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Sample records for diagnostic isotope 111in

  1. Equipment for isotope diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns an improvement of equipment for isotope diagnostics allowing to mark special intensity ranges of the recorded measurements by means of different colors. For undisturbed operation it is of advantage to avoid electric circuits between movable and unmovable parts of the color recorder. According to the invention, long gear wheels of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide are used for these connections. (ORU) [de

  2. Isotope diagnostics apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a measuring probe for an isotope diagnostics apparatus to determine the distribution of radioactive substances in a body by measuring the radiation emanating from this body by means of a multiplicity of measuring probes directed simultaneously towards areas of measuring surfae and carried in guidances of a holding block. The measuring results of the individual probes are recorded separately, thus allowing the possibility of being evaluated separately, too. Measuring probes of this kind are used in multi-channel measuring objects and are useful particularly for determining the regional cerebral blood flow. (orig./ORU) [de

  3. Diagnostic value of (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with fever of unknown origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    111In-granulocyte scintigraphy is often used as a diagnostic tool in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). However, its diagnostic performance has been studied in only a limited number of investigations, with most having been published more than 10 y ago; in addition, a broad range...... and specificity in cases of FUO, when one takes into account that (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy is not a first-line test. The high predictive value of a scintigram showing negative findings may be especially valuable for ruling out an infectious cause of FUO. Neither peripheral leukocyte count nor CRP levels...

  4. The labelling of Nanocoll[reg] with [111In] for dual-isotope scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Key Mien, Leonhard-; Eidherr, Harald; Roka, Sebastian; Zettinig, Georg; Angelberger, Peter; Viernstein, Helmut; Kletter, Kurt; Dudczak, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Visualization and biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes play an important role in planning and controlling the therapy of breast cancer. Hitherto two methods--scintigraphy or gamma probe detection after injection of [ 99m Tc]-nanocolloids and visual detection after injection of patent blue dye--are used routinely. There are no conclusive publications elucidating such important parameters as injection site, injection method and colloidal parameters. The present work aims to label Nanocoll[reg] with [ 111 In] to provide an alternative method, a simultaneous one-compound dual-isotope application. Methods: [ 111 In]-Indiumchloride was buffered with acetate and transferred to the nanocolloid. The colloid labelling reaction was complete after 30 min and filtrated through 100 nm Nuclepore[reg] filters. Results: Incorporation yield of [ 111 In]-Indium into the nanocolloid was nearly quantitative, the step associated with the major loss of activity was the particle sizing with a mean yield of 55%. Conclusion: The presented method allows for the routine supply of [ 111 In]-nanocolloids. Size-filtered [ 111 In]-Nanocoll[reg] shows the same particle size range as [ 99m Tc]-Nanocoll[reg

  5. Diagnostic value of (111)In-granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with fever of unknown origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    111In-granulocyte scintigraphy is often used as a diagnostic tool in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). However, its diagnostic performance has been studied in only a limited number of investigations, with most having been published more than 10 y ago; in addition, a broad range...... of sensitivities and specificities has been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of granulocyte scintigraphy in patients fulfilling the criteria of FUO. Also studied was whether increased peripheral leukocyte count or C-reactive protein (CRP) level could be used...... to select patients for scintigraphy to raise the diagnostic value. METHODS: For 31 patients with true FUO who underwent granulocyte scintigraphy at a third-line referral hospital between 1995 and 2000, the files and scintigraphy findings were reviewed retrospectively to test the ability of scintigraphy...

  6. Uptake and dosimetry of Auger emitting diagnostic radionuclides (in particular indium-111) in human male germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettleton, J.S.; Lawson, R.S.; Prescott, M.C.; Hoyes, K.P.; Morris, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the uptake and dosimetry of Auger electron emitting radionuclides which are used during routine diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, in human testes and spermatozoa (sperm). A computer model was developed to calculate the doses to sperm heads from cellular localisation of the Auger electron emitting radionuclides 99m Tc, 111 In, 123 I and 201 Tl. An assumption of ellipsoidal geometry was made to approximate the sperm head. S Factors were determined for differing sub-cellular localisations of radionuclide. The S-Factors determined were then combined with in-vitro data for quantification of radionuclide uptake for 99m Tc pertechnetate, 111 In chloride and 201 Tl chloride, to estimate in-vivo doses to sperm heads following intravenous administration of radionuclide in typical diagnostic quantities. The uptake and resulting cellular radiation dose of 111 In (from the chloride) was significantly larger than the other radionuclides in the chemical forms investigated. Further investigations were carried out to determine localisation of 111 In on sperm. The results of these experiments indicate that the radiation dose to mature sperm following administration of 111 In pharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes might be large enough to result in DNA damage which is not expressed until after fertilisation of an oocyte. Consideration should therefore be given to providing some contraceptive advice following diagnostic administrations of this radionuclide. In order to consider the possible effects of these radionuclides on other spermatogenic cells, further studies were undertaken to obtain in-vivo data for quantification of 111 In chloride and 201 Tl chloride uptake into the human testis following intravenous administration. Conventional dosimetry was then used to estimate testicular radiation dose using our values of percentage uptake. The results obtained indicate that the values of testicular radiation doses quoted by ICRP for 111 In might be too low by

  7. Quality assurance programme for isotope diagnostic laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, Istvan

    1987-01-01

    Quality assurance systems are suggested to be introduced in laboratories, in accordance with the recommendations of IAEA and WHO, taking local circumstances into consideration. It is emphasized that a quantitative enhancement of work must not endanger its quality; diagnostic information must be undistorted, reproducible, and gathered with the minimum of radiation burden. National authorities are requested to strengthen their supervision. Recommendations for quality assurance methods are given for medical isotope diagnostic laboratories. (author)

  8. Diagnostic value of female genital malignant tumors by using 111In-bleomycin scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Masanori; Saito, Masaru

    1978-01-01

    In order to know if it is possible to objectively decide the extent of infiltration of female genital malignant tumors into parametrium by using 111 In-bleomycin scintigraphy, a fundamental and clinical investigation was made. The radiochemical purity and stability of 111 In-BLM were comparatively unchangeable. When this complex was kept at room temperature for a week, there was not more than 2% of the free 111 In. As to blood clearance, when the blood radioactivity of 111 In-BLM 5 minutes after the injection was counted as 100%, about 80% of the radioactivity was cleared from the blood in 48 hours. Over 50% of the radioactivity was excreted into the urine in 48 hours. Of 29 cases of female genital malignant tumors, 23 cases (79%) showed positive images. Therefore 111 In-BLM was found to be one of the suitable radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis of female genital malignant tumors. 111 In-BLM scintigraphy was of great use for deciding the extent of the invasion of carcinoma cervicis uteri into parametrium and for the search of metastasis. (author)

  9. Control of processes using isotopic diagnostic's technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Celso; Chaverri, Oscar; Chine, Bruno; Conejo, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The Escuela de Ciencias e Ingenieria de los Materiales of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica, in cooperation with OIEA, develops a project of dowry of capacity oriented to the formation of professionals and equipment for the use of two important technologies of isotopic diagnostic. The first of them is the technology of tracers that operates the unique properties that present different radioactive isotopics like open sources. The second one well known as scanning or profile gamma, uses sealed source, of the some nature that the previous ones, to obtain profiles in different processes and thus to determine its internal condition and operation. The objective of this article is to present both technologies, its benefits and to promote the use in the country [es

  10. Bone infection in patients suspected of complicating osteomyelitis: the diagnostic value of dual isotope bone-granulocyte scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Thora; Stentzer, Kim; Hede, Adam

    2005-01-01

    : Simultaneous dual isotope bone-granulocyte scintigraphic images were obtained in 42 consecutive patients in whom conventional X-ray, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein were also available. 99mTc MDP bone and 111In labelled granulocyte imaging was obtained simultaneously. The images were...... interpreted as positive for osteomyelitis if regions of interests of pathologic 111In granulocyte accumulation included 99mTc MDP activity on the bone images (except in the spine). RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84, 71 and 79%, respectively, for simultaneous, dual isotope bone......AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of dual isotope bone-granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with known bone pathology clinically suspected of osteomyelitis, i.e. complicating osteomyelitis, using per-operative bacterial culture from bone as reference. METHODS...

  11. Requirements for the special examination of isotope diagnostic specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csakany, Gyoergy

    1986-01-01

    Isotope diagnostic specialists are required to possess general paraclinical knowledge about nuclear physical principles, basic radiological measuring methods including up-to-date ones such as scintiscanning and tomography, as well as about radiopharmacology, radiation biology, health physics, radiation protection and organizational and economic aspects of the examinations. Clinical isotope diagnostic requirements comprise the proper selection among different radiological methods, the correct application of certain diagnostic procedures in practise, and the evaluation of the results in accordance with the symptoms on various fields of medical science. (V.N.)

  12. The Diagnostic Efficiency of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Octreotate SPECT-CT in Comparison with 111In-Pentetrotide in the Detection of Neuroendocrine Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Koçyiğit Deveci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Octreotate in comparison with 111Inpentetrotide scintigraphy in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors. This study also evaluates the impact of SPECT-CT hybrid imaging on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS interpretation and clinical management of these tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients were included in the study. All patients underwent a whole body and SPECT-CT imaging with both 99mTcEDDA/HYNIC-octreotate and 111In-pentetrotide. Images were evaluated both visually and semiquantitatively. Results: On patient basis, the diagnostic results of both studies were similar. The number of lesions detected by 99mTc- EDDA/HYNICOctreotate were higher than the number of lesions detected by 111In-pentetrotide however the difference was not significant (40/43( 93%, 36/43 (83% p=0.109. Semiquantitative analysis showed higher tumor/organ count ratios for both whole-body and SPECT 99mTc- EDDA/HYNIC-Octreotate scans. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that, 99mTc- EDDA/HYNIC-Octreotate may be a better alternative to 111In- pentetrotide due to high image quality and lower radiation dose. SPECT/CT is a valuable tool for the assessment of neuroendocrine tumors by providing the precise anatomic localization of scintigraphic findings thus improving lesion detectability and characterization.

  13. The Diagnostic Efficiency of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Octreotate SPECT-CT in Comparison with 111In-Pentetrotide in the Detection of Neuroendocrine Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçyiğit Deveci, Emel; Ocak, Meltem; Bozkurt, Murat Fani; Türker, Selcan; Kabasakal, Levent; Uğur, Omer

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Octreotate in comparison with (111)Inpentetrotide scintigraphy in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors. This study also evaluates the impact of SPECT-CT hybrid imaging on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) interpretation and clinical management of these tumors. Fourteen patients were included in the study. All patients underwent a whole body and SPECT-CT imaging with both (99m)Tc- EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate and (111)In-pentetrotide. Images were evaluated both visually and semiquantitatively. On patient basis, the diagnostic results of both studies were similar. The number of lesions detected by (99m)Tc- EDDA/HYNICOctreotate were higher than the number of lesions detected by (111)In-pentetrotide however the difference was not significant (40/43( 93%), 36/43 (83%) p=0.109). Semiquantitative analysis showed higher tumor/organ count ratios for both whole-body and SPECT (99m)Tc- EDDA/HYNIC-Octreotate scans. The results of this study suggested that, (99m)Tc- EDDA/HYNIC-Octreotate may be a better alternative to (111)In- pentetrotide due to high image quality and lower radiation dose. SPECT/CT is a valuable tool for the assessment of neuroendocrine tumors by providing the precise anatomic localization of scintigraphic findings thus improving lesion detectability and characterization. None declared.

  14. Fever of unknown origin: prospective comparison of diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET and 111In-granulocyte scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Eigtved, Annika

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) is often challenging and frequently includes nuclear medicine procedures. Whereas a role for leucocyte or granulocyte scintigraphy in FUO is generally accepted, a possible role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron...... emission tomography (PET) in these patients remains to be established. To study this, we compared prospectively, on a head-to-head basis, the diagnostic value of FDG-PET and indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in patients with FUO. Nineteen patients with FUO underwent both FDG-PET and (111)In......-granulocyte scintigraphy within 1 week. FDG-PET scans and granulocyte scintigrams were reviewed by different doctors who were blinded to the result of the other investigation. The diagnostic values of FDG-PET and granulocyte scintigraphy were evaluated with regard to identification of a focal infectious...

  15. A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall, L. N.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2013-05-01

    A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings based on the carbon-13 isotope breath test has been designed and constructed. Important stages of the work included (i) calculating a low-aberration mass analyzer, (ii) manufacturing and testing special gas inlet system, and (iii) creating a small-size collector of ions. The proposed instrument ensures 13C/12C isotopic ratio measurement to within 1.7‰ (pro mille) accuracy, which corresponds to requirements for a diagnostic tool. Preliminary medical testing showed that the mass spectrometer is applicable to practical diagnostics. The instrument is also capable of measuring isotopic ratios of other light elements, including N, O, B (for BF2+ ions), Ar, Cl, and S.

  16. The diagnostic value of 111In-oxine or 99mTc-sulphur-colloid-labelled leucocytes in patients with inflammation of bones and hip endoprothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinowa, I.; Dontschev, M.; Dojtschinov, A.; Kynev, W.; Kowatschewa, S.

    1990-01-01

    Scintigraphy with leukocytes, labelled with 99m Tc sulphur colloid or 111 In-oxide, in 41 patients with suspected inflammation in endoprothetic hip joints (n=23) or infectious complications after femoral fracture (n=18) has shown to be a highly specific and useful tool in orthopaedic routine diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  17. Study of relaxation processes in 'metal-ligand' complexes after electron capture decay using the 111In isotope as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpinkova, L.G.; Golubeva, A.S.; Ryasny, O.K.; Nikitin, S.M.; Sorokin, A.A.; Uzbyakova, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Complexes of metals with organic ligands are widely used in different scientific and industrial applications, such as analytical chemistry, oil production and refinery, power engineering, water treatment, agriculture, etc. Several hundred complexes are commercially available and there are still intensive works on synthesizing new complexones in order to obtain complexes with required properties. In this connection, it is important to investigate the molecular characteristics of complexes and their structures and correlate with their properties. One of the methods, which proved to provide useful information about metal-ligand complexes behaviour, is the method of time differential perturbed angular γγ-correlation (Tdpa). Numerous works have been devoted to studies of different complexes by this technique. In the Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow, this method was applied to studies of electron capture (EC) after-effects and their influence on the indium-ligand complexes in aqueous solutions. The present work is devoted to studies of relaxation processes in daughter 111 Cd-ligand complexes formed after 111 In EC decay. EC leaves a hole in an inner electronic shell of the daughter atom, which is followed by Auger-process. This process leads to a highly excited state of a daughter atom, which either causes disintegration of a complex into small fragments or relaxation to a stable complex with the daughter atom. TDPAC measurements were performed for a number of 111 In-complexes with acetic and phosphonic ligands. All measurements were performed for neutral aqueous solutions of complexes at room temperature. Three types of molecules containing radioactive daughter 11C d atoms were observed after 111 In decay for all studied complexes. One fraction corresponds to the intact complexes, the second one - to fully disintegrated complexes. The third fraction was characterized by a fast relaxation parameter indicating high transient

  18. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of {sup 111}In-pentetreotide SPECT and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT: A lesion-by-lesion analysis in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnebeek, S. van; Vanbilloen, B.; Baete, K.; Terwinghe, C.; Koole, M.; Mortelmans, L. [KU Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven and Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Mottaghy, F.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Clement, P.M. [KU Leuven, Medical Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven and Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaerts, K. [KU Leuven and UHasselt, Department of Public Health and Primary Care (I-BioStat), Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, K. [KU Leuven, Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven and Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, K. [University Hospitals Leuven, Pulmonology, Leuven (Belgium); Cutsem, E. van; Verslype, C. [KU Leuven, Division of Digestive Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven and Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, A. [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, C.M. [KU Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven and Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 111}In-pentetreotide-scintigraphy with {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with metastatic-neuroendocrine tumour (NET) scheduled for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Incremental lesions (ILs) were defined as lesions observed on only one modality. Fifty-three metastatic-NET-patients underwent {sup 111}In-pentetreotide-scintigraphy (24 h post-injection; planar+single-photon emission CT (SPECT) abdomen) and whole-body {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT. SPECT and PET were compared in a lesion-by-lesion and organ-by-organ analysis, determining the total lesions and ILs for both modalities. Significantly more lesions were detected on {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT versus {sup 111}In-pentetreotide-scintigraphy. More specifically, we observed 1,098 lesions on PET/CT (range: 1-105; median: 15) versus 660 on SPECT (range: 0-73, median: 9) (p<0.0001), with 439 PET-ILs (42/53 patients) and one SPECT-IL (1/53 patients). The sensitivity for PET/CT was 99.9 % (95 % CI, 99.3-100.0), for SPECT 60.0 % (95 % CI, 48.5-70.2). The organ-by-organ analysis showed that the PET-ILs were most frequently visualized in liver and skeleton. Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT is superior for the detection of NET-metastases compared to {sup 111}In-pentetreotide SPECT. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy of autologous 111In-labelled platelets as a scanning agent for deep vein thrombosis in the chacma baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Jacobs, D.J.; Pretorius, J.P.; Franz, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnostic efficiency of autologous sup(111I)n-labelled platelets (ILP) as a scanning agent in deep veinthrombosis (DVT) was investigated in 24 South African baboons (Papio ursinus). Thrombi were surgically induced by stasis, intimal injury and the injection of thrombin in the common femoral veins of adult baboons. The thrombi were allowed to age for 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h before injecting the ILP. Scanning was done with a large field gamma camera at 10 min post injection and again at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Time-activity curves were thus obtained and it was possible to establish an optimal time after injection of the ILP to scan for each group of thrombi. The results indicate that only the younger thrombi (1-8 h after thrombus formation) were detected. Twenty-four hour and older thrombi were not visualised. A favourable time to scan in the case of the younger thrombi appeared to be approximately 20 h after the injection of ILP. However, the thrombus age limitation still impairs the diagnostic efficiency of the procedure. (orig.)

  20. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of 52Fe, 77Br, 82Rb, 97Ru, 111In, 123I, 127Xe, 128Cs, 178Ta and 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rurarz, E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, 99 Tc, 113 Cd, 114 Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, 206,207,208 Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 97 Ru, 111 In, 123 I, 127 Xe, 128 Cs, 178 Ta and 201 Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For 97 Ru, 111 In and 127 Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 123 I, 128 Cs and 201 Tl obtained in the present work for the E p =70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given in the present work. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement, especially if one considers, that no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. From the measured excitation functions the production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above have been determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs

  1. Development of a dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Gall', L. N.; Sachenko, V. M.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori using the isotope respiratory test is developed. A low-aberration mass analyzer is calculated, an input system that makes it possible to eliminate the memory effects is developed, and a small-size ion detector is constructed. The mass spectrometer is created, and the tests are performed. The measurement accuracy of the 13C/12C and 16O/18O isotope ratios are 1.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. Preliminary medical tests show that the spectrometer can be employed for the desired diagnostics.

  2. Radionuclide Generator ^{111}In\\to^{111m}Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Filossofov, D V; Lebedev, N A; Starodub, G Ya; Novgorodov, A F

    2001-01-01

    Radionuclide generator ^{111}In\\to^{111m}Cd with chemical yield > 95 % and contamination of the ^{111m}Cd by parent isotope (^{111}In) less than 0.6 % (of ^{111m}Cd activity) is developed. Extraction chromatography with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid as an extragent is used for the radiochemical separation of the parent and the daughter radionuclides. Probability of the electron capture on the isomeric level 396 keV (^{111m}Cd) in the ^{111}In decay process is determinated to be (6.01\\pm 0.14_{stat}\\pm0.18_{syst})\\cdot10^{-5}.

  3. The beam diagnostic instruments in Beijing radioactive ion-beam facilities isotope separator on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.; Cui, B.; Ma, R.; Tang, B.; Chen, L.; Huang, Q.; Jiang, W.

    2014-01-01

    The beam diagnostic instruments for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facilities Isotope Separator On-Line are introduced [B. Q. Cui, Z. H. Peng, Y. J. Ma, R. G. Ma, B. Tang, T. Zhang, and W. S. Jiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 266, 4113 (2008); T. J. Zhang, X. L. Guan, and B. Q. Cui, in Proceedings of APAC 2004, Gyeongju, Korea, 2004, http://www.jacow.org , p. 267]. For low intensity ion beam [30–300 keV/1 pA–10 μA], the beam profile monitor, the emittance measurement unit, and the analyzing slit will be installed. For the primary proton beam [100 MeV/200 μA], the beam profile scanner will be installed. For identification of the nuclide, a beam identification unit will be installed. The details of prototype of the beam diagnostic units and some experiment results will be described in this article

  4. Hyperfine Induced Transitions as Diagnostics of Low Density Plasmas and Isotopic Abundance ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brage, T.; Judge, P. G.; Aboussaid, A.; Godefroid, M. R.; Jonsson, P.; Leckrone, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    We propose a new diagnostics of isotope abundance ratios and electron densities for low density plasmas, in the form of J = 0 -> J(') = 0 radiative transitions. These are usually viewed as being allowed only through two-photon decay, but they may also be induced by the hyperfine (HPF) interaction in atomic ions. This predicts a companion line to the E1] and M2 lines in the UV0.01 multiplet of ions isoelectronic to beryllium (e.g. C III, N IV, O V and Fe XXII) or magnesium (e.g. Si II, Ca IX, Fe XV and Ni XVII). As an example the companion line to the well known lambda lambda 1906.7,1908.7 lines in C III will be at 1909.597 Angstroms, but only present in the (13) C isotope (which has nuclear spin different from zero). We present new and accurate decay rates for the nsnp (3P^oJ) -> ns(2) (1S_{J('}=0)) transitions in ions of the Be (n=2) and Mg (n=3) isoelectronic sequences. We show that the HPF induced decay rates for the J = 0 -> J(') = 0 transitions are many orders of magnitude larger than those for the competing two-photon processes and, when present, are typically one or two orders of magnitude smaller than the decay rates of the magnetic quadrupole ( J = 2-> J(') = 0) transitions for these ions. We show that several of these HPF-induced transitions are of potential astrophysical interest, in ions of C, N, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cr, Fe and Ni. We highlight those cases that may be of particular diagnostic value for determining isotopic abundance ratios and/or electron densities from UV or EUV emission line data. We present our atomic data in the form of scaling laws so that, given the isotopic nuclear spin and magnetic moment, a simple expression yields estimates for HPF induced decay rates. We examine some UV solar and nebular data in the light of these new results and suggest possible cases for future study. We could not find evidence for the existence of HPF induced lines in the spectra we examined, but we demonstrate that existing data have come close to providing

  5. Isotopic 32S/33S ratio as a diagnostic of presolar grains from novae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parikh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of sulphur isotopes in presolar grains can help to identify the astrophysical sites in which these grains were formed. A more precise thermonuclear rate of the 33S(p,γ34Cl reaction is required, however, to assess the diagnostic ability of sulphur isotopic ratios. We have studied the 33S(3He,d34Cl proton-transfer reaction at 25 MeV using a high-resolution quadrupole–dipole–dipole–dipole magnetic spectrograph. Deuteron spectra were measured at ten scattering angles between 10° and 55°. Twenty-four levels in 34Cl over Ex=4.6–5.9 MeV were observed, including three levels for the first time. Proton spectroscopic factors were extracted for the first time for levels above the 33S + p threshold, spanning the energy range required for calculations of the thermonuclear 33S(p,γ34Cl rate in classical nova explosions. We have determined a new 33S(p,γ34Cl rate using a Monte Carlo method and have performed new hydrodynamic nova simulations to determine the impact on nova nucleosynthesis of remaining nuclear physics uncertainties in the reaction rate. We find that these uncertainties lead to a factor of ≤5 variation in the 33S(p,γ34Cl rate over typical nova peak temperatures, and variation in the ejected nova yields of SCa isotopes by ≤20%. In particular, the predicted 32S/33S ratio is 110–130 for the nova model considered, compared to 110–440 with previous rate uncertainties. As recent type II supernova models predict ratios of 130–200, the 32S/33S ratio may be used to distinguish between grains of nova and supernova origin.

  6. Hyperfine Induced Transitions as Diagnostics of Isotopic Composition and Densities of Low-Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brage, Tomas; Judge, Philip G.; Aboussaïd, Abdellatif; Godefroid, Michel R.; Jönsson, Per; Ynnerman, Anders; Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Leckrone, David S.

    1998-06-01

    The J = 0 --> J' = 0 radiative transitions, usually viewed as allowed through two-photon decay, may also be induced by the hyperfine (HPF) interaction in atoms or ions having a nonzero nuclear spin. We compute new and review existing decay rates for the nsnp 3PoJ --> ns2 1SJ'=0 transitions in ions of the Be (n = 2) and Mg (n = 3) isoelectronic sequences. The HPF induced decay rates for the J = 0 --> J' = 0 transitions are many orders of magnitude larger than those for the competing two-photon processes, and when present are typically 1 or 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the decay rates of the magnetic quadrupole (J = 2 --> J' = 0) transitions for these ions. Several HPF induced transitions are potentially of astrophysical interest in ions of C, N, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cr, Fe, and Ni. We highlight those cases that may be of particular diagnostic value for determining isotopic abundance ratios and/or electron densities from UV or EUV emission-line data. We present our atomic data in the form of scaling laws so that, given the isotopic nuclear spin and magnetic moment, a simple expression yields estimates for HPF induced decay rates. We examine some UV and EUV solar and nebular data in light of these new results and suggest possible applications for future study. We could not find evidence for the existence of HPF induced lines in the spectra we examined, but we demonstrate that existing data have come close to providing interesting upper limits. For the planetary nebula SMC N2, we derive an upper limit of 0.1 for 13C/12C from Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph data obtained by Clegg. It is likely that more stringent limits could be obtained using newer data with higher sensitivities in a variety of objects.

  7. Optimization of working conditions of medical staff of isotopic diagnostic departments. Optimizatsiya uslovij truda meditsinskogo personala radiodiagnosticheskikh otdelenij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovsyannikov, A S [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Gigieny Truda i Professional' nykh Zabolevanij

    1989-01-01

    The study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics of the work of medical staff of isotopic diagnostic departments during use of {sup 99m}Tc isotope generators. The data on the functional load of physicians and paramedical staff were given along with the description of radiation doses and dose rates at various stages of work. The measures on optimization of labour conditions by means of the appropriate department's design, improvement of the regime of nurses' work and adequate allocation and utilization of medical equipment were developed.

  8. Diagnostic value of with 111In-oxine or 99mTc-sulfur colloid labelled leukocytes in patients with infections following femoral fractures and implantation of hip joint endoprostheses, resp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinowa, I.; Dontschew, M.; Dojtschinov, A.; Kynew, W.; Kowatschewa, S.; Medizinische Hochschule, Pleven

    1990-01-01

    Scintigraphy with leukocytes, labelled with 99m Tc-sulfur colloid or 111 In-oxine, in 41 patients with suspected inflammation in endoprothetic hip joints (n = 23) or infectious complications after femoral fracture (n = 18) has shown to be a highly specific and useful tool in orthopedic routine diagnosis. (author)

  9. Comparison of autologous 111In-leukocytes, 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate for diagnostic nuclear imaging in a juvenile porcine haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole L.; Afzelius, Pia; Bender, Dirk

    characterized as abscesses/cellulitis, arthritis in three joints and five enlarged lymph nodes. None of the tracers accumulated in joints with arthritis. By comparing the 10 infectious lesions, 18F-FDG accumulated in nine, 111In-leukocytes in eight, 11C-methionine in six, 68Ga-citrate in four and 11C-PK11195...

  10. Diagnostic value of electrocardiography, dynamic isotope studies and angiography in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this work is on the basis of the case histories of 36 patients with heart anamneses (27 with electrocardiographically and/or enzymatically detected heart infarcts, 9 with various cardial diseases) to test the diagnostic value of stress electrocardiograms, dynamic isotope examinations of the heart and coronary angiographies in the cases of myocardial infarcts, heart wall aneurysms, coronary heart disease and in the determination of the global discharge fraction, specifically broad scanning (heart front, side and back walls) as well as fine scanning (individual coronary vessel branches). In the case of myocardial infarct the stress EKG and the heart scintigraphy agree with one another to a large degree, whereby scintigraphy (with 99mTc-DPTA) in addition detects infarcted myocardial regions. In the diagnosis of heart wall aneurysms scintigraphy and ventriculography had the same results in 91.6% of the cases. Coronary heart disease results agreed for all three methods in 91.7% of the cases and with scintigraphy and angiography in 94.4%. The degree of agreement between scintigraphy and coronary angiography is confirmed in the literature. One-, two- and 3-vessel diseases can be determined with these two methods in 90 to 75% agreement. The result lies thereby above the values of 201Tl-myocardial scintigraphy given in the literature. Also the global discharge fraction shows scintigraphic as well as angiographic agreement of almost 90%. (TRV) [de

  11. Comparison of 111In-DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide and 111In-DOTA-lanreotide scintigraphy and dosimetry in patients with neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Margarida; Virgolini, Irene; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Li, Shuren; Ibi, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 111 In-DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide ( 111 In-DOTA-TOC) and 111 In-DOTA-lanreotide ( 111 In-DOTA-LAN) has been used for staging of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). However, the comparative diagnostic value of these radioligands on a lesion basis has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic capacity of 111 In-DOTA-TOC and 111 In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy in patients with NETs, evaluating whether significant differences exist in lesion imaging with these radioligands. Furthermore, dosimetric data were compared. Forty-five patients with NETs were investigated with 111 In-DOTA-TOC and 111 In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy. Scintigraphic results were compared with those of conventional imaging and/or surgery in each patient, and also 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in 20 patients. 111 In-DOTA-TOC and 111 In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy were true positive in 42/45 (93%) and 39/45 (87%) patients, and imaged 74/91 (81%) and 73/91 (80%) tumour lesions, respectively. 111 In-DOTA-TOC and 111 In-DOTA-LAN detected liver metastases in 21 and 14 patients, mediastinal metastases in seven and 11 patients, and bone metastases in two and seven patients, respectively. These radioligands revealed lesions not seen by conventional imaging in seven and eight patients, respectively, or by 18 F-FDG-PET in eight and seven patients, respectively. The estimated tumour absorbed doses for 90 Y-DOTA-TOC were higher than those for 90 Y-DOTA-LAN in 14 patients, whereas the opposite was true in 12 patients. Both 111 In-DOTA-TOC and 111 In-DOTA-LAN are suitable for imaging tumour lesions in patients with NETs and can detect lesions that may not be seen by conventional imaging and 18 F-FDG-PET. Compared with 111 In-DOTA-LAN, 111 In-DOTA-TOC has a superior diagnostic capacity for liver metastases, but a lower diagnostic capacity for metastatic lesions in mediastinum and bone. (orig.)

  12. 111In,113In-labelled platelets. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Poledne, R.; Charvat, J.; Konopkova, M.; Komarkova, I.

    1983-01-01

    111 In-8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) is used for labelling blood platelets which serves diagnostic purposes in medicine. For the preparation of the complex of radioactive indium with oxine, 111 In and sup(113m)In were used under optimal conditions. Two different preparation methods for the labelled complex are described. Both methods studied the effect of pH, the amount of chelate agents and the mode of filtration on the yields of the labelled oxine. The blood platelets labelling is influenced not only by the quality of labelled oxine but also by their number. The organ distribution in laboratory animals proved that platelets were not impaired during separation and labelling and that they were suitable for diagnostic use. (author)

  13. Noninvasive detection of cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction in rats by 111In fab fragment of monoclonal antibody specific for tenascin-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kenichi; Uehara, Tomoya; Arano, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI) causes heart failure, and thus it is important to evaluate cardiac repair as the early stage of LV remodeling. Tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is transiently and abundantly expressed in the heart during the early stage of tissue remodeling after MI. However, it is not expressed in healthy adult heart. This study was undertaken to develop a new noninvasive diagnostic technique to detect cardiac repair after acute MI using 111 In Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody specific for TNC. 111 In-anti-TNC-Fab was injected intravenously in 13 rats at 1 (D1, n=3), 3 (D3, n=5), and 5 (D5, n=5) days after producing MI and in 5 sham-operated rats (S). We performed autoradiography and dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography imaging (SPECT) of 111 In-anti-TNC-Fab and 99m Tc methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI). The radioactivity in the heart was significantly higher in D (D1, 0.45±0.06% injected-dose/g; D3, 0.64±0.12; D5, 0.38±0.07) than S (0.27±0.06, P 111 In-anti-TNC-Fab, which was complementary to the perfusion image. The results of the present study indicated that we can localize the infarcted region in the heart by ex vivo and in vivo imaging methods using 111 In-anti-TNC-Fab, and suggested the potential usefulness of noninvasive detection of cardiac repair. (author)

  14. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  15. Comparison of {sup 111}In-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide and {sup 111}In-DOTA-lanreotide scintigraphy and dosimetry in patients with neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Margarida; Virgolini, Irene [Lainz Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); University Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana [University Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Li, Shuren [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Ibi, Bettina [Lainz Hospital, Institute of Physics, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with {sup 111}In-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide ({sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC) and {sup 111}In-DOTA-lanreotide ({sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN) has been used for staging of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). However, the comparative diagnostic value of these radioligands on a lesion basis has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic capacity of {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy in patients with NETs, evaluating whether significant differences exist in lesion imaging with these radioligands. Furthermore, dosimetric data were compared. Forty-five patients with NETs were investigated with {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy. Scintigraphic results were compared with those of conventional imaging and/or surgery in each patient, and also {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in 20 patients. {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy were true positive in 42/45 (93%) and 39/45 (87%) patients, and imaged 74/91 (81%) and 73/91 (80%) tumour lesions, respectively. {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN detected liver metastases in 21 and 14 patients, mediastinal metastases in seven and 11 patients, and bone metastases in two and seven patients, respectively. These radioligands revealed lesions not seen by conventional imaging in seven and eight patients, respectively, or by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET in eight and seven patients, respectively. The estimated tumour absorbed doses for {sup 90}Y-DOTA-TOC were higher than those for {sup 90}Y-DOTA-LAN in 14 patients, whereas the opposite was true in 12 patients. Both {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN are suitable for imaging tumour lesions in patients with NETs and can detect lesions that may not be seen by conventional imaging and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET. Compared with {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN, {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC has a superior diagnostic capacity for liver metastases, but a

  16. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 127}Xe, {sup 128}Cs, {sup 178}Ta and {sup 201}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rurarz, E. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 113}Cd, {sup 114}Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, {sup 206,207,208}Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 127}Xe, {sup 128}Cs, {sup 178}Ta and {sup 201}Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In and {sup 127}Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 123}I, {sup 128}Cs and {sup 201}Tl obtained in the present work for the E{sub p}=70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement; no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. Production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above were determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs.

  17. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  18. Value of 111In-DOTA-lanreotide and 111In-DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide in differentiated thyroid cancer: results of in vitro binding studies and in vivo comparison with 18F-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Margarida; Virgolini, Irene; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Leimer, Maria; Li, Shuren; Dudczak, Robert; Andreae, Fritz; Angelberger, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Radioiodine-negative thyroid cancer presents diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties, warranting the implementation of new imaging and treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we investigated in vitro the binding characteristics of 111 In-DOTA-lanreotide ( 111 In-DOTA-LAN) and 111 In-DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide ( 111 In-DOTA-TOC) to cells derived from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Second, we evaluated the value of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy with these radioligands, as compared with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), for the detection of tumour lesions in DTC patients. Binding of 111 In-DOTA-LAN and 111 In-DOTA-TOC to cells isolated from surgically removed thyroid tissue was evaluated in vitro by performing saturation and displacement studies. Eighteen DTC patients with elevated thyroglobulin (12 radioiodine-negative, six radioiodine-positive) were investigated with 111 In-DOTA-LAN, 111 In-DOTA-TOC and 18 F-FDG PET scans. Large numbers of SSTR binding sites for 111 In-DOTA-LAN and 111 In-DOTA-TOC were found on the cells investigated. Both SSTR radioligands exhibited a high binding affinity for these SSTR binding sites. 111 In-DOTA-LAN and 111 In-DOTA-TOC scintigraphy detected 37 and 33 lesions, respectively, in 17 (94%) patients each, whereas 18 F-FDG PET revealed 30 lesions in 15 (83%) patients. Uptake of both SSTR radioligands was found in several radioiodine-negative sites. No striking differences in lesion imaging by 111 In-DOTA-LAN and 111 In-DOTA-TOC were found. In both radioiodine-negative and radioiodine-positive patients, more lesions were SSTR-positive/ 18 F-FDG-negative than were 18 F-FDG-positive/SSTR-negative. Adding a SSTR scan with these radioligands to the diagnostic work-up increases the diagnostic capacity in DTC, and should be considered particularly in radioiodine-negative patients with elevated thyroglobulin levels. (orig.)

  19. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients: Value of 111In-leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcos, G.; Brown, M.L.; Sutton, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients with currently available radiologic and radionuclide imaging techniques is often difficult. Recently, 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy has been proposed as an attractive alternative. Accordingly, the authors retrospectively reviewed 51 111In-labeled leukocyte scans, 49 technetium-99m bone scans, and 49 plain radiographs obtained in 51 adults with diabetes in whom osteomyelitis of the foot was suspected. The sensitivity and specificity of these techniques were evaluated in all patients, as well as in a subgroup of 11 patients with neuroarthropathy. Results with 111In-labeled leukocyte scans were also examined in subsets of patients with soft-tissue ulcers (n = 35) and those receiving antibiotics during investigation (n = 20). Confirmation or exclusion of osteomyelitis was made surgically in 28 patients and clinically in 23. Fourteen patients had osteomyelitis. Bone scans were most sensitive (93%) but least specific (43%); plain radiographs were most specific (83%) but least sensitive (43%). 111In-labeled leukocyte scans were both sensitive (79%) and specific (78%), and remained useful in patients with neuroarthropathy, soft-tissue ulcers, and antibiotic treatment. Poor spatial resolution contributed to the false-negative and false-positive 111In-labeled leukocyte scans, suggesting that this technique should not be interpreted independent of other tests. 111In-labeled leukocyte scans are a valuable diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis in diabetic patients

  20. The diagnostic value of Tc-99m PYP, Tl-201 dual isotope SPECT to predict the viability of damaged myocardium in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Sachiro; Arai, Masazumi

    1991-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP), Tl-201 dual isotope SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial viability, segmental comparison between dual isotope SPECT and exercise, delayed, and reinjected Tl study were performed with 18 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Among 72 damaged myocardial segments, 48 segments (67%) were judged as viable by chronic phase Tl studies. The segments with severely reduced Tl uptake by dual SPECT showed significantly lower prevalence of viable myocardium than the segments with reduced and normal Tl uptake (p<0.001). The segments with PYP accumulation localized to the subendocardium represented the favorable outcome compared with the transmural accumulation (p<0.001). And overlap segments show better prognosis than the segments without overlap (p<0.05). Most importantly, we can get better predictive accuracy of myocardial scar by dual isotope SPECT than the judgement by Tl or PYP SPECT alone (83.3% vs 77.8%, 68.1%). Thus, we conclude that Tc-99m PYP, Tl-201 dual isotope SPECT is useful to assess the severity of myocardial damage in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. (author)

  1. Comparative study of two different Bombesin derivates labeled with 111In and biodistribution in normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Alcarde, Lais F.; Correa, Beatriz L.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Couto, Renata M.; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical speciality that uses radioactive compounds (radiopharmaceuticals), consisting of a substrate and a radioactive isotope, for diagnostic. Among the peptides of interest for Nuclear Medicine, bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid neuropeptide analog of human gastrin-releasing peptide, is one of the highlights. This is a comparative study aiming to establish the best condition to radiolabel two BBN derivatives, (DTPA-Phe-Gly 5 -BBN (6-14) ) and (DTPA-Phe-Gly 2 -BBN (6-14 )) with 111-indium. Specific objectives of this study were evaluate a good condition of radiolabelling in search excellent specific activity the bombesin derivatives and determinate the biodistribution in health mice model. Ten micrograms (10μg) of the derivative DTPA-Phe-Gly2-BBN (6-14) was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of 111 InCl 3 at 25°C for different times (5, 15 and 30 minutes). The best condition was applied to peptide mass variation (10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 μg), keeping all other parameters fixed. Finally, the influence of 111 InCl 3 activity in the radiolabeling process (18.5, 37, 55.5, 74, 185 MBq) was evaluated. The best conditions were repeated for the second derivate, DTPA-Phe-Gly 5 -BBN (6-14 ). The radiochemical purity was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), using 0.2 M EDTA pH 5 as solvent, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a C18 column with linear gradient 10% A to 90% A (v/v) (A: 0,1% of TFA in CH3CN; B: 0,1% of TFA in H2O) at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute for 15 minutes. Considering the reaction time, the higher radiochemical purity was obtained when 10μg of the peptide was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of 111 In for 15 minutes at 25°C (97.33 ± 0.50%, n=3). In the mass variation study, the best results of radiochemical purity were obtained when 10 μg of the peptide was employed (97.69 ± 0.4%, n = 4). Finally, the maximum specific activity of the radiolabelled peptides was 1.85 MBq/ μg. The maximum specific

  2. 111In-DOTA-dPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide, 111In-DOTA-lanreotide and 67Ga citrate scintigraphy for visualisation of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuren; Kurtaran, Amir; Li, Mei; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Kienast, Oskar; Schima, Wolfgang; Angelberger, Peter; Virgolini, Irene; Raderer, Markus; Dudczak, Robert

    2003-01-01

    -DOTA-TOCT and 111 In-DOTA-LAN were 40%, 67% and 60%, respectively. It is concluded that MALT-type lymphoma can be visualised by 67 Ga, 111 In-DOTA-TOCT and 111 In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy. Although there were no statistically significant differences in patient-related and site-related sensitivities when using 67 Ga compared with 111 In-DOTA-TOCT and 111 In-DOTA-LAN, the sensitivity of 67 Ga tended to be superior to that of 111 In-DOTA-TOCT and 111 In-DOTA-LAN for supra-diaphragmatic lesions but inferior for infra-diaphragmatic involvement. In selected cases, the combination of 67 Ga and 111 In-DOTA-LAN or 111 In-DOTA-TOCT may increase the diagnostic efficiency in patients with MALT-type lymphoma. (orig.)

  3. Scintigraphy of the bone marrow with 111In-citrin in polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhod'ko, A.G.; Sheptun, A.N.; Vikman, Ya.Eh.; Sorokin, I.N.; Rozdil'skij, S.I.; Zabobonina, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    Scintigraphy of the bone marrow with 111 In-citrin was performed in 32 patients with polycythemia vera and 8 controls. The method ensured an objective assessment of bone marrow function in patients with polycythemia vera. A characteristic RP scintigraphic picture corresponded to different clinical stages of the disease. A degree of a decrease in the blood radioactivity within 24 h after i.v. administration of 111 In-citrin reflected the summary erythropoietic activity of the bone marrow and could serve as a differential diagnostic criterion in determining a stage of polycythemia vera

  4. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by 111In oxine white blood cell scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, 111 In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. 111 In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates

  5. Radiolabeling of equine platelets in plasma with 111In-(2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide) and their in vivo survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, C.P.; Kelly, A.B.; Hornof, W.J.; O'Brien, T.R.; Philp, M.S.; Lamb, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for the in vitro isolation and radiolabeling of equine platelets with the isotope indium 111 ( 111 In: half-life = 2.8 days, gamma = 173 keV, 89%; 247 keV, 94%). The technique described involves complexing 111 In with the lipid-soluble chelating agent, 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (merc), in an aqueous medium. 111 In-merc platelet-labeling efficiencies in autologous plasma pretreated with or without ferric citrate reagent were 82 +/- 7% and 24 +/- 12%, respectively. Mean intravascular survivals of 111 In-merc-radiolabeled platelets in 8 healthy horses according to simple linear, exponential, mean, weighted-mean residual sum of squares analysis, and multiple-hit model were 5.5 +/- 0.49, 3.5 +/- 0.53, 4.5 +/- 0.18, 4.3 +/- 0.65, and 3.6 +/- 0.97 days, respectively

  6. Redesign of negatively charged 111In-DTPA-octreotide derivative to reduce renal radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Nobuhiro; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Zhao, Songji; Zhao, Yan; Nishijima, Ken-Ichi; Kitamura, Yoji; Arano, Yasushi; Kuge, Yuji; Ohkura, Kazue

    2017-05-01

    Radiolabeled octreotide derivatives have been studied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. To prevent unnecessary radiation exposure during their clinical application, the present study aimed to develop radiolabeled peptides which could reduce radioactivity levels in the kidney at both early and late post-injection time points by introducing a negative charge with an acidic amino acid such as L-aspartic acid (Asp) at a suitable position in 111 In-DTPA-conjugated octreotide derivatives. Biodistribution of the radioactivity was evaluated in normal mice after administration of a novel radiolabeled peptide by a counting method. The radiolabeled species remaining in the kidney were identified by comparing their HPLC data with those obtained by alternative synthesis. The designed and synthesized radiolabeled peptide 111 In-DTPA-d-Phe -1 -Asp 0 -d-Phe 1 -octreotide exhibited significantly lower renal radioactivity levels than those of the known 111 In-DTPA-d-Phe 1 -octreotide at 3 and 24h post-injection. The radiolabeled species in the kidney at 24h after the injection of new octreotide derivative represented 111 In-DTPA-d-Phe-OH and 111 In-DTPA-d-Phe-Asp-OH as the metabolites. Their radiometabolites and intact 111 In-DTPA-conjugated octreotide derivative were observed in urine within 24h post-injection. The present study provided a new example of an 111 In-DTPA-conjugated octreotide derivative having the characteristics of both reduced renal uptake and shortened residence time of radioactivity in the kidney. It is considered that this kinetic control was achieved by introducing a negative charge on the octreotide derivative thereby suppressing the reabsorption in the renal tubules and affording the radiometabolites with appropriate lipophilicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Redesign of negatively charged 111In-DTPA-octreotide derivative to reduce renal radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Nobuhiro; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Zhao, Songji; Zhao, Yan; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Kitamura, Yoji; Arano, Yasushi; Kuge, Yuji; Ohkura, Kazue

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Radiolabeled octreotide derivatives have been studied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. To prevent unnecessary radiation exposure during their clinical application, the present study aimed to develop radiolabeled peptides which could reduce radioactivity levels in the kidney at both early and late post-injection time points by introducing a negative charge with an acidic amino acid such as L-aspartic acid (Asp) at a suitable position in 111 In-DTPA-conjugated octreotide derivatives. Methods: Biodistribution of the radioactivity was evaluated in normal mice after administration of a novel radiolabeled peptide by a counting method. The radiolabeled species remaining in the kidney were identified by comparing their HPLC data with those obtained by alternative synthesis. Results: The designed and synthesized radiolabeled peptide 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe −1 -Asp 0 -D-Phe 1 -octreotide exhibited significantly lower renal radioactivity levels than those of the known 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 -octreotide at 3 and 24 h post-injection. The radiolabeled species in the kidney at 24 h after the injection of new octreotide derivative represented 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe-OH and 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe-Asp-OH as the metabolites. Their radiometabolites and intact 111 In-DTPA-conjugated octreotide derivative were observed in urine within 24 h post-injection. Conclusion: The present study provided a new example of an 111 In-DTPA-conjugated octreotide derivative having the characteristics of both reduced renal uptake and shortened residence time of radioactivity in the kidney. It is considered that this kinetic control was achieved by introducing a negative charge on the octreotide derivative thereby suppressing the reabsorption in the renal tubules and affording the radiometabolites with appropriate lipophilicity.

  8. Integrity of 111In-radiolabeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haotian; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagesha, Dattatri; Duclos, Richard I.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Gatley, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Iron-oxide nanoparticles can act as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while radiolabeling the same platform with nuclear medicine isotopes allows imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), modalities that offer better quantification. For successful translation of these multifunctional imaging platforms to clinical use, it is imperative to evaluate the degree to which the association between radioactive label and iron oxide core remains intact in vivo. Methods: We prepared iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by oleic acid and phospholipids which were further radiolabeled with 59 Fe, 14 C-oleic acid, and 111 In. Results: Mouse biodistributions showed 111 In preferentially localized in reticuloendothelial organs, liver, spleen and bone. However, there were greater levels of 59 Fe than 111 In in liver and spleen, but lower levels of 14 C. Conclusions: While there is some degree of dissociation between the 111 In labeled component of the nanoparticle and the iron oxide core, there is extensive dissociation of the oleic acid component

  9. Chemistry, spectroscopy and isotope separation of zirconium and its compounds as revealed by laser diagnostics of laser produced metal beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.A.; Humphries, M.; Rayner, D.M.; Bourne, O.L.; Mitchell, A.

    1986-01-01

    Recent work from the author's laboratory on zirconium beams is reviewed. Zirconium metal beams have been produced by laser vaporization of solid zirconium targets coupled with supersonic expansion of helium gas. The resultant supersonic metal beam is shown to present an ideal environment for various spectroscopic techniques. The state distribution of zirconium atoms in the beam is obtained from low resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF) studies. High resolution LIF studies give information on the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of the zirconium-91 isotope. Information on the hyperfine splitting in the excited state is obtained from quantum beat spectroscopy. Low resolution 2 color multiphoton ionization spectroscopy using a XeCl laser allows isotope separation of all isotopes of zirconium. These metal beams are highly reactive and can be used to produce novel chemical species. The results of two studies in which a reactant is added to the expansion gas are reported here. Zirconium oxide (ZrO), a molecule observed in the emission spectra of cool stars and in laboratory studies at high temperatures, is produced in a low temperature, collision free environment by adding small quantities of oxygen to the expansion gas. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF), a molecule previously unobserved, is produced by the addition of small quantities of CF/sub 4/

  10. Autologous 111In-oxine-labeled granulocytes in Yersinia infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Boerner, W.; Fischbach, W.

    1985-01-01

    Autologous 111 In-oxine-labeled granulocytes have proved to be valuable for the localization of inflammatory bowel diseases, especially Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Other rare inflammatory bowel diseases also yield positive 111 In scans. One case of Yersinia infection of the terminal ileum (Yersinia enterocolitica) showing an accumulation of 111 In-oxine-labeled granulocytes 0.5, 4, and 24 h after the reinjection of the labeled cells is described. The 4-day fecal excretion of 111 In-oxine granulocytes showed a slight inflammatory activity of the terminal ileum. One negative scan is reported in a cotrimoxazole-treated patient with Yersinia infection. (orig.)

  11. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-rhenium-colloid and 111In-indiumcitrate in the bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.; Haberland, K.; Knoch, K.; Fejer, F.L.; Zachariah, S.; Staedtische Krankenanstalten Krefeld

    1975-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy using 111 In-Indium-citrate and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid was compared with each other in 6 male and 3 female patients. Our results in all patients were in favour of 111 In-citrate which caused a better delineation of morphological details than sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid did. In the first days after intravenous administration of 111 In-citrate, radioindium accumulated markedly in the pudendal region, this finding being more distinct in male patients than in female ones. On account of these results a considerable radiation dose has to be assumed in bone marrow scintigraphy using 111 In-citrate as long as the absorbed dose from 111 In has not been estimated under consideration of the radioindium accumulation in the pudendal region. 111 In-citrate should be applied in bone marrow scanning only exceptionally and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid be preferred in the routine diagnostics of bone marrow. (orig.) [de

  12. Normal distribution of /sup 111/In chloride on scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, K; Machida, K; Hayashi, S; Watari, T; Akaike, A

    1977-05-01

    Indium-111-chloride (/sup 111/InCl/sub 3/) was used as a bone marrow imaging and a tumor-localizing agent in 38 patients (46 scintigrams), who were suspected of, or diagnosed as, having malignant disease, and who were irradiated for malignant disease. The regions of suspected malignant disease, of abnormally accumulated on scintigrams, and the target irradiated, were excluded to estimate the normal distribution of /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/. Scintigrams were taken 48 hrs after intravenous injection of /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ 1 to 3 mCi. The percent and score distribution of /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ were noted in 23 regions. As the liver showed the highest accumulation of /sup 111/In on all scintigrams, the liver was designated as 2+. Comparing with the radioactivity in the liver, other regions had similar (2+), moderately decreased (+), or severely decreased (-) accumulation on scintigram. The score is given one for 2+, 0.5 for +, 0 for -. The score and percentage distributions were: liver 100 (100%), lumbar vertebra 58.5 (100%), mediastinum 55 (100%), nasopharynx 50 (100%), testis 47.5 (59%), heart 44.5 (89%), and pelvis 43.5 (78%). Comparing this study with a previous study of /sup 111/In-BLM, score distribution in lumbar vertebra, pelvis, and skull were similar. /sup 111/In-BLM is excreted rapidly after injection, but little /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is excreted. Accumulation of /sup 111/In in bone marrow depends upon the amount of /sup 111/In-transferrin in blood. High accumulation in the lumbar vertebra and pelvis shows that /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ would be effective as a bone marrow imaging agent.

  13. Comparative study of two different Bombesin derivates labeled with {sup 111}In and biodistribution in normal mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Alcarde, Lais F.; Correa, Beatriz L.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Couto, Renata M.; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: ricardooliveira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical speciality that uses radioactive compounds (radiopharmaceuticals), consisting of a substrate and a radioactive isotope, for diagnostic. Among the peptides of interest for Nuclear Medicine, bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid neuropeptide analog of human gastrin-releasing peptide, is one of the highlights. This is a comparative study aiming to establish the best condition to radiolabel two BBN derivatives, (DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 5}-BBN{sub (6-14)}) and (DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 2}-BBN{sub (6-14})) with 111-indium. Specific objectives of this study were evaluate a good condition of radiolabelling in search excellent specific activity the bombesin derivatives and determinate the biodistribution in health mice model. Ten micrograms (10μg) of the derivative DTPA-Phe-Gly2-BBN (6-14) was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} at 25°C for different times (5, 15 and 30 minutes). The best condition was applied to peptide mass variation (10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 μg), keeping all other parameters fixed. Finally, the influence of {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} activity in the radiolabeling process (18.5, 37, 55.5, 74, 185 MBq) was evaluated. The best conditions were repeated for the second derivate, DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 5}-BBN{sub (6-14}). The radiochemical purity was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), using 0.2 M EDTA pH 5 as solvent, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a C18 column with linear gradient 10% A to 90% A (v/v) (A: 0,1% of TFA in CH3CN; B: 0,1% of TFA in H2O) at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute for 15 minutes. Considering the reaction time, the higher radiochemical purity was obtained when 10μg of the peptide was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of {sup 111}In for 15 minutes at 25°C (97.33 ± 0.50%, n=3). In the mass variation study, the best results of radiochemical purity were obtained when 10 μg of the peptide was employed (97.69 ± 0.4%, n = 4). Finally, the maximum specific activity of the radiolabelled

  14. 111In desferal: a new radiopharmaceutical for abscess detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, R.; Pierno, C.; Braunstein, P.

    1978-01-01

    Desferal was labeled with 111 In and its distribution was studied in normal mice, rabbits bearing turpentine-induced abscesses, and rats bearing Staphyloccus aureus-induced abscesses. The results indicate that 111 In Desferal may be used in abscess detection and localization

  15. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Ueno, Kyoichi; Sugihara, Masami; Tada, Akira; Tonami, Norihisa

    1977-01-01

    It is assumed that 111 In-chloride is bound to serum transferrin and then transported into reticulocyte in erythropoietic marrow. However, several biochemical differences between radioiron and 111 In have been reported since these years. In present study, clinical usefulness of 111 In-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was examined especially by comparing 111 In-chloride image with sup(99m)Tc-colloid. Obtained results are as follows: 1) In most cases, both 111 In-chloride and sup(99m)Tc-colloid images showed similar bone marrow distributions. 2) In three out of 7 cases with hypoplastic anemia and two patients with bone marrow irradiation (700-1,000 rad), the central marrow or irradiated marrow showed marked decreased uptake of 111 In, and showed normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc. 3) In two out of 3 cases with chronic myelogenous leucemia, central marrow showed normal uptake of 111 In, and showed decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc. From the present study, the same dissociation findings as those between radioiron and radiocolloid could be obtained in hypoplastic anemia and bone marrow irradiation. 111 In-chloride would appear to be a useful erythropoietic imaging agent, although further study of exact comparison with radioiron should be necessary. (auth.)

  16. Immunoscintigraphy using 111In-DTPA labeled monoclonal antibodies: Comparison between ETC and planar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happ, J.; Baum, R.P.; Frohn, J.; Weimer, B.; Hoer, G.; Halbsguth, A.; Lochner, B.; Brandhorst, I.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was done in order to examine if the use of 111 In-DTPA-labeled MAb fragments in place of 131 I-labeled MAb fragments increases the sensitivity of tomographic immunoscintigraphy to reach the level of that of planar imaging techniques. In 11 patients with various primary tumors, local recurrences or metastases [colorectal carcinoma (n=7), ovarian carcinoma (n=2), papillary thyroid carcinoma (n=1), undifferentiated carcinoma of the lung (n=1)], immuniscintigraphy (IS) was carried out using 111 In-DTPA-labeled F(ab') 2 fragments of various MAbs (anti-CEA, OC 125, anti-hTG) and planar and tomographic imaging were compared intraindividually. By conventional diagnostic procedures, the presence of a tumor mass was confirmed (transmission computer tomography, ultrasound) or verified ( 131 I whole-body scintigraphy, histology) in all cases. Immunoscintigraphy was positive in 9 out of 11 cases by ECT and in 10 out of 11 cases by planar imaging. When using 111 In-labeled MAb fragments, intraindividual comparison of ECT and planar imaging resulted in a similar sensitivity. The increased sensitivity of ECT using this tracer in contrast to 131 I-labeled MAb fragments may be attributed to the fact that the physical properties of 111 In are much more suitable for the gamma cameras most commonly used (single detector, 3/8'' crystal); using 111 In-labelled MAb fragments, count rates sufficient for ECT can be obtained within a reasonable acquisition time. This allows to combine IS with the advantages of ECT regarding tumour localization and prevention of artefacts due to superposition of background. (orig.) [de

  17. Radioimmunoimaging in malignant melanoma with 111In-labeled monoclonal antibody 96.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.L.; Rosenblum, M.G.; Sobol, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    A radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (96.5) reactive with an Mr 97,000 antigen found on over 80% of melanoma cell lines and tissue extracts was examined for its ability to detect malignant melanoma metastases in vivo. For imaging purposes, it was conjugated with diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid and subsequently labeled with 111 In by chelation. Thirty-one patients with metastatic melanoma received single injections of monoclonal antibody 96.5 at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg and at specific activities of 111 In ranging from 0.125 to 4 mCi/mg. Total-body scans were performed at various time intervals following administration. No serious side effects were observed. Of a total of 100 previously documented metastatic sites, 50 imaged for a specificity of 50%. The number of sites imaged increased significantly as the amount of antibody administered increased relative to the average radiation dose. Considerable background uptake of isotope was observed in blood pool and other organs with gradual acquisition of label in tumor sites by 48 to 72 h. Hence, tumor imaging of melanoma using 111 In-labeled monoclonal antibody 96.5 appeared feasible, especially at antibody doses above 2 mg

  18. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of vascular diseases by 111In-oxine platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishibe, Toshiya; Hiraoka, Tomoya; Sakuma, Makoto; Sakai, Keisuke; Yasuda, Keishu; Tanabe, Tatsuzo; Nagao, Kazuhiko; Ito, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    111 In-oxine platelet scintigraphy was performed on 20 patients with various vascular diseases to assess its clinical usefulness as a diagnostic procedure. Especially we evaluated its usefulness for thrombus formation after Ivaron sponge occlusion method (ISO method) and endotheliazation of prosthetic grafts. Negative image in thoracic false lumen was obtained 2 or 3 weeks after operation in all patients whose dissection was completely repaired by ISO method. It suggested early thromboexclusion in thoracic false lumen in which Ivalon sponge was implanted. Negative image was observed in two cases of saphenous vein graft and one of Dacron graft. The case of Dacron graft was examined 415 days after implantation. Negative result in this case would be accounted for by stabilized fibrin layer or good endothelial coverrage. The results suggest that 111 In-oxine platelet scintigraphy is an appropriate technique for evaluating the encapsulation of prosthetic grafts and thromboexclusion after ISO method. (author)

  19. Value of {sup 111}In-DOTA-lanreotide and {sup 111}In-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide in differentiated thyroid cancer: results of in vitro binding studies and in vivo comparison with {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Margarida; Virgolini, Irene [Lainz Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); University Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana [University Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Leimer, Maria; Li, Shuren; Dudczak, Robert [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Andreae, Fritz [University Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Angelberger, Peter [Austrian Research Center, Department of Radiochemistry, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2005-10-01

    Radioiodine-negative thyroid cancer presents diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties, warranting the implementation of new imaging and treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we investigated in vitro the binding characteristics of {sup 111}In-DOTA-lanreotide ({sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN) and {sup 111}In-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide ({sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC) to cells derived from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Second, we evaluated the value of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy with these radioligands, as compared with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), for the detection of tumour lesions in DTC patients. Binding of {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN and {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC to cells isolated from surgically removed thyroid tissue was evaluated in vitro by performing saturation and displacement studies. Eighteen DTC patients with elevated thyroglobulin (12 radioiodine-negative, six radioiodine-positive) were investigated with {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN, {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC and {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans. Large numbers of SSTR binding sites for {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN and {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC were found on the cells investigated. Both SSTR radioligands exhibited a high binding affinity for these SSTR binding sites. {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN and {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC scintigraphy detected 37 and 33 lesions, respectively, in 17 (94%) patients each, whereas {sup 18}F-FDG PET revealed 30 lesions in 15 (83%) patients. Uptake of both SSTR radioligands was found in several radioiodine-negative sites. No striking differences in lesion imaging by {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN and {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC were found. In both radioiodine-negative and radioiodine-positive patients, more lesions were SSTR-positive/{sup 18}F-FDG-negative than were {sup 18}F-FDG-positive/SSTR-negative. Adding a SSTR scan with these radioligands to the diagnostic work-up increases the diagnostic capacity in DTC, and should be considered particularly in radioiodine

  20. Technetium-99m as alternative to produce somatostatin-labeled derivatives: comparative biodistribution evaluation with 111In-DTPA-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Ivani B.; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Ueda, Laura T.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Muramoto, Emiko; Barboza, Marycel F. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Constancia P.G. da

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic somatostatin (SST) analogues have been used in the preparation of receptor-specific radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide (OctreoScan®) has found useful for imaging a range of tumors, including NE cancer, carcinoide and lymphoma. Unfortunately, 111 In is a high-cost cyclotron produced radioisotope with gamma emission not so suitable for scintigraphic images and for dosimetry like 99m Tc. This work studied the labeling conditions with 99m Tc and biological distribution in Swiss mice of two SST analogs (HYNIC-Tyr 3 -Octreotide and HYNICTyr 3 - Octreotate) and compared the biodistribution pattern with 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide. 99 mTc-HYNIC-Tyr 3 - Octreotate ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-TATE) and 99m Tc-HYNIC-Tyr 3 -Octreotide ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-OCT) were produced by labeling conditions using tricine and EDDA as coligands. 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide ( 111 In-DTPA-OCT) was produced by labeling DTPA-Octreotide with 111 InCl 3 (Nordion). Radiochemical purity of labeled preparations was determined by ITLC-SG. Biological distribution studies were performed after injection of radiopharmaceuticals on Swiss mice. Labeling procedures resulted on high radiochemical yield for all three preparations and the labeled products presented high in vitro stability. Biological distribution studies evidenced similar general biodistribution of 99m Tc-labeled peptides when compared with indium-labeled peptide with fast blood clearance and elimination by urinary tract. Kidneys uptake of 99 mTc-HYNIC-TATE are similar to 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide, and both are significantly higher than 99 mTc-HYNIC-OCT. All labeled peptides presented similar uptake on liver, but the retention in time at intestines, particularly at large intestine, was more expressive for 111 In-labeled peptide. The %ID of 99m Tc-HYNIC-OCT and 99m Tc-HYNIC-TATE in organs with high density of SST receptors like pancreas and adrenals were significant and similar to obtained for 111

  1. Clinical feasibility of two-step streptavidin/111In-biotin scintigraphy in patients with suspected vertebral osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzeri, Elena; Erba, Paola A.; Volterrani, Duccio; Bottoni, Antonio; Mariani, Giuliano; Pauwels, Ernest K.J.; Manca, Mario; Bodei, Lisa; Trippi, Donatella; Cristofani, Renza; Consoli, Vincenzo; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Streptavidin accumulates at sites of inflammation and infection as a result of increased capillary permeability. In addition to being utilised by bacteria for their own growth, biotin forms a stable, high-affinity non-covalent complex with avidin. The objective of this investigation was to determine the diagnostic performance of two-step streptavidin/ 111 In-biotin imaging for evaluating patients with suspected vertebral osteomyelitis. We evaluated 55 consecutive patients with suspected vertebral osteomyelitis (34 women and 21 men aged 27-86 years), within 2 weeks after the onset of clinical symptoms. Thirty-two of the patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 24, computed tomography (CT). DTPA-conjugated biotin was radiolabelled by incubating 500 μg of DTPA-biotin with 111 MBq of 111 In-chloride. Two-step scintigraphy was performed by first infusing 3 mg streptavidin intravenously, followed 4 h later by 111 In-biotin. Imaging was begun 60 min later. Streptavidin/ 111 In-biotin scintigraphy was positive in 32/34 patients with spinal infection (94.12% sensitivity). The study was negative in 19/21 patients without infection (95.24% specificity). The corresponding results for MRI and CT were 54.17% and 35.29% (sensitivity), and 75% and 57.14% (specificity), respectively. All statistical parameters of diagnostic performance (Youden's J index, kappa measure of agreement with correct classification, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood and negative likelihood) were clearly better for streptavidin/ 111 In-biotin scintigraphy than for either MRI or CT. Streptavidin/ 111 In-biotin scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for detecting vertebral osteomyelitis in the first 2 weeks after the onset of clinical symptoms, and is potentially very useful for guiding clinical decisions on instituting appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  2. The pulmonary embolism diagnostic in relation with of the Pioped II and with the new isotopics technic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Antonio Jose

    2006-01-01

    On June the first of 2006, the New England Journal of Medicine Published the results of Pioped II study about the utility of multidetector computed tomographic angiography (CTA )alone and in combination with Venous-phase multidetector CT venography (CTA-CTV) for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. From 7284 patients screened, 824 completed test and reference examinations, 51 and 87 patients were excluded because the CTA and CTA-CVT were s inconclusive for interpretation. On 773 patients with interpretable CTA, sensibility was 83%,specificity 96% . On 737 patients with interpretable CTA-CVT the sensitivity was 90% and specificity was 95%.However the predictive value of CTA and CTA-CTV varied substantially when the clinical assessment was taken into account. In patients with a low clinical probability of pulmonary embolism, 42 percent of the CTA and 43% of the CTA-CVT readings were false positive. In patients with a high clinical probability, 40 percent of results on CTA and 18 percent of results on CTA-CTV were false negative. Then CTA and CTV-CTV per se don't rule out pulmonary embolism and don't have the transcendence of a normal ventilation-perfusion scanning. Is so important that they used a composite reference standard to diagnose or rule out pulmonary embolism where the ventilation perfusion scanning was the higher protagonist. Pulmonary embolism was established with a ventilation-perfusion lung scanning showing a high probability of pulmonary embolism, positive findings on pulmonary digital subtraction angiography (DSA), or positive findings on sonogram in a patient and non diagnostic results on ventilation-perfusion scanning . Exclusion of pulmonary embolism was established with a normal findings on DSA, normal findings on ventilation-perfusion scanning, or ventilation-perfusion scanning showing either a low or very low probability of pulmonary embolism with a clinical Wells score of less than 2 and normal findings on venous sonogram. Considering results

  3. Preparation of Indium Pentetate Complex (111 In-DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, S.; Farshidfar, G.R.; Najafi, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is no organometallic compound of Indium know to exist naturally in the human body. However, a number of compounds prepared with 111 In have been evaluated for localization studies. The useful radioactive decay characteristics and the suitable chemical properties of the metal ion have drawn attention of many investigators resulting in the preparation of numerous 111 In labeled compounds for potential medical applications. One of them is 111 In-DTPA complex that is used for cerebral spinal fluid studies. In the present study, DTPA has been chelated with 111 In by employing various methods and then tested for its stability in vitro during storage and in human plasma. Three methods for the preparation of 11 1In-DTPA were used. In every method, labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were determined by chromatography systems

  4. {sup 111}In-DOTA-dPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide, {sup 111}In-DOTA-lanreotide and {sup 67}Ga citrate scintigraphy for visualisation of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuren; Kurtaran, Amir; Li, Mei; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Kienast, Oskar [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Schima, Wolfgang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiodiagnostics, University of Vienna (Austria); Angelberger, Peter [Research Center Seibersdorf (Austria); Virgolini, Irene [Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Vienna Hospital Lainz (Austria); Ludwig-Boltzman Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Raderer, Markus [Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Oncology, University of Vienna (Austria); Dudczak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-08-01

    -DOTA-LAN showed 6 of 12 positive sites (50%). For infra-diaphragmatic involvement, the sensitivities of {sup 67}Ga, {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOCT and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN were 40%, 67% and 60%, respectively. It is concluded that MALT-type lymphoma can be visualised by {sup 67}Ga, {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOCT and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy. Although there were no statistically significant differences in patient-related and site-related sensitivities when using {sup 67}Ga compared with {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOCT and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN, the sensitivity of {sup 67}Ga tended to be superior to that of {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOCT and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN for supra-diaphragmatic lesions but inferior for infra-diaphragmatic involvement. In selected cases, the combination of {sup 67}Ga and {sup 111}In-DOTA-LAN or {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOCT may increase the diagnostic efficiency in patients with MALT-type lymphoma. (orig.)

  5. 111In-pentetreotide therapy in patients with inoperable benign intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minutoli, F.; Sindoni, A.; Cardile, D.; Amato, E.; Cassalia, L.; Herberg, A.; Baldari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: in the last years Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) acquired greater importance as an alternative or complementary treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and other somatostatin receptor positive (sstr+) tumors. Many studies about PRRT using different radiopharmaceuticals, mainly 90 Y and 177 Lu (beta-emitters) labelled peptides, are reported in the literature. 177 Lu-labeled somatostatin analogues seem to be more effective because of their favourable physical properties and the better objective response. On the other hand, only few reports exist on PRRT using 111 In-Pentetreotide, an Auger-emitter. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of 111 In-Pentetreotide therapy in patients with sstr+ inoperable benign intracranial tumors in which the use of beta-emitters radiopharmaceuticals (characterized by higher penetration range) could be unsafe and questionable since lesions were close to critical anatomical structures, such as optic chiasm or medulla oblongata. Materials and methods: we retrospectively reviewed clinical records of 9 patients (7 Females and 2 Males) affected by sstr+ benign intracranial tumors (mean age: 58.4 years, range 50-81): 8 patients had meningiomas/meningiomatosis and 1 patient had a pituitary macroadenomas. A previous diagnostic scintigraphy with 111 In-Pentetreotide demonstrated high intralesional radiotracer uptake. All patients underwent PRRT with high therapeutic activities of 111 In-Pentetreotide (1-7 cycles, median 4 cycles, activity per cycle 3.7-7.5 GBq, median activity per cycle 7 GBq, cumulative activity range 13.7-66 GBq). Efficacy of PRRT was evaluated according to RECIST criteria. Toxicity was also assessed considering hematological parameters and GFR value estimated by renal dynamic scintigraphy. Results: no patient had acute damage. Complete response was observed in 1 patient (11.1%). Partial response was observed in 2 patients (22.2%); stable disease was observed

  6. Production of 111In for diagnosis in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osso Junior, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    111 In (t sub(1/2 = 2.82d)) due to its favorable physical decay characteristics, can substitute sup(113m) In (t sub(1/2 = 1.66hr)), whose application is limited to rapid physiological studies, advantageously. A routine production method has been developed by 28 MeV alpha particle bombardment of natural silver at the CV-28 Cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. The target is dissolved in conc. nitric acid, and silver is precipitated with hydrochloric acid. Carrier-free 111 In which remains in solution is separated from 109 Cd, the decay product of 109 In, which is produced simultaneously during the irradiation, by an anion exchange resin. All the production and separation steps are made remotely, with the use of manipulators, tongs and electric and pneumatic systems. The thick target yield is 0.18 mCi/μAh and in each run 16 mCi of 111 In are produced, which can be used in nuclear medicine centers. Methods of labelling 111 In-EDTA and 111 In-DTPA have been developed. 111 In offers a favorable half-life for the study of rather slow biological processes, in which observation periods of 24-72 hrs after administration are required, e.g., cisternography, visualization of the lymphatic system, tumor localization and others. (Author) [pt

  7. Radiation exposure of the patient in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Experimental studies of the biokinetics of 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, 99mTc-MIBI, 14C-triolein and 14C-urea, and development of dosimetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leide Svegborn, S.

    1999-03-01

    Biokinetic and dosimetric models for a number of clinically used radiopharmaceuticals, for which information on the radiation dosimetry is scarce, have been produced. On patients undergoing investigations with 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 -octreotide (for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours) and 99m Tc-MIBI (for myocardial perfusion imaging), whole body gamma camera scanning was performed several times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Total body and organ activity content was determined using the geometric mean of the number of counts in two 180 deg opposed planar images. A thorough investigation of sources influencing the accuracy of the quantification of activity was carried out, showing an overall uncertainty varying from 10% to 30% for organs with a significant uptake and 5% for the whole body. The activity in blood and urine was also measured. 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 -octreotide was predominantly excreted via the kidney-bladder system and a typical investigation with 1200 MBq resulted in an effective dose of 8.4 mSv (0.076 mSv/MBq). 99m Tc-MIBI was to a great extent excreted via the gastrointestinal tract and an investigation with 1200 MBq resulted in an effective dose of 13 mSv (0.011 mSv/MBq). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the possibility to measure ultra-low activity concentrations of 14 CO 2 , in exhaled air from patients undergoing 14 C-breath tests, with special application to 14 C-triolein (for study of fat malabsorption). AMS was proven to be a useful technique for long-term retention studies of 14 C, and was used together with liquid scintillation counting in an investigation of the biokinetics of 14 C-urea in adult and paediatric patients (for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in the upper gastrointestinal tract). The effective dose for 14 C-urea was 0.019 mSv/MBq for adults and from 0.041 to 0.019 mSv/MBq for seven- to fourteen -year-old children, resulting in an effective dose of approximately 0.002 mSv per

  8. Radiation exposure of the patient in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Experimental studies of the biokinetics of {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 14}C-triolein and {sup 14}C-urea, and development of dosimetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide Svegborn, S

    1999-03-01

    Biokinetic and dosimetric models for a number of clinically used radiopharmaceuticals, for which information on the radiation dosimetry is scarce, have been produced. On patients undergoing investigations with {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide (for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours) and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (for myocardial perfusion imaging), whole body gamma camera scanning was performed several times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Total body and organ activity content was determined using the geometric mean of the number of counts in two 180 deg opposed planar images. A thorough investigation of sources influencing the accuracy of the quantification of activity was carried out, showing an overall uncertainty varying from 10% to 30% for organs with a significant uptake and 5% for the whole body. The activity in blood and urine was also measured. {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide was predominantly excreted via the kidney-bladder system and a typical investigation with 1200 MBq resulted in an effective dose of 8.4 mSv (0.076 mSv/MBq). {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was to a great extent excreted via the gastrointestinal tract and an investigation with 1200 MBq resulted in an effective dose of 13 mSv (0.011 mSv/MBq). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the possibility to measure ultra-low activity concentrations of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, in exhaled air from patients undergoing {sup 14}C-breath tests, with special application to {sup 14}C-triolein (for study of fat malabsorption). AMS was proven to be a useful technique for long-term retention studies of {sup 14}C, and was used together with liquid scintillation counting in an investigation of the biokinetics of {sup 14}C-urea in adult and paediatric patients (for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in the upper gastrointestinal tract). The effective dose for {sup 14}C-urea was 0.019 mSv/MBq for adults and from 0.041 to 0.019 mSv/MBq for seven- to fourteen -year-old children

  9. Data Evaluation Acquired Talys 1.0 Code to Produce 111In from Various Accelerator-Based Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipoor, Zahra; Gholamzadeh, Zohreh; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Seyyedi, Solaleh; Aref, Morteza

    The Indium-111 physical-decay parameters as a β-emitter radionuclide show some potential for radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic purposes. Medical investigators have shown that 111In is an important radionuclide for locating and imaging certain tumors, visualization of the lymphatic system and thousands of labeling reactions have been suggested. The TALYS 1.0 code was used here to calculate excitation functions of 112/114-118Sn+p, 110Cd+3He, 109Ag+3He, 111-114Cd+p, 110/111Cd+d, 109Ag+α to produce 111In using low and medium energy accelerators. Calculations were performed up to 200 MeV. Appropriate target thicknesses have been assumed based on energy loss calculations with the SRIM code. Theoretical integral yields for all the latter reactions were calculated. The TALYS 1.0 code predicts that the production of a few curies of 111In is feasible using a target of isotopically highly enriched 112Cd and a proton energy between 12 and 25 MeV with a production rate as 248.97 MBq·μA-1 · h-1. Minimum impurities shall be produced during the proton irradiation of an enriched 111Cd target yielding a production rate for 111In of 67.52 MBq· μA-1 · h-1.

  10. Platelet turnover and kinetics in immune thrombocytopenic purpura: results with autologous 111In-labeled platelets and homologous 51Cr-labeled platelets differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns A du, P.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Loetter, M.G.P.; Pieters, H.; Wessels, P.; Kotze, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    Mean platelet survival and turnover were simultaneously determined with autologous 111In-labeled platelets (111In-AP) and homologous 51Cr-labeled platelets (51Cr-HP) in ten patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). In vivo redistribution of the 111In-AP was quantitated with a scintillation camera and computer-assisted image analysis. The patients were divided into two groups: those with splenic platelet sequestration (spleen-liver 111In activity ratio greater than 1.4), and those with diffuse sequestration in the reticuloendothelial system. The latter patients had more severe ITP reflected by pronounced thrombocytopenia, decreased platelet turnover, and prominent early hepatic platelet sequestration. Mean platelet life span estimated with 51Cr-HP was consistently shorter than that of 111In-AP. Platelet turnover determined with 51Cr-HP was thus over-estimated. The difference in results with the two isotope labels was apparently due to greater in vivo elution of 51Cr. Although the limitations of the techniques should be taken into account, these findings indicate that platelet turnover is not always normal or increased in ITP, but is low in severe disease. We suggest that this may be ascribed to damage to megakaryocytes by antiplatelet antibody. The physical characteristics in 111In clearly make this radionuclide superior to 51Cr for the study of platelet kinetics in ITP

  11. Bone marrow scintigraphy. An aid to the diagnosis and prognosis of myelofibrosis. Scintigraphie medullaire. Apport pour le diagnostic et le pronostic des myelofibroses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rain, J.D.; Najean, Y. (Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France))

    1993-05-01

    During the last three years 77 patients with myelofibrosis were studied by scintigraphy, using 99m Tc colloids and 111 in transferring as tracers. Low axial uptake of the colloids, extension of the indium uptake beyond the axis towards the knees and sometimes the ankles and elbows, and splenic indium uptake are valuable diagnostic criteria, particularly useful to exclude myelofibrosis associated with a malignant disorder. The clinical severity of the disease, and in particular the disappearance of physiologically active bone marrow (indium uptake) can be predicted from isotopic studies. Bone marrow scintigraphy could contribute to the difficult decision of splenectomy.

  12. Lymphocyte targeting with /sup 111/In-labelled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutfi, I.; Batchelor, J.R.; Lavender, J.P.; Epenetos, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro tests were conducted using human T and B cell lines, as well as whole blood, to establish the usefulness of 2 murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), an anti-CD5 (Pan T) and a Pan B, for potential radioimmunolocalization and therapy. Both MAbs showed specificity for the cell line in question as tested by indirect immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. Assays carried out on whole blood showed 40-70% of the added activity of /sup 111/In-labelled Pan B antibody binding to B cells and 20-24% of /sup 111/In-Pan T antibody binding to T cells. The amount of internalised /sup 111/In-labelled Pan B was 6% of total amount at 24 hr indicating a slow internalization process. These results should allow for in vivo targeting of normal and neoplastic B and T cells.

  13. False-positive 111In-pentetreotide Uptake in Gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Sharjeel; Alshammari, Alshaima

    2013-01-01

    111 In-pentetreotide [ 111 In-octreoscan] is the most widely used radiolabeled somatostatin analog for evaluating neuroendocrine tumor overexpression of somatostatin receptors. False-positives studies of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy have been reported and often the cause is unexplained but assumed to be due to high number of somatostatin receptors in other pathologies. Causes of false-positives include visualization of the gallbladder, nasal mucosa and pulmonary hilar areas in respiratory infections, thyroid abnormalities, accessory spleens, recent Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA's) and activity at the site of a recent surgical incision. In infection or inflammation the cause of false-positive uptake is probably the result of tracer binding by somatostatin receptors on the inflammatory leukocytes. In this case report, we report, a 44-year-old male patient with false-positive 111 In-pentetreotide uptake due to gastritis

  14. Correlation between radioactivity and chemotherapeutics of the 111In-VNB-liposome in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai TH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Chuan Lee1,*, Chih-Hsien Chang2,3,*, Chih-Min Huang1, Yu-Tse Wu1, Liang-Cheng Chen2, Chung-Li Ho2, Tsui-Jung Chang2, Te-Wei Lee2, Tung-Hu Tsai1,41Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 2Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, 3Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 4Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The combination of a radioisotope with a chemotherapeutic agent in a liposomal carrier (ie, Indium-111-labeled polyethylene glycol pegylated liposomal vinorelbine, [111In-VNB-liposome] has been reported to show better therapeutic efficiency in tumor growth suppression. Nevertheless, the challenge remains as to whether this therapeutic effect is attributable to the combination of a radioisotope with chemotherapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and correlation of Indium-111 radioactivity and vinorelbine concentration in the 111In-VNB-liposome.Methods: The VNB-liposome and 111In-VNB-liposome were administered to rats. Blood, liver, and spleen tissue were collected to determine the distribution profile of the 111In-VNB-liposome. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system and gamma counter were used to analyze the concentration of vinorelbine and radioactivity of Indium-111.Results: High uptake of the 111In-VNB-liposome in the liver and spleen demonstrated the properties of a nanosized drug delivery system. Linear regression showed a good correlation (r = 0.97 between Indium-111 radioactivity and vinorelbine concentration in the plasma of rats administered the 111In-VNB-liposome.Conclusion: A significant positive correlation between the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of 111Indium radioactivity and vinorelbine in blood, spleen

  15. Monitoring of cardiac antirejection therapy with 111In lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.A.; Bergmann, S.R.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether lymphocytes labeled with 111 In permit noninvasive assessment of antirejection therapy, we performed 40 allogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Antirejection therapy with azathioprine (30 mg/kg) and sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) prolonged contractile function of the graft from 7.5 +/- 1.5 (s.d.) days in controls to 19.4 +/- 3.7 days in treated animals. Six to seven days after transplantation, autologous lymphocytes labeled with 111 In were injected intravenously in seven untreated and eight treated rats. Scintigraphy and organ counting were performed 24 hr after administration of labeled cells. At sacrifice all grafts in untreated rats exhibited contractile failure, whereas grafts in all treated rats were beating well. Transplants in untreated recipients exhibited marked accumulation of 111 In lymphocytes detectable scintigraphically, with ratios of 7.7 +/- 1.9 for the activity in the transplant over that in the native heart (HT/HO), as obtained by well counting. In contrast, accumulation was not scintigraphically detectable in transplants of treated rats, with HT/HO ratios of 2.6 +/- 1.8 (p less than 0.005). The results suggested that imaging with 111 In-labeled lymphocytes will permit noninvasive assessment of antirejection therapy

  16. Chloro 111In tetraphenylporphyrin and its possible clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutour, C.; Pommier, J.-C.; Ducassou, D.; Vuillemin, L.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of TPP 111 InCl is described taking into account an in vivo utilisation. This compound exhibits an in vitro good platelet labelling efficiency in pure plasma medium and without functional alteration of the cell physiology. The in vivo study shows a displacement of the tracer from the platelets to the erythrocytes and its recycling in the organism. (author)

  17. New methods of sup(111)In chemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.F.; Osso Junior, J.A.; Bastos, M.A.V.; Britto, J.L.Q.; Silva, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The cation exchange and thermochromatography methods for chemical separation of sup(111) In from silver targets are described. The cation exchange method is based on the difference between In and Ag distribution coefficients on cation exchange resin treated with HNO sub(3). The thermochromatography consists of indium diffusion on silver melted after sublimation and posterior condensation. (M.C.K.)

  18. 111In and 90Y labelled peptide radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenaus, E.; Crudo, J.L.; Castiglia, S.G. de

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The application of 111In-labelled octreotide to target somatostatin receptors on tumour cells has gained acceptance as a diagnostic procedure for demonstrating neuroendocrine and other SSTR-positive tumors. A further advance in the field of somatostatin analogues is the development of macrocyclic chelators that also bind beta particle emitters like 90Y and 177Lu. [90Y-DOTA, Tyr3] octreotide and [177Lu-DOTA, Tyr3] octreotate are currently being tried as the therapeutic agents. The aim of this work was to label two somatostatin analogues (Tyr3 Octreotide and Lanreotide) with 111In and 90Y using DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) as a chelating agent. DOTA in the form of the tri-t-butyl ester was coupled to the Lys5 (BOC) protected Tyr3octreotide and Lys5 (BOC) protected lanreotide in N,N-dimethylformamide, in a three-step reaction involving conjugation, using HATU and diisopropylethylamine as coupling reagents, de-protection with trifluoroacetic and HPLC purification of the conjugates. The DOTALAN and DOTATOC were labelled with 111In and 90Y and assayed by HPLC. In both cases solutions of gentisic acid in sodium acetate 0.4M pH=5.0 and conjugated peptides were added to the 111In or 90Y chloride. The final solution was heated at 90 deg. C for 25 minutes. We tried different amounts of the two peptide complexes per mCi of 111In/90Y and quality control of the labelled products was performed with the following HPLC system: reverse phase column, flow rate 1ml-min, UV/radiometric detection and a gradient solvent: solvent A: acetonitrile, solvent B: water TFA 0.1%, gradient: 0-3min 100% B, linear increase of eluent A to 50% from 3-13 min, 13-18 min 50% A, 18-20 min linear increase of eluent A to 70%. Serum stability was determined after 4 and 24 hr. incubation of the labeled peptide in human serum at 37 deg. C. After precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile the incubation mixture was analyzed by HPLC. Normal Wistar rats were

  19. Competence and lastingness in specialized clinical laboratories: technical report about requirements concerning quality of users competence and used processes in immunochemical diagnostic procedures using isotopic and non-isotopic tracer technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegel, B.

    2005-01-01

    From the citizens view this technical report about immunochemical diagnostic procedures using radioactive and nonradioactive tracer technologies describes the requirements in special laboratory diagnostics concerning competency and process control. Governmental or administrational obligations of inspecting both skill and sites to guarantee patients security are pointed out. (orig.)

  20. Preclinical evaluation of [ 111 In]-DOTA-trastuzumab for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Alirezapour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Herceptin and its fragments have been radiolabeled and used in the imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu-positive tumors and development of diagnostic kits is of great importance in radiopharmacy. Aims: In this study, 111 In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-trastuzumab ( 111 In-DOTA-trastuzumab was successively prepared and evaluated for ultimate use in the HER2 antigen imaging in oncology. Settings and Design: The conjugate was prepared, labeled and evaluated using in vitro (radioimmunoassay [RIA], enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, stability, binding, internalization/in vivo (bio-distribution, single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] experiments. Materials and Methods: 111 In-DOTA-trastuzumab was prepared followed by determination of radiochemical purity (RCP, integrity of protein, immunoreactivity of radiolabeled antibody with HER2/neu antigen (by SkBr3 cell line binding and RIA methods were determined followed by stability tests, internalization studies and the tissue bio-distribution determination in wild-type rats as well as SPECT imaging in SkBr3-bearing mice. Statistical Analysis Used: All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (mean ± SD and the data were compared using Student′s t-test. Statistical significance was defined as P 95 ± 0.5%, S.A. 5.3 μCi/μg with the average number of chelators per antibody of 6:1 showing significant immune-reactivity retention using ELISA. In vitro stability was >90% in phosphate buffered saline and 80 ± 0.5% in serum over 48 h. Cell binding was significant (>0.79. In vitro internalization reached up to %12-13 in 10 h. Significant tumor uptake was observed. Conclusions: In vitro and in vivo/SPECT imaging in SkBr3-bearing mice demonstrated that 111 In-DOTA-trastuzumab is a potential compound for molecular imaging of SPECT for diagnosis and follow-up of HER2 expression in oncology.

  1. Evaluation of isotopic diagnostics for subsurface characterization and monitoring: Field experiments at the TAN and RWMC (SDA) Sites, INEEL. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaolo, D.J.; Kennedy, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    'This research is aimed at improving methods for characterizing underground contamination sites and for monitoring how they change with time. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying and quantifying the effects of intrinsic remediation and verifying the efficacy of engineered remediation activities. Isotopic measurements of elements such as C, O, H, He, Cl, and Sr, which are present in groundwater and soil gas, provide a quantitative measure of material balance. They can be used to identify the sites of origin of contaminants in groundwater, and to determine if contaminants are being destroyed as a result of natural processes or engineered processes. Isotope ratios also can be used to trace the migration of fluids that underground contaminants, such as steam and chemical reactions are occurring underground destruction of TCE usually produces carbon dissolution of calcite. are pumped down wells to destroy or confine grout, and they can be utilized to diagnose what and what materials are reacting. For example, dioxide, but carbon dioxide can also come from There are many isotopic ratios that can be measured in groundwater and vadose zone gas that could be valuable for characterizing remediation sites and monitoring remediation activities; The authors concentrate on a few that are particularly useful for the problems being addressed at the TAN (Test Area North) and RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex) sites of the Idaho National Engineering Lab.. The isotopes the authors are using are 13 C, 14 C, 3 He, 87 Sr, 37 Cl, and 18 O.'

  2. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  3. Cost comparison of 111In-DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for staging enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiter, Nils F.; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph; Prasad, Vikas; Nogami, Munenobu; Huppertz, Alexander; Pape, Ulrich-Frank; Hamm, Bernd; Maurer, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    Although somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (PET)/CT is gaining increasing popularity and has shown its diagnostic superiority in several studies, 111 In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-octreotide is still the current standard for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours (NET). The aim of this study was to compare the costs for the two diagnostic tests and the respective consequential costs. From January 2009 to July 2009, 51 consecutive patients with enteropancreatic NET who underwent contrast-enhanced 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT (n = 29) or 111 In-DTPA-octreotide (mean 3 whole-body scans plus 1.6 low-dose single photon emission computed tomography/CT; n = 22) were included. For cost analysis, direct costs (equipment) and variable costs (material, labour) per examination were calculated. Additionally required CT and/or MRI examinations within the staging process were assessed as consequential costs. An additional deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed. A 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT examination yielded total costs (equipment, personnel and material costs) of 548 EUR. On the other hand, an 111 In-DTPA-octreotide examination resulted in 827 EUR total costs. Costs for equipment and material had a share of 460 EUR/720 EUR for 68 Ga-DOTATOC/ 111 In-DTPA-octreotide and labour costs of 89 EUR/106 EUR. With 68 Ga-DOTATOC additional MRI had to be performed in 7% of the patients resulting in a mean of 20 EUR for supplementary imaging per patient; 82% of patients with 111 In-DTPA-octreotide needed additional MRI and/or CT resulting in mean additional costs of 161 EUR per patient. 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT was considerably cheaper than 111 In-DTPA-octreotide with respect to both material and personnel costs. Furthermore, by using 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT considerably fewer additional examinations were needed reducing the consequential costs significantly. (orig.)

  4. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. Simplified procedure for labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hitoshi; Shiire, Yasushi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-12-01

    To utilize /sup 111/In leukocytes in a routine work, simplified procedure for sterile leukocytes preparation and labeling with water soluble oxine sulfate was performed. Viability and chemotaxis of leukocytes were maintained during separation and labeling. Chelated rate of /sup 111/In with oxine sulfate was 93.5 %. Labeling efficiency of /sup 111/In leukocytes was 93.8 %. Obvious blood pool images due to remaind erythrocytes were not observed. /sup 111/In labeled leukocytes showed good migration into inflammatory focci.

  5. Application of single-vial ready-for-use formulation of 111In- or 177Lu-labelled somatostatin analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; de Zanger, Rory; Konijnenberg, Mark; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2014-02-01

    For the sake of safety it would be desirable to store and transport the ready-for-use liquid formulation (diagnostics and therapeutics) of radiolabelled peptides. The use of ethanol, in combination with a mixture of gentisic- and ascorbic acid, has superior effects on stabilizing radiolabelled somatostatin analogs. As a consequence, (111)In- and (177)Lu-labelled somatostatin analogs can be stored and transported in a single-vial ready-for-use liquid formulation up to 7 days after radiolabelling. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Detection of occult abscesses with 111In-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Gurevich, N.; Goris, M.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    Clinicians are frequently faced with the problem of a patient in whom they suspect an occult abscess. In such a situation, there may be no clinical signs to localize the site of the abscess and often extensive investigations do not provide additional useful information. This report illustrates the efficacy of autologous leukocytes labeled with 111 In oxine in detecting the site and extent of occult abscesses in two patients. The technique of in vitro lebeling of leukocytes is simple and has been mastered by all of our nuclear medicine technologists

  7. Implementation of the Finnish Triga reactor and short lived isotopes for diagnostic and irradiation services. Otaniemen Triga-reaktorin ja sillae tuotettujen radioisotooppien saeteilytekniset sovellutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiismaeki, P.

    1992-01-01

    The spectrum of radiation diagnostic methods and irradiation services, already implemented or under development at the Finnish Triga laboratory is discussed. Most attention is devoted to the boron neutron capture therapy project, which has lead to a very encouraging assessment of this modality at the Triga. (orig.).

  8. The search for an 111In labeled agent for the solid component of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Brown, M.L.; Chowdhury, S.; Thomforde, G.; Malagelada, J.

    1988-01-01

    111 In-labeled solid meal was prepared by chelation of 111 In with Chelex resin bead. The effect of grinding of normal Chelex bead on 111 In chelation and retention in solid meal was evaluated in an in vitro system. The Chelex resin beads were ground in a mortar-pestle to form ground Chelex resin beads. Fine particles were removed by resuspension in distilled water and centrifugation. One hundred to 150 μCi of 111 In chloride was diluted with HCl and mixed with 1g of Chelex resin beads. Unbound 111 In was removed by centrifugation. The 111 In-labeled Chelex resin beads were mixed with fresh egg and 111 In-labeled solid metal was prepared by heating until solid. The meals were digested with HCl-pepsin for 4 h in a stirrer-bath (37 0 C). Aliquots were collected at intervals for determination of 111 In loss from 111 In-labeled solid meal. These results suggest that 111 In Chelex resin beads were retained in solid meals at a higher level than normal Chelex resin beads and other 111 In-tracers. (author)

  9. Search for an /sup 111/In labeled agent for the solid component of gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Brown, M.L.; Chowdhury, S.; Thomforde, G.; Malagelada, J.

    1988-01-01

    /sup 111/In-labeled solid meal was prepared by chelation of /sup 111/In with Chelex resin bead. The effect of grinding of normal Chelex bead on /sup 111/In chelation and retention in solid meal was evaluated in an in vitro system. The Chelex resin beads were ground in a mortar-pestle to form ground Chelex resin beads. Fine particles were removed by resuspension in distilled water and centrifugation. One hundred to 150 ..mu..Ci of /sup 111/In chloride was diluted with HCl and mixed with 1g of Chelex resin beads. Unbound /sup 111/In was removed by centrifugation. The /sup 111/In-labeled Chelex resin beads were mixed with fresh egg and /sup 111/In-labeled solid metal was prepared by heating until solid. The meals were digested with HCl-pepsin for 4 h in a stirrer-bath (37/sup 0/C). Aliquots were collected at intervals for determination of /sup 111/In loss from /sup 111/In-labeled solid meal. These results suggest that /sup 111/In Chelex resin beads were retained in solid meals at a higher level than normal Chelex resin beads and other /sup 111/In-tracers.

  10. Clinical usefulness of 111In transferrin scintigraphy in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Morihisa; Naruki, Yukihiko; Urita, Yosihisa; Nakatani, Naoto; Otsuka, Sachio; Noguchi, Masahiro; Takano, Masaaki; Maruyama, Yuuzou.

    1993-01-01

    As assessment was made regarding the clinical value of 111 In transferrin in scintigraphy on 28 lesions in 26 cases of colorectal cancer. The positive rate of colorectal cancer was high: 21 lesions out of the 28 (75%) were found to be positive. As for the location of cancer, there was a tendency for the positive rate to be high in the ascending and transverse colon. There was no obvious trend regarding Borrmann's classification, histological type, or macroscopic depth of invasion. There was a trend for cases in which the maximum diameter of the tumor was large and depth of invasion was in progress to be positive. Ten cases in which a specimen was resected were all shown to be positive by scintigraphy. Radioactivity in the tumorous regions was 4.41±2.96 times that of the non-tumorous regions. Moreover, tumorous tissue was strongly stained by the immuno-histological staining with anti-Tf-receptor antibody. From the above findings, it was considered that 111 In transferrin is clinically useful in scintigraphy, since it is evident that it accumulates in the tissue of colorectal cancer. (author)

  11. 111In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT in Pulmonary Carcinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Spanu, Angela; Danieli, Roberta; Dore, Francesca; Piras, Bastiana; Falchi, Antonio; Tavolozza, Mario; Madeddu, Giuseppe; Schillaci, Orazio

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In-pentetreotide incremental value in pulmonary carcinoid (PC) diagnosis compared to contrast enhanced Computed Tomography (ceCT). We enrolled 81 patients with ascertained PC, 39 at initial staging and 42 in follow-up; the primary tumor had already been excised in 68 cases. Single Photon emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) images were reconstructed with the iterative method and fused with non-enhanced Computed tomography (CT) images. Primary PC or metastatic lesions were ascertained in 55/81 patients and SPECT/CT was positive in 50/55 cases, while ceCT was positive in 44/55. Comparing SPECT/CT with ceCT results, we found a sensitivity of 96 vs. 87.5%, and specificity of 92% vs. 97% for the detection of primary lesion or recurrent disease. A total of 198 lesions were ascertained at SPECT/CT, while 161 at ceCT, with values of sensitivity and specificity of 85.5% and 84.6% for SRS and 75.2% and 90.5% respectively. (111)In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT proved to be more sensitive and accurate than ceCT, thus enhancing its role in evaluating patients with PC. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Antibodies and isotopes, a chemical approach to tumour targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, A.T.M.; Yankuba, S.C.S.; Anderson, P.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, scandium-47 and yttrium-90 have been used as representatives of potential cytotoxic labels. Both isotopes have a high yield of energetic beta particles and half-lives of the same order as indium-111. In addition they are both members of Group III and so may be used as a base for chemical comparisons in the future with radiotoxic isotopes from other chemical groups

  13. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  14. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  15. TDPAC experiments in 111In-implanted niobium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, M.; Wiarda, D.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Lieb, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    TDPAC measurements were carried out on 111 In-implanted α-Nb 2 O 5 samples at room temperature, after isochronal annealings up to 1270 K in 200 mbar oxygen and up to 1070 K in 10 -5 mbar, respectively. The observed hyperfine interactions were compared to point charge model calculations which predict 15 and 2 equivalent cation sites in α-Nb 2 O 5 and NbO 2 . The data in each system could be reproduced with one antishielding factor β=V zz exp /V zz pc for all sites, i.e. β(Nb 2 O 5 )=19.2 and β(NbO 2 )=31.2, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  17. Isotope studies in brain diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silfverskioeld, B [Department of Neurology, Soedersjukhuset, S-100 64 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1978-09-01

    Serial pictures of cerebral isotope flow and accumulation after intravenous injection provide several kinds of valuable diagnostic information. The reliability can be increased by using computer-processed pictures on a TV screen and by numerical analysis in accordance with paritcular programs constructed for our routine work. An isotope study should be done when computerized transmission tomography scans have failed to provide a conclusive diagnosis. It should then be performed with optimal technique in order to reduce the need of angiograms.

  18. Chronic bacterial osteomyelitis: prospective comparison of 18F-FDG imaging with a dual-head coincidence camera and 111In-labelled autologous leucocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Siefker, U.; Lehmann, K.; Meyer, I.; Schreiber, K.; Altenvoerde, G.; Becker, W.; Liersch, T.

    2002-01-01

    Indium-111-labelled white blood cells ( 111 In-WBCs) are currently considered the tracer of choice in the diagnostic work-up of suspected active chronic osteomyelitis (COM). Previous studies in a limited number of patients, performed with dedicated PET systems, have shown that [ 18 F]2'-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) imaging may offer at least similar diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this prospective study was to compare FDG imaging with a dual-head coincidence camera (DHCC) and 111 In-WBC imaging in patients with suspected COM. Thirty consecutive non-diabetic patients with possible COM underwent combined skeletal scintigraphy (30/30 patients), 111 In-WBC imaging (28/30 patients) and FDG-PET with a DHCC (30/30 patients). During diagnostic work-up, COM was proven in 11/36 regions of suspected skeletal infection and subsequently excluded in 25/36 regions. In addition, soft tissue infection was present in five patients and septic arthritis in three. 111 In-WBC imaging in 28 patients was true positive in 2/11 regions with proven COM and true negative in 21/23 regions without further evidence of COM. False-positive results occurred in two regions and false-negative results in nine regions suspected for COM. Most of the false-negative results (7/9) occurred in the central skeleton. If the analysis was restricted to the 18 regions with available histology (n=17) or culture (n=1), 111 In-WBC imaging was true positive in 2/18 regions, true negative in 8/18 regions, false negative in 7/18 regions and false positive in 1/18 regions. FDG-DHCC imaging was true positive in 11/11 regions with proven COM and true negative in 23/25 regions without further evidence of COM. False-positive results occurred in two regions. If the analysis was restricted to the 19 regions with available histology (n=18) or culture (n=1), FDG-DHCC imaging was true positive in 9/9 regions with proven COM and true negative in 10/10 regions without further evidence of COM. It is concluded that FDG

  19. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC: a new 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceutical for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumours: first clinical results and intra-patient comparison with 111In-labelled octreotide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decristoforo, C.; Cholewinski, W.; Donnemiller, E.; Riccabona, G.; Moncayo, R.

    2000-01-01

    [ 111 In-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid-d-Phe 1 ]-octreotide (DTPA-octreotide) scintigraphy has gained widespread acceptance as a diagnostic clinical procedure in oncology for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. However, indium-111 as a radiolabel has several drawbacks, including limited availability, suboptimal gamma energy and high radiation burden to the patient. We have recently reported on the preclinical development of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC, a new octreotide derivative which showed promising results both in vitro and in vivo. We now report our initial clinical experiences with this new radiopharmaceutical in ten oncological patients. The clinical diagnoses were: carcinoid syndrome (n=5), thyroid cancer (n=3), pancreatic cancer (n=1) and pituitary tumour (n=1). The biodistribution and kinetics of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC were compared with those of 111 In-DTPA-octreotide in six cases, and with those of 111 In-DOTA-TOC in five cases. With the new tracer tumours were imaged within 15 min after injection and showed the highest target/non-target ratios 4 h after injection. Tumour uptake persisted up to 20 h p.i. The rate of blood clearance was similar to that of 111 In-DTPA-octreotide but faster than that of 111 In-DOTA-TOC, while urinary excretion was lower compared with the 111 In derivatives. Semi-quantitative region of interest analysis showed that 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC produced higher tumour/organ (target/non-target) ratios than the 111 In derivatives, especially in relation to heart and muscle. Significantly more lesions could be detected in 99m Tc images. We conclude that 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC shows better imaging properties for the identification of somatostatin receptor-positive tumour sites than currently available 111 In-labelled octreotide derivatives. (orig.)

  20. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC: a new 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceutical for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumours; first clinical results and intra-patient comparison with 111In-labelled octreotide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, C; Mather, S J; Cholewinski, W; Donnemiller, E; Riccabona, G; Moncayo, R

    2000-09-01

    [111In-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid-D-Phe1]-octreotide (DTPA-octreotide) scintigraphy has gained widespread acceptance as a diagnostic clinical procedure in oncology for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. However, indium-111 as a radiolabel has several drawbacks, including limited availability, suboptimal gamma energy and high radiation burden to the patient. We have recently reported on the preclinical development of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC, a new octreotide derivative which showed promising results both in vitro and in vivo. We now report our initial clinical experiences with this new radiopharmaceutical in ten oncological patients. The clinical diagnoses were: carcinoid syndrome (n=5), thyroid cancer (n=3), pancreatic cancer (n=1) and pituitary tumour (n=1). The biodistribution and kinetics of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC were compared with those of 111In-DTPA-octreotide in six cases, and with those of 111In-DOTA-TOC in five cases. With the new tracer tumours were imaged within 15 min after injection and showed the highest target/non-target ratios 4 h after injection. Tumour uptake persisted up to 20 h p.i. The rate of blood clearance was similar to that of 111In-DTPA-octreotide but faster than that of 111In-DOTA-TOC, while urinary excretion was lower compared with the 111In derivatives. Semi-quantitative region of interest analysis showed that 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC produced higher tumour/organ (target/non-target) ratios than the 111In derivatives, especially in relation to heart and muscle. Significantly more lesions could be detected in 99mTc images. We conclude that 99mTcEDDA/HYNIC-TOC shows better imaging properties for the identification of somatostatin receptor-positive tumour sites than currently available 111In-labelled octreotide derivatives.

  1. Camera functional scintiscanning of the kidneys - its significance and value for nuclear-medical renal diagnostics especially in comparison with isotope nephrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibmer, A.

    1982-01-01

    The thesis aimed at demonstrating the significance of functional scintiscanning in comparison with radioisotope nephrography and its informative value in individual kidney disease cases. To this end, 248 functional scintigrams of patients taken from various disease groups and 96 functional scintigrams of non-kidney-diseased persons were evaluated. As against nephrography, functional scintigraphic imaging has the advantage of displaying simultaneously both functional graphs and sequential scintigrams. This allows to asses the morphology, location and function of the non-functioning renal parenchyma and to localize and differentiate dysfunctions which are globally detectable in RIN, at a low patient exposure and within one single examination. ''Region-of-Interest'' selection in functional scintiscanning allows an exact demonstration of the kidneys which results in new normal values for the functional parameters. Owing to its case in handling and very low level of patient exposure, functional scintiscanning lends itself to an orientational examination of large patient groups, to an examination of severely ill patients without putting too much strain of them and to follow-up of all nephropathies. It even provides some information in renal insufficiency where other methods fail. However, functional scintiscanning appears to be inappropriate as a diagnostic method in inflammatory processes, hypertension and renal artery stenoses. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Improvement in the 111In-DTPA-TYR3-octreotide and 177Lu-DOTATYR3- octreotate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriano A.; Herrerias, Rosana; Pires, Jose A.; Alves, Geraldo P.; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Almeida, Erika V.; Mengatti, Jair; Barboza, Marycel F. de

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in receptor mediated-tumor imaging have resulted in the development of somatostatin analogues, the biomolecular basis for the clinical use of these compounds in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). PRRT is a very good therapeutic option for patients with metastatic neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumour. Clinical studies with different sst-positives tumors proved advantages of [ 177 Lu-DOTA-Tyr 3 ]octreotate (DOTATATE) for therapy. The aim of this work is to establish and validate the labeling, the quality control procedures of DTPA-Tyr 3 -Octreotide (DTPA-Oct) and DOTA-Tyr 3 -Octreotate (DOTATATE) labeled with In-111 and Lu-177, respectively, for routine production at Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) Brazil. Labeling were performed in a 'glove-box' using 111 InCl 3 (Nordion) and in hot-cell with 177 LuCl 3 (IDB-Holland) at pH 4.5; using DTPA-Oct (Pichem) and DOTATATE (IDBHolland) at room temperature and at 82-85 deg C for 30 minutes, respectively. The radiochemical purity was determined by ITLC-SG in 0.1 mol L -1 sodium citrate, pH 5.5 and by Sep-Pak silica cartridge. Sterility was performed by the microbiology procedures and pyrogen tests by the 'in-vitro' Limulus test (LAL). The stability of both radiolabeled peptides was high even 72 hours under refrigeration. The radiochemical purities of the labeled compounds were confirmed by HPLC. Sterility and pyrogen tests were negative in all delivered vials. The efficient procedure to obtain 111 In-DTPA-Oct and 177 Lu-DOTATATE was confirmed in the first comparative clinical groups. The methods were validated and 46.287 GMBq of 111 In-DTPA-Oct and 1,193 GBq of 177 Lu-DOTATATE were distributed in 2008, to nuclear medicine services in Brazil. (author)

  3. Evaluation of /sup 111/In leukocyte whole body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-11-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with /sup 111/In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  4. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride ( 111 In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific. (author)

  5. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Masayasu; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1977-01-01

    111 In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  6. Evaluation of 111In leukocyte whole body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with 111 In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  7. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  8. Comparison of biological properties of 111In-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Yang, Yong; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study two 111 In-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides, 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) and 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ), were evaluated as radiotracers for breast tumor imaging. The objective was to evaluate the impact of SAA, PEG 2 and 1,2,3-triazole linkers as compare to PEG 4 on the tumor uptake and excretion kinetics of 111 In radiotracers. Methods: DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 was prepared by conjugation of Galacto-RGD 2 with DOTA-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine. Its integrin α v β 3 binding affinity was determined using a whole-cell displacement assay against 125 I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells, and was compared with those of c(RGDfK), DOTA-3P-RGD 2 and DOTA-3P-RGK 2 (a nonsense peptide conjugate with “scrambled” RGK sequences). 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) and 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) were prepared and evaluated for their tumor-targeting capability and biodistribution properties in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 breast tumor xenografts. Planar imaging studies were performed to demonstrate the utility of 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) and 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) for breast tumor imaging. Results: IC 50 values of DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 , DOTA-3P-RGD 2 , and DOTA-3P-RGK 2 were calculated to be 27 ± 2, 29 ± 4, 596 ± 48 nM, respectively. The tumor uptake values of 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) (6.79 ± 0.98, 6.56 ± 0.56, 4.17 ± 0.61 and 1.09 ± 0.13 %ID/g at 1, 4, 24 and 72 hours p.i., respectively) were almost identical to those of 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) (6.17 ± 1.65, 5.94 ± 0.84, 3.40 ± 0.50 and 0.99 ± 0.20 %ID/g, respectively). 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) had a faster clearance from blood and muscle than 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ), leading to higher tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios. 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) had lower liver uptake and better tumor/liver ratios than 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ). The tumor uptake of 111 In(DOTA-Galacto-RGD 2 ) and 111 In(DOTA-3P-RGD 2 ) was both integrin α v β 3 and RGD-specific. Imaging data suggest

  9. Biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 111}In-DOTA-NOC-ATE compared with {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubaker, Ariane; Prior, John O.; Champendal, Melanie; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika [Lausanne University Hospital, CHUV, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Willi, Jean-Pierre [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Kosinski, Marek; Baechler, Sebastien [Lausanne University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Ginj, Mihaela [University Health Network, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Buchegger, Franz [Lausanne University Hospital, CHUV, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    The biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 111}In-DOTA-NOC-ATE (NOCATE), a high-affinity ligand of SSTR-2 and SSTR-5, and {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide (Octreoscan trademark, OCTREO) were compared in the same patients. Seventeen patients (10 men, 7 women; mean age 60 years), referred for an OCTREO scan for imaging of a neuroendocrine tumour (15), thymoma (1) or medullary thyroid carcinoma (1), agreed to undergo a second study with NOCATE. Whole-body anterior-posterior scans were recorded 0.5 (100 % reference scan), 4, 24 and 48 h (17 patients) and 120 h (5 patients) after injection. In 16 patients the OCTREO scan (178 {+-} 15 MBq) was performed 16 {+-} 5 days before the NOCATE scan (108 {+-} 14 MBq) with identical timing; 1 patient had the NOCATE scan before the OCTREO scan. Blood samples were obtained from 14 patients 5 min to 48 h after injection. Activities expressed as percent of the initial (reference) activity in the whole body, lung, kidney, liver, spleen and blood were fitted to biexponential or single exponential functions. Dosimetry was performed using OLINDA/EXM. Initial whole-body, lung and kidney activities were similar, but retention of NOCATE was higher than that of OCTREO. Liver and spleen uptakes of NOCATE were higher from the start (p < 0.001) and remained so over time. Whole-body activity showed similar {alpha} and {beta} half-lives, but the {beta} fraction of NOCATE was double that of OCTREO. Blood T{sub 1/2}{beta} for NOCATE was longer (19 vs. 6 h). As a result, the effective dose of NOCATE (105 {mu}Sv/MBq) exceeded that of OCTREO (52 {mu}Sv/MBq), and the latter result was similar to the ICRP 106 value of 54 {mu}Sv/MBq. Differential activity measurement in blood cells and plasma showed an average of <5 % of NOCATE and OCTREO attached to globular blood components. NOCATE showed a slower clearance from normal tissues and its effective dose was roughly double that of OCTREO. (orig.)

  10. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  12. Positive /sup 111/In-granulocyte scintigraphy in a patient with focal leukemic blast cell infiltrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrjaelae, M; Remes, K; Paavonen, T; Liewendahl, K

    1985-06-01

    A patient with acute myeloid leukemia was investigated with /sup 111/In-granulocyte scintigraphy to reveal possible sites of infection. /sup 111/In-granulocytes accumulated in areas of leukemia blast cell infiltration leading to a false-positive scintigram. This possibility must be kept in mind when studying leukemic patients using labeled leukocytes.

  13. Functional alterations of human platelets following 111In labeling with different ligands and incubation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Masayuki; Isaka, Yoshinori; Kimura, Kazutumi

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of various 111 In-water soluble chelates and incubation media on labeling efficiency of platelets and in vitro platelet aggregability. High labeling efficiency of platelets in ACD-saline was achieved with 111 In-oxine sulfate, 111 In-tropolone and 111 In-MPO (2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide). In the condition with 4.8 x 10 6 /mm 3 platelets in ACD-plasma, 111 In-oxine-sulfate had low labeling efficiency and inconsistent labeling, while 111 In-tropolone and 111 In-MPO had high labeling efficiency. In vitro platelet aggregability (ADP 2μM) was reduced when platelets were labeled in the absence of plasma. However, there was no significant difference in platelet aggregability among 111 In-platelets labeled by three different chelates. In conclusion, to maintain aggregation activity of the platelets with relatively high labeling efficiency, the best result was obtained by using MPO or tropolone chelate in plasma at 4.8 x 10 6 /μl platelet concentration. (author)

  14. Adverse reactions (aseptic meningitis) from 111In--DTPA cisternographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, V.; White, D.; Bank, M.

    1975-01-01

    Cisternographic examinations have become a relatively common procedure in the evaluation of patients with suspected communicating hydrocephalus. Adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are relatively uncommon, particularly with the commonly used agents such as 111 In-DTPA and 169 -DTPA. Adverse reactions after lumbar intrathecal instillation of 111 In-DTPA in three patients are described. (U.S.)

  15. Localization of indium-111 in human malignant tumor xenografts and control by chelators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo; Inoue, Tomio; Tanada, Shuji; Murata, Hajime; Kim, E. Edmund; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of soluble indium-111 ( 111 In) in human malignant tumor xenografts and cells was investigated in combination with chelators. Firstly, without chelator, the kinetics of 111 In-chloride was investigated in vitro and in vivo using four human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-MC, pulmonary papillary adenocarcinoma NCI-H441, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma PC 9, and colon adenocarcinoma LS 180 cells and xenografts. 111 In was incorporated into tumor cells in vitro to a maximum level during a 60-min incubation. A maximum level of radioactivity was demonstrated in vivo in four human malignant tumors xenografted into nude mice at 24 h postinjection of 111 In-chloride. Secondly, the effect of edetate calcium disodium (CaNa 2 EDTA) on radioactivity in 111 In-labeled tumors xenografts and cells was studied in vitro and in vivo. CaNa 2 EDTA significantly reduced 111 In-activity from the labeled tumor xenografts, whereas it had no affect on the radioactivity in the labeled cells. Thirdly, the effect of CaNa 2 EDTA on radioactivity in human malignant tumors xenografted into nude mice injected with 111 In-chloride was investigated. In one group of mice CaNa 2 EDTA administered intraperitoneally at 1, 22, 34, 46, 58, and 70 h after injection of 111 In-chloride (postadministration), the localization of 111 In at the tumors was significantly decreased at 72 h compared with the control in all four tumor types. In the other group of mice, CaNa 2 EDTA administered intraperitoneally at 12 and 1 h before injection of 111 In-chloride and 1, 22, 34, 46, 58, and 70 h postinjection (pre- and postadministration), the radioactivity of tumors was also significantly decreased at 72 h, and the reduction was greater than that with use of postadministration. In a comparative study, CaNa 3 DTPA had a more powerful effect than CaNa 2 EDTA. In conclusion, 111 In-activity in tumors consists of intracellular and extracellular components, and the extracellular 111 In may be cleared by

  16. A novel method for selective separation of {sup 111}In from impurities by ion exchange chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavari, R.; Khanachi, A.R.; Ghannad Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, G. [Jaber Ibn-e Hayan Research Laboratories, A.E.O.I., Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    {sup 111}In is one of the most important cyclotron-produced radionuclides that is prepared from nuclear reactions like Cd (p,xn){sup 111}In and Cd (d,xn) {sup 111}In. It is used in various branches of medicine such as lymphoscintigraphy and cisternography. Several methods have been reported in the literature for the separation of carrier-free {sup 111}In from irradiated cadmium matrix. But there has not been a sufficiently fast method for this purpose until recently. In this work, a new method has been developed for the separation of {sup 111}In from a cadmium target by using Dowex 50W-X8 as an ion exchanger. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of simultaneous 99mTc-HMPAO and 111In oxine labelled white cell scans in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.A.; Bassingham, S.; Lazarus, C.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fogelman, I.; Sladen, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Forty-seven patients, 29 with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 18 with presumed irritable bowel syndrome, including one with uncomplicated diverticular disease, were studied with simultaneous technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and indium-III oxine labelled leucocyte scans performed at 1, 3 and 24 h. Twenty-seven patients with IBD had active disease as judged by clinical and laboratory criteria and all of these had positive scans with both agents. No false positive studies were obtained. The 1-h 99m Tc-HMPAO WBC scans showed the same distribution to disease as the 3-h 111 -In WBC scans, with no difference in intensity (P 111 -In scans. The 3-h 99m Tc-HMPAO WBC scans showed more extensive disease (P 111 In WBC scans. Physiological bowel activity on 3-h 99m Tc-HMPAO WBC scans was present in 12 patients but was faint and did not interfere with assessment of disease extent and activity. It is concluded that in terms of isotope availability, radiation dosimetry and image quality, 99m Tc-HMPAO is the agent of choice in detecting active IBD, with localization of disease possible at 1-h after re-injection and optimal resolution and definition of disease extent at 3 h. A negative scan reliably excludes active disease. (orig.)

  18. The use of 111In-labelled platelets for scintigraphic localization of gastrointestinal bleeding with special reference to occult bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjerloeff Schmidt, K.; Waever Rasmussen, J.; Grove, O.; Andersen, D.

    1986-01-01

    Gamma-camera imaging of the abdomen after injection of autologous 111 In-labelled platelets was applied for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding in a study of 22 patients. In 15 studies showing scintigraphic signs of bleeding, the clinical presentation included occult bleeding in 6, melaena in 4, and bloody stools in 5 patients. Scintigraphy could be done repeatedly for up to 1 week after a single tracer injection. The time interval between the injection and scintigraphic visualization of bleeding ranged from 10 min to 68 h, being longest in cases of occult bleeding. In most cases the scintigraphic findings were supported by other diagnostic modalities, including surgical removal of presumed sources of bleeding. In seven studies without scintigraphic signs of bleeding, a probable source of bleeding was identified by other means in one patient. The 111 In-platelet method seems to be a promising method for localization of gastrointestinal bleeding which may prove particularly useful in cases of occult or recurrent bleeding

  19. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  20. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  1. Detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions using {sup 111}In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic bicyclic anhydride-IgG ({sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG) scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Tomohiro; Goto, Hajime; Wada, Hiroo; Yuasa, Kazumi; Iguchi, Mari; Okamura, Tatsuru; Ieki, Ryuji; Suzuki, Kenzo [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome General Hospital (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The utility of {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG imaging for the detection of intrathoracic lesions was evaluated in 10 patients with the suspicion of inflammatory or infectious diseases. They were intravenously administered 40 or 80 MBq of {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG, and scanned after 24 or 48 hours. Of these, 8 cases, consisted of 4 cases with pneumonia and 2 cases with lung abscess and one case of pulmonary tuberculosis and one of a tuberculous pleuritis, showed true positive results. Others were one false negative case of pneumonia and one true negative case of lung cancer. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. There were no cases which showed side effects or abnormal laboratory findings caused by the radiopharmaceuticals administered. Thus, {sup 111}In-DTPA-IgG imaging is a useful tool for the detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions. (author)

  2. Detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions using 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic bicyclic anhydride-IgG (111In-DTPA-IgG) scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomohiro; Goto, Hajime; Wada, Hiroo; Yuasa, Kazumi; Iguchi, Mari; Okamura, Tatsuru; Ieki, Ryuji; Suzuki, Kenzo

    1998-01-01

    The utility of 111 In-DTPA-IgG imaging for the detection of intrathoracic lesions was evaluated in 10 patients with the suspicion of inflammatory or infectious diseases. They were intravenously administered 40 or 80 MBq of 111 In-DTPA-IgG, and scanned after 24 or 48 hours. Of these, 8 cases, consisted of 4 cases with pneumonia and 2 cases with lung abscess and one case of pulmonary tuberculosis and one of a tuberculous pleuritis, showed true positive results. Others were one false negative case of pneumonia and one true negative case of lung cancer. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. There were no cases which showed side effects or abnormal laboratory findings caused by the radiopharmaceuticals administered. Thus, 111 In-DTPA-IgG imaging is a useful tool for the detection of intrathoracic infectious lesions. (author)

  3. Isotope angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinska, J.; Ruzyllo, W.; Konieczny, W.

    1979-01-01

    Method of technetium isotope 99 m pass through the heart recording with the aid of radioisotope scanner connected with seriograph and computer is being presented. Preliminary tests were carried out in 26 patients with coronary disease without or with previous myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, ventricular septal defect and in patients with artificial mitral and aortic valves. The obtained scans were evaluated qualitatively and compared with performed later contrast X-rays of the heart. Size of the right ventricle, volume and rate of left atrial evacuation, size and contractability of left ventricle were evaluated. Similarity of direct and isotope angiocardiographs, non-invasional character and repeatability of isotope angiocardiography advocate its usefulness. (author)

  4. Isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Gil, C.; Louvet, P.

    1986-10-01

    The principle of the process of isotopic separation by ionic cyclotron resonance is explained succinctly. The theoretical calculation of the isotopic effect is given as functions of the electric and magnetic fields in the frame of single particle approximation and of plasma collective theory. Then, the main parts of the demonstration device which is in operation at the CEA, are described here: the supraconducting magnetic field, the used diagnostics, the principle of the source and the collecting apparatus. Some experimental results are given for chromium. The application of the process to ponderal separation of metal isotopes, as chromium, nickel and molybdenum is discussed in view of production of medical, structural and irradiation isotopes

  5. Leatherback Isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  6. Isotope Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  7. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  8. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  9. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  10. Body surface dosimetry following re-injection of 111In-leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Coakley, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dose to a young infant cared for by a parent re-injected with 111 In-leucocytes was estimated from the exposure of thermoluminescent dosimeters at five sites on the chest wall of eight patients. The UK Guidance Notes recommend that patients with a residual activity exceeding 20 MBq of 111 In should avoid non-essential contact with children. The results confirmed those of an earlier preliminary study which showed that re-injection of 20 MBq of 111 In-leucocytes to a parent could lead to a close contact dose greater than 1 mSv. It was concluded that the 111 In-leucocyte activity administered to a parent of a young infant should not exceed 10 MBq. (author)

  11. Study of the 111In-DTPA complex by the electromigration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.I.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Filossofov, D.V.; Maslov, O.D.; Milanov, M.V.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Bontchev, G.D.

    2002-01-01

    The electrophoretic behavior of the 111 In-DTPA radiopharmaceutical has been investigated. The stability constant, diffusion coefficient and effective charge of the complex as well as the temperature dependence of the electrophoretic mobility were determined

  12. 111In autologous leucocytes in the diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Peters, A.M.; Reavy, H.J.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.; Chadwick, V.S.; Hodgson, H.J.; Lavender, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    111 In-labelled leucocytes were used to obtain gamma camera images of inflamed of bowel in a wide variety of inflammatory bowel disease. No false positive scans were observed in the irritable bowel syndrome and in bowel malignancy. All patients with moderate or severely active disease had positive scans. Faecal excretion of 111 Indium increased with disease severity. 111 In-tropolone labelling appeared to offer the advantage over 111 In-acac labelling in localising inflamed bowel earlier. In many cases the bowel was imaged within 40 min of re-injection of the leucocytes. 111 In-leucocyte scanning provides a novel approach to the problem of diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is non-invasive, requires no bowel preparation and thus is safe in the acutely sick patient where conventional radiological imaging methods may be hazardous. 111 Indium faecal excretion provides an objective assessment of disease activity which should prove useful in evaluating treatment regimes

  13. Autologous /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled granulocytes in Yersinia infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Boerner, W.; Fischbach, W.

    1985-04-01

    Autologous /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled granulocytes have proved to be valuable for the localization of inflammatory bowel diseases, especially Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Other rare inflammatory bowel diseases also yield positive /sup 111/In scans. One case of Yersinia infection of the terminal ileum (Yersinia enterocolitica) showing an accumulation of /sup 111/In-oxine-labeled granulocytes 0.5, 4, and 24 h after the reinjection of the labeled cells is described. The 4-day fecal excretion of /sup 111/In-oxine granulocytes showed a slight inflammatory activity of the terminal ileum. One negative scan is reported in a cotrimoxazole-treated patient with Yersinia infection.

  14. Comparative study on lysosomal accumulation of 67Ga and 111In in Morris hepatoma 7316A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Uchida, T.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1977-01-01

    Intracellular localization of 67 Ga and 111 In was investigated in Morris hepatoma 7316A and in normal Buffalo rat liver cells by a cell fractionation method at 48 hr after an intraperitoneal injection of the nuclides. Lysosomal fractions of the tumor and normal liver cells had the highest relative specific radioactivities of the nuclides (p 67 Ga (p 67 Ga seemed to indicate that 67 Ga determines lysosomal functions of tumor cells more precisely than 111 In

  15. Metal decomposition rates or 111In-DPTA and EDTA conjugates of monoclonal antibodies in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, D.A.; McTigue, M.; Chaovapong, W.; Meares, C.F.; McCall, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the metal chelate decomposition rates in vivo in both 111 In-labelled benzyl EDTA and DTPA (bicyclic anhydride) conjugates of monoclonal anti-IAsup(k) IgG2a with identical Kα = 1 x 10 11 M -1 in both Ag + ve and Ag -ve mice. Twenty μCi was given i.v. and whole body counting done immediately and daily for 10 days. Half the mice in each group received i.p. injections of 5.0 mg CaNa 2 EDTA chase (Versenate) to facilitate urinary excretion of free 111 In. 50% of control 111 In-citrate remained at nine days but only 8% with chase. No significant loss of 111 In with chase occurred with C 1 substituted EDTA conjugates. A 19% increase in excretion was demonstrated with the chase in mice give DTPA conjugates (1.9% per day). While this will not interfere with radioimmunoimaging up to 24 h after injection, waiting periods of a week or longer will produce significant background of free 111 In in the reticuloendothelial system, RES. 111 In-EDTA stability was important in accurate metabolic rate measurements of anti-IAsup(k); T1/2 = 7.0 days in Ag-ve mice, T1/2 = 9.3 days in Ag-ve mice. (author)

  16. /sup 111/In autologous leucocytes in the diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. [Tropolone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Peters, A.M.; Chadwick, V.S.; Hodgson, H.J.; Lavender, J.P. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-01-01

    Indium-111 autologous leukocyte scanning is now established as an effective method of localising sepsis (Ascher and others, 1980). In view of the extensive leucocyte infiltration of the intestinal wall in inflammatory bowel disease, the authors have prospectively studied the use of indium-111 labelled white cells in a variety of inflammatory bowel disorders. Leukocytes were labelled in 68 patients using /sup 111/In acetylacetonate and in 18 patients /sup 111/In tropolone. Crude mixed leukocytes preparations were used in 74 patients and pure neutrophil preparation used in 12 patients. Gamma scans over the abdomen were performed from 40 min later after re-injection of the labelled cells and assessed. /sup 111/In-tropolone labelling appeared to offer the advantage over /sup 111/In-acac labelling in localising inflamed bowel earlier. The technique of /sup 111/In-leukocyte scanning offers several advantages over the alternative technique of imaging diseased bowel using gallium-67 citrate. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning provides a novel approach to the problem of diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is non-invasive, requires no bowel preparation and this is safe in the acutely sick patient where conventional radiological imaging methods may be hazardous. /sup 111/In faecal excretion provides an objective assessment of disease activity which should prove useful in evaluating treatment regimes.

  17. The distribution of a new /sup 111/In-Bleomycin complex in tumor cells by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, D.Y.; Maruyama, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A new radioactive form of Bleomycin (/sup 111/In-BLMC) was effective for tumor imaging and therapy in mouse glioma and human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. The distribution of drug in tumor cells was investigated by autoradiography. Human small cell lung cancer (N417 and H526, NCI) were exposed to /sup 111/ InCl/sub 3/ and (25-150 μCi/ml) or /sup 111/In-BLMC (25-150 μCi) carried by 15-25 μg BLM/ml) in 37 0 C for 1 hr, 3 hr or 24 hr, washed with fresh medium, and spread. The slides were smeared with NTB/sub 2/ or NTB/sub 3/ emulsion by using wet-mounting or dry-mounting technique and developed 3-14 days. The /sup 111/In-BLMC localized on the cell nucleus (47.8%) and nuclear membrane (29.2%); /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ located mainly in the cytoplasm (45.8%). This indicates that the mechanism of killing of tumor cells may be related to the drug uptake and distribution of /sup 111/In-BLMC. A nuclear and nuclear membrane localization would favor damage to chromosomes and DNA

  18. In vivo characterization of the novel CD44v6-targeting Fab fragment AbD15179 for molecular imaging of squamous cell carcinoma: a dual-isotope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region (HNSCC) offer a diagnostic challenge due to difficulties to detect small tumours and metastases. Imaging methods available are not sufficient, and radio-immunodiagnostics could increase specificity and sensitivity of diagnostics. The objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the in vivo properties of the radiolabelled CD44v6-targeting fragment AbD15179 and to assess its utility as a targeting agent for radio-immunodiagnostics of CD44v6-expressing tumours. Methods The fully human CD44v6-targeting Fab fragment AbD15179 was labelled with 111In or 125I, as models for radionuclides suitable for imaging with SPECT or PET. Species specificity, antigen specificity and internalization properties were first assessed in vitro. In vivo specificity and biodistribution were then evaluated in tumour-bearing mice using a dual-tumour and dual-isotope setup. Results Both species-specific and antigen-specific binding of the conjugates were demonstrated in vitro, with no detectable internalization. The in vivo studies demonstrated specific tumour binding and favourable tumour targeting properties for both conjugates, albeit with higher tumour uptake, slower tumour dissociation, higher tumour-to-blood ratio and higher CD44v6 sensitivity for the 111In-labelled fragment. In contrast, the 125I-Fab demonstrated more favourable tumour-to-organ ratios for liver, spleen and kidneys. Conclusions We conclude that AbD15179 efficiently targets CD44v6-expressing squamous cell carcinoma xenografts, and particularly, the 111In-Fab displayed high and specific tumour uptake. CD44v6 emerges as a suitable target for radio-immunodiagnostics, and a fully human antibody fragment such as AbD15179 can enable further clinical imaging studies. PMID:24598405

  19. Basic study of platelet labeling with 111In-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, Tokuo; Uchida, Tatsumi; Matsuda, Shin; Muroi, Shuichi; Tanaka, Tetsugoro

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-oxine has recently been suggested as a new isotopic labeling agent of platelets. In this paper, the results on the investigation of in vitro labeling of human platelets with In-111-oxine and those of platelet kinetics in rats are presented. Based on the findings of those studies, the protocol of human platelet labeling with In-111-oxine for clinical use was established. All operations should be carried out with sterile techniques at 20 - 25 0 C. 1) Forty four ml venous blood is drawn into a 50 ml polystyrene syringe containing 6 ml ACD-A. 2) The blood is transferred to a 50 ml tube and centrifuged at 300 g for 15 min. 3) Supernatant platelet rich plasma (PRP) is transferred to other 50 ml tube. Then, the pH is adjusted to 6.5 by addition of 1 ml ACD-A per 20 ml PRP. 4) Platelets are sedimented by centrifuging at 1,500 g for 15 min and resuspended in 3 ml ACD-A-saline solution (pH 6.5). 5) Three hundreds μCi of In-111-oxine is added to the platelet suspension. The mixture is incubated for 20 min at room temperature. 6) About 15 ml of the platelet poor autologous plasma (PPP) is added into the incubated mixture, followed by the sedimentation of labeled platelets (1,500 g, 15 min). 7) The labeled platelets are suspended in 10 ml PPP and the contaminating red cells are sedimented by centrifuging at 200 g for 5 min. 8) One hundred and fifty μCi of labeled platelet suspension is injected to the patient intravenously. The labeling efficiency in this method was 62 +- 5% (mean +- 1S.D., n = 6). (author)

  20. Diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy by 111In-transferrin scanning and fecal excretion test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urita, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    A total of 12 patients with gastroenteropathy were studied for possible protein loss. The underlying diseases were intestinal lymphangiectasia, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in 2 patients each; and Menetrier's disease, Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, postgastrectomy syndrome, severe atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer and gastroenteropathy of unknown origin in one patient each. The controls were four healthy volunteers and 9 patients with benign disease not accompanied by lesions in the digestive tract and protein loss, 111 In-transferrin (Tf) was prepared by incubating 2-3 mCi of 111 In-chloride with 15-20 ml of each patient's plasma in a sterilized vial at room temperature for 1 hour. After i.v. injection of 111 In-Tf, the patients were scanned at given intervals of time for 72 hours to localize protein loss. Seventy-two hour fecal 111 In-Tf excretion was also measured. 111 In-Tf was detected in the feces of all patients. The recovery rate in the patient group was 7.95±3.65%, being significantly higher than 0.48±0.26% in the control group. However, 111 In-Tf scanning showed the site of protein loss only in 6 patients. Negative scan in six other patients was thought to be associated with extensive inflammation and severe diarrhea. Five of the 12 patients were observed before and after treatment. A decrease in fecal 111 In-Tf excretion with clinical improvement was noted in the 5 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss could be demonstrated in 3 of the 5 patients before treatment. Its site in 1 of the 3 patients was the small intestine. However, accumulation of 111 In-Tf was found there in the 3 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss in one of three patients was the small intestine. 111 In-Tf scanning is particularly useful when the small intestine is involved, because surgery is contraindicated in this case. Fecal 111 In-Tf excretion test is mandatory when the site of protein loss cannot be imaged. (author)

  1. Isotopes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairiki, J.M.; Browne, E.; Firestone, R.B.; Lederer, C.M.; Shirley, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Isotopes Project compiles and evaluates nuclear structure and decay data and disseminates these data to the scientific community. From 1940-1978 the Project had as its main objective the production of the Table of Isotopes. Since publication of the seventh (and last) edition in 1978, the group now coordinates its nuclear data evaluation efforts with those of other data centers via national and international nuclear data networks. The group is currently responsible for the evaluation of mass chains A = 167-194. All evaluated data are entered into the International Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and are published in Nuclear Data Sheets. In addition to the evaluation effort, the Isotopes Project is responsible for production of the Radioactivity Handbook

  2. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  3. Development of a new method for 111In production through the irradiation of Cd with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lion, Luciana Farias de

    2002-01-01

    111 In (t 1/2 = 2,83 d) has favourable characteristics for its use in Nuclear Medicine and it is one of radioisotopes of interest of Brazilian physicians. 111 In decays 100% by electron capture with emission of gamma rays of 171.28 and 245.38 keV that are in the maximum detection range of equipment used for diagnosis. 111 In has been broadly used in molecules labelling such as monoclonal antibodies and peptides for tumour localization. A new method of 111 In production was developed through the irradiation of Cd with protons. The chosen nuclear reaction, 112 Cd(p,2n) 11l n, has suitable yields for a routine production by using an enriched Cd target. This work was done with natural Cd targets that were prepared by electroplating of CdS0 4 solution in a copper/nickel backing. The irradiations were made at CV-28 and Cyclone 30 Cyclotrons at IPEN-CNEN/SP Chemical separation was performed by thermal diffusion technique in which the irradiated targets were heated up to 300 deg C. Then, the irradiated targets were immersed in acetic acid for extraction of 111 In and the collected solution was purified in anionic resin. The final solution of 111 In presented appropriated chemical and radionuclidic purities for its use in Nuclear Medicine, 114m In (t 1/2 = 49.5 d) was the main radionuclide impurity produced by activation of natural Cd, This work presents a new method for production of 111 In, where the chemical separation was done by a non-destructive technique of the target that can be easily automated and finally, it has purities and yields suitable for routine production at IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  4. Preliminary clinical evaluation of Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (SRS) with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TATE in comparison to 111In-Octreoscan and 131 I MIBG scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubalewska, A.; Fross, K.; Staszczak, A.; Huszno, B.; Mikolajczak, R.; Gorska, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Over expression of somatostatin receptors in various neuroendocrine tumours prompted development of somatostatin analogues, which after radioactive labelling, could be used in oncological diagnostics. Somatostatin Receptor Positive Tumour (Spt) imaging with 111In-DTPA-DPhe1- octreotide (111In-Octreoscan) has become a widely used diagnostic procedure in clinical nuclear medicine. However 111In as a radiolabel has several drawbacks, including limited availability, sub optimal gamma energy and high radiation burden to the patient. Technetium (99mTc) labelling of somatostatin analogues is especially attractive due to the ready availability of 99mTc from generators and its well recognised favourable imaging characteristics. HYNIC conjugated Tyr 3 -Octreotate (HYNIC-TATE) prepared in our laboratory in a dry kit form was labelled with technetium-99mTc, with tricine and EDDA used as coligands. Tyr3-octreotate differs from octreotide (OC) by more hydrophilic tyrosine in the third position and the terminal threonine, which replaced threoninol present in OC. In vitro studies using cell lines transfected with somatostatin receptors (SSTR) revealed that octreotate shows 14- 17 times better binding affinity for SSTR type 2 than does OC. It is expected to clear more rapidly from non-target tissues as a result of the carboxylic group at the C-terminal of the peptide. HYNIC has been used as bifunctional chelator in 99mTc-HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (TOC) by Maecke and Behe, who reported on its favourable preclinical characteristics when EDDA was used as a co-ligand. These pre-clinical data were confirmed by Decristoforo and Mather and their early clinical studies appeared recently. The new radiopharmaceutical - 99mTc-DDA/HYNICTATE was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo in an animal model and its potential for SSTR scintigraphy was documented. In the current patient study the diagnostic usefulness of the new radiopharmaceutical was tested for detection of tumours expressing SSTR

  5. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  6. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  7. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1

  8. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  9. In vivo assessment of 111In-labeled hematoporphyrin derivative in breast tumor-bearing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.W.; Mandal, Ashis; Brown, Jerry; Reese, I.C.; Siegler, Richard; Hyman, Shigeyo

    1989-01-01

    The biological behavior of 111 In-labeled HPD has been investigated in tumor-bearing animals. Mice mammary adenocarcinomas and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracine induced breast tumors in Sprague-Dawley female rats were clearly visualized by 111 In-HPD nuclear scintigraphy. Optimal scans were obtained after a 48 h delay. In normal and tumor-bearing animals, the highest uptake of 111 In-HPD 72 h post-injection was found in the liver, the spleen and the kidneys. Depending on the size and the extent of necrosis, the uptake of 111 In-HPD by malignant breast tumors varied from 2.5% injected dose (ID) in mice to 1% ID in rats. Benign breast tumor uptake of 111 In-HPD was less than 1% ID. No significant amount of the radiopharmaceutical was found in pulmonary abscesses and abdominal cysts. Scintigrams of these infectious or inflammatory lesions were normal. Malignant tumor to blood, heart and lung ratios averaged 50:1, 10:1 and 3:1 respectively. Tumor to brain ratio ranged from 72 to 444:1. (author)

  10. 99Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes: comparison with 111In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; Roddie, M.E.; Zacharopoulos, G.P.; George, P.; Stuttle, A.W.J.; Lavender, J.P.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.

    1988-01-01

    The lipophilic complex, 99 Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is an efficient leucocyte label, and labels granulocytes with more stability than mononuclear leucocytes. The recovery of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO granulocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes isolated and labelled in plasma using tropolone. The Tsub(1/2) of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled granulocytes in blood was less than that of 111 In-labelled granulocytes. The initial biodistribution of 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled leucocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes, with a rapid initial lung transit, prominent splenic activity, bone marrow activity and minimal hepatic activity, although, unlike 111 In, 99 Tcsup(m) activity was also seen in urine, occasionally in the gallbladder, and, from about 4 h, consistently in the colon. Bone marrow activity was particularly prominent with 99 Tcsup(m). About 6% of 99 Tcsup(m) was excreted in the faeces up to 48 h after injection, and about 17% in urine up to 24 h. The time-activity curves of reticuloendothelial activity up to 24 h were broadly similar for the two labelled cell preparations. Clinical information given by the two agents was similar in 27 of 30 patients who received both. We conclude that with respect to granulocyte kinetics and clinical data, 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes are comparable with 111 In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes. (author)

  11. 111In-labeled nonspecific immunoglobulin scanning in the detection of focal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Keech, F.; Ahmad, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    We performed radionuclide scanning after the intravenous injection of human IgG labeled with indium-111 in 128 patients with suspected focal sites of inflammation. Localization of 111In-labeled IgG correlated with clinical findings in 51 infected patients (21 with abdominal or pelvic infections, 11 with intravascular infections, 7 with pulmonary infections, and 12 with skeletal infections). Infecting organisms included gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. No focal localization of 111In-labeled IgG was observed in 63 patients without infection. There were five false negative results, and nine results were unusable. Serial scans were carried out in eight patients: continued localization correctly predicted relapse in six, and the absence of localization indicated resolution in two. To determine whether 111In-labeled IgG localization was specific for inflammation, we studied 16 patients with cancer. Focal localization occurred in 13 of these patients (5 with melanomas, 5 with gynecologic cancers, and 1 each with lymphoma, prostate cancer, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma). No localization was seen in patients with renal or colon cancer or metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. We conclude that 111In-labeled IgG imaging is effective for the detection of focal infection and that serial scans may be useful in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This technique may also be helpful in the evaluation of certain cancers

  12. Comparison of simultaneous [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO and [sup 111]In oxine labelled white cell scans in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, R.A.; Bassingham, S.; Lazarus, C.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fogelman, I. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Sladen, G.E. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1993-03-01

    Forty-seven patients, 29 with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 18 with presumed irritable bowel syndrome, including one with uncomplicated diverticular disease, were studied with simultaneous technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and indium-III oxine labelled leucocyte scans performed at 1, 3 and 24 h. Twenty-seven patients with IBD had active disease as judged by clinical and laboratory criteria and all of these had positive scans with both agents. No false positive studies were obtained. The 1-h [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO WBC scans showed the same distribution to disease as the 3-h [sup 111]-In WBC scans, with no difference in intensity (P<0.92); they showed more extensive disease (P<0.02) and more intense uptake (P<0.001) than did the 1-h [sup 111]-In scans. The 3-h [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO WBC scans showed more extensive disease (P<0.002), with greater intensity (P<0.0005), than did the 3-h [sup 111]In WBC scans. Physiological bowel activity on 3-h [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO WBC scans was present in 12 patients but was faint and did not interfere with assessment of disease extent and activity. It is concluded that in terms of isotope availability, radiation dosimetry and image quality, [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO is the agent of choice in detecting active IBD, with localization of disease possible at 1-h after re-injection and optimal resolution and definition of disease extent at 3 h. A negative scan reliably excludes active disease. (orig.).

  13. Survival of density subpopulations of rabbit platelets: use of 51Cr-or 111In-labeled platelets to measure survival of least dense and most dense platelets concurrently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.L.; Packham, M.A.; Mustard, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The origin of the density heterogeneity of platelets was studied by measuring the survival of density subpopulations of rabbit platelets separated by discontinuous Stractan density gradient centrifugation. When a total population of 51 Cr-labelled platelets was injected into recipient rabbits, the relative specific radioactivity of the most dense platelets decreased rapidly. In contrast, that of the least dense platelets had not changed 24 hr after injection, and then decreased slowly. To distinguish between the possibilities that most dense platelets are cleared from the circulation more quickly than least dense platelets or that platelets decrease in density as they age in the circulation, the concurrent survival of least dense and most dense platelets, labelled with either 51 Cr or 111 In-labelled total platelet populations, determined concurrently in the same rabbits, are identical, calculated from 1 hr values as 100%. However, the 1-hr recovery of 111 In-labelled platelets was slightly but significantly less than that of 51 Cr-labelled platelets. Therefore, researchers studied the survival of 51 Cr-labelled least dense and 111 In-labelled most dense platelets as well as that of 111 In-labelled least dense and 51 Cr-labelled most dense platelets. Mean 1-hr recovery of least dense platelets, labelled with either isotope (78% +/- 7%, SD) was similar to that of most dense platelets, labelled with either isotope (77% +/- 8%; SD). Mean survival of least dense platelets was 47.3 +/- 18.7 hr (SD), which was significantly less than that of most dense platelets (76.1 +/- 21.6 hr; SD) (p less than 0.0025). These results indicate that platelets decrease in buoyant density as they age in the circulation and that most dense platelets are enriched in young platelets, and least dense in old

  14. Implantation of 111In in NTDSi by heavy ion recoil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakare, S.V.; Tomar, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy ion recoil implantation technique has been used to implant 111 In in n-type silicon using medium energy heavy ion accelerator Pelletron, at TIFR, Colaba, Mumbai. The nuclear reaction used for this purpose was 109 Ag( 7 Li,p4n) 111 In. The beam energy was optimised to be 50 MeV for maximum concentration of the implanted probe atoms. The gamma-ray spectrum of the implanted sample after 24 hours was found to contain only 171 and 245 keV gamma rays of 111 In. The penetration depth of ion is increased to 1.6 μm by heavy ion recoil implantation technique as compared to 0.16 μm with the conventional ion implantation technique. (author)

  15. Animal experiment of 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Xiao Lun; Fan Hongqiang; Jin Xiaohai; Wang Yishan; Chen Daming; Bai Hongsheng; Chen Fang; Li Jiaxiu; Liu Lin

    1998-01-01

    The animal experiments of a novel somatostatin receptor-positive tumors imaging agent, 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 -octreotide, has been described. Biological properties were evaluated by dynamic and static γ images of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in nude mice bearing pancreatic carcinoma. The radiocomponent of 111 In-DTPA, which came from 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 -octreotide decomposition, showed 50% of radioactivity in blood and 40% in urine at 3h postinjection. Rapid blood and urine clearance, and high T/B ratio (7.92 up to 24 h postinjection) were observed. The images of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors could be obtained during 0.5-24 h after administration but the best one would be at 24 h

  16. New estradiol based {sup 111}In complex towards the estrogen receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vultos, Filipe; Cunha, Susana; Fernandes, Celia; Oliveira, Maria Cristina; Marques, Fernanda; Santos, Isabel; Gano, Lurdes [Universidade de Lisboa, Bobadela (Portugal). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares C2TN; Botelho, Maria Filomena [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Inst. de Biofisica/Biomatematica

    2015-07-01

    The oestrogen receptor (ER) is an important tumour target for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy due to its overexpression in many malignant cells as compared to normal cells. Aiming to find new functional molecular imaging/therapeutic agents for ER positive tumours, we have synthesized a new estradiol derivative substituted at the 16-α position with a diethylene triamine tetraacetic acid (DTTA)-like chelating ligand through a four-carbon spacer. The new bioconjugate (H{sub 4}L), was used to synthesize the corresponding indium complexes (InL/[{sup 111}In]L). The radioactive complex [{sup 111}In]L was prepared in high yield (>98%) at final concentrations of 1 x 10{sup -4} M and its chemical identity was ascertained by comparing its HPLC gamma-chromatogram to the HPLC UV-vis-chromatogram of the InL analogue. [{sup 111}In]L is hydrophilic and kinetically stable in the presence of an excess of apo-transferrin and in human blood serum. Cellular studies in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-431) suggest that [{sup 111}In]L uptake may be mediated by an ER dependent mechanism. Biodistribution studies were performed in mice indicating a rapid clearance from most organs and a slow total excretion that occurs mainly by hepatobiliar pathway. High in vivo stability of [{sup 111}In]L was confirmed by HPLC analysis of urine and blood samples. Nevertheless, the hydrophilicity, the low ER affinity and the biodistribution of [{sup 111}In]L indicate that structural modifications are required to improve its behaviour for ER targeting in vivo.

  17. Study of subcellular distribution of /sup 169/Yb and /sup 111/In in tumor and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Takeshita, M; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Ando, Itsuko; Hisada, Kinichi

    1977-03-01

    Rats were implanted with Yoshida sarcoma and hepatoma AH109A; and mice were implanted with Ehrlich tumor. /sup 169/Yb-citrate and /sup 111/In-citrate were injected into the rats intravenously and into the mice intraperitoneally. Ten minutes to 48 hours after the administration of /sup 169/Yb-citrate and /sup 111/In-citrate, the animals were sacrificed and the tumor tissues and liver were excised. Subcellular fractionation of tumor tissues and liver was carried out according to the method of Hogeboom and Schneider. The /sup 169/Yb and /sup 111/In of each fraction were counted by a well type scintillation counter, and the protein of each fraction was measured according to Lowry's method. In Yoshida sarcoma and Ehrlich tumor, most of the radioactivity was localized in the supernatant fraction, and a small amount of radioactivity was accumulated in the mitochondrial fraction (lysosome is contained in this fraction). But, in the liver, most of the radioactivity was concentrated in the mitochondrial fraction, and the radioactivity of this fraction was increased with the passage of time after administration. Twenty-four hours later, about 50% of the total radioactivity was accumulated in this fraction. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, radioactivity of the mitochondrial fraction was increased with time after administration, and about 30% of total radioactivity was concentrated in this fraction 24 hours after administration. From these results it is concluded that the lysosome does not play an important role in the concentration of /sup 169/Yb and /sup 111/In in the tumor, and that the lysosome plays an important role in the concentration of /sup 169/Yb and /sup 111/In in the liver. In the case of hepatoma AH109A it is presumed that the lysosome plays a very important role in the concentration of /sup 169/Yb and /sup 111/In, in the tumor as hepatoma AH109A retains some nature of liver.

  18. The labeling of white blood cells with 99mTc and 111In complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizad, T.; Najafi, R.

    1993-01-01

    Leukocytes have been labelled with a variety of gamma emitters and labelled (mixed) leukocytes are used clinically to detect and localize sites of abscess in the abdominal area and inflammatory processes surrounding grafts, ulcerative colitis and study of leukocyte kinetics. In this project we used 99m Tc-Sn-Pyp, 99m Tc-Hexamethyl propenylamine oxine, 111 In-Tropolone and 111 In-Oxine Sulfate for the labelling of leukocytes. All the in vitro and in vivo tests have been done to get an optimum condition for injection

  19. Early diagnosis of rejection reactions by means of 111In-oxine-labelled thrombocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, H.; Sinzinger, H.; Angelberger, P.; Leithner, C.; Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie G.m.b.H., Seibersdorf. Inst. fuer Chemie)

    1980-01-01

    According to a modified labelling method thrombocytes were treated with 111 In-oxine. In 20 patients, aged 8 to 59 years, the labelled thrombocytes were used for scintiscanning of thrombus formation in the vascular system of transplanted kidneys. In patients with either acute or chronic rejection of the graft an enrichment of labelled thrombocytes was observed in the graft up to 12 hours before the increase of plasma creatinine, whereas patients with functioning grafts did not reveal any accumulation of labelled platelets. Thus scintigraphy with 111 In-oxine-labelled platelets proved to be a sensitive method, which first of all enables an early recognition of acute rejection reactions

  20. Measurement of renal function with /sup 111/In-DTPA in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, G B [Arkansas Univ., Little Rock (USA). Medical Center; Farrer, P A

    1977-07-01

    The renal clearances of /sup 111/In-DTPA were measured and compared with those of /sup 125/I-iothalamate in dogs using three methods: (a) constant infusion method, (b) single injection UV/P method, and (c) single injection slope method. The renal clearances of /sup 111/In-DTPA were on the average 9% higher than those of /sup 125/I-iothalamate. Its urinary excretion was approximately 50% at 1 hr and about 80% at 4 hr, and biliary excretion was negligible. Sequential scintiphotography of the renal system in dogs revealed the flow of the tracer through the kidneys, and excretion into the ureter and bladder.

  1. Isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1978-01-01

    The International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology was jointly organized by the IAEA and UNESCO, in co-operation with the National Committee of the Federal Republic of Germany for the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF). Upon the invitation of the Federal Republic of Germany the Symposium was held from 19-23 June 1978 in Neuherberg on the GSF campus. The Symposium was officially opened by Mr. S. Eklund, Director General of the IAEA. The symposium - the fifth meeting held on isotope hydrology - was attended by over 160 participants from 44 countries and four international organizations and by about 30 observers from the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the absence of scientists from the USSR five papers were cancelled and therefore only 46 papers of the original programme were presented in ten sessions

  2. Radiation doses deriving from patients undergoing 111In-DTPA-d-Phe-1-octreotide scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtaran, A.; Pfreitfellner, J.; Smith-Jones, P.; Schaffarich, P.; Niederle, B.; Raderer, M.; Virgolini, I.; Bergmann, H.; Havlik, E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiation doses to nursing staff, other patients, accompanying persons and family members deriving from patients undergoing 111 In-DTPA-d-Phe-1-octreotide ( 111 In-OCT) scintigraphy. Dose rates were measured from 16 patients who had received an intravenous injection of 140±40 MBq 111 In-OCT. The measurements were performed at three different distances (0.5, 1 and 2 m) at 10-20 min, 5-7 h and 24 h (and in some cases, up to 48 h) after administration of 111 In-OCT. The effective half-lives of the biexponential decrease of the dose rates were estimated to be 2.94±0.27 h (T 1 ) and 65.17±0.58 h (T 2 ). The calculated maximum dose to other persons in the waiting area was 27.2 μSv, to family members 61.5 μSv, to nursing staff in a ward 24.1 μSv and to neighbouring patients in the ward 69.5 μSv. Our results clearly demonstrate that the calculated maximum radiation exposure to accompanying persons, personnel, family members and other patients is well below the maximum annual dose limit for non-professionally exposed persons. (orig.)

  3. Radionuclides and inflammatory bowel diseases: 99mTc-sucralfate and 111 In-tropolonate-granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveaux, M.; Macaigne, O.; Lecouffe, P.; Hossein-Foucher, CL.; Meuriot, S.; Venel, H.; Cortot, A.; Marchandise, X.

    1989-01-01

    111 In-tropolonate-granulocytes (G- 111 In) study was performed in 16 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Images were obtained 3 h and 20 h post-injection. Counting of four days feacal excretion was more accurately expressed as daily intestinal granulocytes clearance. The day before, 12 of the patients had a sucralfate- 99m Tc scan (S- 99m Tc). Correlation between radioendoscopic data and S- 99m Tc scans was poor in 9 instances and there was no correlation between scan activity index and clinical and biological assessment. Correlation between G- 111 In scans and radioendoscopic data was excellent in 13 instances. Scan activity index was correlated with the Best index and with the intestinal alpha-1-antitrypsine clearance. Faecal excretion (range. 1 - 40%) and daily intestinal granulocytes clearance values (range. 03 - 50 milliards) were only correlated with protein loss parameters. So S- 99m Tc scan does not appear to be reliable, while intestinal G- 111 In clearance, not such easy to perform, can give an accurate assessment of IBD activity [fr

  4. Indium labelled bleomycin (111In-BLM) as a tumor localizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akisada, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Sanshin.

    1976-01-01

    Both fundamental and clinical studies of 111 In-BLM were performed. The in vivo stability of the complex was ascertained by thin-layer-chromatography of urine. The blood clearance, ratio of 111 In-BLM in plasma to that in whole blood, and cumulative excretion curves of urine and stool were studied. The blood clearance curve showed that the first half time was 16 minutes and that more than 90% of the administered activity was cleared from the circulating blood in two days. Ratios of plasma activity to the whole blood was almost constant 100 hours after injection. Urinary and fecal excretion showed that 80% of the administered activity was excreted in 24 hours, mainly in the urine (less than 1.0% in the feces). There appeared to be an inverse relationship between urinary and fecal excretion. The effective and biological half time of the liver, heart, bone marrow at the level of L 4 and spleen were obtained by counting the activity externally using probes located at each corresponding site. The activity in the bone marrow and heart had a rather short effective half time. The clinical usefulness of 111 In-BLM as a tumor imaging agent was evaluated in 19 patients, with 12 malignant and 7 benign lesions in Mitsui Memorial Hospital. Each study with 111 In-BLM was combined with 67 Ga-citrate scintigrams. A new method for comparative analyses of two radiopharmaceuticals without using a computer is reported here since comparative evaluation by the naked eye was difficult to make. Clinical experience to date seems to be encouraging to the detection of malignancy, although some benign tumors showed marked uptake of 111 In-BLM. (Evans, J.)

  5. Location and activity of ulcerative and Crohn's colitis by 111In leukocyte scan. A prospective comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, D.T.; Gray, G.M.; Gregory, P.B.; Anderson, M.; Goodwin, D.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective blinded study comparing the 111 In leukocyte scan to barium enema, colonoscopy, or surgery or a combination of these, was carried out in 15 patients (10 with active ulcerative colitis and 5 with active Crohn's colitis). Correlation of disease location to colonic regions between indium scan and other diagnostic studies was excellent in 11 instances, good in 2, and poor in 3. In 2 of the 3 studies where major disagreement occurred, the comparative barium enema was performed greater than 2 mo after the indium scan. Disease activity, estimated by the intensity of radionuclide uptake, was compared to clinical disease activity assessed by the Crohn's Disease Activity Index for both forms of colitis. The relative degree of inflammation estimated by the indium scan correlated well with the independent clinical assessment (correlation coefficient . 0.81). The indium 111 leukocyte scan appears to be an accurate, noninvasive method for assessing the extent and the severity of the inflammation in patients with acute ulcerative or Crohn's colitis

  6. Serial in vivo imaging of the porcine heart after percutaneous, intramyocardially injected 111In-labeled human mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbaek, Stig; Ripa, Rasmus S; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    This pilot trial aimed to investigate the utilization of (111)In-labeling of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for in vivo tracking after intramyocardial transplantation in a xenotransplantation model with gender mismatched cells. Human male MSC were expanded ex vivo and labeled with (111)In...

  7. Serial in vivo imaging of the porcine heart after percutaneous, intramyocardially injected (111)In-labeled human mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana

    2009-01-01

    This pilot trial aimed to investigate the utilization of (111)In-labeling of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for in vivo tracking after intramyocardial transplantation in a xenotransplantation model with gender mismatched cells. Human male MSC were expanded ex vivo and labeled with (111)In...

  8. Mechanism of tumor and liver concentration of /sup 111/In and /sup 169/Yb: /sup 111/In and /sup 169/Yb binding substances in tumor tissues and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Takeshita, M; Hisada, K

    1982-07-01

    Tumor-bearing animals were injected with /sup 111/In- and /sup 169/Yb-citrate. Tumor homogenates, from which the nuclear fraction was removed, and the mitochondrial fractions of the host livers were digested with pronase P. After digestion, the supernatants of the reaction mixtures were applied to Sephadex G-100 columns. The resultant eluates were analyzed for radioactivity, protein, uronic acid, and sialic acids. Three peaks of radioactivity were obtained by gel filtration. The first peak, eluted the void volume, contained a species whose molecular weight exceeded 40000. The second peak consisted of substances with molecular weights of 9400-40000. Radioactivity in the third peak was liberated /sup 111/In and /sup 169/Yb. These two nuclides in the second peak were bound to acid mucopolysaccharide and/or the sulfated carbohydrate chain of sulfated glycorprotein. It was thought that the nuclides in the first peak might be bound to some acid mucopolysaccharides. The second peak nuclides seemed to be bound to acid mucopolysaccharide that contained no uronic acids, and/or to the sulfated carbohydrate chain of sulfated glycoprotein. It was concluded that they were bound to the acid mucopolysaccharides and/or the sulfated carbohydrate chain of sulfated glycoprotein in tumor tissues and liver lysosomes.

  9. [111In-DOTA]LTT-SS28, a first pansomatostatin radioligand for in vivo targeting of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Theodosia; Cescato, Renzo; Waser, Beatrice; Tatsi, Aikaterini; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Nock, Berthold A; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2014-08-14

    Radiolabeled pansomatostatin-like analogues are expected to enhance the diagnostic sensitivity and to expand the clinical indications of currently applied sst2-specific radioligands. In this study, we present the somatostatin mimic [DOTA]LTT-SS28 {[(DOTA)Ser1,Leu8,D-Trp22,Tyr25]SS28} and its 111In radioligand. [DOTA]LTT-SS28 exhibited a pansomatostatin-like profile binding with high affinity to all five hsst1-hsst5 subtypes (IC50 values in the lower nanomolar range). Furthermore, [DOTA]LTT-SS28 behaved as an agonist at hsst2, hsst3, and hsst5, efficiently stimulating internalization of the three receptor subtypes. Radioligand [111In-DOTA]LTT-SS28 showed good stability in the mouse bloodstream. It displayed strong and specific uptake in AR42J tumors 4 h postinjection (9.3±1.6% ID/g vs 0.3±0.0% ID/g during sst2 blockade) in mice. Significant and specific uptake was also observed in HEK293-hsst2-, HEK293-hsst3-, and HEK293-hsst5-expressing tumors (4.43±1.5, 4.88±1.1, and DOTA]LTT-SS28 specifically localizes in sst2-, sst3-, and sst5-expressing xenografts in mice showing promise for multi-sst1-sst5 targeted tumor imaging.

  10. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  11. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-01-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: (1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. (2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. (3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. (4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ''calutrons'' (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  12. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  13. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  14. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A. (eds.)

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  15. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes

  16. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1984 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques: development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes. 287 refs

  17. Gastrointestinal scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc- or 111In-labelled polymer beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordaan, J.H.; Dormehl, I.C.; Pilloy, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to establish normal and pathological stomach emptying characteristics by external measurement of a radioactive meal using a gamma camera and computer system, it is necessary for the radioactively labelled substance to have the same behaviour in the stomach as the ingested food. Resins containing chelating groups which enable binding to either reduced sup(99m)TcO 4 - or 111 In +3 were tested for their suitability as tracers mixed into solid food. The preparation of such styrene-divinyl-benzene resins containing either triethylenetetramine substituents or the fully carboxymethylated derivatives is discussed, as well as the procedures of labelling with either sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate or 111 In-chloride. An evaluation of the resins for gastrointestinal scintigraphy was performed on 3 chacma baboons and a male human volunteer with encouraging results. (orig.) [de

  18. Technical considerations in the study of 111In-oxine labelled platelet survival patterns in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharefkin, J.; Rich, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed technique for labelling canine platelets with 111 In-oxine for the study of platelet survival patterns in four to six dogs at a time was developed. Useful modifications of earlier methods included splitting of the platelet rich plasma into multiple aliquots to improve pelleting efficiency at low gravity forces, use of saved platelet poor plasma to flush out injection syringes, and prompt use of commercial 111 In-oxine sources 3 to 5 minutes after mixing with Ringer's Citrate Dextrose. Avoidable pitfalls of the method included excessive lengths of incubation time in plasma free medium and loss of labelling efficacy by exposure of the chelate to iron or other metal contaminants in glassware. The method was used to study changes in platelet survival time in dogs with large synthetic arterial prostheses, and gave results in good agreement with earlier studies using 51 Cr labelled platelets

  19. Evaluation of carcinoma of the cervix using 111In-bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Waxman, A.D.; Disaia, P.J.; Siemsen, J.K.

    1975-01-01

    Indium-111 attached to bleomycin is useful in the scintigraphic localization of a variety of tumors. Since it does not normally accumulate in bowel and feces, it is superior to other radiopharmaceuticals, such as gallium-67-citrate, in the demonstration of abnormalities in the abdomen and pelvis. Twenty-eight patients with known carcinoma of the cervix were studied with whole body 111 In-bleomycin scans. Two ''false-positive'' scans were produced by local inflammation. Six ''false-negative'' scans were attributed to small tumors escaping scintigraphic detection. In the remaining 20 patients, scan findings correlated well with site and extent of the tumor as determined by other means. 111 In-bleomycin scintiscanning may prove to be a highly useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with carcinoma of the cervix

  20. Experimental study of K-electron capture probability in the decay of {sup 111}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, N.R.; Kalyani, V.D.M.L.; Maldhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Vara Prasad, N.V.; Chandrasekhar Rao, M.V.S.; Satyanarayana, G.; Sastry, D.L. [Visakhapatnam, Andhra Univ. (India). Swami Jnanananda Lab. for Nuclear Research; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Calcutt, Inter-Univ. Consortium for DAEW Facilities (India)

    1998-03-01

    The K-electron capture probability in the decay of {sup 111}In to the 416.64 keV level of the daughter nucleus {sup 111}Cd was measured to be 0.853 {+-}0.037 in agreement with the theoretical value 0.865. The experimental value is seen to be consistent with the mass prediction of the relationship due to Wapstra and Bos.

  1. Evaluation of tumor-induced osteomalacia with 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palot Manzil, Fathima Fijula; Bhambhvani, Pradeep G; O'Malley, Janis P

    2013-12-01

    In cases of nonhereditary osteomalacia associated with hypophosphatemia and inadequate response to vitamin D supplementation, one should consider the possibility of tumor-induced osteomalacia, a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by small mesenchymal tumors often found in obscure locations. We present a case of tumor-induced osteomalacia in which (111)In-pentetreotide scintigraphy aided in accurate localization of the culprit brachial plexus tumor and cure after resection.

  2. A positive 111in-pentetreotide scan in a patient with a pancreatic polypeptide secreting tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, K.; Cehic, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A 55-year-old male presented to our department with a known polypeptide secreting pancreatic tumour. An 111 In-pentetreotide scan (OctreoScan) was performed to determine whether the tumour expressed somatostatin receptors (SR) and thereby aid in therapy planning. 120 MBq 111 In-pentetreotide was administered intravenously. Images were acquired at 4 and 30 hours. Whole body images were acquired with spot views and tomography of the liver at 30 hours. Images showed intense uptake of the tracer in the lobular midline pancreatic mass. There was also uptake in multiple liver metastases. 111 In-pentetreotide is a synthetic somatostatin analogue and its uptake demonstrates the presence of SR on tumour cells, especially those of a neuro-endocrine nature. A 123 I Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was also performed to determine whether the more widely available MIBG therapy would be appropriate for this patient. This scan was negative. The patient has received 3 cycles of chemotherapy with Streptozotocin and 5-fluorouracil. He has had a good partial response to therapy as demonstrated on CT scan. The patient is currently clinically well, his symptoms have resolved and weight stabilised. Good biochemical response to chemotherapy is indicated by halved pancreatic peptide levels. To date chemotherapy has been the mainstay of therapy for neuroendocrine tumours. Radioimmunotherapy (targeted to SR positive tumours) is currently being investigated as a therapy alternative and may be a future treatment option. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. Preoperative clinical radioimmunodetection of pancreatic cancer by 111In-labeled chimeric monoclonal antibody Nd2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuji; Nishihara, Tamahiro; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the clinical usefulness of radioimmunodetection (RAID) with 111 In-labeled murine/human chimeric monoclonal antibody, Nd2 (c-Nd2) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Nineteen patients suspected to have pancreatic cancer were administered intravenously 74 MBq/2 mg 111 In-labeled c-Nd2 in 100 ml of saline containing 2% albumin over 30 min. A scintigram was obtained on the 3rd day after infusion by using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Of the 14 patients finally diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer on the basis of surgical specimens or progress of disease, specific focal uptake at the site of the tumor was detected in 12 (true positive cases), representing a sensitivity of 85.7% (12/14), and liver metastasis was found in one case with metastasis. Of the 5 patients diagnosed with tumor-forming pancreatitis (TFP), 4 patients demonstrated true negative imaging, but one patient whose tumor demonstrated interesting findings in histology and immunostaining, showed false positive imaging. Of patients investigated for human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA) response, none showed HACA response, and no allergic reaction was seen in any of the patients administered c-Nd2. These results suggest that RAID with 111 In-labeled c-Nd2 is useful for differential preoperative diagnosis between invasive pancreatic cancer and TFP. (author)

  4. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  5. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  6. Pharmacokinetics of 111In-labeled anti-p97 monoclonal antibody in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.G.; Murray, J.L.; Haynie, T.P.; Glenn, H.J.; Jahns, M.F.; Benjamin, R.S.; Frincke, J.M.; Carlo, D.J.; Hersh, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with metastatic malignant melanoma received anti-p97 murine monoclonal antibody (96.5) infused over 2 h at doses between 1 and 20 mg coupled to either 2.5 or 5.0 mCi of 111 In by the bifunctional chelating agent diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid. Clearance of 111 In from plasma closely fit an open, one-compartment mathematical model (r2 greater than 0.90). The overall half-life of 111 In plasma was approximately 31 h and did not appear to be dependent on the total dose of antibody administered. The apparent volume of distribution of the 111 In label approximated the total blood volume (7.8 +/- 0.7 liters) at the 1-mg dose and decreased to 3.0 +/- 0.14 liters at the 20-mg dose, suggesting saturation of antigenic or other extravascular binding sites at higher antibody doses. The clearance of the murine monoclonal antibody itself from plasma was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pharmacokinetics for the murine antibody in plasma also fit an open, one-compartment mathematical model. All pharmacokinetic parameters for unlabeled antibody closely paralleled those found for 111 In-labeled antibody pharmacokinetics. This suggests that the 111 In radiolabel remains complexed to the monoclonal antibody after in vivo administration. The cumulative urinary excretion of the 111 In label over 48 h was between 12 and 23% of the total administered dose and is assumed to represent 111 In-labeled chelate complex unattached to antibody. Analysis of the 111 In label in spleen, liver, heart, and kidney showed that the concentration of label in liver tissue was reduced with increasing antibody doses and coincided with changes in the apparent volume of distribution

  7. Effects of Different Containers on Radioactivity Measurements using a Dose Calibrator with Special Reference to 111In and 123I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kei; Miyatake, Hiroki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy characteristic x-rays emitted by 111 In and 123 I sources are easily absorbed by the containers of the sources, affecting radioactivity measurements using a dose calibrator. We examined the effects of different containers on the estimated activities. The radioactivities of 111 In, 123 I, 201 Tl, and 99m Tc were measured in containers frequently employed in clinical practice in Japan. The 111 In measurements were performed in the vials A and B of the 111 In-pentetreotide preparation kit and in the plastic syringe. The activities of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and 201 Tl chloride were measured in the prefilled glass syringes and plastic syringes. The milking vial, vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe were used to assay 99m Tc. For 111 In and 123 I, measurements were performed with and without a copper filter. The filter was inserted into the well of the dose calibrator to absorb low-energy x-rays. The relative estimate was defined as the ratio of the activity estimated with the dose calibrator to the standard activity. The estimated activities varied greatly depending on the container when 111 In and 123 I sources were assayed without the copper filter. The relative estimates of 111 In were 0.908, 1.072, and 1.373 in the vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe, respectively. The relative estimates of 123 I were 1.052 and 1.352 in the glass syringe and plastic syringe, respectively. Use of the copper filter eliminated the container-dependence in 111 In and 123 I measurements. Container-dependence was demonstrated in neither 201 Tl nor 99m Tc measurements. The activities of 111 In and 123 I estimated with a dose calibrator differ greatly among the containers. Accurate estimation may be attained using the container-specific correction factor or using the copper filter.

  8. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  9. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  10. 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT allows tumor localization in patients with tumor-induced osteomalacia but negative 111In-octreotide SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breer, Stefan; Brunkhorst, Thomas; Beil, F Timo; Peldschus, Kersten; Heiland, Max; Klutmann, Susanne; Barvencik, Florian; Zustin, Jozef; Gratz, Klaus-Friedrich; Amling, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia and low calcitriol levels as well as clinical symptoms like diffuse bone and muscle pain, fatigue fractures or increased fracture risk. Conventional imaging methods, however, often fail to detect the small tumors. Lately, tumor localization clearly improved by somatostatin-receptor (SSTR) imaging, such as octreotide scintigraphy or octreotide SPECT/CT. However, recent studies revealed that still a large number of tumors remained undetected by octreotide imaging. Hence, studies focused on different SSTR imaging methods such as 68Ga DOTA-NOC, 68Ga DOTA-TOC and 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT with promising first results. Studies comparing different SSTR imaging methods for tumor localization in TIO are rare and thus little is known about diagnostic alternatives once a particular method failed to detect a tumor in patients with TIO. Here, we report the data of 5 consecutive patients suffering from TIO, who underwent both 111Indium-octreotide scintigraphy (111In-OCT) SPECT/CT as well as 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT for tumor detection. While 111In-OCT SPECT/CT allowed tumor detection in only 1 of 5 patients, 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT was able to localize the tumor in all patients. Afterwards, anatomical imaging of the region of interest was performed with CT and MRI. Thus, successful surgical resection of the tumor was achieved in all patients. Serum phosphate levels returned to normal and all patients reported relief of symptoms within weeks. Moreover, an iliac crest biopsy was obtained from every patient and revealed marked osteomalacia in all cases. Follow-up DXA revealed an increase in BMD of up to 34.5% 1-year postoperative, indicating remineralization. No recurrence was observed. In conclusion our data indicates that 68Ga DOTA-TATE PET/CT is an effective and promising diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of TIO, even in patients in whom 111In-OCT prior failed to detect

  11. Diagnostic possibilities in lymphatic node diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeva, M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief review of lymphoscintigraphy applied in Bulgarian medical practice is presented. The most widely used radiopharmaceuticals are listed: 9 m Tc-colloid and 113 In-colloid; 67 Ga-citrate, 75 Se-methionine, 51 Cr-bleomycin, 201 Tl-chloride; monoclonal antibodies labelled with 125 I, 131 I, 111 In, 99 Tc. Some pathological changes occurring during indirect colloid lymphoscintigraphy re mentioned. Except for diagnostic purposes, lymphoscintigraphy is also used in following up the development of malignant lymphomas. A combination of indirect lymphoscintigraphy with succeeding radioimmunoscintigraphy of lymph nodes gives maximal reliable and precise data about the disease process and its distribution. 9 refs. (orig.)

  12. Companion diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-01-01

    of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic...... co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently....... Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding...

  13. Total and segmental colon transit time in constipated children assessed by scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA given orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Burroni, L; Bertelli, P; Messina, M; Meucci, D; Tota, G

    1993-12-01

    Serial colon scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA (2 MBq) given orally was performed in 39 children referred for constipation, and the total and segmental colon transit times were measured. The bowel movements during the study were recorded and the intervals between defecations (ID) were calculated. This method proved able to identify children with normal colon morphology (no. = 32) and those with dolichocolon (no. = 7). Normal children were not included for ethical reasons and we used the normal range determined by others using x-ray methods (29 +/- 4 hours). Total and segmental colon transit times were found to be prolonged in all children with dolichocolon (TC: 113.55 +/- 41.20 hours; RC: 39.85 +/- 26.39 hours; LC: 43.05 +/- 18.30 hours; RS: 30.66 +/- 26.89 hours). In the group of children with a normal colon shape, 13 presented total and segmental colon transit times within the referred normal value (TC: 27.79 +/- 4.10 hours; RC: 9.11 +/- 2.53 hours; LC: 9.80 +/- 3.50 hours; RS: 8.88 +/- 4.09 hours) and normal bowel function (ID: 23.37 +/- 5.93 hours). In the remaining children, 5 presented prolonged retention in the rectum (RS: 53.36 +/- 29.66 hours), and 14 a prolonged transit time in all segments. A good correlation was found between the transit time and bowel function. From the point of view of radiation dosimetry, the most heavily irradiated organs were the lower large intestine and the ovaries, and the level of radiation burden depended on the colon transit time. We can conclude that the described method results safe, accurate and fully diagnostic.

  14. Contribution of isotopic data in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askienazy, S.; Ducassou, D.

    The growing interest in isotopic CSF studies is explained by the fact that the mechanism and classification of hydrocephalus cases are based not only on anatomoclinical data but also on physiological information inaccessible by static image methods. This article shows the full importance of dynamic CSF research (ideal tracer: 111 In-DTPA); the possibilities of myeloscintigraphy to study the permeability of the medullary sub-arachnoid spaces (tracers used: sup(99m)Tc-DTPA in the liquid phase or xenon bubble technique in the gas phase); ventricular morphology; existence of meningeal gaps [fr

  15. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  16. Kinetics and sites of destruction of 111In-oxine-labeled platelets in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a quantitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A.D.; Loetter, M.G.; Badenhorst, P.N.; de Kock, F.; Pieters, H.; Herbst, C.; van Reenen, O.R.; Kotze, H.; Minnaar, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Kinetics and quantification of the sites of destruction of 111 In-oxine-labeled autologous platelets were investigated in eight patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The mean platelet count was 17 +/- 9 X 10(9)/liter; platelets were separated by differential centrifugation and labeled with 5.6 +/- 2.5 MBq 111 In. Whole body and organ 111 In-platelet distribution was quantitated with a scintillation camera and a computer-assisted imaging system acquisition matrix. Areas of interest were selected with the computer and organ 111 In-radioactivity expressed as a percentage of whole body activity. Mean platelet survival was 49.5 +/- 29.6 hr and the survival curves were exponential. Equilibrium percentage organ 111 In-radioactivity was (normal values in parentheses): spleen 33.7 +/- 8.8 (31.1 +/- 10.2); liver 16.1 +/- 9.5 (13.1 +/- 1.3); thorax 22.8 +/- 3.7 (28.2 +/- 5.6). Percentage organ 111 In-activity at the time when labeled platelets had disappeared from the circulation was: spleen 44.5 +/- 16.4 (40 +/- 16); liver 16.0 +/- 11.5 (32.4 +/- 7.2); thorax 19.7 +/- 6.0 (17.7 +/- 10.3). Thorax activity corresponds to bone marrow radioactivity. Three patterns of platelet sequestration were evident. Three patients had mainly splenic sequestration, two mainly hepatic sequestration, and three diffuse reticuloendothelial system sequestration with a major component of platelets destroyed in the bone marrow. Splenectomy was performed in two patients. The pattern of 111 In-platelet sequestration was not predictive of response of glucocorticoid therapy or indicative of the necessity for splenectomy. Quantitative 111 In-labeled autologous platelet kinetic studies provide a new tool for the investigation of platelet disorders.U

  17. Internal radiotherapy and dosimetric study for 111In/177Lu-pegylated liposomes conjugates in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-E.; Yu, H.-M.; Lu, Y.-C.; Heish, N.-N.; Tseng, Yun-Long; Huang, K.-L.; Chuang, K.-T.; Chen, Chin-Hsiung; Hwang, J.-J.; Lin, W.-J.; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Ting, G.; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Deng, W.-P.

    2006-01-01

    In vivo characterization and dosimetric analysis has been performed to evaluate the potential of pegylated liposomes as carriers of radionuclides in tumor internal radiotherapy. Methods: The DTPA/PEG-liposomes were synthesized with a medium size of 110 nm, conjugated with 111 In/ 177 Lu-(oxine) 3 to afford 111 In/ 177 Lu-liposome. The stability of 111 In/ 177 Lu-liposome in serum was investigated. The biodistribution, scintigraphic imaging and pharmacokinetics of 111 In/ 177 Lu-liposomes after intravenous(i.v.) injection into C-26 tumor-bearing BALB/cByJ mice were studied. Radiation dose was estimated by MIRD-III program. Results: The incorporation efficiency of 111 In/ 177 Lu into liposomes was 95%. After incubation at 37 o C for 72 h in serum, more than 83% of radioactivity was still retained in the intact 111 In/ 177 Lu-liposomes. The biodistribution of 111 In-liposomes showed that the radioactivity in the blood decreased from 23.14±8.16%ID/g at 1 h to 0.02±0.00%ID/g at 72 h post-injection (p.i.), while reaching its maximum accumulation in tumors at 48 h p.i., with half-life in blood of 10.2 h. The results were supported by that of 177 Lu-liposomes. Scintigraphic imaging with 111 In-liposomes showed unambiguous tumor images at 48 h p.i. Dose estimation showed that the absorbed dose in tumor from 177 Lu-liposomes was 5.74x10 -5 Gy/MBq. Conclusions: This study provides an in vivo characterization and dosimetric evaluation for the use of liposome systems as carriers in targeted radionuclide therapy. The results suggest that adequate tumor targeting as well as dose delivered to tumors could be achieved by the use of radionuclide targeted liposomes

  18. Isotope puzzle in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms affecting multicomponent material sputtering are complex. Isotope sputtering is the simplest in the multicomponent materials sputtering. Although only mass effect plays a dominant role in the isotope sputtering, there is still an isotope puzzle in sputtering by ion bombardment. The major arguments are as follows: (1) At the zero fluence, is the isotope enrichment ejection-angle-independent or ejection-angle-dependent? (2) Is the isotope angular effect the primary or the secondary sputter effect? (3) How to understand the action of momentum asymmetry in collision cascade on the isotope sputtering?

  19. 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy in medulloblastoma: A comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksel, Mahmut; Lutterbey, Goetz; Biersack, Hans Juergen; Elke, Urs; Ezziddin, Samer; Hasan, Carola; Bode, Udo; Zairong Gao

    2007-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is a primitive neuroectodermal tumour constituting a grade IV brain malignancy. Early and correct detection of recurrence or metastasis is desirable for follow-up of patients in this entity. Frequent expression of somatostatin receptors by MB lesions facilitates functional tumour imaging by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). To investigate the value of SRS in the follow-up of MB, the results of ten consecutive patients (seven children and three adults) undergoing additional imaging with 111 In-pentetreotide were reviewed. Four, 24 and 48 h p.i. planar and whole body images as well as a SPECT study at 4 h p.i. were acquired after intravenous injection of 109±35 MBq 111 In-pentetreotide (Octreoscan). SRS yielded 11 positive and ten negative imaging results, compared to 17 positive and four negative in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesion-by-lesion analysis with a total of 44 lesions revealed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 42%, 83%, 94%, 18% for SRS and 89.5%, 50%, 92%, 43% for MRI. Based on a per-patient analysis, considering the patient as to be either tumour-free or tumour-positive by one imaging modality, the following values for sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were obtained: 61%, 100%, 100%, 30% for SRS and 94%, 67%, 94%, 67% for MRI. MRI remains the first step imaging technique in medulloblastoma patients before and after surgery and during the follow-up providing the highest sensitivity. However, to improve specificity and contribute to correct diagnosis in MB 111 In-pentetreotide scintigraphy should be considered as a confirmatory second step imaging tool, especially in case of equivocal MRI results. Moreover, a positive SRS scan might serve as a reference before and after somatostatin receptor targeted radiotherapy

  20. In vivo behavior of 111In-DTPA in rat and mouse after intra-ventricular administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Hiroaki; Kato, Makoto; Sugimura, Yukiharu; Hazue, Masaaki

    1977-01-01

    In vivo behavior of 111 In-DTPA in rat and mouse after intra-ventricular administration was studied. Thus, 50μCi and 35μCi of 111 In-DTPA was injected intraventricularly to rat and mouse respectively. At specific time intervals, the animals were sacrificed, then distribution in organs was determined by radioactivity counting and autoradiographic method. Urinary and fecal excretion were separately collected and excretion rates were estimated. Metabolites in urine of rat were examined with chromatography. A part of 111 In-DTPA injected intra-ventricularly to the animals migrated to subarachnoid space, then radioactivity in cerebrospinal fluid effused into blood with about 1 hr initial half-life. Blood clearance was also rapid, about 1 hr after administration the blood level reached maximum and then decreased showing an initial half-life of about 1 hr. The predominant excretion route in rat was urinary and about 90% and 5% of administered dose were excreted within 48 hr through urine and feces respectively. Judging from the Rf-value of radioactivity peak on chromatograms, 111 In-DTPA seems to be excreted without suffering any metabolic change. Concerning to the behavior of 111 In-DTPA in male and female rat, no difference was observed, and the distribution pattern of 111 In-DTPA in mouse was similar to that of rat. (auth.)

  1. Iliac artery mural thrombus formation. Effect of antiplatelet therapy on 111In-platelet deposition in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, S.R.; Paxton, L.D.; Harker, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    To measure the rate, extent, and time course of arterial mural thrombus formation in vivo and to assess the effects of antiplatelet therapy in that setting, we have studied autologous 111 In-platelet deposition induced by experimental iliac artery aneurysms in baboons. Scintillation camera imaging analyses were performed at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation of the device. Correction for tissue attenuation was determined by using a small, comparably located 111 In source implanted at the time of surgery. In five animals, 111 In-platelet activity accumulated progressively after device implantation, reaching a maximum after the third day. Repeat image analysis carried out 2 weeks after the surgical procedure also showed progressive accumulation of 111 In-platelets over 3 days but at markedly reduced amounts as compared with the initial study. In five additional animals, treatment with a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole begun 1 hour after surgical implantation reduced 111 In-platelet deposition to negligible levels by the third day. Although platelet survival time was shortened and platelet turnover was reciprocally increased in all operated animals, platelet survival and turnover were not affected by antiplatelet therapy. We conclude that, in contrast to platelet survival and turnover measurements, 111 In-platelet imaging is a reliable and sensitive method for localizing and quantifying focal arterial thrombi and for assessing the effects of antiplatelet therapy

  2. Preparation of {sup 111}In-DTPA morpholino oligomer for low abdominal accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guozheng, E-mail: guozheng.liu@umassmed.ed [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655-0243 (United States); Dou Shuping; Rusckowski, Mary [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655-0243 (United States); Greiner, Dale [Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655-0243 (United States); Hnatowich, Donald [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655-0243 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    An ability to quantitate the beta cell mass by noninvasive nuclear imaging will be very useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes. However, to be successful, radioactivity from the pancreas must not be obscured by the background radioactivity in the abdomen. Pretargeting offers the promise of achieving high target organ to normal tissue ratios. In preparation for pancreas imaging studies by pretargeting using morpholino oligomers (MORF/cMORF), it was necessary to develop a simple and efficient method to radiolabel the cMORF effector. Because we have shown that labeling the cMORF with {sup 111}In via DTPA reduces excretion into the intestines compared to labeling with {sup 99m}Tc via MAG{sub 3}, the conjugation of DTPA to cMORF was investigated for {sup 111}In labeling. The amine-derivatized cMORF was conjugated with DTPA using 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as an alternative to the conventional cyclic anhydride. The conjugation efficiency (represented by the number of DTPA groups attached per cMORF) was investigated by changing the EDC, DTPA, and cMORF molar ratios. Different open columns were considered for the purification of DTPA-cMORF. Before conjugation, each cMORF molecule was confirmed to have an amine by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) assay using the {omega}-amino butyric acid as positive standard and the non-amine derivatized cMORF as negative standard. The average number of DTPA groups per cMORF was 0.15-0.20 following the conjugation over a cMORF/DTPA molar ratio of 0.5-5 and over a cMORF/EDC molar ratio of 20-60. The conjugation efficiency was lower than expected probably due to steric hindrance. A 1x50 cm P-4 column using ammonium acetate as eluting buffer provided an adequate separation of DTPA-cMORF from free DTPA. The {sup 111}In labeling efficiency by transchelation from acetate exceeded 95%, thus avoiding the need for postlabeling purification. Despite the lower than expected conjugation

  3. Diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  4. Anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC positron emission tomography-computerized tomography and (111)In-capromab pendetide single photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography for recurrent prostate carcinoma: results of a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David M; Nieh, Peter T; Jani, Ashesh B; Amzat, Rianot; Bowman, F Dubois; Halkar, Raghuveer K; Master, Viraj A; Nye, Jonathon A; Odewole, Oluwaseun A; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Alaei-Taleghani, Pooneh; Goodman, Mark M

    2014-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated the amino acid analogue positron emission tomography radiotracer anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC compared to ProstaScint® ((111)In-capromab pendetide) single photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography to detect recurrent prostate carcinoma. A total of 93 patients met study inclusion criteria who underwent anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC positron emission tomography-computerized tomography plus (111)In-capromab pendetide single photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography for suspected recurrent prostate carcinoma within 90 days. Reference standards were applied by a multidisciplinary board. We calculated diagnostic performance for detecting disease. In the 91 of 93 patients with sufficient data for a consensus on the presence or absence of prostate/bed disease anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC had 90.2% sensitivity, 40.0% specificity, 73.6% accuracy, 75.3% positive predictive value and 66.7% negative predictive value compared to (111)In-capromab pendetide with 67.2%, 56.7%, 63.7%, 75.9% and 45.9%, respectively. In the 70 of 93 patients with a consensus on the presence or absence of extraprostatic disease anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC had 55.0% sensitivity, 96.7% specificity, 72.9% accuracy, 95.7% positive predictive value and 61.7% negative predictive value compared to (111)In-capromab pendetide with 10.0%, 86.7%, 42.9%, 50.0% and 41.9%, respectively. Of 77 index lesions used to prove positivity histological proof was obtained in 74 (96.1%). Anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC identified 14 more positive prostate bed recurrences (55 vs 41) and 18 more patients with extraprostatic involvement (22 vs 4). Anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC positron emission tomography-computerized tomography correctly up-staged 18 of 70 cases (25.7%) in which there was a consensus on the presence or absence of extraprostatic involvement. Better diagnostic performance was noted for anti-3-[(18)F]FACBC positron emission tomography-computerized tomography than for (111)In-capromab pendetide single

  5. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Optical isotope shifts for unstable samarium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Grant, I.S.; England, J.G.; Fawcett, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using a tunable dye laser beam intersecting a thermal atomic beam, optical isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings have been measured for the four unstable samarium isotopes between 144 Sm and 154 Sm, covering the well known transition region from spherical to deformed shapes. (orig.)

  7. 111In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues for melanoma imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yubin; Gallazzi, Fabio; Guo, Haixun; Quinn, Thomas P

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the lactam bridge cyclization on melanoma targeting and biodistribution properties of the radiolabeled conjugates. Two novel lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide analogues, DOTA-CycMSH (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp]) and DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH (DOTA-Gly-Glu-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp]), were synthesized and radiolabeled with (111)In. The internalization and efflux of (111)In-labeled CycMSH peptides were examined in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting properties, pharmacokinetics, and SPECT/CT imaging of (111)In-labeled CycMSH peptides were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Both (111)In-DOTA-CycMSH and (111)In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH exhibited fast internalization and extended retention in B16/F1 cells. The tumor uptake values of (111)In-DOTA-CycMSH and (111)In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH were 9.53+/-1.41% injected dose/gram (% ID/g) and 10.40+/-1.40% ID/g at 2 h postinjection, respectively. Flank melanoma tumors were clearly visualized with (111)In-DOTA-CycMSH and (111)In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH by SPECT/CT images at 2 h postinjection. Whole-body clearance of the peptides was fast, with greater than 90% of the radioactivities cleared through urinary system by 2 h postinjection. There was low radioactivity (<0.8% ID/g) accumulated in blood and normal organs except kidneys at all time points investigated. Introduction of a negatively charged linker (-Gly-Glu-) into the peptide sequence decreased the renal uptake by 44% without affecting the tumor uptake at 4 h postinjection. High receptor-mediated melanoma uptakes coupled with fast whole-body clearance in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice demonstrated the feasibility of using (111)In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide analogues as a novel class of imaging probes for receptor-targeting melanoma imaging.

  8. Diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy by sup 111 In-transferrin scanning and fecal excretion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urita, Yoshihisa (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-10-01

    A total of 12 patients with gastroenteropathy were studied for possible protein loss. The underlying diseases were intestinal lymphangiectasia, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in 2 patients each and Menetrier's disease, Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, postgastrectomy syndrome, severe atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer and gastroenteropathy of unknown origin in one patient each. The controls were four healthy volunteers and 9 patients with benign disease not accompanied by lesions in the digestive tract and protein loss {sup 111}In-transferrin Tf was prepared by incubating 2-3 mCi of {sup 111}In-chloride with 15-20 ml of each patient's plasma in a sterilized vial at room temperature for 1 hour. After iv injection of {sup 111}In-Tf the patients were scanned at given intervals of time for 72 hours to localize protein loss. Seventy-two hour fecal {sup 111}In-Tf excretion was also measured. {sup 111}In-Tf was detected in the feces of all patients. The recovery rate in the patient group was 7.95{+-}3.65%, being significantly higher than 0.48{+-}0.26% in the control group. However {sup 111}In-Tf scanning showed the site of protein loss only in 6 patients. Negative scan in six other patients was thought to be associated with extensive inflammation and severe diarrhea. Five of the 12 patients were observed before and after treatment. A decrease in fecal {sup 111}In-Tf excretion with clinical improvement was noted in the 5 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss could be demonstrated in 3 of the 5 patients before treatment. Its site in 1 of the 3 patients was the small intestine. However accumulation of {sup 111}In-Tf was found there in the 3 patients after treatment. The site of protein loss in 1 of 3 patients was the small intestine. {sup 111}In-Tf scanning is particularly useful when the small intestine is involved, because surgery is contraindicated in this case. Fecal {sup 111}In-Tf excretion test is mandatory when the site of protein loss

  9. Diagnostic dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Dobrovolny, Robert; Nazarenko, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, results from the deficient activity of a-galactosidase A (a-Gal A). In affected males, the clinical diagnosis is confirmed by the markedly decreased a-Gal A activity. However, in female heterozygotes, the a-Gal A activity can range from low t...... on enzyme replacement therapy. Thus, gene dosage analyses can detect large deletions (>50bp) in suspect heterozygotes for X-linked and autosomal dominant diseases that are "sequencing cryptic," resolving molecular diagnostic dilemmas....... to normal due to random X-chromosomal inactivation, and diagnostic confirmation requires identification of the family's a-Gal A gene mutation. In a young female who had occasional acroparesthesias, corneal opacities, and 15 to 50% of the lower limit of normal leukocyte a-Gal A activity, a-Gal A sequencing...... in two expert laboratories did not identify a confirmatory mutation, presenting a diagnostic dilemma. A renal biopsy proved diagnostic and renewed efforts to detect an a-Gal A mutation. Subsequent gene dosage analyses identified a large a-Gal A deletion confirming her heterozygosity, and she was started...

  10. Measurement of 107Ag(α,γ)111In cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglin, Coral M.; Norman, Eric B.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Rech, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    Cross sections have been measured for the 107 Ag(α,γ) 111 In reaction at several α-particle energies between 7.8 MeV and 11.9 MeV. This reaction is of interest because it can provide a check on calculations of low-energy (α,γ) cross sections required for stellar nucleosynthesis predictions. Stacks of natural Ag foils of 1 (micro)m thickness and 99.97% purity were bombarded with 4 He + beams. Following irradiation, the yields of the 171-keV and 245-keV photons produced in the 2.805 day electron-capture decay of the 111 In product nucleus were measured off-line. The Ag foils were interleaved with 99.6% purity, 6 (micro)m thick natural Ti foils so that known cross sections for the 48 Ti(α,n) reaction could be used to check the accuracy of the beam current integration. For any given beam energy, beam energy degradation in the foils resulted in lower effective bombarding energies for successive foils in the stack, enabling measurements to be made for several energies per irradiation. The measured cross sections are compared with published statistical-model calculations

  11. Radiation protection of staff in 111In radionuclide therapy--is the lead apron shielding effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, M; Charalambatou, P; Sotiropoulos, M; Diamantopoulos, S

    2011-09-01

    (111)In (Eγ = 171-245 keV, t1/2 = 2.83 d) is used for targeted therapies of endocrine tumours. An average activity of 6.3 GBq is injected into the liver by catheterisation of the hepatic artery. This procedure is time-consuming (4-5 min) and as a result, both the physicians and the technical staff involved are subjected to radiation exposure. In this research, the efficiency of the use of lead apron has been studied as far as the radiation protection of the working staff is concerned. A solution of (111)In in a cylindrical scattering phantom was used as a source. Close to the scattering phantom, an anthropomorphic male Alderson RANDO phantom was positioned. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were located in triplets on the front surface, in the exit and in various depths in the 26th slice of the RANDO phantom. The experiment was repeated by covering the RANDO phantom by a lead apron 0.25 mm Pb equivalent. The unshielded dose rates and the shielded photon dose rates were measured. Calculations of dose rates by Monte Carlo N-particle transport code were compared with this study's measurements. A significant reduction of 65 % on surface dose was observed when using lead apron. A decrease of 30 % in the mean absorbed dose among the different depths of the 26th slice of the RANDO phantom has also been noticed. An accurate correlation of the experimental results with Monte Carlo simulation has been achieved.

  12. Radiation protection of staff in 111In radionuclide therapy-Is the lead apron shielding effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, M.; Charalambatou, P.; Sotiropoulos, M.; Diamantopoulos, S.

    2011-01-01

    111 In (Eγ=171-245 keV, t1/2=2.83 d) is used for targeted therapies of endocrine tumours. An average activity of 6.3 GBq is injected into the liver by catheterisation of the hepatic artery. This procedure is time-consuming (4-5 min) and as a result, both the physicians and the technical staff involved are subjected to radiation exposure. In this research, the efficiency of the use of lead apron has been studied as far as the radiation protection of the working staff is concerned. A solution of 111 In in a cylindrical scattering phantom was used as a source. Close to the scattering phantom, an anthropomorphic male Alderson RANDO phantom was positioned. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were located in triplets on the front surface, in the exit and in various depths in the 26. slice of the RANDO phantom. The experiment was repeated by covering the RANDO phantom by a lead apron 0.25 mm Pb equivalent. The unshielded dose rates and the shielded photon dose rates were measured. Calculations of dose rates by Monte Carlo N-particle transport code were compared with this study's measurements. A significant reduction of 65 % on surface dose was observed when using lead apron. A decrease of 30 % in the mean absorbed dose among the different depths of the 26. slice of the RANDO phantom has also been noticed. An accurate correlation of the experimental results with Monte Carlo simulation has been achieved. (authors)

  13. Clinical experience with 111In tropolonate leucocytes in the detection of occult infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wraight, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of 3 years, 275 scans were performed in 233 patients with suspected occult sepsis. A firm diagnosis was ultimately established in 160 cases. 81 sites of infection were correctly identified and there were 77 true negative studies. There were 4 false negative and 7 false positive studies, most of which were due to misinterpreting bowel activity as sepsis and vice versa. In 56 cases CT scans were performed within a few days of the leucocyte study. There was good agreement between the findings. Comparison was possible with ultrasound in 81 cases. In 15 of these ultrasound failed to detect infection in the abdomen which was demonstrated by 111 In leucocytes, suggesting that ultrasound is much less sensitive in this situation. The overall accuracy of 111 In leucocyte scanning in this series was 93,5%. The predictive value of a positive result was 92% and of a negative one 95%. The need for serial images to distinguish bowel activity (colitis or swallowed activity) from paracolic sepsis is emphasised. (orig.)

  14. Noninvasive detection of coronary thrombi with 111In platelets: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Mathias, C.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The need for rapid, definitive identification of coronary thrombosis has been intensified by the advent of thrombolytic therapy and by interest in the role of thrombosis in the etiology of coronary artery disease. To determine whether platelet thrombi can be detected noninvasively with 111 In platelets, a method was developed in which /sup 99m/Tc-tagged red blood cells were used to correct for activity within the blood attributable to platelets circulating but not associated with thrombus. In 18 dogs coronary thrombi were induced closed-chest with a copper coil introduced into the coronary artery. 111 In platelets and /sup 99m/Tc RBCs were administered either before or 1 hr after induction of thrombus, and serial scintigrams obtained. Coronary thrombus was identified readily in the processed scintigrams. In six dogs, thrombolysis was achieved with intracoronary streptokinase. In each case serial scintigraphy demonstrated resolution of the clot. The dual radiotracer technique should permit serial noninvasive delineation of the temporal relationship between platelet deposition and coronary heart disease in patients, and should facilitate the evaluation of interventions designed to prevent platelet aggregation or to lyse existing thrombi

  15. 111In platelet imaging of left ventricular thrombi. Predictive value for systemic emboli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether a positive indium 111 platelet image for a left ventricular thrombus, which indicates ongoing thrombogenic activity, predicts an increased risk of systemic embolization, we compared the embolic rate in 34 patients with positive 111 In platelet images with that in 69 patients with negative images during a mean follow-up of 38 +/- 31 (+/- SD) months after platelet imaging. The positive and negative image groups were similar with respect to age (59 +/- 11 vs. 62 +/- 10 years), prevalence of previous infarction (94% vs. 78%, p less than 0.05), time from last infarction (28 +/- 51 vs. 33 +/- 47 months), ejection fraction (29 +/- 14 vs. 33 +/- 14), long-term or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (15% vs. 26%), warfarin therapy during follow-up (26% vs. 20%), platelet-inhibitory therapy during follow-up (50% vs. 33%), injected 111 In dose (330 +/- 92 vs. 344 +/- 118 microCi), and latest imaging time (greater than or equal to 48 hours in all patients). During follow-up, embolic events occurred in 21% (seven of 34) of patients with positive platelet images for left ventricular thrombi as compared with 3% (two of 69) of patients with negative images (p = 0.002). By actuarial methods, at 42 months after platelet imaging, only 86% of patients with positive images were embolus free as compared with 98% of patients with negative images (p less than 0.01)

  16. Installation of an isotope separator in Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Z.; Gulyas, J.; Vitez, A.; Csige, L.; Krasznahorkay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An isotope separator named OSIRIS was decommissioned in Studsvik, Sweden last July. Researchers there offered this equipment to us for dismantling and moving it over to ATOMKI in Debrecen for installation at the cyclotron lab and save and use it in nuclear physics and other sciences where stable and radioactive isotopes are used extensively for fundamental and applied research. Since the separator was used to separate radioactive isotopes, the ion source with its beam extracting, shaping, and transporting accessories, as well as the lining inside the bending magnet, furthermore the beam diagnostic and shaping elements in the 'switchyard' part of the separator had to stay in Studsvik because of the high radioactive contamination. In order to operate this equipment, first we have to design and manufacture these parts together with a new endstation for the collection and handling of the separated isotopes. Parallel with the installation, we also concentrate on different applications of an isotope separator, including separation of stable isotopes for labelling special compounds used in many branches of sciences, medical care, and industry, and on studying single ion implantation possibilities, as well as on the production of special targets for nuclear physics research. First we want to separate stable isotopes, and then, when we overcome all technical pitfalls, we will consider using this equipment to separate radioactive isotopes as well. Our intention is to have this equipment available to anyone at ATOMKI and elsewhere interested in using its capabilities in their own research fields. Consequently, all comments, suggestion, and ideas are welcome now and continuously, since the design and manufacture of parts can then be oriented by taking into account all the suggestions as much as possible. (author)

  17. A new assay for cytotoxic lymphocytes, based on a radioautographic readout of 111In release, suitable for rapid, semi-automated assessment of limit-dilution cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortman, K.; Wilson, A.

    1981-01-01

    A new assay for cytotoxic T lymphocytes is described, of general application, but particularly suitable for rapid, semi-automated assessment of multiple microculture tests. Target cells are labelled with high efficiency and to high specific activity with the oxine chelate of 111 indium. After a 3-4 h incubation of test cells with 5 X 10 3 labelled target cells in V wells of microtitre trays, samples of the supernatant are spotted on paper (5 μl) or transferred to soft-plastic U wells (25-50 μl) and the 111 In release assessed by radioautography. Overnight exposure of X-ray film with intensifying screens at -70 0 C gives an image which is an intense dark spot for maximum release, a barely visible darkening with the low spontaneous release, and a definite positive with 10% specific lysis. The degree of film darkening, which can be quantitated by microdensitometry, shows a linear relationship with cytotoxic T lymphocyte dose up to the 40% lysis level. The labelling intensity and sensitivity can be adjusted over a wide range, allowing a single batch of the short half-life isotope to serve for 2 weeks. The 96 assays from a single tray are developed simultaneously on a single small sheet of film. Many trays can be processed together, and handling is rapid if 96-channel automatic pipettors are used. The method allows rapid visual scanning for positive and negative limit dilution cultures in cytotoxic T cell precursor frequency and specificity studies. In addition, in conjunction with an automated densitometer designed to scan microtitre trays, the method provides an efficient alternative to isotope counting in routine cytotoxic assays. (Auth.)

  18. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  19. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  20. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  1. 111In-BnDTPA-F3: an Auger electron-emitting radiotherapeutic agent that targets nucleolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Bart; Waller, Andrew; Target, Carol; Kersemans, Veerle; Smart, Sean; Vallis, Katherine A

    2012-02-20

    The F3 peptide (KDEPQRRSARLSAKPAPPKPEPKPKKAPAKK), a fragment of the human high mobility group protein 2, binds nucleolin. Nucleolin is expressed in the nuclei of normal cells but is also expressed on the membrane of some cancer cells. The goal was to investigate the use of 111In-labeled F3 peptide for Auger electron-targeted radiotherapy. F3 was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for confocal microscopy and conjugated to p-SCN-benzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BnDTPA) for labeling with 111In to form 111In-BnDTPA-F3. MDA-MB-231-H2N (231-H2N) human breast cancer cells were exposed to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 and used in cell fractionation, γH2AX immunostaining (a marker of DNA double-strand breaks), and clonogenic assays. In vivo, biodistribution studies of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 were performed in 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice. In tumor growth delay studies, 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 μg, 6 MBq/μg) was administered intravenously to 231-H2N xenograft-bearing mice once weekly for 3 weeks. Membrane-binding of FITC-F3 was observed in 231-H2N cells, and there was co-localization of FITC-F3 with nucleolin in the nuclei. After exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 for 2 h, 1.7% of 111In added to the medium was membrane-bound. Of the bound 111In, 15% was internalized, and of this, 37% was localized in the nucleus. Exposure of 231-H2N cells to 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (1 μM, 6 MBq/μg) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in γH2AX foci and in a significant reduction of clonogenic survival compared to untreated cells or cells exposed to unlabeled BnDTPA-F3 (46 ± 4.1%, 100 ± 1.8%, and 132 ± 7.7%, respectively). In vivo, tumor uptake of 111In-BnDTPA-F3 (3 μg, 6 MBq/μg) at 3-h post-injection was 1% of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g), and muscle uptake was 0.5%ID/g. In tumor growth delay studies, tumor growth rate was reduced 19-fold compared to untreated or unlabeled BnDTPA-F3-treated mice (p = 0.023). 111In-BnDTPA-F3 is internalized into 231-H2N cells and translocates

  2. Human breast tumor imaging using 111In labeled monoclonal antibody: Anthymic mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban An Khaw; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Bailes, J.S.; Schneider, S.L.; Lancaster, J.; Lasher, J.C.; McGuire, W.L.; Powers, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 323/A3, an IgG1, was raised against the human breast tumor cell line MCF-7 and recognized a 43 Kd membrane associated glycoprotein. Histochemical studies with the antibody detected 75% of metastatic lymph nodes, 59% of primary breast tumors, and showed some staining in 20% of benign breast lesions. For radionuclide imaging, the MoAb 323/A3 was labeled with both 125 I and 111 In, via covalently coupled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) by the mixed anhydride method. The antibody activity of the DTPA modified 323/A3 was assessed by an immunoassay using viable and fixed MCF-7 target cells. Male athymic nude mice bearing BT-20 human mammary tumors were injected with dual 125 I/ 111 In labeled DTPA 323/A3 via the tail veins. The animals were imaged with a gamma camera equipped with a pinhole collimator at 1-3 h, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days after the tracer administration. On day 5 or 6, the animals were killed, and the biodistribution of the radiotracers was determined for the blood, thyroid, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, gastro-intestinal tract and tumor. Target to blood ratio at 6 days for the 111 In tracer was 24:1 in the group with a mean tumor weight of 0.492 g, and 13:1 in another group with a mean tumor weight of 0.1906 g (day 5). However, the 125 I activity showed only 3.6:1 and 5.4:1 target to blood ratios in the corresponding groups. The larger tumors localized less 111 I tracer (27.13%±7.57% injected dose/g, Mean±SD) than the smaller tumors (52.75%±22.25% ID/g). Analysis of the gamma images showed that the maximum tracer concentration occurred in the tumors at about 2 to 3 days after intravenous tracer administration. The excellent tumor resolution observed with BT-20 tumors may be due to increased 43 Kd glycoprotein antigen density in this tumor cell line. (orig.)

  3. Affinity of 169Yb, 67Ga and 111In for malignant tumor, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Itsuko

    1975-01-01

    The tumor affinity of 169 Yb-citrate, 67 Ga-citrate and 111 In-citrate was examined by using Yoshida sarcoma-bearing rats, and the affinity of these compounds for inflammation was also tested using rats with inflammation induced by croton oil injection. In this investigation there was no great difference in uptake by the tumor tissue of these compounds, but a great difference was observed in the retention value of the blood and uptake rate in the bone. 169 Yb-citrate was cleared rapidly from the blood and was taken mostly into the bone. So the retention values in the soft tissues became very small. On the other hand, 111 In-citrate was slowly and only slightly taken into the bone from the blood, so the retention values in the soft tissue remained relatively high. 67 Ga-citrate showed the intermediate value between the bone uptake rate of 169 Yb-citrate and that of 111 In-citrate. In the following experiments, 169 Yb-citrate and 67 Ga-citrate were compared in four strains: Yoshida sarcoma, Walker carcinosarcoma 256, Sarcoma 180, and Ehrlich tumor. The uptake rate of 169 Yb in tumor tissue was much larger than that of 67 Ga in Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice, but the value of 169 Yb was slightly smaller than those of 67 Ga in Yoshida sarcoma-bearing rats, Walker carcinosarcoma 256-bearing rats and Sarcoma 180-bearing mice. Tumor to organ ratios of 169 Yb, which were most important for tumor scanning, were much larger than those of 67 Ga in all four strains except tumor to bone ratios of 169 Yb. From the above-described facts, it was shown that 169 Yb-citrate had a stronger tumor affinity than 67 Ga-citrate and that the tumor affinity of 169 Yb-citrate was similar in these four strains of tumor bearing animals. These three compounds had a relatively strong affinity with the inflammatory tissue. (auth.)

  4. /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes: comparison with /sup 111/In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Roddie, M.E.; Zacharopoulos, G.P.; George, P.; Stuttle, A.W.J.; Lavender, J.P.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.

    1988-06-01

    The lipophilic complex, /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is an efficient leucocyte label, and labels granulocytes with more stability than mononuclear leucocytes. The recovery of /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HMPAO granulocytes was similar to /sup 111/In-labelled granulocytes isolated and labelled in plasma using tropolone. The Tsub(1/2) of /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled granulocytes in blood was less than that of /sup 111/In-labelled granulocytes. The initial biodistribution of /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled leucocytes was similar to /sup 111/In-labelled granulocytes, with a rapid initial lung transit, prominent splenic activity, bone marrow activity and minimal hepatic activity, although, unlike /sup 111/In, /sup 99/Tcsup(m) activity was also seen in urine, occasionally in the gallbladder, and, from about 4 h, consistently in the colon. Bone marrow activity was particularly prominent with /sup 99/Tcsup(m). About 6% of /sup 99/Tcsup(m) was excreted in the faeces up to 48 h after injection, and about 17% in urine up to 24 h. The time-activity curves of reticuloendothelial activity up to 24 h were broadly similar for the two labelled cell preparations. Clinical information given by the two agents was similar in 27 of 30 patients who received both. We conclude that with respect to granulocyte kinetics and clinical data, /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes are comparable with /sup 111/In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes.

  5. Effects of ligand priming and multiple-dose injection on tissue uptake of 111In-pentetreotide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeman, Wout A. P.; Jong, Marion de; Bernard, Bert F.; Bakker, Willem H.; Rolleman, Edgar J.; Kwekkeboom, Kik J.; Visser, Theo J.; Krenning, Eric P.

    1997-01-01

    In patients undergoing somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, treatment with octreotide (Sandostatin[reg]) is usually discontinued 24-48 h before and after injection with the radioligand 111 In-pentetreotide ([ 111 In-DTPA o ]octreotide) (Octreoscan[reg]) because octreotide competes with radioligand for the same receptors. However, Doerr et al. and Soresi et al. reported improved visualization of carcinoid and small cell lung cancer lesions, respectively, during continued octreotide treatment. We found that intravenous administration of unlabeled octreotide to rats inhibited the binding of an optimal dose (0.5 μg) of 111 In-pentetreotide to somatostatin receptors in pancreas and adrenals in a mass- and time-dependent way. Pretreatment with unlabeled octreotide never increased receptor binding of 111 In-pentetreotide. Administration of 100 μg of octreotide decreased receptor-bound radioactivity if given simultaneously with or 10 or 20 min after injection of the radioligand, but had no effect if given 30 min after the radioligand. These findings indicate rapid processing of receptor-bound octreotide and suggest that octreotide treatment of patients undergoing 111 In-pentetreotide scintigraphy may be reinitiated as soon as 1 h after radioligand administration

  6. Isotope applications on uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.C.L.C.; Vigna Filho, E. del

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for the treatment of uterine cervix carcinoma are presented with isotopes used in the Instituto de Radioterapia Geral e Megavoltagem de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Gynecological applicators, dosimetry care, diagnostic methods, stage and treatment are described that are the same as in the M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston, Texas. The need for the use of 'After-loading' methods is emphasized, as well as radium substitutes, mainly Cs-137 and accurate dosimetry [pt

  7. Evaluation of the plasma hydrogen isotope content by residual gas analysis at JET and AUG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenik, A.; Alegre, D.; Brezinsek, S.; De Castro, A.; Kruezi, U.; Oberkofler, M.; Panjan, M.; Primc, G.; Reichbauer, T.; Resnik, M.; Rohde, V.; Seibt, M.; Schneider, P. A.; Wauters, T.; Zaplotnik, R.; ASDEX-Upgrade, the; EUROfusion MST1 Teams; contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    The isotope content of the plasma reflects on the dynamics of isotope changeover experiments, efficiency of wall conditioning and the performance of a fusion device in the active phase of operation. The assessment of the isotope ratio of hydrogen and methane molecules is used as a novel method of assessing the plasma isotope ratios at JET and ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG). The isotope ratios of both molecules in general shows similar trends as the isotope ratio detected by other diagnostics. At JET, the absolute values of RGA signals are in relatively good agreement with each other and with spectroscopy data, while at AUG the deviation from neutral particle analyser data are larger, and the results show a consistent spatial distribution of the isotope ratio. It is further shown that the isotope ratio of the hydrogen molecule can be used to study the degree of dissociation of the injected gas during changeover experiments.

  8. The US national isotope program: Current status and strategy for future success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, Mark J.; Bobek, Leo M.; Butler, Ralph A.; Garland, Marc A.; Hill, David J.; Krieger, Jeanne K.; Muckerheide, James B.; Patton, Brad D.; Silberstein, Edward B.

    2005-01-01

    Since their introduction in the 1940s, peaceful use of stable isotopes and radioisotopes in the United States has expanded continuously. Today, new isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic uses are not being developed, critical isotopes for national security are in short supply, and demand for isotopes critical to homeland security exceeds supply. While commercial suppliers, both domestic and foreign, can only meet specific needs, the nation needs a consistent, reliable supply of radioactive and stable isotopes for research, medical, security, and space power applications. The national isotope infrastructure, defined as both facilities and trained staff at national laboratories and universities, is in danger of being lost due to chronic underfunding. With the specific recommendations given herein, the US Department of Energy may realign and refocus its Isotope Program to provide a framework for a successful National Isotope Program

  9. A bedside technique for the diagnosis of acute rejection in renal transplants using 111-In platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, S.T.; Buckels, J.A.C.; Drolc, Z.; Hawker, R.J.; Barnes, A.D.; McCollum, C.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 33 patients was studied with the aim of developing a bedside method for providing early diagnosis of acute rejection using 111-In labelled platelets. Platelet deposition was detected in all patients suffering acute rejection. A significant increase in kidney/aortic arch ratio, as measured by the portable bedside system, preceded the clinical diagnosis in 70% of patients. Using this system, it appeared possible not only to diagnose acute rejection at an earlier stage but also to predict irrecoverable transplant loss even in the presence of tubular necrosis. By labelling the platelets repeatedly for at least two weeks after transplantation, the period of highest risk for acute rejection and other complications. The gamma camera should still be employed in the event of markedly increased platelet deposition to differentiate between rejection and vascular complications

  10. Differential centrifugation of leucocytes and platelets applied to 111In-leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet contamination of 111 In-leucocytes can be minimized by centrifugation of leucocyte-rich plasma before labelling. The differential recovery of leucocytes and platelets from centrifugation depends on various biological and physical factors. Experimental measurements have been made of the effect of some of these factors. The ratio of leucocyte-to-platelet recovery was increased by using more than one centrifugation, and by using a low relative centrifugal force (RCF). To extend the study, a method of calculating cell recovery from centrifugation was developed, based on the experimental results. Calculations indicated that this ratio was at a maximum at around 85g RCF, and was least affected by changes in the suspension medium viscosity. At 85g, leucocyte recovery was incomplete, but calculations indicated that there was a preferential recovery of granulocytes which was subsequently verified by experiment. (author)

  11. Modelling study on production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Ayhan; Korkut, Turgay [Sinop Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Yigit, Mustafa [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts; Tel, Eyyup [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts

    2015-07-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotope via {sup 111-114}Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  12. Application of 111In-bleomycine in the scintigraphy of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, B.; Peshev, N.; Minchev, D.; Tsanev, Ts.

    1990-01-01

    A gamma camera scintigraphic study of the large intestine was made of 24 patients ( 23 with colorectal cancer and 1 with abscess). 111 In-bleomycin was used. The diagnosis of all patients was verified surgically and histologically. In 88.2% of the patients a positive scintigraphic scan was obtained. Negative scintigraphic result was obtained in 2 patients with colorectal cancer localized in the ileocaecal and the transversal part of the colon. The operation showed the presence of localized tumour with 2 cm in diameter and no data for infiltration of the adjacent tissues. In the patients with benign neoplasms no accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical was registered. Positive scan was also obtained in 1 patient with post-traumatic abscess of the gluteal region. A second scanning after the conduction of appropriate anti-inflammatory therapy could be used for differentiation of the inflammations from the malignant processes. 3 figs., 5 refs

  13. Experimental study of ΔI=1 bands in 111In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, P.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ganguly, S.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    The two ΔI=1 bands in 111 In, built upon the 3461.0 and 4931.8 keV states, have been studied. The bands were populated in the reaction 100 Mo( 19 F, α4nγ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV. Mean lifetimes of nine states, four in the first and five in the second band, have been determined for the first time from Doppler shift attenuation data. The deduced B(M1) rates and their behavior as a function of level spin support the interpretation of these bands within the framework of the shears mechanism. The geometrical model of Machiavelli et al. has been used to derive the effective gyromagnetic ratios for the two bands.

  14. Use of platelets labelled with 111In-Oxine for detection of aortic endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, V.; Pulpon, L.A.; Rodriguez, E.; Marin, D.; Chamorro, J.L.; Ortiz-Berrocal, J.

    1982-01-01

    The vegetation is the most characteristic lesion of infective endocarditis. It is constituted mainly of platelets immersed in a fibrin magma, wherein microorganism nest. The damaged vascular endothelium constitutes the first stimulus for the formation of an aseptic platelet thrombus. For this reason, the use of labelled platelets permits first the external detection of formed vegetations and second, by means of serial studies, the study of the evolution of the pathological lesion under treatment with various pharmacological agent. 111 In forms a chelate with the 8-hydroxyquinolein molecule (oxine), and this chelate passes through the platelets membranes and forms a stable bond with cytoplasmic structures. The procedure used in rabbits was useful for the external detection and study of the formation of vegetation induced by infective endocarditis. The technique could be highly useful in the experimental evaluation of antiaggregant agents

  15. Detection of intracardiac thrombi by 111In-oxine platelet imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Hayashida, Kohei; Uehara, Toshiisa; Naito, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Takahiro; Boku, Eidai; Sakakibara, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    111 In-oxine platelet imaging (RI) was undertaken in 55 patients with suspected intracardiac thrombi. The results were compared with those from echocardiography (US) and computed tomography (CT). Sensitivity and specificity of RI were 71 % and 92 %, respectively. Visualizing thrombi on RI was seen in 10 (56 %) of 18 patients receiving anticoagulant therapy such as Warfarin (Group A) and in 12 (92 %) of 13 patients without it (Group B). This implied that active platelet deposition is inhibited by giving Warfarin. Regarding the size of thrombi, three methods showed the same size in 11 (85 %) of Group B. RI showed smaller thrombi than US and CT in 7 (39 %) of Group A, and failed to reveal them in 8 (44 %). Unlike morphological diagnosis by US and CT, RI proved to be of value in the evaluation of the activity of platelets (platelet deposition on the surface of thrombus). This method can also be used in the evaluation of thrombogenity. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Radiochemical separation from111In from Cd and Cu by Ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, R.; Khanchi, A. R.; Rafii, H.; Maragheh, M. G.; Farajzadeh, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, during the nuclear reaction of nat Cd (p, xn) 111 In, the irradiated cadmium target was dissolved in 3 M nitric acid. It was passed through a cation exchange column, containing 4 g. of AG 5OW-X8, and then was separated from cadmium and copper impurities by using a simple two stage procedure. At the first stage, cadmium was eluted with acetone-water-hydrobromic acid solution. At the second stage, indium was eluted with acetone-water-hydrochloric acid solution. The effluent was evaporated to dry and the residue was dissolved in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. The overall yield of the procedure was 95 ± 1 percent and the amount of cadmium and copper contamination were 0.3 and 0.1 ppm, respectively

  17. Development of O-18 stable isotope separation technology using membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Taek Soo; Choi, Hwa Rim; Park, Sung Hee; Lee, Ki Tae; Chang, Dae Shik

    2006-06-15

    The ultimate goal of this investigation is to develop the separation technology for O-18 oxygen stable isotope used in a cyclotron as a target for production of radioisotope F-18. F-18 is a base material for synthesis of [F-18]FDG radio-pharmaceutical, which is one of the most important tumor diagnostic agent used in PET (Positron Emission Tomography). More specifically, this investigation is focused on three categories as follow, 1) development of the membrane distillation isotope separation process to re-enrich O-18 stable isotope whose isotopic concentration is reduced after used in a cyclotron, 2) development of organic impurity purification technology to remove acetone, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile contained in a used cyclotron O-18 enriched target water, and 3) development of a laser absorption spectroscopic system for analyzing oxygen isotopic concentration in water.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using 111In-DTPA ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by 111 In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 111 In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that 111 In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis

  19. Evaluation of absorbed dose in studies of renal function due to 123I/131I (hippuran) e 111In (DPTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, M.V.; Castillo, C.E.; Rojas, R.; Cabrera, C.; Abanto, D.; Morgan, A.; Diaz, E.E.

    2015-01-01

    The absorbed dose of the kidneys during renal function studies of adult patients is estimated through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing the 123 I/ 131 I (hippuran) e 111 In (DPTA). Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for adult kidneys, it is shown that dosimetric contributions of organs of biokinetics 123 I/ 131 I (hippuran) e 111 In (DPTA) are significant, in estimative of dose for renal function studies. Dosimetric contributions (body and whole bladder, kidneys excluding) are given by 11.90% (for 123 I), 4.97% (for 131 I) and 28.32% (for 111 In). In all cases, the dosimetric contributions are mainly due to photons issued by the whole body

  20. Preclinical evaluation of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl Ak; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the (111)In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X ((111)In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the (111)In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the (111)In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X anti-Ku70/Ku80 monoclonal antibody in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Axelsson, Susan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Welinder, Charlotte; Borrebaeck, Carl AK; Strand, Sven-Erik; Tran, Thuy A; Jansson, Bo; Bjartell, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the Ku70/Ku80 complex as a potential target for antibody imaging of prostate cancer. We evaluated the in vivo and ex vivo tumor targeting and biodistribution of the 111In-labeled human internalizing antibody, INCA-X (111In-DTPA-INCA-X antibody), in NMRI-nude mice bearing human PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 or DU145 xenografts. DTPA-conjugated, non-labeled antibody was pre-administered at different time-points followed by a single intravenous injection of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X. At 48, 72 and 96 h post-injection, tissues were harvested, and the antibody distribution was determined by measuring radioactivity. Preclinical SPECT/CT imaging of mice with and without the predose was performed at 48 hours post-injection of labeled DTPA-INCA-X. Biodistribution of the labeled antibody showed enriched activity in tumor, spleen and liver. Animals pre-administered with DTPA-INCA-X showed increased tumor uptake and blood content of 111In-DTPA-INCA-X with reduced splenic and liver uptake. The in vitro and in vivo data presented show that the 111In-labeled INCA-X antibody is internalized into prostate cancer cells and by pre-administering non-labeled DTPA-INCA-X, we were able to significantly reduce the off target binding and increase the 111In-DTPA-INCA-X mAb uptake in PC-3, PC-3M-Lu2 and DU145 xenografts. The results are encouraging and identifying the Ku70/Ku80 antigen as a target is worth further investigation for functional imaging of prostate cancer. PMID:24982817

  2. Effects of linker variation on the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of an 111In-labeled RGD peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Liu, Shuang; Kruijtzer, John A.W.; Soede, Annemieke C.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Liskamp, Rob M.J.; Corstens, Frans H.M.; Boerman, Otto C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the selective expression of the α v β 3 integrin in tumors, radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides are attractive candidates for tumor targeting. Minor modifications of these peptides could have a major impact on in vivo characteristics. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of linker modification between two cyclic RGD sequences and DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N ' ,N'''-tetraacetic acid) on the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the tracer. Methods: A dimeric RGD peptide was synthesized and conjugated either directly with DOTA or via different linkers: PEG 4 (polyethylene glycol), glutamic acid or lysine. The RGD peptides were radiolabeled with 111 In, and their in vitro and in vivo α v β 3 -binding characteristics were determined. Results: LogP values varied between -2.82±0.06 and -3.95±0.33. The IC 50 values for DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 , DOTA-PEG 4 -E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 , DOTA-E-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 and DOTA-K-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 were comparable. Two hours after injection, the tumor uptakes of the 111 In-labeled compounds were not significantly different. The kidney accumulation of [ 111 In]-DOTA-K-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 [4.05±0.20% of the injected dose per gram (ID/g)] was significantly higher as compared with that of [ 111 In]-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (2.63±0.19% ID/g; P 111 In]-DOTA-E-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (2.16±0.21% ID/g; P 111 In]-DOTA-E-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (2.12±0.09% ID/g) was significantly higher as compared with that of [ 111 In]-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (1.64±0.1% ID/g; P 111 In]-DOTA-K-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 (1.52±0.04% ID/g; P v β 3 and tumor uptake. Insertion of lysine caused enhanced kidney retention; that of glutamic acid also resulted in enhanced retention in the kidneys. PEG 4 appeared to be the most suitable linker as compared with glutamic acid and lysine because it has the highest tumor-to-blood ratio and the lowest uptake in the kidney and liver

  3. Evaluation of absorbed dosis during studies of renal function due AI 123I / 131I (Hippuran) and 111 In (DPTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga, Marcial V.V.; Diestra, Carlos E.C.; Villanueva, Raul A.S.; Alegria, Roberto R.; Salvatierra, Carlos C.; Rosales, Jorge M.; Gonzalez, Denis A.; Cruz, Carlos A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Using the MIRD methodology and Cristy-Eckerman representation for for adult kidneys, it proves that the dosimetric contributions of bodies of the biokinetics of 123 I / 131 I (Hippuran) and 111 In (DTPA) are significant, in the estimated of dose, during studies of renal function. Dosimetric contributions (whole body and urinary bladder, kidney excluding) are given by 11.90% (for 123 I), 4.97% (for 131 I) and 28.32% (for 111 In). In all cases, the dosimetric contributions are mainly due to photons emitted by the entire body

  4. A comparison of two methods of labelling autologous platelets with 111In-oxine in five different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christenson, J.T.; Arvidsson, D.; Thoerne, J.; Norgren, L.; Olsson, P.I.; Strand, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Several different methods for labelling autologous platelets with 111 In-oxine have been described. However, no comparative study has been reported. In the present investigation two different labelling methods were compared in terms of labelling efficiency and platelet function in five species: human, dog, pig, rabbit and rat. One of the labelling methods, utilising among other things a serum albumin gradient separation fo platelets and incubation of 111 In-oxine in a water bath at 37 0 C, was superior in all species with significantly higher labelling efficiency and unchanged platelet function. (orig.)

  5. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, B.F.M.

    1983-11-01

    A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selective radiations preferentially absorbed by the isotopes of a certain type or by the molecules containing them, said absorption substantially increasing the probability of ionization of said atoms or molecules relative to the atoms or molecules that did not absorb the radiation. The process consists of placing the isotopic mixture in such a form, subjecting it in a separation zone to selective radiations and to an electrical field that produces migration of positive ions toward the negative electrodes and negative ions toward the positive electrodes, and withdrawing from certain such zones the fractions thus enriched in certain isotopes

  6. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P C; Boerner, W; Emrich, S; Gutekunst, R; Herrmann, J; Horn, K; Klett, M; Krueskemper, H L; Pfannenstiel, P; Pickardt, C R

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  7. Thyroid diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Reiners, C.; Reinwein, D.; Schleusener, H.

    1985-01-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  9. Isotopic marking and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

  10. Isotopes in oxidation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of isotopes in the study of organic oxidation mechanisms is discussed. The help provided by tracer studies to demonstrate the two-equivalent path - hydride transfer, is illustrated by the examples of carbonium oxidants and the Wacker reaction. The role of kinetic isotope effects in the study of the scission of carbon-hydrogen bonds is illustrated by hydride abstraction, hydrogen atom abstraction, proton abstraction and quantum mechanical tunnelling. Isotopic studies on the oxidation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, amines and hydrocarbons are discussed. The role of isotopes in the study of biochemical oxidation is illustrated with a discussion on nicotinamide and flavin coenzymes. (B.R.H.)

  11. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  12. A novel statistical analysis method to improve the detection of hepatic foci of {sup 111}In-octreotide in SPECT/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnander, Tobias [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wikberg, E. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Svensson, J. [Department of Oncology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gjertsson, P. [Department of Clinical Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wängberg, B. [Department of Surgery, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Båth, M.; Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-01-19

    Low uptake ratios, high noise, poor resolution, and low contrast all combine to make the detection of neuroendocrine liver tumours by {sup 111}In-octreotide single photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a segmentation analysis method that could improve the accuracy of hepatic neuroendocrine tumour detection. Our novel segmentation was benchmarked by a retrospective analysis of patients categorized as either {sup 111}In-octreotide positive ({sup 111}In-octreotide(+)) or {sup 111}In-octreotide negative ({sup 111}In-octreotide(−)) for liver tumours. Following a 3-year follow-up period, involving multiple imaging modalities, we further segregated {sup 111}In-octreotide-negative patients into two groups: one with no confirmed liver tumours ({sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(−)) and the other, now diagnosed with liver tumours ({sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(+)). We retrospectively applied our segmentation analysis to see if it could have detected these previously missed tumours using {sup 111}In-octreotide. Our methodology subdivided the liver and determined normalized numbers of uptake foci (nNUF), at various threshold values, using a connected-component labelling algorithm. Plots of nNUF against the threshold index (ThI) were generated. ThI was defined as follows: ThI = (c{sub max} − c{sub thr})/c{sub max}, where c{sub max} is the maximal threshold value for obtaining at least one, two voxel sized, uptake focus; c{sub thr} is the voxel threshold value. The maximal divergence between the nNUF values for {sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(−), and {sup 111}In-octreotide(+) livers, was used as the optimal nNUF value for tumour detection. We also corrected for any influence of the mean activity concentration on ThI. The nNUF versus ThI method (nNUFTI) was then used to reanalyze the {sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(−) and {sup 111}In-octreotide(−)/radtech(+) groups. Of a total of 53 {sup 111}In

  13. Isotope and nuclear chemistry division. Annual report, FY 1987. Progress report, October 1986-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.W.; Heiken, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1987 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical weapons diagnostics and research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics | Szopinski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy as well as the scope of utilisation of a new bio-electronic method of organ diagnostics. Design. Double-blind comparative study of the diagnostic results obtained by means of organ electrodermal diagnostics (OED) and clinical diagnoses, as a criterion standard. Setting.

  15. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  16. Problems in producing nuclear reactor for medical isotopes and the Global Crisis of molybdenum supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiarrain, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses drugs that incorporate a radioactive isotope radiopharmaceuticals. Every year are performed, worldwide, 35 million nuclear medicine procedures, of which 80% are done with radiopharmaceuticals containing the isotope, molybdenum-99, produced in nuclear reactors. In recent years, there have been several supply crisis of molybdenum-99, which have hampered diagnostic procedure with technitium-99m. (Author)

  17. SNS Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.; Cameron, P.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project is a collaborative effort to build the next generation neutron science facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The facility will deliver a 2 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target. Neutrons from this target will be moderated and sent to several state-of-the-art instruments. Six national laboratories are involved in SNS construction. Berkeley (LBNL) will build the front end that produces a 2.5 MeV, 52 mA H-beam. Los Alamos (LANL) is responsible for the 1 GeV linac with a superconducting section provided by Thomas Jefferson (JLab). Brookhaven (BNL) is building the transfer lines and accumulator ring. Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne (ANL) have responsibility for the target and instruments. All activities are coordinated by the SNS project office at Oak Ridge. The high beam power, a desired availability of 95%, and an aggressive commissioning schedule lead to some interesting challenges in beam diagnostics

  18. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  19. Discovery of the iron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  20. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  1. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Complexation and biodistribution study of 111In complexes of bifunctional phosphinic acid analogues of H4DOTA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forsterová, Michaela; Zimová, Jana; Petrík, M.; Lázníček, M.; Lázníčková, A.; Hermann, P.; Melichar, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 337 (2007), s. 34-34 ISSN 1619-7070 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : bifunctional H4DOTA ligands * phosphinic acid analogues, * complexation of 111In Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  3. Determination of blood loss during dialysis with capillary and plate dialyzers using 111 In-labelled erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinn, H.; Schueler, H.W.; Horsch, R.; Ostertag, H.; Clorius, J.; Moehring, K.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of Hollow Fiber Artificial Kidneys and four different types of plate-dialyzers were investigated with 111-In-labelled red-cells, to quantify the bloodloss during dialyzation. The different dialyzers showed significant differences in this respect. Two models were found to be superior, since they regularly caused only a minimal bloodloss

  4. [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1] octreotide scintigraphy in thyroidal and orbital Graves' disease: a parameter for disease activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, P. T.; Krenning, E. P.; Wijngaarde, R.; Kooy, P. P.; Oei, H. Y.; van den Bosch, W. A.; Reubi, J. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Hooijkaas, H.; van der Loos, T.

    1994-01-01

    Visualization of malignant lymphomas and granulomatous disease is possible by [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]octreotide scintigraphy through binding of the radioligand to somatostatin receptors on activated leukocytes. Because thyroidal and orbital tissues are infiltrated by activated leukocytes in Graves'

  5. Improved labelling of DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated peptides and antibodies with 111In in HEPES and MES buffer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Joosten, L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Gotthardt, M.; Boerman, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], high specific activity of 111In-labelled tracers will allow administration of low amounts of tracer to prevent receptor saturation and/or side effects. To increase the specific activity, we studied the effect of the buffer

  6. In vitro detection of mdr1 mRNA in murine leukemia cells with 111In-labeled oligonucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jingming; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Matsushita, Ryo; Nomura, Masaaki

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of intracellular mdr1 mRNA expression detection with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) was investigated in the murine leukemia cell line, P388/S, and its subclonal, adriamycin-resistant cell line, P388/R. The expression level of mdr1 mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Existence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon was assessed via cellular uptake of 99m Tc-sestamibi (MIBI), a known substrate for P-glycoprotein. A 15-mer phosphorothioate antisense ODN complementary to the sequences located at -1 to 14 of mdr1 mRNA and its corresponding sense ODN were conjugated with the cyclic anhydride of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (cDTPA) via an amino group linked to the terminal phosphate at the 5' end at pH 8-9. The DTPA-ODN complexes at concentrations of 0.1-17.4 μMwere reacted with 111 InCl 3 at pH 5 for 1 h. The hybridization affinity of labeled ODN was evaluated with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography following incubation with the complementary sequence. Cellular uptake of labeled ODN was examined in vitro. Furthermore, enhancing effects of synthetic lipid carriers (Transfast) on transmembrane delivery of ODN were assessed. P388/R cells displayed intense mdr1 mRNA expression in comparison with P388/S cells. 99m Tc-MIBI uptake in P388/S cells was higher than that in P388/R cells. Specific radioactivity up to 1,634 MBq/nmol was achieved via elevation of added radioactivity relative to ODN molar amount. The hybridization affinity of antisense 111 In-ODN was preserved at approximately 85% irrespective of specific activity. Cellular uptake of antisense 111 In-ODN did not differ from that of sense 111 In-ODN in either P388/S cells or P388/R cells. However, lipid carrier incorporation significantly increased transmembrane delivery of 111 In-ODN; moreover, specific uptake of antisense 111 In-ODN was demonstrated in P388/R cells. Radiolabeling of ODN at high specific

  7. SPECT/CT of lung nodules using 111In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) in a mouse lung carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Takuya; Mutoh, Michihiro; Imai, Toshio; Tsuta, Koji; Yanaka, Akinori; Fujii, Hirofumi; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, including Japan. Although computed tomography (CT) can detect small lung lesions such as those appearing as ground glass opacity, it cannot differentiate between malignant and non-malignant lesions. Previously, we have shown that single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging using (111)In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid-cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) (DOTA-c(RGDfK)), an imaging probe of αvβ3 integrin, is useful for the early detection of pancreatic cancer in a hamster pancreatic carcinogenesis model. In this study, we aimed to assess the usefulness of SPECT/CT with (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) for the evaluation of the malignancy of lung cancer. Lung tumors were induced by a single intraperitoneal injection (250 mg/kg) of urethane in male A/J mice. Twenty-six weeks after the urethane treatment, SPECT was performed an hour after injection of (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK). Following this, the radioactivity ratios of tumor to normal lung tissue were measured by autoradiography (ARG) in the excised lung samples. We also examined the expression of αvβ3 integrin in mouse and human lung samples. Urethane treatment induced 5 hyperplasias, 41 adenomas and 12 adenocarcinomas in the lungs of 8 A/J mice. SPECT with (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) could clearly visualize lung nodules, though we failed to detect small lung nodules like adenoma and hyperplasias (adenocarcinoma: 66.7%, adenoma: 33.6%, hyperplasia: 0.0%). ARG analysis revealed significant uptake of (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) in all the lesions. Moreover, tumor to normal lung tissue ratios increased along with the progression of carcinogenesis. Histopathological examination using human lung tissue samples revealed clear up-regulation of αvβ3 integrin in well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (Noguchi type B and C) rather than atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Although there are some limitations in evaluating the malignancy of

  8. {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 antibody: a novel tracer to image macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Samantha Y.A. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Imaging Chemistry and Biology, London (United Kingdom); Boerman, Otto C.; Gerrits, Danny; Franssen, Gerben M.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Metselaar, Josbert M. [University of Twente, Targeted Therapeutics, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Enschede (Netherlands); Lehmann, Steffi; Gerdes, Christian A. [Roche Innovation Center Zurich, Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development (pRED), Zurich (Switzerland); Abiraj, Keelara [Roche Innovation Center Basel, Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development (pRED), Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    Here, the expression of F4/80 on the cell surface of murine macrophages was exploited to develop a novel imaging tracer that could visualize macrophages in vivo. The immunoreactive fraction and IC{sub 50} of anti-F4/80-A3-1, conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabelled with {sup 111}In, were determined in vitro using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. In vivo biodistribution studies were performed with {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 and isotype-matched control antibody {sup 111}In-rat IgG2b at 24 and 72 h post-injection (p.i.) in SCID/Beige mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231 xenografts. In some studies mice were also treated with liposomal clodronate. Macrophage content in tissues was determined immunohistochemically. Micro-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT images were also acquired. In vitro binding assays showed that {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 specifically binds F4/80 receptor-positive macrophages. The immunoreactivity of anti-F4/80-A3-1 was 75 % and IC{sub 50} was 0.58 nM. In vivo, injection of 10 or 100 μg {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 resulted in splenic uptake of 78 %ID/g and 31 %ID/g, respectively, and tumour uptake of 1.38 %ID/g and 4.08 %ID/g, respectively (72 h p.i.). Liposomal clodronate treatment reduced splenic uptake of 10 μg {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 from 248 %ID/g to 114 %ID/g and reduced {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 uptake in the liver and femur (24 h p.i.). Tracer retention in the blood and tumour uptake increased (24 h p.i.). Tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1 was visualized by microSPECT/CT. Macrophage density in the spleen and liver decreased in mice treated with liposomal clodronate. Uptake of {sup 111}In-rat IgG2b was lower in the spleen, liver and femur when compared to {sup 111}In-anti-F4/80-A3-1. Radiolabelled anti-F4/80-A3-1 antibodies specifically localize in tissues infiltrated by macrophages in mice and can be used to visualize tumours. The liver and spleen act as antigen

  9. Isotopic research in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, H.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1978 scientists of the Central Institute of Isotope- and Radiation Research of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR have participated in antarctic research. Substantial results have been achieved in research on isotope ratios, on the dynamics of water resources, on concentration of deuterium in lichens, and on age determination of a mummified seal and a penguin colony

  10. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  12. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  14. Isotope research materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Preparation of research isotope materials is described. Topics covered include: separation of tritium from aqueous effluents by bipolar electrolysis; stable isotope targets and research materials; radioisotope targets and research materials; preparation of an 241 Am metallurgical specimen; reactor dosimeters; ceramic and cermet development; fission-fragment-generating targets of 235 UO 2 ; and wire dosimeters for Westinghouse--Bettis

  15. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  16. Superdeformation in Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    The Relatvistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is used to explore the structure of superdeformed (SD) 190,212 Pb isotopes using the non-linear NL3* and density dependent (DD-ME2, DD-PC1) interactions. We have studied the the excitation energy, the potential depth and the deformation of these Pb isotopes

  17. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  18. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  19. Isotope dilution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudge, A.

    1978-12-15

    The following aspects of isotope dilution analysis are covered in this report: fundamental aspects of the technique; elements of interest in the nuclear field, choice and standardization of spike nuclide; pre-treatment to achieve isotopic exchange and chemical separation; sensitivity; selectivity; and accuracy.

  20. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  1. Environmental isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Environmental isotope hydrology is a relatively new field of investigation based on isotopic variations observed in natural waters. These isotopic characteristics have been established over a broad space and time scale. They cannot be controlled by man, but can be observed and interpreted to gain valuable regional information on the origin, turnover and transit time of water in the system which often cannot be obtained by other techniques. The cost of such investigations is usually relatively small in comparison with the cost of classical hydrological studies. The main environmental isotopes of hydrological interest are the stable isotopes deuterium (hydrogen-2), carbon-13, oxygen-18, and the radioactive isotopes tritium (hydrogen-3) and carbon-14. Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are ideal geochemical tracers of water because their concentrations are usually not subject to change by interaction with the aquifer material. On the other hand, carbon compounds in groundwater may interact with the aquifer material, complicating the interpretation of carbon-14 data. A few other environmental isotopes such as 32 Si and 238 U/ 234 U have been proposed recently for hydrological purposes but their use has been quite limited until now and they will not be discussed here. (author)

  2. Laser assisted aerodynamic isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. van den

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the efficiency of conventional aerodynamic isotope seperation can be improved by two orders of magnitude with the aid of a relatively weak cw infrared laser which is used to induce isotopically selective condensation. Overall isotope enrichment factors in excess of 2 are obtained as compared to about 1.02 in the conventional seperation. Sulphur isotopes in SF 6 as well as Silicon isotopes in SiF 4 and Bromine isotopes in CF 3 Br are seperated on a laboratory scale. Infrared vibrational predissociation by itself and in combination with isotopically selective condensation are also shown to be effective new ways of isotope separation. (orig.) [de

  3. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    Greenland ice cores offer a unique opportunity to investigate the climate system behaviour. The objective of this PhD project is to investigate isotope modelling of present- day conditions and conduct model-data comparison using Greenland ice cores. Thus this thesis investigates how the integration...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  4. Applications of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, and 18 O are discussed

  5. SPECT versus planar scintigraphy for quantification of splenic sequestration of 111In-labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, S.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1992-01-01

    The splenic uptake of thrombocytes and spleen size were studied in 25 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) using two methods: anterior/posterior scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Various factors (acquisition and reconstruction protocols) influencing the quality of 111 In SPECT were studied. The splenic uptake, measured by SPECT, was found to be significantly higher in patients with a high level of autoantibodies in the blood than in patients without such antibodies. The correlation between the spleen SPECT volume and the geometric mean size calculated as geometric mean of anterior and posterior images differed by more than 50% from the SPECT volume in some patients. Based on these observations and on the results of phantom studies, it is concluded that a reasonable estimate of the spleen:liver uptake ratio may be obtained using planar imaging, but to estimate the spleen volume and the absolute splenic uptake of platelets SPECT imaging is needed, in spite of the present technical limitations of SPECT. (Author)

  6. Bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-chloride. A clinical value for the hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-10-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride (/sup 111/In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific.

  7. Subcellular distribution of 111In and 169Yb in tumor and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, A.; Ando, I.; Takeshita, M.; Hiraki, T.; Hisada, K.

    1981-01-01

    Subcellular distribution of 111 In and 169 Yb was quantitatively determined to evaluate the role of the lysosome in accumulation of these nuclides in malignant tumor tissue and in the liver using three different tumor models and the host liver. In Yoshida sarcoma and Ehrlich tumor, most of the radioactivity of these nuclides was localized in the supernatant fraction, and only a small amount of radioactivity was localized in the mitochondrial fraction, which contains lysosomes. In the liver, most of the radioactivity was concentrated in the mitochondrial fraction. The radioactivity of this fraction increased with time after the administration of these nuclides and reached approximately 50% of the total radioactivity within 24 h. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, radioactivity of the mitochondrial fraction increased with time after administration, and about 30% of the total radioactivity was concentrated in this fraction after 24 h. It is concluded that the lysosome does not play a major role in the tumor concentration of these nuclides, although it may play an important role in their liver concentration. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, it is pressumed that lysosome plays a considerably important role in the tumor concentration of these nuclides, hepatoma AH109A possessing some residual features of the liver. (orig.)

  8. Subcellular distribution of /sup 111/In and /sup 169/Yb in tumor and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Takeshita, M; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1981-05-01

    Subcellular distribution of /sup 111/In and /sup 169/Yb was quantitatively determined to evaluate the role of the lysosome in accumulation of these nuclides in malignant tumor tissue and in the liver using three different tumor models and the host liver. In Yoshida sarcoma and Ehrlich tumor, most of the radioactivity of these nuclides was localized in the supernatant fraction, and only a small amount of radioactivity was localized in the mitochondrial fraction, which contains lysosomes. In the liver, most of the radioactivity was concentrated in the mitochondrial fraction. The radioactivity of this fraction increased with time after the administration of these nuclides and reached approximately 50% of the total radioactivity within 24 h. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, radioactivity of the mitochondrial fraction increased with time after administration, and about 30% of the total radioactivity was concentrated in this fraction after 24 h. It is concluded that the lysosome does not play a major role in the tumor concentration of these nuclides, although it may play an important role in their liver concentration. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, it is pressumed that lysosome plays a considerably important role in the tumor concentration of these nuclides, hepatoma AH109A possessing some residual features of the liver.

  9. Correlation of 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy with clinical and laboratory findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Yoshitaka; Kitakata, Yuusuke; Uno, Kimiichi; Minoshima, Satoshi; Arimizu, Noboru.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between 111 In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy and clinical information and laboratory findings in 24 patients with bone infection and 35 patients with abdominal infection. Fifty-nine scintigrams were retrospectively reviewed and classified into positive or negative results. As the laboratory findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 60 minutes, and peripheral blood leukocyte counts (WBCC) were evaluated. Clinical information such as presence of fever and administration of antibiotics was also compared. No significant relationship between the scintigraphic results and clinical as well as laboratory findings was observed in bone infection patients. CRP levels in positive scintigraphic patients were significantly higher than those in negative scintigraphic patients in the abdominal infection group, otherwise the other indices were not correlated with the scintigraphic results. A few patients with slightly increased CRP (mostly chronic cases) did not show positive scintigrams, suggesting an increased false negative rate of leukocyte scintigraphy in such circumstances. These results suggest that it is inappropriate to determine the application of leukocyte scintigraphy depending on clinical as well as laboratory findings, and leukocyte scintigraphy would yield additional information different from other indices when evaluating inflammatory foci. (author)

  10. Direct Adsorption and Molecular Self-Assembly of Octylthioacetates on Au(111) in the Vapor Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Sung; Kang, Hun Gu; Kim, You Young; Lee, Seong Keun; Noh, Jae Geun

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the direct adsorption of OTA on Au(111) in ethanol solution led to the formation of a disordered phase, whereas OTA SAMs grown from the vapor phase have an ordered 5 Χ √3 striped phase. Thus, vapor deposition was found to be a more effective technique, as compared to solution deposition, for improving the structural order of SAMs by direct adsorption of thioacetates on gold. Organic thiols are prone to easily oxidize to disulfides or other oxidized species that can affect the formation and structure of SAMs. The presence of disulfides or oxidized compounds in thiol samples often yields poorly ordered SAMs containing a high defect density and disordered phases. An approach that minimizes undesirable thiol oxidation is the use of a protected thiol that is deprotected in situ before or during SAM formation. The protection of thiol groups can be readily accomplished by acetylation. SAMs derived from acetyl protected thiols (thioacetates) on gold have usually been formed via an in situ deprotection process of the acetyl group in strong acidic or basic solutions. Other deprotection techniques have also been developed that use organic compounds such as triethylamine, tetrabutylammonium cyanide, and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, and organic SAMs with a high degree of structural order have been successfully constructed in solutions containing these deprotection reagents

  11. Optical reflectance studies of highly specular anisotropic nanoporous (111) InP membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J A; Lewis, R A; Sirbu, L; Enachi, M; Tiginyanu, I M; Skuratov, V A

    2015-01-01

    High-precision optical angular reflectance measurements are reported for a specular anisotropic nanoporous (111) InP membrane prepared by doping-assisted wet-electrochemical etching. The membrane surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscope imaging and revealed a quasi-uniform and self-organized nanoporous network consisting of semiconductor ‘islands’ in the sub-wavelength regime. The optical response of the nanoporous InP surface was studied at 405 nm (740 THz; UV), 633 nm (474 THz; VIS) and 1064 nm (282 THz; NIR), and exhibited a retention of basic macro-dielectric properties. Refractive index determinations demonstrate an optical anisotropy for the membrane which is strongly dependent on the wavelength of incident light, and exhibits an interesting inversion (positive anisotropy to negative) between 405 and 633 nm. The inversion of optical anisotropy is attributed to a strongly reduced ‘metallic’ behaviour in the membrane when subject to above-bandgap illumination. For the simplest case of sub-bandgap incident irradiation, the optical properties of the nanoporous InP sample are analysed in terms of an effective refractive index n eff and compared to effective media approximations. (invited article)

  12. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  13. Mitigation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that experience in the remediation of schools and other large buildings has shown the importance of the effects of both the location of geologic sources and HVAC-induced distribution of indoor radon. In general, elevated radon in areas of schools with evenly distributed HVAC pressures are correlated with maximum soil radon emanations. However, strong or unequal HVAC effects can redistribute indoor radon to areas away from the direct source. Effective remediation required a complete understanding of both contributions. In some schools, highest indoor radon levels were located near large return ducts and were attributed to proximity to negative HVAC pressure. Successful sub-slab depressurization systems were installed, however, in rooms with lower indoor but greatest sub-slab radon levels, closest to the source. This shows the inadequacy of using indoor radon levels alone as a basis for remediation. Wings of two other schools with radon problems have equivalent window fan coil units in rooms of equal size and no central HVAC system. Highest indoor radon levels correlated well with highest sub-slab radon levels due to the equivalent effects of the window units. Diagnostic tests in other schools have revealed: blockwall radon transport to upper floors; high blockwall radon adjacent to sub-slab sources; and elevated indoor radon over crawlspace being drawn upward by HVAC-induced negative pressure, determined from indoor to outdoor micromanometer measurements

  14. Medical-isotope supply hit by production problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Paula

    2008-10-01

    A shortfall in the production of medical isotopes in Europe has forced hospitals to delay patient scans or offer alternative diagnostic tests. The problems began in August when all three nuclear reactors used to generate molybdenum-99, which then decays to form the key nuclear-imaging agent technetium-99, had to be unexpectedly shut down at the same time.

  15. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1986, October 1985-September 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1986 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical diagnostics and weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry

  16. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1985, October 1984-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1985 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiations facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes

  17. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report FY 1986, October 1985-September 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, J.H. (ed.)

    1987-06-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1986 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical diagnostics and weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry.

  18. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    the δ53Cr value of continental runoff into the ocean. The major findings were that river water is characterised by heavy δ53Cr values (+0.1‰ to +1.6‰), while soils are characterised by light δ53Cr values (-0.3‰), relative to the catchment bedrock (-0.17‰ to -0.21‰), indicating that Cr isotopes......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify......Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...

  19. Comparison of clinical imaging characteristics of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC with 111In-DTPA-octreotide: first result of a prospective phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, M.; Decristoforo, C.; Wenger, M.; Guggenberg, E. von; Moncayo, R.; Mather, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC(Tc-TOC) shows very similar clinical pharmacokinetics compared with 111 In-DTPA-octreotide (In-OCT), the gold standard for somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy, and is a promising agent to image SSTR-positive tumors. Here we present the first results of a phase II trial comparing the clinical value of Tc-TOC in a prospective intra-patient comparison with In-OCT. Until now 26 oncological patients were enrolled in the study after giving informed consent. The patients presented with thyroid adeno-carcinomas (n=5), MW (n=3), GEP-tumors (n=10), carcinoid syndromes with unknown primary lesions (n=4), paragangliomas (n=2) and pituitary tumor (n=2), one of whom due to MEN. Posterior and anterior views and SPECT images of the corresponding ROIs were acquired at 4 hrs and 24 hrs alter injection of 111 MBq of In-OCT (octreoscan(r)). TcTOC was given at a dose of 300-350 MBq and imaging was done at 4 hrs p.i. including whole body planar and SPECT studies. Interpretations of these two sets of planar data were done independently by two different viewers. Final confirmation of suspected lesions was obtained by correlative inspection of matched CT or MR scans. In 7 patients SSTR-scintigraphy was negative with both Tc-TOC and In-OCT. Matching positive scintigraphic results with both tracers were obtained in 17 out of 19 patients. In-OCT failed to detect two CT-positive thoracic lesions in two patients with thyroid cancer, whereby these lesions were seen by Tc-TOC. In this series of patients 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC imaging resulted in equivalent diagnostic information on the SSTR-Status, with advantages of a single acquisition, one day protocol and lower radiation dose. The excellent imaging properties resulted in improved diagnosis in 2 of 26 patients when compared to 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. (author)

  20. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  1. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating a given material into two or more parts, in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in the said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase UF 6 by infrared photon absorption followed by selective reaction of said excited UF 6 with atomic chlorine, bromine, or iodine to form a product which may be separated by means known in the art

  2. Radiation gradient isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for transporting, separating and storing charged particles, charged antiparticles and fully or partially ionized isotopes of any element comprising a laser beam generator, laser beam intensity profiler, a laser beam variable intensity attenuator, and means for injecting charged particles, charged antiparticles and ionized isotopes into the beam and extracting them from the system as required. The invention is particularly useful for channelling electrons and ions used for fuel pellet compression in inertial fusion systems, for separating the isotopes of elements and for the confinement of charged antiparticles and particle/antiparticle plasmas

  3. Detection of acute inflammation with 111In-labeled nonspecific polyclonal IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischman, A.J.; Rubin, R.H.; Khaw, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    The detection of focal sites of inflammation is an integral part of the clinical evaluation of the febrile patient. When anatomically distinct abscesses are present, lesion detection can be accomplished by standard radiographic techniques, particularly in patients with normal anatomy. At the phlegmon stage, however, and in patients who have undergone surgery, these techniques are considerably less effective. While radionuclide methods, such as Gallium-67 (67Ga)-citrate and Indium-111 (111In)-labeled WBCs have been relatively successful for the detection of early inflammation, neither approach is ideal. In the course of studies addressing the use of specific organism-directed antibodies for imaging experimental infections in animals, we observed that nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) localized as well as specific antibodies. Preliminary experiments suggested that the Fc portion of IgG is necessary for effective inflammation localization. Since polyclonal IgG in gram quantities has been safely used for therapy in patients with immune deficiency states, we decided to test whether milligram quantities of radiolabeled IgG could image focal sites of inflammation in humans. Thus far, we have studied a series of 84 patients with suspected lesions in the abdomen, pelvis, vascular grafts, lungs, or bones/joints. In 48 of 52 patients with focal lesions detected by surgery, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or ultrasound (US), the IgG scan correctly localized the site, while 31 patients without focal inflammation had no abnormal focal localization of the radiopharmaceutical. Four patients had false negative scans and one patient had a false positive scan. For this small series, the overall sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 95%, respectively. In this report, we review our experience with this exciting new agent

  4. Atomic and molecular isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, N.T.

    1979-01-01

    A method for differentially exciting a selected isotopic species in a mixture of isotopic species is described characterized in that almost the entire isotopic mixture is placed in an excited gaseous state; and a preselected isotopic species is then selectively de-excited through stimulated emission

  5. The effect of various antibiotics on the labelling efficiency of human white blood cells with 111In-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, Helmut; Granegger, Susanne

    1988-01-01

    Earlier clinical studies revealed that in patients suffering from chronic osteomyelitis undergoing antibiotic therapy the white blood cell scanning missed the right diagnosis in 40% of cases, whereas all the acute untreated cases were imaged correctly. Thus, it was suspected that an impaired labelling efficiency and white blood cell function might have been causative. Retrospective analysis of labelling efficiency exhibited no difference between patients on antibiotics and those not on antibiotics. Prospective cellular viability testing in 81 patients, 71 of whom were on various antibiotics, using latex particles (phagocytosis) and the Trypan blue exclusion test, did not reveal any different function behaviour either. Examining the labelling efficiency (after 111 In-oxine and 111 In-oxine-sulphate labelling), recovery, half-life and viability of white blood cells of 107 patients undergoing therapy with various antibiotics as compared to controls, it becomes evident that the antibiotic therapy is not causative of the clinical difference observed. (author)

  6. Giant tumor thrombus in the right atrium clearly detected by /sup 111/In-oxine labeled platelet scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T; Ishikawa, N; Satoh, A; Masuda, Y; Hiramatsu, Y; Akisada, M; Sakakibara, Y

    1985-07-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a 3-month history of progressive dyspnea with coughing. A giant right atrial mass, originating from a hepatocellular carcinoma, was visualized by computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography. The volume if the right atrial mass was increasing rapidly. It was therefore essential to determine whether this giant mass was a tumor thrombus or a multiplication of the hepatocellular carcinoma. /sup 111/In-oxine labeled platelet scintigraphy revealed active accumulation in the right atrium caused by the presence of active platelet deposition, and slight accumulation in the lung fields probably due to embolic showers originating from the tumor thrombus in the right atrium. This is the first case report showing that /sup 111/In-oxine labeled platelet scintigraphy can aid in confirming the nature of a giant tumor thrombus in the right atrium and can clarify the pathogenesis of the respiratory symptoms.

  7. Cellular basis for accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.; Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Wolff, M.; Kuromoto, N.; Satake, K.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-01-01

    Biodistribution and imaging studies in rats showed that 111 In-labeled leukocytes and platelets accumulate progressively with time after transplantation in cardiac allografts undergoing rejection, but do not accumulate in normal syngeneic heart grafts. Maximum heart allograft-to-blood ratios of 9:1 were obtained, and allograft-to-native heart ratios of 17:1. Microscopic studies of the rejecting cardiac allografts showed that histologic findings paralleled the cellular changes predicted by the radionuclide studies. Intravenously administered 67 Ga citrate and /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid failed to show significant accumulation in rejecting grafts. The findings suggest that cellular rejection, rather than nonspecific inflammatory changes, is the primary basis for accumulation of 111 In leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts

  8. Evaluation of biodistribution and imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using 111In-labeled low-density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashina, Hisayo

    1993-01-01

    111 In-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was administered to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits (WHHL group) and control rabbits (control group) to evaluate its biodistribution and scintigraphic images by γ-camera and radioactivity of each organ. With external imaging, the heart, liver, kidney, bone and spleen of each rabbit were observed. By setting the region of interest, the liver/heart ratio of the WHHL group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p 111 In-labeled-LDL was recognized in the aortic arch, bifurcation of intercostal and celiac artery in the WHHL group. By the use of labeled LDL with the combination of γ-camera, it is capable of detecting the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and imaging atherosclerotic lesions externally. (author)

  9. Isotope Production Facility (IPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced radioactive isotopes for medicine and research since the mid 1970s, when targets were first irradiated using the 800...

  10. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  11. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  12. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  13. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  14. Laser separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for separating uranium isotopes are claimed. The method comprises the steps of irradiating a uranyl source material at a wavelength selective to a desired isotope and at an effective temperature for isotope spectral line splitting below about 77 deg.K., further irradiating the source material within the fluorescent lifetime of the source material to selectively photochemically reduce the excited isotopic species, and chemically separating the reduced isotope species from the remaining uranyl salt compound

  15. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the isotope separation art and, more particularly, to a selectively photon-induced energy level transition of an isotopic molecule containing the isotope to be separated and a chemical reaction with a chemically reactive agent to provide a chemical compound containing atoms of the isotope desired. In particular a description is given of a method of laser isotope separation applied to the separation of 235 UF 6 from 238 UF 6 . (U.K.)

  16. Static and dynamic scintigraphy in radioisotope cardiology diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.; Zolna, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Pasyk, S.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the applications of scintigraphy in cardiac diagnosis is given. The principle of operation of the gamma-camera and of the scintigraphic system, the handling of data and the so-called gated scintigraphy are discussed. Characteristics of some radioisotopes applied in nuclear cardiology are given. The most frequent clinical states are discussed in which isotope diagnostics may be useful. Attention is drawn to the advantages of nuclear cardiology methods over conventional diagnostics. (author)

  17. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  18. Isotope toolbox turns 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenander, Fredrik; Riisager, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes.......REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes....

  19. Laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re and Tc

  20. UWIS isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtasiewicz, A. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995 the University of Warsaw Isotope Separator group has participated in the ISOL/IGISOL project at the Heavy Ion Cyclotron. This project consists in installation of an isotope separator (on line with cyclotron heavy ion beam) with a hot plasma ion source (ISOL system) and/or with an ion guide source (IGISOL system). In the report the short description of the present status of the project is presented. 2 figs, 10 refs.

  1. Laser isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re, and Tc. 9 claims, 1 drawing figure

  2. Isotopes in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.; Rozanski, K.; Vose, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive and stable isotopes have long been considered a very efficient tool for studying physical and biological aspects of how the global ecosystem functions. Their applications in environmental research are numerous, embracing research at all levels. This article looks at only a few of the approaches to environmental problems that involve the use of isotopes. Special attention is given to studies of the Amazon Basin. Environmental isotopes are very efficient tools in water cycle studies. Tritium, a radioactive tracer, is especially useful in studying dynamics of water movement in different compartments of the hydrosphere, both on the local and global scales. Heavy stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen (deuterium and oxygen-18) provide information about steady-state characteristics of the water cycle. Isotope methods, some relatively new, have a major role in site-specific studies. Some indicative examples include: Studying turnover of organic matter. Changes in the carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic ratio of organic matter were used to determine the respective contributions of organic carbon derived from forest and pasture. Studying biological nitrogen fixation. One of the ways nitrogen levels in soil can be maintained for productivity is by biological nitrogen fixation. Studying nitrogen availability and losses. The experimental use of nitrogen-15 is invaluable for defining losses of soil nitrogen to the atmosphere and to groundwater. Studies can similarly be done with stable and radioactive sulphur isotopes. This article indicates some potential uses of isotopes in environmental research. While the major problem of global climate change has not been specifically addressed here, the clearing of the Amazon forest, one focus of the IAEA's environmental programme, may have serious consequences for the global climate. These include substantial reduction of the amount of latent heat transported to the regions outside the tropics and acceleration of the greenhouse

  3. Isotopes in everyday life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligman, H.; Gillen, V.A.

    1990-12-01

    Isotopes represent a tool which can do certain jobs better, easier, quicker, more simply and cheaper than competitive methods. Some measurements could not be done at all without the use of isotopes as there are no alternative methods available. A short review of these tools of science in their different fields is given: food and agriculture, human health applications, industry, hydrology, geology, geochemistry, geophysics and dating, environment, basic scientific research

  4. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabicar, J.; Stamberg, K.; Katzer, J.

    1983-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by the method of controlled distribution is claimed. A first phase is either a solution of isotopic components and a ligand (from 10 - 6 M to a saturated solution), or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components, or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components and an inert gas. The isotopes are in the starting mixture in molar ratio from 1:10 5 to 1:10 - 5 . The second phase is a solid sorbent such as styrene-divinylbenzene ion exchangers, or bio-sorbents on the basis of mycelium of lower fungi and sorbents on the basis of cellulose, or an extraction agent such as tributyl phosphate and trioctyl amine, if need be, kept by a carrier such as teflon, silica gel and cellulose. The two-phase system exhibits non-linear equilibrium isotherm for sorption and/or desorption or for extraction and/or re-extraction. After bringing both phases into contact the rate of transport of isotopic components from one phase into another is not equal. Retardation of isotopic exchange takes place by complexation of isotopes with ligands such as cabonate, sulphate, citrate, chloride and ethylenediamine tetraacetate ions, or by using sorbents and extraction agents with chelating functional groups such as carboxyl and hyroxyl groups, groups on the basis of phosphorus, nitrogen and sulphur and/or by operating in darkness, or in the light having wave length between 2.5x10 2 and 10 9 nm. The contact time is between 10 - 2 and 10 6 s, temperature between 10 2 and 10 3 K, the number of stirrer revolutions between 10 - 2 and 10 4 revolutions per s, flow rate at column arrangement between 10 - 6 and 10 - 1 m/s and the size of particles of sorbent between 10 - 6 and 10 - 2 m

  5. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  6. Density dependence of the fine-differential disturbed gamma-gamma-spatial correlation in gaseous 111InI-sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetter, K.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument for measuring a time-differential disturbed angular correlation was developed. Using this instrument the disturbance of the spatial correlation of the γ-quanta of the 171-245 keV γ-γ-cascade in 111 Cd was examined in dependence of the density of the gaseous 111 InI-systems and the time difference between the emission of the both γ-quanta. (BBOE)

  7. Failure of 111In-labeled bleomycin tumor scanning to predict response to bleomycin (NSC-125066) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.; Salmon, S.E.; Durie, B.G.M.

    1974-01-01

    The question of whether or not 111 In-labeled bleomycin is predictive of the response of tumors to bleomycin treatment is answered in the negative. The real test of the value of labeled bleomycin as a predictor of response will be possible only when a tightly labeled bleomycin with fully preserved biologic activity is synthesized. The negative results of this study do not invalidate further investigations of the predictive values of labeled anticancer drugs

  8. Isotope separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.I.

    1983-01-01

    This application discloses a method for and an apparatus in which isotopes of an element in a compared are separated from each other while that compound, i.e., including a mixture of such isotopes, flows along a predetermined path. The apparatus includes a flow tube having a beginning and an end. The mixture of isotopes is introduced into the flow tube at a first introduction point between the beginning and the end thereof to flow the mixture toward the end thereof. A laser irradiates the flow tube dissociating compounds of a preselected one of said isotopes thereby converting the mixture in an isotopically selective manner. The dissociation products are removed from the tube at a first removal point between the first introduction point and the end. The dissociation product removed at the the first removal point are reconverted back into the comound thereby providing a first stage enriched compound. This first stage enriched compound is reintroduced into the flow tube at a second introduction point between the beginning thereof and the first introduction point. Further product is removed from the flow tube at a second removal point between the second introduction point and the first introduction point. The second introduction point is chosen so that the isotope composition of the first stage enriched compound is approximately the same as that of the compound in the flow tube

  9. International Isotopes Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies world markets of stable and radioactive isotopes. Isotopes have found various applications in science, industry, agriculture and other sectors of the economy, but especially - in medicine. Nuclear medicine is developing intensively all over the world thanks to the success in the treatment of various diseases with the help of radioactive pharmaceuticals (radiopharmaceuticals. The article uses empirical data from a forecast study of the global radiopharmaceuticals market made in 2015 by a research company «Markets and Markets» for the European, North American and global markets. The paper also analyzes the statistical data on the global export and import of natural uranium, enriched and depleted uranium, plutonium, thorium and some stable isotopes of non-medical purposes, presented by a company «Trend economy» in 2014. Despite a unique industrial base for the production of isotopes created in the Soviet Union Russia occupies a modest position on the world market of nuclear medicine except for certain areas. More than 80% of isotopes, produced in USSR were consumed domestically, the export of the stable and radioactive isotopes was in equal proportions. Now the country's domestic radiopharmaceuticals market is poorly developed. To radically change the situation, it is necessary to carry out reforms that stimulate the development of nuclear medicine.

  10. Beneficial use of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Stevens, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives an outlook on the main isotopes currently used for beneficial applications, provides an overview on geographic distribution of isotope production capabilities and identifies the main suppliers world-wide. It analyses trends in different countries and regions, including the refurbishment and/or replacement of ageing facilities and the implementation of new capabilities. Issues related to adequate supply of isotopes and potential under or over capacity of production for some key products are discussed. The evolution of the isotope production sector is analysed. Issues such as lowering of governmental support to production facilities, emergence of international co-operation and agreements on production capabilities, and developments in non-OECD/NEA countries are addressed. The paper offers some concluding remarks on the importance of maintaining and enhancing beneficial uses of isotopes, the role of government policies, the need for co-operation between countries and between the private and public sectors. The paper addresses the role of international cooperation in making efficient use of existing isotope production capacity and investigates ways for reducing the need for investment in additional capacity. (author)

  11. Preparation and biodistribution assessment of {sup 111}In-BPAMD as a novel agent for bone SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    An early diagnosis of bone metastases is very important for providing a profound decision on a subsequent therapy. In this study, a new agent for SPECT-imaging of bone metastases, {sup 111}In-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) -1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid ({sup 111}In-BPAMD) complex has been developed with specific activity of 2.85 TBq/mmol. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography method indicated high radiochemical purity > 95% at the optimal conditions. The complex demonstrated significant stability at room temperature and in human serum at least for 48 h. Hydroxyapatite (HA) binding assay showed high binding ability of the radiolabeled complex even at the low amounts of HA. Also, log P measurements highlighted the strong hydrophilic nature of the complex. Biodistribution studies as well as planar imaging after injection of the complex into the male Syrian mice showed major accumulation of the labelled compound in the bone tissue. Totally, the obtained results indicated that {sup 111}In-BPAMD has interesting characteristics as an agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastases.

  12. Comparison of normal tissue pharmacokinetics with 111In/9Y monoclonal antibody m170 for breast and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Joerg; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Yuan, Aina; Shen Sui; O'Donnell, Robert T.; Richman, Carol M.; De Nardo, Sally J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radioactivity deposition in normal tissues limits the dose deliverable by radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study investigated the absorbed radiation dose in normal tissues for prostate cancer patients in comparison to breast cancer patients for 2 RPs using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) m170. Methods and Materials: 111 In-DOTA-glycylglycylglycyl-L-p-isothiocyanatophenylalanine amide (GGGF)-m170 and 111 In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) 2-iminothiolane (2IT)-m170, representing the same MAb and chelate with and without a cleavable linkage, were studied in 13 breast cancer and 26 prostate cancer patients. Dosimetry for 9 Y was calculated using 111 In MAb pharmacokinetics from the initial imaging study for each patient, using reference man- and patient-specific masses. Results: The reference man-specific radiation doses (cGy/MBq) were not significantly different for the breast and the prostate cancer patients for both RPs in all but one tissue-RP combination (liver, DOTA-2IT). The patient-specific doses had differences between the groups most of which can be related to weight differences. Conclusions: Similar normal tissue doses were calculated for two groups of patients having different cancers and genders. This similarity combined with continued careful analysis of the imaging data might allow the use of higher starting doses in early phase RIT studies

  13. Synthesis, radiolabeling and quality control of {sup 111}In-DOTA-bevacizumab for radioimmunoscintigraphy of VEGF receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorami-Moghadam, A.; Jalilian, A.R.; Yavari, K.; Alirezapour, B.; Mazidi, M.; Mirzaii, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    In this study, bevacizumab was successively labeled with {sup 111}In-InCl{sub 3} after conjugation with DOTA-NHS-ester followed by molecular filtration and determination of the average number ofDOTAconjugated per mAb (6:1) by spectrophotometric method. Radiochemical purity (> 97%, measured by ITLC and HPLC), integrity of protein after radiolabeling (gel electrophoresis) and stability of {sup 111}In-DOTA-Bevacizumab (in final formulation, human serum, liver/kidney homogenates) were determined in 24-72 h as well as biodistribution studies in wild-type rats and human colon cancer (SW-480) bearing mice. The accumulation of the radiolabeled antibody was consistent with the former reported Bevacizumab conjugates. Significant tumor uptake (8%) was observed at 72 h p.i. Tumor/muscle uptake ratios were 2.6 (24 h), 9.74 (48 h) and 25 (72 h). {sup 111}In-DOTA-Bevacizumab was prepared as a SPECT molecular imaging agent for diagnosis and follow-up of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression in oncology. (orig.)

  14. Diagnosis of intra abdominal inflammatory processes with 111In-labelled leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roevekamp, M.H.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Schoot, J.B. van der; Reinders Folmer, S.Chr.C.; Royen, E.A. van

    1982-01-01

    Over a two and a half year period, 225 scintigrams with indium-111 oxinate labelled leukocytes were performed in 184 patients suspected of an intra-abdominal, retroperitoneal or pelvic inflammatory process. In patients suspected of an upper abdominal process, an indium-111 leukocyte-99Tc-Sn colloid subtraction was performed, in order to eliminate the normal liver and spleen uptake. 123 Scintigrams were considered true positive and 73 true negative. A diagnostic accuracy of 87% was calculated. With 18 false-positive scans an 80%-specificity and with 11 false-negative a 92%-sensitivity were obtained. False-positive results in the majority of the scintigrams were based on leukocyte accumulations, due to aspecific cellular inflammatory reactions. False-negative results were mainly related to intra-hepatic, intra-splenic or older lesions. In 150 patients, ultrasonography and/or computed tomography was also performed. A higher diagnostic accuracy was observed with leukocyte scintigraphy compared to ultrasonography. (Auth.)

  15. Isotopes in the Arctic atmospheric water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Werner, Martin; Meyer, Hanno; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rabe, Benjamin; Behrens, Melanie; Schönicke, Lutz; Steen Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    measurements highlighted significant synoptic variations in summer in both sites. In Samoylov, the premises of a seasonal cycle have been observed during the summer-fall transition, with a fast humidity level and isotopic decrease. The latitudinal gradient is also highly visible on the Polarstern record. Complementing simulations of the water vapour isotopic composition by the ECHAM5-wiso model reproduce the Polarstern synoptic variability and spatial patterns with a good accuracy. In the near future, our records will be combined with simultaneous water isotope measurements in Iceland (by Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, CIC), Svalbard (by Valérie-Masson Delmotte, LSCE) and paired with complementing climate simulations enhanced by water isotope diagnostics. These data sets, covering an approx. 6,000 km transect of Northern Eurasia will allow for a quantitative assessment of the isotopic variations of the Arctic water cycle. The results of these analyses will also be of relevance for the interpretation of isotope signals found in ice cores and on terrestrial Arctic sites in terms of past climate change.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of the FO23C5 anti-CEA antibody fragment labelled with 99Tcm and 111In: a comparison in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Mardirossian, G.; Rusckowski, M.; Roy, S.; Busche, H.; Griffin, T.W.; Brill, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    The FO23C5 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) F(ab') 2 antibody was radiolabelled with sup(111)In via diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and directly with 99 Tc m by stannous ion and mercaptoethanol antibody reduction to compare the pharmacokinetics of these three agents. Four patients received 15 mCi 99 Tc m -Fab' 1 week before receiving 1 mCi 111 In-F(ab') 2 . Five additional patients received only the 99 Tc m -Fab'. The biodistribution of 99 Tc m was as expected for a labelled Fab' fragment: relative to 111 In, 99 Tc m cleared rapidly from circulation and into kidneys and urine. Liver levels of 111 In and 99 Tc m were surprisingly similar at 1 day although initial 111 In levels were lower and increased while 99 Tc m levels were higher and decreased. Spleen levels were also similar. In 4/9 patients receiving 99 Tc m , hepatobiliary clearance was observed at levels which could confuse interpretation whereas this mode of clearance was observed in only 1/4 patients receiving 111 In. Image quality was superior with 111 In versus 99 Tc m at 1 day postadministration as judged by counting rates and background activity whereas the opposite was true at 2-3 h postadministration. (author)

  17. Stabilised 111In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated neurotensin analogues for imaging and therapy of exocrine pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M. de; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de; Janssen, P.J.J.M.; Srinivasan, A.; Reubi, J.C.; Waser, B.; Erion, J.L.; Schmidt, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in exocrine pancreatic cancer and Ewing's sarcoma. The potential utility of native NT in cancer diagnosis and therapy is, however, limited by its rapid degradation in vivo. Therefore, NT analogues were synthesised with modified lysine and arginine derivatives to enhance stability and coupled either to DTPA, to enable high specific activity labelling with indium-111 for imaging, or to DOTA, to enable high specific activity labelling with β-emitting radionuclides, such as lutetium-177 and yttrium-90. Based on serum stability (4 h incubation at 37 C in human serum) and receptor binding affinity, the five most promising analogues were selected and further evaluated in in vitro internalisation studies in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells, which overexpress NT receptors. All five NT analogues bound with high affinity to NT receptors on human exocrine pancreatic tumour sections. The analogues could be labelled with 111 In to a high specific activity. The 111 In-labelled compounds were found to be very stable in serum. Incubation of HT29 cells with the 111 In-labelled analogues at 37 C showed rapid receptor-mediated uptake and internalisation. The most promising analogue, peptide 2530 [DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH] was further tested in vivo in a biodistribution study using HT29 tumour-bearing nude mice. The results of this study showed low percentages of injected dose per gram tissue of this 111 In-labelled 2530 analogue in receptor-negative organs like blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle and femur. Good uptake was found in the receptor-positive HT29 tumour and high uptake was present in the kidneys. Co-injection of excess unlabelled NT significantly reduced tumour uptake, showing that tumour uptake is a receptor-mediated process. With their enhanced stability, maintained high receptor affinity and rapid receptor-mediated internalisation, the 111 In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated NT

  18. Gamma scintigraphy imaging of murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a {sup 111}In-labeled cyclic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhi [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wen Xiaoxia; Xiong Chiyi; Zhang Rui [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Albert, Nathaniel D. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Li Chun [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: cli@mdanderson.org

    2009-04-15

    Introduction: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a leading cause of infection-associated death in immunosuppressed patients. Early detection and early administration of antifungal therapy are critical factors in improving outcome for patients with IPA. Here, we evaluated the imaging properties of a {sup 111}In-labeled cyclic peptide targeted to Aspergillus fumigatus in an immunosuppressed murine model of IPA. Methods: A cyclic peptide c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} was labeled with {sup 111}In by means of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Two days after intranasal inoculation of 17.5x10{sup 6} conidia of A. fumigatus, mice were injected {sup 111}In-DTPA-c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} intravenously. Biodistribution data were obtained at 2 h, and {gamma}-images were acquired at 10 min and 2 h after radiotracer injection. Healthy mice were used as controls. In addition, a group of infected mice were co-injected with the radiotracer and unlabeled c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} to evaluate the inhibition of radiotracer's binding to infected lungs. Autoradiographs of lungs from infected and healthy mice were compared with corresponding photographs of transaxial sections of the lung tissues stained for A. fumigatus hyphae. Results: The labeling efficiency was >98%, with specific radioactivity of up to 74 MBq/nmol peptide. Significantly higher uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} was observed in the lungs of mice infected with A. fumigatus than in those of healthy mice (0.37{+-}0.06 %ID/g vs. 0.14{+-}0.02 %ID/g, P=.00044). Simultaneous injection with unlabeled peptide reduced radioactivity in the infected lungs by 41% (P=.0037). Increased radioactivity in the lungs of infected mice was visible in {gamma} images at both 10 min and 2 h after radiotracer injection. Moreover, autoradiography confirmed radiotracer uptake in infected lungs, but not in the lungs of healthy mice or infected mice co-injected with unlabeled peptide. Conclusions: {gamma}-Imaging with {sup

  19. Target Diagnostics Supports NIF's Path to Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R.

    2011-01-01

    the RAGS system. Three new instrument controllers were developed and commissioned to support this diagnostic. A residual-gas analyzer (RGA) instrument measures the gas content at various points in the system. The Digital Gamma Spectrometer instrument measures the radiological spectrum of the decaying gas isotopes. A final instrument controller was developed to interface to a PLC based Gas collection system. In order to support the implosion velocity measurements an additional Gated X-ray Detector (GXD) diagnostic was tested and commissioned. This third GXD views the target through a slit contained in its snout and allows the other GXD diagnostics to be used for measuring the shape on the same shot. In order to measure the implosion shape in a high neutron environment, Actide Readout In A Neutron Environment (ARIANE) and Neutron Imaging (NI) diagnostics were commissioned. The controls for ARIANE, a fixed port gated x-ray imager, contain a neutron shielded camera and micro channel plate pulser with its neutron sensitive electronics located in the diagnostic mezzanine. The NI diagnostic is composed of two Spectral Instruments SI-1000 cameras located 20M from the target and provides neutron images of the DT hot spot for high yield shots. The development and commissioning of these new or enhanced diagnostics in FY11 have provided meaningful insight that facilitates the optimization of the four key Ignition variables. In FY12 they will be adding three new diagnostics and enhancing four existing diagnostics in support of the continuing optimization series of campaigns.

  20. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133 and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition to the preferred alternative, three other reasonable alternatives and a no action alternative are analyzed in detail. The sites for the three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities, of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity

  1. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  2. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, Sol; Young, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Description is given of method for separating a specific isotope from a mixture of isotopes of an actinide element present as MF 6 , wherein M is the actinide element. It comprises: preparing a feed gas mixture of MF 6 in a propellant gas; passing the feed gas mixture under pressure through an expansion nozzle while heating the mixture to about 600 0 C; releasing the heated gas mixture from the nozzle into an exhaust chamber having a reduced pressure, whereby a gas jet of MF 6 molecules, MF 6 molecular clusters and propellant gas molecules is formed, the MF 6 molecules having a translational energy of about 3 eV; converting the MF 6 molecules to MF 6 ions by passing the jet through a cross jet of electron donor atoms so that an electron transfer takes place between the MF 6 - molecules and the electron donor atoms whereby the jet is now quasi-neutral, containing negative MF 6 - ions and positive donor ions; passing the quasi-neutral jet through a radiofrequency mass filter tuned to separate the MF 6 ions containing the specific isotope from the MF 6 - ions of the other isotopes and neutralizing and collecting the MF 6 molecules of the specific isotope [fr

  3. Noncovalent Hydrogen Isotope Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Breslavskaya, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Zero-point energies (ZPE) and isotope effects, induced by intermolecular, noncovalent vibrations, are computed and tested by experimental data. The ZPE differences of H- and D-complexes of water with hydrogen, methane, and water molecules are about 100-300 cal/mol; they result to isotope effects IE of 1.20-1.70. Semi-ionic bonds between metal ions and water ligands in M(H2O) 6 2+ complexes are much stronger; their ZPEs are about 12-14 kcal/mol per molecule and result to IE of 1.9-2.1 at 300 K. Protonated (deuterated) water and biwater exhibit the largest ZPE differences and isotope effects; the latter are 25-28 and 12-13 for water and biwater, respectively. Noncovalent IEs contribute markedly into the experimentally measured effects and explain many anomalous and even magic properties of the effects, such as the dependence of IE on the solvents and on the presence of the third substances, enormously large isotope effects at the mild conditions, the difference between IEs measured in the reactions of individual protiated and deuterated compounds and those measured in their mixture. Noncovalent IEs are not negligible and should be taken into account to make correct and substantiated conclusions on the reaction mechanisms. The kinetic equations are derived for the total isotope effects, which include noncovalent IEs as additive factors.

  4. Transportation of medical isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document

  5. Isotope methods in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1980-01-01

    Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Separation of uranium isotopes by accelerated isotope exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, M.; Miyake, T.; Inada, K.; Ochi, K.; Sakamoto, T.

    1977-01-01

    A novel catalyst for isotope exchange reaction between uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) compounds enables acceleration of the reaction rate as much as 3000 times to make industrial separation of uranium isotopes economically possible

  7. Comparative evaluation of red cell-labelling parameters of three lipid-soluble 111-In-chelates: Effect of lipid solubility on membrane incorporation and stability constant on transchelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.A.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    A rabbit red cell model was used to determined the cell labeling properties of three lipid-soluble 111 In-complexes: 111 In-oxine, 111 In-acetylacetone, and 111 In-tropolone. Partition coefficients (olive oil/buffer) were measured to determine the lipid solubility and were 3.54, 7.93, and 18.18 for 111 In-oxine, 111 In-acetylacetone, and 111 In-tropolone respectively. The effect of the concentration of these three chelating agents on labeling efficiencies was studied. The factors influencing the labeling efficiencies of these complexes such as cell density, time of incubation, influence of temperature, pH, effect of plasma proteins, and citrate ion concentration in the cell-labeling medium were studied. Labeling yields as high as 95.15 +- 4.15% were achieved with 111 In-tropolone after a 10-min incubation at 37 0 C. The optimum pH for cell labeling was 6.5 Excess critrate ion (> 3.02 mg/ml) and small amounts of plasma proteins (> 10 μl/ml) decreased the labeling efficiencies in all three cases. Distribution of these 111 In-complexes in membrane, membrane frgments, and hemoglobin was studied after hemolysis. In spite of the higher lipid solubility of 111 In-tropolone, the transchelation capacity appears to be similar to that of 111 In-oxine. 111 In-acetylacetone had the highest transchelation capacity. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostic reasoning strategies and diagnostic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, S; Mandin, H; Harasym, P H; Fick, G H

    2003-08-01

    Cognitive psychology research supports the notion that experts use mental frameworks or "schemes", both to organize knowledge in memory and to solve clinical problems. The central purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between problem-solving strategies and the likelihood of diagnostic success. Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the diagnostic reasoning used by experts and non-experts when attempting to diagnose clinical presentations in gastroenterology. Using logistic regression analysis, the study found that there is a relationship between diagnostic reasoning strategy and the likelihood of diagnostic success. Compared to hypothetico-deductive reasoning, the odds of diagnostic success were significantly greater when subjects used the diagnostic strategies of pattern recognition and scheme-inductive reasoning. Two other factors emerged as independent determinants of diagnostic success: expertise and clinical presentation. Not surprisingly, experts outperformed novices, while the content area of the clinical cases in each of the four clinical presentations demonstrated varying degrees of difficulty and thus diagnostic success. These findings have significant implications for medical educators. It supports the introduction of "schemes" as a means of enhancing memory organization and improving diagnostic success.

  9. Affinity of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In for malignant tumor. II. Comparison of tumor affinity among /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 111/In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, I [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-10-01

    Comparisons of biological behavior of /sup 169/Yb-citrate and /sup 111/In-citrate and /sup 67/Ga-citrate in tumor tissue were performed by macro-autoradiography as well as by subcellular fractionation according to the method of Hogeboom and Schneider, using Yoshida sarcoma-bearing rats and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice. The uptake of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In into the tumor and various organs was assayed at 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after intravenous injection, using the rats subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. Autoradiographical findings showed that the uptake of these nuclides was predominant in viable tumor tissue rather than in necrotic tumor tissue. Among subcellular fractions of Ehrlich tumor, most of the radioactivity was localized in the supernatant fraction and a small amount of radioactivity was found in the nuclear, mitochondria and microsome fractions. In Yoshida sarcoma, the results were almost similar in the three nuclides. And the specific activities of protein (cpm/mg) of these four fractions were not greatly different in the three nuclides. After intravenous injection of these nuclides, they were rapidly taken up into the tumor, and not excreted out of the tumor. It is a well-known fact that /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In are not sulfur coordinators, but weak nitrogen coordinators. Considering the above-described facts, it is presumed that the chemical bond of these elements is not a chelate ring, but anionic bond. From an in vitro adsorption test of these nuclides with the hydroxy-apatite crystal and cation exchange resin, it is presumed that the reason for the strong affinity of /sup 169/Yb to the bone is attributed to the fact that /sup 169/Yb stays mostly in cation form in the blood.

  10. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of [18F]-Fluorinated Carboplatin Derivative Encapsulated in [111In]-Labeled Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Narottam

    -(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl malonic acid as the labeling agent to coordinate with the cisplatin aqua complex. It was then used to treat various cell lines and compared with cisplatin and carboplatin at different concentrations ranging from 0.001 microM to 100 microM for 72 hrs and 96 hrs. IC50 values calculated from cell viability indicated that 19F-FCP is a more potent drug than Carboplatin. Manual radiosynthesis and characterization of [18F]-FCP was performed using [18F]-2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl malonic acid with coordination with cisplatin aqua complex. Automated radiosynthesis of [18F]-FCP was optimized using the manual synthetic procedures and using them as macros for the radiosynthesizer. [18F]-FCP was evaluated in vivo with detailed biodistribution studies and PET imaging in normal and KB 3-1 and KB 8-5 tumor xenograft bearing nude mice. The biodistribution studies and PET imaging of [18F]-FCP showed major uptake in kidneys which attributes to the renal clearance of radiotracer. In vivo plasma and urine stability demonstrated intact [18F]-FCP. [ 111In]-Labeled Liposomes was synthesized and physiochemical properties were assessed with DLS. [111In]-Labeled Liposome was evaluated in vivo with detailed pharmacokinetic studies and SPECT imaging. The biodistribution and ROI analysis from SPECT imaging showed the spleen and liver uptake of [111In]-Labeled Liposome and subsequent clearance of activity with time. [18F]-FCP encapsulated [111In]-Labeled Liposome was developed and physiochemical properties were characterized with DLS. [18F]-FCP encapsulated [111In]-Labeled Liposome was used for in vivo dual tracer PET and SPECT imaging from the same nanoconstruct in KB 3-1 (sensitive) and COLO 205 (resistant) tumor xenograft bearing nude mice. PET imaging of [18F]-FCP in KB 3-1 (sensitive) and COLO 205 (resistant) tumor xenograft bearing nude mice was performed. Naked [18F]-FCP and [18F]-FCP encapsulated [ 111In]-Labeled Liposome showed different pharmacokinetic profiles. PET

  11. 111 In-labeled leukocytes in the detection of prosthetic vascular graft infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.R.; Boyd, C.M.; Read, R.C.; Thompson, B.W.; Barnes, R.W.; Shah, H.R.; Balachandran, S.; Ferris, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Making a clinical diagnosis of infection in prosthetic vascular grafts is difficult but when undiagnosed, this condition has a high mortality rate. Using Indium-111-labeled white-blood cells, 30 scans were performed in 21 patients suspected of having a prosthetic graft infection. The diagnosis of infected graft was confirmed by surgery in all cases, and lack of infection was established by resolution of symptoms with conservative therapy. Twenty-four hour scans of autologous Indium-111 leukocytes were obtained, and correlative CT studies were done in 11 cases. There were 13 infected grafts at surgery (purulent material present), and scans were positive in all (100% sensitivity); of 17 scans, there were 15 true negatives and two false positives (88% specificity). Using the criteria of gas or fluid around the graft, the sensitivity of CT was only 37% in a small subset of these patients. One-half of the cases in which infection was suspected clinically had no infection and had negative scans. Various types of grafts and graft materials were used, and there was no correlation with presence or absence of infection on the basis of the type of graft. Extragraft infection sites were found in five patients. In conclusion, use of Indium-111 leukocytes has been found to be an accurate and valuable diagnostic method for evaluation of suspected prosthetic vascular graft infection, and to have higher diagnostic accuracy than CT

  12. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled antimyosin F(ab)/sub 2/ monoclonal antibody and /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in rhabdomyolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, T.; Schuemichen, C.; Hohenloser, S.; Kasper, W.; Meinertz, T.

    1988-02-01

    A report is presented of the scintigraphic diagnosis of a generalized rhabdomyolysis with myocardial involvement using /sup 111/In labelled antimyosin F(ab)/sub 2/ monoclonal antibodies as compared to /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate.

  13. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  14. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  15. Isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an isotope separation device comprising a system for converting into gaseous form a first and second isotope to be separated, a monochromatic excitation light source to excite the gaseous molecules of these two isotopes in a distinct manner, a first and second receiver to collect selectively the molecules of the first and second distinctly excited isotopes. The frequency FL of the excitation light is selected between a lower limit and a higher limit F2 + 1/2 LD, depending on the frequences F1 and F2 of two absorption lines near this first and second isotope. The difference DF between these two frequencies F1 and F2 is less than the Doppler width LD of each one of these lines and greater than the natural width LN of each of these two lines and also the width of line LR of the excitation light source. The probability that the molecules will be excited by this light depends on the direction of their displacement to a major and different extent for both isotopes. An ionising light source LI is set up to irradiate the seat of interaction between the excitation light and the gaseous molecules with an ionisation light able to ionise the excited molecules without ionising the molecules that are not excited. The receivers are able to collect selectively the ionised molecules. A sufficiently low gas pressure is selected for the distance between the place of interaction and the first receiver to be less than double the free mean travel of the molecules in the gas [fr

  16. Climate and isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    The applications of natural radioactivity and isotopic measurements in the sciences concerning Earth and its atmosphere, are numerous: carbon 14 dating with the Tandetron apparatus at the Cea, measurement of oxygen 18 in coral or sediment limestone for the determination of ocean temperature and salinity, carbon 14 dating of corals for the determination of sea level variations, deuterium content in polar ice-cap leads to temperature variations determination; isotopic measurements also enable the determination of present climate features such as global warming, oceanic general circulation

  17. Method to separate isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, H.; Neuschuetz, D.

    1980-01-01

    An extraction by means of supercritical pure gases (e.g. CD 2 ) or gas mixtures is proposed to separate isotopes, especially H/D, Li-6/Li-7, and U-235/U-238, and water or benzol is used as entrainer. The extraction shall be carried out at pressure rates of about 350 bar above the critical pressure with the temperature being by up to 100 0 C above the critical temperature. A NaCl-solution and the change of the isotopic ratio Cl-35/Cl-37 are investigated for example purpose. (UWI) [de

  18. Environmental isotope survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacovides, J.S.

    1979-03-01

    Work was initiated on the 1st of September 1971 with the objective of finding out how best to use environmental isotopes in the interpretation of the hydrology, particularly subsurface hydrology, of Cyprus through a sparse reconnaissance sampling of all the major aquifers and springs covering the whole island. The distribution of sampling was such that the survey in itself could assist in clarifying particular hydrogeologic problems, provide a better understanding of the water systems of the island, establish a general environmental isotope - framework of the hydrologic regimen of Cyprus as well as to provide the basis for specific, more detailed, studies to be undertaken subsequently

  19. Lectures in isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.; Hunziker, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Designed for a introductory course in geochronology and the geochemistry of stable isotopes, this text has been written by recognized experts in the field. Emphasis is on the interpretation and on applications, and examples of these are offered along with each technique. Extraterrestrial applications have been avoided and the treatment of pure experimentation has been kept at a minimum. This text will be appreciated by geologists who want to learn more about methods used in isotope geology, how they can be applied, and how to gauge their usefulness. (orig.) [de

  20. First measurements on the core and edge isotope composition using the JET isotope separator neutral particle analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettella, D; Murari, A; Stamp, M; Testa, D

    2003-01-01

    Direct measurements of tokamak plasmas isotope composition are in general quite difficult and have therefore been very seldom performed. On the other hand, the importance of this measurement is going to increase, as future experiments will be progressively focused on plasmas approaching reactor conditions. In this paper, we report for the first time encouraging experimental evidence supporting a new method to determine the radial profile of the density ratio n H /(n H + n D ), based on neutral particle analyser (NPA) measurements. The measurements have been performed in JET with the ISotope SEParator (ISEP), a NPA device specifically developed to measure the energy spectra of the three hydrogen isotopes with very high accuracy and low cross-talk. The data presented here have been collected in two different experimental conditions. In the first case, the density ratio has been kept constant during the discharge. The isotope ratio derived from the ISEP has been compared with the results of visible spectroscopy at the edge and with the isotope composition derived from an Alfven eigenmodes active diagnostic (AEAD) system at about half the minor radius for the discharges reported in this paper. A preliminary evaluation of the additional heating effects on the measurements has also been carried out. In the second set of experiments, the isotope composition of deuterium plasmas has been abruptly changed with suitable short blips of hydrogen, in order to assess the capability of the method to study the transport of the hydrogen isotope species. Future developments of the methodology and its applications to the evaluation of hydrogen transport coefficients are also briefly discussed. The results obtained so far motivate further development of the technique, which constitutes one of the few candidate diagnostic approaches viable for ITER

  1. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  2. Isotope separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are specified for separating a mixture of isotopes present in a compound, preferably a gaseous compound, into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes differ from the natural abundances of the isotopes in the compound. The invention particularly relates to carrying out a laser induced, isotopically selective conversion of gaseous molecules in such a manner as to achieve more than one stage of isotope separation along the length of the laser beam. As an example, the invention is applied to the separation of the isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , in which either the U-235 or U-238 isotope is selectively excited by means of irradiation from an infrared laser, and the selectively excited isotope converted into a product that can be recovered from UF 6 by one of a variety of methods that are described. (U.K.)

  3. Use of isotopes in fisheries research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyappan, S.

    2001-01-01

    Fisheries is an interdisciplinary science, incorporating not only different aspect of biology like anatomy, physiology, ecology, etc., but also oceanography, biochemistry, biotechnology and such emerging areas in the recent years. Isotopes are being employed for a variety of studies like quantification of aquatic production processes, nutrient cycles and food chain dynamics (primary production, bacterial activity, sediment-water nutrient interactions, nitrification, fertilizer use efficiencies, organic mineralisation, amino acid uptake in algal-bacterial assemblages, hydrological studies including water transport and budgeting, partitioning of trophic pathways), fish nutrition (feed utility and digestibility), fatty acid metabolism, compartmentalization of food spectra in different species of fish and shellfish), fish physiology, genetics and immunology (radioimmunoassay, enzyme assays, evaluation of hormone levels, gene markers -DNA labeling and plasmid incorporation, immuno diagnostics), fish health management and pollution (host-parasite interactions chemical/pesticide uptake and accumulation), etc. Radioisotopes commonly used in ecological studies are beta emitters like 14 C, 3 H, 32 P and 35 S, while a stable isotope like 15 N is used in quantifying nitrogen fixation rates in water and sediment media. Results of some of the studies and potential applications of isotopes in fish research are presented. (author)

  4. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 3. The bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    A study was made to determine wheter or not bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In chloride delineates the real distribution of hematopoietic cells. In a patient with acute myelogenous luekemia at the stage of complete remission, there was a significant incorporation of /sup 111/In into bone marrow cells (20 - 28% compared with 6% in the controls). Incorporation of /sup 111/In into peripheral blood cells was 0 at after 10 hours and 5% to 6% after 7 days. The plasma disappearance curve of /sup 111/In consisted of 2 exponential components, one with a half-life of 6.5 to 9.5 hours followed by a slow component with a half-life of 20 to 30 hours. 5 to 7% of the injected dose was excreted in the urine in 24 hours. The distribution of active marrow was investigated with bone marrow scintigraphy in various hematological disorders and the results were compared with those obtained with sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid. The results obtained in this study suggest that /sup 111/In is incorporated into erythroid precursors, and that this property of /sup 111/In makes in an ideal bone marrow scanning agent for observation of real hematopoietic bone marrow distribution in blood disease.

  5. Pharmacokinetic analysis of 111 in-labeled liposomal Doxorubicin in murine glioblastoma after blood-brain barrier disruption by focused ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of targeted and untargeted (111In-doxorubicin liposomes after these have been intravenously administrated to tumor-bearing mice in the presence of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D induced by focused ultrasound (FUS. An intracranial brain tumor model in NOD-scid mice using human brain glioblastoma multiforme (GBM 8401 cells was developed in this study. (111In-labeled human atherosclerotic plaque-specific peptide-1 (AP-1-conjugated liposomes containing doxorubicin (Lipo-Dox; AP-1 Lipo-Dox were used as a microSPECT probe for radioactivity measurements in the GBM-bearing mice. Compared to the control tumors treated with an injection of (111In-AP-1 Lipo-Dox or (111In-Lipo-Dox, the animals receiving the drugs followed by FUS exhibited enhanced accumulation of the drug in the brain tumors (p<0.05. Combining sonication with drugs significantly increased the tumor-to-normal brain doxorubicin ratio of the target tumors compared to the control tumors. The tumor-to-normal brain ratio was highest after the injection of (111In-AP-1 Lipo-Dox with sonication. The (111In-liposomes micro-SPECT/CT should be able to provide important information about the optimum therapeutic window for the chemotherapy of brain tumors using sonication.

  6. The effect of 111In radionuclide distance and auger electron energy on direct induction of DNA double-strand breaks: a Monte Carlo study using Geant4 toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroozfar, Behnaz; Raisali, Gholamreza; Alirezapour, Behrouz; Mirzaii, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effect of 111 In position and Auger electron energy on direct induction of DSBs was investigated. The Geant4-DNA simulation toolkit was applied using a simple B-DNA form extracted from PDBlib library. First, the simulation was performed for electrons with energies of 111 In and equal emission probabilities to find the most effective electron energies. Then, 111 In Auger electrons' actual spectrum was considered and their contribution in DSB induction analysed. The results showed that the most effective electron energy is 183 eV, but due to the higher emission probability of 350 eV electrons, most of the DSBs were induced by the latter electrons. Also, it was observed that most of the DSBs are induced by electrons emitted within 4 nm of the central axis of the DNA and were mainly due to breaks with <4 base pairs distance in opposing strands. Whilst, when 111 In atoms are very close to the DNA, 1.3 DSBs have been obtained per decay of 111 In atoms. The results show that the most effective Auger electrons are the 350 eV electrons from 111 In atoms with <4 nm distance from the central axis of the DNA which induce ∼1.3 DSBs per decay when bound to the DNA. This value seems reasonable when compared with the reported experimental data.

  7. Kit for the preparation of 111In-labeled pertuzumab injection for imaging response of HER2-positive breast cancer to trastuzumab (Herceptin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Karen; Scollard, Deborah A.; Chan, Conrad; Levine, Mark N.; Reilly, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that 111 In-labeled pertuzumab imaged trastuzumab (Herceptin)-mediated changes in HER2 expression preclinically in breast cancer tumors. To advance 111 In-labeled pertuzumab to a Phase I/II clinical trial, a kit was designed for preparing this agent in a form suitable for human administration. Unit-dose kits containing pertuzumab modified with 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (BzDTPA) were prepared that labeled to high efficiency (>90%) with 111 In and met specifications for pharmaceutical quality. The kits were stable for 4 months and the final radiopharmaceutical was stable for 24 h. Imaging studies demonstrated high and specific uptake in HER2-positive tumors in mice using this clinical kit formulation. - Highlights: • Kits for preparing 111 In-BzDTPA-pertuzumab were prepared which met specifications for pharmaceutical quality. • The kits were stable for at least 4 months and the final radiopharmaceutical was stable for 24 h when stored at 2–8 °C. • High labeling efficiency (>90%) of the kits was achieved with 111 In. • 111 In-BzDTPA-pertuzumab exhibited stability in human plasma. • Biodistribution and microSPECT imaging showed specific targeting of HER2-positive tumors in mice using the kit formulation

  8. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Sun Shuhua

    1987-12-01

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  9. Targeting of [[sup 111]In]biocytin to cultured ovarian adenocarcinoma cells using covalent monoclonal antibody -streptavidin conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, K.; Marks, A. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Banting and Best Dept. of Medical Research); Baumal, R. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Pathology)

    1992-11-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line HEY, were substituted with maleimide and covalently bonded to thiolated streptavidin. The conjugates were separated from unreacted reagents by successive affinity chromatography on protein A-Sepharose and iminobiotin columns. Purified conjugates consisted of an immunoglobulin (Ig) monomer bound to a streptavidin tetramer through a covalent bond between the Ig molecule and one of the streptavidin subunits. The conjugates were able to specifically target [[sup 111]In]biocytin to HEY cells in vitro in the presence of human serum and ascitic fluid from ovarian cancer patients. (Author).

  10. Scintigraphy in a case of Churg-Strauss vasculitis with myocardial involvement using 111In-labelled antimyosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.; Schuemichen, C.; Beck, A.; Moser, E.; Lang, B.; Hohnloser, S.

    1990-01-01

    A case of Churg-Strauss vasculitis in a young woman is reported. Diagnosis was confirmed by muscle biopsy. Affection of lungs, kidneys and skin was evident. In addition, myocarditis was suspected on clinical evidence. A highly positive scintigraphy with 111 In-antimyosin enabled diagnosis and assessment of damage to the myocytes. With a heart-to-lung ratio of 3.0 the accumulated activity in the myocardium was higher than usually found in myocarditis. This finding supports the hypothesis of an additional ischemic necrosis. (orig.) [de

  11. Radio (111In) capillary tube leukocyte adherence inhibition assay for the detection of specific tumor-associated immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, R.; Myers, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    The specific tumor-associated immune response of C3H/HeJ mice was determined at various times after subcutaneous injection with a transplantable mammary adenocarcinoma (H2712) using a radio ( 111 In) leukocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) assay carried out in capillary tubes. Solubilized tumor-associated antigen prepared by a single phase 1-butanol extraction of the specific tumor and other transplantable tumors of different histological origin were used in the evaluation of LAI reactivity. The assay was found to be capable of detecting a significant antitumor response before the subcutaneous tumors became detectable by palpation. The response remained significant until the tumors were greater than 20 mm in diameter

  12. Demonstration of the infiltration of the carcinoma of uterine cervix by using 111In-bleomycin scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Masanori

    1978-01-01

    We studied on scintigraphy for demonstration of primary site and infiltrating area of carcinoma of uterine cervix by using 111 In-BLM, which is drawing attention as one of the tumor-imaging agents. In 17 cases (77%) out of 22 cases of the carcinoma of uterine cervix, this scintigraphy demonstrated the primary site and the extent of infiltration into parametrium with distinctive positive images. Thus, this radiopharmaceutical was found to be of great use for determining the treatment of the carcinoma of uterine cervix. (author)

  13. 111In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid transit in research on the meningeal spread of acute leukemias and malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grob, J.C.; Methlin, G.; Giunta, M.; Boilletot, M.; Oberling, F.

    Two different kinds of examination were performed: static images centred on the lumbar, thoracic and cervical spine and skull region after lumbar injection of 111 In-DTPA; a quantitative approach to CSF kinetics by whole-body recording of all the activity present in the skull-spine axis. The results confirmed the frequency of meningeal localisations in acute leukemias, but also in lymphosarcomas. Quantitative analysis of the CSF transit gives a better idea of slight perturbations and their modifications under treatment [fr

  14. Isotope separation using tunable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snavely, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Various processes for laser isotope separation based upon the use of the spectroscopic isotope effect in atomic and molecular vapors are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon processes which are suitable for uranium enrichment. A demonstration process for the separation of uranium isotopes using selective photoionization is described. (U.S.)

  15. Isotope effects on nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    This review concentrates upon empirical trends and practical uses of mostly secondary isotope effects, both of the intrinsic and equilibrium types. The text and the tables are arranged in the following fashion. The most 'popular' isotope effect is treated first, deuterium isotope effects on 13 C nuclear shielding, followed by deuterium on 1 H nuclear shieldings, etc. Focus is thus on the isotopes producing the effect rather than on the nuclei suffering the effect. After a brief treatment of each type of isotope effect, general trends are dealt with. Basic trends of intrinsic isotope effects such as additivity, solvent effects, temperature effects, steric effects, substituent effects and hyperconjugation are discussed. Uses of isotope effects for assignment purposes, in stereochemical studies, in hydrogen bonding and in isotopic tracer studies are dealt with. Kinetic studies, especially of phosphates, are frequently performed by utilizing isotope effects. In addition, equilibrium isotope effects are treated in great detail as these are felt to be new and very important and may lead to new uses of isotope effects. Techniques used to obtain isotope effects are briefly surveyed at the end of the chapter. (author)

  16. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  17. Uranium Isotopic Analysis with the FRAM Isotopic Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    FRAM is the acronym for Fixed-Energy Response-Function Analysis with Multiple efficiency. This software was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory originally for plutonium isotopic analysis. Later, it was adapted for uranium isotopic analysis in addition to plutonium. It is a code based on a self-calibration using several gamma-ray peaks for determining the isotopic ratios. The versatile-parameter database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration and detector type

  18. Isotopes in aquaculture research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Dash, B.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The applications of isotopes in aquaculture research include areas like aquatic production process, nutrient cycles and food chain dynamics, fish nutrition, fish physiology, genetics and immunology. The radioisotopes commonly used are beta emitters. The use of different radioisotopes in aquaculture research are presented. 2 tabs

  19. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  20. SHELL ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The land snail Limicolaria kambeul chudeaui Germain was collected ... Key words/phrases: Ethiopia, isotope geochemistry, Lake Tilo, Limicolaria .... 1984), (c) 6'80 values of precipitation at Addis Ababa, with i 1 S.D. bars for the .... (breakfast cereal), deionised water and cuttlefish bone, the carbon and oxygen.

  1. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  2. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  3. Isotopes in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    For most people the obvious application of nuclear technology is in power generation. But there are many other uses for radioactive materials or for products made with their help. They are found in our factories, hospitals, offices and homes. ''Isotopes in Action'' looks at the many applications of radioisotopes in our society. (author)

  4. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  5. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  6. Actinide isotopic analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Ruhter, W.D.; Gunnink, R.

    1990-01-01

    This manual provides instructions and procedures for using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's two-detector actinide isotope analysis system to measure plutonium samples with other possible actinides (including uranium, americium, and neptunium) by gamma-ray spectrometry. The computer program that controls the system and analyzes the gamma-ray spectral data is driven by a menu of one-, two-, or three-letter options chosen by the operator. Provided in this manual are descriptions of these options and their functions, plus detailed instructions (operator dialog) for choosing among the options. Also provided are general instructions for calibrating the actinide isotropic analysis system and for monitoring its performance. The inventory measurement of a sample's total plutonium and other actinides content is determined by two nondestructive measurements. One is a calorimetry measurement of the sample's heat or power output, and the other is a gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of its relative isotopic abundances. The isotopic measurements needed to interpret the observed calorimetric power measurement are the relative abundances of various plutonium and uranium isotopes and americium-241. The actinide analysis system carries out these measurements. 8 figs

  7. Application of the isotopic index in isotope geochemical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, H.

    1982-06-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate approximately isotope exchange equilibria between different crystalline silicates. The algorithm uses a newly introduced isotopic index. It is defined using isotopic increments of the variant types of silicatic bonds. This isotopic index gives a quantitative measure of the ability to enrich 18 O or 30 Si, respectively. The dependence of isotopic fractionations on temperature can be calculated approximately by means of the isotopic index, too. On this theoretical base some problems of magmatism and two varieties of an isotope geochemical model of the evolution of the Earth's crust are treated. Finally, the possibility is demonstrated to give prognostic statements about the likelihood of ore bearing of different granites. (author)

  8. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  9. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  10. Effects of the amino acid linkers on the melanoma-targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of 111In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haixun; Yang, Jianquan; Gallazzi, Fabio; Miao, Yubin

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the profound effects of the amino acid linkers on the melanoma-targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of (111)In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized DOTA-[X]-CycMSH(hex) {1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-[X]-c[Asp-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-CONH(2); X = GGNle, GENle, or NleGE; GG = -Gly-Gly- and GE = -Gly-Glu-} peptides. Three novel peptides (DOTA-GGNle-CycMSH(hex), DOTA-GENle-CycMSH(hex), and DOTA-NleGE-CycMSH(hex)) were designed and synthesized. The melanocortin-1 (MC1) receptor-binding affinities of the peptides were determined in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The melanoma-targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of (111)In-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSH(hex) and (111)In-DOTA-GENle-CycMSH(hex) were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. DOTA-GGNle-CycMSH(hex) and DOTA-GENle-CycMSH(hex) displayed 2.1 and 11.5 nM MC1 receptor-binding affinities, whereas DOTA-NleGE-CycMSH(hex) showed 873.4 nM MC1 receptor-binding affinity. The introduction of the -GG- linker maintained high melanoma uptake while decreasing kidney and liver uptake of (111)In-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSH(hex). The tumor uptake of (111)In-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSH(hex) was 19.05 ± 5.04 and 18.6 ± 3.56 percentage injected dose per gram at 2 and 4 h after injection, respectively. (111)In-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSH(hex) exhibited 28%, 32%, and 42% less kidney uptake than (111)In-DOTA-Nle-CycMSH(hex) we reported previously, and 61%, 65%, and 68% less liver uptake than (111)In-DOTA-Nle-CycMSH(hex) at 2, 4, and 24 h after injection, respectively. The amino acid linkers exhibited profound effects on the melanoma-targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of the (111)In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides. Introduction of the -GG- linker maintained high melanoma uptake while reducing kidney and liver uptake of (111)In-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSH(hex), highlighting its potential as an effective imaging probe for melanoma detection, as well as a therapeutic peptide

  11. An intrapatient comparison of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC with 111In-DTPA-octreotide for diagnosis of somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Michael; Decristoforo, Clemens; Donnemiller, Eveline; Ulmer, Hanno; Watfah Rychlinski, Christine; Mather, Stephen J; Moncayo, Roy

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the imaging abilities of the recently developed somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr(3)-octreotide ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC [(99m)Tc-TOC]), with (111)In-diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid-D-Phe(1)-octreotide ((111)In-OCT [Octreoscan]) in patients undergoing routine somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy. Forty-one patients (20 men, 21 women; age range, 29-75 y; mean age, 56.7 y) with either histologically proven or biologically and clinically suspected endocrine tumors were enrolled in the study. Four groups were distinguished: (a) patients being evaluated for the detection and localization of neuroendocrine tumors (n = 6), (b) tumor staging (n = 19), (c) patients being investigated to determine the SSTR status of tumor lesions (n = 11), and (d) patient follow-up studies (n = 5). Each patient received a mean activity of 150 MBq (111)In-OCT and 350-400 MBq (99m)Tc-TOC. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-TOC was performed 4 h after injection and scintigraphy with (111)In-OCT was performed 4 and 24 h after injection. SPECT studies of areas of interest were performed 4 h after injection for both tracers as well as at 24 h after injection for (111)In-OCT. The time interval between the studies using each tracer ranged from 2 to 22 d (mean interval, 9.3 d). (111)In-OCT and (99m)Tc-TOC showed an equivalent scan result in 32 patients (78%), 9 cases showed discrepancies (22%), false-negative results with (111)In-OCT were seen in 6 cases (14.6%), whereas (99m)Tc-TOC was false-positive in 2 cases (4.9%). (111)In-OCT was true-negative in both cases. The false-positive findings of the (99m)Tc-TOC studies were caused by nonspecific uptake in the bowel. In 1 case, (99m)Tc-TOC correctly identified a metastasis in the lumbar spine but both scan results were false-positive because of an inflammatory process. In 21 patients with SSTR-expressing tumors, the semiquantitative region-of-interest analysis showed that (99m)Tc-TOC achieved higher tumor

  12. Isotopic separation by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.G.; Barre, Y.; Neige, R.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic exchange reaction and the isotopic separation factor are first recalled; the principles of ion chromatography applied to lithium isotope separation are then reviewed (displacement chromatography) and the process is modelled in the view of dimensioning and optimizing the industrial process; the various dimensioning parameters are the isotopic separation factor, the isotopic exchange kinetics and the material flow rate. Effects of the resin type and structure are presented. Dimensioning is also affected by physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters. Industrial implementation features are also discussed. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  13. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1994-08-01

    Control of the isotopic composition of semiconductors offers a wide range of new scientific opportunities. In this paper a number of recent results obtained with isotopically pure as well as deliberately mixed diamond and Ge bulk single crystals and Ge isotope superlattices will be reviewed. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, bandstructure and lattice constant in subtle but theoretically well understood ways. Large effects are observed for thermal conductivity, local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping (NTD). Several experiments which could profit greatly from isotope control are proposed

  14. Study of Six Energy-Window Settings for Scatter Correction in Quantitative 111In Imaging: Comparative analysis Using SIMIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Facenda, A.; Castillo Lopez, J. P.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Perez, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Activity quantification in nuclear medicine imaging is highly desirable, particularly for dosimetry and biodistribution studies of radiopharmaceuticals. Quantitative 111 In imaging is increasingly important with the current interest in therapy using 90 Y-radiolabeled compounds. Photons scattered in the patient are one of the major problems in quantification, which leads to degradation of image quality. The aim of this work was to assess the configuration of energy windows and the best weight factor for the scatter correction in 111 In images. All images were obtained using the Monte Carlo simulation code, Simind, configured to emulate the gamma camera Nucline SPIRIT DH-V. Simulations were validated by a positive agreement between experimental and simulated line-spread functions (LSF) of 99 mTc. It was examined the sensitivity, the scatter-to-total ratio, the contrast and the spatial resolution for scatter-compensated images obtained from six different multi-windows scatter corrections. Taking into consideration the results, the best energy-window setting was two 20% windows centered at 171 and 245keV, together with a 10% scatter window located between the photo peaks at 209keV. (Author)

  15. Experimental studies on the pathogenesis of adult respiratory distress syndrome using sup 111 In-labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, Taijiro [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1990-06-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the mechanism of the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to improve its treatment by studying the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in an endotoxin shock model of rats. PMNs from a rat were labeled with {sup 111}In by the use of tropolone and were injected into rats pretreated with endotoxin. Then the biodistribution of PMNs was studied by either counting the radioactivity of excised organs or using a gamma scintillation camera on the anesthetized rats. The two methods facilitated to observe the distribution of PMNs faily a short time after the injection of endotoxin. There was a significantly higher radioactivity in the lungs of the endotoxin group than in the control group. The accumulation of PMNs into the lungs occurred immediately after endotoxin injection. In rats depleted of the complement by cobra venom factor (CVF), an increase in radioactivity in the lung was not observed. These results indicate that the complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS. When rats were injected with methylprednisolone, the pulmonary accumulation of {sup 111}In-PMNs by endotoxin were suppressed. This is an experimental support of possible beneficial effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of ARDS. (author).

  16. The effect of ibuprofen on accumulation of 111In-labeled platelets and leukocytes in experimental myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romson, J.L.; Hook, B.G.; Rigot, V.H.; Schork, M.A.; Swanson, D.P.; Lucchesi, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the ability of ibuprofen to influence the extent of platelet aggregation and leukocyte infiltration during acute myocardial infarction, autologous indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled platelets or leukocytes were injected before 60 minutes of left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in the canine heart. Myocardial infarct size, as a percent of the area at risk, was reduced in the ibuprofen-treated group (12.5 mg/kg i.v. every 4 hours beginning 30 minutes before LCx occlusion) by 40%, from 48 +/- 4% in control animals to 29 +/- 4% in ibuprofen-treated dogs (p . 0.005). Quantification of the platelet-associated 111 In radioactivity in irreversibly injured myocardium indicated that ibuprofen did not alter the accumulation of platelets in infarcted myocardium. In contrast, leukocyte accumulation in infarcted tissue was reduced significantly. In tissue samples with 0.41-0.60 gram infarct, the infarcted/normal ratio of leukocyte radioactivity was 12 +/- 2 in control dogs and 4 +/- 1 in ibuprofen-treated dogs, which represents a 67% reduction in leukocyte accumulation in ibuprofen-treated compared with control dogs. Similar reductions were found in other gram-infarct-weight categories. Although both platelets and leukocytes accumulate in infarcted canine myocardium, ibuprofen may exert its beneficial effect on ischemic myocardium by suppressing the inflammatory response associated with myocardial ischemia and infarction

  17. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  18. Technical testing of portable isotope identification instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The United States Customs Service has, as a part of its mission, the protection of the borders of the United States from the import or export of illicit radioactive materials. Of paramount importance is the ability to interdict the smuggling of special nuclear material, nuclear weapons and other radioactive materials that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction against the population and infrastructure of the U.S. or another country. Radiation detection technology exists in the form of pocket size, hand-held and portal radiation detectors that have the ability to detect radiation with great sensitivity and low false alarm rates. U.S. Customs has chosen to implement pocket size detectors or radiation pagers as the personal tool of each inspector for the detection of radioactive material. In the search for illicit shipment of radioactive materials, innocent radiation detections may occur with some frequency due to common radioactive sources that may be encountered in day to day living. Examples include lantern mantles, some camera lenses, welding rods, certain dishware containing uranium glaze, and natural marble objects such as statues or architectural pieces. Perhaps the most common innocent detection encountered at the border and in public areas in general is due to the in vivo placement of radioactive sources for use in nuclear medicine therapy and diagnostics. Outpatients from such therapy can remain detectable for three weeks or more. Also, legal shipments of radioisotopes are common occurrences in cargo and express mail shipments. The customs inspector who detects radioactive material in the course of his duties must decide whether detection is innocent; is indicative of a nuclear device or special nuclear material; or whether the source could be injurious to him/her or the general public. It is at this point that a portable instrument capable of identifying gamma or neutron emitting isotopes is essential to the customs examination procedure

  19. Benefit/risk comparisons in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Benefit and risks in radiodiagnostic examination, either with X-rays or with radioactive isotopes, can be expressed in restored health and health impaired by radiation or: lives saved and estimated lives lost as a result of genetic or somatic radiation damage. Published data on benefit-risk comparisons for mass stomach and chest surveys show a considerable benefit surplus. It is demonstrated that this is also true in the case of clinical examinations of the sick. Efforts should be concentrated on better ways and means to reduce the number of diagnostic errors. Risk estimates should be made as realistic as possible

  20. Distinguishing feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) using stable carbon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson , Lucy; Dynes , Travis; Berry , Jennifer; Delaplane , Keith; McCormick , Lydia; Brosi , Berry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ability to distinguish feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) has applications in studies of population genetics, parasite transmission, pollination, interspecific interactions, and bee breeding. We evaluated a diagnostic test based on theoretical differences in stable carbon isotope ratios generated by supplemental feeding. We evaluated (1) if carbon isotope ratios can distinguish feral and managed honeybees and (2) the temporal persistence of the signal aft...

  1. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Karasyov, S P; Uvarov, V L

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels.

  2. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyov, S.P.; Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Uvarov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels

  3. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.; Rabinowitz, P.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating the isotopes of an element is described, which comprises the steps of (i) subjecting molecules of a gaseous compound of the element simultaneously to two infrared radiations of different wavelengths, the first radiation having a wavelength which corresponds to an absorption band of the compound, which in turn corresponds to a mode of molecular motion in which there is participation by atoms of the element, and the second radiation having a power density greater than 10 6 watts per cm 2 , thereby exciting molecules of the compound in an isotopically selective manner, this step being conducted in such manner that the excited molecules either receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by unimolecular decomposition or receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by reaction with molecules of another gas present for that purpose; and (ii) separating and recovering converted molecules from unconverted molecules. (author)

  4. Decontamination of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotovic, R.; Music, S.; Subotic, B.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of radioactive isotopes under controlled conditions is determined by a number of physical and chemical properties considered radiocontaminating and by the characteristics of the contaminated object. Determination of quantitative and qualitative factors for equilibrium in a contamination-decontamination system provides the basis for rational and successful decontamination. The decontamination of various ''solid/liquid'' systems is interesting from the scientific and technological point of view. These systems are of great importance in radiation protection (decontamination of various surfaces, liquids, drinking water, fixation or collection of radiocontaminants). Different types of decontamination systems are discussed. The dependence of rate and efficiency of the preparation conditions and on the ageing of the scavenger is described. The influence of coagulating electrolyte on radioactive isotope fixation efficiency was also determined. The fixation of fission radionuclide on oxide scavengers has been studied. The connection between fundamental investigations and practical decontamination of the ''solid/liquid'' systems is discussed. (author)

  5. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Rechargeable radioactive isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.K.; Cerone, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The description is given of a rechargeable radioactive isotope generator having the following features: a box containing a transport shield, a shielded generator including elements for the absorption and holding of the parent isotope, an eluant tank, a first pipe causing this tank to communicate with the transport shield, a second pipe causing this transport shield to communicate with the shielded generator and a third pipe placing the shielded generator in communication with the outside of the unit. It also includes a shelf across the external front part of the unit a part of which is shielded by external components, a shielded elution flask in which the eluate is poured and a filter set at a point between the flask and the third pipe [fr

  7. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  8. Stable-isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Structures of bacteriochlorophyll b and the Krasnovskii photoreduction products of chlorophyll a are given. All 55 13 C and 4 15 N NMR transitions in chlorophyl a and its magnesium-free derivative pheophytin a were assigned. ESR of triplet states of chlorophylls a, b, c/sub z/, and c 2 and bacteriochlorophyll a are reported. Experiments in the cultivation of 13 C-enriched morning glory plants indicated that the isotope enrichment can produce observable morphological changes. (U.S.)

  9. Protected isotope heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.K.; Shure, L.I.; Katzen, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive isotope capsule is disposed in a container (heat shield) which will have a single stable trim attitude when reentering the earth's atmosphere and while falling to earth. The center of gravity of the heat source is located forward of the midpoint between the front face and the rear face of the container. The capsule is insulated from the front face of the container but not from the rear surface of the container. (auth)

  10. Isotopes and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavolta, E.

    1988-01-01

    The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author) [pt

  11. The isotope correlation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Schoof, S.

    1983-01-01

    The ESARDA working group on Isotopic Correlation Techniques, ICT and Reprocessing Input Analysis performed an Isotope Correlation Experiment, ICE with the aim to check the feasibility of the new technique. Ten input batches of the reprocessing of the KWO fuel at the WAK plant were analysed by 4 laboratories. All information to compare ICT with the gravimetric and volumetric methods was available. ICT combined with simplified reactor physics calculation was included. The main objectives of the statistical data evaluation were detection of outliers, the estimation of random errors and of systematic errors of the measurements performed by the 4 laboratories. Different methods for outlier detection, analysis of variances, Grubbs' analysis for the constant-bias model and Jaech's non-constant-bias model were applied. Some of the results of the statistical analysis may seem inconsistent which is due to the following reasons. For the statistical evaluations isotope abundance data (weight percent) as well as nuclear concentration data (atoms/initial metal atoms) were subjected to different outlier criteria before being used for further statistical evaluations. None of the four data evaluation groups performed a complete statistical data analysis which would render possible a comparison of the different methods applied since no commonly agreed statistical evaluation procedure existed. The results prove that ICT is as accurate as conventional techniques which have to rely on costly mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. The potential of outlier detection by ICT on the basis of the results from a single laboratory is as good as outlier detection by costly interlaboratory comparison. The application of fission product or Cm-244 correlations would be more timely than remeasurements at safeguards laboratories

  12. Isotopic safeguards statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Stewart, K.B.

    1978-06-01

    The methods and results of our statistical analysis of isotopic data using isotopic safeguards techniques are illustrated using example data from the Yankee Rowe reactor. The statistical methods used in this analysis are the paired comparison and the regression analyses. A paired comparison results when a sample from a batch is analyzed by two different laboratories. Paired comparison techniques can be used with regression analysis to detect and identify outlier batches. The second analysis tool, linear regression, involves comparing various regression approaches. These approaches use two basic types of models: the intercept model (y = α + βx) and the initial point model [y - y 0 = β(x - x 0 )]. The intercept model fits strictly the exposure or burnup values of isotopic functions, while the initial point model utilizes the exposure values plus the initial or fabricator's data values in the regression analysis. Two fitting methods are applied to each of these models. These methods are: (1) the usual least squares fitting approach where x is measured without error, and (2) Deming's approach which uses the variance estimates obtained from the paired comparison results and considers x and y are both measured with error. The Yankee Rowe data were first measured by Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) and remeasured by Nuclear Audit and Testing Company (NATCO). The ratio of Pu/U versus 235 D (in which 235 D is the amount of depleted 235 U expressed in weight percent) using actual numbers is the isotopic function illustrated. Statistical results using the Yankee Rowe data indicates the attractiveness of Deming's regression model over the usual approach by simple comparison of the given regression variances with the random variance from the paired comparison results

  13. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  14. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  15. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  16. Medical isotope development and supply opportunities in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.; Schenter, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Research in extending medical isotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of numerous health maladies is hampered by outages and upsets in major supply sources. Investigations in cures for brain cancer ( 211 At), HIV/AIDS virus ( 213 Bi), and even bacterial vectors are either in reduced progress mode or have been cancelled until isotopes become available. Examples of several key radioactive medical isotopes include 99m Tc for diagnostics, 131 I for non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and thyroid cancer, 225 Ac for acute myelogenous leukemia, and 67 Cu for lymphoma cancer. Possibilities for developing commercially viable sources using compact accelerators and next generation research and production reactors are discussed. (author)

  17. Comparative studies of 111In-labeled monoclonal antibody using spacer-containing and non-spacer bifunctional chelates. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Baofu

    1994-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled A7 monoclonal antibodies using two spacer-containing chelates, succinimido-EGS-DTPA (EGS-DTPA: diester spacer) and maleimido-C10-Bz-EDTA (C10-Bz-EDTA: hydrocarbon spacer) were investigated in human LS180 colon tumor bearing nude mice and were compared with two non-spacer chelates, cyclic DTPA dianhydride (cDTPAA) and isothiocyanatobenzyl-EDTA (SCN-Bz-EDTA). Compared with immunoconjugates using non-spacer chelates, immunoconjugates using spacer-containing chelates, especially C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 showed lower 111 In activity in normal organs. The radioactivity in the liver for C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 decreased continuously till 96 hrs postinjection, however, this liver radioactivity for EGS-DTPA-A7 showed little change after 24 hrs. Moreover, in liver subcellular distribution study, EGS-DTPA-A7 showed a higher activity retention in mitochondrial fraction which contained lysosome, a place for metabolizing and storing of 111 In labeled antibody, than that of C10-Bz-EDTA-A7. The C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 conjugate demonstrated more preferable tumor-to-non tumor contrast on the scintigrams than that found with other three immunoconjugates. Up to 96 hrs postinjection, tumor bearing nude mice injecting with immunoconjugates using spacer-containing chelates exreted twice radioactivity from whole body than that excreted by using non-spacer chelates. Interestingly, different from other three chelates, C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 were mainly excreted via feces. We conclude that the decrease of radioactivity in normal tissues in the case of EGS-DTPA-A7 was due to the rapid decrease of activity in the blood, while in the case of C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 it was due to the quickly excreted small metabolite through faces. 111 In labeled C10-Bz-EDTA conjugate is superior, at least when conjugated with A7, to other three chelate conjugates used in this study. (author)

  18. SRS-sensor 13C/12C isotops measurements for detecting Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishkanich, Aleksandr; Chubchenko, Yan; Elizarov, Valentin; Zhevlakov, Aleksandr; Konopelko, Leonid

    2018-02-01

    We developed SRS-sensor 13C/12C isotops measurements detecting Helicobacter Pylori for medical diagnostics of human health. Measuring of absolute 13C/12C isotope amount ratios allows to explore the topical problems of the modern world, alcoholic beverages and tobacco, medical diagnostics of human health. SRS method is used to measure the ratio of carbon isotopes in the exhaled carbon dioxide, which is used to diagnose the human infection of Helicobacter pylori and the influence of the Helicobacter pylori bacterium on the occurrence of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. A method for the analysis of human infection with Helicobacter pylori was developed on the basis of measurements of the ratio of 13C / 12C carbon isotopes in human exhaled air with a high level of measurement accuracy. The article reviews the work in the field of provision comparability of absolute 13C/12C isotope amount ratios in the environment and food. The analysis of the technical and metrological characteristics of traditional and perspective instruments for measuring isotope ratios is presented. The provision of comparability of absolute 13C/12C isotope amount ratios is carried by gravimetrically prepared reference standards. The key features and emerging issues are discussed.

  19. Stable Isotope Systematics of Coalbed Gas during Desorption and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Niemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable carbon isotope ratios of coalbed methane (CBM demonstrate diagnostic changes that systematically vary with production and desorption times. These shifts can provide decisive, predictive information on the behaviour and potential performance of CBM operations. Samples from producing CBM wells show a general depletion in 13C-methane with increasing production times and corresponding shifts in δ13C-CH4 up to 35.8‰. Samples from canister desorption experiments show mostly enrichment in 13C for methane with increasing desorption time and isotope shifts of up to 43.4‰. Also, 13C-depletion was observed in some samples with isotope shifts of up to 32.1‰. Overall, the magnitudes of the observed isotope shifts vary considerably between different sample sets, but also within samples from the same source. The δ13C-CH4 values do not have the anticipated signature of methane generated from coal. This indicates that secondary processes, including desorption and diffusion, can influence the values. It is also challenging to deconvolute these various secondary processes because their molecular and isotope effects can have similar directions and/or magnitudes. In some instances, significant alteration of CBM gases has to be considered as a combination of secondary alteration effects.

  20. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  1. Recent applications of stable isotopes in environmental medicine in germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.; Herbarth, O.

    2000-01-01

    In the last few years, a new quality in the application of stable isotopes became manifest. It is the establishment of stable isotopes as a tool in medical routine diagnosis - a novel field of nuclear medicine - and in environmental-medical epidemiological surveys. Owing to missing suitable radioactive isotopes of the bio elements carbon and nitrogen and because of ethical problems in the human use of some radionuclides, the stable isotopes 13 C and 1% N play a key role in this new field. A review is given about four new stable isotope-aided methods for in vivo organ function test. Three of them were developed in Leipzig, germany, and one in houston/Texas. We have validated the tests and then introduced into medical and environmental routine diagnostic use: ( 15 N Methacetin and ( 13 C) methacetin liver function tests to characterize the detoxification capacity of the human liver; ( 15 N) Urea and ( 13 C) urea tests to detect the colonization of the human stomach by the bacterium helicobacter pylori. This bacterium is, as known, responsible for gastritis and ulcer of the gastrointestinal tract. The transmission ways of H. Pylori are under investigation world-wide

  2. Tests of intestinal absorption using carbon-14-labeled isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, H.; Sarva, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Beta radiation-emitting isotopes are being used increasingly in diagnostic gastroenterology for the study of absorption. The major reason for the popularity of radioisotopes is that their use is convenient for patient and physician alike. They often obviate naso- or orointestinal intubation and the collection, storage, and analysis of stool. The radioactivity used for the studies of digestive and absorptive processes is small and is not hazardous. In spite of the safety of the radiolabeled compounds, their use is restricted in children and pregnant women. Therefore, for most tests, promising alternative methods that make use of the stable isotope of carbon, /sup 13/C, instead of the radioactive /sup 14/C have been developed. The analysis of stable isotopes requires more sophisticated technology than that of radioactive compounds, however. Only a few centers presently are equipped and staffed to analyze stable isotopes on a routine basis. In contrast, the analysis of radioactive isotopes has become a routine procedure in almost ever major laboratory. The last decade has brought the development of several radioactive absorption tests. The clinically most useful tests relate to the study of bile acid, fat, lactose, and xylose absorption. All of these tests utilize the excretion rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in breath after ingestion of a /sup 14/C-labeled compound as a measure of the rate of its absorption or malabsorption

  3. 111In-platelet and 125I-fibrinogen deposition in the lungs in experimental acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulbourne, I.A.; Watson, H.; Davies, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary 125 I-fibrinogen and 111 In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. 125 I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). 125 I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy

  4. Localization of 111In- and 125I-labeled monoclonal antibody in guinea pigs bearing line 10 hepatocarcinoma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, M.I.; Hwang, K.M.; Foon, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (D3) with demonstrated specificity for the guinea pig line 10 hepatocarcinoma (L10) was radiolabeled with either 125 I or 111 In and used to image dermal tumors in vivo. In one set of experiments, L10 tumors were established middorsally in one group of animals, and the similarly derived, antigenically distinct line 1 tumor was established in another group of animals. In spite of background imaging of liver, kidney, and spleen, L10 tumors were visualized clearly. Incorporation of radiolabel was demonstrated to predominate in the L10 tumor. In a separate set of experiments, L10 and line 1 tumors were established in contralateral thighs in the same animals. L10 tumors were visualized clearly, and tissue uptake of radiolabel was demonstrated to reside predominantly in the L10 tumor

  5. Isotope effects on chemical equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium constants of three deuterated substituted acetic acids are reported. The calculation of secondary isotope effects of the second kind for the three isotopic acid pairs has been accomplished by the appropriate comparison of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, and by the comparison of isotopic slopes. The effect of substituent variation on the isotope effects reported here disqualifies the simple inductive model as a legitimate description of secondary isotope effects of the second kind. The correlation of diminishing isotope effect per deuterium atom with increasing acidity is also invalidated by the present results. The syntheses of 9-thia-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-9-oxide and thioxanthene-10-oxide are described. These compounds have been partially deuterated at their respective methylene positions. Spectral evidence indicates stereoselectivity of the methylene protons in the exchange reactions of both compounds. (author)

  6. Therapeutic use of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    In December, researchers from ISOLDE-CERN, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) published the results of an in vivo study which successfully proved the effectiveness of four terbium isotopes for diagnosing and treating cancerous tumours.   Four terbium isotopes suitable for clinical purposes. “ISOLDE is the only installation capable of supplying terbium isotopes of such purity and intensity in the case of three out of the four types used in this study,” explains Karl Johnson, a physicist at ISOLDE.  “Producing over a thousand different isotopes, our equipment offers the widest choice of isotopes in the world!” Initially intended for fundamental physics research, ISOLDE has diversified its activities over time to invest in various projects in the materials science, biochemistry and nuclear medicine fields. The proof-of-concept study has confirmed that the four terbium isotopes 149Tb, 152Tb, 155Tb produ...

  7. Imaging of gene expression in live pancreatic islet cell lines using dual-isotope SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joo Ho; Nguyen, Binh; Wells, R Glenn; Kovacs, Michael S; McGirr, Rebecca; Prato, Frank S; Morgan, Timothy G; Dhanvantari, Savita

    2008-01-01

    We are combining nuclear medicine with molecular biology to establish a sensitive, quantitative, and tomographic method with which to detect gene expression in pancreatic islet cells in vivo. Dual-isotope SPECT can be used to image multiple molecular events simultaneously, and coregistration of SPECT and CT images enables visualization of reporter gene expression in the correct anatomic context. We have engineered pancreatic islet cell lines for imaging with SPECT/CT after transplantation under the kidney capsule. INS-1 832/13 and alphaTC1-6 cells were stably transfected with a herpes simplex virus type 1-thymidine kinase-green fluorescent protein (HSV1-thymidine kinase-GFP) fusion construct (tkgfp). After clonal selection, radiolabel uptake was determined by incubation with 5-(131)I-iodo-1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)uracil ((131)I-FIAU) (alphaTC1-6 cells) or (123)I-FIAU (INS-1 832/13 cells). For the first set of in vivo experiments, SPECT was conducted after alphaTC1-6/tkgfp cells had been labeled with either (131)I-FIAU or (111)In-tropolone and transplanted under the left kidney capsule of CD1 mice. Reconstructed SPECT images were coregistered to CT. In a second study using simultaneous acquisition dual-isotope SPECT, INS-1 832/13 clone 9 cells were labeled with (111)In-tropolone before transplantation. Mice were then systemically administered (123)I-FIAU and data for both (131)I and (111)In were acquired simultaneously. alphaTC1-6/tkgfp cells showed a 15-fold greater uptake of (131)I-FIAU, and INS-1/tkgfp cells showed a 12-fold greater uptake of (123)I-FIAU, compared with that of wild-type cells. After transplantation under the kidney capsule, both reporter gene expression and location of cells could be visualized in vivo with dual-isotope SPECT. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of glucagon- and insulin-positive cells at the site of transplantation. Dual-isotope SPECT is a promising method to detect gene expression in and location of

  8. Technical Report on the Behavior of Trace Elements, Stable Isotopes, and Radiogenic Isotopes During the Processing of Uranium Ore to Uranium Ore Concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, N. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Borg, L. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eppich, G. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gaffney, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Genneti, V. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kristo, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lindvall, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramon, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robel, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, S. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schorzman, K. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sharp, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    The goals of this SP-1 effort were to understand how isotopic and elemental signatures behave during mining, milling, and concentration and to identify analytes that might preserve geologic signatures of the protolith ores. The impurities that are preserved through the concentration process could provide useful forensic signatures and perhaps prove diagnostic of sample origin.

  9. Renal accumulation of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC in rats: influence of inhibitors of the organic ion transport and diuretics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany); Wagner, B.; Heemann, U.; Lutz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nephrology, Munich (Germany); Poethko, T.; Perutka, M.; Wester, H.J.; Essler, M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Radiation exposure to the kidney limits therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. This study evaluates the organic anion and cation transport (inhibitors: probenecid and cimetidine/dexamethason) as well as diuresis (furosemide and mannitol) regarding renal uptake of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC. One hundred eight male Fisher rats were injected with [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC via the tail vein. Prior to activity injection a total of 84 rats underwent injection with probenecid vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (48 rats), cimetidine vs. dexamethasone vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats), and furosemide vs. mannitol vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats). Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points up to 48 h after activity injection. Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, spleen, blood, liver, and muscle were harvested and injected activity per gram tissue was determined. Autoradiographic images of the kidneys were acquired in a total of 24 rats. Probenecid led to a reduction in renal uptake by up to 30% while not significantly changing the activity accumulation in the other organs investigated. This reduction was attributable to the renal cortex (ratio cortex/medulla 1.72 vs. 1.99; p = 0.006). Cimetidine and dexamethasone had no effect in any of the organs. Furosemide led to a 44% increase in renal activity accumulation attributable to enhanced renal medullary uptake (ratio cortex/medulla 1.44 versus 1.69; p = 0.006). Mannitol had no effect on renal activity uptake. Inhibition of the organic anion transport by probenecid may help reduce renal uptake regarding therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. The enhancing effect of furosemide may be unfavourable for therapy. The results must be confirmed by human studies. (orig.)

  10. In vivo tracking of 111In-oxine labeled mesenchymal stem cells following infusion in patients with advanced cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Mirpour, Sahar; Bagheri, Mohammad; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Abdolahzadeh, Leila; Saghari, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several animal and few human studies suggest the beneficial role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in liver cirrhosis. However, little is known about the fate of MSCs after infusion in cirrhotic patients. We evaluated stem cell biodistribution after peripheral infusion of MSCs in four cirrhotic patients. Methods: After three passages of MSCs, the patients received a total of 250-400x10 6 cells, of which only 50% of the cells were labeled. Specific activities of 0.21-0.67 MBq/10 6 cells were maintained for the injected labeled MSCs. Planar whole-body acquisitions (anterior/posterior projections) were acquired immediately following infusion as well as at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 7th and 10th days after cell infusion. Results: After intravenous infusion, the radioactivity was first observed to accumulate in the lungs. During the following hours to days, the radioactivity gradually increased in the liver and spleen, with spleen uptake exceeding that in the liver in all patients. Region-of-interest analysis showed that the percentage of cells homing to the liver (following decay and background corrections and geometric mean calculation) increased from 0.0%-2.8% at immediately post-infusion images to 13.0-17.4% in 10th-day post-infusion. Similarly, the residual activities in the spleen increased from 2.0%-10.2% at immediately post-infusion images to 30.1%-42.2% in 10th-day post-infusion. During the same period, the residual activities in the lungs decreased from 27.0-33.5% to 2.0-5.4%. Conclusion: The infusion of MSCs labeled with 111 In-oxine through a peripheral vein is safe in cirrhosis. Cell labeling with 111 In-oxine is a suitable method for tracking MSC distribution after infusion.

  11. In vivo tracking of {sup 111}In-oxine labeled mesenchymal stem cells following infusion in patients with advanced cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholamrezanezhad, Ali, E-mail: agholam1@jhmi.edu [Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine. Shariati Hospital. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirpour, Sahar [Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine. Shariati Hospital. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, Mohammad; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi [Digestive Disease Research Center. Shariati Hospital. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimoghaddam, Kamran [Hematology and BMT Research Center. Shariati Hospital. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolahzadeh, Leila [Digestive Disease Research Center. Shariati Hospital. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saghari, Mohsen [Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine. Shariati Hospital. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malekzadeh, Reza [Digestive Disease Research Center. Shariati Hospital. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Background: Several animal and few human studies suggest the beneficial role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in liver cirrhosis. However, little is known about the fate of MSCs after infusion in cirrhotic patients. We evaluated stem cell biodistribution after peripheral infusion of MSCs in four cirrhotic patients. Methods: After three passages of MSCs, the patients received a total of 250-400x10{sup 6} cells, of which only 50% of the cells were labeled. Specific activities of 0.21-0.67 MBq/10{sup 6} cells were maintained for the injected labeled MSCs. Planar whole-body acquisitions (anterior/posterior projections) were acquired immediately following infusion as well as at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 7th and 10th days after cell infusion. Results: After intravenous infusion, the radioactivity was first observed to accumulate in the lungs. During the following hours to days, the radioactivity gradually increased in the liver and spleen, with spleen uptake exceeding that in the liver in all patients. Region-of-interest analysis showed that the percentage of cells homing to the liver (following decay and background corrections and geometric mean calculation) increased from 0.0%-2.8% at immediately post-infusion images to 13.0-17.4% in 10th-day post-infusion. Similarly, the residual activities in the spleen increased from 2.0%-10.2% at immediately post-infusion images to 30.1%-42.2% in 10th-day post-infusion. During the same period, the residual activities in the lungs decreased from 27.0-33.5% to 2.0-5.4%. Conclusion: The infusion of MSCs labeled with {sup 111}In-oxine through a peripheral vein is safe in cirrhosis. Cell labeling with {sup 111}In-oxine is a suitable method for tracking MSC distribution after infusion.

  12. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN BREAST CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijana Hertl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the world as well as in Slovenia, breast cancer is the most frequent female cancer. Due to its high incidence, it appears to be a serious health and economic problem. Content. Among other, tumour size at diagnosis, is an important prognostic factors of the course of the disease. The probability of axillary lymph node involvement as well as distant metastases is greater in larger tumours. This is the reason that encouraged the development of various diagnostic methods for early detection of small, clinically non-palpable breast tumours. Mammography, however, remains the »golden standard« of early breast cancer detection. It is the basic diagnostic method applied in all symptomatic women over 35 years of age and in asymptomatic women over 40 years of age. Ultrasonography (US, additional projections, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ductography are regarded as complementary diagnostic breast imaging techniques in addition to mammography. The detected changes in the breast can be further confirmed by US-, MR-guided or stereotactic biopsy. If necessary, surgical biopsy and the excision of a tissue sample, after wire or isotope localisation of the nonpalpable lesion, can be performed. Conclusions. Any of the above mentioned diagnostic methods has advantages as well as drawbacks and only detailed knowledge and understanding of each of them may assure the best option.

  13. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  14. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  15. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  16. A kit to prepare {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab fragments injection under GMP conditions for imaging or radioimmunoguided surgery of HER2-positive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scollard, Deborah A.; Chan, Conrad [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Holloway, Claire M.B. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, M4N 1H1 (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M., E-mail: raymond.reilly@utoronto.c [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E2 (Canada); Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: The human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) gene is amplified in 25% of invasive breast cancers, and receptor overexpression has been noted in up to 60% of early stages of the disease [ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)]. Preclinical studies have revealed high tumor/blood ratios (>27:1) for {sup 111}In-labeled Fab fragments of the HER2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab (Herceptin) ({sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab) at 72 h pi in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous human breast cancer xenografts. Our aim in this study was to formulate a kit for preparation of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab injection under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions suitable for human administration in a Phase I clinical trial of imaging and radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) of HER2-positive breast cancer. Methods: Fab fragments were produced by digestion of trastuzumab IgG (Herceptin) with immobilized papain for 20 h at 37{sup o}C. Fab fragments were purified by ultrafiltration, then reacted with a 10-fold molar excess of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride. DTPA-Fab fragments were purified, then sterilized by filtration into unit dose glass vials (kits). Kits were tested against specifications for volume (0.9-1.1 ml), protein concentration (0.45-0.55 mg/ml), pH (5.5-6.5), DTPA substitution (0.5-4.0 mol DTPA/mol Fab), appearance (clear, colorless and particle free), labeling efficiency ({>=}85%), and sterility and apyrogenicity (USP XXXII). Immunoreactivity of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab towards HER2 was measured by saturation radioligand binding assays using SKBR-3 human breast cancer cells (specifications: K{sub a}=0.6-9.6x10{sup 7} L/mol; B{sub max}=0.6-10.4x10{sup 6} sites/cell). {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab injection was prepared by adding 80-100 MBq of {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} to a single kit vial and incubating for 30 min at room temperature. {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab Fab was assayed for the amount of radioactivity and tested for p

  17. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes - environmental impact statement. Volume II, comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133, and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community as soon as practicable. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition, three other reasonable alternatives and a No Action alternative are analyzed in detail, The sites for these three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity. This document contains comments recieved from meetings held regarding the site selection for isotope production

  18. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF/sub 3/ gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF/sub 3/. Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF/sub 3/ solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references.

  19. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  20. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  1. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  2. Isotope separation by ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  3. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF 3 gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF 3 . Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF 3 solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references

  4. Isotope separation by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  5. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted

  6. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  7. Development of an inflammation imaging tracer, 111In-DOTA-DAPTA, targeting chemokine receptor CCR5 and preliminary evaluation in an ApoE-/- atherosclerosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihui; Petryk, Julia; Gaudet, Chantal; Kamkar, Maryam; Gan, Wei; Duan, Yin; Ruddy, Terrence D

    2018-02-07

    Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Our objective was to develop a SPECT tracer targeting CCR5 for imaging plaque inflammation by radiolabeling D-Ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA), a CCR5 antagonist, with 111 In. 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugated DAPTA (DOTA-DAPTA) was labeled with 111 In. Cell uptake studies were conducted in U87-CD4-CCR5 and U87-MG cells. Biodistribution was determined in C57BL/6 mice. Autoradiography, en face and Oil Red O (ORO) imaging studies were performed in ApoE -/- mice. DOTA-DAPTA was radiolabeled with 111 In with high radiochemical purity (> 98%) and specific activity (70 MBq·nmol). 111 In-DOTA-DAPTA exhibited fast blood and renal clearance and high spleen uptake. The U87-CD4-CCR5 cells had significantly higher uptake in comparison to the U87-MG cells. The cell uptake was reduced by three times with DAPTA, indicating the receptor specificity of the uptake. Autoradiographic images showed significantly higher lesion uptake of 111 In-DOTA-DAPTA in ApoE -/- mice than that in C57BL/6 mice. The tracer uptake in 4 month old ApoE -/- high fat diet (HFD) mice with blocking agent was twofold lower than the same mice without the blocking agent, demonstrating the specificity of the tracer for the CCR5 receptor. 111 In-DOTA-DAPTA, specifically targeting chemokine receptor CCR5, is a potential SPECT agent for imaging inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  8. Associations between the uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, HER2 density and response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous human tumour xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLarty, Kristin; Cornelissen, Bart; Scollard, Deborah A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada); Done, Susan J. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Biophysics, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University Health Network, Department of Pathology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chun, Kathy [North York General Hospital, Genetics Program, Toronto, ON (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University Health Network, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada)]|[University of Toronto, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the associations between uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, tumour HER2 density and response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) of human breast cancer (BC) xenografts in athymic mice. The tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab in athymic mice bearing BC xenografts with increasing HER2 density (0 to 3+) was evaluated. Specific uptake ratios were established in biodistribution (SUR) and imaging studies (ROI-SUR) using {sup 111}In-labeled mouse IgG ({sup 111}In-DTPA-mIgG). Further corrections were made for circulating radioactivity using tumour-to-blood ratios defined as a localization index (LI) and region-of-interest localization index (ROI-LI), respectively. Mice were treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin). A tumour growth inhibition index (TGI) was calculated and relative TGIs calculated by dividing the TGI of control by that of trastuzumab-treated mice. Strong, nonlinear associations with HER2 density were obtained if the uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab was corrected for nonspecific IgG localization (i.e., SUR; r{sup 2}=0.99) and circulating radioactivity (i.e., LI; r{sup 2} =0.87), but without these corrections, the association between HER2 density and tumour uptake was poor (r{sup 2}=0.22). There was a strong association between ROI-SUR and ROI-LI values and HER2 expression (r{sup 2}=0.90 and r{sup 2}=0.95), respectively. All tumours were imaged. Relative TGI values were associated with increasing uncorrected tumour uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab but not always with HER2 density (i.e., MCF-HER2-18 cells with trastuzumab-resistance). HER2 expression (0 to 3+) can be differentiated using {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab, but requires correction of tumour uptake for nonspecific IgG localization and circulating radioactivity. The uncorrected uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-trastuzumab was associated with tumour response to trastuzumab. (orig.)

  9. Internal radiotherapy and dosimetric study for {sup 111}In/{sup 177}Lu-pegylated liposomes conjugates in tumor-bearing mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.-E. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, H.-M. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lu, Y.-C. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Heish, N.-N. [National Health Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yun-Long [Taiwan Liposome Co. Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.-L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chuang, K.-T. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chin-Hsiung [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hwang, J.-J. [Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.-J. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ting, G. [National Health Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Whang-Peng, Jacqueline [National Health Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Deng, W.-P. [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wpdeng@tmu.edu.tw

    2006-12-20

    In vivo characterization and dosimetric analysis has been performed to evaluate the potential of pegylated liposomes as carriers of radionuclides in tumor internal radiotherapy. Methods: The DTPA/PEG-liposomes were synthesized with a medium size of 110 nm, conjugated with {sup 111}In/{sup 177}Lu-(oxine){sub 3} to afford {sup 111}In/{sup 177}Lu-liposome. The stability of {sup 111}In/{sup 177}Lu-liposome in serum was investigated. The biodistribution, scintigraphic imaging and pharmacokinetics of {sup 111}In/{sup 177}Lu-liposomes after intravenous(i.v.) injection into C-26 tumor-bearing BALB/cByJ mice were studied. Radiation dose was estimated by MIRD-III program. Results: The incorporation efficiency of {sup 111}In/{sup 177}Lu into liposomes was 95%. After incubation at 37 {sup o}C for 72 h in serum, more than 83% of radioactivity was still retained in the intact {sup 111}In/{sup 177}Lu-liposomes. The biodistribution of {sup 111}In-liposomes showed that the radioactivity in the blood decreased from 23.14{+-}8.16%ID/g at 1 h to 0.02{+-}0.00%ID/g at 72 h post-injection (p.i.), while reaching its maximum accumulation in tumors at 48 h p.i., with half-life in blood of 10.2 h. The results were supported by that of {sup 177}Lu-liposomes. Scintigraphic imaging with {sup 111}In-liposomes showed unambiguous tumor images at 48 h p.i. Dose estimation showed that the absorbed dose in tumor from {sup 177}Lu-liposomes was 5.74x10{sup -5} Gy/MBq. Conclusions: This study provides an in vivo characterization and dosimetric evaluation for the use of liposome systems as carriers in targeted radionuclide therapy. The results suggest that adequate tumor targeting as well as dose delivered to tumors could be achieved by the use of radionuclide targeted liposomes.

  10. Immunoscintigraphy of adenocarcinomas by means of 111In-labelled F(ab')2 fragments of anti-CEA monoclonal antibody F023C5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, P.; Paganelli, G.; Callegaro, L.

    1988-01-01

    F(ab') 2 fragments of F023C5, an anti-CEA monoclonal antibody, were conjugated to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and converted into a ready to use reagent for instant 111 In-labelling. The resulting 111 In radiopharmaceutical was administered intravenously and tested for its ability to image (at 48-72 h after administration) 31 primary and 85 metastatic carcinoma lesions in 70 adenocarcinoma patients (26 gastrointestinal, 18 breast and 26 lung tumour patients) whose serum CEA was elevated in 43 cases and normal in the other 27. (author)

  11. Advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems

  12. Isotope effect and isotope separation. A chemist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takanobu

    2002-01-01

    What causes the isotope effects (IE)? This presentation will be centered around the equilibrium isotope effects due to the differences in the nuclear masses. The occurrence of the equilibrium constant, K, of isotope exchange reactions which differ from the values predicted by the classical theory of statistical mechanics, K cl , is explored. The non-classical K corresponds to the unit-stage separation factor, α, that is different from unity and forms a basis of an isotope separation process involving the chemical exchange reaction. Here, the word 'chemical exchange' includes not only the isotope exchange chemical reactions between two or more chemical species but also the isotope exchanges involving the equilibria between liquid and vapor phases and liquid-gas, liquid solution-gas, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid phases. In Section I, origins of the isotope effect phenomena will be explored and, in the process, various quantities used in discussions of isotope effect that have often caused confusions will be unambiguously defined. This Section will also correlate equilibrium constant with separation factor. In Section II, various forms of temperature-dependence of IE and separation factor will be discussed. (author)

  13. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  14. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  15. Applied isotope hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, F.J. jr; Balderer, W.; Gautschi, A.

    1991-01-01

    This volume is a report on the isotopic investigations of ground-water in northern Switzerland and adjacent regions carried out since 1981 by Nagra, the Swiss National Cooperation for the Storage of Radio-active Waste. This study was undertaken to support a programme assessing potential sites for nuclear waste repositories. It includes measurements on a large number of stable- and radioisotopes and noble gases, supported by complete water chemical analyses and many rock and mineral analyses. A synthesis and interpretation of the data, along with the data themselves, are given here. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  17. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  18. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  19. Isotopic Thermionic Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemot, M.; Devin, B.; Durand, J.P.

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the general design of a thermionic direct conversion space generator. The power source used is a radioisotope. Two radioisotopes are considered: Pu 238 and Cm 244. The system is made up of a heat pipe concentrating the thermal flux from the isotope to the emitter, and of a second heat pipe evacuating the waste heat from the collector to the outer wall used as radiating panel. Calculations are given in the particular case of a 100 electrical watts output power. (authors) [fr

  20. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Kaldor, A.

    1977-01-01

    In a method for the separation of isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , the UF 6 is subjected to ir radiation at a predetermined wavelength or set of wavelengths for less than 10 -3 sec in such a manner that at least 0.1% of the 235 UF 6 molecules absorb an energy of more than 2000 cm -1 . The excited UF 6 is then reacted with a gaseous reagent, F 2 , Cl 2 , or Br 2 , to produce a product which is then recovered by means known in the art

  1. Isotopes in molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, P.S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in molecular biology, with particular reference to the structure and functions of DNA, RNA and the cellular synthesis of proteins, is discussed. The use of labelled DNA and RNA in diagnostic techniques is presented. (U.K.)

  2. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  3. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-01

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  4. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities

  5. Psychologists' diagnostic processes during a diagnostic interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Beerthuis, Vos R.J.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Witteman, C.L.M.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Swinkels, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    In mental health care, psychologists assess clients’ complaints, analyze underlying problems, and identify causes for these problems, to make treatment decisions. We present a study on psychologists’ diagnostic processes, in which a mixed-method approach was employed. We aimed to identify a common

  6. X-ray application in diagnostics and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.

    1975-01-01

    The lecture gives a general survey on the present possibilities of application of X-rays and radio-isotopes in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. The possibility of decreasing the radiation exposure by using image intensifiers and television is particularly indicated. The advantages of scintiscanning in diagnostics are presented by means of a series of examples. The increasing significance of telecurie equipment and particle accelerators are refered to in therapeutics. Finally, the radiation risk due to the medical application of radiation to the patient and the personnel is discussed and compared to the natural radiation exposure. (ORU/LH) [de

  7. Isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems, according to the calculations of the equilibrium constants for oxygen isotopic exchange reactions, and the calculations of the oxygen isotope separation factors between two phases. The equilibrium constants (K65, K67, K68 and K69) of 16 O- 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O exchange reactions between diatomic oxides were calculated in a wide temperature range on the basis of quantum statistical mechanics. Many equilibrium constants showed the anomalous mass effects, and then had the crossover temperatures and the mass independent fractionation (MIF) temperatures which held K67 = K65, K67 = K68, or K67 = K69, etc. For example, the equilibrium constants for the reactions between OH and the other diatomic oxides (MO) showed the anomalous mass effects, when M was Li, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Al, Ge, Zr, Pt, etc. The 16 O 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O oxygen isotope separation factors (S65, S67, S68 and S69) between two phases were calculated, when OH and CO were in the first phase, and SiO was in the second phase. Although the oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria in the two phases had no MIF and crossover temperatures, the separation factors showed the anomalous mass effects and had the temperatures. According to what is called the normal mass effects for the equilibrium constant of isotopic exchange reaction, the value of InK68/InK67 is 1.885. Therefore, the value of InS68/InS67 should be 1.885 too. The value calculated, however, widely changed. It can be concluded from the results obtained in the present work that some oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria cause the anomalous mass effects, the anomalous oxygen isotope separation factors, and then isotope anomalies

  8. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  9. Ongoing experiments: diagnostics requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the fuel motion diagnostics needs for ongoing LMFBR safety experiments over approximately the next five years, with the discussion centered on TREAT. Brief comments on the direction in which clad motion diagnostics requirements are expected to develop are also presented

  10. Clinical diagnostic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, E.; Morley, P.

    1986-01-01

    This textbook on diagnostic ultrasound covers the main systems, with emphasis being placed on the clinical application of diagnostic ultrasound in everyday practice. It provides not only a textbook for postgraduates (particularly FRCR candidates), but also a reference work for practitioners of clinical ultrasound and clinicians generally

  11. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  12. Zirconium isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.H.; Lahoda, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the amount of zirconium 91 isotope in zirconium comprising: forming a first solution of (a) a first solvent, (b) a scavenger, and (c) a zirconium compound which is soluble in the first solvent and reacts with the scavenger when exposed to light of a wavelength of 220 to 600 nm; irradiating the first solution with light at the wavelength for a time sufficient to photoreact a disproportionate amount of the zirconium compound containing the zirconium 91 isotope with the scavenger to form a reaction product in the first solution; contacting the first solution, while effecting the irradiation, with a second solvent which is immiscible with the first solvent, which the second solvent is a preferential solvent for the reaction product relative to the first solvent, such that at least a portion of the reaction product is transferred to the second solvent to form a second solution; and separating the second solution from the first solution after the contacting

  13. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  14. Isotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Part 1: The stable isotope of nitrogen 15N has become widely used as tracer in agriculture, medicine and biology research. The film gives an overview of the sample preparation and analytical procedures followed in the analysis of the nitrogen isotopic composition (14N/15N ratio) by optical emission spectrometry at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The subsampling of plant material and the several steps of chemical pretreatment such as Kjeldahl digestion, distillation, titration and adjustment of the proper N concentration in the extract are demonstrated. The preparation of the discharge tubes is shown in detail. Final measurement of the 14N/15N ratio is carried out with the NOI-5 and JASCO emission spectrometers. Part 2: This training film deals with the use of 32P-labelled materials in field and greenhouse experimentation in soil-plant relationships studies. All technical aspects, including safe handling and radiation protection procedures to be considered in the layout and harvesting of field experiments are documented in detail. Procedures followed up in the evaluation of P fertilizers such as rock phosphates under greenhouse conditions are described. Several soil injection techniques available for determination of the root activity pattern of trees are shown

  15. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-01

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved.

  16. Method of isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R K

    1975-05-22

    Isotopes of a gaseous compound can be separated by multi-infrared photoabsorption which follows a selective dissociation of the excited molecules by single photon absorption of photons of visible or UV radiation. The process involves three steps. Firstly, the molecules to be separated are irradiated with a high-energy IR laser, whereby the molecules of the compound containing the lighter isotopes are preferably excited. They are then irradiated by a second laser with UV or visible light whose frequency of radiation brings the excited molecules into a form in which they can be separated from the non-excited molecules. The third step is the reformation of the substances according to known methods. A power density of at least 10/sup 4/ watt/cm/sup 2/ per torr gas pressure with an irradiation time of 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ seconds in the presence of a second gas with at least 5 times higher partial pressure is necessary for the IR radiation. The method may be used for UF/sub 6/ for which an example is given here.

  17. Isotopic geochemistry at Wairakei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1985-12-01

    Deuterium measurements on geothermal water at Wairakei are consistent with the water being derived from rainfall which has percolated down from the surface. The oxygen-18 content, however, is enriched compared to average rainfall. This 18 O shift is due to isotopic exchange between water and rock at greater-than-explored depths. The magnitude of the shift implied that the mass ration (W/R) of water that has passed through the system (W) to the rock it has exchanged with (R) is about 1 assuming open (i.e. single-pass) conditions. (The ratio is about 2 if it has been a closed system, but this is thought to be less likely). The residence time of water underground cannot be determined from tritium and carbon-14 measurements at present, but arguments based on the argon isotope and deuterium contents suggest mean residence times of a few tens of thousand years. The water-rock ratio and large natural outflow of thermal water prior to exploitation are consistent with this. The 18 O content of the water has changed only slightly, and the D content not at all, during exploitation at Wairakei (measurements from 1963, 1974 and 1981). An initial tendency for the 18 O to increase because of steam loss (also shown more clearly by chloride), has been followed by decrease of 18 O (and chloride) because of dilution with infiltrating near-surface water in parts of the field

  18. Dielectrophoretic separation of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous isotopes are separated from a mixture in a vertically elongated chamber by subjecting the mixture to a nonuniform transverse electric field. Dielectrophoretic separation of the isotopes is effected, producing a transverse temperature gradient in the chamber, thereby enhancing the separation by convective countercurrent flow. In the example given, the process and apparatus are applied to the production of heavy water from steam

  19. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO 2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  20. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  1. Lead isotope in mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date state-of-the-art review of lead isotopes in mineral exploration. Beginning with an historical review on suggested uses of lead isotopes in mineral exploration, the author then outlines the theoretical aspects of lead isotopes and illustrates that the method is based on well-known principles of radioactive decay, from which isotopic signatures for different styles of mineralization are derived. The varying isotopic signatures are then introduced. The major part of the book details over 40 case histories for base and precious metals, uranium and tin using sampling media such as sulfides, gossans, soils, weathered bedrock, vegetation and groundwaters. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Examples are given of the use of lead isotopes in testing conceptual models for exploration. The success rate and cost-effectiveness of the method are illustrated by actual exploration examples. Analytical advances which should lower the cost of the method and future uses are outlined. Many of the case histories use recently published or unpublished data, 27 tables of which are given in an appendix. Details of sampling, the methods for obtaining the isotope ratios, and a commercially-available integrated lead isotope service are also provided. (Auth.)

  2. Method for separating krypton isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for separating krypton isotopes utilizing low temperature selective infrared excitation of 85krypton difluoride in an isotopic compound mixture. Multiphoton ir excitation and uv excitation techniques are used, as well as cryogenic matrix isolation and inert buffer gas isolation techniques

  3. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  4. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  5. Correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Sinem K.; Vogts, Angela; Kröhnert, Katharina; Hillion, François; Rizzoli, Silvio O.; Wessels, Johannes T.

    2014-04-01

    The isotopic composition of different materials can be imaged by secondary ion mass spectrometry. In biology, this method is mainly used to study cellular metabolism and turnover, by pulsing the cells with marker molecules such as amino acids labelled with stable isotopes (15N, 13C). The incorporation of the markers is then imaged with a lateral resolution that can surpass 100 nm. However, secondary ion mass spectrometry cannot identify specific subcellular structures like organelles, and needs to be correlated with a second technique, such as fluorescence imaging. Here, we present a method based on stimulated emission depletion microscopy that provides correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy (COIN) images. We use this approach to study the protein turnover in different organelles from cultured hippocampal neurons. Correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy can be applied to a variety of biological samples, and should therefore enable the investigation of the isotopic composition of many organelles and subcellular structures.

  6. In-vivo-receptor scintigraphy with [sup 111]In-octreotid in patients with breast tumors. In-vivo-Rezeptorszintigraphie mit [sup 111]In-Octreotid bei Patientinnen mit palpablen Mammatumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, U.J. (Frauenklinik, Koeln Univ. (Germany)); Scheidhauer, K. (Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Koeln Univ. (Germany)); Schomaecker, K. (Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Koeln Univ. (Germany)); Scharl, A. (Frauenklinik, Koeln Univ. (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Somatostatin is a ligand for a transmembrane peptid receptor protein, which is frequently expressed in breast cancer. We injected the radiolabeled somatostatin analogon In-111-pentatreotid in 19 patients suspicious for breast carcinoma. Planar imaging of the thorax was performed up to 15 minutes p.i. and 3-5 hours p.i. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was additionaly performed 3-5 hours p.i. Radioactivity was rapidly cleared from blood; concentration in serum decreased by 75% within 1 h. 78% of activity was excreted in urine within 8 h. Positive imaging was seen in 2 of 5 patients with benign breast tumors (fibroadenoma). 11 of 14 carcinomas yielded concentration of 111-In-pentatreotid. 4 of 8 patients with axillary node metastases displayed axillar activity, which was not seen in any patient without node involvement (n=6). These date demonstrate, that radiolabeled pentatreotide binds to certain breast tumors. There is evidence, that in-vivo-imaging of peptid receptors in breast carcinomas is feasible. (orig.)

  7. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Global warming is acknowledged as a major crisis facing society today, principally due to anticipated impacts on the environment, and availability and distribution of water resources. Scientific understanding of recent human-induced climate change, as well as evaluation of potential mitigation strategies, is progressively being developed through studies of atmospheric greenhouse gases and modern water energy carbon cycling processes. These efforts have been advanced through study of past global climate changes to understand mechanisms that play a role in determining natural climate fluctuations observed in ice cores, lake and sea sediments, corals, paleo-groundwater, cave deposits, tree rings, and other archives. Predictive models incorporating natural and human-induced climate change processes contribute to a better appreciation for the sensitivity of climate to specific anthropogenic perturbations. Increasingly, isotopes are being integrated in climate change studies. For example, isotope methodologies offer substantial improvements in the ability to label the origin and fate of greenhouse gases, and for studying the water and carbon cycle response to past climate changes, a high priority area for action identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Isotopes are also widely used as diagnostic variables for validation of models aimed at providing a prognosis of future environmental conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has long supported research and development of isotope applications for climate studies. The joint IAEA/WMO Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation managed by the IAEA has for the last four decades provided the basic isotope data necessary for integrating stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in climate models. The IAEA has also sponsored co-ordinated research projects on Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere and Isotope-Aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

  8. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Global warming is acknowledged as a major crisis facing society today, principally due to anticipated impacts on the environment, and availability and distribution of water resources. Scientific understanding of recent human-induced climate change, as well as evaluation of potential mitigation strategies, is progressively being developed through studies of atmospheric greenhouse gases and modern water energy carbon cycling processes. These efforts have been advanced through study of past global climate changes to understand mechanisms that play a role in determining natural climate fluctuations observed in ice cores, lake and sea sediments, corals, paleo-groundwater, cave deposits, tree rings, and other archives. Predictive models incorporating natural and human-induced climate change processes contribute to a better appreciation for the sensitivity of climate to specific anthropogenic perturbations. Increasingly, isotopes are being integrated in climate change studies. For example, isotope methodologies offer substantial improvements in the ability to label the origin and fate of greenhouse gases, and for studying the water and carbon cycle response to past climate changes, a high priority area for action identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Isotopes are also widely used as diagnostic variables for validation of models aimed at providing a prognosis of future environmental conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has long supported research and development of isotope applications for climate studies. The joint IAEA/WMO Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation managed by the IAEA has for the last four decades provided the basic isotope data necessary for integrating stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in climate models. The IAEA has also sponsored co-ordinated research projects on Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere and Isotope-Aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

  9. Imaging of HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice using 111In-trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ying; Wang, Judy; Scollard, Deborah A.; Mondal, Hridya; Holloway, Claire; Kahn, Harriette J.; Reilly, Raymond M.

    2005-01-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab were prepared by digestion of intact IgG with immobilized papain, derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with 111 In. The dissociation constant (K d ) for binding of Fab to HER2/neu-positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells was two- to threefold higher than for intact IgG (14-36 vs. 8-14 nM). The binding affinity was not significantly decreased after DTPA derivatization (K d =47 nM). 111 In-trastuzumab Fab localized specifically in HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice with tumor uptake of 7.8±0.7% injected dose (ID)/g and tumor/blood ratio of 25.2±1.6 at 72 h postinjection compared with 2.7±0.7% ID/g and 7.0±0.9 for 111 In-HuM195 anti-CD33 Fab (significantly different, P 111 In-trastuzumab Fab as early as 24 h postinjection

  10. 111In-cetuximab-F(ab')2 SPECT imaging for quantification of accessible epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in HNSCC xenografts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L.K. van; Hoeben, B.A.W.; Stegeman, H.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Franssen, G.M.; Boerman, O.C.; Bussink, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immunohistochemical epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression does not correlate with treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Aim was to apply the tracer (111)In-cetuximab-F(ab')2 for EGFR microSPECT imaging and to investigate if tracer

  11. Imaging of HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice using {sup 111}In-trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Ying [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S2 (Canada); Wang, Judy [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada); Scollard, Deborah A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada); Mondal, Hridya [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada); Holloway, Claire [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Kahn, Harriette J. [Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2C4 (Canada) and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S2 (Canada) and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2 (Canada)]. E-mail: raymond.reilly@utoronto.ca

    2005-01-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab were prepared by digestion of intact IgG with immobilized papain, derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and radiolabeled with {sup 111}In. The dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for binding of Fab to HER2/neu-positive SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells was two- to threefold higher than for intact IgG (14-36 vs. 8-14 nM). The binding affinity was not significantly decreased after DTPA derivatization (K{sub d}=47 nM). {sup 111}In-trastuzumab Fab localized specifically in HER2/neu-positive BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice with tumor uptake of 7.8{+-}0.7% injected dose (ID)/g and tumor/blood ratio of 25.2{+-}1.6 at 72 h postinjection compared with 2.7{+-}0.7% ID/g and 7.0{+-}0.9 for {sup 111}In-HuM195 anti-CD33 Fab (significantly different, P<.001). Small (3-5 mm in diameter) BT-474 tumors were imaged with {sup 111}In-trastuzumab Fab as early as 24 h postinjection.

  12. Study of distribution of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In in tumor tissue by macroautoradiography. Comparison between viable tumor tissue and necrotic tumor tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Sanada, S; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Doishita, K; Ando, I

    1977-01-01

    The localization of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In in tumor tissues was determined macroautoradiographically. /sup 169/Yb-citrate, /sup 67/Ga-citrate and /sup 111/In-citrate were injected intravenously into rats which had received subcutaneously transplantations of Yoshida sarcoma, and were injected intraperitoneally to the mice which had received subcutaneous transplantations of Ehrlich tumor. These animals were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours after injection. The tumor tissues were frozen in n-hexane (-70/sup 0/C) cooled with dry ice-acetone. After this, the frozen tumor tissues were cut into thin serial sections (10 ..mu..m) in a cryostat (-20/sup 0/C). One of these sections was then placed on x-ray film, and this film was developed after exposure of several days. The next slice of each of these sections were stained using the hematoxylin and eosin. From the observations of these autoradiogram and H-E stained slice, the following results were obtained. Concentration of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In was predominant in viable tumor tissue rather than in necrotic tumor tissue, regardless of time after administration. /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In were distributed uniformly in viable tumor tissue, but there was greater deposition of /sup 169/Yb in viable tumor tissue neighboring the necrotic tumor.

  13. Comparative biodistribution of 12 {sup 111}In-labelled gastrin/CCK2 receptor-targeting peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Joosten, Lieke; Eek, Annemarie; Roosenburg, Susan; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Peitl, Petra Kolenc [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Maina, Theodosia [National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Molecular Radiopharmacy, Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, Athens (Greece); Maecke, Helmut [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Aloj, Luigi [Fondazione ' ' G. Pascale' ' , Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istituto Nazionale Tumouri, Naples (Italy); Guggenberg, Elisabeth von [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary, University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology and Imaging, Institute of Cancer, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom); Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reubi, Jean-Claude [University of Berne, Institute of Pathology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in various tumours such as medullary thyroid carcinomas and small-cell lung cancers. Due to this high expression, CCK-2 receptors might be suitable targets for radionuclide imaging and/or radionuclide therapy. Several CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides have been developed and some have been tested in patients. Here we aimed to compare the in vivo tumour targeting properties of 12 {sup 111}In-labelled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated gastrin/CCK2 receptor-binding peptides. Two CCK8-based peptides and ten gastrin-based peptide analogues were tested. All peptides were conjugated with DOTA and labelled with {sup 111}In. Biodistribution studies were performed in mice with subcutaneous CCK2/gastrin receptor-expressing tumours and with receptor-negative tumours contralaterally. Biodistribution was studied by counting dissected tissues at 1 and 4 h after injection. Both the CCK analogues displayed relatively low tumour uptake (approximately 2.5%ID/g) as compared to minigastrin analogues. Two linear minigastrin peptides (MG0 and sargastrin) displayed moderate tumour uptake at both 1 and 4 h after injection, but also very high kidney uptake (both higher than 48%ID/g). The linear MG11, lacking the penta-Glu sequence, showed lower tumour uptake and also low kidney uptake. Varying the N-terminal Glu residues in the minigastrin analogues led to improved tumour targeting properties, with PP-F11 displaying the optimal biodistribution. Besides the monomeric linear peptides, a cyclized peptide and a divalent peptide were tested. Based on these studies, optimal peptides for peptide receptor radionuclide targeting of CCK2/gastrin receptor-expressing tumours were the linear minigastrin analogue with six D-Glu residues (PP-F11), the divalent analogue MGD5 and the cyclic peptide cyclo-MG1. These peptides combined high tumour uptake with low kidney retention, and may

  14. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  15. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12 o above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them

  17. Positron-emitting isotopes in nuclear medicine: a new challenge for radiochemistry and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lars, J.; Nilsson, G.; Ehrin, E.; Stone-Elander, S.

    1980-01-01

    Positron emission tomography and the positron camera are described and their applications in medical diagnostics outlined. The incorporation of positron emitting isotopes into other molecules which can participate biochemically in cell metabolisms and accumulate in cells with increased activity, is discussed. (C.F.)

  18. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  19. Antibody guided targeting of non-small cell lung cancer using 111In-labeled HMFG1 F(ab')2 fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalofonos, H.P.; Sivolapenko, G.B.; Courtenay-Luck, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    Immunoscintigraphy using F(ab')2 fragments of tumor-associated monoclonal antibody HMFG1 was performed in 14 patients with primary and metastatic non-small cell carcinoma of lung cancer. The antibody was conjugated with diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and labeled with 111 In. Quality control studies showed efficient incorporation of 111 In onto antibody (5 mCi/mg), no significant loss of immunoreactivity, and in vitro and in vivo stability. The optimal time for imaging was between 48 and 72 h. Following i.v. administration, serum activity fell rapidly (t1/2a = 2.5 +/- 1.3 (SD) h; t1/2b = 42 +/- 4.5 h). The majority of the radioactivity was associated with the plasma and not with the blood cells. All patients had a significant concentration of 111 In in the liver (approximately 20% of the injected dose, 48 h postadministration). No toxicity was encountered. No human antimurine-IgG antibody was detected in any of the patients within 4 months of follow-up, even in patients receiving two administrations of F(ab')2 fragments. Localization of all primary lesions and the majority (80%) of metastatic lesions was achieved. Seven of 14 patients were also studied using a 111 In-labeled nonspecific antibody (Fab')2 fragment (4C4). In three patients the specificity index was higher than the other four (P less than 0.05). We conclude that although successful targeting of 111 In-labeled (Fab')2 fragments of HMFG1 can be achieved in patients with non-small cell carcinoma of lung, observable tumor localization can also be achieved using a nonspecific antibody

  20. 111In-labeled platelet scintigraphy and two-dimensional echocardiography for detection of left atrial appendage thrombi. Studies in a new canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, B.F.; Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Kieso, R.; Johnson, J.; Fox-Eastham, K.; Ponto, J.; Bruch, P.; Kerber, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    111In-labeled platelet scintigraphy and two-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 40 dogs to determine the ability of the two techniques to detect left atrial appendage thrombi. Thrombi were induced in 33 dogs that were classified into two groups, acute or chronic, according to the time of labeled-platelet injection after thrombus induction. In the acute group (17 dogs), platelets were injected 24 hours after thrombus induction. In the chronic group (16 dogs), platelets were injected 4-8 days after thrombus induction. Sham thoracotomies were performed on seven additional control dogs who did not receive thrombin injections. Analog and blood pool-corrected 111In-labeled platelet scintigraphy images were obtained 4-72 hours later. Closed-chest two-dimensional echocardiography was performed before thoracotomy and repeated at the time of scintigraphy. The location and size of each thrombus were verified at autopsy. Two-dimensional echocardiography detected three of 17 acute (mean volume, 1.2 +/- 1.0 cc) and three of 10 chronic (mean volume, 0.4 +/- 0.3 cc; p less than 0.025) left atrial appendage thrombi. 111In-labeled platelet scintigraphy detected all 17 acute thrombi but only two of 10 chronic thrombi. The measured radioactivity levels of the excised thrombi were 1,949 +/- 1,665 cpm/clot/dose in group 1 and 228 +/- 213 cpm/clot/dose in group 2 (p less than 0.005). In this model, 111In-labeled platelet scintigraphy was able to detect acute left atrial appendage thrombi that could not be identified by two-dimensional echocardiography. Both techniques showed poor sensitivity for detection of chronic thrombi. The decline in sensitivity of 111In-labeled platelet scintigraphy for detection of older thrombi is probably due to diminished labeled-platelet incorporation