool is discussed. Finally the importance of near-field effects when the radiation is detectedunfocussed off-axis and how they can combine with the effects induced by the beam emittances to produced a larger on-axis inhomogeneous broadening

  4. Revised radiation emergency procedures at Pakistan research reactor PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orfi, S.D.; Javed, M.; Ahmad, S.; Akhtar, K.M.; Mubarak, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Necessary procedures have been laid down in this report to meet the radiation emergency at Pakistan Research Reactor PINSTECH. The Nuclear Safety Committee PINSTECH (NSCP) had also recommended a number of improvements in the existing procedures. Revision of the procedures was also considered necessary to incorporate into it new radiation units/limits and new emergency equipment available. Radiation emergency preparedness programme is of continuous nature. Latest developments else-where and local experience contribute to the improvement of the existing arrangements under this programme. (A.B.)

  5. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Abdullah; Yapıcı, İlhami; Babalık, Mesiha; Şimşek, Zekiye; Kolsuz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both). Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%). Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%). Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF) was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%). Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%). Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%); bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%); fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%); and BAL, in 2 (11.1%). Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7%) of the 18 cases evaluated. In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB. Determinar a distribuição proporcional dos subtipos de tuberculose endobrônquica (TBEB) e avaliar os tipos de procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos que podem revelar inflamação granulomatosa. Este foi um estudo retrospectivo com 18 pacientes HIV negativos com TBEB comprovada

  6. Radiation protection for the parent and child in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mountford, P.J. (Kent and Canterbury Hospital (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1991-12-01

    Administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a parent or child for diagnostic purposes will result in certain specific radiation hazards, yet it can yield information vital to patient management. These hazards have been cited as a reason for the reluctance of some referring clinicians and, indeed, nuclear medicine practitioners to exploit paediatric radiopharmaceutical investigations (Piepsz et al. 1991). Ignorance of these hazards has the following consequences. Firstly, a valuable diagnostic procedure could be denied to a parent or child patient without justification, thereby compromising their management. Secondly, inappropriate recommendations could result in either excessive restrictions or an unnecessarily high radiation dose to a patient's family and to hospital staff. All members of a nuclear medicine service should be familiar with these radiation risks in order to provide appropriate guidance and to dispel any unwarranted fears. (orig.).

  7. Radiation protection for the parent and child in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a parent or child for diagnostic purposes will result in certain specific radiation hazards, yet it can yield information vital to patient management. These hazards have been cited as a reason for the reluctance of some referring clinicians and, indeed, nuclear medicine practitioners to exploit paediatric radiopharmaceutical investigations (Piepsz et al. 1991). Ignorance of these hazards has the following consequences. Firstly, a valuable diagnostic procedure could be denied to a parent or child patient without justification, thereby compromising their management. Secondly, inappropriate recommendations could result in either excessive restrictions or an unnecessarily high radiation dose to a patient's family and to hospital staff. All members of a nuclear medicine service should be familiar with these radiation risks in order to provide appropriate guidance and to dispel any unwarranted fears. (orig.)

  8. Occupational radiation doses among diagnostic radiation workers in South Korea, 1996-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. J.; Cha, E. S.; Ha, M.; Jin, Y. W.; Hwang, S. S.; Kong, K. A.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study details the distribution and trends of doses of occupational radiation among diagnostic radiation workers by using the national dose registry between 1996 and 2006 by the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Dose measurements were collected quarterly by the use of thermoluminescent dosemeter personal monitors. A total of 61 732 workers were monitored, including 18 376 radiologic technologists (30%), 13 762 physicians (22%), 9858 dentists (16%) and 6114 dental hygienists (9.9%). The average annual effective doses of all monitored workers decreased from 1.75 to 0.80 mSv over the study period. Among all diagnostic radiation workers, radiologic technologists received both the highest effective and collective doses. Male radiologic technologists aged 30-49 y composed the majority of workers receiving more than 5 mSv in a quarter. More intensive monitoring of occupational radiation exposure and investigation into its health effects on diagnostic radiation workers are required in South Korea. (authors)

  9. Audit of radiation dose during balloon mitral valvuloplasty procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Chandy, Sunil; Peace, B S Timothy; George, Paul; John, Bobby; Pati, Purendra

    2006-01-01

    Radiation doses to patients during cardiological procedures are of concern in the present day scenario. This study was intended to audit the radiation dose imparted to patients during the balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) procedure. Thirty seven patients who underwent the BMV procedure performed using two dedicated cardiovascular machines were included in the study. The radiation doses imparted to patients were measured using a dose area product (DAP) meter. The mean DAP value for patients who underwent the BMV procedure from one machine was 19.16 Gy cm 2 and from the other was 21.19 Gy cm 2 . Optimisation of exposure parameters and radiation doses was possible for one machine with the use of appropriate copper filters and optimised exposure parameters, and the mean DAP value after optimisation was 9.36 Gy cm 2

  10. Audit of radiation dose during balloon mitral valvuloplasty procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Chandy, Sunil [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Peace, B S Timothy [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); George, Paul [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); John, Bobby [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India); Pati, Purendra [Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, TN (India)

    2006-12-15

    Radiation doses to patients during cardiological procedures are of concern in the present day scenario. This study was intended to audit the radiation dose imparted to patients during the balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) procedure. Thirty seven patients who underwent the BMV procedure performed using two dedicated cardiovascular machines were included in the study. The radiation doses imparted to patients were measured using a dose area product (DAP) meter. The mean DAP value for patients who underwent the BMV procedure from one machine was 19.16 Gy cm{sup 2} and from the other was 21.19 Gy cm{sup 2}. Optimisation of exposure parameters and radiation doses was possible for one machine with the use of appropriate copper filters and optimised exposure parameters, and the mean DAP value after optimisation was 9.36 Gy cm{sup 2}.

  11. Radiation doses to patients in haemodynamic procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadillas-Perdomo, B; Catalan-Acosta, A; Hernandez-Armas, J [Servicio de Fisica Medica, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Perez-Martin, C [Servicio de Ingenieria Biomedica, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Armas-Trujillo, D de [Servicio de Cardiologia, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Interventional radio-cardiology gives high doses to patients due to high values of fluoroscopy times and large series of radiographic images. The main objective of the present work is the determination of de dose-area product (DAP) in patients of three different types of cardiology procedures with X-rays. The effective doses were estimated trough the organ doses values measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs-100), suitable calibrated, placed in a phantom type Rando which was submitted to the same radiological conditions corresponding to the procedures made on patients. The values for the effective doses in the procedures CAD Seldinger was 6.20 mSv on average and 1.85mSv for pacemaker implants. (author)

  12. Radiation doses to patients in haemodynamic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadillas-Perdomo, B.; Catalan-Acosta, A.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Perez-Martin, C.; Armas-Trujillo, D. de

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radio-cardiology gives high doses to patients due to high values of fluoroscopy times and large series of radiographic images. The main objective of the present work is the determination of de dose-area product (DAP) in patients of three different types of cardiology procedures with X-rays. The effective doses were estimated trough the organ doses values measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs-100), suitable calibrated, placed in a phantom type Rando which was submitted to the same radiological conditions corresponding to the procedures made on patients. The values for the effective doses in the procedures CAD Seldinger was 6.20 mSv on average and 1.85mSv for pacemaker implants. (author)

  13. Medical interventional procedures--reducing the radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, C. E-mail: claire.cousins@addenbrookes.nhs.uk; Sharp, C

    2004-06-01

    Over the last 40 years, the number of percutaneous interventional procedures using radiation has increased significantly, with many secondary care clinicians using fluoroscopically guided techniques. Many procedures can deliver high radiation doses to patients and staff, with the potential to cause immediate and delayed radiation effects. The challenge for interventionists is to maximize benefit, whilst minimizing radiation risk to patients and staff. Non-radiologist clinicians are often inadequately trained in radiation safety and radiobiology. However, clinical governance and legislation now requires a more rigorous approach to protecting patients and staff. Protection can be ensured, and risks can be controlled, by appropriate design, procurement and commissioning of equipment; quality assurance; and optimal operational technique, backed by audit. Interventionists need knowledge and skills to reduce the risks. Appropriate training should include awareness of the potential for radiation injury, equipment operational parameters, doses measurement and recording methods and dose reduction techniques. Clinical governance requires informed consent, appropriate patient counselling and follow-up.

  14. Medical interventional procedures--reducing the radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, C.; Sharp, C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, the number of percutaneous interventional procedures using radiation has increased significantly, with many secondary care clinicians using fluoroscopically guided techniques. Many procedures can deliver high radiation doses to patients and staff, with the potential to cause immediate and delayed radiation effects. The challenge for interventionists is to maximize benefit, whilst minimizing radiation risk to patients and staff. Non-radiologist clinicians are often inadequately trained in radiation safety and radiobiology. However, clinical governance and legislation now requires a more rigorous approach to protecting patients and staff. Protection can be ensured, and risks can be controlled, by appropriate design, procurement and commissioning of equipment; quality assurance; and optimal operational technique, backed by audit. Interventionists need knowledge and skills to reduce the risks. Appropriate training should include awareness of the potential for radiation injury, equipment operational parameters, doses measurement and recording methods and dose reduction techniques. Clinical governance requires informed consent, appropriate patient counselling and follow-up

  15. Radiation exposure of operator during various interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, In Kyu; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Wee Saing

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the levels of radiation exposure of an operator which may be influenced by the wearing an apron, type of procedure, duration of fluoroscopy and operator's skill during various interventional procedures. Radiation doses were measured both inside and outside the apron(0.5 mm lead equivalent) of the operator by a film badge monitoring method and the duration of fluoroscopy was measured in 96 procedures prospectively. The procedures were 30 transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), 25 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages (PTBD), 16 stone removals (SR), 15 percutaneous needle aspirations (PNCA) and 10 percutaneous nephrostomies(PCN). To assess the difference of exposure by the operator's skill, the procedures of TAE and PTBD were done separately by groups of staffs and residents. Average protective effect of the apron was 72.8%. Average radiation exposure(unit: μ Sv/procedure was 23.3 in PTBD by residents, 10.0 in PTBD by staffs, 10.0 in SR, 8.7 in TAE by residents, 7.3 in TAE by staffs, 9.0 in PCN and 6.0 in PCNA. Average radiation exposure of residents were 1.9 times greater than those of staffs. Radiation exposure was not proportionally related to the duration of fluoroscopy, but influenced by wearing an apron, various types of procedure and operator's skills

  16. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enriquez, Jesus G. Franco

    2004-01-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05

  17. Radiation hazards and protection of patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Y.C.; Haldar, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Biological radiation effects such as somatic certainty effects, somatic stochastic effects and genetic effects are described. Diagnostic radiology, therefore, involves risk to the patient in case of undesirable exposures and in particular to the fetus. Gonad doses in diagnostic radiology which may lead to genetic effects have been found to vary within a wide range. To avoid somatic certainty and to keep genetic effects to a minimum, some suggestions are enumerated. They deal with the choice of technique, proper positioning, use of calibrated equipment and use of techniques like xerography, ultrasonography, thermography etc. (M.G.B.)

  18. Evaluation of medical radiation exposure in pediatric interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Valeria Coelho Costa; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira; Oliveira, Aline da Silva Pacheco, E-mail: vccnavarro@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Maia, Ana Figueiredo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Adriano Dias Dourado [Sociedade Brasileira de Hemodinamica e Cardiologia Intervencionista, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate pediatric radiation exposure in procedures of interventional radiology in two hospitals in the Bahia state, aiming at contributing to delineate the scenario at the state and national levels. The knowledge of exposure levels will allow an evaluation of the necessity of doses optimization, considering that peculiarities of radiology and pediatrics become even more significant in interventional radiology procedures which involve exposure to higher radiation doses. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 procedures were evaluated in four rooms of the two main hospitals performing pediatric interventional radiology procedures in the Bahia state. Air kerma rate and kerma-area product were evaluated in 27 interventional cardiac and 5 interventional brain procedures. Results: Maximum values for air kerma rate and kerma-area product and air kerma obtained in cardiac procedures were, respectively, 129.9 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 947.0 mGy; and, for brain procedures were 83.3 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 961.0 mGy. Conclusion: The present study results showed exposure values up to 14 times higher than those found in other foreign studies, and approximating those found for procedures in adults. Such results demonstrate excessive exposure to radiation, indicating the need for constant procedures optimization and evaluation of exposure rates. (author)

  19. Towards the definition of Institutional diagnostic reference levels in paediatric interventional cardiology procedures in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottou, S; Kollaros, N; Plemmenos, C; Mastorakou, I; Apostolopoulou, S C; Tsapaki, V

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate paediatric radiation doses in a dedicated cardiology hospital, with the objective of characterising patterns in dose variation. The ultimate purpose was to define Local (Institutional) Diagnostic Reference Levels (LDRLs) for different types of paediatric cardiac interventional procedures (IC), according to patient age. From a total of 710 cases performed during three consecutive years, by operators with more than 15 years of experience, the age was noted in only 477 IC procedures. The median values obtained for Fluoroscopy Time (FT), Number of Frames (N) and Kerma Area Product (P KA ) by age range were 5.8 min, 1322 and 2.0 Gy.cm 2 for definition of LDRLs presents challenges mainly due to the multiple clinical and technical factors affecting the outcome. On the other hand the lack of paediatric IC DRLs makes the identification of good practices more difficult. A consensus is needed on IC procedures nomenclature and grouping in order to allow a common assessment and comparison of doses. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative cost analysis -- computed tomography vs. alternative diagnostic procedures, 1977-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gempel, P.A.; Harris, G.H.; Evans, R.G.

    1977-12-01

    In comparing the total national cost of utilizing computed tomography (CT) for medically indicated diagnoses with that of conventional x-ray, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, and exploratory surgery, this investigation concludes that there was little, if any, added net cost from CT use in 1977 or will there be in 1980. Computed tomography, generally recognized as a reliable and useful diagnostic modality, has the potential to reduce net costs provided that an optimal number of units can be made available to physicians and patients to achieve projected reductions in alternative procedures. This study examines the actual cost impact of CT on both cranial and body diagnostic procedures. For abdominal and mediastinal disorders, CT scanning is just beginning to emerge as a diagnostic modality. As such, clinical experience is somewhat limited and the authors assume that no significant reduction in conventional procedures took place in 1977. It is estimated that the approximately 375,000 CT body procedures performed in 1977 represent only a 5 percent cost increase over use of other diagnostic modalities. It is projected that 2,400,000 CT body procedures will be performed in 1980 and, depending on assumptions used, total body diagnostic costs will increase only slightly or be reduced. Thirty-one tables appear throughout the text presenting cost data broken down by types of diagnostic procedures used and projections by years. Appendixes present technical cost components for diagnostic procedures, the comparative efficacy of CT as revealed in abstracts of published literature, selected medical diagnoses, and references

  1. Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de

    2009-01-01

    Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131 I or 123 I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131 I, 67 Ga and 201 Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the radiation levels in different surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Santos, M.C.P. da; Almeida, A. de; Belluci, A.D.; Ghilardi Neto, T.

    1989-01-01

    The exposure of a medical team to radiation during surgical procedures evidently depends on the duration and difficulties of the particular procedure. We have made a dosimetric study of the average equivalent doses received by the surgical teams during 10 different surgical procedures over a period of one month. Our results demonstrate that the levels of ionizing radiation that the members of the teams receive typically do not surpass the limits stipulated for the following surgical procedures: nefrolithotomy, percutaneous ureterolithomy, ureteroscoy connected with removal of stones in the inferior third of the ureter, osteosynthesis of the tibial plateau together with a articular toalet and minireconstruction of the knee. For compound surgical procedures, for example, osteosynthesis of a femur fracture together with biopsy of an exposed femur or percutaneous nefrolithotomy (complex cases), the dose limits have been surpassed owing to the additional fluoroscopy needed in those p rocedures. (author) [pt

  3. A retrospective study of relevant diagnostic procedures in vulvodynia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Kristensen, Ellids; Lundvall, Lene

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify objective clinical signs of vulvodynia and determine specific diagnostic tests for vulvodynia in women referred to a vulvar outpatient clinic for vulval complaints. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed of the medical records of 201 consecutive Danish patients s...

  4. Inactivation and stability of viral diagnostic reagents treated by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, L.A.; Freeman, C.Y.; Hall, H.E.; Forrester, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the pertinent findings from gamma inactivation of virus infectivity to the production of high quality diagnostic reagents. A Gammacell 220 was used to subject 38 viruses grown in either susceptible tissue cultures or embryonated chicken eggs to various doses of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The radiation required to reduce viral infectivity was 0.42 to 3.7 megarads (Mrad). The effect of gamma treatment on the antigenic reactivity of reagents for the complement fixation (CF), hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminadase assays was determined. Influenza antigens inactivated with 1.7 Mrad displayed comparable potency, sensitivity, specificity and stability to those inactivated by standard procedures with beta-propiolactone (BPL). Significant inactivation of influenza N1 and B neuraminidase occurred with >2.4 Mrad radiation at temperatures above 4 0 C. All 38 viruses were inactivated, and CF or HA antigens were prepared successfully. Antigenic potency remained stable with all antigens for 3 years and with 83% after 5 years storage. Influenza HA antigens evaluated after 9 years of storage demonstrated 86% stability. Gamma radiation is safer than chemical inactivation procedures and is a reliable and effective replacement for BPL in preparing diagnostic reagents. (author)

  5. Inactivation and stability of viral diagnostic reagents treated by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, L A; Freeman, C Y; Hall, H E; Forrester, B D [Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the pertinent findings from gamma inactivation of virus infectivity to the production of high quality diagnostic reagents. A Gammacell 220 was used to subject 38 viruses grown in either susceptible tissue cultures or embryonated chicken eggs to various doses of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The radiation required to reduce viral infectivity was 0.42 to 3.7 megarads (Mrad). The effect of gamma treatment on the antigenic reactivity of reagents for the complement fixation (CF), hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminadase assays was determined. Influenza antigens inactivated with 1.7 Mrad displayed comparable potency, sensitivity, specificity and stability to those inactivated by standard procedures with beta-propiolactone (BPL). Significant inactivation of influenza N1 and B neuraminidase occurred with >2.4 Mrad radiation at temperatures above 4{sup 0}C. All 38 viruses were inactivated, and CF or HA antigens were prepared successfully. Antigenic potency remained stable with all antigens for 3 years and with 83% after 5 years storage. Influenza HA antigens evaluated after 9 years of storage demonstrated 86% stability. Gamma radiation is safer than chemical inactivation procedures and is a reliable and effective replacement for BPL in preparing diagnostic reagents. (author).

  6. Diagnostics of machine parts by means of reverse engineering procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rysinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an application of a three-dimensional scanner for building a special diagnostic stand is described. An experimental method of detection of material defects is discussed. The considered defects are connected with cooperation of particular surfaces of machine parts. In the discussed experiments, particularly the dimensions of pitting holes can be evaluated. Availability of laboratory facilities required that the investigations were performed using geared wheels. The three-dimensional model which represents a degenerated surface, obtained based upon the diagnostic measurements, was compared with the pattern of an undamaged surface. The latter was generated by means of our pre-processor. The pre-processor enables generation of files which are compatible with the majority of the computer-aided design system formats. Therefore, the analyses were performed by means of commercial system inventor and computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application.

  7. Review on patients radiation dose and frequency of procedures during medical exposure in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Baker, Samah Mohamed Nasr

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate patient dose, the annual frequency and the number of staff and devices in the medical applications of ionizing radiation in Sudan. Survey was conducted on diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. With respect to diagnostic radiology, only patient radiation dose was estimated. The data for diagnostic radiology was obtained from 24 peer reviewed scientific published literatures during the years ( 2006 - 2015). The collected publications included about 64 Sudanese hospitals covering different types of diagnostic exams. A values of the effective dose for pediatrics and adult patients were within the ranges of similar worldwide values published by UNSCEAR report in 2008 with exceptional to fluoroscopy hysterosalpingography for adult patients. For nuclear medicine procedures, questionnaires were distributed to five hospitals representing the whole existing NM department in Sudan at the time of of study. The estimated total annual frequency of diagnostic procedures was 0.2 per 1000 population. The estimated total annual collective and annual per caput effective dose from all NM procedures were 16.268 man Sv and 0.5 μSv, respectively. Comparing the annual per caput effective dose with UNSCEAR value our results was less than the worldwide value and greater than the value for heath care level 111-1 v countries. Questionnaires were also distributed to collect data on radiotherapy procedures performed in the two existing radioisotopes Sudanese hospitals. The prescribed dose and the number of fractions were comparable between the two hospitals. The minimum prescribed dose was 20 Gy with 5 fractions for nasopharynx (NPH) palliative and the maximum prescribed dose was 64 Gy with 32 fractions for prostate.(Author)

  8. D-T radiation effects on TFTR diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    For a 50%-50% deuterium-tritium plasma, the neutron production is 80x higher and the total energy release is 200x higher than the same plasma composed only of deuterium. With this increase in radiation, diagnostics which see only negligible amounts of noise during DD operation may find themselves overwhelmed during DT. The neutrons are not only more numerous, but have 6x as much energy, which causes the calculated 2.4x increase in the gamma flux per neutron near TFTR. We report here the effects of this increased radiation on the TFTR diagnostic set. The most noticeable effects are luminescence and transmission losses in fiber optic signal cables. In addition, a plastic fiber near the torus became unusably opaque after a few DT discharges. Silicon detectors show signs of neutron interactions as well as gamma response, and microchannel electron multipliers show an increased background due to the gamma flux. Bolometers show n and γ heating, and the Thomson scattering intensifier gate spark gap was unreliable until the gas pressure was adjusted. All of these effects were anticipated, and in some cases shielding or compensation techniques were used. Compensation fibers work satisfactorily at these radiation levels, and the rapid fall-off of the radiation as one moves away from the machine makes relocation of fibers and other sensitive components very useful. Conventional shielding designs worked when streaming through signal penetrations was properly dealt with. In coming DT campaigns and the generation of new tokamaks, such problems will be more severe. JET anticipates higher dose levels per shot during DT; TPX has 1000 s pulses and ITER presents a particularly difficult challenge. We shall discuss the implications of our results for diagnostics on these machines

  9. Effective doses and standardised risk factors from paediatric diagnostic medical radiation exposures: Information for radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    In the paediatric medical radiation setting, there is no consistency on the radiation risk information conveyed to the consumer (patient/carer). Each communicator may convey different information about the level of risk for the same radiation procedure, leaving the consumer confused and frustrated. There is a need to standardise risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. In this study, paediatric radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examination data have been analysed to provide (i) effective doses and radiation induced cancer risk factors from common radiological and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in standardised formats, (II) awareness of the difficulties that may be encountered in communicating risks to the layperson, and (iii) an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation so that the risk communicator can convey with confidence the risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. Paediatric patient dose data from general radiographic, computed tomography, fluoroscopic and nuclear medicine databases have been analysed in age groups 0 to <5 years, 5 to <10 years, 10 to <15 years and 15 to <18 years to determine standardised risk factors. Mean, minimum and maximum effective doses and the corresponding mean lifetime risks for general radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examinations for different age groups have been calculated. For all examinations, the mean lifetime cancer induction risk is provided in three formats: statistical, fraction and category. Standardised risk factors for different radiological and nuclear medicine examinations and an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation and the difficulties encountered in communicating the risks should facilitate risk communication to the patient/carer.

  10. Prenatal diagnostic procedures used in pregnancies with congenital malformations in 14 regions of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garne, E; Loane, M; de Vigan, C; Scarano, G; de Walle, H; Gillerot, Y; Stoll, C; Addor, MC; Stone, D; Gener, B; Feijoo, M; Mosquera-Tenreiro, C; Gatt, M; Queisser-Luft, A; Baena, N; Dolk, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate outcomes of ultrasound investigations (US) and invasive diagnostic procedures in cases of congenital malformations (CM), and to compare the use of invasive prenatal test techniques (amniocentesis (AC) versus chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) among European populations. Design

  11. Management of diagnostic x-ray radiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a simple, inexpensive, and effective method to prevent the scattering of x-ray radiation by using a lead apron in the x-ray rooms of developing countries. In developed countries, the scattering of x-ray radiation among patients and radiographers in diagnostic x-ray rooms has been minimized by various methods. However, in some developing countries, scattered x-ray radiation has not yet been adequately contained. The policy of As Law As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) requires that patients who are waiting for their examinations must be protected from scattered x-ray radiation. However, from the author's experience, protection from scattered x-ray radiation in x-ray rooms is often insufficient in developing countries. In addition, major public hospitals in big cities are overwhelmed with patients because radiology resources in developing countries are concentrated in the big cities. Moreover, the situation is made worse by short working hours in public hospitals. Hours from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. are typical. Because of the circumstances, radiographers, who are in a rush to finish all of the examinations within their normal working hours, sometimes allow patients to enter the x-ray rooms while they are waiting for their examinations. Chest and abdominal x-rays are the most common kinds of diagnostic x-ray examination in developing countries. Thus, in this study, anthropomorphic chest and abdominal phantoms were x-rayed for measuring the scattered x-ray radiation with and without protection using a 0.25mmPb lead apron at specific points from the anthropomorphic phantoms in the x-ray room. The lead apron was hung on a mobile apron-hanger and placed next to the anthropomorphic phantom. The scattered radiation dosimetry for chest x-rays proves that this simple method reduces scattered x-ray radiation to 15% at one-meter point and to almost 0% at the two-meter point from the anthropomorphic phantom in the x-ray room. Lead aprons are

  12. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ricardo Braz F. da; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2011-01-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  13. Sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to procedural factors in fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Pasciak, Alexander S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37922 (United States); Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The John P. and Katharine G. McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP), used to quantify the protective value of radioprotective garments, to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the shape of the scattered x-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios, including interventional radiology and interventional cardiology (IC). Two clinical simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size, while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size, and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy (E{sub avg}) was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affect the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effect on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in IC, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusions: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle.

  14. Assessment of patient radiation doses during routine diagnostic radiography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Asim Karam Aldden Adam

    2015-11-01

    Medical applications of radiation represent the largest source of exposure to general population. Accounting for 3.0 mSv against an estimated 2.4 mSv from a natural back ground in United States. The association of ionizing radiation an cancer risk is assumed to be continuos and graded over the entire range of exposure, The objective of this study is to evaluate the patient radiation doses in radiology departments in Khartoum state. A total of 840 patients ? during two in the following hospitals Khartoum Teaching Hospital (260 patients), Fedail specialized hospital ( 261 patients). National Ribat University hospital ( 189 patients) and Engaz hospital (130 patients). Patient doses were measured for 9 procedures. The Entrance surface Air Kerma (ESAK) was quantified using x-ray unit output by Unifiers xi dose rate meter( Un fore inc. Billdal. Sweden) and patient exposure parameters. The mean patient age. Weight and Body Mass index (BMI) were 42.6 year 58/4 kg and 212 kg/m respectively. The mean patient doses, kv and MAS and E.q was 0.35 mGy per procedures 59.9 volt 19.8 Ampere per second 0.32 Sv . Patient doses were comparable with previous studies. Patient radiation doses showed considerable difference between hospitals due to x- ray systems exposure settings and patient weight. Patient are exposed to unnecessary radiation.(Author)

  15. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L.S.R. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, C.C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amorim, A.S.; Balthar, M.C.V. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-03-21

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector’s materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  16. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

    2013-03-01

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  17. Efficacy of clinical diagnostic procedures utilized in nuclear medicine. Nine month progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the efficacy of nuclear medicine procedures in clinical practice. Several methods of determining efficacy will be evaluated to determine those most suitable. Nuclear medicine methods will be confined to the study of lung diseases by pulmonary perfusion and ventilation. In addition to evaluating the above methods data will be obtained to determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and efficiency of the test under consideration. These values, corrected for prevalence of the disease processes under consideration will then be compared to the values obtained by the MACRO and MICRO methods and will help to bound the clinical reliability of the diagnostic method depending on the degree to which the several methods trend together. Depending on the practicality of these two methods, in addition to the determination of efficacy, cost effectiveness factors and benefit-risk estimates which are used to apply to radiation effects will be determined for nuclear medicine studies of the brain, bone, heart, liver and thyroid subsequently. The measurement techniques will then be utilized to establish guidelines for the most useful applications of the given procedure so that clinicians will be able to obtain a pretest estimate of the utility of the nuclear medicine test.

  18. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, S.F.; Mueller, H.

    1984-01-01

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(μg/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  19. Galactography: the diagnostic procedure of choice for nipple discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, L.; Dean, P.B.; Pentek, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Galactogrpahy was performed in 204 women with a nipple discharge and the secretion confirmed histopathologically. All 116 intraductal tumors (papilloma, papillomatosis, carcinoma), which were associated with a serous or bloody discharge, were detected preoperatively. A palpable mass had little diagnostic significance, and exfoliative cytology was positive in only 11% (2/18) of the patients with carcinoma. The authors recommend that all patients with a spontaneous bloody or serous discharge from a single lactiferous orifice undergo galactography in addition to physical, cytological, and mammographic examination. Intraductal injection of methylene blue dye will demonstrate the affected duct system to the surgeon and can often make surgery less radical or even unnecessary

  20. Recommendations to improve radiation safety during invasive cardiovascular procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Patricia; Ubeda, Carlos; Vano, Eliseo; Nocetti, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present guidelines aimed to improve radiation safety during invasive cardiovascular procedures. Unwanted effects upon patients and medical personnel are conventionally classified. A program of Quality Assurance is proposed, an aspect of which is a program for radiologic protection, including operator protection, radiation monitoring, shielding and personnel training. Permanent and specific actions should be taken at every cardiovascular lab, before, during and after interventions. In order to implement these guidelines and actions, a fundamental step is a review of current legislation. Specific programs for quality control and radiologic protection along with a definition of acceptable radiation exposure doses are required

  1. Radiation protection in computerized tomography diagnostics; Strahlenschutz in der Computertomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grust, Andreas [Radiologie am Hauptbahnhof, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The essential advantage of computerized tomography (CT) compared to projecting radiographic techniques is the display of organs free of superposition using a 3D data set and additional enhanced contrast resolution. CT is a mostly objective and examination-independent technique that has developed towards an indispensable tool for tumor diagnostics and traumatology. With respect to the total amount of X-ray diagnostic examinations CT is a rather seldom used technique, nevertheless causing a disproportionately high amount of the collective effective dose of the German population. This disadvantage triggers the necessity to work on a radiation dose reduction. The author discusses the issues X-ray tube current reduction, layer thickness, pitch factor, scan length, dose modulation, adaptive collimation, and iterative reconstruction.

  2. Radiation safety and quality control assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laadunvarmistus roentgendiagnostiikassa 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A [ed.

    1998-03-01

    The report is based on a seminar course of lectures `Radiation safety and quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998` organized by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland. The lectures included actual information on X-ray examinations: methods of quality assurance, methods of measuring and calculating patient doses, examination frequencies, patient doses, occupational doses, and radiation risks. Paediatric X-ray examinations and interventional procedures were the most specific topics. The new Council Directive 97/43/Euratom on medical exposure, and the European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images, were discussed in several lectures. Lectures on general radiation threats and preparedness, examples of radiation accidents, and emergency preparedness in hospitals were also included. (editor)

  3. Reduction of doses from diagnostic X-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudden, F.; Kuhn, H.

    1992-01-01

    More recent developments in the field of receiver systems for X-rays have made it possible for doses required in X-ray examinations to be gradually reduced to no more than 5% of the radiation patients were exposed to 30 years ago. Despite this fact, the image quality standards necessary to establish even considerably improved. The author suggests to repeat series of measurements carried out in the distant past to be able to make a population-based assessment of the current risk from the effective equivalence dose in one year. In all likelihood, such a survey would prove the quivalence dose to be much lower than the degree of environmental radiation exposure. (orig./DGD) [de

  4. Patient radiation exposure in right versus left trans-radial approach for coronary procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigattieri, Stefano; Di Russo, Cristian; Cera, Maria; Fedele, Silvio; Sciahbasi, Alessandro [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Pugliese, Francesco Rocco [Emergency Department Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure, assessed by dose-area product (DAP), in right trans-radial approach (RR) versus left trans-radial approach (LR) for coronary procedures. Background: In LR the catheter course is more similar to trans-femoral approach, thus allowing an easier negotiation of coronary ostia which, in turn, might translate into reduced fluoroscopy time (FT) and radiation exposure as compared to RR. Methods: We retrospectively selected diagnostic and interventional procedures (PCI) performed by RR or LR at our center from May 2009 to May 2014. We only included in the analysis the procedures in which DAP values were available. Results: We analyzed 1464 procedures, 1175 of which performed by RR (80.3%) and 289 by LR (19.7%). Median DAP values were significantly higher in RR as compared to LR for diagnostic and interventional procedures (4482 vs. 3540 cGy.cm{sup 2} and 11523 vs. 10086 cGy.cm{sup 2}, respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in FT and in contrast volume (CV). In the propensity-matched cohort, consisting of 269 procedures for each group, no significant differences between LR and RR were observed in median DAP values for both diagnostic and interventional procedures (3990 vs. 3542 cGy.cm{sup 2} and 9964 vs. 10216 cGy.cm{sup 2}, respectively; p = ns); FT and CV were also similar. At multiple linear regression analysis laterality of trans-radial approach was not associated with DAP. Conclusions: In an experienced trans-radial center LR is not associated with a reduction in radiation exposure, FT or CV as compared to RR. - Highlights: • Right trans-radial approach is by far more commonly used than left trans-radial approach. • Left trans-radial approach has the advantage of an easier catheter manipulation, more similar to trans-femoral approach. • This could reduce fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure. • We conducted a retrospective study to investigate patient radiation

  5. Radiation exposure of an anaesthesiologist in catheterisation and electrophysiological cardiac procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, Stefano; Moretti, Renzo; Lorini, Ferdinando Luca; Lagrotta, Mariavittoria

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, cardiac catheterisation and electrophysiological procedures, diagnostic and interventional, require an anaesthesiological support. The anaesthesiologist receives radiation doses depending on various factors, such as type of procedure and exposure modality, anaesthesiological technique, individual protective devices and operator experience. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose per procedure, the exposure inhomogeneity and the effective dose, E, of a senior anaesthesiologist in the haemodynamic laboratory of Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo. The dose monitoring was routinely performed with sets of several thermoluminescent dosemeters and an electronic personal dosemeter. The study covered 300 consecutive procedures over 1 y. The anaesthesiologist wore a protective apron, a thyroid collar and glasses (0.5 mm lead-equivalent). (authors)

  6. Activities of radiopharmaceuticals administered for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine in Argentina: results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, Ana M.; Chiliutti, Claudia A.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear medicine in Argentine is carried out at 292 centres, distributed all over the country, mainly concentrated in the capital cities of the provinces. With the purpose of knowing the activity levels of radiopharmaceuticals that were administered to patients for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine, a national survey was conducted, during 2001 and 2002. This survey was answered voluntarily by 107 centres. Sixty-four percent of the participants centres are equipped with SPECT system while the other centres have a gamma camera or scintiscanner. There were 37 nuclear medicine procedures, chosen among those most frequently performed, were included in the survey. In those diagnostic procedures were included tests for: bone, brain, thyroid, kidney, liver, lung and cardiovascular system; and also activities administered for some therapeutic procedures. The nuclear medicine physicians reported the different radiopharmaceutical activities administered to typical adult patients. In this paper are presented the average radiopharmaceutical activity administered for each of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures included in the survey and the range and distribution of values. In order to place these data in a frame of reference, these average values were compared to the guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine mentioned at the Safety Series no. 115. From this comparison it was noticed that the activities administered in the 40% of the diagnostic procedures included in the survey were between ±30% of the reference values. For those nuclear medicine procedures that could not be compared with the above mentioned guidance levels, the comparison was made with values published by UNSCEAR or standards recommended by international bodies. As a result of this study, it is important to point out the need to continue the gathering of data in a wider scale survey to increase the knowledge about national trends. It is also essential to widely

  7. Diagnostic CT and percutaneous procedures after pancreatic transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Thompson, W.M.; Sutherland, D.E.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT evaluation of the abdomen and pelvis is of great value after pancreatic transplantation. The expected CT appearance after pancreas transportation with both enteric and bladder drainage of exocrine function are presented, as is the appearance of infected and ischemic grafts. The CT detection and CT- and US-guided percutaneous aspiration and drainage of abdominal fluid collections are described. At the authors' institution, such aspiration and drainage procedures have obviated transplant pancreatectomy or surgical abscess drainage in 29% of patients

  8. Comparative analysis of diagnostic accuracy of different brain biopsy procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Deepali; Sharma Mehar; Sarkar Chitra; Gupta Deepak; Singh Manmohan; Mahapatra A

    2006-01-01

    Background: Image-guided procedures such as computed tomography (CT) guided, neuronavigator-guided and ultrasound-guided methods can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the intraparenchymal lesion of the brain. However, despite improvements in the imaging techniques, an accurate diagnosis of intrinsic lesion requires tissue sampling and histological verification. Aims: The present study was carried out to examine the reliability of the diagnoses made on tumor sample obtained via different s...

  9. Quality guarantee of images as a way for obtained lower levels of radiation doses in diagnostic x-ray rooms: criteria for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work constitutes a criticism to the present system for licensing in diagnostic x-ray installations in Guatemala. A series of recommendations are made with the aim of obtaining the best diagnostic imaging. This procedure leads to obtain lower doses of radiation for patients and workers

  10. Patient radiation doses in the most common interventional cardiology procedures in croatia: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brnic, Z.; Krpan, T.; Faj, D.; Kubelka, D.; Ramac, J. P.; Posedel, D.; Steiner, R.; Vidjak, V.; Brnic, V.; Viskovic, K.; Baraban, V.

    2010-01-01

    Apart from its benefits, the interventional cardiology (IC) is known to generate high radiation doses to patients and medical staff involved. The European Union Medical Exposures Directive 97/43/EURATOM strongly recommend patient dosimetry in interventional radiology, including IC. IC patient radiation doses in four representative IC rooms in Croatia were investigated. Setting reference levels for these procedures have difficulties due to the large difference in procedure complexity. Nevertheless, it is important that some guideline values are available as a benchmark to guide the operators during these potentially high-dose procedures. Local and national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed as a guidance. A total of 138 diagnostic (coronary angiography, CA) and 151 therapeutic (PTCA, stenting) procedures were included. Patient irradiation was measured in terms of kerma-area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine-frames (F). KAP was recorded using calibrated KAP-meters. DRLs of KAP, FT and F were calculated as third quartile values rounded up to the integer. Skin doses were assessed on a selected sample of high skin dose procedures, using radiochromic films, and peak skin doses (PSD) were presented. A relative large range of doses in IC was detected. National DRLs were proposed as follows: 32 Gy cm 2 , 6.6 min and 610 frames for CA and 72 Gy cm 2 , 19 min and 1270 frames for PTCA. PSD 2 Gy in 8% of selected patients. Measuring the patient doses in radiological procedures is required by law, but rarely implemented in Croatia. The doses recorded in the study are acceptable when compared with the literature, but optimisation is possible. The preliminary DRL values proposed may be used as a guideline for local departments, and should be a basis for radiation reduction measures and quality assurance programmes in IC in Croatia. (authors)

  11. Radiation protection during hybrid procedures: innovation creates new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdy, Jaclynn M; Gocha, Mark D; Olshove, Vincent; Chisolm, Joanne L; Hill, Sharon L; Phillips, Alistair; Galantowicz, Mark; Cheatham, John P; Holzer, Ralf J

    2009-09-01

    The cooperation between interventional cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons has expanded the spectrum of treatment modalities for patients with congenital heart disease. These hybrid techniques have created new challenges, one of which being the provision of adequate but practical radiation protection. This study evaluates the use of a lightweight radiation protection drape (RADPAD) that may be suitable for shielding during hybrid procedures. To simulate a pediatric patient, an 8.7 liter water-filled tub was placed on an X-ray table and exposed to 10-second cine acquisition runs. Radiation exposure was measured at twelve specified locations around the table using a model with three different levels of radiation protection: no shielding, shielding using a traditional 0.35 mm lead-equivalent apron, and shielding using the 0.25 mm lead-equivalent RADPAD. The traditional lead apron and the RADPAD significantly reduced the amount of radiation dose when compared with no shielding. The standard lead apron provided slightly greater radiation protection than the RADPAD (0.000064 radiation absorbed dose [rad] vs. 0.000091 rad; p = 0.012). The measured rad was significantly higher on the right side of the table, and the measured radiation dose decreased significantly with increasing distance from the table. The RADPAD has been shown to function as an efficient shielding device, even though it does not quite match the protection that can be expected from a standard lead apron. It complies with regulatory radiation protection requirements and its lightweight and sterile use make it particularly useful during hybrid procedures in the operating room.

  12. Assessment of radiation protection of patients and staff in interventional procedures in four Algerian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Toutaoui, A.; Merad, A.; Sakhri-Brahimi, Z.; Baggoura, B.; Mansouri, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess patient dosimetry in interventional cardiology (IC) and radiology (IR) and radiation safety of the medical operating staff. For this purpose, four major Algerian hospitals were investigated. The data collected cover radiation protection tools assigned to the operating staff and measured radiation doses to some selected patient populations. The analysis revealed that lead aprons are systematically worn by the staff but not lead eye glasses, and only a single personal monitoring badge is assigned to the operating staff. Measured doses to patients exhibited large variations in the maximum skin dose (MSD) and in the dose area product (DAP). The mean MSD registered values are as follows: 0.20, 0.14 and 1.28 Gy in endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures, respectively. In PTCA, doses to 3 out of 22 patients (13.6 %) had even reached the threshold value of 2 Gy. The mean DAP recorded values are as follows: 21.6, 60.1 and 126 Gy cm 2 in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. Mean fluoroscopic times are 2.5, 5 and 15 min in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. The correlation between DAP and MSD is fair in CA (r = 0.62) and poor in PTCA (r = 0.28). Fluoroscopic time was moderately correlated with DAP in CA (r = 0.55) and PTCA (r = 0.61) procedures. Local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in CA and PTCA procedures have been proposed. In conclusion, this study stresses the need for a continuous patient dose monitoring in interventional procedures with a special emphasis in IC procedures. Common strategies must be undertaken to substantially reduce radiation doses to both patients and medical staff. (authors)

  13. Towards Verification of Operational Procedures Using Auto-Generated Diagnostic Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of complex space, lunar and planetary exploration systems require the development of general procedures that describe a detailed set of instructions capturing how mission tasks are performed. For both crewed and uncrewed NASA systems, mission safety and the accomplishment of the scientific mission objectives are highly dependent on the correctness of procedures. In this paper, we describe how to use the auto-generated diagnostic trees from existing diagnostic models to improve the verification of standard operating procedures. Specifically, we introduce a systematic method, namely the Diagnostic Tree for Verification (DTV), developed with the goal of leveraging the information contained within auto-generated diagnostic trees in order to check the correctness of procedures, to streamline the procedures in terms of reducing the number of steps or use of resources in them, and to propose alternative procedural steps adaptive to changing operational conditions. The application of the DTV method to a spacecraft electrical power system shows the feasibility of the approach and its range of capabilities

  14. Use of an Online Education Platform to Enhance Patients' Knowledge About Radiation in Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joseph R; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shiao, Sue J; Wei, Wei; Shoemaker, Stowe; Parmar, Simrit

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of a digital interactive education platform and standard paper-based education on patients' knowledge regarding ionizing radiation. Beginning in January 2015, patients at a tertiary cancer center scheduled for diagnostic imaging procedures were randomized to receive information about ionizing radiation delivered through a web-based interactive education platform (interactive education group), the same information in document format (document education group), or no specialized education (control group). Patients who completed at least some education and control group patients were invited to complete a knowledge assessment; interactive education patients were invited to provide feedback about satisfaction with their experience. A total of 2,226 patients participated. Surveys were completed by 302 of 745 patients (40.5%) participating in interactive education, 488 of 993 (49.1%) participating in document education, and 363 of 488 (74.4%) in the control group. Patients in the interactive education group were significantly more likely to say that they knew the definition of ionizing radiation, outperformed the other groups in identifying which imaging examinations used ionizing radiation, were significantly more likely to identify from a list which imaging modality had the highest radiation dose, and tended to perform better when asked about the tissue effects of radiation in diagnostic imaging, although this difference was not significant. In the interactive education group, 84% of patients were satisfied with the experience, and 79% said that they would recommend the program. Complex information on a highly technical subject with personal implications for patients may be conveyed more effectively using electronic platforms, and this approach is well accepted. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient and staff doses in fluoroscopically guided invasive diagnostic and interventional urology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Hristova-Popova, J.; Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Deyanova, Ts.; Dobrikov, R.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to evaluate patient and staff doses in fluoroscopically guided invasive diagnostic and interventional urology procedures. All the data were collected in the Emergency Hospital 'N. I. Pirogov'. While recording data for the patients, a real time dosimetry measurement of the medical staff was made. Air kerma-area product (KAP) was recorded for intravenous pyelogram (IVP), percutaneous nephrostomy (PN) and ureteral 'double-J' stenting. Patient data sex, age and weight were also taken. Staff doses were estimated with the system RaySafe i2. It contains four dosimeters, with a wireless connection to a real time display. The dosimeters were worn on the unprotected upper part of the body and measured the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). The mean KAP values for the procedures are: 3.21 Gy.cm 2 for IVP, 10.37 Gy.cm 2 for PN and 4.15 Gy.cm 2 for 'double-J' respectively. The highest staff dose for PN and 'double-J' is received by the urologist (160 μSv and 47.3 μSv, respectively), while for the IVP the radiographer has the highest exposure (20 μSv). Each member of the medical staff was on a different position in respect to the X-ray tube and the patient, which is the main reason for the differences in the staff doses. The variations in the mean patient and staff doses are mostly due to the interventions themselves, their complexity and the individual treatment of every patient. RaySafe i2 is very useful as guideline for making a choice of a better position and in the decreasing of radiation exposure to the staff

  16. Evaluation of radiation dose to pediatric patients during certain special procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Elhag, B.; Babikir, E.; Alsafi, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to measure pediatric entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and effective dose during micturating cystourethrography (MCU), intravenous urography (IVU) and barium studies (barium meal, enema, and swallow) and to propose a local diagnostic reference level (DRL). ESAK was measured for patients using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs, GR200A). Effective doses (E) were calculated using the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. A total of 236 special pediatric procedures were investigated. 21.7% of the sample comprised barium procedures, 18.6% were MCU procedures while 59.5% of the sample were IVU procedures. The mean ESAK measurements (mGy) were 2.1±0.8, 3.0±23 and 1.2±0.2 for barium meal, enema and swallow in the same order. The mean patient dose for IVU procedures was 12.4±8.7 mGy per procedure and the mean patient dose per MCU procedure was 5.8±7 mGy. Local DRLs were proposed for all procedures. The patient doses in this study are within the reported values, suggesting that pediatric patients are adequately protected. - Highlights: • Pediatric radiation dose has been evaluated for three of the most common fluoroscopic procedures. • Radiation doses were measured using calibrated TLD GR200A. • Pediatric patients of concern and ESAK doses showed large variations. • The patient doses in this study are within the reported studies suggesting that the pediatric patients are adequately protected

  17. Radiation safety procedures in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekharrao, B.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    During any administration of radioactive materials, it is imperative to always be conversant with any forbidden radiation health safety practices. This need is amplified when dealing with therapeutic amount of radionuclides. Among all the procedures dealing with the use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is easiest to think of 131 I, since this is the most widely used unsealed source of a radiopharmaceutical for treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism and carries with it most of the problems associated with therapy applications

  18. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    2001-01-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation started at the beginning of the century. It has always been considered necessary, as well as for diagnostic applications where exposure to the patient is the price to pay in order to obtain useful images, as for therapy where the patient is exposed on purpose, in order to kill malignant cells. It is nowadays the major man-made contribution to the population dose. Even with the developments of substitutive imaging or treatment techniques, there is still an increasing demand and many organizations are joining their efforts to try to keep the dose to the patient 'as low as reasonably achievable'. This is particularly the case for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which recommended in publication 26 to follow three main principles: justification, optimisation and limitation. Limitation, however, does not apply to patients since the individuals exposed are expected to benefit from this exposure, but justification and optimization are relevant. (author)

  19. Value of noninvasive diagnostic procedures in cardiology: typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebeling, V.; Bubenheimer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Routine chest X-ray often yields poor information for diagnosis of heart disease. The diagnostic value of invasive procedures in cardiology is generally accepted. The patient's as well as the physician's risk of the examination, however, has to be considered. A high number of heart diseases, e.g. hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is mainly detected by noninvasive procedures such as auscultation, electrocardiography, phonomechanocardiography, echocardiography, physical manoeuvres, and pharmacological provocation tests. Typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  20. Ionizing radiations used in medical diagnostics as a source of radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, K.; Vasilev, G.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray and radionuclide application in medical diagnosing is the major sources of Bulgarian population exposure to ionizing radiations exceeding the radiation background. The number of X-ray examination on a nationwide scale shows an increase from 1600 thousand annually in 1950 to 10300 thousand in 1980 and decreases to about 4700 thousand annually for the period 1992-1993. The frequency for the above mentioned time intervals varies in the range 0.22 to 1.17 examinations per capita annually and decreases to 0.56. The roentgenoscopy to roentgenography ratio varies from 2.5:1 to 0.9:1 (1975) and increases to 2.0:1 (1993). The number of radioisotope examinations increased from 34 thousand in 1970 to 170 thousand annually in 1985 and decreased to about thousand annually in 1992-1993 with a number of studies per capita varying from 0.004 to 0.020 and decreasing to 0.010. In 1993 the annual collective effective dose due to X-ray diagnostics amounts to about 7000 man-Sv/a which exceeds the radiation background exposure by 76%. Radioisotope diagnostics in the period reviewed accounted for nearly 700 man-Sv/a with an exposure exceeding the radiation background by 7.7%. The major problems relating to patient protection and benefit/risk ratio improvement are discussed. (author)

  1. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); St. Andrew' s Medical Institute, St. Andrew' s War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment

  2. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment performance

  3. Changes in the 'medical research' licensing procedure under the German Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeck, M.; Minkov, V.; Griebel, J.; Brix, G.; Epsch, R.; Langer, M.

    2012-01-01

    This publication outlines the 'medical research' licensing procedure as specified in the amendment of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance of November 1, 2011. The general licensing requirements for the use of radiation have not been changed by the amendment. Three so-called use restrictions (i.e., dose limits of 10 mSv and 20 mSv, age limit of 50 years) have been modified. They will only apply to healthy volunteers in the future. In addition, there are considerable simplifications with respect to applications and licensing procedures of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) regarding the use of radiation in the newly introduced 'accompanying diagnostics' ('Begleitdiagnostik') case group. The newly established, independent panel of experts at the German Radiological Society (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) may provide essential support to principal investigators, qualified physicians and sponsors for differentiating between 'medical research' and 'health care', the latter not being subject to licensing. An expert statement will be issued by the DRG within four weeks of an inquiry. This consulting service is subject to confidentiality, and is free of charge for inquirers and without any commitment. (orig.)

  4. A novel radiation protection drape reduces radiation exposure during fluoroscopy guided electrophysiology procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Joseph J; Day, Gina; Gregorious, David; Natarajan, Venkataraman; Cohen, Todd

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel disposable lead-free radiation protection drape for decreasing radiation scatter during electrophysiology procedures. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of electrophysiology (EP) procedures exposing patients, operators and laboratory staff to higher radiation doses. The RADPAD was positioned slightly lateral to the incision site for pectoral device implants and superior to the femoral vein during electrophysiology studies. Each patient served as their own control and dosimetric measurements were obtained at the examiner's elbow and hand. Radiation badge readings for the operator were obtained three months prior to RADPAD use and three months after introduction. Radiation dosimetry was obtained in twenty patients: 7 electrophysiology studies, 6 pacemakers, 5 catheter ablations, and 2 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Eleven women and nine men with a mean age of 63 +/- 4 years had an average fluoroscopy time of 2.5 +/- 0.42 minutes per case. Mean dosimetric measurements at the hand were reduced from 141.38 +/- 24.67 to 48.63 +/- 9.02 milliroentgen (mR) per hour using the protective drape (63% reduction; p < 0.0001). Measurements at the elbow were reduced from 78.78 +/- 7.95 mR per hour to 34.50 +/- 4.18 mR per hour using the drape (55% reduction; p < 0.0001). Badge readings for three months prior to drape introduction averaged 2.45 mR per procedure versus 1.54 mR per procedure for 3 months post-initiation (37% reduction). The use of a novel radiation protection surgical drape can significantly reduce scatter radiation exposure to staff and operators during a variety of EP procedures.

  5. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services... radiology services and other diagnostic procedures. (a) Basis and purpose. (1) This section implements section 1833(n) of the Act and establishes the method for determining Medicare payments for radiology...

  6. New perineal injection technique for pudendal nerve infiltration in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinschenk, Stefan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pudendal nerve injection is used as a diagnostic procedure in the vulvar region and for therapeutic purposes, such as in vulvodynia. Here, we provide a new, easy-to-perform perineal injection technique. We analyzed 105 perineal injections into the pudendal nerve with a local anesthetic (LA),

  7. Anaesthesiological aspects of thorax-diagnostic procedures in intensive-care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte am Esch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic procedures of the thorax in intensive-care units are conventional X-ray chest images, chest images by digital luminescence radiography, sonography and transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography. In addition to these bedside methods the stationary usable techniques, such as computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography and the seldom in intensive care patients used computed nuclear spin resonance tomography (NMR) are applicable. The selection of the above mentioned techniques depends on the availability and the quality of the methods as well as the qualifications of the involved staff. The diagnostic procedures of the chest must be arranged depending on the decision if patients have to be transported or not. In conclusion it can be stated that in spite of growing technical preconditions the availability of the methods in immobile patients and the diagnostic potency of the techniques have to be examined. (orig.) [de

  8. Fetal Implications of Diagnostic Radiation Exposure During Pregnancy: Evidence-based Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimawi, Bassam H; Green, Victoria; Lindsay, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the fetal and long-term implications of diagnostic radiation exposure during pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for radiologic imaging modalities utilizing exposure of diagnostic radiation during pregnancy, including conventional screen-film mammography, digital mammography, tomosynthesis, and contrast-enhanced mammography are described.

  9. Low dose diagnostic radiation does not increase cancer risk in cancer prone mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D., E-mail: dboreham@nosm.ca [Northern Ontario School of Medicine, ON (Canada); Phan, N., E-mail: nghiphan13@yahoo.com [Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lemon, J., E-mail: lemonja@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The increased exposure of patients to low dose diagnostic ionizing radiation has created concern that these procedures will result in greater risk of carcinogenesis. However, there is substantial evidence that shows in many cases that low dose exposure has the opposite effect. We have investigated whether CT scans can modify mechanisms associated with carcinogenesis in cancer-prone mice. Cancer was induced in Trp53+/- mice with an acute high dose whole-body 4 Gy γ-radiation exposure. Four weeks following the cancer-inducing dose, weekly whole-body CT scans (10 mGy/scan, 75 kVp X-rays) were given for ten consecutive weeks adding an additional radiation burden of 0.1 Gy. Short-term biological responses and subsequent lifetime cancer risk were investigated. Five days following the last CT scan, there were no detectable differences in the spontaneous levels of DNA damage in blood cells (reticulocytes). In fact, CT scanned mice had significantly lower constitutive levels of oxidative DNA damage and cell death (apoptosis), compared to non-CT scanned mice. This shows that multiple low dose radiation exposures modified the radio response and indicates protective processes were induced in mice. In mice treated with the multiple CT scans following the high cancer-inducing 4 Gy dose, tumour latency was increased, significantly prolonging lifespan. We conclude that repeated CT scans can reduce the cancer risk of a prior high-dose radiation exposure, and delay the progression of specific types of radiation-induced cancers in Trp53+/-mice. This research shows for the first time that low dose exposure long after cancer initiation events alter risk and reduce cancer morbidity. Cancer induction following low doses does not follow a linear non-threshold model of risk and this model should not be used to extrapolate risk to humans following low dose exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Design And Measurement Of Radiation Exposure Rates At An X-Ray Diagnostic Radiological Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito-Sutjipto

    2003-01-01

    Every radiation employees suffers radiation exposure risk while doing his job. It is important therefore to investigate the occupational health and safety of radiation employees on its relationship with the design and measurement of radiation exposure rates at an X-ray diagnostic radiological unit in this work, a case study was held on the radiological unit at BP-4 Yogyakarta for patient diagnostics, This research armed to investigate the relationship between the design of radiological unit for X-ray diagnostics and the location of the X-ray machine, based on the distance variable and radiation exposure rate during patient diagnostics. This was performed using radiological unit design data for X-ray diagnostics and the measurement of radiation exposure rates throughout patient diagnostics. The design data can then be used for determining the requirement of primary and secondary shielding materials for radiological unit as well as a calculation basis of radiation exposure rates during patient diagnostics. From the result of the research, it can be concluded that from the occupational health and safety point of view, radiation exposure around the X-ray machines are fairly good, both for the shielding materials in each X-ray room and the radiation exposures received by the workers, because they are far beyond the maximum permittable average limit (16.67 m R/days). (author)

  11. MRI-guided stereotactic neurosurgical procedures in a diagnostic MRI suite: Background and safe practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul S; Willie, Jon T; Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Azmi-Ghadimi, Hooman; Nichols, Amy; Fauerbach, Loretta Litz; Johnson, Helen Boehm; Graham, Denise

    2017-07-01

    The development of navigation technology facilitating MRI-guided stereotactic neurosurgery has enabled neurosurgeons to perform a variety of procedures ranging from deep brain stimulation to laser ablation entirely within an intraoperative or diagnostic MRI suite while having real-time visualization of brain anatomy. Prior to this technology, some of these procedures required multisite workflow patterns that presented significant risk to the patient during transport. For those facilities with access to this technology, safe practice guidelines exist only for procedures performed within an intraoperative MRI. There are currently no safe practice guidelines or parameters available for facilities looking to integrate this technology into practice in conventional MRI suites. Performing neurosurgical procedures in a diagnostic MRI suite does require precautionary measures. The relative novelty of technology and workflows for direct MRI-guided procedures requires consideration of safe practice recommendations, including those pertaining to infection control and magnet safety issues. This article proposes a framework of safe practice recommendations designed for assessing readiness and optimization of MRI-guided neurosurgical interventions in the diagnostic MRI suite in an effort to mitigate patient risk. The framework is based on existing clinical evidence, recommendations, and guidelines related to infection control and prevention, health care-associated infections, and magnet safety, as well as the clinical and practical experience of neurosurgeons utilizing this technology. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  12. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm{sup 3} for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm{sup 3} for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  13. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2004-01-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm 3 for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm 3 for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  14. Practical X-ray diagnostics orthopedics and trauma surgery. Indication, adjustment technique and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechtenmacher, Johannes; Sabo, Desiderius

    2014-01-01

    The book on X-ray diagnostics in orthopedics and trauma surgery includes the following chapters: 1. Introduction: radiation protection, equipment technology radiological diagnostics of skeleton carcinomas, specific aspects of trauma surgery, special aspects of skeleton radiology for children. 2. X-ray diagnostics of different anatomical regions: ankle joint, knee, hips and pelvis, hand and wrist joint, elbow, shoulder, spinal cord. 3. Appendix: radiation protection according to the X-ray regulations.

  15. Radiation and applications: Technical innovation made by industrial irradiation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, L.

    1986-01-01

    The innovation represented by irradiation as a means of industrial process technology lies in the very special way in which energy is introduced into some object in which it initiates reactions. This is based on the penetrating capability of ionizing radiation, which can produce reactive species, especially radicals, inside an object without requiring the whole object to be subjected to such conditions as, e.g., high temperatures or pressures, which would otherwise be needed to initiate the corresponding reactions. This unique advantage of triggering off reactions by means of ionizing radiation results in possibilities of process technology no other procedure can offer. An aspect becoming more and more important is the possibility to replace expensive materials hard to process by cheaper materials brought into a specific form more easily. Irradiation processes can assign to these materials at least some of the properties and combinations of properties, respectively, of higher-grade materials. (orig.) [de

  16. A review of current radiation protection in radiological diagnostics in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijovic, Slavoljub; Kovacevic, Zarko; Vuceljic, Mira; Scepanovic, Mara; Picuric, Ivana; Mardjokic, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    After getting independence 2006 year and became 192nd member of UN, Montenegro state is conducting measures for radiation protection autonomously. Because of complexity of such issues, Montenegro faced a lot of problems: lack of a national legal system in this field, expertise, appropriate equipments etc. Some estimates have shown that the major exposures of populations in Montenegro to ionizing radiation are due to the medical care. The purpose of this work is to analyze current protection in radiological diagnostics in Montenegro and compare it with international standards. It could be clearly stated where they are in agreement or disagreement. The method of analyzing is a holistic one, starting from the law, regulations and decisions through the protocols of quality controls and finishing with the reports and database of important parameters and data. The main findings are stated as follows: although the current radiation protection in radiological diagnostics is conducting according the law of former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and its regulations and decisions, the overall legal system is still satisfactory; Identification and location of radiation sources through a system of notification and maintaining a national inventory is not satisfactory; There are a lack of expertise and equipments for the technical services, although the procedures and protocols of the quality control are at a satisfactory level; There is a lack of knowledge of professional staff working in this field. The practice is sometimes operated carelessly; The patients protection is satisfactory but there is not care to decrease a level of exposure according the ALARA principle. (author)

  17. Radiation: Rational use of diagnostic imaging studies in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to recognize the biological effects of radiation; explain the action of ionizing radiation on the cell; list the main sources of ionizing radiation; to indicate imaging studies considering the danger of radiation; select the method of imaging saving radiation; rational use of imaging studies without repeating exams. [es

  18. Dental flat panel conebeam CT in the evaluation of patients with inflammatory sinonasal disease: Diagnostic efficacy and radiation dose savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Salinas, C; Flors, L; Gras, P; Más-Estellés, F; Lemercier, P; Patrie, J T; Wintermark, M; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    2014-01-01

    CT is the imaging modality of choice to study the paranasal sinuses; unfortunately, it involves significant radiation dose. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic validity, image quality, and radiation-dose savings of dental conebeam CT in the evaluation of patients with suspected inflammatory disorders of the paranasal sinuses. We prospectively studied 40 patients with suspected inflammatory disorders of the sinuses with dental conebeam CT and standard CT. Two radiologists analyzed the images independently, blinded to clinical information. The image quality of both techniques and the diagnostic validity of dental conebeam CT compared with the reference standard CT were assessed by using 3 different scoring systems. Image noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated for both techniques. The absorbed radiation dose to the lenses and thyroid and parotid glands was measured by using a phantom and dosimeter chips. The effective radiation dose for CT was calculated. All dental conebeam CT scans were judged of diagnostic quality. Compared with CT, the conebeam CT image noise was 37.3% higher (P radiation dose to the lenses and parotid and thyroid glands with conebeam CT was 4%, 7.8%, and 7.3% of the dose delivered to the same organs by conventional CT (P Dental conebeam CT is a valid imaging procedure for the evaluation of patients with inflammatory sinonasal disorders. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Updating Allergy and/or Hypersensitivity Diagnostic Procedures in the WHO ICD-11 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises A; Li, James; Casale, Thomas; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The classification of allergy and/or hypersensitivity conditions for the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 provides the appropriate corresponding codes for allergic diseases, assuming that the final diagnosis is correct. This classification should be linked to in vitro and in vivo diagnostic procedures. Considering the impact for our specialty, we decided to review the codification of these procedures into the ICD aiming to have a baseline and to suggest changes and/or submit new proposals. For that, we prepared a list of the relevant allergy and/or hypersensitivity diagnostic procedures that health care professionals are dealing with on a daily basis. This was based on the main current guidelines and selected all possible and relevant corresponding terms from the ICD-10 (2015 version) and the ICD-11 β phase foundation (June 2015 version). More than 90% of very specific and important diagnostic procedures currently used by the allergists' community on a daily basis are missing. We observed that some concepts usually used by the allergist community on a daily basis are not fully recognized by other specialties. The whole scheme and the correspondence in the ICD-10 (2015 version) and ICD-11 foundation (June 2015 version) provided us a big picture of the missing or imprecise terms and how they are scattered in the current ICD-11 framework, allowing us to submit new proposals to increase the visibility of the allergy and/or hypersensitivity conditions and diagnostic procedures. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  20. The radiation protective devices for interventional procedures using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiroji; Chabatake, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Tamura, Sakio

    2002-01-01

    A scattered dose and a surface dose from phantom measurements during interventional procedures with computed tomography (IVR-CT) were evaluated. To reduce the personnel exposure in IVR-CT, the new protective devices were developed and its effect evaluated. Two radiation protection devices were experimentally made using a lead vinyl sheet with lead equivalent 0.125 mmPb. The first device is a lead curtain which shields the space of CT-gantry and phantom for the CT examination. The second device is a lead drape which shields on the phantom surface adjacent to the scanning plane for the CT-fluoroscopy. Scattered dose and phantom surface dose were measured with an abdominal phantom during Cine-CT (130 kV, 150 mA, 5 seconds, 10 mm section thickness). They were measured by using ionization chamber dosimeter. They were measured with and without a lead curtain and a lead drape. Scattered dose rate was measured at distance of 50-150 cm from the scanning plane. And, surface dose was measured at distance of 4-21 cm from the scanning plane on the phantom. On operator's standing position, scattered dose rates were from 8.4 to 11.6 μGy/sec at CT examination. The lead curtain and the lead drape reduced scattered dose rate at distance of 50 cm from the scanning plane by 66% and 58.3% respectively. Surface dose rate were 118 μGy/sec at distance of 5 cm from the scanning plane at CT-fluoroscopy. The lead drape reduced the surface dose by 60.5%. High scattered exposure to personnel may occur during interventional procedures using CT. They were considerably reduced during CT-arteriography by attaching the lead curtain in CT equipment. And they were substantially reduced during CT-fluoroscopy by placing the lead drape adjacent to the scanning plane, in addition, operator's hand would be protected from unnecessary radiation scattered by phantom. It was suggested that the scattered exposure to personnel could be sufficiently reduced by using radiation protection devices in IVR-CT. The

  1. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on x-ray diagnostics; issued on April 28, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    These regulations are applicable to practices with ionising radiation with respect to medical and dental diagnostics by means of external radiation sources like x-rays or radioactive substances. The regulations are also applicable to medical or dental use of such radiation sources for planning and guidance, for research and for legal and insurance related examinations

  2. Radiation Dose to Patients and Medical Staff in Different Procedures of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimcheva, M.; Sergieva, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide information on developing technologies and clinical techniques for Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging using ionizing radiation and their associated radiation dose to patients and medical staff. A thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was used in this study to analyze the historic records of the external radiation doses to staff members working in our nuclear medicine department in 7 procedures, including elution of 99mTc from "9"9"mMo/"9"9"mTc generators, syringe preparation, radiopharmacy kit preparation, injection, accompanying patients, SPECT/CT scan, oral "1"3"1I preparation. These dosimeters was worn by the staff members at the level of the chest on the front part of the body. A retrospective review of 110 clinical studies of various nuclear medicine procedures ("9"9"mTc–MIBI–Tetrofosmin, "9"9"mTc–MDP bone scan, "9"9"mTc–Tektrotyd, "9"9"mTc–Thyroid imaging, "9"9"mTc–Nanocoll, "1"3"1I–Nal (diagnostic application 185 MBq) obtained on hybrid SPECT/CT systems was performed to calculate the effective radiation dose to patients. The results from this study showed that annual effective radiation doses to nuclear medicine department staff members were within permissible levels. The contribution of total effective radiation dose from SPECT component were calculated using the activity of the injected radiopharmaceutical and dose tables published by the conversion factors listed in ICRP 53 and ICRP 80. The radiation dose for CT was calculated by Dose Length Product method. According to the results of this study the dose in each procedure depends on different factors such as the education and experience of the staff members, usage of shielding and taking the radiation protection requirements into consideration. When SPECT–CT is being performed, all measures should be taken to reduce both the radiopharmaceutical dose and the CT effective dose following the ALARA principle. (author)

  3. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Marek L; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Aberer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment) of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin...... attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO), representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk...... associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access...

  4. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-10-01

    Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments.

  5. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments

  6. Radiation Exposure by Nuclear Medicine Imaging Procedures: Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Marovic, G.; Prlic, I.; Sencar, J.; Zeljezic, D.; Ramic, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using high-resolution gamma spectrometry, we investigated the activity concentrations of thallium radioisotopes in a urine sample collected during a period of 24 h following nuclear medicine cardiac imaging. As part of a thallium stress test the subject of the study received a radiopharmaceutical preparation with 201Tl (activity 111 MBq). In order to assess whether the cardiac imaging procedure resulted in lymphocyte genome damage, we studied the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and lymphocyte cell kinetics in the blood samples collected before and after the cardiac imaging. The highest activity concentration (538960.9 ± 405.9 Bq/L u rine) was estimated for 201Tl, followed by 1770.54 ± 3.57 Bq/L u rine for 202Tl, and 422.035 ± 2.091 Bq/Lurine for 200Tl. The applied radiopharmaceutical contained 99.595 % of 201Tl, 0.078 % of 200Tl and 0.327 % of 202Tl. The estimated effective dose received through a single exposure to the radiopharmaceutical and calculated for a period of two days was mostly affected by 201Tl (0.0453 mSv). Due to its half-life of 12.2 days, the contribution of 202Tl (0.0008 mSv) to the effective dose was also significant. Results of the cytogenetic analysis indicate that a single diagnostic exposure to thallium caused an increase of SCE frequency and decrease of the proliferation rate index (PRI). Both parameters normalized steadily 14 days after the cardiac imaging procedure, which is also in accord with data obtained in previous studies. Our results indicate the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical which should contain only 201Tl. This calls for a stricter process of quality control for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medical diagnostic procedures. In this particular case, we emphasize 'contamination' with 202Tl, whose contribution to the effective dose cannot be ignored if one takes into account that it has the longest half-life of all three thallium radioisotopes detected in the urine sample.(author)

  7. Radiation exposure and image quality in x-Ray diagnostic radiology physical principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aichinger, Horst; Joite-Barfuß, Sigrid; Säbel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The largest contribution to radiation exposure to the population as a whole arises from diagnostic X-rays. Protecting the patient from radiation is a major aim of modern health policy, and an understanding of the relationship between radiation dose and image quality is of pivotal importance in optimising medical diagnostic radiology. In this volume the data provided for exploring these concerns are partly based on X-ray spectra, measured on diagnostic X-ray tube assemblies, and are supplemented by the results of measurements on phantoms and simulation calculations.

  8. Pain related to cancer treatments and diagnostic procedures: a no man's land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, C I; Bossi, P; Santini, D; Fallon, M

    2014-06-01

    While guidelines are available for the management of cancer-related pain, little attention is given to the assessment and treatment of pain caused by treatments and diagnostic procedures in cancer patients. We evaluated the literature on pain related to cancer treatment and diagnostic procedures within a critical analysis. The data available are sparse, suggesting that little attention has been directed at this important aspect of oncology. This points to potentially suboptimal patient management. Appropriate studies are necessary in order to understand the incidence and appropriate management of pain, both during and/or after oncological treatments and diagnostic procedures. At the same time, Health Care Professionals should have heightened awareness of the causes and treatment of pain with the aim of anticipating and managing pain most appropriately for each individual patient. This is clearly an important component of holistic patient care before, during, and after oncological treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluation of occupational radiation exposure in cardiology interventional procedures in some Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Doaa Mohammed Ali

    2015-12-01

    The number of cardiology interventional procedures has significantly increased recently. This is due to the reliability of the diagnostic equipment to diagnose many heart diseases. In the procedures the x-ray used results in increasing radiation doses to the staff. The cardiologists and other staff member in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and receive the dose primarily as well as from scattered radiation from the patients. In this study three electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) were used to measured personal equivalent dose Hp (10) for assessment staff doses were monitoring during interventional cardiology procedure, totally in (100) procedures were performed in two clinical. The procedures was collect in two main hospitals in Khartoum State, the staff workers include cardiologists, technologists and nurses. The EPDs were used by each worker at the two cardiology centers, was one worn under a protective apron attach to chest. The annual doses received by 6 cardiologists, 6 nurses and 2 technologists at the sudan heart center were tn the range: (27.25-33.5) μSv, (3.25-3.66) μSv, (3.25-3.66) μSv, (3.23 and 3.70) μSv respectively. In the royal care hospital the annual doses received by 2 doctors, 4 nurses and 2 technologists were in the range ( 38.375 and 39.375) μSv (12.06-14.125) μSv, (8.5 and 9.25) μSv respectively, estimated for four weeks. The highest doses were received by the cardiologist followed by nurses and the x-ray technicians. The results showed that the annual doses received by the workers do not exceed 20 mSv. Recommendation on how to reduce staff doses in interventional cardiology are presented.(Author)

  10. Radiation exposure of cardiologists eye lenses during interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treckova, V.; Nikodemova, D.; Salat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently published studies have indicated a lower threshold of eye lens doses for developing cataracts than previously used. These studies have shown that the latency period responsible for cataract development depends on the absorbed eye lens dose. The recommendations of the ICRP, the new BSS of IAEA and the 2013/59/EURATOM Directive revise the old occupational limit of equivalent dose (150 mSv) to the new lower value of 20 mSv per year. Probably this value will be exceeded mainly during specific interventional procedures. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the received eye lens doses by monitoring and assessment of radiation load of cardiologists in the particular Cardiologic Healthcare Facility in Slovakia. The measurements were realized by using TLD located on the both sides of the protective lead glasses of five cardiologists during CA/PTCA procedures, performed in the period of 1 month. Evaluation of the dosimeters was performed by HARSHAW TLD 3500. Collected parameters of each individual examination were expressed in the quantity personal dose equivalent Hp(0,07). The whole body doses during the CA/PTCA procedures were controlled by RaySafe i2 dosimetry system, allowing the collection of real time radiation exposure of medical staff. Values of personal dose equivalent Hp(0,07) on the left eye lens (where we observed higher dose values), were extrapolated to annual doses and compared with the new eye lens limit. The comparison of the results (calculating the average annual dose from the gathered annual workload of each cardiologist) indicates that the new proposed limit for eye lens doses (20 mSv/year) should be exceeded. Important information comes from the results of RaySafe measurements, which refer to the fact, that although the whole-body annual doses obtained by the followed cardiologists doses not exceed the annual limit of effective dose, the equivalent doses to the lens of the eye obtained from TLD, reached the overflow value

  11. Radiation exposure of cardiologists eye lenses during interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treckova, V.; Nikodemova, D.; Salat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently published studies have indicated a lower threshold of eye lens doses for developing cataracts than previously used. These studies have shown that the latency period responsible for cataract development depends on the absorbed eye lens dose. The recommendations of the ICRP, the new BSS of IAEA and the 2013/59/EURATOM Directive revise the old occupational limit of equivalent dose (150 mSv) to the new lower value of 20 mSv per year. Probably this value will be exceeded mainly during specific interventional procedures. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the received eye lens doses by monitoring and assessment of radiation load of cardiologists in the particular Cardio logic Healthcare Facility in Slovakia. The measurements were realized by using TLD located on the both sides of the protective lead glasses of five cardiologists during CA/PTCA procedures, performed in the period of 1 month. Evaluation of the dosimeters was performed by HARSHAW TLD 3500. Collected parameters of each individual examination were expressed in the quantity personal dose equivalent Hp(0,07). The whole body doses during the CA/PTCA procedures were controlled by RaySafe i2 dosimetry system, allowing the collection of real time radiation exposure of medical staff. Values of personal dose equivalent Hp(0,07) on the left eye lens (where we observed higher dose values), were extrapolated to annual doses and compared with the new eye lens limit. The comparison of the results (calculating the average annual dose from the gathered annual workload of each cardiologist) indicates that the new proposed limit for eye lens doses (20 mSv/year) should be exceeded. Important information comes from the results of RaySafe measurements, which refer to the fact, that although the whole-body annual doses obtained by the followed cardiologists doses not exceed the annual limit of effective dose, the equivalent doses to the lens of the eye obtained from TLD, reached the overflow value

  12. Radiation doses by radiation diagnostics at the border of a hospital. Calculation model for Nuclear Energy Law regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Thijssen, T.; De Jong, R.

    2000-01-01

    According to the Nuclear Energy Law in the Netherlands radiation doses at the border of a specific institute (e.g. hospitals) must be determined which can not simply be done by measurements. In this article a model calculation for radiation diagnostics is described

  13. Nuclear energy - Radioprotection - Procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation and describes the procedure in radiation protection monitoring for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation in nuclear installations. This radiation comprises β - radiation, β + radiation and conversion electron radiation as well as photon radiation with energies below 15 keV. This International Standard describes the procedure in radiation protection planning and monitoring as well as the measurement and analysis to be applied. It applies to regular nuclear power plant operation including maintenance, waste handling and decommissioning. The recommendations of this International Standard may also be transferred to other nuclear fields including reprocessing, if the area-specific issues are considered. This International Standard may also be applied to radiation protection at accelerator facilities and in nuclear medicine, biology and research facilities

  14. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology: World Allergy Organization Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Kowalski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin testing, deliberate induction in the office of allergic symptoms to offending compounds (provocation tests or intentional application of potentially dangerous substances (allergy vaccine to sensitized patients. These situations may be associated with a significant risk of unwanted, excessive or even dangerous reactions, which in many instances cannot be completely avoided. However, adverse reactions can be minimized or even avoided if a physician is fully aware of potential risk and is prepared to appropriately handle the situation. Information on the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic diseases has been accumulated in the medical literature for decades; however, except for allergen specific immunotherapy, it has never been presented in a systematic fashion. Up to now no single document addressed the risk of the most commonly used medical procedures in the allergy office nor attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO, representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access to specialized emergency services, etc. for various procedures have been recommended. This document should be useful for allergists with already established

  15. Analysis of utilization patterns and associated costs of the breast imaging and diagnostic procedures after screening mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahiotis A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anna Vlahiotis,1 Brian Griffin,2 A Thomas Stavros,3 Jay Margolis1 1Value Based Care, Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Bethesda, MD USA; 2Value Based Care, Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Seno Medical Instruments, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA Background: Little data exist on real-world patterns and associated costs of downstream breast diagnostic procedures following an abnormal screening mammography or clinical exam.Objectives: To analyze the utilization patterns in real-world clinical settings for breast imaging and diagnostic procedures, including the frequency and volume of patients and procedures, procedure sequencing, and associated health care expenditures.Materials and methods: Using medical claims from 2011 to 2015 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Databases, adult females with breast imaging/diagnostic procedures (diagnostic mammography, ultrasound, molecular breast imaging, tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, or biopsy other than screening mammography were selected. Continuous health plan coverage without breast diagnostic procedures was required for ≥13 months before the first found breast diagnostic procedure (index event, with a 13-month post-index follow-up period. Key outcomes included diagnostic procedure volumes, sequences, and payments. Results reported descriptively were projected to provide US national patient and procedure volumes.Results: The final sample of 875,526 patients was nationally projected to 12,394,432 patients annually receiving 8,732,909 diagnostic mammograms (53.3% of patients, 6,987,399 breast ultrasounds (42.4% of patients, and 1,585,856 biopsies (10.3% of patients. Following initial diagnostic procedures, 49.4% had second procedures, 20.1% followed with third procedures, and 10.0% had a fourth procedure. Mean (SD costs for diagnostic mammograms of US$349 ($493, ultrasounds US$132 ($134, and biopsies US$1,938 ($2,343 contributed

  16. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  17. The impact of education on occupational radiation exposure reduction in a diagnostic radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, R.J.; Gray, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Patient load, number of radiographic exams, complexity of some exams, and associated potential occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel have increased significantly in the past decade. Efforts to reduce exposure through employee education and awareness have resulted in significant reduction in occupational exposure for most diagnostic radiographic areas at Mayo Clinic. This paper reviews trends in occupational radiation exposure from diagnostic x- rays at Mayo Clinic over the past ten years. Changes in employee radiation dose equivalents are correlated with patient workload, complexity of exams, increased interventional radiology and cardiology, and efforts to reduce employee radiation exposure

  18. [X-ray endoscopic semiotics and diagnostic algorithm of radiation studies of preneoplastic gastric mucosa changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akberov, R F; Gorshkov, A N

    1997-01-01

    The X-ray endoscopic semiotics of precancerous gastric mucosal changes (epithelial dysplasia, intestinal epithelial rearrangement) was examined by the results of 1574 gastric examination. A diagnostic algorithm was developed for radiation studies in the diagnosis of the above pathology.

  19. Radiation exposure to staff and patients during two endocrinological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova-Popova, J.; Vassileva, J.; Saltirov, I.; Petkova, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to obtain information about the exposure to patient and staff during percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy and to search for a correlation between these parameters. The collected data for each procedure consist of the total air kerma-area product, P KA , cumulative dose, CD, fluoroscopy time, FT, number of images acquired, as well as clinical patient data. Average, minimum, maximum and median values were calculated for 38 patients. Mean values and median in parentheses were as follows: 355 (383) cGy cm 2 (P KA for PCNL); 433 (286) cGy cm 2 (P KA for URS); 42 (37) mGy (CD for PCNL); 12 (7) mGy (CD for URS); 3.5 (3.0) min (FT for PCNL); 1.4 (1.3) min (FT for URS). The typical operator doses for PCNL and URS were assessed to be 66.1 μSv and 34.3 μSv, respectively, while the maximum doses for the same type of procedures were 152.6 μSv and 124.1 μSv. Good correlation was observed between the staff dose and P KA for both procedures, while the correlation of staff dose with CD and FT was found to be weak. While applying principles of radiation protection and normal load in the clinic, there is no possibility to exceed the new annual dose limit for eye lens of 20 mSv per year averaged over 5 years. The correlation of P KA with FT and CD was also explored and no significant interconnection was observed. (authors)

  20. Diagnostic applications of transient synchrotron radiation in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1990-02-01

    Transient radiation, resulting from a brief, deliberate perturbation of the velocity distribution of superthermal tokamak electrons, can be more informative than the steady background radiation that is present in the absence of the perturbation. It is possible to define a number of interesting inverse problems, which exploit the two-dimensional frequency-time data of the transient radiation signal. 17 refs

  1. Assessment of medical radiation exposure to patients and ambient doses in several diagnostic radiology departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulieman, A.; Elhadi, T.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M.; Alnaaimi, M.; Alduaij, M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    In many countries diagnostic medical exposures typically account for a very large fraction of the collective effective dose that can be assigned to anthropological sources and activities. This in part flags up the question of whether sufficient steps are being taken in regard to potential dose saving from such medical services. As a first step, one needs to survey doses to compare against those of best practice. The present study has sought evaluation of the radiation protection status and patient doses for certain key radiological procedures in four film-based radiology departments within Sudan. The radiation exposure survey, carried out using a survey meter and quality control test tools, involved a total of 299 patients their examinations being carried out at one or other of these four departments. The entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was determined from exposure settings using DosCal software and an Unfors -Xi-meter. The mean ESAK for x-ray examination of the chest was 0.30±0.1 mGy, for the skull it was 0.96±0.7 mGy, for the abdomen 0.85±0.01 mGy, for spinal procedures 1.30±0.6 mGy and for procedures involving the limbs it was 0.43±0.3 mGy. Ambient dose-rates in the reception area, at the closed door of the x-ray room, recorded instantaneous values of up to 100 μSv/h. In regard to protection, the associated levels were found to be acceptable in three of the four departments, corrective action being required for one department, regular quality control also being recommended.

  2. A new non intercepting beam size diagnostics using diffraction radiation from a Slit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, M.

    1996-09-01

    A new non interpreting beam size diagnostic for high charge electron beams is presented. This diagnostics is based on the analysis of the angular distribution of the 'diffracted' transition radiation emitted by the beam when crossing a slit cut in metallic foil. It allows a resolution better then the radiation transverse formation zone. Numerical results based on the parameters of the TTF FEL beam are given as example

  3. Software for the estimation of organ equivalent and effective doses from diagnostic radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Ernest K; Barnett, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic radiological imaging such as conventional radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) examinations will continue to provide tremendous benefits in modern healthcare. The benefit derived by the patient should far outweigh the risk associated with a properly conducted imaging examination. Nonetheless, it is very important to be able to quantify the risk associated with any radiological examination of patients, and effective dose has been considered a useful indicator of patient exposure. Quantification of the risks associated with radiological imaging is very important as such information will be helpful to physicians and their patients for comparing risks from various imaging examinations and for making informed decisions whenever there is a need for any radiological imaging. The determination of equivalent and effective doses in diagnostic radiology is of interest as a basis for estimates of risk from medical exposures. In this paper we describe a simple computer program OrgDose, which calculates the doses to 27 organs in the body and then calculates the organ equivalent and effective doses and the risk from various procedures in the radiology department including conventional radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography examinations. The program will be a useful tool for the medical and paramedical personnel who are involved with assessing organ and effective doses and risks from diagnostic radiology procedures.

  4. Quality control procedure for a general diagnostic x-ray machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion Salikin; Mazlyfarina Mohamad

    2001-01-01

    Performance tests of a particular medical diagnostic x-ray machine have to be carried out regularly in order to ensure that the machine always complies with the required standard. A performance report which is prepared based on the performance tests on the x-ray machine is used as one of the requirement by the authority for issuance and renewal licence to operate and use of the x-ray machine in a clinic or hospital. The Ministry of Health will only issue a licence to the clinic or hospital to use and operate x-ray machines, if the machines have complied with the standards. The clinic or hospital may get the service to carry out performance tests on a diagnostic x-ray machine from any licence H holder, issued by the authority under Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984. A comparative study between the standard procedure and other procedures on performance test of a general diagnostic x-ray machine is carried out and presented in brief in this paper. The criteria for compliance or otherwise as required by the Ministry of Health Malaysia is discussed and explained in brief. (Author)

  5. Theoretical modelling of experimental diagnostic procedures employed during pre-dose dosimetry of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, V.; Chen, R.; Kitis, G.

    2006-01-01

    The pre-dose technique in thermoluminescence (TL) is used for dating archaeological ceramics and for accident dosimetry. During routine applications of this technique, the sensitisation of the quartz samples is measured as a function of the annealing temperature, yielding the so-called thermal activation characteristic (TAC). The measurement of multiple TACs and the study of the effect of UV-radiation on the TL sensitivity of quartz are important analytical and diagnostic tools. In this paper, it is shown that a modified Zimmerman model for quartz can successfully model the experimental steps undertaken during a measurement of multiple TACs. (authors)

  6. Sonography as a new diagnostic procedure for investigating abnormalities of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapf, C.; Furtschegger, A.; Resch, H.; Innsbruck Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-one sonographic examinations of patients with complaints relating to the shoulder joint have shown that this is the method next in value to radiological examination. So far, lesions of the rotator cuff and of the long head of the biceps could only be demonstrated by invasive procedures such as arthrography or arthroscopy. In these situations, sonography attains a similar accuracy. Diffuse lesions can also be diagnosed correctly, making arthrography and arthroscopy unnecessary. In addition, sonography can demonstrate inflammatory and degenerative changes and incomplete sub-acromial and intermediary tears of the rotator cuff, unlike conventional diagnostic methods. In future, arthrography and arthroscopy will only be necessary as additional diagnostic methods if sonography remains inconclusive. (orig.) [de

  7. Malignancies in blood-forming organs following diagnostic and therapeutic procedures: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgin, J.D.; Webster, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    Ionizing radiation used for diagnosis or therapy has been associated with an increased incidence of malignancies of blood-forming organs. The increased incidence of hematopoietic malignancies following exposure to ionizing radiation obtained in the course of occupation, diagnosis and therapy of disease, or as a weapon of war is documented. The natural occurrence and the induced progression to acute leukemia of polycythemia rubra vera, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, Di Guglielmo's disease, and reticuloendothelial malignancies are discussed. The status of transplantation and immunodeficiency states and their relationship to acute leukemia is reviewed. Finally, drugs, toxins, and the use of cytotoxic radiomimetic agents for nonmalignant purposes are shown to lead to the development of acute leukemia. Background information relevant to the proper use of future diagnostic and therapeutic modalities is provided

  8. Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, R.

    2008-01-01

    A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant ∼50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy -1 (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy -1 ), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. (authors)

  9. Diagnostic criterions of the postradiation encephalopathy in remote period of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Vashchenko, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Development of post-radiation encephalopathy diagnostic criteria on the base of neuro psychic, neuro- and psychofisiological research in patients who suffered with acute radiation disease after Chernobyl catastrophe was the aim of this work. 110 persons of 20-75 years age were investigated. 55 refs., 6 tab., 6 figs

  10. Coordinated research programme on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Heron, J.

    1997-01-01

    Ten Asian countries (China, Vietnam, Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Iran, Philipppines, Malaysia, and Indonesia) are currently participating in a three year programme, as part of a Coordinated Research Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency, aimed at reducing patient doses in diagnostic radiology through the implementation of optimisation of radiation protection. At the first meeting, held in Manila in September 1995, the project protocol was formulated for the first eighteen months of the programme, where the focus was on plain film radiography. The purpose of the second meeting was to briefly review the first half of the project, and to then come up with protocols for the second phase, where the attention was on dose reduction in fluoroscopic procedures and CT procedures. The second Research Coordination Meeting, held in Manila 3-7 March, was attended by participants from all the countries, with the exception of Iran, plus a consultant from each of Italy and New Zealand, and the scientific secretary from IAEA, Vienna. If the obvious enthusiasm of the participants is able to b maintained on return to their respective countries, then the signs are very healthy for a successful second phase of the programme. (author)

  11. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Boel [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Section, Bergen (Norway); Boye, Kjetil [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paediatric Section, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement [University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Section, Bergen (Norway); Biermann, Martin [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-01-15

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  12. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Boel; Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik; Boye, Kjetil; Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus; Trovik, Clement; Biermann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  13. Oncology Patient Perceptions of the Use of Ionizing Radiation in Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joseph R; Jones, Aaron K; Clarke, Ryan K; Giordano, Sharon H; Shoemaker, Stowe

    2016-07-01

    To measure the knowledge of oncology patients regarding use and potential risks of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging. A 30-question survey was developed and e-mailed to 48,736 randomly selected patients who had undergone a diagnostic imaging study at a comprehensive cancer center between November 1, 2013 and January 31, 2014. The survey was designed to measure patients' knowledge about use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging and attitudes about radiation. Nonresponse bias was quantified by sending an abbreviated survey to patients who did not respond to the original survey. Of the 48,736 individuals who were sent the initial survey, 9,098 (18.7%) opened it, and 5,462 (11.2%) completed it. A total of 21.7% of respondents reported knowing the definition of ionizing radiation; 35.1% stated correctly that CT used ionizing radiation; and 29.4% stated incorrectly that MRI used ionizing radiation. Many respondents did not understand risks from exposure to diagnostic doses of ionizing radiation: Of 3,139 respondents who believed that an abdominopelvic CT scan carried risk, 1,283 (40.9%) believed sterility was a risk; 669 (21.3%) believed heritable mutations were a risk; 657 (20.9%) believed acute radiation sickness was a risk; and 135 (4.3%) believed cataracts were a risk. Most patients and caregivers do not possess basic knowledge regarding the use of ionizing radiation in oncologic diagnostic imaging. To ensure health literacy and high-quality patient decision making, efforts to educate patients and caregivers should be increased. Such education might begin with information about effects that are not risks of diagnostic imaging. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation dose reduction: comparative assessment of publication volume between interventional and diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Henzler, Thomas; Gaba, Ron C; Morelli, John N

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to quantify and compare awareness regarding radiation dose reduction within the interventional radiology and diagnostic radiology communities. Abstracts accepted to the annual meetings of the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed using the search terms "interventional/computed tomography" and "radiation dose/radiation dose reduction." A PubMed query using the above-mentioned search terms for the years of 2005-2015 was performed. Between 2005 and 2015, a total of 14 520 abstracts (mean, 660±297 abstracts) and 80 614 abstracts (mean, 3664±1025 abstracts) were presented at interventional and diagnostic radiology meetings, respectively. Significantly fewer abstracts related to radiation dose were presented at the interventional radiology meetings compared with the diagnostic radiology meetings (162 abstracts [1% of total] vs. 2706 [3% of total]; P radiology abstracts (range, 6-27) and 246±105 diagnostic radiology abstracts (range, 112-389) pertaining to radiation dose were presented at each meeting. The PubMed query revealed an average of 124±39 publications (range, 79-187) and 1205±307 publications (range, 829-1672) related to interventional and diagnostic radiology dose reduction per year, respectively (P radiology community over the past 10 years has not mirrored the increased volume seen within diagnostic radiology, suggesting that increased education and discussion about this topic may be warranted.

  15. Diagnostic procedure on brake pad assembly based on Young's modulus estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiariotti, P; Santolini, C; Tomasini, E P; Martarelli, M

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of brake pads is an important issue, since the pad is a key component of the braking system. Typical damage of a brake pad assembly is the pad–backing plate detachment that affects and modifies the mechanical properties of the whole system. The most sensitive parameter to the damage is the effective Young's modulus, since the damage induces a decrease of the pad assembly stiffness and therefore of its effective Young's modulus: indeed its variation could be used for diagnostic purposes. The effective Young's modulus can be estimated from the first bending resonance frequency identified from the frequency response function measured on the pad assembly. Two kinds of excitation methods, i.e. conventional impulse excitation and magnetic actuation, will be presented and two different measurement sensors, e.g. laser Doppler vibrometer and microphone, analyzed. The robustness of the effective Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature will be demonstrated in comparison to the first bending resonance frequency, which is more sensitive to geometrical dimensions. Variability in the sample dimension, in fact, will induce a variation of the resonance frequency which could be mistaken for damage. The diagnostic approach has been applied to a set of undamaged and damaged pad assemblies showing good performance in terms of damage identification. The environmental temperature can be an important interfering input for the diagnostic procedure, since it influences the effective Young's modulus of the assembly. For that reason, a test at different temperatures in the range between 15 °C and 30 °C has been performed, evidencing that damage identification technique is efficient at any temperature. The robustness of the Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature with respect to damping is also presented. (paper)

  16. Radiation syndrome - pathogenesis, course, diagnostic and therapeutic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    Owing to lack of practical experience, schemes for medical aid in cases of reactor accidents are based on theoretical models and the results of radiation biology and tumor research. The chances for medical assistance are deduced from the course of the radiation syndrome in affected persons. (DG) [de

  17. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschner, P.; Koenig, W.; Andreas, M.; Trinius, W.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients. (author)

  18. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschner, P; Koenig, W [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Andreas, M [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Fachrichtung Stomatologie; Trinius, W [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik

    1976-03-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients.

  19. SU-D-209-05: Sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to Procedural Factors in Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pasciak, A [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wagner, L [UT Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: A series of clinical and factorial Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the shape of the scattered X-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios. Two clinical evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affected the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effects on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in interventional cardiology, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusion: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy, and therefore the DRIP, is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle. These results will help determine an appropriate set of SMPB to be used for measuring the DRIP.

  20. Diagnosing alcoholism in high-risk drinking drivers: comparing different diagnostic procedures with estimated prevalence of hazardous alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzec, A.; Bär, M.; Koeter, M. W.; de Kieviet, W.

    2001-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under influence (DUI), suspected of an alcohol use disorder (AUD, 'alcoholism') are referred for diagnostic examination. The accuracy of diagnostic procedures used in diagnosing AUD in the DUI population is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare three

  1. Diagnostic system for EUV radiation measurements from dense xenon plasma generated by MPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Solyakov, D.G.; Marchenko, A.K.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Ladygina, M.S.; Staltsov, V.V.; Yelisyeyev, D.V.; Hassanein, A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) of compact geometry has been designed and tested as a source of EUV radiation. In present paper diagnostic system for registration of EUV radiation is described. It was applied for radiation measurements in different operation modes of MPC. The registration system was designed on the base of combination of different types of AXUV photodiodes. Possibility to minimize the influence of electrons and ions flows from dense plasma stream on AXUV detector performance and results of the measurements has been discussed.

  2. Can the diagnostic accuracy of radionuclide ventriculography during exercise be improved by means of a step-up loading procedure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruegenberg, T.

    1985-01-01

    34 patients (31 of whom were coronary heart disease sufferers as proven by angiography) and further 3 patients failing to show symptoms of this disorder were subjected to radionuclide ventriculography carried out with the aid of 99m Tc-labelled erythrocytes in such a way that examinations at rest were directly followed by maximum loading tests. In a second series of examinations a step-up procedure was adopted where initial recordings at rest were followed by preliminary exercise tests using only 25% of the maximum load. The parameters chosen to evaluate the results were heart rate, ejection fraction, maximum velocity of changes in volume, endsystolic and enddiastolic volumes (ESV and EDV) as well as cardiac output. In 23 patients the preliminary exercise test revealed an insufficient increase or even decrease of the ejection fraction that was associated with delayed volume changes, increases in ESV and EDV as well as reductions in cardiac output and in 21 patients it became evident during those examinations that the onset of stenocardiac complaints was preceded by markedly pronounced function disorders in the left ventricle. It was concluded from these findings that the step-up procedure followed here may in some patients provide additional information on the level of myocardial performance. It can thus be assumed to contribute considerably to higher diagnostic accuracy, although it requires no more time than conventional exercise tests and is not associated with additional radiation exposure. (TRV) [de

  3. Survey Talk--New Laser and Optical Radiation Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1998-01-01

    New techniques am reported for electron beam monitoring, that rely either on the analysis of the properties of wiggler radiation (from static magnetic fields as well as from laser ''undulators'', also referred to as Thomson scattering) or on the non-linear mixing of laser radiation with electron beam radiation. The different techniques reviewed are capable of providing information on femtosecond time scales and micron or even sub-micron spatial scales. The laser undulator is also proposed as a useful tool for non- destructive measurement of high power electron beams. An example is given of measuring electron beam energy and energy spread through spectral filtering of spontaneous wiggler radiation [1]. A novel technique based on fluctuational characteristics of radiation is described, for single shot, nondestructive measurement of the electron beam bunch length [2,3]. Thomson scattering based beam monitoring techniques are discussed which, through analysis of the radiated beam properties, allow non-destructive detailed measurement of transverse and longitudinal distributions of relativistic electron beams [4]. Two new techniques are discussed which rely on non-linear optical mixing of laser radiation with electron bunch emission: differential optical gating (DOG) [5] and electron bunch length measurement in a storage ring based on sum-frequency generation [6

  4. Survey of prenatal counselling practices regarding aneuploidy risk modification, invasive diagnostic procedure risks, and procedure eligibility criteria in Canadian centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Danna; Davies, Gregory; Armour, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    To explore prenatal practices related to aneuploidy screening, risk modification, and invasive diagnostic procedures across Canadian centres. We conducted a survey of members of the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, the Canadian College of Medical Genetics, and the Canadian Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine, who provide direct counselling or management of prenatal patients in Canada. Eighty-two of 157 respondents indicated that their centre's definition of advanced maternal age was ≥ 35 years, with 33/157 respondents reporting an advanced maternal age definition of ≥ 40 years. The majority of respondents reported that prenatal serum screening for aneuploidy is provincially funded in their province or territory (121/147). The majority of respondents who reported that prenatal screening is not provincially funded (17/147) were from Quebec (14/17). Thirty-nine of 123 respondents reported that their centre defines increased nuchal translucency as ≥ 3.0 mm, whereas 49/123 reported a definition of ≥ 3.5 mm. Sixty-four of 150 respondents reported that the aneuploidy risk provided by serum screening is modified by a soft marker likelihood ratio, whereas 46/150 respondents reported that both age-related and serum screening risks are modified. Fifty-nine of 124 respondents reported that their centre will modify aneuploidy risk after a normal ultrasound; the most commonly cited negative likelihood ratio was 0.5. The most commonly reported procedure-related risk for chorionic villus sampling was 1/100 (123/147) and for amniocentesis was 1/200 (73/142). This study demonstrates inconsistencies in prenatal practices and access to screening programs across Canada. The information gained from this study will inform policy advisors developing prenatal practice guidelines at both the provincial and national levels.

  5. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology. Image quality - radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Stieve, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    The publication contains the 37 lectures of the symposium on digital imaging in diagnostic radiology, held in November 1995 at Kloster Seeon, as well as contributions enhancing the information presented in the lectures. The publication reflects the state of the art in this subject field, discusses future trends and gives recommendations and information relating to current practice in radiology. In-depth information is given about R and D activities for the digitalisation of X-ray pictures and the image quality required to meet the purposes of modern diagnostics. Further aspects encompass radiological protection and dose optimization as well as optimization of examination methods. (vhe) [de

  6. Activities identification for activity-based cost/management applications of the diagnostics outpatient procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Abdalla; Momani, Amer; Ababneh, Tamador

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems facing healthcare providers is to determine the actual cost for their procedures, which is important for internal accounting and price justification to insurers. The objective of this paper is to find suitable categories to identify the diagnostic outpatient medical procedures and translate them from functional orientation to process orientation. A hierarchal task tree is developed based on a classification schema of procedural activities. Each procedure is seen as a process consisting of a number of activities. This makes a powerful foundation for activity-based cost/management implementation and provides enough information to discover the value-added and non-value-added activities that assist in process improvement and eventually may lead to cost reduction. Work measurement techniques are used to identify the standard time of each activity at the lowest level of the task tree. A real case study at a private hospital is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  7. Refining a complex diagnostic construct: subtyping Dysthymia with the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Defife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether meaningful subtypes of Dysthymic patients could be identified when grouping them by similar personality profiles. A random, national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (n=1201) described a randomly selected current patient with personality pathology using the descriptors in the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II (SWAP-II), completed assessments of patients' adaptive functioning, and provided DSM-IV Axis I and II diagnoses. We applied Q-factor cluster analyses to those patients diagnosed with Dysthymic Disorder. Four clusters were identified-High Functioning, Anxious/Dysphoric, Emotionally Dysregulated, and Narcissistic. These factor scores corresponded with a priori hypotheses regarding diagnostic comorbidity and level of adaptive functioning. We compared these groups to diagnostic constructs described and empirically identified in the past literature. The results converge with past and current ideas about the ways in which chronic depression and personality are related and offer an enhanced means by which to understand a heterogeneous diagnostic category that is empirically grounded and clinically useful. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents

  9. Radiation protection of patients in X-ray diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, P.

    1975-01-01

    The author states as a result that the care taken by the physician and the technical assistant is the most important factor in reducing the radiation exposure of patients. A fair relation between efficiency and possible unnecessary exposure is provided by careful and conscientious work which has to be based on sound knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the organism and of the possibilities of reducing the doses responsible for these effects. (orig./AK) [de

  10. Radiation Dose Risk and Diagnostic Benefit in Imaging Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Lidia; Rădulescu, Gheorghe-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents many facets of medical imaging investigations radiological risks. The total volume of prescribed medical investigations proves a serious lack in monitoring and tracking of the cumulative radiation doses in many health services. Modern radiological investigations equipment is continuously reducing the total dose of radiation due to improved technologies, so a decrease in per caput dose can be noticed, but the increasing number of investigations has determined a net increase ...

  11. The cutaneous radiation syndrome: diagnosis and treatment; Le syndrome d'irradiation cutane, diagnostic et traitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, R.U.; Steinert, M.; Gottlober, P. [Ulm Univ., Dept. of Dermatology (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Accidental exposure to ionising radiation may occur during such catastrophic events as the Chernobyl accident in 1986 or for days and weeks as in Goiania in 1987 and in the military camp during the training of soldiers in Lilo/Georgia in 1997 as well as in medical institutions. The cutaneous symptoms after radiation exposure are based on a combination of inflammatory processes and alteration of cellular proliferation as a result of a specific pattern of transcriptionally activated pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. They follow a time course consisting of prodromal erythema, manifestation, chronic stage, late stage and they are referred to as Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome. The time course depends on several factors such as the applied radiation dose, radiation quality, individual radiation sensitivity, the extent of contamination and absorption and volume of the skin. For diagnostics of the cutaneous radiation syndrome the following procedures are used: 7.5 MHz to 20 MHz-B-scan-sonography, thermography, capillary microscopy, profilometry, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, bone scintigraphy and histology. Based on the results of experimental and clinical research of the last years pharmacotherapy of the cutaneous radiation syndrome includes topic or systemic application of corticosteroids, gamma-interferon, pentoxifylline and vitamin E and superoxide dismutase. The treatment depends on the stage of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. Due to the complexity of the clinical manifestations of radiation disease in most patients an interdisciplinary treatment in specialized centres is necessary. Dermatologists are asked to perform in most cases life-long therapy and follow-up of the patients. (author)

  12. Calibration of diagnostic x-ray machines using radiation exposure and radiographic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agba, E.H.; Uloko, P. I.; Tyovenda, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Calibration of diagnostic x-ray machines using radiation exposure and radiographic parameters of the x-ray machines has been carried out. Three phase diagnostic x-ray machines situated at Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, General Hospital, Otukpo and Christian Hospital, Mkar were used for the calibration work. The radiation meter was used to measure x-ray radiation exposure. The result of this work demonstrates mR/mAs=C(KV p ) that there exist a power law relation of the form between the radiation exposure and the radiographic parameters of diagnostic x-ray machines, which can be used to estimate patient exposure during routine x-ray diagnostic examinations for wide range of operating parameters. The values of the power exponent n, constant c and total filtrations of the diagnostic x-ray machines have been estimated. These values for the diagnostic x-ray machines at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi are: 2.14, 0.88 and 2.77 respectively, for the one at the General Hospital, Otukpo are: 2.07, 0.76 and 2.68 respectively and that of the Christian Hospital, Mkar are: 2.01,0.69 and 2.61 respectively.

  13. Radiation surveillance procedure during veterinary application of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaldeep; Bhaktivinayagam, A.; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes have found wide applications in the field of biomedical veterinary nuclear medicine and research. Radiation safety issues during internal administration of radioisotopes to laboratory animals, unlike human use, are far more challenging and requires stringent, well planned and an organized system of radiation protection in the animal house facility. In this paper, we discuss our experience during veterinary research experiments involving use, handling and administration of liquid sources of 131 I. With extensive radiation protection surveillance and application of practical and essential radiation safety and hygiene practices, the radiation exposure and contamination levels during the veterinary application of isotopes can be kept ALARA

  14. Problematic radiation protective devices for X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Nanko, N.; Bruggmoser, G.; Eble, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report experimental test results of radiation safety glasses with a lead equivalence of 0.5 mm Pb. The glasses were tested on a phantom, with various radiation projections, for their shielding effect with regard to the eye lens. The protective effect at AP projection was 90%, which corresponds to the data given by the manufacturer. But in most cases of interventional radiology, the examiner's eyes are exposed to lateral radiation, due to the positioning of the monitor. In these cases, reflected radiation at the side of the glasses facing the eye may induce a dose to the lens that can be fourfold the dose received without wearing the glasses, so that wearing these glasses may enhance the hazard. Another protective device tested was lead-coated gloves. The manufacturer promises a protective effect of 50% at 100 kV. The experimental test data, obtained by taking into account technical characteristics of angiographic components, confirm a radiation shielding of about 20%. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added

  16. Lymph Node Metastases Optical Molecular Diagnostic and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Pogue CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Trustees of Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 REPORT DATE: March 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S...FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE March 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Mar 2016 - 28 Feb 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lymph...Gamma imaging of sentinel nodes is not a disease diagnostic, but rather just used to find the node and remove it for pathological inspection. As a result

  17. Prophylactic radiation protection in X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Loehr, H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diagnosis can lead to stochastic ratidation damage such as uncreased incidence of malignant growths resp. leucemia and malformations in the child and grandchild generations as a consequence of radiation-induced mutations. Non-stocharadiation damage such as burns and lense opacification, which are in each instance clearly attributable to radiation, occur today only on account of incorrect handling of the examination method and technical defects. Normally, the risk to both patient and diagnostician is low and acceptable. Yed if adequate awareness of radiation hazards is missing - which includes full control over the X-ray appliance and knowledge of possible technical defects, the legal maximum doses may be surpassed and avoidable damage caused. (orig.) [de

  18. Intraarticular Sacroiliac Joint Injection Under Computed Tomography Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Technical Note to Reduce Procedural Time and Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Nam Chull

    2016-01-01

    PurposeA technique for computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided intraarticular (IA) sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection was devised to limit procedural time and radiation dose.MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective analysis and waived the requirement for informed consent. Overall, 36 consecutive diagnostic or therapeutic IA SIJ injections (unilateral, 20; bilateral, 16) performed in 34 patients (female, 18; male, 16) with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 20–76 years) under CTF guidance were analyzed, assessing technical success (i.e., IA contrast spread), procedural time, and radiation dose.ResultsAll injections were successful from a technical perspective and were free of serious complications. Respective median procedural times and effective doses of SIJ injection were as follows: unilateral, 5.28 min (range 3.58–8.00 min) and 0.11 millisievert (mSv; range 0.07–0.24 mSv); and bilateral, 6.72 min (range 4.17–21.17 min) and 0.11 mSv (range 0.09–0.51 mSv).ConclusionsGiven the high rate of technical success achieved in limited time duration and with little radiation exposure, CTF-guided IA SIJ injection is a practical and low-risk procedure.

  19. Intraarticular Sacroiliac Joint Injection Under Computed Tomography Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Technical Note to Reduce Procedural Time and Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Nam Chull, E-mail: pncspine@gmail.com [Arumdaun Wooldul Spine Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeA technique for computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided intraarticular (IA) sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection was devised to limit procedural time and radiation dose.MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective analysis and waived the requirement for informed consent. Overall, 36 consecutive diagnostic or therapeutic IA SIJ injections (unilateral, 20; bilateral, 16) performed in 34 patients (female, 18; male, 16) with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 20–76 years) under CTF guidance were analyzed, assessing technical success (i.e., IA contrast spread), procedural time, and radiation dose.ResultsAll injections were successful from a technical perspective and were free of serious complications. Respective median procedural times and effective doses of SIJ injection were as follows: unilateral, 5.28 min (range 3.58–8.00 min) and 0.11 millisievert (mSv; range 0.07–0.24 mSv); and bilateral, 6.72 min (range 4.17–21.17 min) and 0.11 mSv (range 0.09–0.51 mSv).ConclusionsGiven the high rate of technical success achieved in limited time duration and with little radiation exposure, CTF-guided IA SIJ injection is a practical and low-risk procedure.

  20. Perceived risk of prenatal diagnostic procedure-related miscarriage and Down syndrome among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Aaron B; Washington, A Eugene; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to identify correlates of perceived risk of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or experiencing a procedure-related miscarriage among a diverse group of pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1081 English-, Spanish-, or Chinese-speaking women receiving prenatal care in the San Francisco Bay area. Perceived risk of procedure-related miscarriage or carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus was assessed using a linear rating scale from 0 (no risk) to 1 (high risk). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to explore associations between maternal characteristics including age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status and perceived risks of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or experiencing a procedure-related miscarriage. Women aged 35 years old or older had a higher perceived risk of Down syndrome than younger women (0.28 vs 0.22 on a scale from 0 to 1, P self-perceived health status (+0.08, P = .045). Latinas (+0.11, P = .008), women with an annual income less than $35,000 (+0.09, P = .003), and those who had difficulty conceiving (+0.09, P = .026) had higher perceived procedure-related miscarriage risk. Among women aged 35 years or older, perceived risk of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus was associated with the inclination to undergo prenatal diagnosis. Women's perceived risks of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or having a procedure-related miscarriage are associated with numerous characteristics that have not been shown to be associated with the actual risks of these events. These perceived risks are associated with prenatal diagnostic test inclination. Understanding patients' risk perceptions and effectively communicating risk is critical to helping patients make informed decisions regarding use of invasive prenatal testing.

  1. Longitudinal Electron Bunch Diagnostics Using Coherent Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Daniel; Happek, Uwe; Regis-Guy Piot, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal charge distribution of electron bunches in the Fermilab A0 photo-injector was determined by using the coherent transition radiation produced by electrons passing through a thin metallic foil. The auto-correlation of the transition radiation signal was measured with a Michelson type interferometer. The response function of the interferometer was determined from measured and simulated power spectra for low electron bunch charge and maximum longitudinal compression. Kramers-Kroning technique was used to determine longitudinal charge distribution. Measurements were performed for electron bunch lengths in the range from 0.3 to 2 ps (rms).

  2. The effectiveness of drama therapy on preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilievová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The integral part of the treatment of pediatric oncological patients is a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures are often associated with the fear and anxiety of the suffering child. We investigated whether a psychological preparation through drama therapy and the therapeutic puppet may reduce the anxiety related to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the preschool or early school children suffering from cancer.Methods: Twenty consecutive pediatric patients of preschool and early school age, with the diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia, were included in the study. The patients were alternatingly assigned to experimental or control group, and subjected or not subjected to drama therapy, respectively. We measured the changes in heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate as indicators of anxiety and fear, before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.Results: Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in pediatric oncological patients before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure were significantly lower in the experimental group of patients.Conclusion: Our results show that psychological preparation using drama therapy and therapeutic puppet reduced the fear and anxiety related to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in pediatric oncological patients.Key words: drama therapy; therapeutic puppet; children; oncology; psychology 

  3. Costs, charges, and revenues for hospital diagnostic imaging procedures: differences by modality and hospital characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistrom, Christopher Lee; McKay, Niccie L

    2005-06-01

    This study examined financial data reported by Florida hospitals concerning costs, charges, and revenues related to imaging services. Financial reports to the Florida Hospital Uniform Reporting System by all licensed acute care facilities for fiscal year 2002 were used to calculate four financial indices on a per procedure basis. These included charge, net revenue, operating expense (variable cost), and contribution margin. Analysis, stratified by cost center (imaging modality), tested the effects of bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban or rural status on the four indices. The mean operating expense and charge per procedure were as follows: computed tomography (CT): $51 and $1565; x-ray and ultrasound: $55 and $410; nuclear medicine (NM): $135 and $1138; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): $165 and $2048. With all four modalities, for-profit hospitals had higher charges than not-for-profit and public facilities. Excepting NM, however, the difference by ownership disappeared when considering net revenue. Operating expense did not differ by ownership type or bed size. Operating expense (variable cost) per procedure is considerably lower for CT than for MRI. Consequently, when diagnostically equivalent, CT is preferable to MRI in terms of costs for hospitals. If the cost structure of nonhospital imaging is at all similar to hospitals, the profit potential for performing CT and MRI seems to be substantial, which has relevance to the issue of imaging self-referral.

  4. Photoacoustical and pyroelectric dosimetry of X-ray radiation in diagnostic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.A. de.

    1987-01-01

    Three new types of radiation dosimeters, designed to measure X rays in its diagnostic region are described: the pulsed photoacoustical radiation dosimeter, the pyroelectric radiation dosimeter and the pulsed pyroelectric radiation dosimeter. The photoacoustical radiation dosimeter with the scope of to compare its carachteristics with the carachteristics of the new developed dosimeters is also studied. A methodology for calibration of a photoacoustical dosimeter which doesn't require the calibration of its response in a known field of ionizing radiation is proposed. A theoretical model to explain the results produced by the pulsed pyroelectric radiation dosimeter is presented. The obtained results show that the developed dosimeters are of calorimetric type, being linear its response with the X ray energy fluence rate. (author) [pt

  5. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced nervous system disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation-Induced Nervous System Disease has been issued and implemented by the Ministry of health. This standard contained three independent criteria of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury. These three kinds of disease often go together in clinic,therefore,the three diagnostic criteria were merged into radioactive nervous system disease diagnostic criteria for entirety and maneuverability of the standard. This standard was formulated based on collection of the clinical practice experience, extensive research of relevant literature and foreign relevant publications. It is mainly applied to diagnosis and treatment of occupational radiation-induced nervous system diseases, and to nervous system diseases caused by medical radiation exposure as well. In order to properly implement this standard, also to correctly deal with radioactive nervous system injury, the main contents of this standard including dose threshold, clinical manifestation, indexing standard and treatment principle were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  6. Radiation safety in X-ray diagnostic installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.R.; Ambiger, T.Y.; Viswanathan, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    Safety measures to be strictly adhered to in handling X-ray equipment and exposing patients to X-radiation are described in detail. Hazards resulting from ignorance and careless handling are mentioned. Methods of shielding are indicated. (A.K.)

  7. Principles of longitudinal beam diagnostics with coherent radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, O.; Schmueser, P.

    2006-04-24

    The FLASH facility requires novel techniques to characterize the longitudinal charge distribution of the electron bunches that drive the free-electron laser. Bunch features well below 30 {mu}m need to be resolved. One technique is based on the measurement of the far-infrared radiation spectrum and reconstruction of the bunch shape through Fourier analysis. Currently, experiments using synchrotron, transition and diffraction radiation are operating at FLASH, studying the emission spectra with various instruments. This report describes the basic physics, the measurement principles, and gives explicit mathematical derivations. References to more comprehensive discussions of practical problems and experiments are listed. After a brief introduction in Sect. 1, the radiation spectrum emitted by an electron bunch is calculated in Sect. 2 in far-field approximation. The technique to reconstruct the bunch shape from the spectrum and its basic limitations are then explained in Sect. 3. Practical examples are given. The typical radiation pulse duration ranges from less than 100 femtoseconds to several picoseconds. (orig.)

  8. Lung cancer: Diagnostic procedures and therapeutic management, with special reference to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarantino, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book on lung cancer provides a good overview of this very common cause of death in both men and women. The eight chapters in this book review a number of aspects of the disease including epidemiology, pathology, diagnostic workup, and treatment by radiation and chemotherapy. The two introductory chapters provide a summary of the epidemiology of this disease and an approach to each individual patient. Included are chapters on the many methods of treating lung cancer and the results of clinical trials as well as a brief discussion given to surgical treatment. A chapter on clinical research is directed primarily at ideas relating to chemotherapy. This brief book provides an overview of the many aspects involved in diagnosing and treating lung cancer

  9. Development of quality assurance procedures for production of sealed radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, J H; Cho, W K; Han, H S; Hong, S B; Kim, K H; Kim, S D; Lee, Y G; Lim, N J

    2001-01-01

    The quality assurance procedures for sealed radiation sources production using HANARO and RIPF have been developed. The detailed quality assurance procedures are essential to manage the whole work process effectively and ensure the quality of the produced sealed sources. Through applying this quality assurance procedures to the entire production works of the sealed radiation sources, it is expected that the quality of the products, the safety of the works and the satisfaction of the customers will be increased.

  10. Procedures for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to give guidance to management and regulators of organisations using ionizing radiations on a technique for systematically appraising their operational radiation protection programme in order that its adequacy and effectiveness can be objectively determined. The appraisal technique is based on analytical trees and can be used to examine either a whole programme, to determine its completion and adequacy or to examine one component of a programme in considerable detail. This document will not develop technical recommendations on particular radiation protection programmes. These will be found in the appropriate Safety Series document on operational radiation protection. 8 refs, figs

  11. Priorities in Radiation Protection. An Approach to a Rationale in Prioritisation Procedures at Radiation Protection Authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J. O.

    2004-01-01

    To make priorities is not the same as decision-making and justification of a decision. The justification defines the bottom line of possible options above which the decision will be taken. The decision is the final outcome of prioritisation with due consideration of all factors that are relevant in the decision making process. The objectives of this study are that, eventually, the result of it will contribute to a better planning of what to do in the area of radiation protection and to a better understanding of decisions and why other organisations and countries do otherwise; that, possibly, this study and the related discussions may reveal some still hidden essential problems in radiation protection or significant discrepancies between responsible organisations or persons that should be explained and understood; that the result of it will contribute to more transparency in plans and proposals to governments in the annual request for funds for radiation protection and to improve ability to explain and convince not least own staff; and that there will be an illumination of practical application of prioritisation principles, illumination of traps that are hidden by illusive objectives and of the interplay between-prioritisation, justification and decision making. The study includes discussions on prioritisation in perspectives, general aspects on prioritisation, justification and decision-making, the basis for choice of priorities, the application of the prioritisation principles and procedures in radiation protection, what can be prioritised and what related activities are influenced, what are the relevant factors in a prioritisation process, use of weighting factors in a prioritisation process, how to carry out prioritisation, analysis of the consequences of prioritisation, how to handle a prioritisation process, how to check if the priorities were (right) and ending with a practical example. (Author)

  12. Scattered radiation field in X-ray diagnostics; Polje rasejanog zracenja u rendgen dijagnostici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, S; Boreli, F [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1995-07-01

    In order to obtain simple analytical relation for spatial distribution of scattered X radiation around patient, the analytical procedure of simplification of starting equations is presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Patient Radiation Dose during Cardiac Interventional Procedures: What Is the Most Effective Method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Saito, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Zuguchi, M.; Kagaya, Y.; Takahashi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac interventional radiology has lower risks than surgical procedures. This is despite the fact that radiation doses from cardiac intervention procedures are the highest of any commonly performed general X-ray examination. Maximum radiation skin doses (MSDs) should be determined to avoid radiation-associated skin injuries in patients undergoing cardiac intervention procedures. However, real-time evaluation of MSD is unavailable for many cardiac intervention procedures. This review describes methods of determining MSD during cardiac intervention procedures. Currently, in most cardiac intervention procedures, real-time measuring of MSD is not feasible. Thus, we recommend that physicians record the patient's total entrance skin dose, such as the dose at the interventional reference point when it can be monitored, in order to estimate MSD in intervention procedures

  14. A national survey of occupational radiation exposure among diagnostic radiologic technologists in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeeyoung; Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Meeseon; Lee, Won Jin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate representative occupational characteristics and radiation exposure for South Korean radiologic technologists. The authors conducted a national survey by stratified sampling of South Korean administrative districts and types of medical facilities. A total of 585 technologists were surveyed, and survey data were linked with dosimetry data from the National Dose Registry. A total of 73 % of radiologic technologists sampled were male, 62 % were younger than age 40 and 86.5 % began employment after 1990. The most frequent practices among radiologic technologists were diagnostic routine X-ray followed by computed tomography (CT) and portable X-ray. Male workers were more frequently involved in CT, portable X-ray and interventional radiology whereas female workers carried out most mammography procedures. The average annual effective dose was 2.3 mSv for male and 1.3 mSv for female workers. The dose was significantly higher for workers in the provinces and those who had recently started work. (authors)

  15. An auto-calibration procedure for empirical solar radiation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojanowski, J.S.; Donatelli, Marcello; Skidmore, A.K.; Vrieling, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar radiation data are an important input for estimating evapotranspiration and modelling crop growth. Direct measurement of solar radiation is now carried out in most European countries, but the network of measuring stations is too sparse for reliable interpolation of measured values. Instead of

  16. Personalized estimates of radiation dose from dedicated breast CT in a diagnostic population and comparison with diagnostic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Karellas, Andrew; O'Connell, Avice M; Conover, David L

    2013-01-01

    diagnostic mammography, the median MGD from dedicated breast CT was approximately 13.5% higher than that from diagnostic mammography. The MGD for breast CT is based on a 1.45 mm skin layer and that for diagnostic mammography is based on a 4 mm skin layer; thus, favoring a lower estimate for MGD from diagnostic mammography. The median MGD from dedicated breast CT corresponds to the median MGD from four to five diagnostic mammography views. In comparison, for the same 133 breasts, the mean and the median number of views per breast during diagnostic mammography were 4.53 and 4, respectively. Paired analysis showed that there was approximately equal likelihood of receiving lower MGD from either breast CT or diagnostic mammography. Future work will investigate methods to reduce and optimize radiation dose from dedicated breast CT. (paper)

  17. Lost in Translation? Ethical Challenges of Implementing a New Diagnostic Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Since cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments of placental origin can be isolated and analyzed from the blood of pregnant women. Applications of this finding have been developed and implemented in clinical care pathways worldwide at an unprecedented pace and manner. Implementation patterns, however, exhibit considerable insufficiencies. Different "motors" of implementation processes, like the market or various regulatory institutions, can be identified at a national level. Each "motor" entails characteristic ethical challenges which are exemplified impressively by a rising number of case reports.Empirical data demonstrate that there are significant "losses" in the respective translational processes, especially when the results from clinical research are to be translated into the clinical reality of NIPT (the so called "second roadblock" (T2)). These "losses" are perceived in the fields of knowledge transfer, professional standardization and ethical debate. Recommendations of professional organizations often fail to reach general practitioners. Blindsided by the new diagnostic procedure in their clinical practice, professionals in prenatal care express their insecurities with regard to its handling. Ethical debate appears to adhere to pre-existing (and partly already proven to be insufficient) normative frameworks for prenatal testing. While all of these deficits are typical for the implementation processes of many new molecular diagnostic procedures, especially in NIPT, they show a high variability between different nations.A critical assessment of the preferred strategy of implementation against the background of already existing national ethical frameworks is indispensable, if potential adverse effects are to be diminished. The described translational losses seem to be significantly reducible by granting the translational process in roadblock T2 more time.

  18. Constancy of radiation output during diagnostic X-ray exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardran, G.M.; Crooks, H.E.; Birch, R.

    1978-01-01

    Variation in X-ray output and quality during a diagnostic exposure can be undesirable and may result in unnecessary dose to the patient. When significant build-up or decay periods are present errors will arise if factors obtained under steady-state conditions are employed to estimate the exposure. These parameters must be taken into account when calibrating X-ray generators. A variable speed spinning film device and a spectrometry system have been used to measure the variations under fluoroscopic and radiographic conditions for a number of generators. Variations in output due to filament heating, voltage supply and rectification, cable capacity and target pitting have been demonstrated. At low fluoroscopic currents, large surges and long decays have been observed; the significance of these effects is considered. (author)

  19. A REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION PROTECTION WHEN APPLIED TO THE PATIENT IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, B Michael

    2017-06-01

    A review of the role and relevance of the principles of radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology as specified by ICRP has been undertaken when diagnostic risks arising from an examination are taken into account. The increase in population doses arising from diagnostic radiology over the past 20 years has been due to the widespread application of higher dose CT examinations that provide significantly more clinical information. Consequently, diagnostic risks as well as radiation risks need to be considered within the patient radiation protection framework. Justification and optimisation are discussed and the limitations imposed on patient protection by employing only a radiation risk framework is highlighted. The example of radiation protection of the patient in breast screening programmes employing mammography is used to highlight the importance of defined diagnostic outcomes in any effective radiation protection strategy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A review of the fundamental principles of radiation protection when applied to the patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moores, B. Michael

    2017-01-01

    A review of the role and relevance of the principles of radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology as specified by ICRP has been undertaken when diagnostic risks arising from an examination are taken into account. The increase in population doses arising from diagnostic radiology over the past 20 years has been due to the widespread application of higher dose CT examinations that provide significantly more clinical information. Consequently, diagnostic risks as well as radiation risks need to be considered within the patient radiation protection framework. Justification and optimisation are discussed and the limitations imposed on patient protection by employing only a radiation risk framework is highlighted. The example of radiation protection of the patient in breast screening programmes employing mammography is used to highlight the importance of defined diagnostic outcomes in any effective radiation protection strategy. (author)

  1. Trends of radiation dose to the Slovak population from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations during the period from 1985 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnikova, S.; Ragan, P.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical formalism was used to evaluate the radiation dose to population from radiodiagnostic procedures. Data for the calculation were obtained from questionnaires sent to the 12 Slovak hospitals which involve nuclear medicine departments. The mean effective dose for a procedure was determined by multiplying the administered radioactivity by the effective dose per unit of applied radiopharmaceutical activity; the latter value was taken from the literature. The values of the collective effective dose, total number of examinations, mean effective dose per examination and per capita and the number of examinations in 1000 inhabitants are tabulated for the 1985-1995 period. A favorable decreasing trend in the mean effective dose per examination after 1991 was observed. This was mainly due to the replacement of 131 I labelled compounds by 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals. An overview of nuclear medicine diagnostic practice for pediatric and adult patients is also presented. The number of diagnostic procedures per 1000 inhabitants is significantly lower than in the most developed countries, and this unfavorable trend is continuing so far. (P.A.)

  2. Spatial resolution in optical transition radiation (OTR) beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, M.; Verzilov, V. A.

    1998-06-01

    An evaluation of the OTR single particle image dimension is obtained using diffraction theory based on a realistic description of the radiation source. This approach allows the analysis of the effect of the finite size of the emitting screen and of the imaging system. The role of practical experimental conditions in treating the intensity tail problem is estimated. It is shown that by exploiting the polarization properties of OTR, a considerable enhancement in the spatial resolution can be achieved, which becomes very similar to that of a standard point source

  3. Optical remote diagnostics of atmospheric propagating beams of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl JR., Robert R.

    1990-03-06

    Data is obtained for use in diagnosing the characteristics of a beam of ionizing radiation, such as charged particle beams, neutral particle beams, and gamma ray beams. In one embodiment the beam is emitted through the atmosphere and produces nitrogen fluorescence during passage through air. The nitrogen fluorescence is detected along the beam path to provide an intensity from which various beam characteristics can be calculated from known tabulations. Optical detecting equipment is preferably located orthogonal to the beam path at a distance effective to include the entire beam path in the equipment field of view.

  4. IMPAIRED MOBILITY OF VOCAL FOLDS – DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES AND TREATMENT, part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Pintarić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords affects phonation, swallowing and breathing. The major cause for reduced mobility or even immobility is innervation damage, less often mechanical disorder.The main procedures in the diagnostics of disordered vocal fold mobility are indirect laryngoscopy and videoendostroboscopy. Different imaging techniques (especially computerized tomography are of great value in searching for a cause of the impaired mobility.In unilateral vocal fold immobility, the treatment is focused on the improvement of voice quality and the prevention of aspiration during swallowing. In bilateral paralysis, it is crucial to find a balance between effective breathing and sufficient voice quality. The treatment of unilateral paralysis is started with voice therapy and swallowing rehabilitation. If these procedures are not enough surgical treatment for the medialization of the paralyzed vocal fold is applied. In the case of breathing difficulties in bilateral vocal fold immobility there is a possibility of surgical lateralization of one or both folds or a surgical excision of a part or the entire vocal fold. Surgical reinnervation, functional electrostimulation of certain laryngeal muscles and gene therapy are developing treatment modalities.

  5. Senior medical students' awareness of radiation risks from common diagnostic imaging examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Elena; Mayo, John; Nicolaou, Savvas; Kozoriz, Michael; Chang, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Senior medical students represent future physicians who commonly refer patients for diagnostic imaging studies that may involve ionizing radiation. The radiology curriculum at the University of British Columbia provides students with broad-based knowledge about common imaging examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' awareness of radiation exposures and risks. An anonymous multiple-choice cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students to assess knowledge of radiation from common diagnostic examinations and radiation-related risks following completion of the longitudinal radiology curriculum, carried out over the four years of medical training. Sixty-three of 192 eligible students participated (33% response rate). The majority felt that knowledge of radiation doses of common imaging examinations is somewhat or very important; however, only 12% (N = 8) routinely discuss radiation-related risks with patients. While all respondents recognized children as most sensitive to the effects of radiation, only 24% (N = 15) correctly identified gonads as the most radiation-sensitive tissue. Almost all respondents recognized ultrasound and MRI as radiation free modalities. Respondents who correctly identified the relative dose of common imaging examinations in chest x-ray equivalents varied from 3-77% (N = 2 - 49); the remaining responses were largely underestimates. Finally, 44% (N = 28) correctly identified the excess risk of a fatal cancer from an abdominal CT in an adult, while the remainder underestimated this risk. Medical students acknowledge the importance of radiation-related issues to patient care. While almost all students are familiar with radiation-free modalities, many are not familiar with, and commonly underestimate, the relative doses and risks of common imaging studies. This may expose patients to increasing imaging investigations and exposure to radiation hazards.

  6. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Engenharia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues F, M. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia, Av. Prof. Montenegro s/n, Rubiao Junior, 18601-970 Botucatu (Brazil); Vivolo, V., E-mail: chancez@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with {sup 7}Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H.; Rodrigues F, M. A.; Vivolo, V.

    2014-08-01

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with 7 Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of radiation protection in interventional orthopedic procedures in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M. Y. A.

    2013-06-01

    In this study an evaluation of radiation safety and protection in interventional orthopedic procedures for the staff in three theatres in Khartoum state was conducted. To evaluate radiation protection program and staff knowledge with regard to radiation protection a questionnaire was designed and distributed among the staff there. Integrity check was conducted on the available radiation tools ( lead aprons) to ensure that they provide optimal protection when positioned appropriately. Also dose rate was measured around the theatre to evaluate the level of leakage radiation. Finally the absorbed dose to orthopedic specialists was measured during several procedures. The study showed the absence of most of the radiation protection and safety procedures that ensure the protection of of workers and lack of radiation protection program. The integrity check conducted on lead aprons showed uncapable crack in about 24% of the checked aprons. And in spite of this, there was no action taken to withdraw those faulty aprons or to replace them due to the acute shortage of the aprons available in the three centers and this will cause unjustified radiation exposure to the staff. The level of radiation around the theatres was found to fall within the acceptable limit according to the international commission of radiation protection (ICRP) recommendations that -if implemented -could improve the status of radiation protection in interventional orthopedic procedures. The improve. The important recommendations are to establish a single regulatory authority in Sudan independent from any user or promotion of radiation as well as to conduct periodically training courses for orthopedic staff on radiation protection in orthopedic interventional procedures.(Author)

  9. Development of quality control procedures at a new radiation therapy centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.

    1999-01-01

    Before patients can be treated with radiation therapy, the radiation therapist must be certain that the equipment is functioning within specified parameters. When commencing a new service, introducing appropriate Quality Control procedures on all equipment can be a major accomplishment. At the North Queensland Oncology Service, the Radiation Therapists are responsible for the daily Quality Control on all the radiation therapy equipment. The documentation and procedures were developed by radiation therapists to ensure that all machine parameter discrepancies would be detected before a patient was treated. Monthly Quality Control is the responsibility of the Physics Department. These are carried out on the bi-weekly service days rostered for each linear accelerator and monthly for the simulator. Ongoing Quality Control and Maintenance Meetings ensures reporting and feedback is ongoing between the Radiation Therapists and Physicists. All other liaising is done through the Deputy Chief Radiation Therapist and Senior Physicist. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  10. Radiation Protection Procedures to Individuals According to Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The new recommendations of the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) had been adopted in March 2007. Historically, the first main ICRP recommendations were adopted in 1976. Hence, IAEA issued its publication (safety series no 9) entitled Basic safety standards for radiation protection, EU issued its legislative directive. Furthermore, U K issued its 1985 Ionizing Radiation Regulations . These recommendations were based upon system of dose limitation (justification, optimization and annual dose limits and Four types of exposures (occupational, medical, public and planned special exposure) The second main ICRP recommendations were adopted in 1990. Hence, IAEA together with other international organizations issued its publication (safety series no 115) entitled International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources in 1996. Furthermore, EU issued its new legislative directive and UK issued its updated Ionizing radiation regulations in 1999. These recommendations based upon two systems of protection, these are system of protection in practice and system of protection in intervention. The new ICRP or 2007 recommendations is based upon situations 1- Planned situations, 2- Emergency situations, and 3- Existing situations. The 2007 recommendations rely also on Individuals 1- Occupational, 2- Public and 3- Patient and Furthermore, elements of Radiation Protection system are 1- Justification, 2- Optimization and 3- Dose limits. Updated numerical values for radiation weighting factors for proton is 2 instead of 5 and for neutron , its continuous function instead of discrete values . New numerical values for tissue weighting factors include value of 8% for Gonads instead of 20%. The recommended nominal probability is around 5 per cSv. IAEA as well other international organization are updating its Basic Safety Standards . National regulations shall also be updated accordingly

  11. Radiation dosage of various CT-methods in lung diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz-Peer, G.; Weninger, F.; Nowotny, R.; Herold, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction of the computed tomography index CTDI and the multiple scan average dose (MSAD) has led to standardization of the dose description in CT examinations. Despite the use of these dose parameters, many different dosages are reported in the literature for different CT methods. In addition, there is still a wide range of radiation dosimetry results reported for conventional CT, helical CT, and HRCT used in chest examinations. The variations in dosage are mainly due to difference in factors affecting the dose, i.e. beam geometry, beam quality, scanner geometry ('generation'), and operating parameters. In addition, CT dosimetry instrumentation and methodology make a contribution to dosages. Recent studies calculating differences in factors affecting dosage and CT dosimetry and using similar operating parameters, show similar results in CT dosimetry for conventional and helical CT. On the other hand, dosages for HRCT were greatly reduced. This was mainly caused by narrow beam collimation and increasing section spacing. (orig.) [de

  12. A practical approach to radiation protection information in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederblad, Aa.; Bjurklint, E.; Maansson, L.G.; Sund, P.; Kheddache, S.

    1999-01-01

    In a benchmarking process, parameters related to patient doses and image quality were compared in x-ray examinations from 10 radiology departments in western Sweden. One main object of the project was to form a pedagogical process focussing on radiation protection and quality matters by engaging radiographers and radiologists from the departments in practical project work and optimisation discussions. Anatomical phantoms with simulated pathology were used for standardised entrance dose measurements and exposure of phantom images. Radiographer performance, such as centering and collimation, was evaluated by radiographers. Radiologists evaluated clinical images using revised CEC quality criteria. The results of the measurements showed significant differences between the departments both for image quality, entrance dose and the performance of examinations. Explanations to these differences were in many cases found in the choice of equipment, working methods etc. (au)

  13. Visualization, imaging and new preclinical diagnostics in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyran, Clemens C; Reiser, Maximilian F; Belka, Claus; Niyazi, Maximilian; Paprottka, Philipp M; Eisenblätter, Michel; Clevert, Dirk A; Rist, Carsten; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Lauber, Kirsten; Wenz, Frederik; Hausmann, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Innovative strategies in cancer radiotherapy are stimulated by the growing knowledge on cellular and molecular tumor biology, tumor pathophysiology, and tumor microenvironment. In terms of tumor diagnostics and therapy monitoring, the reliable delineation of tumor boundaries and the assessment of tumor heterogeneity are increasingly complemented by the non-invasive characterization of functional and molecular processes, moving preclinical and clinical imaging from solely assessing tumor morphology towards the visualization of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Functional and molecular imaging techniques allow for the non-invasive characterization of tissues in vivo, using different modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). With novel therapeutic concepts combining optimized radiotherapy with molecularly targeted agents focusing on tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell death, the non-invasive assessment of tumor microcirculation and tissue water diffusion, together with strategies for imaging the mechanisms of cellular injury and repair is of particular interest. Characterizing the tumor microenvironment prior to and in response to irradiation will help to optimize the outcome of radiotherapy. These novel concepts of personalized multi-modal cancer therapy require careful pre-treatment stratification as well as a timely and efficient therapy monitoring to maximize patient benefit on an individual basis. Functional and molecular imaging techniques are key in this regard to open novel opportunities for exploring and understanding the underlying mechanisms with the perspective to optimize therapeutic concepts and translate them into a personalized form of radiotherapy in the near future

  14. Radiation doses and correlated late effects in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, M.

    1980-04-01

    Patient irradiation in diagnostic radiology was estimated from measurements of absorbed doses in different organs, assessment of the energy imparted and retrospective calculations based on literature data. Possible late biological effects, with special aspects on children, were surveyed. The dose to the lens of the eye and the possibility of shielding in carotid angiography was studied as was the absorbed dose to the thyroid gland at cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography in children. Calculations of the mean bone marrow dose and gonad doses were performed in children with chronic skeletal disease revealing large contributions from examinations of organs other than the skeleton. The dose distribution in the breast in mammography was investigated. Comparison of the energy imparted in common roentgen examinations in 1960 and 1975 showed an unexpected low decrease in spite of technical improvements. Reasons for the failing decrease are discussed. The energy imparted to children in urological examinations was reduced significantly due to introduction of high sensitivity screens and omission of dose demanding projections. Contributions to the possible late effects were estimated on the basis of the organ doses assessed. (author)

  15. The radiation protection optimisation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the class of artificial sources, X-ray diagnostic techniques irradiate global population with more than 90 % share in total dose. At the same time this is the only area with high possibilities in collective dose reduction without important investments. Exposure of the medical team is mainly related to unnecessary irradiation. Eliminating this unnecessary irradiation quality of diagnostic information remains undisturbed. From the radiation protection point of view the most critical X-ray diagnostic method is angiography. This paper presents the radiation protection optimisation calculation of the protective lead thickness using the Cost - Benefit analysis technique. The obtained numerical results are based on calculated collective dose, the estimated prices of the lead and lead glass thickness and the adopted price for monetary value of the collective dose unit α. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs

  16. The radiation protection optimisation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    In the class of artificial sources, X-ray diagnostic techniques irradiate global population with more than 90 % share in total dose. At the same time this is the only area with high possibilities in collective dose reduction without important investments. Exposure of the medical team is mainly related to unnecessary irradiation. Eliminating this unnecessary irradiation quality of diagnostic information remains undisturbed. From the radiation protection point of view the most critical X-ray diagnostic method is angiography. This paper presents the radiation protection optimisation calculation of the protective lead thickness using the Cost - Benefit analysis technique. The obtained numerical results are based on calculated collective dose, the estimated prices of the lead and lead glass thickness and the adopted price for monetary value of the collective dose unit {alpha}. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs.

  17. Development of a magnetic diagnostic suitable for the ITER radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.; Le-Luyer, A.; Malard, P.; Pastor, P.; Fournier, Y.; Lister, J. B.; Moret, J. M.; Testa, D.; Toussaint, M.; Chitarin, G.; Delogu, R.; Galo, A.; Peruzzo, S.; Romero, J.; Vila, R.; Brichard, B.; Bolshakova, I.; Duran, I.; Encheva, A.; Vayakis, G.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic diagnostics of the ITER tokamak must fulfill demanding specifications, because their accuracy and reliability affects margins to the machine engineering limits and therefore operational flexibility. This paper describes the challenging issues related to the implementation of the magnetic diagnostics in a tokamak environment. We focus on nuclear radiations as they can significantly affect the measurement through Radiation Induced Electromotive Force (RIEMF) or Thermally Induced Electromotive Force (TIEMF). Thermal modeling of magnetic sensors and associated design studies are also reported as the thermal gradient in the sensors must be reduced to avoid TIEMF. Alternative magnetic sensors such as fiber optic current sensors (FOCS) or steady state magnetic field sensors are also discussed because they serve as a backup to the usual inductive magnetic measurements. We conclude by a brief review of the development needs for magnetic diagnostics. (authors)

  18. Developing an automated database for monitoring ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided procedure complications and diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Jones, Lisa P; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W; Kolansky, Ana S; Hilton, Susan; Zafar, Hanna M

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring complications and diagnostic yield for image-guided procedures is an important component of maintaining high quality patient care promoted by professional societies in radiology and accreditation organizations such as the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Joint Commission. These outcome metrics can be used as part of a comprehensive quality assurance/quality improvement program to reduce variation in clinical practice, provide opportunities to engage in practice quality improvement, and contribute to developing national benchmarks and standards. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and successful implementation of an automated web-based software application to monitor procedural outcomes for US- and CT-guided procedures in an academic radiology department. The open source tools PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) and MySQL were used to extract relevant procedural information from the Radiology Information System (RIS), auto-populate the procedure log database, and develop a user interface that generates real-time reports of complication rates and diagnostic yield by site and by operator. Utilizing structured radiology report templates resulted in significantly improved accuracy of information auto-populated from radiology reports, as well as greater compliance with manual data entry. An automated web-based procedure log database is an effective tool to reliably track complication rates and diagnostic yield for US- and CT-guided procedures performed in a radiology department.

  19. Radiation doses in diagnostic radiology and methods for dose reduction. Report of a co-ordinated research programme (1991-1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    It is well recognized that diagnostic radiology is the largest contributor to the collective dose from all man-made sources of radiation. Large differences in radiation doses from the same procedures among different X ray rooms have led to the conclusion that there is a potential for dose reduction. A Co-ordinated Research Programme on Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction, involving Member States with different degrees of development, was launched by the IAEA in co-operation with the CEC. This report summarizes the results of the second and final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 4 to 8 October 1993. 22 refs, 6 figs and tabs.

  20. Radiation doses in diagnostic radiology and methods for dose reduction. Report of a co-ordinated research programme (1991-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    It is well recognized that diagnostic radiology is the largest contributor to the collective dose from all man-made sources of radiation. Large differences in radiation doses from the same procedures among different X ray rooms have led to the conclusion that there is a potential for dose reduction. A Co-ordinated Research Programme on Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction, involving Member States with different degrees of development, was launched by the IAEA in co-operation with the CEC. This report summarizes the results of the second and final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 4 to 8 October 1993. 22 refs, 6 figs and tabs

  1. Radiation exposure of the population due to medical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.

    1976-01-01

    The question of individual benefit-risk ratio in X-ray exposures is considered. The growth rate of the number of radiological examinations in New Zealand, Sweden, UK and USA is stated to be between 2 and 6 per cent per annum. The risks of internal radioisotope tests are emphasised and reductions of exposure are reported when 99Tc isotopes are used, counterbalanced by the increasing number of exposures made; the question of radiation-induced leukemia is raised in this respect. The problems of analysing delayed radiation effects are discussed, and the possibility of animal tests is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  2. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  3. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, I; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; LeBlanc, B; Kozub, T A; Parker, R R; Stratton, B C

    2014-11-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  4. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-Ua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, I.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Tritz, K.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A.; Parker, R. R.; Stratton, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  5. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, I.; Parker, R. R. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States); Stratton, B. C. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  6. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, I.; Parker, R. R.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A.; Tritz, K.; Stratton, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed

  7. Development of X-ray tracer diagnostics for radiatively-driven ablator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Cohen, D.H.; Wang, P.; Moses, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Langen, O.L.; Olson, R.E.; Murphy, T.J.; Magelssen, G.R.; Delamater, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report covers fiscal year 1998 of our ongoing project to develop tracer X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics for hohlraum environments. This effort focused on an experimental campaign carried out at OMEGA on 25--27 August 1998. This phase of the project heavily emphasized experimental design, diagnostic development, and target fabrication, as well as building up numerical models for the experiments. The spectral diagnostic under development involves using two thin (few 1000 Angstroem) mid-Z tracers in two witness plates mounted on the side of a hohlraum with the tracers' K a absorption features seen against an X-ray backlighter. The absorption data are used to sample the time-dependent, localized properties of each witness plate as a radiation wave ablates it. The experiments represented the first application of this diagnostic, in this case to side-by-side doped and undoped plastic to investigate the effects of capsule ablator dopants

  8. Calculation of entrance exposed area from recorded images in cardiac diagnostic and interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, G.; Balman, D.

    2000-01-01

    With increasing number of interventional radiological procedures performed on patients of all ages, it is important to determine the skin entrance dose of patients to limit the side effects of radiation. In most cases the skin dose is measured using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). However, these detectors need to be placed in the radiation field on the skin of the patient, which may interfere with the procedure. Also, not all radiological practices are equipped with TLD readers which are expensive or have staff with the appropriate knowledge and expertise to be able to make use of TLD. The alternative to TLD is to use the dose area product (DAP) measured with a diamentor fitted to the angiography x-ray equipment. The difficulties in using DAP to calculate skin dose is that the irradiated area of the skin is not known. The area could change in size and location during the procedure as the radiologist/medical specialist varies the collimation and region of interest. For angiography equipment the distance between the anode and image intensifier is variable, as is the height of the examination table. The only point of reference is the isocentre. With recorded images it is possible to determine the irradiated area of the patient at the isocentre plane using the stenosis algorithm. The recorded image is calibrated such that it corresponds to the physical size in the plane of the isocentre. For non-recorded images, it may be necessary to assume that collimation has not changed and that the irradiated area is the same as that shown on the recorded images. The Women's and Children's Hospital has a Toshiba DFP2000 Biplane Digital Imaging system used for all cardiac and general angiography and interventional procedures. With this system the exposure factors (kVp, mA, field sizes) are recorded with the images. The source to image distance (SID), magnification factor (calibration factor of the recorded images) and angle of rotation are displayed on the Display Panel of the

  9. A procedure for routine radiation protection checking of mammography equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, L.G.; Lundehn, I.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure was developed for checking of mammography equipment used in screening for mammary cancer. The procedure will be handled by hospital physicists or x-ray inspectors and is intended to permit checking of x-ray equipment performance as well as evaluation of mean dose or eneray imparted to groups of patients. Measurement methods studied involve TLD, ionization chambers and a new plastic scintillator designed to measure energy imparted. After careful study of sizes and attenuation properties of breasts, a 50 mm polymethylmetacrylate phantom seemed the most appropriate. The choice of measuring equipment is reported as well as some preliminary results from field measurements. (author)

  10. The Downside of Diagnostic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    An article about radiation exposure during computed tomography and nuclear imaging procedures and the risk of cancer. Several studies released in 2009 have helped to quantify the risk and the growing use of these diagnostic imaging methods.

  11. Staff and patient absorbed doses due to diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabei, F.; Neshandar Asli, I.; Aghamiri, S.M.; Arbabi, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background: annual patient effective dose equivalent can be considered as a quantitative physical parameter describing the activities performed in each nuclear medicine department. annual staff dose equivalent could be also considered as a parameter describing the amount of radiation risk for performing the activities. We calculated the staff to patient dose equivalent ratio to be used as a physical parameter for quantification of ALARA law in nuclear medicine department. Materials and methods: as a part of nationwide study, this paper reports the staff and patient absorbed dose equivalents from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations performed in four nuclear medicine department during 1999-2002. The type and frequency of examinations in each department were determined directly from hospital medical reports. Staff absorbed doses equivalents were calculated from regular personal dosimeter reports. Results: the total number of examinations increased by 16.7 % during these years. Annual patient collective dose equivalent increased about 13.0 % and the mean effective dose equivalent per exam was 3.61 ± 0.07 mSv. Annual total staff absorbed dose equivalent (total of 24 radiation workers) in four departments increased from 40.45 mSv to 47.81 mSv during four years that indicates an increase of about 20.6 %. The average of annual ratios of staff to patient effective dose equivalents in four departments were 1.83 x 10 -3 , 1.04 x 10 -3 , 3.28 x 10 -3 and 3.24 x 10 -3 , respectively, within a range of 0.9 x 10 -3 - 4.17 x 10 -3 . The mean value of ratios in four years was about 2.24 x 10 -3 ± 1.09 x 10 -3 that indicates the staff dose of about two 1000 th of patient dose. Conclusion: The mean value of ratios in four years was about 1.89 x 10 -3 ± 0.95 x 10 -3 indicating the staff dose of about one 1000 th of the patient dose. The staff to patient absorbed dose equivalent ratio could be used as a quantitative parameter for describing ALARA law in radiation protection and

  12. Avoidance of radiation injuries from medical interventional procedures, ICRP Publication 85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2000-01-01

    Interventional radiology (fluoroscopically-guided) techniques are being used by an increasing number of clinicians not adequately trained in radiation safety or radiobiology. Many of these interventionists are not aware of the potential for injury from these procedures or the simple methods for decreasing their incidence. Many patients are not being counselled on the radiation risks, nor followed up when radiation doses from difficult procedures may lead to injury. Some patients are suffering radiation-induced skin injuries and younger patients may face an increased risk of future cancer. Interventionists are having their practice limited or suffering injury, and are exposing their staff to high doses. In some interventional procedures, skin doses to patients approach those experienced in some cancer radiotherapy fractions. Radiation-induced skin injuries are occurring in patients due to the use of inappropriate equipment and, more often, poor operational technique. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. Acute radiation doses (to patients) may cause erythema at 2 Gy, cataract at 2 Gy, permanent epilation at 7 Gy, and delayed skin necrosis at 12 Gy. Protracted (occupational) exposures to the eye may cause cataract at 4 Gy if the dose is received in less than 3 months, at 5.5 Gy if received over a period exceeding 3 months. Practical actions to control dose to the patient and to the staff are listed. The absorbed dose to the patient in the area of skin that receives the maximum dose is of priority concern. Each local clinical protocol should include, for each type of interventional procedure, a statement on the cumulative skin doses and skin sites associated with the various parts of the procedure. Interventionists should be trained to use information on skin dose and on practical techniques to control dose. Maximum cumulative absorbed doses that appear to approach or exceed 1 Gy (for procedures that may be

  13. Avoidance of radiation injuries from medical interventional procedures, ICRP Publication 85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2000-06-01

    Interventional radiology (fluoroscopically-guided) techniques are being used by an increasing number of clinicians not adequately trained in radiation safety or radiobiology. Many of these interventionists are not aware of the potential for injury from these procedures or the simple methods for decreasing their incidence. Many patients are not being counselled on the radiation risks, nor followed up when radiation doses from difficult procedures may lead to injury. Some patients are suffering radiation-induced skin injuries and younger patients may face an increased risk of future cancer. Interventionists are having their practice limited or suffering injury, and are exposing their staff to high doses. In some interventional procedures, skin doses to patients approach those experienced in some cancer radiotherapy fractions. Radiation-induced skin injuries are occurring in patients due to the use of inappropriate equipment and, more often, poor operational technique. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. Acute radiation doses (to patients) may cause erythema at 2 Gy, cataract at 2 Gy, permanent epilation at 7 Gy, and delayed skin necrosis at 12 Gy. Protracted (occupational) exposures to the eye may cause cataract at 4 Gy if the dose is received in less than 3 months, at 5.5 Gy if received over a period exceeding 3 months. Practical actions to control dose to the patient and to the staff are listed. The absorbed dose to the patient in the area of skin that receives the maximum dose is of priority concern. Each local clinical protocol should include, for each type of interventional procedure, a statement on the cumulative skin doses and skin sites associated with the various parts of the procedure. Interventionists should be trained to use information on skin dose and on practical techniques to control dose. Maximum cumulative absorbed doses that appear to approach or exceed 1 Gy (for procedures that may be

  14. Improvement of Railroad Roller Bearing Test Procedures & Development of Roller Bearing Diagnostic Techniques. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive review of existing basic diagnostic techniques applicable to the railcar roller bearing defect and failure problem was made. Of the potentially feasible diagnostic techniques identified, high frequency vibration was selected for exper...

  15. Radiation protection and quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - an IAEA coordinated research project in Asia and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, Modupe; LeHeron, J.; Maccia, C.; Padovani, R.; Vano, E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency currently has two parallel Coordinated Research Projects (CRP) running in Asia and Eastern Europe. The main objective of the CRPs is to raise the level of awareness in participating countries about the need for radiation protection for patients undergoing diagnostic radiology procedures. This is to be achieved by first assessing the status quo in a sample of hospitals and X-ray rooms in each participating country. A program of optimization of radiation protection for patients is then introduced by means of a comprehensive quality assurance program and the implementation of appropriate dose reduction methods, taking into account clinical requirements for diagnostically acceptable images. Patient dose assessment and image quality assessment are to be performed both before and after the introduction of the quality assurance program. The CRP is divided into two phases - the first is concerned with conventional radiography, while the second involves fluoroscopy and computed tomography. The CRP is still running, restricting the scope of this paper to a discussion of the approach being taken with the project. The project will be completed in 1998, with analysis to follow

  16. Radiation protection and quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - an IAEA coordinated research project in Asia and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oresegun, Modupe [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); LeHeron, J. [National Radiation Laboratory, Christchurch (New Zealand); Maccia, C. [Centre d' Assurance de qualite des Applications Technologiques dans le Domaine de la Sante, Bourg-la-Reine (France); Padovani, R. [Instituto di Fisica Sanitaria, Udine (Italy); Vano, E. [Medical Physics Group, Radiology Department, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency currently has two parallel Coordinated Research Projects (CRP) running in Asia and Eastern Europe. The main objective of the CRPs is to raise the level of awareness in participating countries about the need for radiation protection for patients undergoing diagnostic radiology procedures. This is to be achieved by first assessing the status quo in a sample of hospitals and X-ray rooms in each participating country. A program of optimization of radiation protection for patients is then introduced by means of a comprehensive quality assurance program and the implementation of appropriate dose reduction methods, taking into account clinical requirements for diagnostically acceptable images. Patient dose assessment and image quality assessment are to be performed both before and after the introduction of the quality assurance program. The CRP is divided into two phases - the first is concerned with conventional radiography, while the second involves fluoroscopy and computed tomography. The CRP is still running, restricting the scope of this paper to a discussion of the approach being taken with the project. The project will be completed in 1998, with analysis to follow.

  17. Diagnostic Dental Radiation Risk during Pregnancy: Awareness among General Dentists in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Pregnant women often do not receive proper dental care in emergency visits due to a lack of awareness of the effect of radiation doses and the involved risks for the fetus. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of general dentists practicing in Tabriz, Iran, of the risks involved during exposure to diagnostic dental radiation in pregnant women. Materials and methods. In this descriptive/cross-sectional study, 250 general dentists, who had attended continuing education courses under the supervision of the Faculty of Dentistry, filled out questionnaires on their awareness of radiation risks. Data was analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficient test. Results. The mean of correct answers was 6.47±1.66, with the least and highest correct answers of 2 and 10, respectively. The highest and the lowest levels of awareness were related to the use of a lead apron (92% and a long rectangular collimator (3.2%, respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between the age of practitioners and awareness of radiation risks (P=0.02. However, no statistically significant correlation was observed between job experience (P=0.25 and the number of continuing education courses attended (P=0.16 and awareness of radiation risks. Conclusion. The studied population of dentists does not seem to have the sufficient knowledge regarding the diagnostic dental radiation risk during pregnancy. Further educational courses and pamphlets are recommended for increasing their awareness of this subject.

  18. Synthetic radiation diagnostics in PIConGPU. Integrating spectral detectors into particle-in-cell codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausch, Richard; Burau, Heiko; Huebl, Axel; Steiniger, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Debus, Alexander; Widera, Rene; Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present the in-situ far field radiation diagnostics in the particle-in-cell code PIConGPU. It was developed to close the gap between simulated plasma dynamics and radiation observed in laser plasma experiments. Its predictive capabilities, both qualitative and quantitative, have been tested against analytical models. Now, we apply this synthetic spectral diagnostics to investigate plasma dynamics in laser wakefield acceleration, laser foil irradiation and plasma instabilities. Our method is based on the far field approximation of the Lienard-Wiechert potential and allows predicting both coherent and incoherent radiation spectrally from infrared to X-rays. Its capability to resolve the radiation polarization and to determine the temporal and spatial origin of the radiation enables us to correlate specific spectral signatures with characteristic dynamics in the plasma. Furthermore, its direct integration into the highly-scalable GPU framework of PIConGPU allows computing radiation spectra for thousands of frequencies, hundreds of detector positions and billions of particles efficiently. In this talk we will demonstrate these capabilities on resent simulations of laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) and high harmonics generation during target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA).

  19. Re-Establishment of Standard Radiation Qualities for Calibration of Dosemeter in Diagnostic Radiology - RQR Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Norhayati Abdullah; Mohd Firdaus Abd Rahman

    2016-01-01

    After repairing the high voltage (HV) generator for Philips MG165 X-Ray Machine, the reestablishment of the standard radiation qualities has been done at Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory to meet the IEC and IAEA standard. Standard radiation qualities are the important criteria for calibration of dosemeter in diagnostic radiology. Standard radiation qualities are defined as the added filtration needed to produce and the half value layer (HVL) of the beam for specifies x-ray tube kilo voltage (kV). For calibration of dosemeter in diagnostic radiology, standard radiation qualities RQR represent the beam incident on the patient in general radiography, fluoroscopy and dental application. The HVL were measured using PTW ion chamber of volume 1 cm"3 with PTW electrometer and aluminium filter with 99.9 % purity was used as additional filter for RQR and filter for HVL. The first establishment of standard radiation qualities was made in 2009 for the radiation qualities of RQR. The results of additional filter and 1st HVL from 2009 to 2016 will be discussed further in paper. The ratios of the measured HVL to the standard IEC HVL value for the RQR series also described in this paper. The details of the measurement and the results are described in this paper. (author)

  20. Metadata requirements for results of diagnostic imaging procedures: a BIIF profile to support user applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas J.; Lloyd, David S.; Reynolds, Melvin I.; Plummer, David L.

    2002-05-01

    A visible digital image is rendered from a set of digital image data. Medical digital image data can be stored as either: (a) pre-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic print, or (b) un-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic negative. The appropriate image data storage format and associated header data (metadata) required by a user of the results of a diagnostic procedure recorded electronically depends on the task(s) to be performed. The DICOM standard provides a rich set of metadata that supports the needs of complex applications. Many end user applications, such as simple report text viewing and display of a selected image, are not so demanding and generic image formats such as JPEG are sometimes used. However, these are lacking some basic identification requirements. In this paper we make specific proposals for minimal extensions to generic image metadata of value in various domains, which enable safe use in the case of two simple healthcare end user scenarios: (a) viewing of text and a selected JPEG image activated by a hyperlink and (b) viewing of one or more JPEG images together with superimposed text and graphics annotation using a file specified by a profile of the ISO/IEC Basic Image Interchange Format (BIIF).

  1. Review of advanced catheter technologies in radiation oncology brachytherapy procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou J; Zamdborg L; Sebastian E

    2015-01-01

    Jun Zhou,1,2 Leonid Zamdborg,1 Evelyn Sebastian1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, 2Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, USA Abstract: The development of new catheter and applicator technologies in recent years has significantly improved treatment accuracy, efficiency, and outcomes in brachytherapy. In this paper, we review these advances, focusing on the performance of catheter imaging and reconstruction techniques in brachytherapy ...

  2. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Weert, H.C. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Bindels, P.J.; Horst, H.E. van der

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evaluating

  3. Evaluating the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services to Assess Incorrect Error-Correction Procedures by Preschool Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Melissa; Sellers, Tyra P.

    2018-01-01

    The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) has been used to assess variables contributing to undesirable staff performance. In this study, three preschool teachers completed the PDC-HS to identify the factors contributing to four paraprofessionals' inaccurate implementation of error-correction procedures during discrete trial…

  4. Consensus guidelines for the use of bowel preparation prior to colonic diagnostic procedures: colonoscopy and small bowel video capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth; Pellisé, Maria; Heresbach, Denis; Fischbach, Wolfgang; Dixon, Tricia; Belsey, Jonathan; Parente, Fabrizio; Rio-Tinto, Ricardo; Brown, Alistair; Toth, Ervin; Crosta, Cristiano; Layer, Peter; Epstein, Owen; Boustiere, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Adequate bowel preparation prior to colonic diagnostic procedures is essential to ensure adequate visualisation. This consensus aims to provide guidance as to the appropriate use of bowel preparation for a range of defined clinical circumstances. A consensus group from across Europe was convened and

  5. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  6. Hospital discharge diagnostic and procedure codes for upper gastro-intestinal cancer: how accurate are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Efty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-level health administrative datasets such as hospital discharge data are used increasingly to evaluate health services and outcomes of care. However information about the accuracy of Australian discharge data in identifying cancer, associated procedures and comorbidity is limited. The Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC is a census of inpatient hospital discharges in the state of New South Wales (NSW. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of the APDC in identifying upper gastro-intestinal (upper GI cancer cases, procedures for associated curative resection and comorbidities at the time of admission compared to data abstracted from medical records (the ‘gold standard’. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 240 patients with an incident upper GI cancer diagnosis derived from a clinical database in one NSW area health service from July 2006 to June 2007. Extracted case record data was matched to APDC discharge data to determine sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and agreement between the two data sources (κ-coefficient. Results The accuracy of the APDC diagnostic codes in identifying site-specific incident cancer ranged from 80-95% sensitivity. This was comparable to the accuracy of APDC procedure codes in identifying curative resection for upper GI cancer. PPV ranged from 42-80% for cancer diagnosis and 56-93% for curative surgery. Agreement between the data sources was >0.72 for most cancer diagnoses and curative resections. However, APDC discharge data was less accurate in reporting common comorbidities - for each condition, sensitivity ranged from 9-70%, whilst agreement ranged from κ = 0.64 for diabetes down to κ  Conclusions Identifying incident cases of upper GI cancer and curative resection from hospital administrative data is satisfactory but under-ascertained. Linkage of multiple population-health datasets is advisable to maximise case ascertainment and minimise false

  7. A study on enforcement effects of radiation safety control regulations for diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mo IL; Park, Myeong Hwan; Kwon, Duk Moon; Lee, Joon IL

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to analyze the realities after enforcements of safety control regulations for diagnostic X-ray equipment and to suggest means for an improvement of low radiation safety control. A questionnaire survey for medical radiologic technologists was carried out to determine enforcement effects of the safety control regulations. The results of analysis from the survey are as follows. That is, most of he respondents realized the importance of the radiation safety control system, but about a half of them revealed that regulations were not well observed in accordance with their purposes. Only 43.9 percent of the respondents took an active part in quality control of radiation. And responsibility, sex, age, and knowledge for safety control were important indicators for observations of the regulations. Training for the safety control regulations are needed to ensure safety control and proper usage of diagnostic X-ray equipment. And management of organizations using diagnostic X-ray equipment have to understand and stress the importance of radiation safety control system. (author)

  8. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology: implementation of a management system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpas Rivera, L.; Devesa Pardo, F. J.; Gamez Jimenez, J. L.; Vallejo Carrascal, C.; Garcia de Diego, A. A.; Amador Vela-Hidalgo, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The enforcement of quality in diagnostic radiology (Royal Decree 1976/1999 laying down the criteria for quality in diagnostic radiology and Royal Decree 815/2001 to justify the use of ionizing radiations for medical exposure, etc.) and recommendations and European regulations on the matter, is done by carrying out the optimization of the doses received, based on image quality in a continuous process of monitoring of such dose from the dose reference Values ??(VRD ) that the system has allowed to establish for each technique.

  9. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation as a Diagnostic Tool for the LCLS Longitudinal Feedback System

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). To ensure the vitality of FEL lasing, a longitudinal feedback system is required together with other diagnostics. In this paper, we study the possibility of using Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) from the chicane as the diagnostic tool for bunch length feedback. Calculations show that CSR is a good candidate, even for the non-Gaussian, double-horn longitudinal charge distribution. We further check the feasibility for low and high charge options, and also the possibility for detecting the microbunching.

  10. A pilot study of radiation exposures arising from interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Giczi, F.; Gaspardy, G.; Temesi, A.; Ballay, L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the past 25 years, considerable number of new therapeutic procedures have been worked out and adopted in radiology. These interventional procedures are mainly based on angiographic methods. During these procedures the exposure of patients and staff are usually greater than of conventional radiography and fluoroscopy as a consequence of longer fluoroscopy times and great number of cine-radiography. In the latest years radiation-induced skin injuries occurred in some patients. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. In our days interventional procedures are widely used and more sophisticated procedures are worked out and adopted. Consequently, there is a need for the protection of the patient and the staff on a higher level. Radiation protection of intervention radiology deserves a distinguish attention. In Hungary interventional radiology were performed in 36 laboratories in 2003. According to statistical data the gross number of interventional radiological procedures were 19442. The most frequently performed procedures were the P.T.C.A., the coronary and ilio-femoral stent implantation and chemo-embolization. In 2004, the National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radio-hygiene and the National Patient Dose Evaluation Program started a pilot study of radiation exposures arising from interventional radiology procedures. During the study the patient exposure were measured by D.A.P.-meters. The patient skin dose and the staff dose were performed by thermoluminescent chips. In their presentation the authors present the most important results of the study. (authors)

  11. The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J.; Brand, H. von der; Parquay, S. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, department Technische Natuurkunde, working group for Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology, Den Doelch 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jimenez, R. [Centro de Investigationes Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technológicas, Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Collaboration: W7-X Teasm

    2014-08-21

    Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m{sup 2} over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

  12. An observation study of radiation exposure to nurses during interventional radiology procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Aoki, Atsuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively measure the level of radiation exposure among nursing staff during interventional radiology procedures. All interventional radiology procedures performed at our institution between April 20 and June 19, 2009 were included in this study. Radiation exposure was measured as the equivalent dose penetrating tissue to a depth of 10 mm using electronic personal dosimeters attached outside (Ha) and inside (Hb) lead aprons. Effective dose (HE) was estimated by calculating from Ha and Hb. In total, data from 68 procedures were included in this study. Four nurses performed 71 nursing cares. The mean Ha was 0.70±1.0 μSv, while the mean Hb was 0.06±0.2 μSv. The mean HE was 0.14±0.3 μSv. The present findings indicate that during interventional radiology procedures, nurses were exposed to very low levels of radiation. (author)

  13. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on x-ray diagnostics; issued on April 28, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    These regulations are applicable to practices with ionising radiation with respect to medical and dental diagnostics by means of external radiation sources like x-rays or radioactive substances. The regulations are also applicable to medical or dental use of such radiation sources for planning and guidance, for research and for legal and insurance related examinations.

  14. New image-processing and noise-reduction software reduces radiation dose during complex endovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Melissa L; Guild, Jeffrey B; Arbique, Gary M; Tsai, Shirling; Modrall, J Gregory; Anderson, Jon A; Rectenwald, John; Timaran, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    A new proprietary image-processing system known as AlluraClarity, developed by Philips Healthcare (Best, The Netherlands) for radiation-based interventional procedures, claims to lower radiation dose while preserving image quality using noise-reduction algorithms. This study determined whether the surgeon and patient radiation dose during complex endovascular procedures (CEPs) is decreased after the implementation of this new operating system. Radiation dose to operators, procedure type, reference air kerma, kerma area product, and patient body mass index were recorded during CEPs on two Philips Allura FD 20 fluoroscopy systems with and without Clarity. Operator dose during CEPs was measured using optically stimulable, luminescent nanoDot (Landauer Inc, Glenwood, Ill) detectors placed outside the lead apron at the left upper chest position. nanoDots were read using a microStar ii (Landauer Inc) medical dosimetry system. For the CEPs in the Clarity group, the radiation dose to surgeons was also measured by the DoseAware (Philips Healthcare) personal dosimetry system. Side-by-side measurements of DoseAware and nanoDots allowed for cross-calibration between systems. Operator effective dose was determined using a modified Niklason algorithm. To control for patient size and case complexity, the average fluoroscopy dose rate and the dose per radiographic frame were adjusted for body mass index differences and then compared between the groups with and without Clarity by procedure. Additional factors, for example, physician practice patterns, that may have affected operator dose were inferred by comparing the ratio of the operator dose to procedural kerma area product with and without Clarity. A one-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare groups for radiation doses, reference air kermas, and operating practices for each procedure type. The analysis included 234 CEPs; 95 performed without Clarity and 139 with Clarity. Practice patterns of operators during

  15. Changes in patient exposure doses from diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan, 1974-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Ito, Yusuke; Asada, Yasuki; Hattori, S.; Kamei, S.; Koga, Sukehiko

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated changes in exposure dose in Japan in terms of the same items since 1974. An assessment was made of changes in exposure dose during a period of 33 years. Nationwide investigation was conducted six times from 1974 to 2007 with regard to 14 target areas (21 kinds of projections). The investigations we examined is as follows: tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA), exposure time (sec), focus surface distance, thickness of total filtration and type of generator system for diagnostic radiography for a typical patient. Entrance surface doses were evaluated in terms of the respective exposure conditions based on basic experiment. The results showed that the exposure doses decreased to less than 50% during a 15-year period till 1994, with the exposure doses in 1974 assumed to be 100%. The exposure doses in 2007 were equivalent to, or increased over the exposure doses in 1994 at some areas. A comparison with the international basic safety standard for protection against ionizing radiation set up by the IAEA, that is, the so-called guidance level, indicated that the exposure doses in 2007 were less than the standard in all areas. The comparison with past investigations also demonstrated that F/S system using film-intensifying screen has been increasingly replaced with computed radiography (CR) system using imaging plates (IP) and flat panel digital radiography (FPD) system. In the investigation in 2007, an attempt was made of a comparison between exposure dose by the digital radiography system and that by the F/S system as well. It was clarified that there was no large difference in the exposure dose between those systems. (author)

  16. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING RADIATION DOSE TO PATIENTS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY USING REFERENCE DOSE LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almén, Anja; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A conceptual framework for managing radiation dose to patients in diagnostic radiology using reference dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Anja; Baath, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of the present work was to develop a conceptual framework for managing radiation dose in diagnostic radiology with the intention to support optimisation. An optimisation process was first derived. The framework for managing radiation dose, based on the derived optimisation process, was then outlined. The outset of the optimisation process is four stages: providing equipment, establishing methodology, performing examinations and ensuring quality. The optimisation process comprises a series of activities and actions at these stages. The current system of diagnostic reference levels is an activity in the last stage, ensuring quality. The system becomes a reactive activity only to a certain extent engaging the core activity in the radiology department, performing examinations. Three reference dose levels-possible, expected and established-were assigned to the three stages in the optimisation process, excluding ensuring quality. A reasonably achievable dose range is also derived, indicating an acceptable deviation from the established dose level. A reasonable radiation dose for a single patient is within this range. The suggested framework for managing radiation dose should be regarded as one part of the optimisation process. The optimisation process constitutes a variety of complementary activities, where managing radiation dose is only one part. This emphasises the need to take a holistic approach integrating the optimisation process in different clinical activities. (authors)

  18. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docters, E. H.; Smolko, E. E.; Suarez, C. E.

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All this grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA).

  19. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docters, E.H.; Smolko, E.E.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All these grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA). (author)

  20. Gamma radiation grafted polymers for immobilization of Brucella antigen in diagnostic test studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docters, E H; Smolko, E E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Direccion de Radioisotopos y Radiaciones; Suarez, C E [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Castelar (Argentina)

    1990-01-01

    The radiation grafting process has a wide field of industrial applications, and in the recent years the immobilization of biocomponents in grafted polymeric materials obtained by means of ionizing radiations is a new and important contribution to biotechnology. In the present work, gamma preirradiation grafting method was employed to produce acrylics hydrogels onto polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS). Two monomers were used to graft the previously mentioned polymers: methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm), and several working conditions were considered as influencing the degree of grafting. All these grafted polymers were used to study the possibility of a subsequent immobilization of Brucella antigen (BAg) in diagnostic test studies (ELISA). (author).

  1. Status of radiation protection in diagnostic x ray installations at Meerut and Saharanpur districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, A.S.; Tewari, A.K.; Dwivedi, S.C.; Garg, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The present study is the assessment of radiation protection in Meerut and Saharanpur districts representing Western U.P. of diagnostic x-ray installations including C.T. centres. This was done by collecting data on questionnaire and personal inspection of radiological set-ups. We concluded that major part of diagnostic work is looked after by private sector and in comparison to Govt. sector this is 2.4:1. Also , <100mA units which are usually owned by non-qualified persons in private sector are doing this work and naturally with much carelessness as far as radiation protection is concerned. Even at posh clinics the protection and monitoring aspect is much neglected due to various reasons. Apart from a control all clinics need a continuing education on safety aspects. (author)

  2. Prenatal diagnostic procedures used in pregnancies with congenital malformations in 14 regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; de Vigan, Catherine; Scarano, Gioacchino; de Walle, Hermien; Gillerot, Yves; Stoll, Claude; Addor, Marie-Claude; Stone, David; Gener, Blanca; Feijoo, Maria; Mosquera-Tenreiro, Carmen; Gatt, Miriam; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Baena, Neus; Dolk, Helen

    2004-11-01

    To investigate outcomes of ultrasound investigations (US) and invasive diagnostic procedures in cases of congenital malformations (CM), and to compare the use of invasive prenatal test techniques (amniocentesis (AC) versus chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) among European populations. Analysis of data from population-based registries of CM. 25 400 cases of CM recorded by 14 EUROCAT registries covering a total population of 1,013,352 births 1995-99. US were performed in 91% of cases, and positively detected CM in 35% of cases. AC was performed in 24% of the cases and CVS in 3% of cases. Thirty-eight percent of invasive tests gave positive results. Fifty-two percent of cases with maternal age > or = 35 years had an invasive test performed compared to 20% of cases with younger mothers. Considerable variation was found between registries in the uptake rate of invasive tests in cases with older maternal age and on the use of invasive tests with only four regions employing CVS techniques in at least a third of the cases having invasive tests. For chromosomal anomalies US gave positive results in 46% of cases with maternal age or = 35 years with US performed. Prenatal US was performed in 91% of all pregnancies with CM but the test was only positive in a third of the cases. There was large regional variation in the uptake rate of invasive tests with maternal age of 35 years or more. For every CVS carried out there were nine AC tests. US is an important tool in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in Europe. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography using lower doses of radiation for patients with Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic resonance and ultrasonography have increasing roles in the initial diagnosis of Crohn\\'s disease, but computed tomography (CT) with positive oral contrast agents is most frequently used to identify those with acute extramural complications. However, CT involves exposure of patients to radiation. We prospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT (at a dose comparable to that used to obtain an abdominal radiograph) with conventional-dose CT in patients with active Crohn\\'s disease.

  4. Radiation doses from common radiographic procedures: a ten year perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggie, J.C.P.; Wilkinson, L.E.

    2000-01-01

    Using a semi-empirical model patient doses for a number of plain film radiographic procedures following the implementation of Computed Radiography (CR) technology in our Hospital have been evaluated. The results are presented in terms of the entrance surface dose (ESD) and the effective dose. A comparison of these results, with those reported previously for 1988, suggests that with the exception of chest radiography, patient doses have decreased although in many instances the decreases are not statistically significant. The finding for chest examinations stands apart from all others in that the introduction of CR technology has resulted in a substantial increase in patient dose for the PA view by at least 18%. The major reason for these apparently contradictory findings has its roots in the effectively variable speed of CR systems and the willingness of radiologists to accept more noise in some CR images

  5. The Design of Diagnostic Medical Facilities where Ionising Radiation is used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.; O'Reilly, G.; O'Connor, U.; Gallagher, A.; Sheahan, N.; Fennell, S.

    2009-06-01

    The original Code of Practice on The Design of Diagnostic Medical Facilities Using Ionising Radiation was first published by the Nuclear Energy Board in 1988. In the intervening years the 'Blue Book' as it became known has served the medical community well as the sector has expanded and modernised and the late Dr Noel Nowlan, then Chief Executive of the Nuclear Energy Board, deserves much credit for initiating this pioneering contribution to radiation safety in Ireland. There have been significant developments since its publication in terms of the underlying radiation protection legislation, regulatory practice as well as developments in new technologies that have given rise to the need for a revision of the Code. This revised Code is based on a comprehensive draft document produced by the Haughton Institute under contract to the RPII and was finalised following extensive consultations with the relevant stakeholders. The revised Code includes a brief review of the current legislative framework and its specific impact on the management of building projects (Chapters 1 and 2), a presentation of the main types of radiological (Chapter 3) and nuclear medicine (Chapter 4) facilities, a treatment of the technical aspects of shielding calculations (Chapter 5) and a discussion of the practical aspects of implementing shielding solutions in a building context (Chapter 6). The primary purpose of the Code is to assist in the design of diagnostic facilities to the highest radiation protection standards in order to ensure the safety of workers and members of the public and the delivery of a safe service to patients. Diagnostic radiology is a dynamic environment and the Code is intended to be used in consultation with the current literature, an experienced Radiation Protection Advisor and a multidisciplinary project team

  6. Sphincter-saving procedure for radiation-injuried rectum. A report of four cases with special reference to pull-through procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Y.; Koyama, Y.; Hojo, K. (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan))

    1982-09-01

    Up to this time the sigmoid colostomy has been widely accepted and conventional treatment for radiation-injured rectum, but patients without residual malignancy strongly desire to live without colostomy. We have tried to remove the involved rectal segments by sphincter-saving procedures. Four patients underwent these procedures, pull-through procedure in three and low anterior resection in one. Among sphincter-saving procedures, pull-through procedure was most adequate. Provided the following five conditions are fulfilled, pull-through procedure should be considered for severe radiation-injured rectum. (1) No recurrence of initial malignancy in the pelvis. (2) More than 2 cm intact rectal segment above dentate line may be preserved. (3) No radiation-injured segment in upper sigmoid. (4) No severe radiation damage in small intestine. (5) Patients under 70 year-old, with normal tonus of anal sphincter.

  7. From 'Image Gently' to image intelligently: a personalized perspective on diagnostic radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerman, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging has been a popular topic in the radiology literature and lay press. Communicating the magnitude of risk to patients and caregivers is problematic because of the uncertainty in estimates derived principally from epidemiological studies of large populations, and alternative approaches are needed to provide a scientific basis for personalized risk estimates. The underlying patient disease and life expectancy greatly influence risk projections. Research into the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair challenges the linear no-threshold dose-response assumption and reveals that individuals vary in sensitivity to radiation. Studies of decision-making psychology show that individuals are highly susceptible to irrational biases when judging risks. Truly informed medical decision-making that respects patient autonomy requires appropriate framing of radiation risks in perspective with other risks and with the benefits of imaging. To follow the principles of personalized medicine and treat patients according to their specific phenotypic and personality profiles, diagnostic imaging should optimally be tailored not only to patient size, body region and clinical indication, but also to underlying disease conditions, radio-sensitivity and risk perception and preferences that vary among individuals. (orig.)

  8. Radiation doses to the unborn child at diagnostic examinations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.; Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Olsson, S.; Nilsson, J.; Cederlund, T.

    2003-01-01

    The use of ionising radiation in a medical examination of a woman caring a child is not always possible to avoid. The following situations can occur: (1) The pregnancy of the patient is known and the examination has to be performed due to medical reason, (2) The pregnancy of the patient is unknown at the time of examination. Methods to identify pregnant women at radiological departments in Sweden are already in use, but national rules and methods to calculate the individual dose to the unborn child for different examinations are less evaluated. There is a need of standards for the calculations, estimations and documentation of the radiation dose to the unborn child. According to directives from the European Commission, every X-ray examination has to be justified and optimised. The aim of this study is to determine the absorbed dose to the unborn child for common radiation diagnostic examinations used in Sweden and to find a standardised method for dose calculations. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of radiation protection in x rays room design in diagnostic radiography department in Omdurman locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Ahmed yusif Abdelrahman

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is conducted in order to evaluate the application of radiation protection in x-ray rooms design in diagnosis radiology department, evaluate personal monitoring devices, to assess primary scatter and leakage radiation dose, to assess monitoring devices if available, in period from March 2013 to August 2013. The design data included room size, control room size, manufacture of equipment, room surrounding areas, workload of all equipment rooms, type of x-ray equipment, radiation worker's in all hospital, number of patient in each shift, structural material and shielding, K vp and m As used in x-ray room department during examination testing. The results of this study show that there is x-ray room design, the design of x-ray equipment is accepted according to the radiation safety institute team of quality control. Also the study shows that the radiation protection devices are available and in a good condition and enough in number. The study shows that there are not personal monitoring devices and services. the radiological technologist are well trained. Also the study investigation the radiation protection in x-ray room in diagnostic department in Omdurman locality. Finally the study shows that there is compact able to ICRP recommended and National quality control in Sudan Atomic Energy Council exception, Alwedad, Abusied and Blue Nile there are have not control room concludes that there is only in relationship hospital have a window without shield.(Author)

  10. Analysis of radiation doses to patients from diagnostic department of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepej, L.; Messingerova, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the values of mean effective dose equivalents per unit activity (H E/1Bq ) were used for the calculation of mean effective dose equivalents for one examination (H E ). The collective effective dose equivalents for each radiopharmaceutical and type of examination (S ER ) and global collective effective dose equivalent for department for all radiopharmaceuticals (S E ) during evaluated period were defined. The data for years from 1992 to 1994 were evaluated and compared with results in literature. The evaluation of radiation doses in nuclear medicine department is useful parameter for internal quality control. Using this method, the radiation dose in this laboratory was changed to minimum (under mean value of Slovak Republic). Unfortunately, the real data of patients radiation doses are different from the calculated one. Due to different kinetic of radiopharmaceuticals in individual patients (influenced by pathology, age, etc.) the evaluation of radiation burden to nuclear medicine patients is problematic. But this approach enable the relative comparison of the changes in values of H E and S E during the observed period. The evaluation of individual (minimal) effective dose equivalent - (H min ) which represents dose calculated under physiologic conditions can be useful for indication of diagnostic examination by physicians. Therefore the systematic registration of H min from all examinations - patient's radiation history. This is specially important in the case of children and young people. The importance of the proposed method, is in regulation of radiation dose from nuclear medicine diagnostic examinations, not only be the control of number and type of examinations, but also by selection of used radiopharmaceuticals and by the way how to use them. (J.K.) 1 fig., 2 refs

  11. Analysis of radiation doses to patients from diagnostic department of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepej, L; Messingerova, M [F.D. Rosvelt Hospital, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Ftacnikova, S [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the values of mean effective dose equivalents per unit activity (H{sub E/1Bq}) were used for the calculation of mean effective dose equivalents for one examination (H{sub E}). The collective effective dose equivalents for each radiopharmaceutical and type of examination (S{sub ER}) and global collective effective dose equivalent for department for all radiopharmaceuticals (S{sub E}) during evaluated period were defined. The data for years from 1992 to 1994 were evaluated and compared with results in literature. The evaluation of radiation doses in nuclear medicine department is useful parameter for internal quality control. Using this method, the radiation dose in this laboratory was changed to minimum (under mean value of Slovak Republic). Unfortunately, the real data of patients radiation doses are different from the calculated one. Due to different kinetic of radiopharmaceuticals in individual patients (influenced by pathology, age, etc.) the evaluation of radiation burden to nuclear medicine patients is problematic. But this approach enable the relative comparison of the changes in values of H{sub E} and S{sub E} during the observed period. The evaluation of individual (minimal) effective dose equivalent - (H{sub min}) which represents dose calculated under physiologic conditions can be useful for indication of diagnostic examination by physicians. Therefore the systematic registration of H{sub min} from all examinations - patient`s radiation history. This is specially important in the case of children and young people. The importance of the proposed method, is in regulation of radiation dose from nuclear medicine diagnostic examinations, not only be the control of number and type of examinations, but also by selection of used radiopharmaceuticals and by the way how to use them. (J.K.) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  12. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital (Cyprus)

    1994-12-31

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  13. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofides, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author)

  14. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M; Ali, Arif N

    2016-04-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose-rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for the low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures.

  15. Radiation field distribution within the room for three commonly-used interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changcai; Zhang Lin; Min Nan; Lu Feng; Li Quantai; Deng Daping; Chen Yue; Zhu Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect the radiation field distribution within the room for three commonly-used interventional procedures, in order to provide basic data for the radiation protection and safe operation of staff involved in interventional radiology. Methods: The thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were placed in different points on the horizontal plane around the interventional table and the vertical plane where the staff often stayed. Based on the selected experimental conditions, the TLDs were grouped to be irradiated. After the experiment, the TLDs were measured in the laboratory to calculate the doses of radiation field. Results: Data obtained at the same position followed basically as cardiovascular intervention > cerebrovascular intervention > liver intervention. Intervention of same type at the same position followed as high-dose group > mid-dose group > low-dose group. These results were consistent with the useful beam doses, and proportional to the fluoroscopy time. A few data with exception were due to measurement error or experimental error. Conclusions: Cerebrovascular and liver interventional procedures resulted in the relatively low radiation doses. The radiation doses at the distance of more than 3 m can be negligible. For cardiovascular interventional procedure, with the decrease of the distance from the X-ray tube, the dose decreased. In the radiation field,the operator, the first assistant and second assistant would exposed to higher dose on the standing points while patients receive lower doses in the head and feet direction. (authors)

  16. Are the surgeons safe during UV-A radiation exposure in collagen cross-linking procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rashmi; Shetty, Rohit; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2012-02-01

    To quantify the effect of scattered UV-A radiation used in the collagen cross-linking (CXL) procedure and the amount of radiation reaching the surgeon and the surrounding area and to estimate the dampening effect by various protective devices. In this case series, 3 patients [aged 25-30 (±2.5) years] with keratoconus underwent a CXL procedure with UV-A light and riboflavin. Irradiance was measured using a spectrometer (Model USB2000; Ocean Optics, Inc) for various distances from the source, at various angles, and for different durations of radiation. The spectrometer was also used to measure the dampening effect produced by gown, latex gloves, and UV-protective glasses. Maximum UV-A radiation (1.4 × 10(-9) mW/cm(2)) was measured at 2 cm from the limbus, when the probe was held at a 45-degree angle to the floor. UV-A radiation reaching the surgeon's eye and the abdomen was 3.403 × 10(-11) and 2.36 × 10(-11) mW/cm(2), respectively. Gown, latex gloves, and UV-protective glasses showed dampening effects of 99.58%, 95.01%, and 99.73%, respectively. CXL appears to be a safe procedure with respect to UV-A radiation exposure to the surgeon. Further safety can be ensured by UV-protective devices.

  17. Radiation-Induced Noncancer Risks in Interventional Cardiology: Optimisation of Procedures and Staff and Patient Dose Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin Md Yusof, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about ionizing radiation during interventional cardiology have been increased in recent years as a result of rapid growth in interventional procedure volumes and the high radiation doses associated with some procedures. Noncancer radiation risks to cardiologists and medical staff in terms of radiation-induced cataracts and skin injuries for patients appear clear potential consequences of interventional cardiology procedures, while radiation-induced potential risk of developing cardiovascular effects remains less clear. This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of concerns about noncancer risks of radiation exposure in interventional cardiology. Strategies commonly undertaken to reduce radiation doses to both medical staff and patients during interventional cardiology procedures are discussed; optimisation of interventional cardiology procedures is highlighted. PMID:24027768

  18. Reliability of self-reported diagnostic radiation history in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Manders, Peggy; Mulder, Renee L.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Rookus, Matti A.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed reliability of self-reported diagnostic radiation history in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with and without breast cancer. Within the frame-work of the HEBON study, 401 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers completed a baseline (1999-2004) and a follow-up questionnaire (2006-2007). Test-retest reliability of self-reported exposure to chest X-rays, fluoroscopies and mammograms was assessed for the entire study population and by case status. Overall proportion agreement on reporting ever/never exposure was good (> 75%), while the corresponding kappa coefficients were between 0.40 and 0.75, indicating at least moderate reliability beyond chance. Reliability of number of exposures was also good (> 75%). Proportion agreement on reporting age at first mammogram was low (40%) for exact consistency and moderate (60%) for consistency ± 1 year. Reliability of age at first mammogram was higher for cases than for unaffected carriers (P < 0.001) but this difference disappeared when excluding diagnostic mammograms (P = 0.60). In unaffected carriers proportion agreement on age at last mammogram was 50%. In general, the direction of disagreement on all items was equally distributed. More consistent reporting was mainly determined by a younger age at questionnaire completion. In conclusion, inconsistent self-report of diagnostic radiation by BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was mainly non-differential by disease status.

  19. Internal qualification and credentialing of radiation oncology physicists to perform patient special procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Mills

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the arena of radiation oncology special procedures, medical physicists are often the focus professionals for implementation and administration of advanced and complex technologies. One of the most vexing and challenging aspects of managing complexity concerns the ongoing internal qualification and credentialing of radiation oncology physicists to perform patient special procedures. To demonstrate ongoing qualification, a physicist must a document initial training and successful completion of competencies to implement and perform this procedure, b demonstrate familiarity with all aspects of the commissioning and quality assurance process, c demonstrate continuing education respecting this procedure, d demonstrate the peer-reviewed completion of a minimum number of patient special procedures during a specified time span, and e demonstrate satisfactory overall progress toward maintenance of specialty board certification. In many respects, this information complement is similar to that required by an accredited residency program in therapy physics. In this investigation, we report on the design of a management tool to qualify staff radiation oncology physicists to deliver patient procedures.

  20. Diagnostics of helium plasma by collisional-radiative modeling and optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonwook; Kwon, Duck-Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Optical diagnostics for the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and the electron density (n{sub e}) of fusion plasma is important for understanding and controlling the edge and the divertor plasmas in tokamak. Since the line intensity ratio method using the collisional-radiative modeling and OES (optical emission spectroscopy) is simple and does not disturb the plasma, many fusion devices with TEXTOR, JET, JT-60U, LHD, and so on, have employed the line intensity ratio method as a basic diagnostic tool for neutral helium (He I). The accuracy of the line intensity ratio method depends on the reliability of the cross sections and rate coefficients. We performed state-of-the-art R-matrix calculations including couplings up to n=7 states and the distorted wave (DW) calculations for the electron-impact excitation (EIE) cross sections of He I using the flexible atomic code (FAC). The collisional-radiative model for He I was constructed using the calculated the cross sections. The helium collisional-radiative model for He I was constructed to diagnose the electron temperature and the electron density of the plasma. The electron temperature and density were determined by using the line intensity ratio method.

  1. The calibration procedure of the radiation monitoring system installed in radiation controlled area of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Kyun; Min, Yi-Sub; Park, Jeong-Min; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The spaces, where these accelerators are installed, are defined as the radiation controlled area and the levels of the radiation in this area are monitored by the radiation monitoring system (RMS) to protect radiation workers and experiment users from the hazards of the ionizing radiation and the surface and air contamination tests are carried out periodically by the radiation secure team. The most of RMS instruments are installed in the accelerator building, where the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator is installed. All detectors of RMS should be calibrated every year to prove the reliability of RMS and almost all instruments for RMS was calibrated during this summer maintenance period of KOMAC this year. Almost all RMS instruments installed in KOMAC is calibrated between 2016-07-13 and 2016-08-24. As the calibration result, if the current reading value are within the 5% of the reference dose rate value, this RMS instrument can be used one more year. Otherwise, the detector of that RMS instrument should be repaired or replaced. The self-calibration certificate for each RMS instrument will be published only for the instrument to satisfy the condition.

  2. Indonesia's experience with IAEA-CRP on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasukha

    2001-01-01

    IAEA-CRP on Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction has as participants some Asian and East European countries. Indonesia is one of participants that followed the IAEA program. This paper is not a discussion of CRP-results since it will be published as a TECDOC soon. But the work on evaluation of examination frequencies, film reject rate analysis, patient dose measurements, image quality before and after Quality Control (QC) and QC itself, gave some experiences to investigators to be explored and presented. Experiences could be in the form of problems, how to solve problems and some suggestions, starting from no QC up to complicated QC to be faced in conventional radiography to CT-scan and fluoroscopy units. These valuable experiences of Indonesia are proven exercise of IAEA-CRP as a good start for next CRP or national projects in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  3. On the problem of radiation damage due to diagnostic radiology of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerstein, W.

    1979-01-01

    The factors of risk for radiation-induced cancer given by UNSCEAR and ICRP are discussed. Under the uncertain assumption of the validity of these factors for diagnostic radiology the number of lung and breast cancers as well as of leukemias induced by mass chest radiography was estimated. It was found that for 30 chest X-rays per capita in the course of life there would be 180 lung cancers, 5 breast cancers and 27 leukemias in the GDR each year. These figures have been compared with the number of cases of lung tuberculosis and lung cancer detected annually ley mass chest radiography. However, no correlation could be found between diagnostic irradiations and detected cases of cancer. (author)

  4. Radiation protection in medical diagnostic radiology in the city of Sobral, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, F.L.; Paschoal, C.M.M.; Ferreira, F.C.L.; Alcantara, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability to radiation protection of four diagnostic radiology medical services in the city of Sobral-CE, Northeast of Brazil, and to analyze results of the literature for the cities of Rio Branco-AC, North of Brazil, and Rio de Janeiro-RJ, South-east of Brazil. In Sobral-CE, it was performed interviews and direct observations with reference to Brazilian law, the National Ordinance No.453/1998 of the Ministry of Health that regulates the operation of medical and odontological diagnostic radiology services. The results show the occurrence of many items in disagreement with the standard. The technical and operational infractions have basically due to unfamiliarity with the legislation, the lack of investment in training and/or professional development courses. (authors)

  5. Development and Optimisation of the SPS and LHC beam diagnostics based on Synchrotron Radiation monitors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081364; Roncarolo, Federico

    Measuring the beam transverse emittance is fundamental in every accelerator, in particular for colliders, where its precise determination is essential to maximize the luminosity and thus the performance of the colliding beams.
 Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is a versatile tool for non-destructive beam diagnostics, since its characteristics are closely related to those of the source beam. At CERN, being the only available diagnostics at high beam intensity and energy, SR monitors are exploited as the proton beam size monitor of the two higher energy machines, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The thesis work documented in this report focused on the design, development, characterization and optimization of these beam size monitors. Such studies were based on a comprehensive set of theoretical calculations, numerical simulations and experiments. A powerful simulation tool has been developed combining conventional softwares for SR simulation and optics design, thus allowing t...

  6. 76 FR 38183 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  7. 76 FR 11483 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  8. 78 FR 19268 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  9. 75 FR 78998 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  10. 78 FR 78965 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  11. 77 FR 40890 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  12. 78 FR 38346 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  13. 77 FR 15761 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  14. 78 FR 732 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  15. 78 FR 78963 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  16. 78 FR 62635 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  17. 75 FR 39029 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  18. 76 FR 77235 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  19. Diagnostic accuracy at several reduced radiation dose levels for CT imaging in the diagnosis of appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun; Jude, Matilda; Zaragoza, Edward; Lee, Margaret; Patel, Maitraya; Poon, Cheryce; Douek, Michael; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Doepke, Laura; McNitt-Gray, Shawn; Cagnon, Chris; DeMarco, John; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: While several studies have investigated the tradeoffs between radiation dose and image quality (noise) in CT imaging, the purpose of this study was to take this analysis a step further by investigating the tradeoffs between patient radiation dose (including organ dose) and diagnostic accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis using CT. Methods: This study was IRB approved and utilized data from 20 patients who underwent clinical CT exams for indications of appendicitis. Medical record review established true diagnosis of appendicitis, with 10 positives and 10 negatives. A validated software tool used raw projection data from each scan to create simulated images at lower dose levels (70%, 50%, 30%, 20% of original). An observer study was performed with 6 radiologists reviewing each case at each dose level in random order over several sessions. Readers assessed image quality and provided confidence in their diagnosis of appendicitis, each on a 5 point scale. Liver doses at each case and each dose level were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation based methods. Results: Overall diagnostic accuracy varies across dose levels: 92%, 93%, 91%, 90% and 90% across the 100%, 70%, 50%, 30% and 20% dose levels respectively. And it is 93%, 95%, 88%, 90% and 90% across the 13.5-22mGy, 9.6-13.5mGy, 6.4-9.6mGy, 4-6.4mGy, and 2-4mGy liver dose ranges respectively. Only 4 out of 600 observations were rated "unacceptable" for image quality. Conclusion: The results from this pilot study indicate that the diagnostic accuracy does not change dramatically even at significantly reduced radiation dose.

  20. Complex of electrostatic accelerators for simulation and diagnostics of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antuf'ev, Yu.P.; Belyaev, V.Kh.; Vergunov, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The installation for simulation and diagnostics of radiation damage of materials is described. The installation consists of two electrostatic accelerators of vertical type for 5 MV and horizontal type for 800 kV. The accelerating complex ensures accelerated ion beam production in the independent operation regime as well as in the two beams target simultaneous irradiation regime, energy range of accelerated single-charged ions is 80 keV ... 5 MeV, homogeneity is better than +-0.05%. Oilless vacuum pumping out system is realized at the accelerating complex

  1. Academic training of radiation protection human resources in the X-ray medical diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.

    2008-12-01

    The current regulation, established by NOM-229-SSA1-2002 standard, T echnical requirements for facilities, health responsibilities, technical specifications for equipment and facilities for radiation protection in medical diagnosis with X-rays, t hat should be credited refresher courses, and training in radiation safety in accordance with current regulations, however, has been observed that the assistance and accreditation of courses is basically to cover administrative and regulatory requirements and therefore does not necessarily cover needs of the patient to radiation protection in the use of old and new technologies. David Brenner and Eric Hall claim that between 1.5 and 2% of all cancers in the USA may be attributable to exposure to X-ray computerized tomography techniques, given the intensive use of these techniques and the patient dose ranges in which incurred. While this is not debatable, if it is, the alternative does not seem to be abandoning the use of computerized tomography, because it gives them undoubted benefits with respect to invasive procedures. Deserves mention concerns the use of computerized tomography in children using scanning protocols designed for adults, in which case it incurs in 5 times higher dose. An additional warning about unwarranted use of computerized tomography is a procedure of this technique in abdomen resulting in an equivalent dose to 298 times that of a mammogram. Additional aspects such as biological effects (including deterministic) of both medical staff and patients of interventional procedures further reinforces the idea that there are education programs in radiation protection. Attention must put in the new generations, including in the curricula of medical residencies in radiology, endoscopy, cardiology and orthopedic, the education (no emerging courses) in radiation protection, radiobiology, radiology physics, and other topics, but previously must have medical physicists in radiology available to train new

  2. 40 CFR 85.2222 - On-board diagnostic test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on-board diagnostic systems on 1996 and newer light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks shall consist... the unset readiness code(s) in question may be issued a passing certificate without being required to... lit malfunction indicator light (MIL) must be failed, though setting the unset readiness flags in...

  3. Method of neutralising the effects of electromagnetic radiation in a radiation detector and a radiation detector applying the procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripentog, W.G.

    1972-01-01

    Circuitry is described by means of which radiation detectors of the Neher-White type, employing ionisation chambers can be unaffected by electromagnetic radiation which would otherwise cause inductive effects leading to erroneous signals. It is therefore unnecessary to use shielded cables for these instruments. (JIW)

  4. Diagnostic Reference Levels for Patient Radiation Doses in Pelvis and Lumbar spine Radiography in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Yong; Lee, Byung Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hyun Koo; Jung, Seunbg Hwan; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Dong Sup [Radiation Safety Division National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Pelvis and lumbar spine radiography, among various types of diagnostic radiography, include gonads of the human body and give patients high radiation dose. Nevertheless, diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography has not yet been established in Korea. Therefore, the radiation dose that patients receive from pelvis and lumbar radiography is measured and the diagnostic reference level on patient radiation dose for the optimization of radiation protection of patients in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography was established. The conditions and diagnostic imaging information acquired during the time of the postero-anterior view of the pelvis and the postero-anterior and lateral view of the lumbar spine at 125 medical institutions throughout Korea are collected for analysis and the entrance surface dose received by patients is measured using a glass dosimeter. The diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography to be recommended to the medical institutes is arranged by establishing the dose from the patient radiation dose that corresponds to the 3rd quartile values as the appropriate diagnostic reference level for patient radiation dose. According to the results of the assessment of diagnostic imaging information acquired from pelvis and lumbar spine radiography and the measurement of patient entrance surface dose taken at the 125 medical institutes throughout Korea, the tube voltage ranged between 60-97 kVp, with the average use being 75 kVp, and the tube current ranged between 8-123 mAs, with the average use being 30 mAs. In the posteroanterior and lateral views of lumbar spine radiography, the tube voltage of each view ranged between 65-100 kVp (average use: 78 kVp) and 70-109 kVp (average use: 87 kVp), respectively, and the tube current of each view ranged between 10-100 mAs(average use: 35 mAs) and between 8.9-300 mAs(average use: 64 mAs), respectively. The measurements of

  5. Diagnostic Reference Levels for Patient Radiation Doses in Pelvis and Lumbar spine Radiography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Yong; Lee, Byung Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hyun Koo; Jung, Seunbg Hwan; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Dong Sup

    2009-01-01

    Pelvis and lumbar spine radiography, among various types of diagnostic radiography, include gonads of the human body and give patients high radiation dose. Nevertheless, diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography has not yet been established in Korea. Therefore, the radiation dose that patients receive from pelvis and lumbar radiography is measured and the diagnostic reference level on patient radiation dose for the optimization of radiation protection of patients in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography was established. The conditions and diagnostic imaging information acquired during the time of the postero-anterior view of the pelvis and the postero-anterior and lateral view of the lumbar spine at 125 medical institutions throughout Korea are collected for analysis and the entrance surface dose received by patients is measured using a glass dosimeter. The diagnostic reference levels for patient radiation dose in pelvis and lumbar spine radiography to be recommended to the medical institutes is arranged by establishing the dose from the patient radiation dose that corresponds to the 3rd quartile values as the appropriate diagnostic reference level for patient radiation dose. According to the results of the assessment of diagnostic imaging information acquired from pelvis and lumbar spine radiography and the measurement of patient entrance surface dose taken at the 125 medical institutes throughout Korea, the tube voltage ranged between 60-97 kVp, with the average use being 75 kVp, and the tube current ranged between 8-123 mAs, with the average use being 30 mAs. In the posteroanterior and lateral views of lumbar spine radiography, the tube voltage of each view ranged between 65-100 kVp (average use: 78 kVp) and 70-109 kVp (average use: 87 kVp), respectively, and the tube current of each view ranged between 10-100 mAs(average use: 35 mAs) and between 8.9-300 mAs(average use: 64 mAs), respectively. The measurements of

  6. Survey of radiation doses and health effects in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhang Liangan; Liu Jinzhong; Zhang Jingyuan

    1984-01-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of radiation doses and health effects in 26983 medical diagnostic X-ray workers in 28 provinces of China were reported. The control group was composed of 25785 non-X-ray medical workers in the same hospitals where the investigated X-ray workers worked. Of the radiological workers surveyed 75.3% received cumulative radiation doses below 50 mGy, only 2.7% received doses greater than 500 mGy, the average cumulative dose being 45.0 mGy. The average length of service was 11 years. The main radiation effects relating to radiation doses were the increase of frequencies of both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were 0.362% and 0.0358% in the irradiated group, and 0.122% and 0.0138% in the control group, respectively. The incidence and mortality rate of leukemias increased significantly in the irradiated group. The incidence and standardized incidence of leukemias were 9.61 . 10 -5 and 9.67 . 10 -5 in the irradiated group and 2.74 . 10 -5 and 2.77 . 10 -5 in the control group. The leukemia mortality rates in the two groups were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.24 . 10 -5 respectively, and the standardized mortality rates were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.27 . 10 -5 respectively. (Author)

  7. Assessment of Patients Radiation Dose During Interventional Radiological Procedure in PPUKM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Salleh; Muhammad Jamal Muhammad Isa

    2014-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a relatively new subspecialty of radiology. It is subspecialty where minimally invasive procedures are performed under radiological guidance using X-ray. This procedure can deliver high radiation doses compared with other radiological method due to long screening time. Because of these it is important to determine radiation doses received by patients undergoing IR procedures. It is to ensure that the dose is within the range deemed to be saved. A total of 128 patients undergoing IR procedures in PPUKM between 2012 and 2013 were study retrospectively. Dose area product (DAP) meter were used to measure the integral dose for the whole procedures. Mean kerma-area products for abdomen, head, pelvis, and thorax were 243.1, 107.3, 39.05 and 45.7 Gycm 2 , respectively. This study may provide the useful information which can be use to establish baseline patient dose data for dose optimizing study and carried out a recommendation on effective method of patient dose reduction during IR procedures. A more detail results of this study are presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Environmental radiation monitoring during visits of nuclear powered warships to Australian ports: requirements, arrangements and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Commonwealth Government has determined conditions to be met when nuclear powered warships visit Australian ports. These conditions include a requirement that appropriate State/Territory and Commonwealth authorities provide a radiation monitoring program to determine whether any radioactivity has been discharged or accidently released from a nuclear powered warship in port; to determine actual or potential levels of any consequent exposure to radiation of members of the public; and to provide this information within a timescale that allows remedial action to be taken. Part 1 of this document sets out the requirements of a radiation monitoring program capable of meeting these objectives. The fundamental arrangements and procedures for implementing the requirements are presented at Part 2 and provide a basis for the development of fully detailed, port specific, radiation monitoring programs

  9. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  10. Methodology for comprehensive patient, worker and public radiation protection considerations while introducing new medical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeman, E.; Keren, M.

    2001-01-01

    Patient protection is a major consideration while introducing new medical procedure. But protection of the workers and the public should be considered too. A methodology of combining non-patient radiation protection considerations with the introduction of new medical procedures is described. The new medical procedure was the Intracoronary Gamma Irradiation for the Prevention of Restenosis by using Iridium 192 gamma radiation sources. The usual authors' responsibility is the licensing of the use of radioactive materials while keeping public protection. According to this responsibility, the methodology's original orientation is public protection. As a result of coordination between several competent authorities, managed by the authors, the methodology was adopted for patient and worker protection too. Applicants, actually possible users (hospitals) of the new procedure, were obliged to plan medical procedures and working area according to dose limits and constrains as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency and local competent authorities. Exposure calculations had to consider the usual parameters as sources types and activity, dose rate and dose levels, duration and number of treatments. Special attention was given to the presence workers and public by chance presence in or near treatment area. A usual condition to give a license was the installation of continuous (during treatment) radiation monitoring systems. But a special attention was given to physical barriers and procedures in order to stop unauthorized personal to arrive near to working area. Satisfactory staff training for normal operation and emergency situations are essential, including appropriate safety procedures and the presence of safety assistance team while executing treatment. (author)

  11. Application of virtual reality procedures in radiation protection and dose estimation for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunck, C.; Becker, F.

    2010-01-01

    When people need to work in an environment where radiation fields are present, one has to think about the operation procedure in respect of radiation protection. This is valid for routine as well as for special work situations where radiation protection precautions are necessary. In order to give an advice about the safest way of operation and adequate shielding measures, it is necessary to analyse the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Since the field can be very inhomogeneous, extensive measurements could be needed for this purpose. In addition it is possible, that the field is not present before the time of work and a measurement could be troublesome or not possible at all. In this case, a simulation of the specific scenario could be an efficient way to analyse the radiation fields and determine possible exposures at different places. If an adequate phantom is used, it is even possible to determine personal doses like H p (10) or H p (0.07). However in most work situations, exposure is not a static scenario. The radiation field varies if the source or its surrounding objects change place. Furthermore people or parts of their bodies are usually in motion. Hence simulations of movements in inhomogeneous time and space variant radiation fields are desirable for dose assessment. In such a ''virtual reality'' working procedures could be trained or analysed without any exposure. We present an approach of simulating hand movements in inhomogeneous beta and photon radiation fields by means of an articulated hand phantom. As an example application, the hand phantom is used to simulate the handling of a Y-90 source. (orig.)

  12. Radiation dose and cancer risk among pediatric patients undergoing interventional neuroradiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Simon, Steven L.; Miller, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    During interventional neuroradiology procedures, patients can be exposed to moderate to high levels of radiation. Special considerations are required to protect children, who are generally more sensitive to the short- and long-term detrimental effects of radiation exposure. Estimates of dose to the skin of children from certain interventional procedures have been published elsewhere, but we are not aware of data on dose to the brain or on the long-term risk of cancer from brain radiation. Our goals were to estimate radiation doses to the brain in 50 pediatric patients who had undergone cerebral embolization and to assess their lifetime risks of developing radiation-related brain cancer. Entrance-peak skin dose and various assumptions on conditions of exposure were used as input for dosimetric calculations to estimate the spatial pattern of dose within the brain and the average dose to the whole brain for each child. The average dose and the age of the child at time of exposure were used to estimate the lifetime risk of developing radiation-related brain cancer. Among the 50 patients, average radiation doses to the brain were estimated to vary from 100 mGy to 1,300 mGy if exposed to non-collimated fields and from 20 mGy to 160 mGy for collimated, moving fields. The lifetime risk of developing brain cancer was estimated to be increased by 2% to 80% as a result of the exposure. Given the very small lifetime background risk of brain tumor, the excess number of cases will be small even though the relative increase might be as high as 80%. ALARA principles of collimation and dose optimization are the most effective means to minimize the risk of future radiation-related cancer. (orig.)

  13. Coronary CT angiography using prospective ECG triggering. High diagnostic accuracy with low radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldi, E.; Ramos-Duran, L.; Abro, J.A.; Costello, P.; Zwerner, P.L.; Schoepf, U.J.; Nikolaou, K.; Reiser, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) using prospective ECG triggering (PT) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis compared to invasive coronary angiography (ICA). A total of 20 patients underwent coronary CTA with PT using a 128-slice CT scanner (Definition trademark AS+, Siemens) and ICA. All coronary CTA studies were evaluated for significant coronary artery stenoses (≥50% luminal narrowing) by 2 observers in consensus using the AHA-15-segment model. Findings in CTA were compared to those in ICA. Coronary CTA using PT had 88% sensitivity in comparison to 100% with ICA, 95% to 88% specificity, 80% to 92% positive predictive value and 97% to 100% negative predictive value for diagnosing significant coronary artery stenosis on per segment per patient analysis, respectively. Mean effective radiation dose-equivalent of CTA was 2.6±1 mSv. Coronary CTA using PT enables non-invasive diagnosis of significant coronary artery stenosis with high diagnostic accuracy in comparison to ICA and is associated with comparably low radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  14. MO-C-BRB-03: RSNA President [Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenson, R. [RSNA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  15. MO-C-BRB-02: ASTRO President [Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, B. [ASTRO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  16. MO-C-BRB-01: Introduction [Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, J. [University of California Davis School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  17. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogen Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003. However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization.

  18. An examination of the distribution of patient doses from diagnostic x-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, N.D.

    1983-02-01

    An examination was made of the distribution of patient doses from diagnostic radiology. The data were derived from an Australia wide survey carried out during the 1970's. There was a large range of doses to which patients were exposed. If establishments can reduce doses to below the most common value, the total dose to the population will be reduced to less than 60% of the present value

  19. A procedure for estimating the dose modifying effect of chemotherapy on radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y.; Keane, T.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure based on a logistic regression model was used to estimate the dose-modifying effect of chemotherapy on the response of normal tissues to radiation. The DEF in the proposed procedure is expressed as a function of logistic regression coefficients, response levels and values of covariates in the model. The proposed procedure is advantageous as it allows consideration of both the response levels and the values of covariates in calculating the DEF. A plot of the DEF against the response or a covariate describes how the DEF varies with the response levels or the covariate values. Confidence intervals of the DEF were obtained based on the normal approximation of the distribution of the estimated DEF and on a non-parametric Bootstrap method. An example is given to illustrate the proposed procedure. (Author)

  20. Procedure to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over LED and magnetic induction lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Otavio Luis de; Menzel, Silvio Carlos, E-mail: otavioluis@ipen.br, E-mail: scmenzel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Ribas, Jacinto Oliveira, E-mail: jacinto@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Eletrica e Instrumentacao

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over Lighting Emitting Diode (LED) and Magnetic Induction (MI) lamps as they use a lot of electronic in their power supply. Considering they have a huge lifetime it is interesting to apply this technology into environments under ionizing radiation, such as a nuclear facility. Thus, it is possible to increase the period between two consecutive maintenance, reduce the repair and global maintenance costs and reduce the operational personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. In this context it is going to be presented a scheme to select different LED and MI lamps available in the Brazilian market, a methodology to irradiate several lamp samples according various radiation levels that can be found in the facilities and the electrical and photometric evaluation to be performed. Considering this methodology it will be possible to analyze the lamps capacity to withstand ionizing radiation, under regular operating conditions of the facilities and its effects in the performance and lifetime of the selected lamps. Thus, the procedures suggested in this work can be used as a guide to perform experiments and analysis to find specific lamps that can reduce the global maintenance costs and the personnel exposure. Hereafter, several lamps are going to be acquired and the tests performed, according the procedures here described. (author)

  1. Procedure to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over LED and magnetic induction lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Otavio Luis de; Menzel, Silvio Carlos; Ribas, Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to evaluate the ionizing radiation influence over Lighting Emitting Diode (LED) and Magnetic Induction (MI) lamps as they use a lot of electronic in their power supply. Considering they have a huge lifetime it is interesting to apply this technology into environments under ionizing radiation, such as a nuclear facility. Thus, it is possible to increase the period between two consecutive maintenance, reduce the repair and global maintenance costs and reduce the operational personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. In this context it is going to be presented a scheme to select different LED and MI lamps available in the Brazilian market, a methodology to irradiate several lamp samples according various radiation levels that can be found in the facilities and the electrical and photometric evaluation to be performed. Considering this methodology it will be possible to analyze the lamps capacity to withstand ionizing radiation, under regular operating conditions of the facilities and its effects in the performance and lifetime of the selected lamps. Thus, the procedures suggested in this work can be used as a guide to perform experiments and analysis to find specific lamps that can reduce the global maintenance costs and the personnel exposure. Hereafter, several lamps are going to be acquired and the tests performed, according the procedures here described. (author)

  2. Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moores, B. M.; Charnock, P.; Ward, M.

    2010-01-01

    Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development

  3. Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, B M; Charnock, P; Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development

  4. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location (∼1.7 m from the target) would be ∼1.4e9/cm 2 . Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of ∼ 1e8/cm 2 . The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at ∼1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor ∼50

  5. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-11-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location ({approx}1.7 m from the target) would be {approx}1.4e9/cm{sup 2}. Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of {approx} 1e8/cm{sup 2}. The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at {approx}1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor {approx}50.

  6. Evaluation of doses from radiodiagnostic procedures performed in veterinary medicine and assessing of the doses of secondary radiation in the medical staff and animal owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, Glauco Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal in veterinary radiography is to produce radiographs of diagnostic quality on the first attempt. This goal serves three purposes: (1) to decrease radiation exposure to the patient and veterinary personnel; (2) to decrease the cost of the study for the client; and (3) to produce diagnostic data for rapid interpretation and treatment of the patient. This work aimed to determine the doses in dogs submitted to chest and abdomen X rays using the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. The radiation doses were assessed using thermoluminescent dosimeters of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO 4 :Dy) and lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti). The obtained results indicate that is extremely important the assessment of radiation doses involved in veterinary diagnostic radiology procedures, to evaluate the delivered doses to the animals, to be used as a parameter in the individual monitoring of pet's owners, who assist the animal positioning, and to protect occupationally exposed workers at the Veterinary Radiology Clinics. (author)

  7. Radiopharmaceutical activities administered for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine in the first six months of the gamma camera use in the Clinical Center of Montenegro - Podgorica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, Nevenka; Aligrudic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear medicine procedures have carried out in the Clinical Center of Montenegro - Podgorica since 2006 by the dual-headed SPECT and Digital gamma camera NUCLINE Spirit DH-V. In the first six months of the gamma camera use (from September 2006 to March 2007) examinations of skeleton, kidneys, thyroid and lung were performed. For diagnostic skeletal imaging (102 patients) the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-MDP is used, and administered activities were in the range from 555 to 740 MBq. For thyroid imaging (203 patients) 99m Tc-pertechnetate is used, and administered activities were in the range (37-111) MBq. Lung imaging is performed for 3 patients, using 99m Tc-MAA and administered activities in the range (111-185) MBq. Renal imaging is carried out for 72 patients: 42 dynamic studies of kidneys were performed with 99m Tc-DTPA and administered activities from 207 to 282 MBq, and 30 static kidneys scintigraphies were performed using the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-DMSA. 6 patients in the last mentioned group were children with year of birth between 2000 and 2006, and administered activities were from 16.6 to 55.5 MBq. In the same group, activities 28.5 MBq, 74.4 MBq and 120 MBq were administered to three patients with age between 6 and 18 years, and in the other cases, administered activities to the patients (adults) were in the range (59.2 to 196) MBq. The administered activities presented here are basis for further estimations of cumulated activity and absorbed dose to the various organs, which is useful for comparison of the average dose to patient organs in various nuclear medicine procedures and calculation of effective dose equivalent and total effective dose, significant for an estimation of potential risk due to the radioactivity administered to a patient during nuclear medicine procedures. It is very important for procedures optimization and improvement of the radiation protection. (author)

  8. Investigation of reference levels and radiation dose associated with abdominal EVAR (endovascular aneurysm repair) procedures across several European Centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuthill, E.; Rainford, L. [University College Dublin, Diagnostic Imaging, School of Medicine, Dublin (Ireland); O' Hora, L.; O' Donohoe, M. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Panci, S. [San Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Florence (Italy); Gilligan, P.; Fox, E. [Mater Private Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Campion, D. [Mauriziano-Umberto Hospital, Turin (Italy); Trenti, R. [Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Catania, D. [AITRI, Association of Italian Interventional Radiographers, Milan (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is considered the treatment of choice for abdominal aortic aneurysms with suitable anatomy. In order to improve radiation safety, European Directive (2013/59) requires member states to implement diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in radio-diagnostic and interventional procedures. This study aimed to determine local DRLs for EVAR across five European centres and identify an interim European DRL, which currently remains unestablished. Retrospective data was collected for 180 standard EVARs performed between January 2014 and July 2015 from five specialist centres in Ireland (n=2) and Italy (n=3). Data capture included: air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), total air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), fluoroscopic time (FT), number of acquisitions, frame rate of acquisition, type of acquisition, patient height, weight, and gender. The mean values for each site A, B, C, D, and E were: P{sub KA}s of 4343 ± 994 μGym{sup 2}, 18,200 ± 2141 μGym{sup 2}, 11,423 ± 1390 μGym{sup 2}, 7796 ± 704 μGym{sup 2}, 31,897 ± 5798 μGym{sup 2}; FTs of 816 ± 92 s, 950 ± 150 s, 708 ± 70 s, 972 ± 61 s, 827 ± 118 s; and number of acquisitions of 6.72 ± 0.56, 10.38 ± 1.54, 4.74 ± 0.19, 5.64 ± 0.36, 7.28 ± 0.65, respectively. The overall pooled 75th percentile P{sub KA} was 15,849 μGym{sup 2}. Local reference levels were identified. The pooled data has been used to establish an interim European DRL for EVAR procedures. (orig.)

  9. Biomarkers of exposition to ionizing radiation and hematology parameters in fitness for work. Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokovic, J.; Milacic, S.; Rakic, B.; Pajic, J.; Petrovic, D.; Vuckovic, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is frequently used in medicine, especially during diagnostic procedures. The workers who are exposed to radiation have obligation for periodic check up. Presented case shows changes in hematological parameters and biomarkers of exposition to ionizing radiation (chromosome aberrations, structural changes and micronucleus test). The aim of this case report is to indicate metodology of diagnostic procedures for chronicle radiation syndrome. (author) [sr

  10. A study of radiological protection for women of reproductive age in diagnostic radiology. Questionnaire for medical radiation technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubone, Chie; Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki

    2005-01-01

    There has been great concern regarding the radiation protection for women of reproductive age when exposed to diagnostic radiation. The 10-day-rule proposed by the ICRP has not been recommended since 1983 because the risk to embryo and fetus within four weeks after menstruation may be small. However, some expects see that incomplete abandon of the 10-day-rule might cause confusion among the medical doctors and patients, and consequently unwarranted abortion happens. This paper surveyed the views of radiation technologies in hospitals and discussed how radiation exposure of women of reproductive age in medicine should be controlled. We found that the views to be 10-day-rule were spilt 50:50 and that radiation technologists do not necessarily think the 10-day-rule should be abandoned. Even the radiation technologists who are supposed to be able to explain to the patients the health risk following diagnostic exposure do not fully understand the risk involved. In conclusion, although a low-dose risk of diagnostic exposure should be sufficiently educated in order to obtain an exact understanding, the 10-day-rule may be useful in order to actually avoid any trouble in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  11. Quality control procedures of dental diagnostic radiology systems; Elaboracao de um procedimento para controle de qualidade em sistemas de radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Paula Serra Sasaki

    2007-07-01

    This work presents quality control reference procedures for dental diagnostic radiology systems, following the recommendations of the Publication 453 of the Brazilian Health Ministry (PF453), to be applied in dental clinics, in order to achieve an improvement in the radiological image qualities and the patient dose reduction. All tests were applied in an intraoral X rays system, following the methodology developed and the requirements of the PF 453. In order to verify the best quality of the image in relation to the smaller exposition time an object test was also developed in this work. The use of this object allowed the reduction of the exposition time of 0.5 seconds, the maximum value of the linear region of the characteristic curve, for 0.2 seconds. The tested X rays system showed a very good agreement with the applied procedures, detaching the reduction of the skin entrance dose using the film-holding devices. However, the size of the field increased and exceeded the maximum value of 6 cm recommended in the standard. The importance of the quality control in dental diagnostic radiology systems is essential due to the constant use of X radiation in dental clinics. The PF453 recommends the frequency of at least two years for the constancy tests. However, it is suggested that the professional, surgeon-dentist, should be responsible for the internal control of the image quality obtained from the X rays device. This can be done through monthly exposures of the object test developed in this work. (author)

  12. Ionizing radiation used in medical diagnostics as a source of radiation exposure of the patient with occupational diseases. Analysis and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolova, D.B.; Paskalev, Z.D.

    2001-01-01

    X-rays in medical diagnostic are the major source of Bulgarian population exposure to ionizing radiations. Diagnostic X-ray is the most diagnostic application and is used in a wide variety of examinations. The modern concept for radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology is based on two main principles: justification of the examinations and radiation protection optimization. It is pointed out that the collective effective dose of radiation may be considerably reduced by decreasing the number of clinically unwarranted X-ray examination of storage and delivery of diagnostic information and adopting a system for physical and technical quality control of the X-ray equipment. The aim of this investigation is assessment of the collective effective doses for the patients with occupational diseases exposed to ionizing radiation by radiological diagnostics. The study covers the period of 1990 through 1999. A total of 3293 patients, treated in the Department of Occupational Toxicology, Clinic of Occupational Diseases, Medical University - Sofia, were examined with X-ray and KT (cervical and lumbar spine, chest, skull, stomach, extremities, pelvis, brain). Most of the observed patients were with predominantlyheavy metals poisonings and a few with other chemical agents poisonings. Number of patients with radiological examinations was 1938, number of examination per capita was 0,59 and the total number of radiological examinations was 2536. The average number of radiological examination for one patient was 1,36, the most number of radiological examinations for one patient was 4. The collective effective dose for an examined patient was 1803 man.mSv. Our results shown the essential of the raising ensure that the medical exposure of patients be the minimum necessary to achieve the required diagnostic objective. (author)

  13. Radiation exposure and image quality in X-ray diagnostic radiology. Physical principles and clinical applications. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saebel, Manfred; Aichinger, Horst; Dierker, Joachim; Joite-Barfuss, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic X-rays are the largest contributor to radiation exposure to the general population, and protecting the patient from radiation damage is a major aim of modern health policy. Once the decision has been taken to use ionising radiation for imaging in a particular patient, it is necessary to optimize the image acquisition process taking into account the diagnostic quality of the images and the radiation dose to the patient. Both image quality and radiation dose are affected by a number of parameters, knowledge of which permits scientifically based decision making. The authors of this second edition of Radiation Exposure and Image Quality in X-ray Diagnostic Radiology have spent many years studying the optimization of radiological imaging. In this book they present in detail the basic physical principles of diagnostic radiology and their application to clinical problems. Particular attention is devoted to evaluation of the dose to the patient, the influence of scattered radiation on image quality, the use of antiscatter grids, and optimization of image quality and dose. The final section is a supplement containing tables of data and graphical depictions of X-ray spectra, interaction coefficients, characteristics of X-ray beams, and other aspects relevant to patient dose calculations. In addition, a complementary CD-ROM contains a user-friendly Excel file database covering these aspects that can be used in the reader's own programs. Since the first edition, the text, figures, tables, and references have all been thoroughly updated, and more detailed attention is now paid to image quality and radiation exposure when using digital imaging and computed tomography. This book will be an invaluable aid to medical physicists when performing calculations relating to patient dose and image quality, and will also prove useful for diagnostic radiologists and engineers. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of radiation protection in diagnostic and interventional radiology: Which is the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.

    2012-01-01

    As quoted in the latest UNSCEAR 2008 report: 'it appears that the world is entering another period of major technological changes, where the impact of these changes on the population dose worldwide in the future will be difficult to predict'. It is more than true that in this fast changing world and immense technological advances, especially in the medical sector, scientists run a marathon to be able to follow the new techniques that are continuously introduced for the benefit of the patient. Almost half of the radiation to the population in diagnostic radiology arises due to CT and interventional techniques. More and more medical specialties as well as other professions (nurses, technicians, managers, etc.) are currently being introduced into the term 'radiation safety culture' and 'optimization'. Some of these stakeholders were not aware of these expressions and were never trained or educated on these subjects. Each of these specialties should therefore be approached in a different way, indicating and underlining the specific roles of the experts, in order to persuade them to include radiation safety in their every day clinical routine. Below, some of these issues are identified and possible ways to move forward in the future are suggested. (author)

  15. Irradiation tests of radiation resistance optical fibers for fusion diagnostic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Shikama, Tatsuo; Nishitani, Takeo; Yamamoto, Shin; Nagata, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Bun; Toh, Kentaro; Hori, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    To promote development of radiation-resistant core optical fibers, the ITER-EDA (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Engineering Design Activity) recommended carrying out international round-robin irradiation tests of optical fibers to establish a reliable database for their applications in the ITER plasma diagnostics. Ten developed optical fibers were irradiation-tested in a Co-60 gamma cell, a Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Also, some of them were irradiation tested in a fast neutron irradiation facility of FNS (Fast Neutron Source), especially to study temperature dependence of neutron-associated irradiation effects. Included were several Japanese fluorine doped fibers and one Japanese standard fiber (purified and undoped silica core), as well as seven Russian fibers. Some of Russian fibers were drawn by Japanese manufactures from Russian made pre-form rods to study effects of manufacturing processes to radiation resistant properties. The present paper will describe behaviors of growth of radiation-induced optical transmission loss in the wavelength range of 350-1750nm. Results indicate that role of displacement damages by fast neutrons are very important in introducing permanent optical transmission loss. Spectra of optical transmission loss in visible range will depend on irradiation temperatures and material parameters of optical fibers.

  16. WE-A-18A-01: TG246 On Patient Dose From Diagnostic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supanich, M [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Dong, F [The Cleveland Clinic, Solon, OH (United States); Andersson, J [Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Pavlicek, W [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Bolch, W [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Fetterly, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Radiation dose from diagnostic and interventional radiations continues to be a focus of the regulatory, accreditation and standards organizations in the US and Europe. A Joint AAPM/EFOMP effort has been underway in the past year — having the goal to assist the clinical medical physicist with communicating optional and varied approaches in estimating (and validating) patient dose. In particular, the tools provided by DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports, either by themselves or as part of a networked data repository of dose related information are a rich source of actionable information. The tools of the medical physicist have evolved to include using DICOM data in meaningful ways to look at patient dose with respect to imaging practices. In addition to how accurate or reproducible a dose value is (totally necessary and our traditional workspace) it is now being asked how reproducible (patient to patient, device to device) are the delivered doses (new tasking)? Clinical medical physicists are best equipped to assist our radiology and technologist colleagues with this effort. The purpose of this session is to review the efforts of TG246 - bringing forward a summary content of the TG246 Report including specific dose descriptors for CT and Fluoroscopy — particularly in a focus of leveraging the RDSR as a means for monitoring good practices ALARA. Additionally, rapidly evolving technologies for more refined dose estimates are now in use. These will be presented as they look to having highly patient specific dose estimates in automated use.

  17. Detection of coherent X-ray transition radiation and its application to beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Li Qiang; Moran, M.J.; Bergstrom, J.C.; Caplan, H.S.; Silzer, R.M.; Skopik, D.M.; Rothbart, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the use of coherent X-ray transition radiation to measure the energy of ultra-relativistic charged particles. This can be used for beam diagnostics for both high-repetition-rate and single-pulse, high-current accelerators. The research also has possible applications for the detection and identification of these particles. By selecting foil thickness and spacing, it is possible to design radiators whose angle of emission varies radically over a range of charged particle energies. We have constructed three coherent radiators and tested them at two accelerators using electron beam energies ranging from 50 to 228 MeV. Soft X-ray emission (1-3 keV) was emitted in a circularly symmetrical annulus with half-angle divergence of 2.5-9.0 mrad. The angle of peak emission was found to increase with electron-beam energy, in contrast to the incoherent case for which the angle of emission varies inversely with electron-beam energy. (orig.)

  18. Radiation doses to the unborn child at diagnostic examination in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes methods to estimate fetal radiation doses from radiation diagnostic examinations, based on survey data from 3 hospitals in southern Sweden. The fetal dose has been calculated with available computer programs and verified by dose measurements inside a female human phantom for conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations. Measured fetal doses have been correlated to the DAP (Dose Area Product) value or the CTDI (Computer Tomography Dose Index) and DLP (Dose Length Product) values and conversion factors have been evaluated. For nuclear medicine examinations tables for the calculations of fetal doses by administered activity are presented together with information of administered activity for normal and pregnant women in Sweden. For X-ray examinations where the uterus is outside the primary radiation fields the fetal dose is generally below 1-2 mSv. In order to calculate fetal doses documentation of fluoroscopy time and number of X-ray images, scanning parameters for the CT and administered activity for nuclear medicine examinations are necessary

  19. Radiation Exposure from Diagnostic Imaging in a Cohort of Pediatric Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Seal

    Full Text Available Recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT have extensive diagnostic imaging (DI. The purpose of this study was to quantify this exposure. Children from northern Alberta with SOTs at Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta January 1, 2006, to July 31, 2012, were included. Effective doses of radiation were estimated using published norms for DI performed post-transplant up to October 16, 2014. The 54 eligible children had 6215 DI studies (5628 plain films, 293 computerized tomography (CT scans, 149 positron emission topography (PET -CT scans, 47 nuclear medicine scans and 98 cardiac catheterizations. Children less than 5 years of age underwent more DI studies than did older children (median (IQR 140 (66-210 vs 49 (19-105, p = 0.010. Children with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (N = 8 had more CT scans (median (IQR 13 (5.5-36 vs 1 (0-5, p100 mSv. In conclusion, a significant proportion of pediatric transplant recipients have sufficient radiation exposure post-transplant for DI to be at potential risk for radiation-induced malignancies.

  20. Chromatographic quality control procedures for /sup 99m/Tc-diagnostic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, M.; Pozzato, R.; Garuti, P.; Zucchini, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to experiment simple and rapid chromatographic systems, based on paper and thin-layer techniques, to test the radiochemical purity of some common /sup 99m/Tc diagnostic agents, and select those systems able to prevent the anomalies due to oxidation and artifact production. The agents were examined under conditions which usually bring about the above mentioned anomalies, then the results were compared with those obtained under controlled conditions. Quali- and quantitative detection of the activity present on the chromatograms was carried out using the equipment available in nuclear medicine departments

  1. Compliance determination procedures for environmental radiation protection standards for uranium recovery facilities 40 CFR part 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Uranium Milling operations are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by some States in agreement with the Commission. The radiation dose to any individual from the operation of facilities within the uranium fuel cycle is limited to levels set by the Environmental Protection Agency. These levels are contained in the EPA Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations, in Part 190 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 190). This report describes the procedures used within NRC's Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch for evaluating compliance with these regulations for uranium milling operations. The report contains descriptions of these procedures, dose factors for evaluating environmental measurement data, and guidance to the NRC staff reviewer

  2. Radiation and environmental data analysis computer (REDAC) hardware, software band analysis procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The REDAC was conceived originally as a tape verifier for the Radiation and Environmental Data Acquisition Recorder (REDAR). From that simple beginning in 1971, the REDAC has evolved into a family of systems used for complete analysis of data obtained by the REDAR and other acquisition systems. Portable or mobile REDACs are deployed to support checkout and analysis tasks in the field. Laboratory systems are additionally used for software development, physics investigations, data base management and graphics. System configurations range from man-portable systems to a large laboratory-based system which supports time-shared analysis and development tasks. Custom operating software allows the analyst to process data either interactively or by batch procedures. Analysis packages are provided for numerous necessary functions. All these analysis procedures can be performed even on the smallest man-portable REDAC. Examples of the multi-isotope stripping and radiation isopleth mapping are presented. Techniques utilized for these operations are also presented

  3. Radiation load of the extremities and eye lenses of the staff during selected interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, Denisa; Trosanova, Dominika

    2010-01-01

    The Slovak Medical University in Bratislava is involved in the ORAMED (Optimization of Radiation Protection for Medical Staff) research project, aimed at developing a unified methodology for a more accurate assessment of professional exposure of interventional radiology staff, with focus on extremity and eye lens dosimetry in selected procedures. Three cardiac procedures and 5 angiography examinations were selected: all technical parameters were monitored and the dose equivalent levels were measured by TL dosimetry at 9 anatomic sites of the body. Preliminary results were obtained for the radiation burden of the eyes and extremities during digital subtraction angiography of the lower limbs, collected from 7 hospital departments in partner EU states. Correlations between the evaluated data and the influence of some parameters are shown

  4. The primary exposure standard for Co-60 gamma radiation: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a cavity ionization chamber used, as a primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the ENEA in Italy. The primary standard is designed to make absolute measurements of exposure due to the Co-60 gamma radiation. The procedures for the realizationof the exposure unit are also described. Finally results of some international comparisons are reported

  5. Diagnostic value of performing endocervical curettage at the time of colposcopy procedure; a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Imannezhad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN as a precursor to invasive cervical cancer suggests a considerable need for accurate screening of the patients for the risk of these lesions. This systematic review aimed to study the diagnostic significance of endocervical curettage (ECC at the time of colposcopy in the detection of CIN 2, 3, and preinvasive lesions.Methods: PubMed was searched to obtain the relevant articles based on the following search term: (endocervical curettage OR ECC AND colposcopy. The most relevant articles were included after studying the title, abstract, and full text of the obtained articles at initial search. Only English language articles published after 1992 with at least 500 patients were included in this study.Result: Among 300 articles identified by the first search, only seven articles were in line with the purpose of this systematic review. Majority of the included studies were retrospective observational studies.Conclusion: Performing ECC has higher sensitivity in women older than 40 years and those with unsatisfactory colposcopy results. However exact diagnostic usefulness of ECC at the time of colposcopy needs to be investigated in further studies.

  6. Multiple procedures and cumulative individual radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: A long-term retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Rock, Thomas; Berndt, Peter; Viehmann, Anja; Reinders, Sabrina; Gesenhues, Stefan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for General Medicine, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Brix, Gunnar; Schegerer, Alexander [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Various studies address discrepancies between guideline recommendations for coronary angiographies and clinical practice. While the issue of the appropriateness of recurrent angiographies was studied focusing on the role of the cardiologist, little is known about individual patients' histories and the associated radiation exposures. We analyzed all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an academic teaching practice who underwent at least one angiography with or without intervention between 2004 and 2009. All performed angiographies in these patients were analyzed and rated by three physicians for appropriateness levels according to cardiology guidelines. Typical exposure data from the medical literature were used to estimate individual radiation exposure. In the cohort of 147 patients, a total of 441 procedures were analyzed: between 1981 and 2009, three procedures were performed per patient (range 1-19) on average. Appropriateness ratings were 'high/intermediate' in 71 %, 'low/no' in 27.6 % and data were insufficient for ratings in 1.4 %. Procedures with 'low/no' ratings were associated with potentially avoidable exposures of up to 186 mSv for single patients. Using retrospective data, we exemplify the potential benefit of guideline adherence to decrease patients' radiation exposures. (orig.)

  7. Radiation exposure to the eye lens of orthopaedic surgeons during various orthopaedic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, K.; Alyakov, M.; Vassileva, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the radiation dose to the eye lens of orthopaedic surgeons during various orthopaedic procedures and to make efforts to ensure that radiation protection is optimised. The study was performed for Fractura femoris and Fractura cruris procedures performed in orthopaedic operating theatres, as well as for fractures of wrist, ankle and hand/ shoulder performed in the emergency trauma room. The highest mean value of the eye lens dose of 47.2 μSv and higher mean fluoroscopy time of 3 min, as well as the corresponding highest maximum values of 77.1 μSv and 5.0 min were observed for the Fractura femoris procedure performed with the Biplanar 500e fluoroscopy systems. At a normal workload, the estimated mean annual dose values do not exceed the annual occupational dose limit for the lens of eye, but at a heavy workload in the department, this dose limit could be achieved or exceeded. The use of protective lead glasses is recommended as they could reduce the radiation exposure of the lens of the eye. The phantom measurements demonstrated that the use of half-dose mode could additionally reduce dose to the operator's eye lens. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of patients radiation dose from computed tomography during lower peripheral angiography procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, Leena Ahmed Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient radiation doses in lower peripheral angiography CT examinations in Sudan. Survey was conducted in four major hospitals which almost carry out lower peripheral angiography procedures in Sudan at the time of study. All hospitals were equipped with 64 slices multi detectors CT from Toshiba (Japan). The total number of patients was 74. Information on patient's genders and ages, exposure technique factors and radiation dose were collected. The procedures performed in multi phases, up to five phases covering part of the abdomen region, which can make patients exposure reasonably high. CTDI values in the different phases ranged between (13-30) mGy. The total DLP in the four hospitals were 6888.75, 5065.05, 6608.88 and 5754.9 mGy.cm. This study provided first survey for patient dose during lower peripheral angiography procedures in Sudan. Taking into account that the CT machines were similar: the variation between patient's DLP and CTDI values in the different hospitals indicated the need of optimization of radiation protection. Staff training and awareness on factors affecting patient dose are essential.(Author)

  9. Judicial facts on licensing and supervisory procedures concerning radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenhaum, O.

    1976-01-01

    Some statistical studies on the present licensing and supervision procedures are discussed, viz. on 1) owner of a licence accord. to sect. 3 and 4 of the 1st Radiation Protection Ordinance; 2) special licences according to section 1 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance for the release of radioactive materials in air and water (required in a very few cases only); 3) violations of the regulations were not of a severe nature (mostly from industry). The author condludes that the present regulations proved to be satisfactory. Minor corrections relating to licence-free handling, restriction of the requirements for a licence as well as to prohibition of illegal use of the radiation warning sign are desired. (HP) [de

  10. Pelvicalyceal system duplication with ectopic ureter – diagnostic difficulties associated with the imaging procedure. Two cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pukajło-Marczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract abnormalities are the most frequently occurring developmental anomaly in children. Pelvicalyceal system duplication is one of them and signifies the existence of two urine diverting separate systems. This anomaly occurs in 10% of population, usually in girls, and is associated with complete or partial ureter duplication. The frequency of total ureter duplication, which in 20–40% of patients is found as bilateral, is 1:125 children (0.8% of the population. The most frequent malformation is asymptomatic, diagnosed coincidentally casually and does not require any treatment. In some patients with pelvicalyceal system duplication, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR and ectopic ureter may coexist. Malposition of ureter’s orifice into the bladder predispose to urinary retention, development of hydronephrosis and urinary tract infection (UTI. Ectopic ureterocele is recognized in 6–20% of children with recurrent UTI. The reason why children are referred to the hospital is UTI or hydronephrosis revealed by ultrasound imaging. When the ultrasound image of pelvicalyceal system duplication is ambiguous, micturating cystourethrography (MCU and scintigraphy become the primary diagnostic procedure, or urography – in more complicated cases. In the case of ectopic ureter, the danger of inappropriate catheterization, i.e. directly into its lumen, may occur. Though very rare, this may cause some diagnostic difficulties and lead to injury of the urinary tract. For this reason, we want to further discuss this complication following a diagnostic procedure on the example of two cases of pelvicalyceal system duplication with ectopic ureter.

  11. Therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in preinvasive disease of the cervix and cervical cancer in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolna, M.; Pisarski, T.; Kedzia, H.

    1993-01-01

    154 pregnant women with displasis and cervical carcinoma of the uterus treated in the Institute in years 1953-1990 underwent investigation. Authors noticed that only 50 pathologies were diagnosed in 1st trimester of pregnancy and 85% constituted precancerous and early forms of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Authors presented the model of management and care of pregnancy, labour and puerperium in these patients. Due to this procedure we obtained 90% comparability of preliminary and final diagnosis. (author)

  12. Low-dose radiation employed in diagnostic imaging causes genetic effects in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzinibbio, Maria V.; Peral-Garcia, Pilar; Seoane, Analia; Crudeli, Cintia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Exposure to environmental, diagnostic, and occupational sources of radiation frequently involves low doses. Although these doses have no immediately noticeable impact on human health there is great interest in their long-term biological effects. Purpose: To assess immediate and time-delayed DNA damage in two cell lines exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation by using the comet assay and micronucleus test, and to compare these two techniques in the analysis of low-dose induced genotoxicity. Material and Methods: CHO and MRC-5 cells were exposed to 50 milliSievert (mSv) of ionizing radiation and assayed immediately after irradiation and at 16 or 12 passages post-irradiation, respectively. Comet assay and micronucleus test were employed. Results: The comet assay values observed in 50 mSv-treated cells were significantly higher than in the control group for both sample times and cell lines (P < 0.001). Micronuclei frequencies were higher in treated cells than in the control group (P < 0.01, CHO cells passage 16; P < 0.05, MRC-5 cells immediately after exposure; P < 0.01 MRC-5 cells passage 12). Correlation analysis between the two techniques was statistically significant (correlation coefficient 0.82, P < 0.05 and correlation coefficient 0.86, P < 0.05 for CHO and MRC-5 cells, respectively). Cells scored at passages 12 or 16 showed more damage than those scored immediately after exposure in both cell lines (no statistically significant differences). Conclusion: Cytomolecular and cytogenetic damage was observed in cells exposed to very low doses of X-rays and their progeny. A single low dose of ionizing radiation was sufficient to induce such response, indicating that mammalian cells are exquisitely sensitive to it. Comet and micronucleus assays are sensitive enough to assess this damage, although the former seems to be more efficient

  13. Genetic damage from diagnostic radiation: a critique of the Bross and Natarajan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, B.E.

    1979-01-01

    Bross and Natarajan have presented the hypothesis that low-dose fetal irradiation in the range of 0.5 to 5.0 rads confines its damage to 1% of the irradiated subjects and that for this affected group there is a 5000% increase in the risk of leukemia as compared with unexposed subjects. Earlier studies have indicated an increased risk of leukemia of approximately 50% following such radiation, so this hypothesis would suggest that for the affected group the radiation is 100 times more dangerous than previously suspected. Bross and Natarajan claimed that their arguments established clear prima facie evidence that exposure to the low levels of ionizing radiation can produce a drastically increased risk of leukemia. Bross and associates constructed dosage response curves for the 1-rad range, from which they concluded that the hazards of exposure in this range are an order of magnitude greater than currently estimated. On this basis, Bross has appeared before a US Senate committee to call for elaborate restrictions on the use of diagnostic x-rays. He has also presented his findings at a public meeting sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to gain popular support for his contentions regarding low-level radiadion. The analysis of adult exposure by Bross et al that appeared in a recent issue of the American Journal of Public Health received a thorough critique in the same issue. The analysis of fetal exposure appearing in the Journal has not been adequately examined, since published criticism has been limited to two letters to the editor. In view of the serious nature of their contentions and the much stricter regulation of radiation exposure that would follow should they be judged correct, it is important that certain previously unreported deficiencies in the Bross and Natarajan study be brought to public attention. These will be presented in the form of five criticisms

  14. Low-dose radiation employed in diagnostic imaging causes genetic effects in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponzinibbio, Maria V.; Peral-Garcia, Pilar; Seoane, Analia (Inst. de Genetica Veterinaria, Univ. Nacional de La Plata CONICET, La Plata (Argentina)), e-mail: aseoane@fcv.unlp.edu.ar; Crudeli, Cintia (Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica, La Plata (Argentina))

    2010-11-15

    Background: Exposure to environmental, diagnostic, and occupational sources of radiation frequently involves low doses. Although these doses have no immediately noticeable impact on human health there is great interest in their long-term biological effects. Purpose: To assess immediate and time-delayed DNA damage in two cell lines exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation by using the comet assay and micronucleus test, and to compare these two techniques in the analysis of low-dose induced genotoxicity. Material and Methods: CHO and MRC-5 cells were exposed to 50 milliSievert (mSv) of ionizing radiation and assayed immediately after irradiation and at 16 or 12 passages post-irradiation, respectively. Comet assay and micronucleus test were employed. Results: The comet assay values observed in 50 mSv-treated cells were significantly higher than in the control group for both sample times and cell lines (P < 0.001). Micronuclei frequencies were higher in treated cells than in the control group (P < 0.01, CHO cells passage 16; P < 0.05, MRC-5 cells immediately after exposure; P < 0.01 MRC-5 cells passage 12). Correlation analysis between the two techniques was statistically significant (correlation coefficient 0.82, P < 0.05 and correlation coefficient 0.86, P < 0.05 for CHO and MRC-5 cells, respectively). Cells scored at passages 12 or 16 showed more damage than those scored immediately after exposure in both cell lines (no statistically significant differences). Conclusion: Cytomolecular and cytogenetic damage was observed in cells exposed to very low doses of X-rays and their progeny. A single low dose of ionizing radiation was sufficient to induce such response, indicating that mammalian cells are exquisitely sensitive to it. Comet and micronucleus assays are sensitive enough to assess this damage, although the former seems to be more efficient

  15. Radiation exposure of medical staff from interventional x-ray procedures: a multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, Uwe; Brix, Gunnar; Czarwinski, Renate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the radiation exposure of medical staff from interventional x-ray procedures. Partial-body dose measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in 39 physicians and nine assistants conducting 73 interventional procedures of nine different types in 14 hospitals in Germany. Fluoroscopy time and the dose-area product (DAP) were recorded too. The median (maximum) equivalent body dose per procedure was 16 (2,500) μSv for an unshielded person; the partial-body dose per procedure was 2.8 (240) μSv to the eye lens, 4.1 (730) μSv to the thyroid, 44 (1,800) μSv to one of the feet and 75 (13,000) μSv to one of the hands. A weak correlation between fluoroscopy time or DAP and the mean TLD dose was observed. Generally, the doses were within an acceptable range from a radiation hygiene point of view. However, relatively high exposures were measured to the hand in some cases and could cause a partial-body dose above the annual dose limit of 500 mSv. Thus, the use of finger dosimeters is strongly recommended. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of radiation doses in patient and medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Deoknam; Kim, Kie Hwan; Park, Kyung; Kim, Jung-Su; Han, Seonggyu; Kim, Jungmin

    2016-01-01

    The radiation exposure dose must be optimised because the hazard resulting from an interventional radiology procedure is long term depending on the patient. The aim of this study was to measure the radiation doses received by the patients and medical staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) procedures. Data were collected during 126 ERCP procedures, including the dose-area product (DAP), entrance dose (ED), effective dose (E), fluoroscopy time (T) and number of digital radiographs (F). The medical staff members each wore a personal thermoluminescence dosemeter to monitor exposure during ERCP procedures. The mean DAP, ED, E and T were 47.06 Gy cm 2 , 196.06 mGy, 8.93 mSv, 7.65 min and 9.21 images, respectively. The mean dose to the staff was 0.175 mSv and that to the assistant was 0.069 mSv. The dose to the medical staff was minimal when appropriate protective measures were used. The large variation in the patient doses must be further investigated. (authors)

  17. Single-source gamma radiation procedures for improved calibration and measurements in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostrom, M.; Hofstee, C.; Dane, H.; Lenhard, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    When dual-energy gamma radiation systems are employed for measurements in porous media, count rates from both sources are often used to compute parameter values. However, for several applications, the count rates of just one source are insufficient. These applications include the determination of volumetric liquid content values in two-liquid systems and salt concentration values in water-saturated porous media. Single-energy gamma radiation procedures for three applications are described in this paper. Through an error analysis, single-source procedures are shown to reduce the probable error in the determinations considerably. Example calculations and simple column experiments were conducted for each application to compare the performance of the new single-source and standard dual-source methods. In all cases, the single-source methods provided more reliable data than the traditional dual-source methods. In addition, a single-source calibration procedure is proposed to determine incident count rates indirectly. This procedure, which requires packing under saturated conditions, can be used in all single- and dual-source applications and yields accurate porosity and dry bulk density values

  18. Free Thyroid Transfer: A Novel Procedure to Prevent Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Jeffrey; Almarzouki, Hani; Barber, Brittany; Scrimger, Rufus; Romney, Jacques; O'Connell, Daniel; Urken, Mark; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) has been found to be ≤53%. Medical treatment of hypothyroidism can be costly and difficult to titrate. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of free thyroid transfer as a strategy for the prevention of radiation-induced damage to the thyroid gland during radiation therapy for HNC. Methods and Materials: A prospective feasibility study was performed involving 10 patients with a new diagnosis of advanced HNC undergoing ablative surgery, radial forearm free-tissue transfer reconstruction, and postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. During the neck dissection, hemithyroid dissection was completed with preservation of the thyroid arterial and venous supply for implantation into the donor forearm site. All patients underwent a diagnostic thyroid technetium scan 6 weeks and 12 months postoperatively to examine the functional integrity of the transferred thyroid tissue. Results: Free thyroid transfer was executed in 9 of the 10 recruited patients with advanced HNC. The postoperative technetium scans demonstrated strong uptake of technetium at the forearm donor site at 6 weeks and 12 months for all 9 of the transplanted patients. Conclusions: The thyroid gland can be transferred as a microvascular free transfer with maintenance of function. This technique could represent a novel strategy for maintenance of thyroid function after head and neck irradiation.

  19. Free Thyroid Transfer: A Novel Procedure to Prevent Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeffrey [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Almarzouki, Hani [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Barber, Brittany, E-mail: brittanybarber0@gmail.com [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Scrimger, Rufus [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Romney, Jacques [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); O' Connell, Daniel [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Urken, Mark [Institute for Head and Neck and Thyroid Cancers, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Seikaly, Hadi [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: The incidence of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) has been found to be ≤53%. Medical treatment of hypothyroidism can be costly and difficult to titrate. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of free thyroid transfer as a strategy for the prevention of radiation-induced damage to the thyroid gland during radiation therapy for HNC. Methods and Materials: A prospective feasibility study was performed involving 10 patients with a new diagnosis of advanced HNC undergoing ablative surgery, radial forearm free-tissue transfer reconstruction, and postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. During the neck dissection, hemithyroid dissection was completed with preservation of the thyroid arterial and venous supply for implantation into the donor forearm site. All patients underwent a diagnostic thyroid technetium scan 6 weeks and 12 months postoperatively to examine the functional integrity of the transferred thyroid tissue. Results: Free thyroid transfer was executed in 9 of the 10 recruited patients with advanced HNC. The postoperative technetium scans demonstrated strong uptake of technetium at the forearm donor site at 6 weeks and 12 months for all 9 of the transplanted patients. Conclusions: The thyroid gland can be transferred as a microvascular free transfer with maintenance of function. This technique could represent a novel strategy for maintenance of thyroid function after head and neck irradiation.

  20. Cardiac diseases - their clinical features, diagnostic procedures and questions to the radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisch, B.

    1983-09-01

    When diagnosing cardiac diseases non-invasively either by radiology, radionuclide studies or echocardiography each method has its values and problems. In coronary artery disease exercise stress testing with or without thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy, the demonstration of coronary artery calcification and echocardiography are valuable non-invasive methods. Only by coronary arteriography, however, can the degree of stenosis, its localisation and its operability be determined. In heart muscle diseases X-ray and radionuclide angiocardiography demonstrate cardiac dilatation and diminished left ventricular function. In addition echocardiography is the method of choice to distinguish dilated from hypertrophic (obstructive or non obstructive) cardiomyopathy. Pericardial diseases are diagnosed most effectively by echocardiography and, more expensively, by computer tomography. In neoplastic pericardial effusions computer tomography assesses mediastinal tumors most effectively. In valvular heart disease the classical chest X-ray is still of great importance, but echocardiography is more specific and more sensitive. Invasive diagnostic measures (heart catherization) are still mandatory in most valvular diseases.

  1. Spectroscopic Challenges in the Modelling and Diagnostics of High Temperature Air Plasma Radiation for Aerospace Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, Christophe O.

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art spectroscopic models of the radiative transitions of interest for Earth re-entry and ground-based diagnostic facilities for aerospace applications are reviewed. The spectral range considered extends from the vacuum ultraviolet to the mid-infrared range (80 nm to 5.5 μm). The modeling results are compared with absolute intensity measurements of the ultraviolet-visible-infrared emission of a well-characterized high-temperature air plasma produced with a 50 kW inductively coupled radio-frequency plasma torch, and with high-resolution absorption spectra from the Center for Astrophysics in the vacuum ultraviolet. The Spectroscopic data required to better model the spectral features of interest for aerospace applications are discussed

  2. Theoretical Study of Radiation from a Broad Range of Impurity Ions for Magnetic Fusion Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, Alla [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-03-14

    describing the ionization balance of plasmas, which in turn determines the lines contributing to the spectral emission and the radiative power loss. In particular, we have calculated relativistic atomic data and corresponding dielectronic satellite spectra of highly ionized W ions, such as, for example, Li-like W (with the shortest wavelength of x-ray radiation of about 0.2 Å) that might exist in ITER core plasmas at very high temperatures of 30-40 keV. In addition, we have completed relativistic calculations of low ionized W ions from Lu-like (W3+) to Er-like (W6+) and for Sm-like(W12+) and Pm-like (W13+) that cover a spectral range from few hundred to thousand Å and are more relevant to the edge plasma diagnostics in tokamak.

  3. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.J.; Twomey, M.; O'Regan, K.N.; Murphy, K.P.; Maher, M.M.; O'Connor, O.J.; McLaughlin, P.D.; Power, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. (orig.)

  4. Studies on optimization of radiation protection for patients in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Li, W.; Li, K.; Wei, L.; Zong, X.; Qiang, Z.; Wu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    For the exposure of patients in diagnostic radiology, individual dose limit does not apply, but optimization of radiological protection may play a major role. This project has been carried out with the purpose of improving the protection of patients in medical diagnostic radiology in China utilizing the principles of optimization. Taking Sichuan, Shandong and Beijing as surveyed areas, we investigated the present situation of the protection of patients. In the survey, the patient doses were classified into practical dose, justified dose and optimized dose to evaluate the influences of managerial and equipment factors separately. The results show that there are some urgent protection problems in X-ray protection to be solved in the surveyed regions. This paper, however, points out that the prospects of reducing patient doses are encouraging provided that appropriate measures are adopted. For instance, taking proper managerial measures without radical change of existing equipments may reduce patient doses in chest fluoroscopy and radiography by 40% and 18% respectively; refitting some equipment may reduce the doses by 82.4% in chest fluoroscopy, 66% in chest radiography, and 80% in barium meal examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Using chest radiography instead of fluoroscopy supplemented by other protection measures may reduce the doses by 91.7%. Optimization analysis shows that adoption of the above measures conforms to the principle of optimization of radiation protection. (authors). 5 refs., 7 tabs

  5. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, C.J.; Twomey, M.; O' Regan, K.N. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, K.P.; Maher, M.M.; O' Connor, O.J. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); McLaughlin, P.D. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Emergency and Trauma Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Power, D.G. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Medical Oncology, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-04-01

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. (orig.)

  6. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P.; Schueler, Beth A.; Balter, Stephen; Strauss, Keith J.; Wunderle, Kevin A.; LaFrance, M. Terry; Kim, Don-Soo; Behrman, Richard H.; Shepard, S. Jeff; Bercha, Ishtiaq H.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field

  7. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P., E-mail: Pei-Jan.Lin@vcuhealth.org [Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Schueler, Beth A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Balter, Stephen [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Strauss, Keith J. [Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 (United States); Wunderle, Kevin A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); LaFrance, M. Terry [Baystate Health Systems, Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts 01199 (United States); Kim, Don-Soo [Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Behrman, Richard H. [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Shepard, S. Jeff [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77096 (United States); Bercha, Ishtiaq H. [Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  8. Simulation of beta radiator handling procedures in nuclear medicine by means of a movable hand phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunck, Ch; Becker, F; Urban, M

    2011-03-01

    In nuclear medicine therapies, people working with beta radiators such as (90)Y may be exposed to non-negligible partial body doses. For radiation protection, it is important to know the characteristics of the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Besides extensive measurements, simulations can provide these data. For this purpose, a movable hand phantom for Monte Carlo simulations was developed. Specific beta radiator handling scenarios can be modelled interactively with forward kinematics or automatically with an inverse kinematics procedure. As a first investigation, the dose distribution on a medical doctor's hand injecting a (90)Y solution was measured and simulated with the phantom. Modelling was done with the interactive method based on five consecutive frames from a video recorded during the injection. Owing to the use of only one camera, not each detail of the radiation scenario is visible in the video. In spite of systematic uncertainties, the measured and simulated dose values are in good agreement.

  9. Diagnostic flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy: development of a procedure specific assessment tool using a Delphi methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Dikkers, Frederik G; Gavilán, Javier; Noordzij, J Pieter; Fried, Marvin P; Novakovic, Daniel; Fagan, Johannes; Charabi, Birgitte W; Konge, Lars; von Buchwald, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Proper training and assessment of skill in flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy are central in the education of otorhinolaryngologists. To facilitate an evidence-based approach to curriculum development in this field, a structured analysis of what constitutes flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy is necessary. Our aim was to develop an assessment tool based on this analysis. We conducted an international Delphi study involving experts from twelve countries in five continents. Utilizing reiterative assessment, the panel defined the procedure and reached consensus (defined as 80% agreement) on the phrasing of an assessment tool. FIFTY PANELISTS COMPLETED THE DELPHI PROCESS. THE MEDIAN AGE OF THE PANELISTS WAS 44 YEARS (RANGE 33-64 YEARS). MEDIAN EXPERIENCE IN OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY WAS 15 YEARS (RANGE 6-35 YEARS). TWENTY-FIVE WERE SPECIALIZED IN LARYNGOLOGY, 16 WERE HEAD AND NECK SURGEONS, AND NINE WERE GENERAL OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGISTS. AN ASSESSMENT TOOL WAS CREATED CONSISTING OF TWELVE DISTINCT ITEMS.: Conclusion The gathering of validity evidence for assessment of core procedural skills within Otorhinolaryngology is central to the development of a competence-based education. The use of an international Delphi panel allows for the creation of an assessment tool which is widely applicable and valid. This work allows for an informed approach to technical skills training for flexible pharyngo-laryngoscopy and as further validity evidence is gathered allows for a valid assessment of clinical performance within this important skillset.

  10. Radiation protection for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Chatal, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    A real technological revolution has deeply modified the field of application and perspectives of nuclear medicine, and nuclear oncology in particular, during the past 5 years. Diagnostic applications such as positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) have had a significant impact on the diagnostic strategy adopted by medical oncologists, with the addition of invaluable functional data to already available anatomical data provided by conventional imaging modalities. Numerous other 18 F-labeled tracers currently under clinical evaluation have been developed to study various tumor functions (tumor proliferation, hypoxia, hemo-therapy-induced apoptosis, etc.). These tracers may have a considerable impact on therapeutic strategies. Other positron-emitting radionuclides, such as copper-64, iodine-124, and yttrium-86 (whose respective half-lives are 12.7 hours, 4.2 days. and 14.7 hours) will soon be available for certain clinical indications, such as immuno-PET (with monoclonal antibodies or antibody fragments used as carriers) or pretreatment dosimetry, which cannot be performed with fluorine-18 due its short half-life. As far as therapeutic applications are concerned, the use of internal radiotherapy, which has been restricted to thyroid cancer for a long time, was recently extended to other cancers as new carriers, such as monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) or peptides (radio-peptide therapy), new targeting methods (pre-targeting), and new radionuclides, especially alpha particle emitters (alpha therapy), became available. These technological advances require that specific radiation safety regulations be implemented to protect nuclear medicine personnel, patients' close relatives, and the environment. Most current regulations concern diagnostic applications with technetium-99m and therapeutic applications with iodine-131. Regulations pertaining to the clinical use of 18 F-FDG were recently enacted (2001). Regarding exposure nuclear

  11. Evaluation of additional lead shielding in protecting the physician from radiation during cardiac interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Koichi; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Morishima, Yoshiaki; Katahira, Yoshiaki; Chiba, Hiroo

    2005-01-01

    Since cardiac interventional procedures deliver high doses of radiation to the physician, radiation protection for the physician in cardiac catheterization laboratories is very important. One of the most important means of protecting the physician from scatter radiation is to use additional lead shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes and ceiling-mounted lead acrylic protection. During cardiac interventional procedures (cardiac IVR), however, it is not clear how much lead shielding reduces the physician dose. This study compared the physician dose [effective dose equivalent (EDE) and dose equivalent (DE)] with and without additional shielding during cardiac IVR. Fluoroscopy scatter radiation was measured using a human phantom, with an ionization chamber survey meter, with and without additional shielding. With the additional shielding, fluoroscopy scatter radiation measured with the human phantom was reduced by up to 98%, as compared with that without. The mean EDE (whole body, mean±SD) dose to the operator, determined using a Luxel badge, was 2.55±1.65 and 4.65±1.21 mSv/year with and without the additional shielding, respectively (p=0.086). Similarly, the mean DE (lens of the eye) to the operator was 15.0±9.3 and 25.73±5.28 mSv/year, respectively (p=0.092). In conclusion, although tableside drapes and lead acrylic shields suspended from the ceiling provided extra protection to the physician during cardiac IVR, the reduction in the estimated physician dose (EDE and DE) during cardiac catheterization with additional shielding was lower than we expected. Therefore, there is a need to develop more ergonomically useful protection devices for cardiac IVR. (author)

  12. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures for subclinical mastitis in meat-producing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Archie C A; Taylor, David J; Fitzpatrick, Julie L

    2003-05-01

    Samples of foremilk were collected from 261 clinically normal glands of 150 ewes, and tested using the California mastitis test (CMT). Further samples were collected from 195 of these glands for determination of automated somatic cell counts (SCC), and from 60 of these glands for bacteriological assessment. The sensitivity and specificity of CMT for detecting samples with SCC above different threshold levels and for CMT and SCC in determining bacteriological status were evaluated using two-graph receiver operating characteristics (TG-ROC). Milk samples were obtained subsequently from ten CMT positive, and five CMT negative first- and second-lactation ewes. Samples were cultured using a variety of media, incubation temperatures and atmospheric conditions, immediately after collection, and 1 week after storage at 4 degrees C and -21 degrees C. Results suggested that CMT is best used as a diagnostic test for ovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) with a cut-off of 3 (distinct gel formation), and that automated SCC thresholds of > 1200 x 10(3) cells/ml are appropriate, especially where low prevalences are expected (e.g. culture, either at 4 degrees C or -21 degrees C, was detrimental to the isolation of several of these organisms.

  13. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulator