WorldWideScience

Sample records for diagnostic imaging procedures

  1. Diagnostic imaging procedure volume in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Abernathy, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive data on 1979 and 1980 diagnostic imaging procedure volume were collected from a stratified random sample of U.S. short-term general-care hospitals and private practices of radiologists, cardiologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, orthopedic surgeons, and neurologists/neurosurgeons. Approximately 181 million imaging procedures (within the study scope) were performed in 1980. Despite the rapidly increasing use of newer imaging methods, plain film radiography (140.3 million procedures) and contrast studies (22.9 million procedures) continue to comprise the vast majority of diagnostic imaging volume. Ultrasound, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and special procedures make up less than 10% of total diagnostic imaging procedures. Comparison of the data from this study with data from an earlier study indicates that imaging procedure volume in hospitals expanded at an annual growth rate of almost 8% from 1973 to 1980

  2. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  3. Digital image intensifier radiography: A new diagnostic procedure in traumatology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.; Deininger, H.K.; Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt

    1990-01-01

    Digital image intensifier radiography visualises all traumatological changes of clinical relevance and can therefore be used in traumatology. However, the quality of conventional radiographs cannot be attained as yet. Radiation exposure is markedly reduced, and radiographs are obtained directly after exposure, so that this is an extremely rapid radiographic procedure. Images can be quickly transmitted by video cable to the relevant departments and working places. (orig.) [de

  4. Diagnostic imaging procedures during pregnancy: what are the fetal risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.

    2008-01-01

    An important facet of health care is the counsel of patients seeking a better understanding of their medical treatment. One of the most challenging scenarios is the management of female patients exposed to ionizing radiation while pregnant. It requires careful consideration of both maternal benefit and fetal risk. Given the increased frequency of diagnostic examinations involving ionizing radiation, this situation has become commonplace. This paper reviews current literature discussing the risk associated with prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The fetal dose received during common radiological procedures is reported in order to emphasize that these doses do not exceed threshold levels for deterministic effects. The definitive cancer risk associated with radiation exposure in utero has yet to be established. This paper will also show that physicians who deal with pregnant women are generally uninformed or misinformed of the doses and risks associated with the exams that they prescribe. This lack of information could be leading to inappropriate advice and actions with respect to patient care. (author)

  5. Diagnostic imaging procedures during pregnancy: what are the fetal risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An important facet of health care is the counsel of patients seeking a better understanding of their medical treatment. One of the most challenging scenarios is the management of female patients exposed to ionizing radiation while pregnant. It requires careful consideration of both maternal benefit and fetal risk. Given the increased frequency of diagnostic examinations involving ionizing radiation, this situation has become commonplace. This paper reviews current literature discussing the risk associated with prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The fetal dose received during common radiological procedures is reported in order to emphasize that these doses do not exceed threshold levels for deterministic effects. The definitive cancer risk associated with radiation exposure in utero has yet to be established. This paper will also show that physicians who deal with pregnant women are generally uninformed or misinformed of the doses and risks associated with the exams that they prescribe. This lack of information could be leading to inappropriate advice and actions with respect to patient care. (author)

  6. Metadata requirements for results of diagnostic imaging procedures: a BIIF profile to support user applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas J.; Lloyd, David S.; Reynolds, Melvin I.; Plummer, David L.

    2002-05-01

    A visible digital image is rendered from a set of digital image data. Medical digital image data can be stored as either: (a) pre-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic print, or (b) un-rendered format, corresponding to a photographic negative. The appropriate image data storage format and associated header data (metadata) required by a user of the results of a diagnostic procedure recorded electronically depends on the task(s) to be performed. The DICOM standard provides a rich set of metadata that supports the needs of complex applications. Many end user applications, such as simple report text viewing and display of a selected image, are not so demanding and generic image formats such as JPEG are sometimes used. However, these are lacking some basic identification requirements. In this paper we make specific proposals for minimal extensions to generic image metadata of value in various domains, which enable safe use in the case of two simple healthcare end user scenarios: (a) viewing of text and a selected JPEG image activated by a hyperlink and (b) viewing of one or more JPEG images together with superimposed text and graphics annotation using a file specified by a profile of the ISO/IEC Basic Image Interchange Format (BIIF).

  7. Costs, charges, and revenues for hospital diagnostic imaging procedures: differences by modality and hospital characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistrom, Christopher Lee; McKay, Niccie L

    2005-06-01

    This study examined financial data reported by Florida hospitals concerning costs, charges, and revenues related to imaging services. Financial reports to the Florida Hospital Uniform Reporting System by all licensed acute care facilities for fiscal year 2002 were used to calculate four financial indices on a per procedure basis. These included charge, net revenue, operating expense (variable cost), and contribution margin. Analysis, stratified by cost center (imaging modality), tested the effects of bed size, ownership, teaching status, and urban or rural status on the four indices. The mean operating expense and charge per procedure were as follows: computed tomography (CT): $51 and $1565; x-ray and ultrasound: $55 and $410; nuclear medicine (NM): $135 and $1138; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): $165 and $2048. With all four modalities, for-profit hospitals had higher charges than not-for-profit and public facilities. Excepting NM, however, the difference by ownership disappeared when considering net revenue. Operating expense did not differ by ownership type or bed size. Operating expense (variable cost) per procedure is considerably lower for CT than for MRI. Consequently, when diagnostically equivalent, CT is preferable to MRI in terms of costs for hospitals. If the cost structure of nonhospital imaging is at all similar to hospitals, the profit potential for performing CT and MRI seems to be substantial, which has relevance to the issue of imaging self-referral.

  8. Analysis of utilization patterns and associated costs of the breast imaging and diagnostic procedures after screening mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahiotis A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anna Vlahiotis,1 Brian Griffin,2 A Thomas Stavros,3 Jay Margolis1 1Value Based Care, Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Bethesda, MD USA; 2Value Based Care, Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Seno Medical Instruments, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA Background: Little data exist on real-world patterns and associated costs of downstream breast diagnostic procedures following an abnormal screening mammography or clinical exam.Objectives: To analyze the utilization patterns in real-world clinical settings for breast imaging and diagnostic procedures, including the frequency and volume of patients and procedures, procedure sequencing, and associated health care expenditures.Materials and methods: Using medical claims from 2011 to 2015 MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Databases, adult females with breast imaging/diagnostic procedures (diagnostic mammography, ultrasound, molecular breast imaging, tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, or biopsy other than screening mammography were selected. Continuous health plan coverage without breast diagnostic procedures was required for ≥13 months before the first found breast diagnostic procedure (index event, with a 13-month post-index follow-up period. Key outcomes included diagnostic procedure volumes, sequences, and payments. Results reported descriptively were projected to provide US national patient and procedure volumes.Results: The final sample of 875,526 patients was nationally projected to 12,394,432 patients annually receiving 8,732,909 diagnostic mammograms (53.3% of patients, 6,987,399 breast ultrasounds (42.4% of patients, and 1,585,856 biopsies (10.3% of patients. Following initial diagnostic procedures, 49.4% had second procedures, 20.1% followed with third procedures, and 10.0% had a fourth procedure. Mean (SD costs for diagnostic mammograms of US$349 ($493, ultrasounds US$132 ($134, and biopsies US$1,938 ($2,343 contributed

  9. Student and intern awareness of ionising radiation exposure from common diagnostic imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G. Z.; Wong, D. D.; Nguyen, L. K.; Mendelson, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This study aims to evaluate medical student and intern awareness of ionising radiation exposure from common diagnostic imaging procedures and to suggest how education could be improved. Fourth to sixth year medical students enrolled at a Western Australian university and interns from three teaching hospitals in Perth were recruited. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of 26 questions on their background, knowledge of ionising radiation doses and learning preferences for future teaching on this subject. A total of 331 completed questionnaires were received (95.9%). Of the 17 questions assessing knowledge of ionising radiation, a mean score of 6.0 was obtained by respondents (95% CI 5.8-6.2). Up to 54.8% of respondents underestimated the radiation dose from commonly requested radiological procedures. Respondents (11.3 and 25.5%) incorrectly believed that ultrasound and MRI emit ionising radiation, respectively. Of the four subgroups of respondents, the intern doctor subgroup performed significantly better (mean score 6.9, P< 0.0001, 95% CI 6.5-7.3) than each of the three medical student subgroups. When asked for the preferred method of teaching for future radiation awareness, a combination of lectures, tutorials and workshops was preferred. This study has clearly shown that awareness of ionising radiation from diagnostic imaging is lacking among senior medical students and interns. The results highlight the need for improved education to minimise unnecessary exposure of patients and the community to radiation. Further studies are required to determine the most effective form of education.

  10. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges.

  11. Cancer pancreatis, diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graadal, Oe.; Schlichting, E.; Aasen, A.O.; Stadaas, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    151 patients treated for carcinoma of the pancreas at Ullevaal Hospital (Oslo University) during the period 1980-89 were studied. The most common initial symptom was abdominal pain. Other frequent debut symptoms were loss of weight and jaundice. ERCP and PTC were found to be the best diagnostic procedures. CT or ultrasonography were normal in 10-20% of the patients. Nearly all tumors of the pancreas were found by the ERCP procedure. Also angiography was used to evaluate operability of the pancreas tumor, but was found to be a very uncertain diagnostic method. This method will not be used in the future evaluation of patients with cancer of the pancreas. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. The Downside of Diagnostic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    An article about radiation exposure during computed tomography and nuclear imaging procedures and the risk of cancer. Several studies released in 2009 have helped to quantify the risk and the growing use of these diagnostic imaging methods.

  13. Calculation of entrance exposed area from recorded images in cardiac diagnostic and interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, G.; Balman, D.

    2000-01-01

    With increasing number of interventional radiological procedures performed on patients of all ages, it is important to determine the skin entrance dose of patients to limit the side effects of radiation. In most cases the skin dose is measured using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). However, these detectors need to be placed in the radiation field on the skin of the patient, which may interfere with the procedure. Also, not all radiological practices are equipped with TLD readers which are expensive or have staff with the appropriate knowledge and expertise to be able to make use of TLD. The alternative to TLD is to use the dose area product (DAP) measured with a diamentor fitted to the angiography x-ray equipment. The difficulties in using DAP to calculate skin dose is that the irradiated area of the skin is not known. The area could change in size and location during the procedure as the radiologist/medical specialist varies the collimation and region of interest. For angiography equipment the distance between the anode and image intensifier is variable, as is the height of the examination table. The only point of reference is the isocentre. With recorded images it is possible to determine the irradiated area of the patient at the isocentre plane using the stenosis algorithm. The recorded image is calibrated such that it corresponds to the physical size in the plane of the isocentre. For non-recorded images, it may be necessary to assume that collimation has not changed and that the irradiated area is the same as that shown on the recorded images. The Women's and Children's Hospital has a Toshiba DFP2000 Biplane Digital Imaging system used for all cardiac and general angiography and interventional procedures. With this system the exposure factors (kVp, mA, field sizes) are recorded with the images. The source to image distance (SID), magnification factor (calibration factor of the recorded images) and angle of rotation are displayed on the Display Panel of the

  14. Pelvicalyceal system duplication with ectopic ureter – diagnostic difficulties associated with the imaging procedure. Two cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pukajło-Marczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract abnormalities are the most frequently occurring developmental anomaly in children. Pelvicalyceal system duplication is one of them and signifies the existence of two urine diverting separate systems. This anomaly occurs in 10% of population, usually in girls, and is associated with complete or partial ureter duplication. The frequency of total ureter duplication, which in 20–40% of patients is found as bilateral, is 1:125 children (0.8% of the population. The most frequent malformation is asymptomatic, diagnosed coincidentally casually and does not require any treatment. In some patients with pelvicalyceal system duplication, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR and ectopic ureter may coexist. Malposition of ureter’s orifice into the bladder predispose to urinary retention, development of hydronephrosis and urinary tract infection (UTI. Ectopic ureterocele is recognized in 6–20% of children with recurrent UTI. The reason why children are referred to the hospital is UTI or hydronephrosis revealed by ultrasound imaging. When the ultrasound image of pelvicalyceal system duplication is ambiguous, micturating cystourethrography (MCU and scintigraphy become the primary diagnostic procedure, or urography – in more complicated cases. In the case of ectopic ureter, the danger of inappropriate catheterization, i.e. directly into its lumen, may occur. Though very rare, this may cause some diagnostic difficulties and lead to injury of the urinary tract. For this reason, we want to further discuss this complication following a diagnostic procedure on the example of two cases of pelvicalyceal system duplication with ectopic ureter.

  15. MR diagnostics after Ross procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, J.C.; Link, J.; Harringer, W.; Haverich, A.; Heller, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the ability of MRI to diagnose morphological and functional changes in patients after Ross procedure. Material and methods: During one year, 5 patients after Ross procedure were studied by MRI. T 1 -weighted spin-echo sequences in different orientations as well as cine sequences and a VENC-sequence were used. Results: In all patients the morphology including the postoperative changes could be visualised by MRI. The cine sequences provided functional information on valvular and ventricular function. VENC-MR yielded an exact quantification of the regurgitant fraction. Conclusion: MRI is capable of providing all important diagnostic information in patients after Ross procedure such as valvular and ventricular function and valvular and outflow tract morphology in a single examination. (orig.) [de

  16. Diagnostic Imaging Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Fisica Medica

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) and the Argentina Society of Medical Physics (SAFIM) was organized the Diagnostic Imaging Workshop 2012, in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This workshop was an oriented training and scientific exchange between professionals and technicians who work in medical physics, especially in the areas of diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, with special emphasis on the use of multimodal imaging for radiation treatment, planning as well of quality assurance associates.

  17. Radiation risk of diagnostical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1986-01-01

    The environmental radiation burden of man in Germany is about 1 mGy (Milligray) per year. This is, of course, also valid for children. Due to diagnostical procedures this burden is increased to about 1.3 mGy. The question arises wether this can be neglected, or important consequences have to be drawn. To give a clear answer, the action of ionizing radiation in living cells and in organisms is explained in detail. Many of the radiation actions at the DNA can soon be repaired by the cell, if the radiation dose was small. Some damage, however will remain irreparable for the cell and consequently leads to cell death, to mutations or to cell transformation. The number of these lesion increases or decreases linearily with radiation dose. Therefore, it must be expected that the risk of tumour induction is increased to above the normal background even by the smallest doses. This small but not negligible risk has to be compared with other risks of civilization or with other medical risks. But also the benefit and the efficacy of diagnostic procedures have to be considered. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Diagnostic imaging in internal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines medical diagnostic techniques. Topics considered include biological considerations in the approach to clinical medicines; infectious diseases; disorders of the heart; disorders of the vascular system; disorders of the respiratory system; diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract; disorders of the alimentary tract; disorders of the hepatobiliary system and pancreas; disorders of the hematopoietic system; disorders of bone and bone mineralization; disorders of the joints, connective tissues, and striated muscles; disorders of the nervous system; miscellaneous disorders; and procedures in diagnostic imaging

  19. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, P.E.S.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1984-11-16

    This article discusses ways in which more appropriate use can be made of roentgenography with a resulting decrease in radiation doses to the patient population. The authors recommend that fewer films be made and that traditional roentgenography be replaced with endoscopy, ultrasound, computerized tomography, or angiography where appropriate. They also recommend that medical schools and medical subspecialty groups study the World Health Organization document which provides indications for diagnostic imaging, the choice of procedure and the limitations of each.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradzki, J.; Nowak, S.; Paprzycki, W.

    1993-01-01

    40 patients have been examined with operational and histological confirmation of craniopharyngioma. CT image and X-ray plane of skull were performed in case all of these patients. TMR was conformed to examine 4 patients. X-ray planes was compared to CT. CT permits tumor cyst detection. The efficacy of mentioned above diagnostic techniques was compared with surgical findings. (author)

  1. Encyclopedia of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of imaging. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on diagnostic radiology contributing to the broad field of imaging. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of diagnostic imaging. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list. (orig.)

  2. Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kułakowska, Alina; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzyńska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wiesław

    2011-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients

  3. Diagnostic imaging in medicine. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reba, R.C.; Goodenough, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes to practitioners the evolutionary progression of new non-invasive diagnostic imaging techniques. The utility of the procedures is also described in a series of state-of-the-art lectures given by outstanding international clinical investigators from NATO countries. Subjects of the papers include the following: advances in source and detector technology, acoustical imaging, NMR and microwave imaging, positron and single photon emission tomography, digital radiography and image processing and display techniques. Fundamental papers describing the theory of non-invasive procedures are included along with papers describing clinical examinations. Examples of utility and studies of diseases of the abdomen and pelvis, heart and lung, and central nervous system are included. Cost-effective and cost-benefit assessment of the new high technology procedures, as well as the use of diagnostic imaging techniques in developing countries are also presented. An index of leading topics completes the volume. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic imaging in medicine. 2nd ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reba, R C; Goodenough, D J; Davidson, H F

    1984-01-01

    This book describes to practitioners the evolutionary progression of new non-invasive diagnostic imaging techniques. The utility of the procedures is also described in a series of state-of-the-art lectures given by outstanding international clinical investigators from NATO countries. Subjects of the papers include the following: advances in source and detector technology, acoustical imaging, NMR and microwave imaging, positron and single photon emission tomography, digital radiography and image processing and display techniques. Fundamental papers describing the theory of non-invasive procedures are included along with papers describing clinical examinations. Examples of utility and studies of diseases of the abdomen and pelvis, heart and lung, and central nervous system are included. Cost-effective and cost-benefit assessment of the new high technology procedures, as well as the use of diagnostic imaging techniques in developing countries are also presented. An index of leading topics completes the volume.

  5. Does MR imaging effectively replace diagnostic arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruwe, P.; McCarthy, S.; Wright, J.; Randall, L.; Lynch, K.; Jokyl, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines if MR imaging reduces the number of diagnostic arthroscopic procedures required in patients with knee complaints and if MR imaging is cost-effective compared with diagnostic arthroscopy. The cohort analysis consists of 100 patients seen in a sports medicine clinic by two orthopedic surgeons who agreed on well-defined criteria for performing MR imaging and arthroscopy. Each orthopedic surgeon referring a patient for MR imaging checked a form regarding the plans for arthroscopy. Outcome analysis was conducted at 6 months

  6. Exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.; Isac, R.

    2002-01-01

    According to our last national study on population exposures from natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation, 16% of overall annual collective effective dose represent the contribution of diagnostic medical exposures. Of this value, 92% is due to diagnostic X-ray examinations and only 8% arise from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. This small contribution to collective dose is mainly the result of their lower frequency compared to that of the X-ray examinations, doses delivered to patients being, on average, ten times higher. The purpose of this review was to reassess the population exposure from in vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures and to evaluate the temporal trends of diagnostic usage of radiopharmaceuticals in Romania. The current survey is the third one conducted in the last decade. As in the previous ones (1990 and 1995), the contribution of the Radiation Hygiene Laboratories Network of the Ministry of Health and Family in collecting data from nuclear medicine departments in hospitals was very important

  7. Picosecond image-converter diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelev, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the improvements in picosecond image-converter diagnostics carried out since the previous Congress in 1972. The account is given under the following headings: picosecond image converter cameras for visible and x-ray radiation diagnostics; Nd:glass and ruby mode-locked laser measurements; x-ray plasma emission diagnostics; computer treatment of pictures produced by picosecond cameras. (U.K.)

  8. The Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Protection of the Patient in Medical Imaging Procedures for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Purposes (Excluding Radiotherapy) using X-Rays in Israel - Risk - Cost and Benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1998-10-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. The utilization of devices emitting ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is classified into three categories: a. Radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of malignant and benign tumors. b. Nuclear medicine procedures using radiopharmaceuticals that are introduced into the patient's body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. c. Diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray imaging procedures. This group includes conventional radiography, conventional fluoroscopy, cardiac catheterization, angiography, CT, mammography, dental, and fluoroscopy operation procedures. A survey was carried out on a sample of three major Israeli hospitals in order to: 1. Determine the status of radiation protection of patients in Israel with regard to the use of x-rays in medical imaging and interventional radiology. 2. Assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays, and assess the collective risk in Israel in this relation (based on Icr-60). 3. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 4. Establish a of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. 5. Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel

  9. The Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Protection of the Patient in Medical Imaging Procedures for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Purposes (Excluding Radiotherapy) using X-Rays in Israel - Risk - Cost and Benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Shlomo, A

    1998-10-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. The utilization of devices emitting ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is classified into three categories: a. Radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of malignant and benign tumors. b. Nuclear medicine procedures using radiopharmaceuticals that are introduced into the patient's body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. c. Diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray imaging procedures. This group includes conventional radiography, conventional fluoroscopy, cardiac catheterization, angiography, CT, mammography, dental, and fluoroscopy operation procedures. A survey was carried out on a sample of three major Israeli hospitals in order to: 1. Determine the status of radiation protection of patients in Israel with regard to the use of x-rays in medical imaging and interventional radiology. 2. Assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays, and assess the collective risk in Israel in this relation (based on Icr-60). 3. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 4. Establish a of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. 5. Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel.

  10. Diagnostic procedures of the solitary pulmonary nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Kohara, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The spread of computed tomography (CT) brought the frequent further examinations of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). To aim the evaluation of initial data on examinations of SPN for differential diagnosis, we studied retrospective cases. Thirty-one cases of SPN less than 20 mm in diameter were compared in clinical findings and CT image findings and were examined the diagnostic procedures in recent three years in National Sanyo Hospital. The 31 patients consisted of 14 males and 17 females ranging 44 to 79 years old, median 65 years old. The causes of SPN were lung cancer (11 patients), cryptococcosis (4 patients), tuberculoma (3 patients), non-tuberculous mycobacteria (2 patients), pneumoconiosis (2 patients), pneumonia scar (one patient), hamartoma (one patient), and unknown (7 patients). There were no significant differences in laboratory findings between lung cancer and the others. CT findings showed significant differences in four categories. All patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) examinations and 12 patients were determined the diagnosis initial FB. Five patients were established their diagnosis using videoassociated thoracoscopic surgeries. (author)

  11. Diagnostic imaging in intensive care patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afione, Cristina; Binda, Maria del C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of imaging diagnostic methods in the location of infection causes of unknown origin in the critical care patient. Material and methods: A comprehensive medical literature search has been done. Recommendations for the diagnostic imaging of septic focus in intensive care patients are presented for each case, with analysis based on evidence. The degree of evidence utilized has been that of Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine. Results: Nosocomial infection is the most frequent complication in the intensive care unit (25 to 33%) with high sepsis incidence rate. In order to locate the infection focus, imaging methods play an important role, as a diagnostic tool and to guide therapeutic procedures. The most frequent causes of infection are: ventilation associated pneumonia, sinusitis, intra-abdominal infections and an acute acalculous cholecystitis. This paper analyses the diagnostic imaging of hospital infection, with the evaluation of choice methods for each one and proposes an algorithm to assess the septic patient. Conclusion: There are evidences, with different degrees of recommendation, for the use of diagnostic imaging methods for infectious focuses in critical care patients. The studies have been selected based on their diagnostic precision, on the capacity of the medical team and on the availability of resources, considering the risk-benefit balance for the best safety of the patient. (author)

  12. Imaging systems for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestel, E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides physicians and clinical physicists with detailed information on today's imaging modalities and assists them in selecting the optimal system for each clinical application. Physicists, engineers and computer specialists engaged in research and development and sales departments will also find this book to be of considerable use. It may also be employed at universities, training centers and in technical seminars. The physiological and physical fundamentals are explained in part 1. The technical solutions contained in part 2 illustrate the numerous possibilities available in X-ray diagnostics, computed tomography, nuclear medical diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography and biomagnetic diagnostics. (orig.)

  13. Advantages of digital imaging for radiological diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapero, M. A.; Gonzalez, S.; Albillos, J. C.; Martel, J.; Rebollo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of radiological digital images in comparison with analogic ones are analyzed. We discuss three main topics: acquisition, post-procedure manipulation, and visualization, archive and communication. Digital acquisition with computed radiology systems present a global sensitivity very close to conventional film for diagnostic purposes. However, flat panel digital systems seems to achieve some advantages in particular clinical situations. A critical issue is the radiation dose-reduction that can be accomplished without reducing image quality nor diagnostic exactitude. The post-procedure manipulation allows, particularly in multiplanar modalities like CT or MR, to extract all implicit diagnostic information in the images: Main procedures are multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations, dynamic acquisitions, functional studies and image fusion. The use of PACS for visualization, archive and communication of images, improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of the workflow, allows a more comfortable diagnosis for the radiologist and gives way to improvements in the communication of images, allowing tele consulting and the tele radiology. (Author) 6 refs

  14. A Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Woo

    1999-01-01

    The ability to see the internal organs of the human body in a noninvasive way is a powerful diagnostic tool of modern medicine. Among these imaging modalities such as X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound. MRI and ultrasound are presenting much less risk of undesirable damage of both patient and examiner. In fact, no deleterious effects have been reported as a result of clinical examination by using MRI and ultrasound diagnostic equipment. As a result, their market volume has been rapidly increased. MRI has a good resolution. but there are a few disadvantages such as high price. non-real-time imaging capability. and expensive diagnostic cost. On the other hand, the ultrasound imaging system has inherently poor resolution as compared with X-ray and MRI. In spite of its poor resolution, the ultrasound diagnostic equipment is lower in price and has an ability of real-time imaging as compared with the others. As a result, the ultrasound imaging system has become general and essential modality for imaging the internal organs of human body. In this review various researches and developments to enhance the resolution of the ultrasound images are explained and future trends of the ultrasound imaging technology are described

  15. Consultation in diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.W. Jr.; Scott, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book's organization follows traditional lines; abdomen, chest, bone, OB/GYN, neuroradiology, interventional radiology. It provides the rationale for selecting or avoiding a particular imaging study. The inclusion of decision trees in this book is especially helpful in radiology where careful planning can prevent unnecessary radiation exposure, invasive measures, and extraordinary costs

  16. Diagnostic imaging in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, C.F.; Becker, M.H.; Flanagan, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    There are three sections in the book. The first section is a discussion of imaging techniques, which includes plain film radiography and multidirectional tomography of the orbit, computed tomography (CT) of the orbit and its use in the evaluation of ocular motility disorders, ultrasonography of the eye and orbit, investigation of the orbit by contrast techniques (which includes a brief review of angiography), the lachrimal drainage system, foreign body localization, and magnetic resonance imaging of the eye and orbit. There is extensive discussion of CT throughout the book. The second section is devoted to the role of these imaging methods in the evaluation of ophthalmic disorders. A discussion of congenital anomalies is useful for those centers that are exposed to unusual congenital anomalies and syndromes. Also included is evaluation of exophthalmous and thyroid ophthamalopathy, orbital tumors, lesions involving the visual pathways, CT assessment of paraorbital pathology (including basal and squamous cell tumors of the face), infection of the orbit, and orbital trauma. The third section is an overview of radiation therapy and malignant intraoccular tumors

  17. Workload measurement: diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, Wayne [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    1993-06-01

    Departments of medical imaging, as with many other service departments in the health industry, are being asked to develop performance indicators. No longer are they assured that annual budget allocations will be forthcoming without justification or some output measurement indicators that will substantiate a claim for a reasonable share of resources. The human resource is the most valuable and the most expensive to any department. This paper provides a brief overview of the research and implementation of a radiographer workload measurement system that was commenced in the Brisbane North Health Region. 2 refs., 10 tabs.

  18. Diagnostic imaging in COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owsijewitsch, Michael; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Eichinger, Monika

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a heterogeneous disease defined by expiratory airflow limitation. Airflow limitation is caused by a variable combination of emphysematous destruction of lung parenchyma and small airway obstruction. Only advanced emphysema can be diagnosed by chest X-ray. Less severe emphysema and changes in small airways are commonly diagnosed by computed tomography. Typical visual appearance of pathologic changes in lung parenchyma and airways of COPD patients are presented, furthermore methods for quantitative assessment of these changes and the crucial role of imaging for surgical and bronchoscopic treatment in COPD are discussed. (orig.)

  19. A revolution in diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamula, Paul W

    2003-03-01

    In November 1966, Sandy Koufax, the star left-handed pitcher of the Los Angeles Dodgers, retired after spending his final season coping with traumatic arthritis in his elbow, the compounded effects of a sliding injury to his pitching arm the previous season and 12 years of hard throwing.1 Had his career begun a few years later, he might have been able to benefit from the advances in diagnostic imaging and treatment that were introduced at that time. Modern arthroscopy and computed tomography (CT) did not become available until the mid 1970s,2 and the first elbow reconstruction was done by Frank Jobe, MD, about 10 years after Koufax retired.1 Arthroscopy was first used as a diagnostic tool, but it later became a surgical tool, affecting treatment of knees, then, later, shoulders. Since 1973, when The Physician and Sportsmedicine was launched, we have witnessed a revolution in diagnostic imaging and are continuing to see an evolution of modalities.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of exotic pets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic (CT) imaging are important diagnostic modalities in exotic pets. The use of appropriate radiographic equipment, film-screen combinations, and radiographic projections enhances the information obtained from radiographs. Both normal findings and common radiographic abnormalities are discussed. The use of ultrasonography and CT scanning for exotic small mammals and reptiles is described

  1. Diagnostic information management system for the evaluation of medical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Toshiaki; Torizuka, Kanji; Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Hirakawa, Akina

    1985-04-01

    A practical, small and low-cost diagnostic information management system has been developed for a comparative study of various medical imaging procedures, including ordinary radiography, X-ray computed tomography, emission computed tomography, and so forth. The purpose of the system is to effectively manage the original image data files and diagnostic descriptions during the various imaging procedures. A diagnostic description of each imaging procedure for each patient is made on a hand-sort punched-card with line-drawings and ordinary medical terminology and then coded and computerized using Index for Roentgen Diagnoses (American College of Radiology). A database management software (DB Master) on a personal computer (Apple II) is used for searching for patients' records on hand-sort punched-cards and finally original medical images. Discussed are realistic use of medical images and an effective form of diagnostic descriptions.

  2. Diagnostic information management system for the evaluation of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, Toshiaki; Torizuka, Kanji; Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Hirakawa, Akina.

    1985-01-01

    A practical, small and low-cost diagnostic information management system has been developed for a comparative study of various medical imaging procedures, including ordinary radiography, X-ray computed tomography, emission computed tomography, and so forth. The purpose of the system is to effectively manage the original image data files and diagnostic descriptions during the various imaging procedures. A diagnostic description of each imaging procedure for each patient is made on a hand-sort punched-card with line-drawings and ordinary medical terminology and then coded and computerized using Index for Roentgen Diagnoses (American College of Radiology). A database management software (DB Master) on a personal computer (Apple II) is used for searching for patients' records on hand-sort punched-cards and finally original medical images. Discussed are realistic use of medical images and an effective form of diagnostic descriptions. (author)

  3. Fusion Imaging for Procedural Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Brandon M; Eleid, Mackram F; Thaden, Jeremy J

    2018-05-01

    The field of percutaneous structural heart interventions has grown tremendously in recent years. This growth has fueled the development of new imaging protocols and technologies in parallel to help facilitate these minimally-invasive procedures. Fusion imaging is an exciting new technology that combines the strength of 2 imaging modalities and has the potential to improve procedural planning and the safety of many commonly performed transcatheter procedures. In this review we discuss the basic concepts of fusion imaging along with the relative strengths and weaknesses of static vs dynamic fusion imaging modalities. This review will focus primarily on echocardiographic-fluoroscopic fusion imaging and its application in commonly performed transcatheter structural heart procedures. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic imaging of shoulder impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merl, T.; Weinhardt, H.; Oettl, G.; Lenz, M.; Riel, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a method that has been advancing in the last few years to the modality of choice for diagnostic evaluation of the bone joints, as the method is capable of imaging not only the ossous but also the soft tissue components of the joint. MRI likewise has become an accepted method for diagnostic evaluation of syndromes of the shoulder, with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting rotator cuff lesions, or as an efficient MRI arthrography for evaluation of the instability or lesions of the labrocapsular complex. In the evaluation of early stages of shoulder impingement, the conventional MRI technique as a static technique yields indirect signs which in many cases do not provide the diagnostic certainty required in order to do justice to the functional nature of the syndrome. In these cases, functional MRI for imaging of the arm in abducted position and in rotational movement may offer a chance to early detect impingement and thus identify patients who will profit from treatment at an early stage [de

  5. Methodology for quantitative evaluation of diagnostic medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic medical imaging procedures using the Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC analysis. The development of new tests for the statistical significance of apparent differences between ROC curves is discussed

  6. Comparative analysis of diagnostic accuracy of different brain biopsy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Sarkar, Chitra; Gupta, Deepak; Singh, Manmohan; Mahapatra, A K

    2006-12-01

    Image-guided procedures such as computed tomography (CT) guided, neuronavigator-guided and ultrasound-guided methods can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the intraparenchymal lesion of the brain. However, despite improvements in the imaging techniques, an accurate diagnosis of intrinsic lesion requires tissue sampling and histological verification. The present study was carried out to examine the reliability of the diagnoses made on tumor sample obtained via different stereotactic and ultrasound-guided brain biopsy procedures. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all brain biopsies (frame-based and frameless stereotactic and ultrasound-guided) performed in a single tertiary care neurosciences center between 1995 and 2005. The overall diagnostic accuracy achieved on histopathology and correlation with type of biopsy technique was evaluated. A total of 130 cases were included, which consisted of 82 males and 48 females. Age ranged from 4 to 75 years (mean age 39.5 years). Twenty per cent (27 patients) were in the pediatric age group, while 12% (16 patients) were >or= 60-years of age. A definitive histological diagnosis was established in 109 cases (diagnostic yield 80.2%), which encompassed 101 neoplastic and eight nonneoplastic lesions. Frame-based, frameless stereotactic and ultrasound-guided biopsies were done in 95, 15 and 20 patients respectively. Although the numbers of cases were small there was trend for better yield with frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy and maximum diagnostic yield was obtained i.e, 87% (13/15) in comparison to conventional frame-based CT-guided stereotactic biopsy and ultrasound-guided biopsy. Overall, a trend of higher diagnostic yield was seen in cases with frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy. Thus, this small series confirms that frameless neuronavigator-guided stereotactic procedures represent the lesion sufficiently in order to make histopathologic diagnosis.

  7. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  8. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric renal inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Schroeder, B.A.; Starshak, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Some form of imaging procedure should be used to document the presence of infection of the upper urinary tract in troublesome cases in children. During the past several years, sonography, nuclear radiology, and computed tomography (CT) have had a significant influence on renal imaging. The purpose of this article is to reevaluate the noninvasive imaging procedures that can be used to diagnose pediatric renal inflammatory disease and to assess the relative value of each modality in the various types of renal infection. The authors will not discuss the radiologic evaluation of the child who has had a previous renal infection, in whom cortical scarring or reflux nephropathy is a possibility; these are different clinical problems and require different diagnostic evaluation

  9. Imaging of the lumbosacral plexus. Diagnostics and treatment planning with high-resolution procedures; Bildgebung des Plexus lumbosacralis. Diagnostik und Therapieplanung mithilfe hochaufgeloester Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jengojan, S.; Schellen, C.; Bodner, G.; Kasprian, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    Technical advances in magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound-based neurography nowadays facilitate the radiological assessment of the lumbosacral plexus. Anatomy and imaging of the lumbosacral plexus and diagnostics of the most common pathologies. Description of the clinically feasible combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound diagnostics, case-based illustration of imaging techniques and individual advantages of MRI and ultrasound-based diagnostics for various pathologies of the lumbosacral plexus and its peripheral nerves. High-resolution ultrasound-based neurography (HRUS) is particularly valuable for the assessment of superficial structures of the lumbosacral plexus. Depending on the examiner's experience, anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve (e. g. relevant in piriformis syndrome) as well as more subtle variations, for example as seen in neuritis, can be sonographically depicted and assessed. The use of MRI enables the diagnostic evaluation of more deeply located nerve structures, such as the pudendal and the femoral nerves. Modern MRI techniques, such as peripheral nerve tractography allow three-dimensional depiction of the spatial relationship between nerves and local tumors or traumatic alterations. This can be beneficial for further therapy planning. The anatomy and pathology of the lumbosacral plexus can be reliably imaged by the meaningful combination of MRI and ultrasound-based high resolution neurography. (orig.) [German] Durch technische Fortschritte im Bereich der magnetresonanz- (MR-) und ultraschallbasierten Neurographie ist der Plexus lumbosacralis heute der radiologischen Abklaerung zugaenglich. Anatomie und Bildgebung des Plexus lumbosacralis, Abklaerung der haeufigsten Pathologien. Erlaeuterung der klinisch sinnvollen Kombination von MR- und Ultraschalldiagnostik, Darstellung der Untersuchungstechniken und der jeweiligen Vorteile von MRT und Ultraschall anhand fallbasierter Praesentation unterschiedlicher

  10. Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsutomu; Itai, Yuji

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), radionuclide (RN) scintigraphy, angiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERP). First three noninvasive methods, were the most effective to diagnose psudo-cyst or cystoadenoma. Especially, CT gives the clear image of inflammation and shows pancreatic stones and calcification, with high sensitivity. As for pancreatic carcinomas there was no noninvasive methods to apply at an early stage. In order to diagnose the cancer the combination of angiography and ERP was preferable. The problem was how to select the candidates for the investigation of combined method out of the patients with negative CT or US. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Diagnostic imaging of compression neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaupt, D.; Andreisek, G.

    2007-01-01

    Compression-induced neuropathy of peripheral nerves can cause severe pain of the foot and ankle. Early diagnosis is important to institute prompt treatment and to minimize potential injury. Although clinical examination combined with electrophysiological studies remain the cornerstone of the diagnostic work-up, in certain cases, imaging may provide key information with regard to the exact anatomic location of the lesion or aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis. In other patients with peripheral neuropathies of the foot and ankle, imaging may establish the etiology of the condition and provide information crucial for management and/or surgical planning. MR imaging and ultrasound provide direct visualization of the nerve and surrounding abnormalities. Bony abnormalities contributing to nerve compression are best assessed by radiographs and CT. Knowledge of the anatomy, the etiology, typical clinical findings, and imaging features of peripheral neuropathies affecting the peripheral nerves of the foot and ankle will allow for a more confident diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  12. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [de

  13. Diagnostic imaging of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Rainer [Hospital for Cardiovascular Diseases, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Lanz, Ulrich [Perlach Hospital, Munich (Germany). Dept. of Hand Surgery

    2008-07-01

    With its complex anatomy and specialized biomechanics, the human hand has always presented physicians with a unique challenge when it comes to diagnosing and treating the diseases that afflict it. And while recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of therapeutic options, many diseases and injuries of the hand are still commonly misinterpreted. In diagnostic imaging of the hand, an interdisciplinary team, comprisingspecialists in radiology, surgery, and rheumatology, presents a comprehensive,reliable guide to this topographically intricate area. Highlights include: - More than 1000 high-quality illustrations - All state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including multidetector CT, with 2D displays and 3D reconstructions, and contrast-enhanced MRI with multi-channel, phased-array coils - An overview of all currently used methods of examination - A detailed presentation of the anatomic and functional foundations necessary for diagnosis - Full coverage of all disorders of the hand - Systematic treatment of each disease's definition, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, according to a graduated diagnostic plan - Easy-to-use format, featuring crisp images and line drawings seamlessly integrated with concise text, summary tables, and handy checklists - A heavily cross-referenced appendix of differential diagnosis tables - Emphasis on interdisciplinary consultation throughout designed to help both radiologists and clinicians develop the most efficient and effective strategies for evaluating and treating patients, Diagnostic imaging of the hand will leave specialists of all levels with a fresh appreciation for - and a richer understanding of - the expanding array of cutting-edge alternatives for diagnosing and treating disorders of the hand. (orig.)

  14. Diagnostic imaging of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Rainer; Lanz, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    With its complex anatomy and specialized biomechanics, the human hand has always presented physicians with a unique challenge when it comes to diagnosing and treating the diseases that afflict it. And while recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of therapeutic options, many diseases and injuries of the hand are still commonly misinterpreted. In diagnostic imaging of the hand, an interdisciplinary team, comprisingspecialists in radiology, surgery, and rheumatology, presents a comprehensive,reliable guide to this topographically intricate area. Highlights include: - More than 1000 high-quality illustrations - All state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including multidetector CT, with 2D displays and 3D reconstructions, and contrast-enhanced MRI with multi-channel, phased-array coils - An overview of all currently used methods of examination - A detailed presentation of the anatomic and functional foundations necessary for diagnosis - Full coverage of all disorders of the hand - Systematic treatment of each disease's definition, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, according to a graduated diagnostic plan - Easy-to-use format, featuring crisp images and line drawings seamlessly integrated with concise text, summary tables, and handy checklists - A heavily cross-referenced appendix of differential diagnosis tables - Emphasis on interdisciplinary consultation throughout designed to help both radiologists and clinicians develop the most efficient and effective strategies for evaluating and treating patients, Diagnostic imaging of the hand will leave specialists of all levels with a fresh appreciation for - and a richer understanding of - the expanding array of cutting-edge alternatives for diagnosing and treating disorders of the hand. (orig.)

  15. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Chang, C.C.; Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; Donni, A.J.H.; Kawahata, K.; Liang, C.; Liang, X.P.; Lu, H.J.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Mase, A.; Matsuura, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Miura, A.; Mizuno, K.; Munsat, T.; Nagayama, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Pol, M.J. van de; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.G.; Zhang, W-K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented

  16. Complications in diagnostic imaging. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansell, G.; Wilkins, R.A.; Medical Research Council, Harrow

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-seven chapters review various complications which may arise for patients and staff in medical diagnostic imaging. Five of these chapters are indexed separately covering topics on the complications of using radiopharmaceuticals, safety considerations in magnetic resonance imaging, radiation hazards of diagnostic radiology and medico-legal problems involving diagnostic radiology in both the UK and the USA. (UK)

  17. Diagnostic imaging in fertility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, A.C.; Fleischer, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 10%-15% of married couples are affected by a fertility disorder. The number of infertile couples seeking medical assistance has increased dramatically in the past decade. The roles of diagnostic imaging with radiography and US (conventional and transvaginal) is emphasized in the assessment of couples with fertility disorders and an unexpectedly higher incidence of fetal wastage secondary to unsuspected uterine anomalies. The most frequently utilized radiographic examination in infertile patients is hysterosalpingography (HSG). Techniques and complications of HSG are illustrated. The normal anatomy, variants, and congenital anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes are demonstrated, as are the numerous abnormalities such as filling defects of the uterine cavity, synechiae, effects of maternal diethylstilbestrol exposure, inflammatory tubal disease, and the more common HSG findings following uterine and tubal surgery. The role of diagnostic imaging in male infertility, including vasography and varicocele detection, are addressed. Conventional and transvaginal US in the management of gynecologic fertility disorders are examined, with an emphasis on follicular monitoring, guided follicular aspirations, endometrial evaluations, and evaluation of other disorders (such as endometriosis) associated with infertility

  18. Patients exposure assessment for radiographic procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Stankovic, K.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.)

    2007-01-01

    In this work the results of dose assessment for the most frequent radiographic procedures in diagnostic radiology are shown. Entrance surface doses were assessed for 7 radiographic procedures. Three hospitals, six x-ray units in total, were enrolled in investigation. Patient doses were estimated based on results of x-ray tube output measurements. Finally, doses were compared with Diagnostic reference level. Higher dose values were observed for chest examinations. In comparison with results from other countries, doses from this procedure in Serbia are significantly higher. Estimated doses for other procedures were well below Diagnostic reference levels [sr

  19. [Diagnostic imaging and radiation hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudon, Michel; Guillaume, Luc

    2015-01-01

    For the last 20 years, the exposure of the population to medical radiation has been increased by 600%, mainly due to the extension of new imaging modalities such as CT or interventional radiology. The risk for radio-induced hazards is especially marked for children, because of the high sensivity of tissues to radiation especially during the first decade of the life. Two main ways allow to better control and reduce the mean effective dose per patient in diagnostic imaging: the introduction of recent technical improvement (i.e. low dose CT scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms, low dose technique for pediatric spine), and the substitution to non-radiating techniques such as ultrasound and MRI. The French National institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety periodically publishes dose reference levels for conventional films and CT examinations, for both adults and pediatric patients. A close relationship between clinicians and radiologists remains essential for a better appreciation of the risk/benefit ratio of each individual examination using X-Rays.

  20. Image-guided procedures in brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Yanaka, K; Meguro, K; Narushima, K; Iguchi, M; Nakai, Y; Nose, T

    1999-07-01

    Image-guided procedures, such as computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic and ultrasound-guided methods, can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the relevant pathology. The characteristics of image-guided procedures are important for their appropriate use, especially in brain biopsy. This study reviewed the results of various image-guided brain biopsies to ascertain the advantages and disadvantages. Brain biopsies assisted by CT-guided stereotactic, ultrasound-guided, Neuronavigator-guided, and the combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator-guided procedures were carried out in seven, eight, one, and three patients, respectively. Four patients underwent open biopsy without a guiding system. Twenty of 23 patients had a satisfactory diagnosis after the initial biopsy. Three patients failed to have a definitive diagnosis after the initial procedure, one due to insufficient volume sampling after CT-guided procedure, and two due to localization failure by ultrasound because the lesions were nonechogenic. All patients who underwent biopsy using the combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator-guided methods had a satisfactory result. The CT-guided procedure provided an efficient method of approaching any intracranial target and was appropriate for the diagnosis of hypodense lesions, but tissue sampling was sometimes not sufficient to achieve a satisfactory diagnosis. The ultrasound-guided procedure was suitable for the investigation of hyperdense lesions, but was difficult to localize nonechogenic lesions. The combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator methods improved the diagnostic accuracy even in nonechogenic lesions such as malignant lymphoma. Therefore, it is essential to choose the most appropriate guiding method for brain biopsy according to the radiological nature of the lesions.

  1. Quality control procedures of dental diagnostic radiology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Paula Serra Sasaki

    2007-01-01

    This work presents quality control reference procedures for dental diagnostic radiology systems, following the recommendations of the Publication 453 of the Brazilian Health Ministry (PF453), to be applied in dental clinics, in order to achieve an improvement in the radiological image qualities and the patient dose reduction. All tests were applied in an intraoral X rays system, following the methodology developed and the requirements of the PF 453. In order to verify the best quality of the image in relation to the smaller exposition time an object test was also developed in this work. The use of this object allowed the reduction of the exposition time of 0.5 seconds, the maximum value of the linear region of the characteristic curve, for 0.2 seconds. The tested X rays system showed a very good agreement with the applied procedures, detaching the reduction of the skin entrance dose using the film-holding devices. However, the size of the field increased and exceeded the maximum value of 6 cm recommended in the standard. The importance of the quality control in dental diagnostic radiology systems is essential due to the constant use of X radiation in dental clinics. The PF453 recommends the frequency of at least two years for the constancy tests. However, it is suggested that the professional, surgeon-dentist, should be responsible for the internal control of the image quality obtained from the X rays device. This can be done through monthly exposures of the object test developed in this work. (author)

  2. Diagnostic Imaging in Snakes and Lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Banzato , Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of snakes and lizards as pets has led to an increasing demand of specialised veterinary duties in these animals. Diagnostic imaging is often a fundamental step of the clinical investigation. The interpretation of diagnostic images is complex and requires a broad knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology of the species object of the clinical investigation. Moreover, in order to achieve a correct diagnosis, the comparison between normal and abnormal diagnostic im...

  3. Pericardiectomy as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik, Ewa; Geske, Jeffrey; Edwards, William; Gersh, Bernard

    2016-11-14

    A 70-year-old man presented with recent onset, predominantly right-sided heart failure. Echocardiogram demonstrated features of hypertensive heart disease and was suggestive of, but non-diagnostic for, constrictive pericarditis (CP). CT demonstrated mild pericardial thickening. Right heart catheterisation showed elevation and equalisation of diastolic pressures in all cardiac chambers with early rapid filling, minimal ventricular interdependence, and no dissociation of intrathoracic and intracardiac pressures. While several features pointed towards CP, the minimal ventricular interdependence and no dissociation of intrathoracic and intracardiac pressures suggested other pathology. Diagnostic pericardiectomy was performed, after which the central venous pressure decreased from 22 to 12 mm Hg. Pathology revealed pericardial fibrosis. The patient experienced sustained resolution of his heart failure. A potential explanation for lack of CP criteria was the presence of hypertensive heart disease. CP needs to be considered when approaching patients with heart failure as diagnostic evaluation can be multifaceted and treatment curative. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. [Causes, Diagnostic and Therapeutical Procedures of Malassimilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Torsten; Kistenmacher, Alina; Smollich, Martin; Sina, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Patients with malassimilation suffer from disturbed exploitation of available nutrients, which can affect macro- and micronutrients. Malassimilation can be subdivided in maldigestion and malabsorption. Many different disorders, especially gastrointestinal diseases, can lead to malassimilation. The wide variety of differential diagnoses necessitates big diagnostic as well as financial efforts in order to assure good clinical care. This review provides an overview on diagnostic as well as therapeutic processes of patients with malassimilation and gives practical advice for their physicians and therapists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. RANZAR Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, Alexander D.; Penlington, Lisa; Doromal, Darren; Vukolova, Natalia; Slater, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A unified and logical system of descriptors for diagnostic imaging examinations and procedures is a desirable resource for radiology in Australia and New Zealand and is needed to support core activities of RANZCR. Existing descriptor systems available in Australia and New Zealand (including the Medicare DIST and the ACC Schedule) have significant limitations and are inappropriate for broader clinical application. An anatomically based grid was constructed, with anatomical structures arranged in rows and diagnostic imaging modalities arranged in columns (including nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography). The grid was segregated into five body systems. The cells at the intersection of an anatomical structure row and an imaging modality column were populated with short, formulaic descriptors of the applicable diagnostic imaging examinations. Clinically illogical or physically impossible combinations were ‘greyed out’. Where the same examination applied to different anatomical structures, the descriptor was kept identical for the purposes of streamlining. The resulting Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors lists all the reasonably common diagnostic imaging examinations currently performed in Australia and New Zealand using a unified grid structure allowing navigation by both referrers and radiologists. The Framework has been placed on the RANZCR website and is available for access free of charge by registered users. The Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors is a system of descriptors based on relationships between anatomical structures and imaging modalities. The Framework is now available as a resource and reference point for the radiology profession and to support core College activities.

  6. Diagnostic image workstations ofr PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Ebrecht, D.; Fasel, B.; Dahm, M.; Kaupp, A.; Schilling, R.

    1990-01-01

    Image workstations will be the 'window' to the complex infrastructure of PACS with its intertwined image modalities (image sources, image data bases and image processing devices) and data processing modalities (patient data bases, departmental and hospital information systems). They will serve for user-to-system dialogues, image display and local processing of data as well as images. Their hardware and software structures have to be optimized towards an efficient throughput and processing of image data. (author). 10 refs

  7. Structured diagnostic imaging in patients with multiple trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Rieger, J.; Rock, C.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M.; Kanz, K.G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. Development of a concept for structured diagnostic imaging in patients with multiple trauma.Material and methods. Evaluation of data from a prospective trial with over 2400 documented patients with multiple trauma. All diagnostic and therapeutic steps, primary and secondary death and the 90 days lethality were documented.Structured diagnostic imaging of multiple injured patients requires the integration of an experienced radiologist in an interdisciplinary trauma team consisting of anesthesia, radiology and trauma surgery. Radiology itself deserves standardized concepts for equipment, personnel and logistics to perform diagnostic imaging for a 24-h-coverage with constant quality.Results. This paper describes criteria for initiation of a shock room or emergency room treatment, strategies for documentation and interdisciplinary algorithms for the early clinical care coordinating diagnostic imaging and therapeutic procedures following standardized guidelines. Diagnostic imaging consists of basic diagnosis, radiological ABC-rule, radiological follow-up and structured organ diagnosis using CT. Radiological trauma scoring allows improved quality control of diagnosis and therapy of multiple injured patients.Conclusion. Structured diagnostic imaging of multiple injured patients leads to a standardization of diagnosis and therapy and ensures constant process quality. (orig.) [de

  8. Role of teleradiology in modern diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzan, R.; Urbanik, A.; Wyrobek -Renczynska, M.; Podsiadlo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Teleradiology is a dynamically expanding technology of electronic transmission of radiologic images. History of teleradiology development, methods of obtaining images in digital form, media used for their transmission, factors affecting time of transmission, methods of visualization of transmitted images, attempts at standardization of new technology and at last typical applications of teleradiology were presented. Teleradiology from the position of technical curiosity advanced to the role of everyday work tool. Possibility of specialist diagnostic imaging assurance in poorly developed regions, not possessing sufficient number of radiologists, turned out particularly important. Cooperation of regional hospitals with specialist centers of diagnostic images reporting and archiving created a chance for making better use of owned equipment and reducing the costs of diagnostics. For the sake of broader and broader access to teleradiology not only over the world but also in Poland it is advisable to familiarize with its possibilities by both radiologists and clinicists using the results of diagnostic imaging. (author)

  9. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B; Grüber, C

    2004-08-01

    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy.

  10. Patient dose with quality image under diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akula, Suresh Kumar; Singh, Gurvinder; Chougule, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Need to set Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) for locations for all diagnostic procedures in local as compared to National. The review of DRL's should compare local with national or referenced averages and a note made of any significant variances to these averages and the justification for it. To survey and asses radiation doses to patient and reduce the redundancy in patient imaging to maintain DRLs

  11. [EYECUBE as 3D multimedia imaging in macular diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenstein, Andrea; Scholz, F; Richard, G

    2011-11-01

    In the new generation of EYECUBE devices, the angiography image and the OCT are included in a 3D illustration as an integration. Other diagnostic procedures such as autofluorescence and ICG can also be correlated to the OCT. The aim was to precisely classify various two-dimensional findings in relation to each other. The new generation of OCT devices enables imaging with a low incidence of motion artefacts with very good fundus image quality - and with that, permits a largely automatic classification. The feature enabling the integration of the EYECUBE was further developed with new software, so that not only the topographic image (red-free, autofluorescence) can be correlated to the Cirrus OCT, but also all other findings gathered within the same time frame can be correlated to each other. These were brightened and projected onto the cube surface in a defined interval. The imaging procedures can be selected in a menu toolbar. Topographic volumetry OCT images can be overlayed. The practical application of the new method was tested on patients with macular disorders. By lightening up the results from various diagnostic procedures, it is possible of late to directly compare pathologies to each other and to the OCT results. In all patients (n = 45 eyes) with good single-image quality, the automated integration into the EYECUBE was possible (to a great extent). The application is not dependent on a certain type of device used in the procedures performed. The increasing level of precision in imaging procedures and the handling of large data volumes has led to the possibility of examining each macular diagnostics procedure from the comparative perspective: imaging (photo) with perfusion (FLA, ICG) and morphology (OCT). The exclusion of motion artefacts and the reliable scan position in the course of the imaging process increases the informative value of OCT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R.; Sonnenburg, M.; Scheufler, O.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the out-patients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective. (orig.) [de

  13. The need for culture sensitive diagnostic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandi, Tekleh; Havenaar, Johan M.; Limburg-Okken, Annechien G.; van Es, Hans; Sidali, Salah; Kadri, Nadia; van den Brink, Wim; Kahn, Rene S.

    Objective We examine the procedural validity of a standardized instrument for the diagnosis of psychotic disorders in Morocco. Method Twenty-nine patients from Casablanca, Morocco, with a psychotic or mood disorder were examined using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH) an

  14. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  15. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures such as plain-film scintigraphy and MR imaging for spinal metastases in relation to biological characteristics in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Hiroya; Nagao, Kazuharu; Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Kazumasa; Baba, Kenichiro; Matsuoka, Yukio; Fukuda, Makoto; Higuchi, Akihiro; Saeki, Takahito [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The relationship between spinal metastases diagnosed by plain-film, bone scintigraphy, and MR imaging and biological characteristics in 26 patients with breast cancer was investigated retrospectively. It was found that bone scintigraphy is useful for detecting metastases in case with slow-growing tumors determined by DNA polymerase {alpha} or with estrogen-receptor (ER) positivity. In contrast, cases with rapidly growing tumors showed false-negative plain-film or bone scintigraphy results, including cases with ER-negative tumors or DNA polymerase {alpha} of more than 20%. MR imaging was found to be highly sensitive in detecting spinal metastases even in aggressive cases. MR imaging was found to have greater reliability in detecting spinal metastases of breast cancer compared to bone scintigraphy. In conclusion, it may be important to consider the degree of malignancy of each case with spinal metastases of breast cancer in evaluating imaging diagnosis. (author).

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures such as plain-film scintigraphy and MR imaging for spinal metastases in relation to biological characteristics in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hiroya; Nagao, Kazuharu; Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Kazumasa; Baba, Kenichiro; Matsuoka, Yukio; Fukuda, Makoto; Higuchi, Akihiro; Saeki, Takahito

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between spinal metastases diagnosed by plain-film, bone scintigraphy, and MR imaging and biological characteristics in 26 patients with breast cancer was investigated retrospectively. It was found that bone scintigraphy is useful for detecting metastases in case with slow-growing tumors determined by DNA polymerase α or with estrogen-receptor (ER) positivity. In contrast, cases with rapidly growing tumors showed false-negative plain-film or bone scintigraphy results, including cases with ER-negative tumors or DNA polymerase α of more than 20%. MR imaging was found to be highly sensitive in detecting spinal metastases even in aggressive cases. MR imaging was found to have greater reliability in detecting spinal metastases of breast cancer compared to bone scintigraphy. In conclusion, it may be important to consider the degree of malignancy of each case with spinal metastases of breast cancer in evaluating imaging diagnosis. (author)

  17. Comparative studies of imaging procedures: What is the contribution of CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, G.; Buecheler, E.

    1990-01-01

    Within the field of diagnostic imaging, CT and MR are competing procedures, each of which has particular advantages in specific diagnostic situations. Knowledge of these advantages is helpful in deciding upon a diagnostic procedure. We evaluate the indications for CT according to area of examination. (orig.) [de

  18. Interventional diagnostic breast procedures; Diagnostische Mammainterventionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, U. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany); Dept. of Radiology, The Univ. of Chicago (United States); Diekmann, S.; Diekmann, F. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    The comprehensive survey describes in great detail the indications, performance, and advantages and drawbacks of the various biopsy and localization techniques available today for interventional diagnostic evaluation of lesions of the breast. (orig./CB) [German] Die Feinnadelaspirationszytologie ist einfach und rasch durchfuehrbar, ist jedoch insbesondere in der Hand von unerfahrenen Untersuchern mit einer relativ hohen Rate von nicht auswertbaren und falsch-negativen Befunden verbunden. Das Verfahren wird am haeufigsten bei soliden oder zystischen Herdbefunden eingesetzt, die palpabel oder sonographisch nachweisbar sind. Bei inadaequatem Zellmaterial muss eine erneute Biopsie, ggf. mit einem anderen Verfahren, erfolgen. Die Nadelstanzbiopsie ist heutzutage das Verfahren der Wahl bei mammographisch oder sonographisch sichtbaren soliden Herdbefunden. Das Verfahren ist einfach und kostenguenstig durchfuehrbar und weist bei soliden Herdbefunden eine extrem hohe Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet auf. Bei Mikroverkalkungen sollten immer ausreichend viele Stanzen (5 und mehr) entnommen werden. Bei Stanzbiopsien besteht grundsaetzlich die Gefahr einer Unterschaetzung des histologischen Befundes (ADH statt DCIS, in situ statt invasiv). Bei Diagnose ADH in der Stanzbiopsie sollte eine Exzision des Befundes erfolgen. Die vakuumassistierte Stanzbiopsie ist besonders beeignet zur Biopsie von unklaren Mikroverkalkungen, da durch die groessere entnommene Gewebemenge eine hoehere Spezifitaet und Sensitivitaet erreicht werden kann. Fuer MR-gesteuerte Biopsien hat dieses Verfahren den Vorteil, dass die Nadel nur einmal platziert werden muss. Die stereotaktische Exzisionsbiopsie ist ein relativ teures und invasives Verfahren, das insbesondere zur diagnostischen Abklaerung von unklaren Mikroverkalkungen eingesetzt wird. Hierbei steht das Verfahren in direkter Konkurrenz zur vakuumassistierten Stanzbiopsie. Inwieweit es fuer die stereotaktische Exzisionsbiopsie wirklich ein

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic method for assessing function. New procedures for the non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood volume and blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueckel, F.; Rempp, K.; Becker, G.; Koepke, J.; Loose, R.; Brix, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to the current status of cerebral blood volume and blood flow imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. A new method for the quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on the basis of the indicator dilution theory is described and preliminary quantitative results from healthy volunteers are presented. The mean values for the rCBV are 8,27±1,85 ml/100 g for grey matter and 3,78±1,34 ml/100 g for white matter. The mean values for the rCBF are 44,8±11,29 ml/min/100 g for the grey matter and 20,88±8,42 ml/min/100 g for the white matter. These results are in good agreement with PET results from the literature. (orig.) [de

  20. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  1. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori

    2002-01-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  2. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Radiogenomics: Creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutman, Aaron M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Kuo, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Center for Translational Medical Systems, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States)], E-mail: mkuo@ucsd.edu

    2009-05-15

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as 'radiogenomics.' These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies.

  4. Radiogenomics: Creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutman, Aaron M.; Kuo, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as 'radiogenomics.' These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies.

  5. Managing digitally formatted diagnostic image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, A.W.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiologists are very comfortable using analog radiographic film and interpreting its recorded images. To improve patient care, the radiologist has sought the finest quality radiographic film for use with the best radiographic imaging systems. The proper choice and use of x-ray tubes, generators, film-screen combinations, and contrast media has occupied the professional attention of the radiologist since the inception of radiology. Image quality can be significantly improved with digitally formatted diagnostic imaging systems by providing dynamic ranges in excess of those possible with analog x-ray films. In a CT scanner, the digital acquisition and reconstruction system can obtain a dynamic range (contrast resolution) of 10,000 to 1. Digital subtraction angiography systems achieve 10-bit dynamic ranges for each of the acquired television frames. Increases in the dynamic ranges of the various imaging modalities have been coupled with improved spatial resolution. A digitally formatted image is a two-dimensional, numerical array of discrete image elements. Each picture element is called a pixel. Each pixel has a discrete size. Figure 15.1 illustrates a digitally formatted image depicting the spatial resolution, array size, and quantization or numerical range of the pixel values. Currently, 512 x 512 image arrays are standard. Development of 1024 x 1024 digital arrays are underway. Significant improvements have also been achieved in the rates at which digital diagnostic imaging data can be acquired, manipulated, and archived

  6. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.D. Jr.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph on digital imaging provides a basic overview of this field at the present time. This paper covers clinical application, including subtraction angiography; chest radiology; genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and breast radiology; and teleradiology. The chest section also includes an explanation of multiple beam equalization radiography. The remaining chapters discuss some of the technical aspects of digital radiology. It includes the basic technology of digital radiography, image compression, and reconstruction information on the economics of digital radiography

  7. Imaging of cartilage repair procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for cartilage repair is to prevent precocious osteoarthritis in untreated focal cartilage injuries in the young and middle-aged population. The gamut of surgical techniques, normal postoperative radiological appearances, and possible complications have been described. An objective method of recording the quality of repair tissue is with the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. This scoring system evaluates nine parameters that include the extent of defect filling, border zone integration, signal intensity, quality of structure and surface, subchondral bone, subchondral lamina, and records presence or absence of synovitis and adhesions. The five common techniques of cartilage repair currently offered include bone marrow stimulation (microfracture or drilling), mosaicplasty, synthetic resorbable scaffold grafts, osteochondral allograft transplants, and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Complications of cartilage repair procedures that may be demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include plug loosening, graft protuberance, graft depression, and collapse in mosaicplasty, graft hypertrophy in ACI, and immune response leading to graft rejection, which is more common with synthetic grafts and cadaveric allografts

  8. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, F E; Bower, D; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2012-10-01

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  9. The neutron imaging diagnostic at NIF (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, F. E.; Clark, D. D.; Danly, C. R.; Drury, O. B.; Fatherley, V. E.; Gallegos, R.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Loomis, E. N.; Martinson, D. D.; Mares, D.; Morley, D. J.; Morgan, G. L.; Oertel, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Bower, D.; Dzenitis, J. M. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  10. RANZCR Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexander G; Penlington, Lisa; Doromal, Darren; Slater, Gregory; Vukolova, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    A unified and logical system of descriptors for diagnostic imaging examinations and procedures is a desirable resource for radiology in Australia and New Zealand and is needed to support core activities of RANZCR. Existing descriptor systems available in Australia and New Zealand (including the Medicare DIST and the ACC Schedule) have significant limitations and are inappropriate for broader clinical application. An anatomically based grid was constructed, with anatomical structures arranged in rows and diagnostic imaging modalities arranged in columns (including nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography). The grid was segregated into five body systems. The cells at the intersection of an anatomical structure row and an imaging modality column were populated with short, formulaic descriptors of the applicable diagnostic imaging examinations. Clinically illogical or physically impossible combinations were 'greyed out'. Where the same examination applied to different anatomical structures, the descriptor was kept identical for the purposes of streamlining. The resulting Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors lists all the reasonably common diagnostic imaging examinations currently performed in Australia and New Zealand using a unified grid structure allowing navigation by both referrers and radiologists. The Framework has been placed on the RANZCR website and is available for access free of charge by registered users. The Body Systems Framework of diagnostic imaging examination descriptors is a system of descriptors based on relationships between anatomical structures and imaging modalities. The Framework is now available as a resource and reference point for the radiology profession and to support core College activities. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  11. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  12. Diagnostic imaging of lipoma arborescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Hernandez, L.; Romero, J.; Lafuente, J.; Poza, A.I.; Ruiz, P.; Jimeno, M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The imaging characteristics of lipoma arborescens using plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. Design and patients. Five patients with a diagnosis of lipoma arborescens are presented. Three had monoarticular involvement of the knee joint. In the remaining two patients both knees and both hips, respectively, were affected. All patients were examined using plain radiographs and MRI. CT was employed in two cases. Results and conclusions. A conclusive diagnosis with exclusion of other synovial pathologies having similar clinical and radiological behaviour can be achieved on the basis of the MRI characteristics of lipoma arborescens. The aetiology of lipoma arborescens remains unknown, but its association with previous pathology of the affected joints in all our patients supports the theory of a non-neoplastic reactive process involving the synovial membrane. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhle, S.; Ipsiroglu, O.; Weninger, M.

    2000-01-01

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Computer applications in diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, S C

    1991-03-01

    This article has introduced the nature, generation, use, and future of digital imaging. As digital technology has transformed other aspects of our lives--has the reader tried to buy a conventional record album recently? almost all music store stock is now compact disks--it is sure to continue to transform medicine as well. Whether that transformation will be to our liking as physicians or a source of frustration and disappointment is dependent on understanding the issues involved.

  15. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P. N.; Addonisio, G.; Righi, R.; Giganti, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this article is to present an algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases, which may be applied differently in symptomatic and asymptomatic cancer patients. February to March 1999 it was randomly selected and retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 100 cancer patients (70 women and 30 men; mean age: 63 years, range: 55-87). All the patients had been staged according to TNM criteria and had undergone conventional radiography and bone scan; when findings were equivocal, CT and MRI had been performed too. The primary lesions responsible for bone metastases were sited in the: breast (51 cases), colon (30 cases: 17 men and 13 women), lung (7 cases: 6 men and 1 woman), stomach (4 cases: 2 men and 2 women), skin (4 cases: 3 men and 1 woman), kidney (2 men), pleura (1 woman), and finally liver (1 man). The most frequent radiographic pattern was the lytic type (52%), followed by osteosclerotic, mixed, lytic vs mixed and osteosclerotic vs lytic patterns. The patients were divided into two groups: group A patients were asymptomatic and group B patients had local symptoms and/or pain. Skeletal metastases are the most common malignant bone tumors: the spine and the pelvis are the most frequent sites of metastasis, because of the presence of high amounts of red (hematopoietic active) bone marrow. Pain is the main symptom, even though many bone metastases are asymptomatic. Pathological fractures are the most severe consequences. With the algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases two different diagnostic courses are available for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Bone scintigraphy remains the technique of choice in asymptomatic patients in whom skeletal metastases are suspected. However this technique, though very sensitive, is poorly specific, and thus a negative bone scan finding is double-checked with another physical examination: if the findings remain negative, the diagnostic workup is over. On the contrary, in

  17. Anaesthesiological aspects of thorax-diagnostic procedures in intensive-care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte am Esch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic procedures of the thorax in intensive-care units are conventional X-ray chest images, chest images by digital luminescence radiography, sonography and transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography. In addition to these bedside methods the stationary usable techniques, such as computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography and the seldom in intensive care patients used computed nuclear spin resonance tomography (NMR) are applicable. The selection of the above mentioned techniques depends on the availability and the quality of the methods as well as the qualifications of the involved staff. The diagnostic procedures of the chest must be arranged depending on the decision if patients have to be transported or not. In conclusion it can be stated that in spite of growing technical preconditions the availability of the methods in immobile patients and the diagnostic potency of the techniques have to be examined. (orig.) [de

  18. Cumulative ionizing radiation during coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzun C, Carlos; Ramirez, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic ability of ionizing radiation is well known and has led to the development of high speed, high resolution axial tomography, for which we must assume that the patient population is being exposed to ionizing radiation that could become great. In cardiology, especially, we attend patients that have to undergo two or three angio graph, diagnostic and other therapeutic procedures, accumulating radiation doses that are ignored and are not recorded. The skin doses are shown that were received by 18 patients in procedures that included coronary angiography and that were measured with cesium thermoluminescent detectors, varying from 54 to 877 mSv. per procedure. We propose that a personal register be set up in Chile to record the magnitude of the radiation received by a patient (CO)

  19. Diagnostical Procedure for Logistical Management in Turistical Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Arlen Fergusson-Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design a diagnostic procedure of the logistics management for turistical entities, they could be hotels or not. This procedure was validated in Commercial Branch Caracol Santiago de Cuba and finally, different actions for the detected problems were proposed with the objective of improving the logistics management of the organization. To develop this research various tools and techniques served as support, such as: surveys, SPSS software (Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15.0 version and Decision 1.0 version, exponential smoothing, Cronbach's Alpha, the coefficient of Kendall W, financial and logistical indicators, the ABC or Pareto Method, the matrices for the classification of stocks and suppliers, among others. This research made possible the design of a diagnostic procedure for logistical management for turistical entities. And it was validated in the Comercial Branch Caracol Santiago, which allowed the proposition of improvement actions for increasing customer satisfaction.

  20. Rationale diagnostic approach to biliary tract imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, H.; Huppertz, A.; Ruell, T.; Zillinger, C.; Ehrenberg, C.; Roesch, T.

    1998-01-01

    Since the introduction of MR cholangiography (MRC) diagnostic imaging of the biliary tract has been significantly improved. While percutaneous ultrasonography is still the primary examination, computed tomography (CT), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as the direct imaging modalities of the biliary tract - iv cholangiography, endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiography (ERC), and percutaneous-transhepatic-cholangiography (PTC) are in use. This article discusses the clinical value of the different diagnostic techniques for the various biliary pathologies with special attention to recent developments in MRC techniques. An algorithm is presented offering a rational approach to biliary disorders. With further technical improvement shifts from ERC(P) to MRC(P) for biliary imaging could be envisioned, ERCP further concentrating on its role as a minimal invasive treatment option. (orig.) [de

  1. Diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes additional advice to national or local authorities and the clinical community on the application of diagnostic reference levels as a practical tool to manage radiation doses to patients in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A survey was made of the various approaches that have been taken by authoritative bodies to establish diagnostic reference levels for medical imaging tasks. There are a variety of ways to implement the idea of diagnostic reference levels, depending on the medical imaging task of interest, the national or local state of practice and the national or local preferences for technical implementation. The existing International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidance is reviewed, the survey information is summarized, a set of unifying principles is espoused and a statement of additional advice that has been proposed to ICRP Committee 3 is presented. The proposed advice would meet a need for a unifying set of principles to provide a framework for diagnostic reference levels but would allow flexibility in their selection and use. While some illustrative examples are given, the proposed advice does not specify the specific quantities to be used, the numerical values to be set for the quantities or the technical details of how national or local authorities should implement diagnostic reference levels. (author)

  2. Procedures minimally invasive image-guided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Guevara, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    A literature review focused on minimally invasive procedures, has been performed at the Department of Radiology at the Hospital Calderon Guardia. A multidisciplinary team has been raised for decision making. The materials, possible complications and the available imaging technique such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, have been determined according to the procedure to be performed. The revision has supported medical interventions didactically enjoying the best materials, resources and conditions for a successful implementation of procedures and results [es

  3. Renal diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Blitz, H.; Kuester, W.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1989-02-01

    The involvement of kidneys in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) is one of the most frequent causes of death in this disease. Using clinical criteria and laboratory tests only the frequency of kidney involvement would be clearly underestimated. Invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy and angiography can not be applied in those patients. Nuclear medicine techniques (hippurate clearance, DMSA-scan), however, offer non invasive and sensitive methods in the diagnosis of renal involvement in PSS patients. In our study 46 of 76 patients (60%) revealed pathologic findings. The mentioned diagnostic techniques show a high sensitivity and are in agreement with pathological findings described in PSS.

  4. Renal diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, B.; Hotze, A.; Gruenwald, F.; Biersack, H.J.; Blitz, H.; Kuester, W.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of kidneys in progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS) is one of the most frequent causes of death in this disease. Using clinical criteria and laboratory tests only the frequency of kidney involvement would be clearly underestimated. Invasive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy and angiography can not be applied in those patients. Nuclear medicine techniques (hippurate clearance, DMSA-scan), however, offer non invasive and sensitive methods in the diagnosis of renal involvement in PSS patients. In our study 46 of 76 patients (60%) revealed pathologic findings. The mentioned diagnostic techniques show a high sensitivity and are in agreement with pathological findings described in PSS. (orig.) [de

  5. Genetic risk from diagnostic X-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1980-01-01

    This essay introduces epidemiologic studies concerned with the question whether diagnostic X-ray procedures might be the cause of an increased genetic risk. All studies have selected Down's syndrome (mongolism) as genetic indicator. They indiscriminately present the opinion of the respective author. Approximately one half of the studies conclude that radiation exposure will not influence the spontaneous incidence of Down's syndrome in diagnostics, the other half finds a positive relationship between frequent radiation exposure and the incidence of the syndrome. For various reasons, explained in detail, the results of the studies under discussion are suitable for forming hypotheses, but should not be viewed as providing evidence. (orig.) [de

  6. Meniscal tear. Diagnostic errors in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, M. C.; Recondo, J. A.; Gervas, C.; Fernandez, E.; Villanua, J. A.M.; Salvador, E.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze diagnostic discrepancies found between magnetic resonance (MR) and arthroscopy, and the determine the reasons that they occur. Two-hundred and forty-eight MR knee explorations were retrospectively checked. Forty of these showed diagnostic discrepancies between MR and arthroscopy. Two radiologists independently re-analyzed the images from 29 of the 40 studies without knowing which diagnosis had resulted from which of the two techniques. Their interpretations were correlated with the initial MR diagnosis, MR images and arthroscopic results. Initial errors in MR imaging were classified as either unavoidable, interpretive, or secondary to equivocal findings. Eleven MR examinations could not be checked since their corresponding imaging results could not be located. Of 34 errors found in the original diagnoses, 12 (35.5%)were classified as unavoidable, 14 (41.2%) as interpretative and 8 (23.5%) as secondary to equivocal findings. 41.2% of the errors were avoided in the retrospective study probably due to our department having greater experience in interpreting MR images, 25.5% were unavailable even in the retrospective study. A small percentage of diagnostic errors were due to the presence of subtle equivocal findings. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Diagnostic Medical Imaging in Pediatric Patients and Subsequent Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, David J; Jhawar, Sachin; Kostis, John B; Goyal, Sharad

    2017-11-01

    The use of diagnostic medical imaging is becoming increasingly more commonplace in the pediatric setting. However, many medical imaging modalities expose pediatric patients to ionizing radiation, which has been shown to increase the risk of cancer development in later life. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the available data regarding the risk of cancer development following exposure to ionizing radiation from diagnostic medical imaging. Attention is paid to modalities such as computed tomography scans and fluoroscopic procedures that can expose children to radiation doses orders of magnitude higher than standard diagnostic x-rays. Ongoing studies that seek to more precisely determine the relationship of diagnostic medical radiation in children and subsequent cancer development are discussed, as well as modern strategies to better quantify this risk. Finally, as cardiovascular imaging and intervention contribute substantially to medical radiation exposure, we discuss strategies to enhance radiation safety in these areas. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thymic hyperplasia - clinical course and imaging diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drebov, R.; Panov, M.; Totev, M.; Deliverski, T.; Tcandev, I.; Velkovski, I.

    2006-01-01

    The real thymic hyperplasia is benign disease sometimes simulating malignant tumours. The aim of this study is to analyse the clinical symptoms of real thymic hyperplasia and the results from imaging diagnostic based on our clinical material. Clinical material include 27 children, aged from two months to 15 years, admitted in department of thoracic surgery, for a period of 20 years (1985 - 2004). We retrospectively analyze the clinical signs and results from X-ray investigation, CT (Siemens Somatom DRG and Philips Secura) and echocardiography (Acuson TX, 5 and 7 MHz). We discuss the diagnostic value of different methods as well as typical and atypical findings. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Ezzeldien Mohammed Nour

    2013-05-01

    This study conducted to evaluate the radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in four nuclear medicine departments in Sudan. The evaluated procedures followed in these departments were in accordance with the standards, International Recommendations and code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. The evolution included the optimum design for diagnostic nuclear medicine departments, dealing with radioactive sources, quality assurance and quality control, training and responsibilities for radiation worker taking into account economic factors in Sudan. Evaluation of radiation protection procedures in diagnostic investigations was carried out by taken direct measurements of dose rate and the contamination level in some areas where radiation sources, radiation workers and public are involved. Designated questionnaires covered thirteen areas of radiation protection based on inspection check list for nuclear medicine prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) were used in the evaluation. This questionnaire has been Filled by Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), nuclear medicine technologist, nuclear medicine specialist in the nuclear medicine departments. Four hospitals, two governmental hospital and two private hospitals, have been assisted, the assessment shows that although the diagnostic nuclear medicine department in Sudan are not applying a fully safety and radiation protection procedures, but the level of radiation dose and the contamination level were found within acceptable limits. The private hospital D scored the higher level of protection (85.25%) while the governmental hospital C scored the lower level of protection (59.02%). Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a proper radiation protection

  10. Oncologic applications of diagnostic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Before appropriate therapy can be instituted for a cancer patient, the presence and extent of tumor must be evaluated. Deciding which imaging technique to use depends on tumor location, type, and biologic behavior. Conventional radiography provides important information at a relatively low cost compared with other imaging modalities. Ultrasound is a valuable adjunct to radiography, but does not replace it because both imaging modalities provide unique information. Nuclear medicine procedures contribute additional, unique data by providing physiological information, but specificity is lacking. Both CT and MRI provide images with exquisite anatomic detail, but availability and cost prohibit their general use

  11. [Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer : An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, M

    2016-10-01

    Advances in imaging of the female breast have substantially influenced the diagnosis and probably also the therapy and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. This article gives an overview of the most important imaging modalities in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital mammography is considered to be the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis can increase the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and is used for the assessment of equivocal or suspicious mammography findings. Other modalities, such as ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in the diagnostics, staging and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the histological verification of breast cancer. New breast imaging modalities, such as contrast-enhanced spectral mammography, diffusion-weighted MRI and MR spectroscopy can possibly further improve breast cancer diagnostics; however, further studies are necessary to prove the advantages of these methods so that they cannot yet be recommended for routine clinical use.

  12. Diagnostic imaging in pregraduate integrated curricula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Kletter, K.

    2007-01-01

    Pregraduate medical curricula are currently undergoing a reform process that is moving away from a traditional discipline-related structure and towards problem-based integrated forms of teaching. Imaging sciences, with their inherently technical advances, are specifically influenced by the effects of paradigm shifts in medical education. The teaching of diagnostic radiology should be based on the definition of three core competencies: in vivo visualization of normal and abnormal morphology and function, diagnostic reasoning, and interventional treatment. On the basis of these goals, adequate teaching methods and e-learning tools should be implemented by focusing on case-based teaching. Teaching materials used in the fields of normal anatomy, pathology, and clinical diagnosis may help diagnostic radiology to play a central role in modern pregraduate curricula. (orig.)

  13. [Diagnostic imaging in pregraduate integrated curricula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainberger, F; Kletter, K

    2007-11-01

    Pregraduate medical curricula are currently undergoing a reform process that is moving away from a traditional discipline-related structure and towards problem-based integrated forms of teaching. Imaging sciences, with their inherently technical advances, are specifically influenced by the effects of paradigm shifts in medical education. The teaching of diagnostic radiology should be based on the definition of three core competencies: in vivo visualization of normal and abnormal morphology and function, diagnostic reasoning, and interventional treatment. On the basis of these goals, adequate teaching methods and e-learning tools should be implemented by focusing on case-based teaching. Teaching materials used in the fields of normal anatomy, pathology, and clinical diagnosis may help diagnostic radiology to play a central role in modern pregraduate curricula.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of lymphomas in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoma is the third most common malignancy in children, after leukemias and brain tumors, most commonly during early childhood before 14 years. In definite stages cancer can engage all organs and systems. These conditions associate with immunodeficiency, increased susceptibility to infections and second neoplasms. The social importance of the problem requires early diagnosis, accurate staging, and assessment of the treatment and determination of the risk for relapse of the disease. The aim of the present review is to represent the role of the modern methods of diagnostic imaging - ultrasonography (US), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emisson Tomography (PET) scan in the process of diagnostics, in the decision of therapeutic strategy and the follow-up of children with lymphomas

  15. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image

  16. Comparative analysis of diagnostic accuracy of different brain biopsy procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Deepali; Sharma Mehar; Sarkar Chitra; Gupta Deepak; Singh Manmohan; Mahapatra A

    2006-01-01

    Background: Image-guided procedures such as computed tomography (CT) guided, neuronavigator-guided and ultrasound-guided methods can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the intraparenchymal lesion of the brain. However, despite improvements in the imaging techniques, an accurate diagnosis of intrinsic lesion requires tissue sampling and histological verification. Aims: The present study was carried out to examine the reliability of the diagnoses made on tumor sample obtained via different s...

  17. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology. Image quality - radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Stieve, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    The publication contains the 37 lectures of the symposium on digital imaging in diagnostic radiology, held in November 1995 at Kloster Seeon, as well as contributions enhancing the information presented in the lectures. The publication reflects the state of the art in this subject field, discusses future trends and gives recommendations and information relating to current practice in radiology. In-depth information is given about R and D activities for the digitalisation of X-ray pictures and the image quality required to meet the purposes of modern diagnostics. Further aspects encompass radiological protection and dose optimization as well as optimization of examination methods. (vhe) [de

  18. Diagnostic imaging of craniopharyngioma; Diagnostyka obrazowa czaszkogardlakow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradzki, J.; Nowak, S.; Paprzycki, W. [Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    40 patients have been examined with operational and histological confirmation of craniopharyngioma. CT image and X-ray plane of skull were performed in case all of these patients. TMR was conformed to examine 4 patients. X-ray planes was compared to CT. CT permits tumor cyst detection. The efficacy of mentioned above diagnostic techniques was compared with surgical findings. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  19. Software for the estimation of organ equivalent and effective doses from diagnostic radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Ernest K; Barnett, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic radiological imaging such as conventional radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) examinations will continue to provide tremendous benefits in modern healthcare. The benefit derived by the patient should far outweigh the risk associated with a properly conducted imaging examination. Nonetheless, it is very important to be able to quantify the risk associated with any radiological examination of patients, and effective dose has been considered a useful indicator of patient exposure. Quantification of the risks associated with radiological imaging is very important as such information will be helpful to physicians and their patients for comparing risks from various imaging examinations and for making informed decisions whenever there is a need for any radiological imaging. The determination of equivalent and effective doses in diagnostic radiology is of interest as a basis for estimates of risk from medical exposures. In this paper we describe a simple computer program OrgDose, which calculates the doses to 27 organs in the body and then calculates the organ equivalent and effective doses and the risk from various procedures in the radiology department including conventional radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography examinations. The program will be a useful tool for the medical and paramedical personnel who are involved with assessing organ and effective doses and risks from diagnostic radiology procedures.

  20. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Ase K; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Wengel, Christina M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible...... of pregnancy diagnoses to the National Patient Registry differed widely in training. For complicated pregnancies, departments ranged from having only specialists reporting all cases to secretaries reporting up to 50%. Cut off limits of blood pressure (BP) and protein loss used to diagnose pre-eclampsia showed...... large differences across departments. The diagnoses given to three case stories showed little correlation to the criteria the departments reported using. CONCLUSION: Even in a small country like Denmark with 34 obstetrical departments, there was little consensus on the diagnostic criteria for pre-eclampsia...

  1. Active imaging for monitoring and technical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piszczek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of currently running work in the field of active imaging. The term active refers to both the image acquisition methods, so-called methods of the spatio-temporal framing and active visualization method applying augmented reality. Also results of application of the HMD and 6DoF modules as well as the experimental laser photography device are given. The device works by methods of spatio-temporal framing and it has been developed at the IOE WAT. In terms of image acquisition - active imaging involves the use of illumination of the observed scene. In the field of information visualization - active imaging directly concerns the issues of interaction human-machine environment. The results show the possibility of using the described techniques, among others, rescue (fire brigade, security of mass events (police or the protection of critical infrastructure as well as broadly understood diagnostic problems. Examples presented in the article show a wide range of possible uses of the methods both in observational techniques and measurement. They are relatively innovative solutions and require elaboration of series of hardware and algorithmic issues. However, already at this stage it is clear that active acquisition and visualization methods indicate a high potential for this type of information solutions.[b]Keywords[/b]: active imaging, augmented reality, digital image processing

  2. Current diagnostic procedures for diagnosing vertigo and dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Leif Erik

    2017-01-01

    Vertigo is a multisensory syndrome that otolaryngologists are confronted with every day. With regard to the complex functions of the sense of orientation, vertigo is considered today as a disorder of the sense of direction, a disturbed spatial perception of the body. Beside the frequent classical syndromes for which vertigo is the leading symptom (e.g. positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Menière’s disease), vertigo may occur as main or accompanying symptom of a multitude of ENT-related diseases involving the inner ear. It also concerns for example acute and chronic viral or bacterial infections of the ear with serous or bacterial labyrinthitis, disorders due to injury (e.g. barotrauma, fracture of the oto-base, contusion of the labyrinth), chronic-inflammatory bone processes as well as inner ear affections in the perioperative course. In the last years, diagnostics of vertigo have experienced a paradigm shift due to new diagnostic possibilities. In the diagnostics of emergency cases, peripheral and central disorders of vertigo (acute vestibular syndrome) may be differentiated with simple algorithms. The introduction of modern vestibular test procedures (video head impulse test, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials) in the clinical practice led to new diagnostic options that for the first time allow a complex objective assessment of all components of the vestibular organ with relatively low effort. Combined with established methods, a frequency-specific assessment of the function of vestibular reflexes is possible. New classifications allow a clinically better differentiation of vertigo syndromes. Modern radiological procedures such as for example intratympanic gadolinium application for Menière’s disease with visualization of an endolymphatic hydrops also influence current medical standards. Recent methodical developments significantly contributed to the possibilities that nowadays vertigo can be better and more quickly clarified in particular in

  3. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  4. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  5. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Şimşek

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. Results: The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both. Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%. Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%. Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%. Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%. Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%; bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%; fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%; and BAL, in 2 (11.1%. Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7% of the 18 cases evaluated. Conclusions: In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB.

  6. [Evaluation of quality of HIV diagnostic procedures in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parczewski, Miłosz; Madaliński, Kazimierz; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was quality assessment of HIV diagnostic procedures in Poland, including human and technical resources as well as laboratory practice. Sixty questionnaires were distributed among diagnostic centers to obtain qualitative data. Basing on the survey data serological control using coded panels of HIV-1/2 samples was performed. Thirty-one filled questionnaires were received (50.8%). Surveyed laboratories perform from 350 to 5500 serological screening tests per year. In most of laboratories fourth generation assays are available, while Blood Donation Centers screen the blood both with serological assays and by HIV-RNA detection. Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations and academic laboratories hold the ISO/IEC 17025 or IS0 9001:2001 accreditation, five of the surveyed centers participate in Labquality assurance and two in Quality Control in Molecular Diagnostics programs. Data of control serological testing were received from 21 centers. In the quality control assessment 194 analyses were performed with 91 true negative, 2 false negative, 96 true positive and 5 false positive results. False negative rate of % and false positive rate of 5.2% was noted for this study. Currently, virtually no guidelines related to the HIV-diagnostics quality assurance and control in Poland are in delineated. Development of the national unified quality control system, basing on the central institution is highly desirable. National certification within the frames of the quality control and assurance program should be mandatory for all the diagnostic labs, and aim at improvement of reliability of the result distributed among clinicians and patients.

  7. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, E de; Bejar, M J; Berenguer, R [Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Salamanca (Spain); Ruano, R; Tamayo, P [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  8. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, E. de; Bejar, M.J.; Berenguer, R.; Ruano, R.; Tamayo, P.

    2001-01-01

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  9. Image-guided pleural biopsy: diagnostic yield and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamore, R.E.; Scott, K.; Richards, C.J.; Entwisle, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pleural biopsy and cytology are standard procedures for the investigation of pleural disease. Recent medical literature has suggested that image-guided pleural biopsy shows improved sensitivity for the diagnosis of pleural malignancy, when compared with the more commonly performed reverse bevel needle biopsy such as Abrams' needle. In our centre there has been an increasing trend towards performing image-guided pleural biopsies, and to our knowledge there is no large published series documenting the complication rate and diagnostic yield. Methods: The radiology and pathology databases were searched for all image-guided [computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US)] pleural biopsies from January 2001 to December 2004. All imaging and histology were reviewed, and final diagnostic information about patients was obtained from the respiratory multidisciplinary team database and patient notes. A record was made of complications following biopsy, presence of pleura in the biopsy, and adequacy of tissue for histological diagnosis. Results: A total of 82 patients underwent 85 image-guided pleural biopsies over a 4-year period. 80 cases were performed under CT and five under US guidance. The rate of new pneumothorax detected by chest radiography was 4.7%. No patient required a chest drain or blood transfusion to treat complications. In 10 (12%) cases, there was inadequate tissue to reach a confident histological diagnosis and in eight (9%) of these, no pleura was present. Assuming all suspicious and inadequate biopsies are treated as benign, which is the worst case scenario, image-guided pleural biopsy has a sensitivity and specificity of 76% and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of malignant disease. Conclusions: Image-guided pleural biopsy is a safe procedure with few associated complications and has a higher sensitivity than previously published series for reverse cutting needle biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant pleural disease

  10. Image-guided pleural biopsy: diagnostic yield and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamore, R.E. [Department of Radiology and Department of Histopathology, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rachelbenamore@doctors.org.uk; Scott, K. [Department of Radiology and Department of Histopathology, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom); Richards, C.J. [Department of Radiology and Department of Histopathology, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom); Entwisle, J.J. [Department of Radiology and Department of Histopathology, Glenfield Hospital, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Background: Pleural biopsy and cytology are standard procedures for the investigation of pleural disease. Recent medical literature has suggested that image-guided pleural biopsy shows improved sensitivity for the diagnosis of pleural malignancy, when compared with the more commonly performed reverse bevel needle biopsy such as Abrams' needle. In our centre there has been an increasing trend towards performing image-guided pleural biopsies, and to our knowledge there is no large published series documenting the complication rate and diagnostic yield. Methods: The radiology and pathology databases were searched for all image-guided [computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US)] pleural biopsies from January 2001 to December 2004. All imaging and histology were reviewed, and final diagnostic information about patients was obtained from the respiratory multidisciplinary team database and patient notes. A record was made of complications following biopsy, presence of pleura in the biopsy, and adequacy of tissue for histological diagnosis. Results: A total of 82 patients underwent 85 image-guided pleural biopsies over a 4-year period. 80 cases were performed under CT and five under US guidance. The rate of new pneumothorax detected by chest radiography was 4.7%. No patient required a chest drain or blood transfusion to treat complications. In 10 (12%) cases, there was inadequate tissue to reach a confident histological diagnosis and in eight (9%) of these, no pleura was present. Assuming all suspicious and inadequate biopsies are treated as benign, which is the worst case scenario, image-guided pleural biopsy has a sensitivity and specificity of 76% and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of malignant disease. Conclusions: Image-guided pleural biopsy is a safe procedure with few associated complications and has a higher sensitivity than previously published series for reverse cutting needle biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant pleural disease.

  11. Radiation doses from medical diagnostic procedures in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, J E; Lentle, B C; Vo, C [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    This document sets out to record and analyze the doses incurred in Canada from medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation in a typical year. Excluded are those doses incurred during therapeutic irradiation, since they differ in scale to such a large degree and because they are used almost exclusively in treating cancer. In this we are following a precedent set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) notes that dose limits should not be applied to medical exposures, it also observes that doses in different settings for the same procedure may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, and that there are considerable opportunities for dose reductions in diagnostic radiology. Because these data do not stand in isolation the report also encompasses a review of the relevant literature and some background comment on the evolving technology of the radiological sciences. Because there is a somewhat incomplete perception of the changes taking place in diagnostic methods we have also provided some introductory explanations of the relevant technologies. In addition, there is an analysis of at least some of the limitations on the completeness of the data which are reported here. (author).

  12. Radiation doses from medical diagnostic procedures in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, J.E.; Lentle, B.C.; Vo, C.

    1997-03-01

    This document sets out to record and analyze the doses incurred in Canada from medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation in a typical year. Excluded are those doses incurred during therapeutic irradiation, since they differ in scale to such a large degree and because they are used almost exclusively in treating cancer. In this we are following a precedent set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) notes that dose limits should not be applied to medical exposures, it also observes that doses in different settings for the same procedure may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, and that there are considerable opportunities for dose reductions in diagnostic radiology. Because these data do not stand in isolation the report also encompasses a review of the relevant literature and some background comment on the evolving technology of the radiological sciences. Because there is a somewhat incomplete perception of the changes taking place in diagnostic methods we have also provided some introductory explanations of the relevant technologies. In addition, there is an analysis of at least some of the limitations on the completeness of the data which are reported here. (author)

  13. Diagnostic imaging of the acutely injured patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of pathophysiologic concepts of trauma and reviews the effectiveness of the available imaging modalities in acute trauma of various organ system. Topics covered are chest injuries; abdominal trauma; fractures of long bones; the foot and ankle; the knee; hand and wrist; the elbow; the shoulder; the pelvis hips; the spine; the skull and facial trauma and the clinical assessment of multiple injuries patients. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic techniques of radiography is discussed. Normal anatomy and bone fractures along with soft-tissue injuries are described

  14. Usefulness of diagnostic imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Kazuya; Akakura, Koichiro; Mikami, Kazuo; Mizoguchi, Ken-ichi; Tobe, Toyofusa; Nakano, Koichi; Numata, Tsutomu; Konno, Akiyoshi; Ito, Haruo

    2003-01-01

    In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, prevention of urinary stone recurrence can be achieved by surgical removal of the enlarged parathyroid gland. To ensure the efficacy of surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism, preoperative localization of the enlarged gland is important. In the present study, usefulness of diagnostic imaging for localization of the enlarged gland was investigated in primary hyperparathyroidism. We retrospectively examined the findings of imaging studies and clinical records in 79 patients (97 glands) who underwent surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism at Chiba University Hospital between 1976 and 2000. The detection rates of accurate localization were investigated for imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thallium-201 and technetium-99m pertechnetate (Tl-Tc) subtraction scintigraphy and 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy, and analysed in relation to the size and weight of the gland and pathological diagnosis. The detection rates by US, CT, MRI, Tl-Tc subtraction scintigraphy and MIBI scintigraphy were 70%, 67%, 73%, 38% and 78%, respectively. The overall detection rate changed from 50% to 88% before and after 1987. The detection rate of MIBI scintigraphy was superior to Tl-Tc subtraction scintigraphy. In primary hyperparathyroidism, improvement of accurate localization of an enlarged parathyroid gland was demonstrated along with recent advances in imaging techniques including MIBI scintigraphy. (author)

  15. Diagnostic value of sectional images obtained by emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roucayrol, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    It is now possible to obtain clear images of the various planes in and around a structure with ultra-sounds (echotomography), X-rays (computerized tomography) and recently, gamma-rays from radioactive substances (emission tomography). Axial transverse tomography, which is described here, is to conventional scintigraphy what CT scan is to radiography. It provides images of any structure capable of concentrating sufficiently a radioactive substance administered intravenously. These images are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body. As shown by examples in the liver, lungs and myocardium, lesions which had passed unnoticed with other exploratory techniques can now be demonstrated, and the location, shape and extension of known lesions can be more accurately assessed. Emission tomography already has its place in modern diagnostic procedures side by side with echotomography and CT scan [fr

  16. Patient radiation dose in diagnostic and interventional procedures for intracranial aneurysms: Experience at a single center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Chang Woo; Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Cheol Hyoun; Ihn, Yon Kwon; Shin, Yong Sam

    2014-01-01

    To assess patient radiation doses during cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms in a large sample size from a single center. We studied a sample of 439 diagnostic and 149 therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms in 480 patients (331 females, 149 males; median age, 57 years; range, 21-88 years), which were performed in 2012 with a biplane unit. Parameters including fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP), and total angiographic image frames were obtained and analyzed. Mean fluoroscopic time, total mean DAP, and total image frames were 12.6 minutes, 136.6 +/- 44.8 Gy-cm 2 , and 251 +/- 49 frames for diagnostic procedures, 52.9 minutes, 226.0 +/- 129.2 Gy-cm 2 , and 241 frames for therapeutic procedures, and 52.2 minutes, 334.5 +/- 184.6 Gy-cm 2 , and 408 frames for when both procedures were performed during the same session. The third quartiles for diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were 14.0, 61.1, and 66.1 minutes for fluoroscopy time, 154.2, 272.8, and 393.8 Gy-cm 2 for DAP, and 272, 276, and 535 for numbers of image frames in diagnostic, therapeutic, and both procedures in the same session, respectively. The proportions of fluoroscopy in DAP for the procedures were 11.4%, 50.5%, and 36.1%, respectively, for the three groups. The mean DAP for each 3-dimensional rotational angiographic acquisition was 19.2 +/- 3.2 Gy-cm 2 . On average, rotational angiography was used 1.4 +/- 0.6 times/session (range, 1-4; n = 580). Radiation dose in our study as measured by DAP, fluoroscopy time and image frames did not differ significantly from other reported DRL studies for cerebral angiography, and DAP was lower with fewer angiographic image frames for embolization. A national registry of radiation-dose data is a necessary next step to refine the dose reference level.

  17. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in a uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation are discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  18. Diagnostic imaging of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranachowska, C.; Lass, P.; Korzon-Burakowska, A.; Dobosz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic foot syndrome is a significant complication of diabetes. Diagnostic imaging is a crucial factor determining surgical decision and extent of surgical intervention. At present the gold standard is MRI scanning, whilst the role of bone scanning is decreasing, although in some cases it brings valuable information. In particular, in early stages of osteitis and Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy, radionuclide imaging may be superior to MRI. Additionally, a significant contribution of inflammation-targeted scintigraphy should be noted. Probably the role of PET scanning will grow, although its high cost and low availability may be a limiting factor. In every case, vascular status should be determined, at least with Doppler ultrasound, with following conventional angiography or MR angiography. (authors)

  19. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in an uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation is discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  20. Image-guidance for surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Terry M

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary imaging modalities can now provide the surgeon with high quality three- and four-dimensional images depicting not only normal anatomy and pathology, but also vascularity and function. A key component of image-guided surgery (IGS) is the ability to register multi-modal pre-operative images to each other and to the patient. The other important component of IGS is the ability to track instruments in real time during the procedure and to display them as part of a realistic model of the operative volume. Stereoscopic, virtual- and augmented-reality techniques have been implemented to enhance the visualization and guidance process. For the most part, IGS relies on the assumption that the pre-operatively acquired images used to guide the surgery accurately represent the morphology of the tissue during the procedure. This assumption may not necessarily be valid, and so intra-operative real-time imaging using interventional MRI, ultrasound, video and electrophysiological recordings are often employed to ameliorate this situation. Although IGS is now in extensive routine clinical use in neurosurgery and is gaining ground in other surgical disciplines, there remain many drawbacks that must be overcome before it can be employed in more general minimally-invasive procedures. This review overviews the roots of IGS in neurosurgery, provides examples of its use outside the brain, discusses the infrastructure required for successful implementation of IGS approaches and outlines the challenges that must be overcome for IGS to advance further. (topical review)

  1. Prenatal diagnosis--principles of diagnostic procedures and genetic counseling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Slezak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of inherited malformations as well as genetic disorders in newborns account for around 3-5%. These frequency is much higher in early stages of pregnancy, because serious malformations and genetic disorders usually lead to spontaneous abortion. Prenatal diagnosis allowed identification of malformations and/or some genetic syndromes in fetuses during the first trimester of pregnancy. Thereafter, taking into account the severity of the disorders the decision should be taken in regard of subsequent course of the pregnancy taking into account a possibilities of treatment, parent's acceptation of a handicapped child but also, in some cases the possibility of termination of the pregnancy. In prenatal testing, both screening and diagnostic procedures are included. Screening procedures such as first and second trimester biochemical and/or ultrasound screening, first trimester combined ultrasound/biochemical screening and integrated screening should be widely offered to pregnant women. However, interpretation of screening results requires awareness of both sensitivity and predictive value of these procedures. In prenatal diagnosis ultrasound/MRI searching as well as genetic procedures are offered to pregnant women. A variety of approaches for genetic prenatal analyses are now available, including preimplantation diagnosis, chorion villi sampling, amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling as well as promising experimental procedures (e.g. fetal cell and DNA isolation from maternal blood. An incredible progress in genetic methods opened new possibilities for valuable genetic diagnosis. Although karyotyping is widely accepted as golden standard, the discussion is ongoing throughout Europe concerning shifting to new genetic techniques which allow obtaining rapid results in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy (e.g. RAPID-FISH, MLPA, quantitative PCR.

  2. Comparing imaging procedures: techniques and examples. Gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The distinct advantages of nuclear medicine procedures, in comparison to radiography, contrast studies, computerized tomography and ultrasound, are emphasized. Scintigraphic methods offer quantitative data regarding function which competing imaging modalities are unable to provide, and make them the studies of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal physiology and functional abnormalities

  3. Evaluation of the medical imaging procedures for the diagnosis of liver diseases: Part II. Experiments on the effectiveness of diagnostic interpretation of liver images in 103 cases collected from nine participating countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhisa, Kenjiro; Tateno, Yukio; Matsumoto, Toru; Fukuda, Morimichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Shishido, Fumio

    1996-01-01

    Part one of this report was a computer analysis of the results of nuclear medicine scintiscan (NM) and ultrasound (US) images obtained from a collection of liver disease cases in Japan, reported and interpreted by 126 physicians from 10 participating countries. While conducting Part I, we collected images for use in Part II of this study from participating institutions in each of the participating countries. These images were from liver disease cases with conditions similar to the cases in Part I of this study and with clinical information including final diagnoses. From those cases, we selected cases considered to be appropriate for this study. The images from the selected cases were copied onto the same type of recording medium as that used for the originals, and was added with brief clinical information (sex, age, liver function test classification, and tumor marker examination of AFP and CEA values) to each copy. We then distributed these copies among all the participating countries and asked physicians to interpret and give a final diagnosis in each case. Liver scintigraphy, sonographic findings, clinical history and laboratory investigation were analysed and interpreted

  4. Diagnostic imaging of acute aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Tohru; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and nineteen patients with aortic dissection who underwent diagnostic imaging were reviewed and angiographic findings as well as those of CT were analysed. Thirty eight cases (43.1%) had non-contrast opacified false lumen, the type of which we call 'thrombosed type aortic dissection'. A comparative study of the thrombosed type with the patent type of false lumens was made particularly from the stand point of the characteristic diagnostic imagings (CT and angiography). At the same time, the pitfalls of these imagings in thrombosed type aortic dissection were studied. At the onset the average age of thrombosed type was 62.3 years old, while that of the patent type was 57.3. A statistical significance between the two groups was p<0.05. Thrombosed type in all cases was caused by atherosclerosis, whereas patent type was caused by the Marfan's syndrome in 11 cases. Other clinical findings, such as initial symptoms and blood pressure revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Pre-contrast CT in acute thrombosed type aortic dissection showed 'hyperdense crescent sign' in 89.4%. However, in 3 cases with thrombosed type in which the pre-contrast CT showed 'hyperdense crescent sign' contrast-enhanced CT detected no clear evidence of aortic dissection in the same site. This was due to obscurity induced by contrast medium. Angiographic findings of thrombosed type were classified into 3 groups: normal type, stenosed true lumen type and ulcer-like projection type. The incidence of normal type was estimated to be 48.4%, whereas stenosed true lumen type was 24.2% and ulcer-like projection was 27.7%. The present study concluded that thrombosed type is not rare in acute aortic dissection and contrast-enhanced CT as well as pre-contrast CT, is of great value in diagnosing thrombosed type. 'Hyperdense crescent sign' in pre-contrast CT is characteristic of intramural hematoma. (author)

  5. Diagnostic reference activities for nuclear medicine procedures in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.C.; Towson, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In July 1998 a survey of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Australia and New Zealand was undertaken on behalf of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine (ANZSNM) and the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) in order to establish diagnostic reference activities. A total of 96 responses were received representing 154 practices, comprising 45 public hospital departments, 21 private hospital departments, 87 private practices and 1 unspecified practice. The survey requested the usual activities administered for a standard adult, the method used to determine the activity for children and the minimum activities used for paediatric patients. Data was obtained for 80 different imaging procedures and for 17 non-imaging tracer studies. For those procedures for which information was available from 10 or more practices, 68 in total, the reference activity was calculated as the 75th percentile of the distribution of activities. The Most Common Activity, the Reference Activity, together with the effective dose in both male and female patients, is tabulated for all these procedures. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  6. Software for 3D diagnostic image reconstruction and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taton, G.; Rokita, E.; Sierzega, M.; Klek, S.; Kulig, J.; Urbanik, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in computer technologies have opened new frontiers in medical diagnostics. Interesting possibilities are the use of three-dimensional (3D) imaging and the combination of images from different modalities. Software prepared in our laboratories devoted to 3D image reconstruction and analysis from computed tomography and ultrasonography is presented. In developing our software it was assumed that it should be applicable in standard medical practice, i.e. it should work effectively with a PC. An additional feature is the possibility of combining 3D images from different modalities. The reconstruction and data processing can be conducted using a standard PC, so low investment costs result in the introduction of advanced and useful diagnostic possibilities. The program was tested on a PC using DICOM data from computed tomography and TIFF files obtained from a 3D ultrasound system. The results of the anthropomorphic phantom and patient data were taken into consideration. A new approach was used to achieve spatial correlation of two independently obtained 3D images. The method relies on the use of four pairs of markers within the regions under consideration. The user selects the markers manually and the computer calculates the transformations necessary for coupling the images. The main software feature is the possibility of 3D image reconstruction from a series of two-dimensional (2D) images. The reconstructed 3D image can be: (1) viewed with the most popular methods of 3D image viewing, (2) filtered and processed to improve image quality, (3) analyzed quantitatively (geometrical measurements), and (4) coupled with another, independently acquired 3D image. The reconstructed and processed 3D image can be stored at every stage of image processing. The overall software performance was good considering the relatively low costs of the hardware used and the huge data sets processed. The program can be freely used and tested (source code and program available at

  7. Radiation protection problems by diagnostic procedures of pediatric nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kletter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Special dosimetry considerations are necessary in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in pediatric nuclear medicine. The influence of differences in irradiation geometry and biokinetic parameters on the radiation dose in children and adults is discussed. Assuming an equal activity concentration, both factors lead rather to a reduced radiation dose than an increased radiation burden in children compared to adults. However, the same radiation dose in children and adults may lead to a different detriment. This is explained by differences in life expectancy and radiation sensitivity for both groups. From special formulas an age dependent reduction factor can be calculated for the application of radiopharmaceuticals in pediatric nuclear medicine. Radiation exposure to hospital staff and parents from children, undergoing nuclear medicine diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, is low. (author)

  8. Diagnostic image quality of video-digitized chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.; Butler, R.B.; Becking, W.B.; Warnars, G.A.O.; Haar Romeny, B. ter; Ottes, F.P.; Valk, J.-P.J. de

    1989-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy obtained with the Philips picture archiving and communications subsystem was investigated by means of an observer performance study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The image qualities of conventional films and video digitized images were compared. The scanner had a 1024 x 1024 x 8 bit memory. The digitized images were displayed on a 60 Hz interlaced display monitor 1024 lines. Posteroanterior (AP) roetgenograms of a chest phantom with superimposed simulated interstitial pattern disease (IPD) were produced; there were 28 normal and 40 abnormal films. Normal films were produced by the chest phantom alone. Abnormal films were taken of the chest phantom with varying degrees of superimposed simulated intersitial disease (PND) for an observer performance study, because the results of a simulated interstitial pattern disease study are less likely to be influenced by perceptual capabilities. The conventional films and the video digitized images were viewed by five experienced observers during four separate sessions. Conventional films were presented on a viewing box, the digital images were displayed on the monitor described above. The presence of simulated intersitial disease was indicated on a 5-point ROC certainty scale by each observer. We analyzed the differences between ROC curves derived from correlated data statistically. The mean time required to evaluate 68 digitized images is approximately four times the mean time needed to read the convential films. The diagnostic quality of the video digitized images was significantly lower (at the 5% level) than that of the conventional films (median area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 and 0.94, respectively). (author). 25 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Visible Imaging Diagnostic on Tore-Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dachicourt, R.; Monier Garbet, P.; Beaute, A.; Habib-Naiim, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA Cadarache (France); Marandet, Y. [PIIM, CNRS-Universite de Provence, Marseille (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Research for thermonuclear fusion aims at energy production using fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium nuclei. To this end, a deuterium/tritium mixture has to be heated to a very high temperature (about 100 millions degrees). Chemical and physical sputtering erodes the plasma facing components (PFC), leading to an impurity influx to the plasma. Estimating this erosion source is important both for the PFC lifetime and the quality of the confinement. In fact, impurities reaching the plasma core radiate energy and dilute the fuel. In this contribution, we describe an erosion diagnostic operated on the Tore Supra tokamak, consisting in the combination of visible spectroscopy and filtered imaging over a full TPL (Toroidal Pumped Limiter) sector. Quantitative measurements of spectral lines brightness on four spectrometer chords monitoring the TPL top are used to process the corresponding filtered images, namely to remove background emission or unwanted lines. The particle influx from the TPL's vicinity is obtained from photon fluxes measurements [1], which require absolute calibration in intensity of the system. Filtered images provide the spatial pattern of erosion, from which the total eroded carbon flux is reconstructed. The variation of the particle influx with the input power is studied by analyzing a dedicated experimental campaign. References: [1] Behringer K. et al. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 31, No. 14, pp. 2059 to 2099, 1989. (authors)

  10. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, S.F.; Mueller, H.

    1984-01-01

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(μg/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  11. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-10-01

    Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments.

  12. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments

  13. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... for diagnostic testing. (b) The authorized laboratory must identify each egg as to the breeding flock...

  14. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    This is the third edition of CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 (now CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 114), which is one of a series of standards issued by the Canadian Standards Association under Part II of the Canadian Electrical Code. This edition marks an important shift towards harmonization of Canadian requirements with those of the European community and the United States. Also important to this edition is the expansion of its scope to include the complete range of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment, rather than solely radiation-emitting equipment. In so doing, equipment previously addressed by CSA Standard C22.2 No. 125, Electromedical Equipment, specifically lasers for medical applications and diagnostic ultrasound units, is now dealt with in the new edition. By virtue of this expanded scope, many of the technical requirements in the electromedical equipment standard have been introduced to the new edition, thereby bringing CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 up to date. 14 tabs., 16 figs.

  15. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This is the third edition of CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 (now CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 114), which is one of a series of standards issued by the Canadian Standards Association under Part II of the Canadian Electrical Code. This edition marks an important shift towards harmonization of Canadian requirements with those of the European community and the United States. Also important to this edition is the expansion of its scope to include the complete range of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment, rather than solely radiation-emitting equipment. In so doing, equipment previously addressed by CSA Standard C22.2 No. 125, Electromedical Equipment, specifically lasers for medical applications and diagnostic ultrasound units, is now dealt with in the new edition. By virtue of this expanded scope, many of the technical requirements in the electromedical equipment standard have been introduced to the new edition, thereby bringing CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 up to date. 14 tabs., 16 figs

  16. Diagnostic imaging of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frkovic, M.; Seronja Kuhar, M.; Perhoc, Z.; Barbaric-Babic, V.; Molnar, M.; Vukovic, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Imaging of the abdomen in children with suspected hypertrophic pyloric stenosis has been traditionally performed by plain film radiography and upper gastrointestinal contrast studies. In many clinical situations, this approach has been modified or replaced by ultrasound examination. The authors aimed to analyse the value of diagnostic algorithm in children with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis confirmed at surgery in our hospital. Patients and methods. The authors made a five year retrospective review of hospital records of all children operated on for HPS in Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb - Rebro and found out that 14 boys, between 2 (17 days) and 10 weeks of life (75 days) underwent surgery due to HPS. Results. Specific radiographic signs were: string sign, double track sign, elongation and narrowing of pyloric canal, mushroom sign, gastric distension with fluid and beak sign. Ultrasound was performed in 9 patients, one of them was false negative (sonographer admitted that he had no experience), the rest were positive. Conclusions. If the physical examination is negative or equivocal, sonography by an experienced sonographer must be performed. If the ultrasound finding is negative, than the infant should undergo to barium upper gastrointestinal studies (UGI). If HPS isn't a primary diagnostic question, it's better to perform UGI first in order to make a correct diagnosis. (author)

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  18. Radiation exposures to technologists from nuclear medicine imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloboda, R.S.; Schmid, M.G.; Willis, C.P.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposures incurred by nuclear medicine technologists during diagnostic imaging and gamma camera quality control (QC) were measured on a procedural basis over a three-month period using a portable, low-range, self-reading ion chamber. A total of more than 400 measurements were made for 15 selected procedures. From these, mean procedural exposures and standard deviations were calculated. The results show that daily flood phantom QC, at 0.58 mR, and gated cardiac studies, at 0.45 mR, were the two greatest sources of exposure. Other procedures resulted in exposures varying roughly from 0.10 to 0.20 mR. Difficult patients were responsible for a doubling of technologist exposure for many procedures. Standard deviations were large for all procedures, averaging 65% of the mean values. Comparison of technologist exposure inferred from the procedural measurements with the time coincident collective dose equivalent recorded by the TLD service of the Radiation Protection Bureau indicates that approximately half of the collective technologist exposure arose from patient handling and flood QC

  19. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  20. Diagnostic imaging in companion animal theriogenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, C.R.; Spaulding, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Clinical assessment of reproductive problems in companion animals is greatly enhanced by the availability of various imaging modalities. Specifically, survey radiography, contrast radiography, real-time ultrasonography, and ultrasound-guided biopsy and/or aspiration cytology, alone or in various combinations, offer sophisticated methods of extension of the physical examination of the reproductive systems of dogs and cats. In particular, real-time ultrasonography offers invaluable assistance. It is nonionizing, largely noninvasive, rapid, and capable of providing certain dynamic information that is not conveniently available in any other way. Judging from its rapid growth in recent years, it has apparently become an integral part of the complete reproductive assessment of domestic animals. This is not to slight the importance of some of the contrast radiographic procedures that have been developed and refined. Some of them, such as maximum distention retrograde urothrocystography, provide unique information not available with presently routinely used ultrasound techniques. Other imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, have heretofore provided limited benefit to theriogenology; that will probably change in years to come

  1. Diagnostic Imaging and Problems of Schizencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopa, Joanna; Kucharska-Miąsik, Iwona; Dziurzyńska-Białek, Ewa; Kostkiewicz, Agnieszka; Solińska, Anna; Zając-Mnich, Monika; Guz, Wiesław; Samojedny, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Schizencephaly is a rare developmental malformation of the central nervous system associated with cell migration disturbances. Schizencephaly can be uni- or bilateral and is divided into two morphological types. The cleft is defined as type I (“closed lips”) if there are fused clefts in cerebral mantle. In type II (“open lips”) the clefts are separated and filled with cerebrospinal fluid connecting lateral ventricle with the subarachnoid space. We retrospectively analysed data of patients hospitalized in the Clinical Pediatric Neurology Department of Provincial Hospital No. 2 in Rzeszow between 1998–2011. Clinical data and imaging exams were analysed in the group of children with confirmed schizencephaly. Schizencephaly was recognized in 32 children. Diagnosis was made in children at the ages between 2 weeks and 15 years – the majority of older children were born before the year 2000. Diagnostic imaging, most often magnetic resonance imaging, was performed in all of the children. In most cases coexistence of other CNS malformations was discovered. In only one patient there were no neurological symptoms, most of the children presented different developmental disorders and neurological symptoms – most often cerebral palsy and epilepsy. In the group of children with bilateral and type II schizencephaly certain symptoms occurred more often. Schizencephaly is a rare central nervous system developmental disorder, which is very often associated with other severe brain malformations and in most of the cases subsequent multiple neurological symptoms. The method of choice in diagnosis of schizencephaly is magnetic resonance, which shows the degree and type of cleft, coexisting abnormalities and allows differential diagnosis. With the increased availability of this method it is possible to recognize schizencephaly more often and earlier

  2. New perspective for radiation protection in diagnostic procedure in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosky, R.A.; Gamarra, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Government in Paraguay approved by Decree Law 10754, dated October 6, 2000, its National Regulation on Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, based on the IAEA Safety Standards 115. The primary goal of Patient Protection is to ensure that both Regulatory Authorities and all Responsible parties in Medical Practices observe procedural process in conducting their responsibilities on regulatory and administrative affairs. On one side the Government, 'Department de Proteccion Radiologica', under the Health Ministry and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, and on the other side, the medical practitioner who prescribes or conducts diagnostic or therapeutic treatment, both ensure that the exposure of patients be the minimum. This document describes how the Regulatory Authorities intend to implement this recent act and on the other hand take the advantage of this Conference to understand better this subject, especially on the following subjects: essential requirement for licensing, inspection and enforcement programme in the country's capital and in the interior, where there are more difficulties; workers and medical training and lessons learned applying to developing countries. (author)

  3. Basic artefacts of diagnostic imaging by the magnetic resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitak, T.; Seidl, Z.; Obenberger, J.; Vaneckova, M.; Danes, J.; Krasensky, J.; Peterkova, V

    2000-01-01

    Artefacts in diagnostic imaging are defined as a geometric or anatomic misrepresentation of the reality by the image formed. The article deals with artefacts due to field and frequency shifts, in particular due to the water-fat chemical shift and due to magnetic susceptibility. The physical nature of the artefacts is explained and their diagnostic significance is discussed. (P.A.)

  4. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  5. MR imaging diagnostic protocol for unilocular lesions of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironobu Konouchi

    2012-08-01

    Using our MR imaging diagnostic protocol to diagnose 31 cases, we obtained a positivity rate of 71.0%. The use of our MR imaging diagnostic protocol for unilocular lesions, which are especially difficult to differentiate by radiography, would improve the morphological and qualitative diagnosis of soft tissue lesions.

  6. Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of licensed South African diagnostic imaging equipment. ... Pan African Medical Journal ... Introduction: Objective: To conduct an analysis of all registered South Africa (SA) diagnostic radiology equipment, assess the number of equipment units per capita by imaging modality, and compare SA figures with published ...

  7. Roentgen signs in diagnostic imaging. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The introductory chapter presents terminology and definitions of current use in the field of roentgen pathology and also gives a short list of terms relating to the application of the novel imaging methods. The first chapter explains the fundamentals of radiological evaluation of the bone joints and skeleton, and chapters two and three discuss fractures and luxations of the extremities and the available treatment methods. The fourth chapter deals with congenital and hereditary bone lesions and the relevant roentgen signs such as reduced contrast or modifications in size or shape. The chapters five and six deal with specific bone lesions of a particular bone or skeletal area, or a particular extremity, also characterised by reduced contrast. Other bone lesions showing enhanced density, expansive processes or other massive change are discussed in chapter seven, and roen tgen signs of the bone joints in chapter eight. The last chapter deals with computed tomography for diagnostic evaluation of the appendicular skeleton. (MG) With 1803 figs., 29 tabs [de

  8. Consideration on the diagnostic ability of various imaging techniques in relation to renal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ike, Katsushi

    1984-01-01

    Radiological diagnosis of renal tumors is being improved with the increased imaging accuracy which has resulted from advancement in the various equipment used and improvement in techniques. However, at the clinical level, diagnostic procedures based on the characteristics of the delineated images are not yet established and the diverse diagnostic procedures are being conducted currently in a stereotyped manner. In this study, the images of 61 cases diagnosed as renal tumor were analysed retrospectively with the purpose of establishing the imaging accuracy, capacity for diagnosis based on image characteristics and a subseguent proper diagnostic procedure. It was found that CT and Angio gave similar diagnostic accuracy. It was further revealed that US images enabled to differentiate renal tumors from the more commonly experienced renal cystic disease. For determination of tunica involucrum infiltration, which is essential to diagnose Stage I and II renal tumors, CT was proved to be superior to Angio. CT and US were also to be so in the determination of metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes which is a Stage III criterion. In recent years, CT and US imaging accuracies have increased, hence the improvement in the capacity to diagnose non-observable renal tumors is highly expected. (author)

  9. Ordering of diagnostic information in encoded medical images. Accuracy progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przelaskowski, A.; Jóźwiak, R.; Krzyżewski, T.; Wróblewska, A.

    2008-03-01

    A concept of diagnostic accuracy progression for embedded coding of medical images was presented. Implementation of JPEG2000 encoder with a modified PCRD optimization algorithm was realized and initially verified as a tool for accurate medical image streaming. Mean square error as a distortion measure was replaced by other numerical measures to revise quality progression according to diagnostic importance of successively encoded image information. A faster increment of image diagnostic importance during reconstruction of initial packets of code stream was reached. Modified Jasper code was initially tested on a set of mammograms containing clusters of microcalcifications and malignant masses, and other radiograms. Teleradiologic applications were considered as the first area of interests.

  10. Image diagnostic of colonic diseases - controversial questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Rizov, A.; Stancheva, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the system of colonic diseases' diagnostic algorithm, fibrocolonoscopy (FCS) is defined as 'Golden Standard'. By this reason some X-ray diagnostic methods - irrigography, etc. are currently not being used in a number of health institutions. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis of FCS and irrigography diagnostic efficacy in various colonic diseases. For 10-years period, in cooperation with a gastroenterologist-gastroscopist, 2151 patients with various colonic diseases were evaluated by FCS and irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics/when necessary. Advantage of FCS was established in diagnosing diseases with patho-morfologic changes on the inner surface of the colon - benign and malignant neoplastic processes, chronic inflammatory diseases, etc. At the same time functional changes - irritated colon syndrome, changes in defecation act, etc., are not an object of diagnosis through FCS. Correction in colonic diseases diagnostic algorithm is necessary. FCS should be mandatory. If result is negative - irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics should be done. (authors)

  11. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Abdullah; Yapıcı, İlhami; Babalık, Mesiha; Şimşek, Zekiye; Kolsuz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both). Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%). Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%). Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF) was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%). Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%). Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%); bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%); fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%); and BAL, in 2 (11.1%). Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7%) of the 18 cases evaluated. In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB. Determinar a distribuição proporcional dos subtipos de tuberculose endobrônquica (TBEB) e avaliar os tipos de procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos que podem revelar inflamação granulomatosa. Este foi um estudo retrospectivo com 18 pacientes HIV negativos com TBEB comprovada

  12. Developing an automated database for monitoring ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided procedure complications and diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Jones, Lisa P; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W; Kolansky, Ana S; Hilton, Susan; Zafar, Hanna M

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring complications and diagnostic yield for image-guided procedures is an important component of maintaining high quality patient care promoted by professional societies in radiology and accreditation organizations such as the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Joint Commission. These outcome metrics can be used as part of a comprehensive quality assurance/quality improvement program to reduce variation in clinical practice, provide opportunities to engage in practice quality improvement, and contribute to developing national benchmarks and standards. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and successful implementation of an automated web-based software application to monitor procedural outcomes for US- and CT-guided procedures in an academic radiology department. The open source tools PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) and MySQL were used to extract relevant procedural information from the Radiology Information System (RIS), auto-populate the procedure log database, and develop a user interface that generates real-time reports of complication rates and diagnostic yield by site and by operator. Utilizing structured radiology report templates resulted in significantly improved accuracy of information auto-populated from radiology reports, as well as greater compliance with manual data entry. An automated web-based procedure log database is an effective tool to reliably track complication rates and diagnostic yield for US- and CT-guided procedures performed in a radiology department.

  13. Overuse of Diagnostic Imaging for Work-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenin, Brianna Rebecca; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace

    2017-02-01

    Overuse of health care in the United States is a growing concern. This article addresses the use of diagnostic imaging for work-related injuries. Diagnostic imaging drives substantial cost for increases in workers' compensation. Despite guidelines published by the American College of Radiology and the American College of Occupational Medicine and the Official Disability Guidelines, practitioners are prematurely ordering imaging sooner than recommended. Workers are exposed to unnecessary radiation and are incurring increasing costs without evidence of better outcomes. Practitioners caring for workers and submitting workers' compensation claims should adhere to official guidelines, using their professional judgment to consider financial impact and health outcomes of diagnostic imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine imaging, radiography, and ultrasound.

  14. Fast, fat-suppressed diagnostic imaging of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, G.J.; Weatherall, P.

    1999-01-01

    Maximum sensitivity and diagnostic precision of MR imaging of the breast can be achieved only with fat-suppressed diagnostic scans with high resolution. Optimal results were obtained with a 3D-FFE sequence and excitation by a binomial pulse and an amplitude-modulated binomial pulse. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Diagnostic value of imaging in infective endocarditis : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, Anna; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Touw, Daan J; van Melle, Joost P; Willems, Tineke P; Maass, Alexander H; Natour, Ehsan; Prakken, Niek H J; Borra, Ronald J H; van Geel, Peter Paul; Slart, Riemer H J A; van Assen, Sander; Sinha, Bhanu

    Sensitivity and specificity of the modified Duke criteria for native valve endocarditis are both suboptimal, at approximately 80%. Diagnostic accuracy for intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection is even lower. Non-invasive imaging modalities could potentially improve diagnosis of

  16. Quantitative Methods for Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview on the basic quantitative methods, an in-depth discussion on the cutting-edge quantitative analysis approaches as well as their applications for both static and dynamic molecular diagnostic and therapeutic imaging.

  17. Spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics of pulsed laser deposition laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, Raj K.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of laser spectroscopic techniques used in the diagnostics of laser ablated plumes used for thin film deposition is given. An emerging laser spectroscopic imaging technique for the laser ablation material processing is discussed. (author)

  18. Patient dosimetry and image quality in conventional diagnostic radiology. An experience from a local Serbian hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac; Milojko Kovacevic; Dusko Kosutic; Milan Loncar; Dajana Veljkovic

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The optimization of image quality vs. patient dose ins an important task in medical imaging. Maximal validity of optimization has to be based on clinical images. Simultaneous measurement of patient dose levels and image quality assessment is used to investigate possibilities for dose reduction and maintain image quality. The survey was conducted in a local hospital performing more than 60000 images annually and representing typical Serbian practice. For four most frequent diagnostic procedures (seven projections) patient exposure was measured using kerma area product meter. Image quality was assessed by experienced radiologists using 'European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images'. Following examination types were included into the survey: chest PA, chest LAT, pelvis AP, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine LAT and LSJ, skull PA and skull LAT. Comparing actual radiographic technique with recommended technique in European Guidelines, modification of practice was proposed and implemented and image quality was re-assessed. At least 10 adult patients were followed for each projection, before and after corrective actions. Large dose saving without compromising diagnostic information were found for some examination types, showing that this simple method is very efficient dose reduction tool in conventional diagnostic radiology. Also, need for staff training and difficulties related to practical implementation of optimization methods in Serbia were discussed.

  19. Trends in utilization: has extremity MR imaging replaced diagnostic arthroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, Nicole; Morrison, William B.; Parker, Laurence; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Carrino, John A.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the relative change in utilization of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the extremities versus diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy. Using the 1993, 1996, and 1999 nationwide Medicare Part B databases, utilization rates (per 100,000) were determined for upper and lower extremity MR imaging, diagnostic arthroscopy and therapeutic arthroscopy using CPT-4 codes. Utilization of extremity MR imaging was compared with that of diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy in 10 geographic regions of the United States and tracked over time. Combined lower and upper extremity MR imaging utilization per 100,000 increased from 393 to 1,056 in 1999 (+168.7%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the extremities decreased from 18 in 1993 to 8 in 1999 (-55.6%); therapeutic arthroscopy rates increased from 461 in 1993 to 636 in 1999 (+40.0%). Specifically, from 1993 to 1999, utilization of lower extremity MR imaging increased from 270 to 661 (+144.8%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee over the same time period decreased from 11 to 5 (-54.5%); therapeutic arthroscopy increased from 394 to 501 (+27.2%). Similarly, utilization rates for upper extremity MR imaging increased from 123 to 395 (+221.1%). Utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy of the shoulder over the same time period decreased from 7 to 2 (-71.4%); therapeutic arthroscopy increased from 44 to 104 (+136.4%). No specific geographic trends were ascertained. The utilization of MR imaging of the extremities has markedly increased from 1993 to 1999. During the same time period the utilization of diagnostic arthroscopy has decreased and that of therapeutic arthroscopy has increased. These findings support the hypothesis that there is increased reliance of clinical practitioners on the diagnostic information provided by MR imaging in preoperative clinical decision-making. (orig.)

  20. Application of Nanoparticles in Diagnostic Imaging via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ability to image quantitatively both morphological and physiological functions of the tissue, ... Several types of contrast media are used in medical imaging and they can ... which is still widely used to examine internal organs of the body and ...

  1. Musculoskeletal desmoid tumours: Diagnostic imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Daniel; Perera, Warren; Schlicht, Stephen; Choong, Peter; Slavin, John; Pianta, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discuss the role medical imaging has on diagnosis of musculoskeletal desmoid tumours and to describe their radiological appearances on various imaging modalities. Imaging of histologically proven cases of desmoid tumours at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne were obtained via picture archiving communication system (PACS) and then assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Suitable imagings were obtained from PACS. All imaging chosen was de-identified. Desmoid tumours can occur in many areas of the body. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of these tumours and magnetic resonance imaging has been the gold standard for imaging and is the most accurate in terms of assessing tumour margins and involvement of surrounding structure.

  2. Radiation Exposure by Nuclear Medicine Imaging Procedures: Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Marovic, G.; Prlic, I.; Sencar, J.; Zeljezic, D.; Ramic, S.

    2013-01-01

    Using high-resolution gamma spectrometry, we investigated the activity concentrations of thallium radioisotopes in a urine sample collected during a period of 24 h following nuclear medicine cardiac imaging. As part of a thallium stress test the subject of the study received a radiopharmaceutical preparation with 201Tl (activity 111 MBq). In order to assess whether the cardiac imaging procedure resulted in lymphocyte genome damage, we studied the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and lymphocyte cell kinetics in the blood samples collected before and after the cardiac imaging. The highest activity concentration (538960.9 ± 405.9 Bq/L u rine) was estimated for 201Tl, followed by 1770.54 ± 3.57 Bq/L u rine for 202Tl, and 422.035 ± 2.091 Bq/Lurine for 200Tl. The applied radiopharmaceutical contained 99.595 % of 201Tl, 0.078 % of 200Tl and 0.327 % of 202Tl. The estimated effective dose received through a single exposure to the radiopharmaceutical and calculated for a period of two days was mostly affected by 201Tl (0.0453 mSv). Due to its half-life of 12.2 days, the contribution of 202Tl (0.0008 mSv) to the effective dose was also significant. Results of the cytogenetic analysis indicate that a single diagnostic exposure to thallium caused an increase of SCE frequency and decrease of the proliferation rate index (PRI). Both parameters normalized steadily 14 days after the cardiac imaging procedure, which is also in accord with data obtained in previous studies. Our results indicate the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical which should contain only 201Tl. This calls for a stricter process of quality control for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medical diagnostic procedures. In this particular case, we emphasize 'contamination' with 202Tl, whose contribution to the effective dose cannot be ignored if one takes into account that it has the longest half-life of all three thallium radioisotopes detected in the urine sample.(author)

  3. Comparative cost analysis -- computed tomography vs. alternative diagnostic procedures, 1977-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gempel, P.A.; Harris, G.H.; Evans, R.G.

    1977-12-01

    In comparing the total national cost of utilizing computed tomography (CT) for medically indicated diagnoses with that of conventional x-ray, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, and exploratory surgery, this investigation concludes that there was little, if any, added net cost from CT use in 1977 or will there be in 1980. Computed tomography, generally recognized as a reliable and useful diagnostic modality, has the potential to reduce net costs provided that an optimal number of units can be made available to physicians and patients to achieve projected reductions in alternative procedures. This study examines the actual cost impact of CT on both cranial and body diagnostic procedures. For abdominal and mediastinal disorders, CT scanning is just beginning to emerge as a diagnostic modality. As such, clinical experience is somewhat limited and the authors assume that no significant reduction in conventional procedures took place in 1977. It is estimated that the approximately 375,000 CT body procedures performed in 1977 represent only a 5 percent cost increase over use of other diagnostic modalities. It is projected that 2,400,000 CT body procedures will be performed in 1980 and, depending on assumptions used, total body diagnostic costs will increase only slightly or be reduced. Thirty-one tables appear throughout the text presenting cost data broken down by types of diagnostic procedures used and projections by years. Appendixes present technical cost components for diagnostic procedures, the comparative efficacy of CT as revealed in abstracts of published literature, selected medical diagnoses, and references

  4. Roentgen signs in diagnostic imaging. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a new edition under a different title of a part of the three-volume publication 'Analysis of X-ray pictures'. The book primarily deals with X-ray diagnostics and covers four chapters on the following subjects: plain radiographs of the abdomen, the urinary tract, obstetrics including gynaecology, and the biliary tract. Diagnostic ultrasonography is discussed in greater detail in the chapter on obstetrics and gynaecology as it is a method of first choice in this field. (MG) With 944 figs., 33 tabs [de

  5. Transthoracic CT-guided biopsy with multiplanar reconstruction image improves diagnostic accuracy of solitary pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Takenaka, Daisuke; Imai, Masatake; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) image for CT-guided biopsy and determine factors of influencing diagnostic accuracy and the pneumothorax rate. Materials and methods: 390 patients with 396 pulmonary nodules underwent transthoracic CT-guided aspiration biopsy (TNAB) and transthoracic CT-guided cutting needle core biopsy (TCNB) as follows: 250 solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) underwent conventional CT-guided biopsy (conventional method), 81 underwent CT-fluoroscopic biopsy (CT-fluoroscopic method) and 65 underwent conventional CT-guided biopsy in combination with MPR image (MPR method). Success rate, overall diagnostic accuracy, pneumothorax rate and total procedure time were compared in each method. Factors affecting diagnostic accuracy and pneumothorax rate of CT-guided biopsy were statistically evaluated. Results: Success rates (TNAB: 100.0%, TCNB: 100.0%) and overall diagnostic accuracies (TNAB: 96.9%, TCNB: 97.0%) of MPR were significantly higher than those using the conventional method (TNAB: 87.6 and 82.4%, TCNB: 86.3 and 81.3%) (P<0.05). Diagnostic accuracy were influenced by biopsy method, lesion size, and needle path length (P<0.05). Pneumothorax rate was influenced by pathological diagnostic method, lesion size, number of punctures and FEV1.0% (P<0.05). Conclusion: The use of MPR for CT-guided lung biopsy is useful for improving diagnostic accuracy with no significant increase in pneumothorax rate or total procedure time

  6. [Transparency regime: semiotics of radiographical images in urological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H

    2012-10-01

    Shortly after Röntgen discovered x-rays urology became one of the main test fields for the application of this new technology. Initial scepticism among physicians, who were inclined to cling to traditional manual methods of diagnosing, was replaced by enthusiasm for radiographic technologies and the new method soon became the standard in, for example the diagnosis of concrements. Patients favoring radiographic procedures over the use of probes and a convincing documentation of stones in radiograms were factors that impacted the relatively rapid integration of radiology into urology. The radiographic representation of soft tissues and body cavities was more difficult and the development of contrast agents in particular posed a serious problem. Several patients died during this research. A new diagnostic dimension was revealed when radiography and cystography were combined to form the method of retrograde pyelography. However, the problem of how urologists could learn how to read the new images remained. In order to allow trainee physicians to practice interpreting radiograms atlases were produced which offered explanatory texts and drawings for radiographic images of the kidneys, the bladder etc. Thus, urologists developed a self-contained semiotics which facilitated the appropriation of a unique urological radiographical gaze.

  7. A retrospective study of relevant diagnostic procedures in vulvodynia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Kristensen, Ellids; Lundvall, Lene

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify objective clinical signs of vulvodynia and determine specific diagnostic tests for vulvodynia in women referred to a vulvar outpatient clinic for vulval complaints. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed of the medical records of 201 consecutive Danish patients s...

  8. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  9. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  10. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities

  11. A study of diagnostic imaging in pancreatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Masashi; Kanazumi, Naohito; Kato, Koichi; Eguchi, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Yuichi; Kimura, Jiro; Ishii, Masataka

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic trauma treatment depends on pancreatic ductal injury. We examined the usefulness and problems of diagnostic imaging, such as enhanced CT, ERP, and CT after ERP, in pancreatic trauma. Subjects were 12 patients with pancreatic trauma treated in our hospital between April 1993 and March 2000. Enhanced CT was performed in 6 patients undergoing diagnostic imagings and ERP in 4 of the 6. Overall diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic ductal injury in enhanced CT was 16.7% and accuracy in ERP with CT after ERP was 100%. Intraoperative diagnosis of main pancreatic ductal injury was difficult in 1 of 2 patients in whom ERP failed. The importance of preoperative diagnostic imaging is thus clear. We expect that MRCP, recently evaluated in pancreatic disease diagnosis, will become a new pancreatic trauma modality. (author)

  12. diagnostic imaging of acute head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.; Rametsteiner, C.

    2001-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the primary modality of choice for imaging patients with acute head trauma. Lesions of the soft tissues and of the bones can be assessed more precisely than with other imaging modalities. With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) additional information may be gained especially in subacute and chronic posttraumatic conditions. Urgent indication to perform a CT examination depends on the patient's history and on the mechanism of trauma. Imaging interpretation has been performed in the context of typical pathologic effects of trauma and with respect to potential therapy. (author)

  13. Diagnostic imaging in undergraduate medical education: an expanding role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiologists have been involved in anatomy instruction for medical students for decades. However, recent technical advances in radiology, such as multiplanar imaging, 'virtual endoscopy', functional and molecular imaging, and spectroscopy, offer new ways in which to use imaging for teaching basic sciences to medical students. The broad dissemination of picture archiving and communications systems is making such images readily available to medical schools, providing new opportunities for the incorporation of diagnostic imaging into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Current reforms in the medical curriculum and the establishment of new medical schools in the UK further underline the prospects for an expanding role for imaging in medical education. This article reviews the methods by which diagnostic imaging can be used to support the learning of anatomy and other basic sciences

  14. Artificial intelligence as a diagnostic adjunct in cardiovascular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The radiologist and/or nuclear medicine physician is literally bombarded with information from today's diagnostic imaging technologies. As a consequence of this, whereas a decade ago the emphasis in medical image analysis was on improving the extraction of diagnostic information by developing and using more sophisticated imaging modalities, today those working on the development of medical imaging technology are struggling to find ways to handle all gathered information effectively. This chapter gives an introduction to the area of artificial intelligence, with an emphasis on the research ongoing in cardiovascular nuclear imaging. This chapter has reviewed the place of artificial intelligence in cardiovascular nuclear imaging. It is intended to provide a general sense of this new and emerging field, an insight into some of its specific methodologies and applications, and a closer look at the several AI approaches currently being applied in cardiovascular nuclear imaging

  15. Diagnostics of machine parts by means of reverse engineering procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rysinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an application of a three-dimensional scanner for building a special diagnostic stand is described. An experimental method of detection of material defects is discussed. The considered defects are connected with cooperation of particular surfaces of machine parts. In the discussed experiments, particularly the dimensions of pitting holes can be evaluated. Availability of laboratory facilities required that the investigations were performed using geared wheels. The three-dimensional model which represents a degenerated surface, obtained based upon the diagnostic measurements, was compared with the pattern of an undamaged surface. The latter was generated by means of our pre-processor. The pre-processor enables generation of files which are compatible with the majority of the computer-aided design system formats. Therefore, the analyses were performed by means of commercial system inventor and computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application.

  16. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging among patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-03-01

    There are concerns about levels of radiation exposure among patients who undergo diagnostic imaging for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared with other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We quantified imaging studies and estimated the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation received by patients with organic and functional GI disorders. We also identified factors and diagnoses associated with high CEDs.

  17. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2014-01-01

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  18. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Medical Expertise Unit, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mezzarobba, Myriam [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-HOM/SRBE/LEPID, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic imaging of the kidney and the urinary tract in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, J.; Darge, K.; Rohrschneider, W.

    1999-01-01

    Imaging flow charts differ in pediatric and general radiology. The reasons are: Different illnesses, different consequences arising out of imaging results and different sequence of imaging methods. Ultrasound is always the first imaging method of the urinary tract in infancy and childhood starts with ultrasound with the exception of severe abdominal trauma which is investigated by computertomography. The decision 'normal or abnormal' is possible using ultrasound in the most pediatric cases. The diagnostic value and significance of ultrasound in infancy and childhood is far better than in general radiology because of the higher resolution of the high-frequency units taken. The result of the ultrasound examination should be the basis for the following imaging procedures. We will describe diagnostic flow charts starting with three important clinical symptoms: Prenatal pathology, urinary tract obstruction and urinary tract infection. (orig.) [de

  20. Preparing diagnostic 3D images for image registration with planning CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracton, Gregg S.; Miller, Elizabeth P.; Rosenman, Julian; Chang, Sha X.; Sailer, Scott; Boxwala, Azaz; Chaney, Edward L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Pre-radiotherapy (pre-RT) tomographic images acquired for diagnostic purposes often contain important tumor and/or normal tissue information which is poorly defined or absent in planning CT images. Our two years of clinical experience has shown that computer-assisted 3D registration of pre-RT images with planning CT images often plays an indispensable role in accurate treatment volume definition. Often the only available format of the diagnostic images is film from which the original 3D digital data must be reconstructed. In addition, any digital data, whether reconstructed or not, must be put into a form suitable for incorporation into the treatment planning system. The purpose of this investigation was to identify all problems that must be overcome before this data is suitable for clinical use. Materials and Methods: In the past two years we have 3D-reconstructed 300 diagnostic images from film and digital sources. As a problem was discovered we built a software tool to correct it. In time we collected a large set of such tools and found that they must be applied in a specific order to achieve the correct reconstruction. Finally, a toolkit (ediScan) was built that made all these tools available in the proper manner via a pleasant yet efficient mouse-based user interface. Results: Problems we discovered included different magnifications, shifted display centers, non-parallel image planes, image planes not perpendicular to the long axis of the table-top (shearing), irregularly spaced scans, non contiguous scan volumes, multiple slices per film, different orientations for slice axes (e.g. left-right reversal), slices printed at window settings corresponding to tissues of interest for diagnostic purposes, and printing artifacts. We have learned that the specific steps to correct these problems, in order of application, are: Also, we found that fast feedback and large image capacity (at least 2000 x 2000 12-bit pixels) are essential for practical application

  1. Prenatal diagnostic procedures used in pregnancies with congenital malformations in 14 regions of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garne, E; Loane, M; de Vigan, C; Scarano, G; de Walle, H; Gillerot, Y; Stoll, C; Addor, MC; Stone, D; Gener, B; Feijoo, M; Mosquera-Tenreiro, C; Gatt, M; Queisser-Luft, A; Baena, N; Dolk, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate outcomes of ultrasound investigations (US) and invasive diagnostic procedures in cases of congenital malformations (CM), and to compare the use of invasive prenatal test techniques (amniocentesis (AC) versus chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) among European populations. Design

  2. Image quality enhancement for skin cancer optical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliznuks, Dmitrijs; Kuzmina, Ilona; Bolocko, Katrina; Lihachev, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    The research presents image quality analysis and enhancement proposals in biophotonic area. The sources of image problems are reviewed and analyzed. The problems with most impact in biophotonic area are analyzed in terms of specific biophotonic task - skin cancer diagnostics. The results point out that main problem for skin cancer analysis is the skin illumination problems. Since it is often not possible to prevent illumination problems, the paper proposes image post processing algorithm - low frequency filtering. Practical results show diagnostic results improvement after using proposed filter. Along that, filter do not reduces diagnostic results' quality for images without illumination defects. Current filtering algorithm requires empirical tuning of filter parameters. Further work needed to test the algorithm in other biophotonic applications and propose automatic filter parameter selection.

  3. Post-graduate training in imaging diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy for radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, E.; Velkova, K.; Shangova, M.; Karidova, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The application of new technologies in imaging diagnostics, as well as the use of digital processing and storing of information, has increased the quality and scope of imaging diagnostics. The potentials of therapeutic methods connected with imaging diagnostics and nuclear medicine, interventional therapeutic procedures (dilatation, embolism, stent, etc.), basins with radio-pharmaceuticals, etc., are constantly increasing. The constant training of radiographers in working with the new, advanced image-diagnostic equipment has become an established international practice in the process of training the human resources of the imaging-diagnostic departments and centers. Objectives: 1. Investigating the potentials of post-graduate training for monitoring the dynamics in the development of the principles, methods and techniques in imaging diagnostics; 2. The attitude of radiographers towards post-graduate training. Systematic approach and critical analysis of published data and mathematical-statistical methods with regard to the need of post-graduate training. The processed data of the survey on the necessity for post-graduate training conducted among 3rd year students in the last 3 years - 75 % consider post-graduate training mandatory, 11% deem it necessary, and 14% have no opinion on the issue; and among the working radiographers in the last 3 years the results are as follows: mandatory - 91%, necessary - 7%, no opinion - 2%. The improvement and advances in imaging diagnostic equipment and apparatuses have considerably outstripped the professional training of radiographers. The key word in the race for knowledge is constant learning and training, which can successfully be achieved within the framework of post-graduate training

  4. Effective choices for diagnostic imaging in clinical practice. Excerpts from a report of a WHO Scientific Group on Clinical Diagnostic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    There are so many different methods of diagnostic imaging that medical practitioners may need guidance to choose the best through the maze of options for each clinical problem. Advice may be required for more than just the first choice, because the first imaging procedure does not always give the desired answer and, depending on the results, further imaging may have to undertaken. The alternative is to submit the patient to a barrage of imaging and hope that one type, at least provides the diagnosis. This is a quite unacceptable way to practice medicine because of the cost and the risk of radiation damage from unnecessary examinations. The choice of the most effective imaging is often difficult and frequently controversial. The sequence to be followed vries with many factors: the equipment available, the skills of the practitioner, the expected quality of the results, the quality of interpretation, and conclusion which can be drawn

  5. Diagnostic imaging analysis of the impacted mesiodens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jeong Jun; Choi, Bo Ram; Jeong, Hwan Seok; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The research was performed to predict the three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors and the proximity with the anatomic structures by comparing their panoramic images with the CT images. Among the patients visiting Seoul National University Dental Hospital from April 2003 to July 2007, those with mesiodens were selected (154 mesiodens of 120 patients). The numbers, shapes, orientation and positional relationship of mesiodens with maxillary central incisors were investigated in the panoramic images. The proximity with the anatomical structures and complications were investigated in the CT images as well. The sex ratio (M : F) was 2.28 : 1 and the mean number of mesiodens per one patient was 1.28. Conical shape was 84.4% and inverted orientation was 51.9%. There were more cases of anatomical structures encroachment, especially on the nasal floor and nasopalatine duct, when the mesiodens was not superimposed with the central incisor. There were, however, many cases of the nasopalatine duct encroachment when the mesiodens was superimpoised with the apical 1/3 of central incisor (52.6%). Delayed eruption (55.6%), crown rotation (66.7%) and crown resorption (100%) were observed when the mesiodens was superimposed with the crown of the central incisor. It is possible to predict three dimensional relationship between the impacted mesiodens and the maxillary central incisors in the panoramic images, but more details should be confirmed by the CT images when necessary.

  6. Diagnostic imaging of the hand. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    2004-01-01

    The second edition contains the following new features: Focus on cogenital, degenerative, inflammatory, tumourous, neurogenic and vascular diseases of the hands; new images of multiline spiral CT including 2D pictures and 3D reconstructions; new MRT images with examination protocols; synoptic presentation of all diseases according to their pathoanatomy, clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging, differential diagnosis, therapeutic options; checklists for the doctor's everyday work. (orig.)

  7. Galactography: the diagnostic procedure of choice for nipple discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, L.; Dean, P.B.; Pentek, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Galactogrpahy was performed in 204 women with a nipple discharge and the secretion confirmed histopathologically. All 116 intraductal tumors (papilloma, papillomatosis, carcinoma), which were associated with a serous or bloody discharge, were detected preoperatively. A palpable mass had little diagnostic significance, and exfoliative cytology was positive in only 11% (2/18) of the patients with carcinoma. The authors recommend that all patients with a spontaneous bloody or serous discharge from a single lactiferous orifice undergo galactography in addition to physical, cytological, and mammographic examination. Intraductal injection of methylene blue dye will demonstrate the affected duct system to the surgeon and can often make surgery less radical or even unnecessary

  8. Augmented Reality: Advances in Diagnostic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, advances in medical imaging have provided opportunities for enhanced diagnosis and characterization of diseases including cancer. The improved spatial resolution provides outstanding detail of intricate anatomical structures, but has challenged physicians on how to effectively and efficiently review the extremely large datasets of over 1000 images. Standard volume rendering attempts to tackle this problem as it provides a display of 3D information on a flat 2D screen, but it lacks depth perception and has poor human–machine interface (HMI. Most recently, Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR with depth 3-dimensional (D3D imaging provides depth perception through binocular vision, head tracking for improved HMI and other key AR features. In this article, we will discuss current and future medical applications of AR including assessing breast cancer. We contend that leveraging AR technology may enhance diagnosis, save cost and improve patient care.

  9. Diagnostic Imaging for Dental Implant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implant is a device made of alloplastic (foreign material implanted into the jaw bone beneath the mucosal layer to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis. Dental implants are gaining immense popularity and wide acceptance because they not only replace lost teeth but also provide permanent restorations that do not interfere with oral function or speech or compromise the self-esteem of a patient. Appropriate treatment planning for replacement of lost teeth is required and imaging plays a pivotal role to ensure a satisfactory outcome. The development of pre-surgical imaging techniques and surgical templates helps the dentist place the implants with relative ease. This article focuses on various types of imaging modalities that have a pivotal role in implant therapy.

  10. Diagnostic CT and percutaneous procedures after pancreatic transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Thompson, W.M.; Sutherland, D.E.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT evaluation of the abdomen and pelvis is of great value after pancreatic transplantation. The expected CT appearance after pancreas transportation with both enteric and bladder drainage of exocrine function are presented, as is the appearance of infected and ischemic grafts. The CT detection and CT- and US-guided percutaneous aspiration and drainage of abdominal fluid collections are described. At the authors' institution, such aspiration and drainage procedures have obviated transplant pancreatectomy or surgical abscess drainage in 29% of patients

  11. Contemporary diagnostic imaging approaches in treatment of urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkov, B.; Naoumov, N.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an extensive review of the literature and on their own clinical experience, authors attempts to present clear guidelines for the management of urolithiasis. Ninety-eight per cent of stones can be successfully fragmented by the application of shock-waves, but the ability of the kidney and ureter to clear the resulting fragments is far more important in terms of successful treatment outcome. Extracorporeal shock-waves lithotripsy (ESWL) is a safe procedure for the treatment of urolithiasis; nevertheless some problems remain. In ureteric stones, ureteroscopy (rigid or flexible device) allows a rate of stone-free patients better than ESWL. For treatment of large staghorn calculi combined approach of Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) and ESWL is preferred. For stones located at lower calyx, the stone-free rate in patients treated by ESWL fell to 50%, when unfavourable anatomy is present. Ultimate goal of treating stones by whatever means is to get the patient stone-free and prevent recurrence. The good technique of performing and interpretation of diagnostic imaging modalities is of critical importance in terms of diagnosing, successful treatment and follow up of results of treatment of urolithiasis

  12. Electronic viewbox: An integrated image diagnostic working station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Komori, M.; Hirakawa, A.; Kuwahara, M.; Yonekura, Y.; Torizuka, K.; Brill, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Recent development in medical imaging technology have been introducing variety of digital images in clinical medicine, and handling these multi-modality digital images in one place is needed for efficient clinical diagnosis. The authors proposed a concept of an integrated image diagnostic working station, in which a physician can look into all clinical images, can select any key image for diagnosis and can read it in detail. A prototype working station named ''Electronic Viewbox'' has been developed for this purpose. It has three distinctive features. 1. The stored images of a patient are shown at a glance. In order to achieve this function, each original image is attached to a small image, where the data are compressed to reserve the essence of the image, and many of these small images are displayed on a CRT screen. This small image is used as an index for picking up a key image in the archived clinical images. 2. The working station is compact enough to be set on a desk. Only two CRTs and a pointing device are assembled. These two CRT screens are used mutually for retrieving key images and for displaying the original images. 3. All operations can be done interactively using cursor and icons

  13. Diagnostic imaging of craniofacial trauma and fractures and their sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Kunz, C.

    2001-01-01

    The value and applications of the CT modalities are on the rise, particularly since the availability of spiral CT techniques, while conventional native diagnostics is increasingly used for special imaging purposes. Multiplanar spiral CT enables high-quality coronary 2D reconstructions which, in the acute phase, make redundant primary coronary imaging modalities. Exact knowledge of typical fracture patterns facilitates the analysis of images of the relevant facial areas. 3D reconstructions are indispensable in pin-pointed surgery planning, generation of stereolithographic models, and image-guided interventions for examination of post-traumatic deformities. Since a secondary correction only very rarely leads to restitutio ad integrum, it is necessary to detect the therapy-relevant injuries very early, during acute diagnostic imaging, in order to lay the basis for subsequent therapy and restoration of the craniofacial structures and functions. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Thyroid Radiation Dose to Patients from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures over Eight Decades: 1930-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lienard A; Miller, Donald L; Lee, Choonsik; Melo, Dunstana R; Villoing, Daphnée; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Winters, Sarah J; Labrake, Michael; Myers, Charles F; Lim, Hyeyeun; Kitahara, Cari M; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2017-12-01

    This study summarizes and compares estimates of radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid gland for typical patients who underwent diagnostic radiology examinations in the years from 1930 to 2010. The authors estimated the thyroid dose for common examinations, including radiography, mammography, dental radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT). For the most part, a clear downward trend in thyroid dose over time for each procedure was observed. Historically, the highest thyroid doses came from the nuclear medicine thyroid scans in the 1960s (630 mGy), full-mouth series dental radiography (390 mGy) in the early years of the use of x rays in dentistry (1930s), and the barium swallow (esophagram) fluoroscopic exam also in the 1930s (140 mGy). Thyroid uptake nuclear medicine examinations and pancreatic scans also gave relatively high doses to the thyroid (64 mGy and 21 mGy, respectively, in the 1960s). In the 21st century, the highest thyroid doses still result from nuclear medicine thyroid scans (130 mGy), but high thyroid doses are also associated with chest/abdomen/pelvis CT scans (18 and 19 mGy for males and females, respectively). Thyroid doses from CT scans did not exhibit the same downward trend as observed for other examinations. The largest thyroid doses from conventional radiography came from cervical spine and skull examinations. Thyroid doses from mammography (which began in the 1960s) were generally a fraction of 1 mGy. The highest average doses to the thyroid from mammography were about 0.42 mGy, with modestly larger doses associated with imaging of breasts with large compressed thicknesses. Thyroid doses from dental radiographic procedures have decreased markedly throughout the decades, from an average of 390 mGy for a full-mouth series in the 1930s to an average of 0.31 mGy today. Upper GI series fluoroscopy examinations resulted in up to two orders of magnitude lower thyroid doses than the barium swallow. There are

  15. Diagnostic imaging of tibial periosteal ganglion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, R.; Melloni, P.; Darnell, A.; Munoz, J.; Canalies, J.

    1997-01-01

    A case of a soft tissue tumor situated in the anterior surface of the proximal end of the tibia in an adult patient is demonstrated by conventional radiographs, CT, and MRI. The lesion was well defined with respect to the adjacent soft tissue. The CT exam showed a soft tissue mass with external cortical erosion and thick spicules by periosteal reaction. On T1-weighted images the mass was homogeneous and of low signal intensity, whereas on T2-weighted images it showed a high signal intensity, with some septa in the mass. The differential considerations include a periosteal chondroma, a lipoma, a subperiosteal hematoma, an inflammatory process, a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and a parosteal osteosarcoma. The CT and MR features of these entities are reviewed as an aid in differential diagnosis of the periosteal ganglion. (orig.). With 4 figs

  16. Plenoptic Imaging for Three-Dimensional Particle Field Diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hall, Elise Munz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising emerging technology for single-camera, 3D diagnostics of particle fields. In this work, recent developments towards quantitative measurements of particle size, positions, and velocities are discussed. First, the technique is proven viable with measurements of the particle field generated by the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water. Next, well cont rolled experiments are used to verify diagnostic uncertainty. Finally, an example is presented of 3D plenoptic imaging of a laboratory scale, explosively generated fragment field.

  17. Diagnostic imaging, a 'parallel' discipline. Can current technology provide a reliable digital diagnostic radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.; Eddleston, B.

    1985-01-01

    Only recently has any detailed criticism been voiced about the practicalities of the introduction of generalised, digital, imaging complexes in diagnostic radiology. Although attendant technological problems are highlighted the authors argue that the fundamental causes of current difficulties are not in the generation but in the processing, filing and subsequent retrieval for display of digital image records. In the real world, looking at images is a parallel process of some complexity and so it is perhaps untimely to expect versatile handling of vast image data bases by existing computer hardware and software which, by their current nature, perform tasks serially. (author)

  18. Hyperspectral imaging as a diagnostic tool for chronic skin ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denstedt, Martin; Pukstad, Brita S.; Paluchowski, Lukasz A.; Hernandez-Palacios, Julio E.; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2013-03-01

    The healing process of chronic wounds is complex, and the complete pathogenesis is not known. Diagnosis is currently based on visual inspection, biopsies and collection of samples from the wound surface. This is often time consuming, expensive and to some extent subjective procedures. Hyperspectral imaging has been shown to be a promising modality for optical diagnostics. The main objective of this study was to identify a suitable technique for reproducible classification of hyperspectral data from a wound and the surrounding tissue. Two statistical classification methods have been tested and compared to the performance of a dermatologist. Hyperspectral images (400-1000 nm) were collected from patients with venous leg ulcers using a pushbroom-scanning camera (VNIR 1600, Norsk Elektro Optikk AS).Wounds were examined regularly over 4 - 6 weeks. The patients were evaluated by a dermatologist at every appointment. One patient has been selected for presentation in this paper (female, age 53 years). The oxygen saturation of the wound area was determined by wavelength ratio metrics. Spectral angle mapping (SAM) and k-means clustering were used for classification. Automatic extraction of endmember spectra was employed to minimize human interaction. A comparison of the methods shows that k-means clustering is the most stable method over time, and shows the best overlap with the dermatologist's assessment of the wound border. The results are assumed to be affected by the data preprocessing and chosen endmember extraction algorithm. Results indicate that it is possible to develop an automated method for reliable classification of wounds based on hyperspectral data.

  19. Multimodality imaging to guide cardiac interventional procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Laurens Franciscus

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of new cardiac interventional procedures have been introduced. Catheter ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation (AF) have been refined and are now considered a good treatment option in patients with drug-refractory AF. In cardiac pacing, cardiac resynchronization

  20. IMPAIRED MOBILITY OF VOCAL FOLDS – DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES AND TREATMENT, part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Pintarić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords affects phonation, swallowing and breathing. The major cause for reduced mobility or even immobility is innervation damage, less often mechanical disorder.The main procedures in the diagnostics of disordered vocal fold mobility are indirect laryngoscopy and videoendostroboscopy. Different imaging techniques (especially computerized tomography are of great value in searching for a cause of the impaired mobility.In unilateral vocal fold immobility, the treatment is focused on the improvement of voice quality and the prevention of aspiration during swallowing. In bilateral paralysis, it is crucial to find a balance between effective breathing and sufficient voice quality. The treatment of unilateral paralysis is started with voice therapy and swallowing rehabilitation. If these procedures are not enough surgical treatment for the medialization of the paralyzed vocal fold is applied. In the case of breathing difficulties in bilateral vocal fold immobility there is a possibility of surgical lateralization of one or both folds or a surgical excision of a part or the entire vocal fold. Surgical reinnervation, functional electrostimulation of certain laryngeal muscles and gene therapy are developing treatment modalities.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of lymphoma of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzesiakowska, U.; Smorczewska, M.; Huczynska-Szubert, E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this paper is to discuss both the clinical and radiological signs and the diagnostic principles of lymphomatous infiltrations of the kidney. Materials and methods. The studied group consisted of 20 patients (9 women, 11 men) aged 18-79 years. The follows-up varied from 2 to 156 months. All patients underwent CT and ultrasound investigations, while only 1 patient had an MRI examination. In 7 cases surgical treatment was performed, while the remaining 13 patients received chemotherapy. One patient died, 12 are in remission and seven are under observation and considered cured. Results. The radiological signs of kidney lymphoma may be divided into groups: a) kidney enlargement, obliteration of the cortex-core differentiation and obliteration of the outline; b) heterogenous kidney structure with undefined hypodense fociand lack of enhancement after the administration of contrasting material; c) presence of a well-defined tumor within the renal pelvis and external infiltration of the kidney, d) infiltration of the kidney originating from the retroperitoneal space encompassing the organ from the outside. Conclusions. The radiological signs of lymphoma differ in the kidney and exhibit a characteristic set of features. Radiology results combined with clinical symptoms may suggest lymphoma in the kidney and thus advocate the necessity of pathological evaluation prior to surgical treatment. (authors)

  2. Diagnostic value of imaging in infective endocarditis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Anna; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Touw, Daan J; van Melle, Joost P; Willems, Tineke P; Maass, Alexander H; Natour, Ehsan; Prakken, Niek H J; Borra, Ronald J H; van Geel, Peter Paul; Slart, Riemer H J A; van Assen, Sander; Sinha, Bhanu

    2017-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity of the modified Duke criteria for native valve endocarditis are both suboptimal, at approximately 80%. Diagnostic accuracy for intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection is even lower. Non-invasive imaging modalities could potentially improve diagnosis of infective endocarditis; however, their diagnostic value is unclear. We did a systematic literature review to critically appraise the evidence for the diagnostic performance of these imaging modalities, according to PRISMA and GRADE criteria. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. 31 studies were included that presented original data on the performance of electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA), ECG-gated MRI, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET/CT, and leucocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of native valve endocarditis, intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection, and extracardiac foci in adults. We consistently found positive albeit weak evidence for the diagnostic benefit of 18 F-FDG PET/CT and MDCTA. We conclude that additional imaging techniques should be considered if infective endocarditis is suspected. We propose an evidence-based diagnostic work-up for infective endocarditis including these non-invasive techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduction of doses from diagnostic X-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudden, F.; Kuhn, H.

    1992-01-01

    More recent developments in the field of receiver systems for X-rays have made it possible for doses required in X-ray examinations to be gradually reduced to no more than 5% of the radiation patients were exposed to 30 years ago. Despite this fact, the image quality standards necessary to establish even considerably improved. The author suggests to repeat series of measurements carried out in the distant past to be able to make a population-based assessment of the current risk from the effective equivalence dose in one year. In all likelihood, such a survey would prove the quivalence dose to be much lower than the degree of environmental radiation exposure. (orig./DGD) [de

  4. Coherence imaging spectro-polarimetry for magnetic fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of developments in imaging spectro-polarimetry for magnetic fusion diagnostics. Using various multiplexing strategies, it is possible to construct optical polarization interferometers that deliver images of underlying physical parameters such as flow speed, temperature (Doppler effect) or magnetic pitch angle (motional Stark and Zeeman effects). This paper also describes and presents first results for a new spatial heterodyne interferometric system used for both Doppler and polarization spectroscopy.

  5. Diagnostic imaging of the nose and paranasal sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.A.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book offers extensively illustrated and comprehensive coverage of diagnostic imaging techniques of the nose and paranasal sinuses. The important feature of the work is the way it correlates histology with CT and MRI and includes magnetic resonance contrast studies using Gadolinium DTPA. Furthermore, it is the first text to treat the imaging of the various types of tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses on an individual basis

  6. Diagnostic imaging of pulmonary lymphangiosis carcinomatosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbock, B.; Hieckel, H.G.

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangiosis carcinomatosa (PLC) is of great importance for the prognostically-oriented therapy stratification of tumor patients. In this field, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the state of the art in imaging. Using HRCT, it is possible to identify pulmonary parenchymal structures in a detailed fashion to evaluate interstitial patterns. This step is preceded by an x-ray of the thorax that detects pathological findings and rules out other diseases. The typical characteristics of PLC are described with particular attention to HR-phenomenology, and discussed in comparison with the literature regarding anatomy and pathogenesis. Finally, conclusions are drawn for differential diagnosis and supported by characteristic cases. (orig.) [de

  7. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  8. Microwave imaging for plasma diagnostics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mase, A.; Kogi, Y.; Ito, N.

    2007-01-01

    Microwave to millimeter-wave diagnostic techniques such as interferometry, reflectometry, scattering, and radiometry have been powerful tools for diagnosing magnetically confined plasmas. Important plasma parameters were measured to clarify the physics issues such as stability, wave phenomena, and fluctuation-induced transport. Recent advances in microwave and millimeter-wave technology together with computer technology have enabled the development of advanced diagnostics for visualization of 2D and 3D structures of plasmas. Microwave/millimeter-wave imaging is expected to be one of the most promising diagnostic methods for this purpose. We report here on the representative microwave diagnostics and their industrial applications as well as application to magnetically-confined plasmas. (author)

  9. MRI-based diagnostic imaging of the intratemporal facial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, B.; Baehren, W.

    2001-01-01

    Detailed imaging of the five sections of the full intratemporal course of the facial nerve can be achieved by MRI and using thin tomographic section techniques and surface coils. Contrast media are required for tomographic imaging of pathological processes. Established methods are available for diagnostic evaluation of cerebellopontine angle tumors and chronic Bell's palsy, as well as hemifacial spasms. A method still under discussion is MRI for diagnostic evaluation of Bell's palsy in the presence of fractures of the petrous bone, when blood volumes in the petrous bone make evaluation even more difficult. MRI-based diagnostic evaluation of the idiopatic facial paralysis currently is subject to change. Its usual application cannot be recommended for routine evaluation at present. However, a quantitative analysis of contrast medium uptake of the nerve may be an approach to improve the prognostic value of MRI in acute phases of Bell's palsy. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Radiology and diagnostic images in the gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Alfonso; Acosta, Nelson; Alvarez R, Alfonso and others

    1992-01-01

    This article deals with the chapter about diagnostic imaging included in the document of the first practical seminar about gastric carcinoma which took place at Betania (Huila) in the first few days of April 1992. This seminar was organized by the Colombian society of gastroenterology in coordination with other organization

  11. Present practice of diagnostic imaging in the newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    The present practice of diagnostic imaging in our NICU (which includes premature unit) was studied, surveying the total 637 admitted newborn infants during the year of 1992. The total number of diagnostic imaging performed other than scout radiography was 939. The number of ultrasonography of the heart and the brain, and brain CT was 752 or 80.0% of the total. These were done more frequently in the cases of very low birth weight infants. In our NICU, ultrasonography including pulse-doppler method, is performed for diagnosis of structural and functional abnormality of the cardiopulmonary systems and also for finding intracranial lesion, on the basis of finding in plain chest films. In spite of various limitation, we are performing, as the necessity commands, fluoroscopic contrast study, angiography, scintigraphy and MRI for the low birth weight (≥1,500g) and mature infants. Some of the actual cases in which diagnostic imaging was helpful were presented. Recently, upon admittance to the NICU for the specific abnormality of the newborn and premature infants, orginally, asymptomatic diseases are often found and diagnosed. This should be the results of progress in diagnostic imaging in recent years. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist: Diagnostic performance statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobby, Jonathan L.; Tom, Brian D.M.; Bearcroft, Philip W.P.; Dixon, Adrian K.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To review the published diagnostic performance statistics for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist for tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, the intrinsic carpal ligaments, and for osteonecrosis of the carpal bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used Medline and Embase to search the English language literature. Studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of MRI of the wrist in living patients with surgical confirmation of MR findings were identified. RESULTS: We identified 11 studies reporting the diagnostic performance of MRI for tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex for a total of 410 patients, six studies for the scapho-lunate ligament (159 patients), six studies for the luno-triquetral ligament (142 patients) and four studies (56 patients) for osteonecrosis of the carpal bones. CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging is an accurate means of diagnosing tears of the triangular fibrocartilage and carpal osteonecrosis. Although MRI is highly specific for tears of the intrinsic carpal ligaments, its sensitivity is low. The diagnostic performance of MRI in the wrist is improved by using high-resolution T2* weighted 3D gradient echo sequences. Using current imaging techniques without intra-articular contrast medium, magnetic resonance imaging cannot reliably exclude tears of the intrinsic carpal ligaments. Hobby, J.L. (2001)

  13. Diagnostic imaging of shoulder rotator cuff lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira-Barbosa Marcello Henrique

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder rotator cuff tendon tears were evaluated with ultrasonography (US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Surgical or arthroscopical correlation were available in 25 cases. Overall costs were also considered. Shoulder impingement syndrome diagnosis was done on a clinical basis. Surgery or arthroscopy was considered when conservative treatment failure for 6 months, or when rotator cuff repair was indicated. Ultrasound was performed in 22 patients and MRI in 17 of the 25 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 80%, 100% and 90.9% for US and 90%, 100% and 94.12% for MRI, respectively. In 16 cases both US and MRI were obtained and in this subgroup statistical correlation was excellent (p< 0.001. We concluded that both methods are reliable for rotator cuff full thickness tear evaluation. Since US is less expensive, it could be considered as the screening method when rotator cuff integrity is the main question, and when well trained radiologists and high resolution equipment are available.

  14. Towards Verification of Operational Procedures Using Auto-Generated Diagnostic Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of complex space, lunar and planetary exploration systems require the development of general procedures that describe a detailed set of instructions capturing how mission tasks are performed. For both crewed and uncrewed NASA systems, mission safety and the accomplishment of the scientific mission objectives are highly dependent on the correctness of procedures. In this paper, we describe how to use the auto-generated diagnostic trees from existing diagnostic models to improve the verification of standard operating procedures. Specifically, we introduce a systematic method, namely the Diagnostic Tree for Verification (DTV), developed with the goal of leveraging the information contained within auto-generated diagnostic trees in order to check the correctness of procedures, to streamline the procedures in terms of reducing the number of steps or use of resources in them, and to propose alternative procedural steps adaptive to changing operational conditions. The application of the DTV method to a spacecraft electrical power system shows the feasibility of the approach and its range of capabilities

  15. Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, diagnostic imaging has grown from a state of infancy to a high level of maturity. Many new imaging modalities have been developed. However, modern medical imaging includes not only image production but also image processing, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), image recording and storage, and image transmission, most of which are included in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The content of this paper includes a short review of research and development in medical imaging science and technology, which covers (a) diagnostic imaging in the 1950s, (b) the importance of image quality and diagnostic performance, (c) MTF, Wiener spectrum, NEQ and DQE, (d) ROC analysis, (e) analogue imaging systems, (f) digital imaging systems, (g) image processing, (h) computer-aided diagnosis, (i) PACS, (j) 3D imaging and (k) future directions. Although some of the modalities are already very sophisticated, further improvements will be made in image quality for MRI, ultrasound and molecular imaging. The infrastructure of PACS is likely to be improved further in terms of its reliability, speed and capacity. However, CAD is currently still in its infancy, and is likely to be a subject of research for a long time. (review)

  16. Diagnostic x-ray procedures and risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Morin, M.M.; Glass, A.G.; Friedman, G.D.; Stovall, M.; Hoover, R.N.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to diagnostic x-rays and the risk of leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma were studied within two prepaid health plans. Adult patients with leukemia (n = 565), NHL (n = 318), and multiple myeloma (n = 208) were matched to controls (n = 1390), and over 25,000 x-ray procedures were abstracted from medical records. Dose response was evaluated by assigning each x-ray procedure a score based on estimated bone marrow dose. X-ray exposure was not associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignant conditions never linked to radiation (relative risk [RR], 0.66). For all other forms of leukemia combined (n = 358), there was a slight elevation in risk (RR, 1.17) but no evidence of a dose-response relationship when x-ray procedures near the time of diagnosis were excluded. Similarly, patients with NHL were exposed to diagnostic x-ray procedures more often than controls (RR, 1.32), but the RR fell to 0.99 when the exposure to diagnostic x-ray procedures within 2 years of diagnosis was ignored. For multiple myeloma, overall risk was not significantly high (RR, 1.14), but there was consistent evidence of increasing risk with increasing numbers of diagnostic x-ray procedures. These data suggest that persons with leukemia and NHL undergo x-ray procedures frequently just prior to diagnosis for conditions related to the development or natural history of their disease. There was little evidence that diagnostic x-ray procedures were causally associated with leukemia or NHL. The risk for multiple myeloma, however, was increased among those patients who were frequently exposed to x-rays

  17. Image data compression in diagnostic imaging. International literature review and workflow recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, R.; Kaden, Ingmar; Schwarzer, J.; Sprengel, C.; Klose, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Today healthcare policy is based on effectiveness. Diagnostic imaging became a ''pace-setter'' due to amazing technical developments (e.g. multislice CT), extensive data volumes, and especially the well defined workflow-orientated scenarios on a local and (inter)national level. To make centralized networks sufficient, image data compression has been regarded as the key to a simple and secure solution. In February 2008 specialized working groups of the DRG held a consensus conference. They designed recommended data compression techniques and ratios. Material und methoden: The purpose of our paper is an international review of the literature of compression technologies, different imaging procedures (e.g. DR, CT etc.), and targets (abdomen, etc.) and to combine recommendations for compression ratios and techniques with different workflows. The studies were assigned to 4 different levels (0-3) according to the evidence. 51 studies were assigned to the highest level 3. Results: We recommend a compression factor of 1: 8 (excluding cranial scans 1:5). For workflow reasons data compression should be based on the modalities (CT, etc.). PACS-based compression is currently possible but fails to maximize workflow benefits. Only the modality-based scenarios achieve all benefits. (orig.)

  18. Image data compression in diagnostic imaging. International literature review and workflow recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunschweig, R.; Kaden, Ingmar [Klinik fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionsradiologie, BG-Kliniken Bergmannstrost Halle (Germany); Schwarzer, J.; Sprengel, C. [Dept. of Management Information System and Operations Research, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle Wittenberg (Germany); Klose, K. [Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Philips-Univ. Marburg (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Today healthcare policy is based on effectiveness. Diagnostic imaging became a ''pace-setter'' due to amazing technical developments (e.g. multislice CT), extensive data volumes, and especially the well defined workflow-orientated scenarios on a local and (inter)national level. To make centralized networks sufficient, image data compression has been regarded as the key to a simple and secure solution. In February 2008 specialized working groups of the DRG held a consensus conference. They designed recommended data compression techniques and ratios. Material und methoden: The purpose of our paper is an international review of the literature of compression technologies, different imaging procedures (e.g. DR, CT etc.), and targets (abdomen, etc.) and to combine recommendations for compression ratios and techniques with different workflows. The studies were assigned to 4 different levels (0-3) according to the evidence. 51 studies were assigned to the highest level 3. Results: We recommend a compression factor of 1: 8 (excluding cranial scans 1:5). For workflow reasons data compression should be based on the modalities (CT, etc.). PACS-based compression is currently possible but fails to maximize workflow benefits. Only the modality-based scenarios achieve all benefits. (orig.)

  19. The improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    The 8. Pan-African Congress of Radiology and Imaging on the improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in Africa was hosted in Nairobi Kenya. The conference focusses on Review of Radiation Safety in Medical X-Ray Diagnosis, Medical Practitioners of Radiology & Imaging in the Dock. It also addresses issues Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Clinicians, Practicing at the Kenyatta National Hospital on Ionizing Radiation and Procurement in the Imaging Department. The Need for Understanding Technical Specifications,Students Experience in Radiography, Radioiodine Therapy for Graves’ Disease, Role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease in Rural health facilities were areas interest. Diabetes Mellitus and the Musculoskeletal System, Imaging the Traumatized Spine ‘Clearing the Cervical Spine’, The Radiation Safety Culture: Image Gently and Radiation Protection of the Young Patient: Kenya perspective were discussed during the conference

  20. Innovation in diagnostic imaging services: assessing the potential for value-based reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Bresnahan, Brian W; Higashi, Mitchell K; Hollingworth, William; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    Innovation in the field of diagnostic imaging is based primarily on the availability of new and improved equipment that opens the door for new clinical applications. Payments for these imaging procedures are subject to complex Medicare price control schemes, affecting incentives for appropriate use and innovation. Achieving a "dynamically efficient" health care system-one that elicits a socially optimal amount of innovation-requires that innovators be rewarded in relation to the value they add and can demonstrate with evidence. The authors examine how and whether value-based reimbursement for diagnostic imaging services might better reward innovation explicitly for expected improvements in health and economic outcomes. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  2. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  3. Diagnostic imaging in psychiatry; Bildgebende Verfahren in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoppe, G.; Hentschel, F.; Munz, D.L. (eds.)

    2000-07-01

    The textbook presents an exhaustive survey of diagnostic imaging methods available for clinical evaluation of the entire range of significant psychiatric symptoms via imaging of the anatomy and functions of the brain. The chapters discuss: The methods and their efficient use for given diagnostic objectives, image analysis, description and interpretation of findings with respect to the clinical symptoms. Morphology and functional correlation of findings. The book is intended to help psychiatrists and neurologists as well as doctors in the radiology and nuclear medicine departments. (orig./CB) [German] Die Entwicklung der modernen Bildgebung ermoeglicht faszinierende Einblicke in Anatomie und Funktionen des Gehirns und ihre Veraenderungen bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen. Die Methodik der Untersuchungsverfahren und die Befunde bei allen wichtigen psychiatrischen Krankheitsbildern sind in diesem Buch systematisch und umfassend beschrieben: - gezielter und effizienter Einsatz der Verfahren, - Bildanalyse und Befundbeschreibung, - Bewertung der Befunde und Beziehung zum klinischen Bild, - morphologische und funktionelle Korrelate der Befunde. Psychiater und Neurologen werden ebenso angesprochen wie Radiologen und Nuklearmediziner. (orig.)

  4. Image quality - physical and diagnostic parameters. The radiologist's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stender, H.St.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of a radiograph is determined by the diagnostic information it provides. This depends upon the visual detection of diagnostically relevant structures. The technical radiographic requirements are dependent upon the physical measurements and the physiological and optical conditions. Such physical factors as spatial resolution, contrast and noise are quantitative measurements, which must be oriented to the qualitative visual characteristics of the radiograph. The influence of subjective perception and complexity of structural noise on the detectability of details and structures particularly demands attention. Since radiographic quality depends upon the detection of diagnostically relevant structure and features, it is important to define these parameters on the basis of extensive radiographic analysis and the corresponding clinical findings. The diagnostically relevant radiographic parameters and image details and critical structures have been worked out for the examination of the lungs, colon, stomach, urinary tract and skeleton. Good image quality requires coordination of the physical-technical parameters with the visual ability of the observer, since only in this way can the diagnostic information be represented with sufficient clarity. (author)

  5. Imaging nuclear medicine techniques for diagnostic evaluation of arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, B.M.; Linss, G.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial hypertension may be caused by a malfunction of organs and in turn may lead to secondary organic lesions. Modern diagnostic nuclear medicine is applied for function studies in order to detect or exclude secondary hypertension and functional or perfusion disturbances due to hypertension, or to assess and follow up hemodynamic conditions and cardiac functions prior to and during therapy. The article presents a survey of imaging diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques for the eamination of the heart, the brain, the kidneys and endocrine glands in patients with arterial hypertension, discussing the methods with a view to obtainable information, limits of detection, and indications. (orig.) [de

  6. Static dosimetry space image in which urology diagnostics are performed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banduka, M.S.; Vasic, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The effects of the dispersed radiation described theoretically imply complex picture of interaction of the photon beam with the patient's body, as well as its dispersion on other structures. Basic theoretical laws of this phenomenon are highlighted, thus giving the opportunity to model the effect in total. Material and methods. The measurements of the absorbed dose in the air give isodose curves that show distribution of the radiation dose. For the urological procedures standard urological diagnostic methods were being used. Results. Through a large series of measuring, we got the distribution of the radiation dose in space, where urology diagnostics is being made using the X-ray. The parameters determining this picture are the most frequent ones in the total number of 20 random cases taken in General Hospital in Doboj, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Conclusions. Static dosimetric picture of the space (radiation zone) in the general sense is useful before all for organisation of the diagnostic procedures utilising ionised radiation. Obtained in any way, this picture enables an insight into the three-dimensional distribution of the dosage on the basis of which it is possible to correct the organisation of the diagnostics being performed under these conditions. The values of the radiation dosage show it is necessary to use the protecting means prescribed by law. For more frequent exposure, it would be useful to make a dynamic dosimetric picture for professional exposure and assessment of the radiation risk of these persons. (author)

  7. Electronic roentgenographic images in presurgical X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Hohmann, D.; Maass, W.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen

    1981-01-01

    An essential part of radiation exposure in surgery is due to devices and results from the required radiation time interval for continuous X-ray play-back up to the point at which all diagnostically relevant information can be retrieved from the screening image. With single-image storage and short exposure times as well as instant image play-back, this superfluous i.e. redundant radiation can be avoided. The electronic X-ray image is realized by means of a laboratory prototype and evaluated in hospitals. There is a report on clinical results and new technical developments. Remarkable are: the high radiation reduction that could be obtained, the problem - free instant image technique, and especially the advantages of automated exposure in direct film settings. The positive results yield the basis for the product development. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Value of noninvasive diagnostic procedures in cardiology: typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebeling, V.; Bubenheimer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Routine chest X-ray often yields poor information for diagnosis of heart disease. The diagnostic value of invasive procedures in cardiology is generally accepted. The patient's as well as the physician's risk of the examination, however, has to be considered. A high number of heart diseases, e.g. hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is mainly detected by noninvasive procedures such as auscultation, electrocardiography, phonomechanocardiography, echocardiography, physical manoeuvres, and pharmacological provocation tests. Typical findings in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  9. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Nikkhah, Guido; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP.Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naieve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source.Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  10. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert M, Malone; John R, Celesteb; Peter M, Celliers; Brent C, Froggeta; Robert L, Guyton; Morris I, Kaufman; Tony L, Lee; Brian J, MacGowan; Edmund W, Ng; Imants P, Reinbachs; Ronald B, Robinson; Lynn G, Seppala; Tom W, Tunnell; Phillip W, Watts

    2005-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1-5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber

  11. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L.S.R. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, C.C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amorim, A.S.; Balthar, M.C.V. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-03-21

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector’s materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  12. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

    2013-03-01

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  13. Diagnostic imaging of the hand. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Rainer; Lanz, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The book on diagnostic imaging of the hand covers the following issues: projection radiography, cinematography, MRT and CR arthrography, arthroscopy, arteriography, skeleton scintiscanning, sonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, anatomy of forearm and carpus, anatomy of metacarpus and fingers, carpal function and morphometry, postoperative X-ray diagnostic, growing hand skeleton, normative variants, malformations and deformities, trauma of the distal forearm, lesions of the ulnocarpal complex (TFCC), scaphoid fractures, scaphoid arthrosis, fractures of other carpus bones, carpal luxations and luxation fractures, carpal instabilities, fractures of the metacarpalla, finger fractures, arthrosis deformans, enthesiopathies, sport induced soft tissue lesions, osteonecrosis, impingement syndromes, osteopenic skeletal diseases, metabolis diseases, crystal-induced osteoarthropaties, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, rheumatic fever, collagenoses, infective arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infections, cystoids bone lesions, skeletal tumors, soft tissue tumors, carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve compression syndrome, arterial perfusion disturbances, differential diagnostic tables on hand lesions.

  14. Imaging mammary diagnostics. Diagnostic techniques, archetypical findings, differential diagnostcs and interventions. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywang-Koebrunner, S.; Schreer, I.

    2008-01-01

    The book includes the following chapters: I. Methodology: anamnesis and interview; clinical evidence, mammography, sonography, magnetic resonance tomography, new imaging techniques (scintigraphy, PET), transcutaneous biopsy, pre-operative marking; II. phenotypes: normal mammary glands, mastopathics, cysts, benign tumors, inflammatory diseases, in-situ carcinomas, invasive carcinomas, lymphomas, other semi-malign and malign tumors, post-traumatic, post-surgical and post-therapeutic changes, skin changes, male mamma, screening, continuative diagnostics of screening evidence and problem solving for symptomatic patients

  15. The role of imaging specialists as authors of systematic reviews on diagnostic and interventional imaging and its impact on scientific quality: report from the EuroAIM Evidence-based Radiology Working Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Bashir, Humayun; Berzaczy, Dominik; Cannella, Guglielmo; Espeland, Ansgar; Flor, Nicola; Helbich, Thomas; Hunink, Myriam; Malone, Dermot E.; Mann, Ritse; Muzzupappa, Claudia; Petersen, Lars J.; Riklund, Katrine; Sconfienza, Luca M.; Serafin, Zbigniew; Spronk, Sandra; Stoker, Jaap; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Vorwerk, Dierk; Leo, Giovanni Di

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the inclusion of radiologists or nuclear medicine physicians (imaging specialists) as authors of systematic reviews (SRs) on imaging and imaging-guided diagnostic procedures and to determine the impact of imaging specialists' presence as authors on the overall quality of the reviews. A

  16. The role of imaging specialists as authors of systematic reviews on diagnostic and interventional imaging and its impact on scientific quality: report from the EuroAIM Evidence-based Radiology Working Group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardanelli, F.; Bashir, H.; Berzaczy, D.; Cannella, G.; Espeland, A.; Flor, N.; Helbich, T.; Hunink, M.; Malone, D.E.; Mann, R.M.; Muzzupappa, C.; Petersen, L.J.; Riklund, K.; Sconfienza, L.M.; Serafin, Z.; Spronk, S.; Stoker, J.; Beek, E.J.R. van; Vorwerk, D.; Leo, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the inclusion of radiologists or nuclear medicine physicians (imaging specialists) as authors of systematic reviews (SRs) on imaging and imaging-guided diagnostic procedures and to determine the impact of imaging specialists' presence as authors on the overall quality of the

  17. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services... radiology services and other diagnostic procedures. (a) Basis and purpose. (1) This section implements section 1833(n) of the Act and establishes the method for determining Medicare payments for radiology...

  18. New perineal injection technique for pudendal nerve infiltration in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinschenk, Stefan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pudendal nerve injection is used as a diagnostic procedure in the vulvar region and for therapeutic purposes, such as in vulvodynia. Here, we provide a new, easy-to-perform perineal injection technique. We analyzed 105 perineal injections into the pudendal nerve with a local anesthetic (LA),

  19. Synthetic Microwave Imaging Reflectometry diagnostic using 3D FDTD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Scott; Jenkins, Thomas; Smithe, David; King, Jacob; Nimrod Team Team

    2017-10-01

    Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) has become a standard diagnostic for understanding tokamak edge perturbations, including the edge harmonic oscillations in QH mode operation. These long-wavelength perturbations are larger than the normal turbulent fluctuation levels and thus normal analysis of synthetic signals become more difficult. To investigate, we construct a synthetic MIR diagnostic for exploring density fluctuation amplitudes in the tokamak plasma edge by using the three-dimensional, full-wave FDTD code Vorpal. The source microwave beam for the diagnostic is generated and refelected at the cutoff surface that is distorted by 2D density fluctuations in the edge plasma. Synthetic imaging optics at the detector can be used to understand the fluctuation and background density profiles. We apply the diagnostic to understand the fluctuations in edge plasma density during QH-mode activity in the DIII-D tokamak, as modeled by the NIMROD code. This work was funded under DOE Grant Number DE-FC02-08ER54972.

  20. Radiation dose to the pediatric population of Slovak Republic from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnikova, S.; Fueriova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The increased number of in vitro diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations has created the need for more precise determination of radiation dose to the population, specially to the children. A questionnaire survey has been performed on all nuclear medicine facilities in Slovak Republic through 1982 to 1994 with a special attention to pediatric patients in 1994. The information obtained was about the age distribution, number of different types of examinations, radiopharmaceuticals used and the value of mean administered radioactivity per exam. These data were used to evaluate the mean effective dose per exam and per capita, the collective effective dose for special type of examinations, for different radiopharmaceuticals and for radionuclides used in diagnostic procedures. In calculations we used the best available biokinetic models of the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in organs as a function of age. The results show that the Slovak Republic appeared favorable in comparison to other countries in the judicious use of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures performed on pediatric population. (author)

  1. Automated synthesis of image processing procedures using AI planning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Mortensen, Helen

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Multimission VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) Planner (MVP) (Chien 1994) system, which uses artificial intelligence planning techniques (Iwasaki & Friedland, 1985, Pemberthy & Weld, 1992, Stefik, 1981) to automatically construct executable complex image processing procedures (using models of the smaller constituent image processing subprograms) in response to image processing requests made to the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). The MVP system allows the user to specify the image processing requirements in terms of the various types of correction required. Given this information, MVP derives unspecified required processing steps and determines appropriate image processing programs and parameters to achieve the specified image processing goals. This information is output as an executable image processing program which can then be executed to fill the processing request.

  2. A Versatile Image Processor For Digital Diagnostic Imaging And Its Application In Computed Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, H.; Alexandru, R.; Applegate, R.; Giordano, T.; Kamiya, K.; Kresina, R.

    1986-06-01

    In a digital diagnostic imaging department, the majority of operations for handling and processing of images can be grouped into a small set of basic operations, such as image data buffering and storage, image processing and analysis, image display, image data transmission and image data compression. These operations occur in almost all nodes of the diagnostic imaging communications network of the department. An image processor architecture was developed in which each of these functions has been mapped into hardware and software modules. The modular approach has advantages in terms of economics, service, expandability and upgradeability. The architectural design is based on the principles of hierarchical functionality, distributed and parallel processing and aims at real time response. Parallel processing and real time response is facilitated in part by a dual bus system: a VME control bus and a high speed image data bus, consisting of 8 independent parallel 16-bit busses, capable of handling combined up to 144 MBytes/sec. The presented image processor is versatile enough to meet the video rate processing needs of digital subtraction angiography, the large pixel matrix processing requirements of static projection radiography, or the broad range of manipulation and display needs of a multi-modality diagnostic work station. Several hardware modules are described in detail. For illustrating the capabilities of the image processor, processed 2000 x 2000 pixel computed radiographs are shown and estimated computation times for executing the processing opera-tions are presented.

  3. Cancer imaging phenomics toolkit: quantitative imaging analytics for precision diagnostics and predictive modeling of clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Pati, Sarthak; Bergman, Mark; Kalarot, Ratheesh; Sridharan, Patmaa; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Akbari, Hamed; Tunc, Birkan; Doshi, Jimit; Parker, Drew; Hsieh, Michael; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Li, Hongming; Ou, Yangming; Doot, Robert K; Bilello, Michel; Fan, Yong; Shinohara, Russell T; Yushkevich, Paul; Verma, Ragini; Kontos, Despina

    2018-01-01

    The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer. CaPTk leverages the value of quantitative imaging analytics along with machine learning to derive phenotypic imaging signatures, based on two-level functionality. First, image analysis algorithms are used to extract comprehensive panels of diverse and complementary features, such as multiparametric intensity histogram distributions, texture, shape, kinetics, connectomics, and spatial patterns. At the second level, these quantitative imaging signatures are fed into multivariate machine learning models to produce diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. Results from clinical studies in three areas are shown: (i) computational neuro-oncology of brain gliomas for precision diagnostics, prediction of outcome, and treatment planning; (ii) prediction of treatment response for breast and lung cancer, and (iii) risk assessment for breast cancer.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of new imaging techniques in breast diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordenne, W; Bauduin, E [Liege Univ. (Belgium)

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, the hypothetical carcinogenic effects of mammography have lead to new technical developments in X-ray diagnosis and to use of other imaging techniques such as ultrasonography (US), transillumination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many preliminary studies were published but few clinical trials are really convincing. According to the definition of a diagnostic tool, none of these new modalities is supposed to supplant mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Improvements are expected by digital mammography in the near future. (Authors).

  5. Diagnostic Imaging of Reproductive Tract Disorders in Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpenberger, Michaela

    2017-05-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the reproductive tract in reptiles is used for gender determination, evaluation of breeding status, detection of pathologic changes, and supervising treatment. Whole-body radiographs provide an overview and support detection of mineralized egg shells. Sonography is used to evaluate follicles, nonmineralized eggs, and the salpinx in all reptiles. Computed tomography is able to overcome imaging limitations in chelonian species. This article provides detailed information about the performance of different imaging techniques. Multiple images demonstrate the physiologic appearance of the male and female reproductive tract in various reptile species and pathologic changes. Advantages and disadvantages of radiography, sonography, and computed tomography are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic radiology of apoplexy - imaging of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieber, A.; Tomczak, R.; Brambs, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recent enhancements achieved in CT and MR imaging techniques have launched a debate about the techniques preferrably to be applied for diagnostic evaluation of acute cerebral stroke. At present, CT still is the modality of choice for primary evaluation of cerebral ischemia, due to relative cost-effectiveness, high availability, and the capability to reliably differentiate ischemia from hemorrhage. MRI on the other hand is superior to CT in detecting and imaging the infarction area within the first few hours, especially if the technique of diffusion-weighted sequencing is applied. Current research focuses on determining whether MRI with perfusion and diffusion-weighted sequencing will yield images distinctly showing the penumbra on the one hand, and the damaged brain tissue on the other. It remains to be seen whether improved tomographic imaging will lead to novel approaches for therapy. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Traumatic cervical root injury: Diagnostic value of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Ho Chul; Kim, Jea Seung; Cha, Sang Hoon

    1993-01-01

    Although superior soft tissue contrast and direct multiplanar imaging capability of MRI are well recognized, myelography has been the imaging modality of choice in evaluation cervical root injury. We assessed the role of MRI and compared its diagnostic accuracy with myelography in the evaluation of cervical root injury. MR imagings of cervical root injury in ten patients (55 roots) were retrospectively reviewed. In 26 explored roots (6 patients). MR findings were compared with myelography and surgical results. In 29 roots (8 patients), which were confirmed by myelography or exploration, the MR findings were focal extradural CSF collections (pseudomeningocele) in 21/29 (72.4%, 8 patients), thickening of extradural roots in 4/29 (13.6%, 5 patients), and thickening of dura in 12/29 (41.4%, 6 patients) roots. T2-weighted axial image was superior to T1-weighted and protein-density- weighted images for delineation root avulsion. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 72.7% and 93.3% respectively, while those of myelography were 83% and 90%. Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and myelography were comparable (84.6% vs 87.5%). In conclusion, myelography is still considered as the modality of choice in the preoperative evaluation of the cervical root avulsion because of its higher sensitivity. MRI, however, may obviate the myelography with some technical refinements

  8. 2D-3D image registration in diagnostic and interventional X-Ray imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, I.M.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Clinical procedures that are conventionally guided by 2D x-ray imaging, may benefit from the additional spatial information provided by 3D image data. For instance, guidance of minimally invasive procedures with CT or MRI data provides 3D spatial information and visualization of structures that are

  9. Parkinson's disease: diagnostic utility of volumetric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Meng-Hsiang [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chou, Kun-Hsien [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); Lee, Pei-Lin [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Hsiu-Ling [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Hsu, Ai-Ling [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Huang, Yung-Cheng [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-resolution T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to unbiasedly evaluate the predictive accuracy of imaging features. Pearson's correlation analysis was further performed to correlate outcome measurement using the best PD classifier with disease severity. Smaller volume in susceptible regions is diagnostic for Parkinson's disease. Compared with the other two classifiers, the basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier had the highest diagnostic reliability with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 75%, and accuracy of 74%. Furthermore, outcome measurement using this classifier was associated with disease severity. Brain structural volumetric analysis with multiple logistic regression modeling can be a complementary tool for diagnosing PD. (orig.)

  10. Development of an EMC3-EIRENE Synthetic Imaging Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William; Allen, Steve; Samuell, Cameron; Lore, Jeremy

    2017-10-01

    2D and 3D flow measurements are critical for validating numerical codes such as EMC3-EIRENE. Toroidal symmetry assumptions preclude tomographic reconstruction of 3D flows from single camera views. In addition, the resolution of the grids utilized in numerical code models can easily surpass the resolution of physical camera diagnostic geometries. For these reasons we have developed a Synthetic Imaging Diagnostic capability for forward projection comparisons of EMC3-EIRENE model solutions with the line integrated images from the Doppler Coherence Imaging diagnostic on DIII-D. The forward projection matrix is 2.8 Mpixel by 6.4 Mcells for the non-axisymmetric case we present. For flow comparisons, both simple line integral, and field aligned component matrices must be calculated. The calculation of these matrices is a massive embarrassingly parallel problem and performed with a custom dispatcher that allows processing platforms to join mid-problem as they become available, or drop out if resources are needed for higher priority tasks. The matrices are handled using standard sparse matrix techniques. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. LLNL-ABS-734800.

  11. Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

  12. MRI-guided stereotactic neurosurgical procedures in a diagnostic MRI suite: Background and safe practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul S; Willie, Jon T; Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Azmi-Ghadimi, Hooman; Nichols, Amy; Fauerbach, Loretta Litz; Johnson, Helen Boehm; Graham, Denise

    2017-07-01

    The development of navigation technology facilitating MRI-guided stereotactic neurosurgery has enabled neurosurgeons to perform a variety of procedures ranging from deep brain stimulation to laser ablation entirely within an intraoperative or diagnostic MRI suite while having real-time visualization of brain anatomy. Prior to this technology, some of these procedures required multisite workflow patterns that presented significant risk to the patient during transport. For those facilities with access to this technology, safe practice guidelines exist only for procedures performed within an intraoperative MRI. There are currently no safe practice guidelines or parameters available for facilities looking to integrate this technology into practice in conventional MRI suites. Performing neurosurgical procedures in a diagnostic MRI suite does require precautionary measures. The relative novelty of technology and workflows for direct MRI-guided procedures requires consideration of safe practice recommendations, including those pertaining to infection control and magnet safety issues. This article proposes a framework of safe practice recommendations designed for assessing readiness and optimization of MRI-guided neurosurgical interventions in the diagnostic MRI suite in an effort to mitigate patient risk. The framework is based on existing clinical evidence, recommendations, and guidelines related to infection control and prevention, health care-associated infections, and magnet safety, as well as the clinical and practical experience of neurosurgeons utilizing this technology. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  13. Diagnostic ability of the periapical radiographs and digital image in the detection of the artificial proximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the digital image was introduced into radiological image. The digital image has the power of contrast enhancement, histogram control, and other digitally enhancement. At the point of the resolution, periapical radiograph is superior to the digital image, but enhanced digital procedure improves the diagnostic ability of the digital image. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries in conventional radiographs, digital radiographs and enhanced digital radiographs (histogram specification). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and paired t-test were used for the evaluation of detectability, and following results were acquired: 1. The mean ROC area of conventional radiographs was 0.9274. 2. The mean ROC area of unenhanced digital image was 0.9168. 3. The mean ROC area of enhanced digital image was 0.9339. 4. The diagnostic ability of three imaging methods was not significant difference (p>0.05). So, the digital images had similar diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries to conventional radiographs. If properly enhanced digital image, it may be superior to conventional radiographs.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy- emerging trends in medical diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Sudha

    1997-01-01

    A dramatic acceleration in the application of magnetic resonance techniques in the field of medical sciences has been witnessed over the past decade. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been called the most significant development since the discovery of x-rays. As a method of visualizing cross-sectional anatomy, MRI is without peer. MRI images can now provide in-vivo anatomical details that were earlier available only with invasive procedures. Yet, despite its extraordinary potential, MRI has had limited success, if any, in tissue characterization using the three image parameters T 1 , T 2 and proton density ρ. MR spectroscopy has however bridged this gap to a large extent and opened up the possibility of studying in vivo chemistry. In the present article an attempt has been made to give a brief account of the application of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in medical diagnostics and therapy. The basic principles pertaining to MRI and MRS are also discussed in brief. (author)

  15. Strategic planning for radiology: opening an outpatient diagnostic imaging center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leepson, Evan

    2003-01-01

    Launching a new diagnostic imaging center involves very specific requirements and roadmaps, including five major areas of change that have a direct impact on planning: Imaging and communication technology Finances and reimbursement Ownership structure of imaging entities Critical workforce shortages Imaging is moving outside radiology First, planning must focus on the strategic level of any organization, whether it is a multi-national corporation or a six-person radiology group. Think of all organizations as a triangle with three horizontal levels: strategic, managerial and operational. The strategic level of decision-making is at the top of the triangle, and here is where planning must take place. For strategic planning to work, there must be focused time and energy spent on this activity, usually away from the reading room and imaging center. There are five planning strategies, which must have the explicit goal of developing and growing the imaging center. The five strategies are: Clinical and quality issues, Governance and administration, Technology, Relationships, Marketing and business development. The best way to plan and implement these strategies is to create work groups of radiologists, technologists, and administrative and support staff. Once the group agrees on the strategy and tactic, it takes responsibility for implementation. Embarking on the launch of a new outpatient diagnostic imaging center is no small undertaking, and anyone who has struggled with such an endeavor can readily attest to the associated challenges and benefits. Success depends on many things, and one of the most important factors relates to the amount of time and the quality of effort spent on strategic planning at the outset. Neglecting or skimping on this phase may lead to unforeseen obstacles that could potentially derail the project.

  16. Quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - assessing the fluoroscopic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakov, S.

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray fluoroscopic image has a considerably lower resolution than the radiographic one. This requires a careful quality control aiming at optimal use of the fluoroscopic equipment. The basic procedures for image quality assessment of Image Intensifier/TV image are described. Test objects from Leeds University (UK) are used as prototypes. The results from examining 50 various fluoroscopic devices are shown. Their limiting spatial resolution varies between 0.8 lp/mm (at maximum II field size) and 2.24 lp/mm (at minimum field size). The mean value of the limiting spatial resolution for a 23 cm Image Intensifier is about 1.24 lp/mm. The mean limits of variation of the contrast/detail diagram for various fluoroscopic equipment are graphically expressed. 14 refs., 1 fig. (author)

  17. Diagnostic x-ray equipment compliance and facility survey. Recommended procedures for equipment and facility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Bureau has set out guidelines for the testing of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. This guide provides information for the x-ray inspector, test engineer, technologist, medical physicist and any other person responsible for verifying the regulatory compliance or safety of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. Diagnostic x-radiation is an essential part of present day medical practice. The largest contributor of irradiation to the general population comes from diagnostic x-radiation. Although individual irradiations are usually small, there is a concern of possible excess cancer risk when large populations are irradiated. Unnecessary irradiations to patients from radiological procedures can be significantly reduced with little or no decrease in the value of medical diagnostic information. This can be achieved by using well designed x-ray equipment which is installed, used and maintained by trained personnel, and by the adoption of standardized procedures. In general, when patient surface dose is reduced, there is a corresponding decrease in dose to x-ray equipment operators and other health care personnel. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Diagnostic x-ray equipment compliance and facility survey. Recommended procedures for equipment and facility testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Radiation Protection Bureau has set out guidelines for the testing of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. This guide provides information for the x-ray inspector, test engineer, technologist, medical physicist and any other person responsible for verifying the regulatory compliance or safety of diagnostic x-ray equipment and facilities. Diagnostic x-radiation is an essential part of present day medical practice. The largest contributor of irradiation to the general population comes from diagnostic x-radiation. Although individual irradiations are usually small, there is a concern of possible excess cancer risk when large populations are irradiated. Unnecessary irradiations to patients from radiological procedures can be significantly reduced with little or no decrease in the value of medical diagnostic information. This can be achieved by using well designed x-ray equipment which is installed, used and maintained by trained personnel, and by the adoption of standardized procedures. In general, when patient surface dose is reduced, there is a corresponding decrease in dose to x-ray equipment operators and other health care personnel. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Structured diagnostic imaging in patients with multiple trauma; Strukturierte radiologische Diagnostik beim Polytrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Rieger, J.; Rock, C.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Innenstadt (Germany); Kanz, K.G. [Chirurgische Klinik, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Innenstadt (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Purpose. Development of a concept for structured diagnostic imaging in patients with multiple trauma.Material and methods. Evaluation of data from a prospective trial with over 2400 documented patients with multiple trauma. All diagnostic and therapeutic steps, primary and secondary death and the 90 days lethality were documented.Structured diagnostic imaging of multiple injured patients requires the integration of an experienced radiologist in an interdisciplinary trauma team consisting of anesthesia, radiology and trauma surgery. Radiology itself deserves standardized concepts for equipment, personnel and logistics to perform diagnostic imaging for a 24-h-coverage with constant quality.Results. This paper describes criteria for initiation of a shock room or emergency room treatment, strategies for documentation and interdisciplinary algorithms for the early clinical care coordinating diagnostic imaging and therapeutic procedures following standardized guidelines. Diagnostic imaging consists of basic diagnosis, radiological ABC-rule, radiological follow-up and structured organ diagnosis using CT. Radiological trauma scoring allows improved quality control of diagnosis and therapy of multiple injured patients.Conclusion. Structured diagnostic imaging of multiple injured patients leads to a standardization of diagnosis and therapy and ensures constant process quality. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung. Entwicklung eines strukturierten Konzeptes zur radiologischen Diagnostik polytraumatisierter Patienten.Methodik. Die Datenevaluation erfolgte auf Basis einer prospektiven interdisziplinaere Polytraumastudie mit ueber 2400 Patienten. Alle diagnostischen und therapeutischen Schritte werden jeweils unter Angabe von Zeitpunkt und auftretenden Komplikationen erfasst, ein primaeres oder sekundaeres Versterben und die 90-Tage-Letalitaet werden dokumentiert.Die strukturierte radiologische Diagnostik von Mehrfachverletzen verlangt die Integration eines erfahrenen Radiologen in

  20. The clinician's guide to diagnostic imaging: Cost effective pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Z.D.; Chew, F.S.; Ellis, D.A.; Brigham, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents logical, step-by-step imaging sequences for 47 medical, surgical, and pediatric problems. Topics considered include breast cancer screening, acute spinal trauma, search for primary cancer of unknown origin, acute anuria, blunt chest trauma, new onset seizures, and spinal cord compression from metastases. Other chapters have been rewritten to enhance the clarity of presentation and to incorporate new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, dipyridamole stress testing, and single photon emission computed tomography. The book highlights the expanding role of CT in evaluation of thoracic and abdominal problems, the emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a vital diagnostic tool for the central nervous system, and the clinical utility of many newly developed radiopharmaceuticals

  1. Updating Allergy and/or Hypersensitivity Diagnostic Procedures in the WHO ICD-11 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises A; Li, James; Casale, Thomas; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The classification of allergy and/or hypersensitivity conditions for the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 provides the appropriate corresponding codes for allergic diseases, assuming that the final diagnosis is correct. This classification should be linked to in vitro and in vivo diagnostic procedures. Considering the impact for our specialty, we decided to review the codification of these procedures into the ICD aiming to have a baseline and to suggest changes and/or submit new proposals. For that, we prepared a list of the relevant allergy and/or hypersensitivity diagnostic procedures that health care professionals are dealing with on a daily basis. This was based on the main current guidelines and selected all possible and relevant corresponding terms from the ICD-10 (2015 version) and the ICD-11 β phase foundation (June 2015 version). More than 90% of very specific and important diagnostic procedures currently used by the allergists' community on a daily basis are missing. We observed that some concepts usually used by the allergist community on a daily basis are not fully recognized by other specialties. The whole scheme and the correspondence in the ICD-10 (2015 version) and ICD-11 foundation (June 2015 version) provided us a big picture of the missing or imprecise terms and how they are scattered in the current ICD-11 framework, allowing us to submit new proposals to increase the visibility of the allergy and/or hypersensitivity conditions and diagnostic procedures. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  2. Automatic volumetry on MR brain images can support diagnostic decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Richard I

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic decisions in clinical imaging currently rely almost exclusively on visual image interpretation. This can lead to uncertainty, for example in dementia disease, where some of the changes resemble those of normal ageing. We hypothesized that extracting volumetric data from patients' MR brain images, relating them to reference data and presenting the results as a colour overlay on the grey scale data would aid diagnostic readers in classifying dementia disease versus normal ageing. Methods A proof-of-concept forced-choice reader study was designed using MR brain images from 36 subjects. Images were segmented into 43 regions using an automatic atlas registration-based label propagation procedure. Seven subjects had clinically probable AD, the remaining 29 of a similar age range were used as controls. Seven of the control subject data sets were selected at random to be presented along with the seven AD datasets to two readers, who were blinded to all clinical and demographic information except age and gender. Readers were asked to review the grey scale MR images and to record their choice of diagnosis (AD or non-AD along with their confidence in this decision. Afterwards, readers were given the option to switch on a false-colour overlay representing the relative size of the segmented structures. Colorization was based on the size rank of the test subject when compared with a reference group consisting of the 22 control subjects who were not used as review subjects. The readers were then asked to record whether and how the additional information had an impact on their diagnostic confidence. Results The size rank colour overlays were useful in 18 of 28 diagnoses, as determined by their impact on readers' diagnostic confidence. A not useful result was found in 6 of 28 cases. The impact of the additional information on diagnostic confidence was significant (p Conclusion Volumetric anatomical information extracted from brain

  3. Visualization, imaging and new preclinical diagnostics in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyran, Clemens C; Reiser, Maximilian F; Belka, Claus; Niyazi, Maximilian; Paprottka, Philipp M; Eisenblätter, Michel; Clevert, Dirk A; Rist, Carsten; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Lauber, Kirsten; Wenz, Frederik; Hausmann, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Innovative strategies in cancer radiotherapy are stimulated by the growing knowledge on cellular and molecular tumor biology, tumor pathophysiology, and tumor microenvironment. In terms of tumor diagnostics and therapy monitoring, the reliable delineation of tumor boundaries and the assessment of tumor heterogeneity are increasingly complemented by the non-invasive characterization of functional and molecular processes, moving preclinical and clinical imaging from solely assessing tumor morphology towards the visualization of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Functional and molecular imaging techniques allow for the non-invasive characterization of tissues in vivo, using different modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and optical imaging (OI). With novel therapeutic concepts combining optimized radiotherapy with molecularly targeted agents focusing on tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell death, the non-invasive assessment of tumor microcirculation and tissue water diffusion, together with strategies for imaging the mechanisms of cellular injury and repair is of particular interest. Characterizing the tumor microenvironment prior to and in response to irradiation will help to optimize the outcome of radiotherapy. These novel concepts of personalized multi-modal cancer therapy require careful pre-treatment stratification as well as a timely and efficient therapy monitoring to maximize patient benefit on an individual basis. Functional and molecular imaging techniques are key in this regard to open novel opportunities for exploring and understanding the underlying mechanisms with the perspective to optimize therapeutic concepts and translate them into a personalized form of radiotherapy in the near future

  4. MR imaging for diagnostic evaluation of encephalopathy in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Manohar M; Soares-Fernandes, João P; Whyte, Hilary; Raybaud, Charles

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is used with increasing frequency to evaluate the neonatal brain because it can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information that is needed for optimal treatment and appropriate counseling. Special care must be taken in preparing encephalopathic neonates for an MR study, transporting them from the intensive care unit, monitoring their vital signs, and optimizing MR sequences and protocols. Moreover, to accurately interpret the findings, specific knowledge is needed about the normal MR imaging appearances of the physiologic processes of myelination, cell migration, and sulcation, as well as patterns of injury, in the neonatal brain at various stages of gestational development. Hypoxic-ischemic injury, the most common cause of neonatal encephalopathy, has characteristic appearances that depend on the severity and duration of the insult as well as the stage of brain development. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MR spectroscopy depict abnormalities earlier than do conventional MR imaging sequences. However, diffusion-weighted imaging, if performed in the first 24 hours after the insult, might lead to underestimation of the extent of injury. When the MR findings are atypical, the differential diagnosis of neonatal encephalopathy also should include congenital and metabolic disorders and infectious diseases. Despite recent advances in the MR imaging-based characterization of these conditions, the clinical history must be borne in mind to achieve an accurate diagnosis.

  5. Computer-aided assessment of diagnostic images for epidemiological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gange Stephen J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic images are often assessed for clinical outcomes using subjective methods, which are limited by the skill of the reviewer. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD algorithms that assist reviewers in their decisions concerning outcomes have been developed to increase sensitivity and specificity in the clinical setting. However, these systems have not been well utilized in research settings to improve the measurement of clinical endpoints. Reductions in bias through their use could have important implications for etiologic research. Methods Using the example of cortical cataract detection, we developed an algorithm for assisting a reviewer in evaluating digital images for the presence and severity of lesions. Available image processing and statistical methods that were easily implementable were used as the basis for the CAD algorithm. The performance of the system was compared to the subjective assessment of five reviewers using 60 simulated images. Cortical cataract severity scores from 0 to 16 were assigned to the images by the reviewers and the CAD system, with each image assessed twice to obtain a measure of variability. Image characteristics that affected reviewer bias were also assessed by systematically varying the appearance of the simulated images. Results The algorithm yielded severity scores with smaller bias on images where cataract severity was mild to moderate (approximately ≤ 6/16ths. On high severity images, the bias of the CAD system exceeded that of the reviewers. The variability of the CAD system was zero on repeated images but ranged from 0.48 to 1.22 for the reviewers. The direction and magnitude of the bias exhibited by the reviewers was a function of the number of cataract opacities, the shape and the contrast of the lesions in the simulated images. Conclusion CAD systems are feasible to implement with available software and can be valuable when medical images contain exposure or outcome information for

  6. Quality guarantee of images as a way for obtained lower levels of radiation doses in diagnostic x-ray rooms: criteria for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work constitutes a criticism to the present system for licensing in diagnostic x-ray installations in Guatemala. A series of recommendations are made with the aim of obtaining the best diagnostic imaging. This procedure leads to obtain lower doses of radiation for patients and workers

  7. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Marek L; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Aberer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment) of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin...... attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO), representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk...... associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access...

  8. Diagnostic imaging in oncology: New challenges and changing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellino, Ronald A.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine studies, both imaging and therapeutic, play important roles in screening, staging, monitoring of treatment, and in long term surveillance of oncologic patients. Frequently, information from these studies, as well as from ancillary data (such as the clinical examination and laboratory studies) overlap, and it is sometimes unclear which tests and examinations to perform. Current changes in the delivery and funding of health care are prompting all specialties to evaluate their patterns of care. Some of the important questions to be addressed in medical imaging include: Which studies are pertinent at initial staging, e.g., those that impact patient management, serve as important baselines for comparison with subsequent studies, etc? How sensitive and specific are these studies, e.g., when can they obviate the need for more invasive confirmatory exams? What are the critical questions in monitoring response to therapy, e.g., the significance of the 'post treatment residual mass' and ways to elucidate its etiology? Which tests should be performed in surveillance for disease relapse, and how frequently should they be done? Purpose/Objective: To develop a set of guidelines for developing rational approaches for utilizing diagnostic imaging studies

  9. Diagnostic imaging in oncology: New challenges and changing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellino, Ronald; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To develop a set of guidelines for developing rational approaches for utilizing diagnostic imaging studies. Diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine studies, both imaging and therapeutic, play important roles in screening, staging, monitoring of treatment, and in long term surveillance of oncologic patients. Frequently, information from these studies, as well as from ancillary data (such as the clinical examination and laboratory studies) overlap, and it is sometimes unclear which tests and examinations to perform. Current changes in the delivery and funding of health care are prompting all specialties to evaluate their patterns of care. Some of the important questions to be addressed in medical imaging include: Which studies are pertinent at initial staging, e.g., those that impact patient management, serve as important baselines for comparison with subsequent studies, etc? How sensitive and specific are these studies, e.g., when can they obviate the need for more invasive confirmatory exams? What are the critical questions in monitoring response to therapy, e.g., the significance of the 'post treatment residual mass' and ways to elucidate its etiology? Which tests should be performed in surveillance for disease relapse, and how frequently should they be done?

  10. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.

    2005-01-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  11. Education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures ICRP 113 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Alshoufi, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) is the primary body in protection against ionizing radiation. Among its latest publication is ICRP publication 113 e ducation and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures . This document introduces diagnostic and interventional medical procedures using ionizing radiations in deep details. The document is approved by the commission in October 2010 and translated into Arabic at December 2011. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translation include WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective, issued by world health organization 2009 and Radiation Protection in Medicine, ICRP Publication 105 2007 that translated into Arabic with support of Arab atomic energy authority at 2011.

  12. Analysis of risk in computerized tomography and other diagnostic radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    Medical practice entails continuous risks to the patient taken in good faith by the physician for the benefit of the patient. Risk of radiation induced cancer death approximates 10(-4) per cGy (rad). Assuming an average whole body dose of 0.1 cGy for many diagnostic X-ray procedures, the probability of radiation-induced cancer death is about 10(-5). The purpose of this paper is to compare the risks of common diagnostic X-ray procedures including computerized tomography (CT) with risks of smoking or automobile travel. Such comparisons should be constructive in putting radiation in perspective and facilitating explanation of risk/benefit to patients

  13. A monthly quality assurance procedure for 3D surface imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, H Omar; Klein, Eric E; Gokhroo, Garima; Santanam, Lakshmi

    2010-12-21

    A procedure for periodic quality assurance of a video surface imaging system is introduced. AlignRT is a video camera-based patient localization system that captures and compares images of a patient's topography to a DICOM-formatted external contour, then calculates shifts required to accurately reposition the patient. This technical note describes the tools and methods implemented in our department to verify correct and accurate operation of the AlignRT hardware and software components. The procedure described is performed monthly and complements a daily calibration of the system.

  14. Dose classification scheme for digital imaging techniques in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojreh, A.

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: image quality in diagnostic radiology is determined in crucial extent by the signal-noise-ratio, which is proportional to the applied x-ray dose. Onward technological developments in the diagnostic radiology are therefore frequently connected with a dose increase, which subjectively is hardly or even not perceptible. The aim of this work was to define reproducible standards for image quality as a function of dose and expected therapeutical consequence in case of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and the upper and lower jaw (dental CT), whereby practical-clinical purposes are considered. Materials and methods: the image quality of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and dental CT was determined by standard deviation of the CT-numbers (pixel noise) in a region of interest of the phantom of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM phantom) and additionally in the patients CT images. The diagnostic quality of the examination was classified on the basis of patients CT images in three dose levels (low dose, standard dose and high dose). Results: the pixel noise of CT of the paranasal sinuses with soft tissue reconstruction amounts to 19.3 Hounsfield units (HU) for low dose, 8.8 HU for standard dose, and below 8 HU for high dose. The pixel noise of the dental CT with bone (high resolution) reconstruction amounts to 344 HU for low dose, 221 HU for standard dose, and below 200 HU for high dose. Suitable indications for low dose CT are the scanning of body regions with high contrast differences, like the bony delimitations of air-filled spaces of the facial bones, and radiological follow-up examinations with dedicated questions such as axis determination in dental implantology, as well as the images of objects with small diameter such as in case of children. The standard dose CT can be recommended for all cases, in which precise staging of the illness plays an indispensable role for the diagnosis and therapy planning. With high dose

  15. Optimum image compression rate maintaining diagnostic image quality of digital intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ju Seop; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2000-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to determine the optimum compression rate in terms of file size reduction and diagnostic quality of the images after compression and evaluate the transmission speed of original or each compressed images. The material consisted of 24 extracted human premolars and molars. The occlusal surfaces and proximal surfaces of the teeth had a clinical disease spectrum that ranged from sound to varying degrees of fissure discoloration and cavitation. The images from Digora system were exported in TIFF and the images from conventional intraoral film were scanned and digitalized in TIFF by Nikon SF-200 scanner(Nikon, Japan). And six compression factors were chosen and applied on the basis of the results from a pilot study. The total number of images to be assessed were 336. Three radiologists assessed the occlusal and proximal surfaces of the teeth with 5-rank scale. Finally diagnosed as either sound or carious lesion by one expert oral pathologist. And sensitivity and specificity and kappa value for diagnostic agreement was calculated. Also the area (Az) values under the ROC curve were calculated and paired t-test and oneway ANOVA test was performed. Thereafter, transmission time of the image files of the each compression level were compared with that of the original image files. No significant difference was found between original and the corresponding images up to 7% (1:14) compression ratio for both the occlusal and proximal caries (p<0.05). JPEG3 (1:14) image files are transmitted fast more than 10 times, maintained diagnostic information in image, compared with original image files. 1:14 compressed image file may be used instead of the original image and reduce storage needs and transmission time.

  16. Prenatal radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has the right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data have shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% (ICRP84, 2000) up to 0.14% per 10 mSv (BEIR-V 1990). In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy (ICRP84, 2000), and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; 1. The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. 2. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period

  17. Integral image rendering procedure for aberration correction and size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Holger; Ihrig, Andreas; Ebenau, Melanie; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2014-05-20

    The challenge in rendering integral images is to use as much information preserved by the light field as possible to reconstruct a captured scene in a three-dimensional way. We propose a rendering algorithm based on the projection of rays through a detailed simulation of the optical path, considering all the physical properties and locations of the optical elements. The rendered images contain information about the correct size of imaged objects without the need to calibrate the imaging device. Additionally, aberrations of the optical system may be corrected, depending on the setup of the integral imaging device. We show simulation data that illustrates the aberration correction ability and experimental data from our plenoptic camera, which illustrates the capability of our proposed algorithm to measure size and distance. We believe this rendering procedure will be useful in the future for three-dimensional ophthalmic imaging of the human retina.

  18. Commentary: progress in optimization of patient dose and image quality in x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.; Chan, H.-P.

    1999-01-01

    X-ray diagnostics gives the largest contribution to the population dose from man-made radiation sources. Strategies for reduction of patient doses without loss of diagnostic accuracy are therefore of great interest to society and have been focussed in general terms by the ICRP (ICRP 1996) through the introduction of the concept of diagnostic reference levels. The European Union has stimulated research in the field, and, based on patient dose measurements and radiologists' appreciation of acceptable image quality, good radiographic techniques have been identified and recommended (EUR 1996a, b) for conventional screen-film imaging. These efforts have resulted in notable dose reductions in clinical practices (Hart et al 1996). In spite of 100 years of use of x-rays for diagnostics, the choice of technique parameters still relies to a great extent on experience. Scientific efforts to optimize the choice in terms of finding the parameter settings which yield sufficient image quality at the lowest possible cost in dose are still rare. True optimization requires (1) estimation of the image quality needed to make a correct diagnosis and (2) methods to investigate all possible means of achieving this image quality in order to be able to decide which of them gives the lowest dose. The paper by Tapiovaara, Sandborg and Dance published in this issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (pages 537-559) addresses the optimization of paediatric fluoroscopy, a timely and important topic. Fluoroscopy procedures, used to guide x-ray examinations or interventional procedures, are little standardized and may result in high dose levels; radiation exposure in childhood is likely to result in a higher lifetime risk than the same exposure later in life. The authors represent an interesting mix of expertise within various scientific fields: the theory of medical imaging and assessment of image quality, the physics of diagnostic radiology and radiation dosimetry. They provide good insights

  19. Lateral Augmentation Procedures in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Anatomic, Biomechanical, Imaging, and Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexander E; Zuke, William; Mayer, Erik N; Forsythe, Brian; Getgood, Alan; Verma, Nikhil N; Bach, Bernard R; Bedi, Asheesh; Cole, Brian J

    2018-02-01

    There has been an increasing interest in lateral-based soft tissue reconstructive techniques as augments to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The objective of these procedures is to minimize anterolateral rotational instability of the knee after surgery. Despite the relatively rapid increase in surgical application of these techniques, many clinical questions remain. To provide a comprehensive update on the current state of these lateral-based augmentation procedures by reviewing the origins of the surgical techniques, the biomechanical data to support their use, and the clinical results to date. Systematic review. A systematic search of the literature was conducted via the Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, and CINAHL databases. The search was designed to encompass the literature on lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) procedures and the anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction. Titles and abstracts were reviewed for relevance and sorted into the following categories: anatomy, biomechanics, imaging/diagnostics, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes. The search identified 4016 articles. After review for relevance, 31, 53, 27, 35, 45, and 78 articles described the anatomy, biomechanics, imaging/diagnostics, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes of either LET procedures or the ALL reconstruction, respectively. A multitude of investigations were available, revealing controversy in addition to consensus in several categories. The level of evidence obtained from this search was not adequate for systematic review or meta-analysis; thus, a current concepts review of the anatomy, biomechanics, imaging, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes was performed. Histologically, the ALL appears to be a distinct structure that can be identified with advanced imaging techniques. Biomechanical evidence suggests that the anterolateral structures of the knee, including the ALL, contribute to minimizing anterolateral rotational instability

  20. Pain related to cancer treatments and diagnostic procedures: a no man's land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, C I; Bossi, P; Santini, D; Fallon, M

    2014-06-01

    While guidelines are available for the management of cancer-related pain, little attention is given to the assessment and treatment of pain caused by treatments and diagnostic procedures in cancer patients. We evaluated the literature on pain related to cancer treatment and diagnostic procedures within a critical analysis. The data available are sparse, suggesting that little attention has been directed at this important aspect of oncology. This points to potentially suboptimal patient management. Appropriate studies are necessary in order to understand the incidence and appropriate management of pain, both during and/or after oncological treatments and diagnostic procedures. At the same time, Health Care Professionals should have heightened awareness of the causes and treatment of pain with the aim of anticipating and managing pain most appropriately for each individual patient. This is clearly an important component of holistic patient care before, during, and after oncological treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of lung cancer with In-111-MDEGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Susumu; Hayashi, Hideo; Maeda, Tomio

    1987-01-01

    Indium-111-mono DTPA-ethyleneglycol Ga deuterporphyrin (In-111-MDEGD) is a new tumor imaging agent in lung cancer. The agent has been studied with golden hamsters bearing adenocarcinoma, C57 black mice bearing Lewis lung adenocarcinoma, and nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma xerografts. It has been revealed that the tumor-to-lung, tumor-to-kidney, and tumor-to-blood ratios are higher for In-111-MDEGD than for Ga-67 citrate widely used in imaging tumors, and that the agent is not accumulated in inflammatory lesions. The results were encouraging enough to start clinical diagnostic trials in lung cancer. In this paper, an overview of In-111-MDEGD, along with its preliminary data, is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  3. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology: World Allergy Organization Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Kowalski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin testing, deliberate induction in the office of allergic symptoms to offending compounds (provocation tests or intentional application of potentially dangerous substances (allergy vaccine to sensitized patients. These situations may be associated with a significant risk of unwanted, excessive or even dangerous reactions, which in many instances cannot be completely avoided. However, adverse reactions can be minimized or even avoided if a physician is fully aware of potential risk and is prepared to appropriately handle the situation. Information on the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic diseases has been accumulated in the medical literature for decades; however, except for allergen specific immunotherapy, it has never been presented in a systematic fashion. Up to now no single document addressed the risk of the most commonly used medical procedures in the allergy office nor attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO, representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access to specialized emergency services, etc. for various procedures have been recommended. This document should be useful for allergists with already established

  4. Assessing the value of diagnostic imaging: the role of perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchen, E. J.; Cooper, Thomas G.

    2000-04-01

    The value of diagnostic radiology rests in its ability to provide information. Information is defined as a reduction in randomness. Quality improvement in any system requires diminution in the variation in its performance. The major variation in performance of the system of diagnostic radiology occurs in observer performance and in the communication of information from the observer to someone who will apply that information to the benefit of the patient. The ability to provide information can be determined by observer performance studies using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The amount of information provided by each observer can be measured in terms of the uncertainty they reduce. Using a set of standardized radiographs, some normal and some abnormal, sorting them randomly, and then asking an observer to redistribute them according to their probability of normality can measure the difference in the value added by different observers. By applying this observer performance measure, we have been able to characterize individual radiologists, groups of radiologists, and regions of the United States in their ability to add value in chest radiology. The use of these technologies in health care may improve upon the contribution of diagnostic imaging.

  5. Additional radiation dose to population due to X-ray diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Discovery of X rays has revolutionised the medical diagnosis but the fact that the diagnostic radiological procedures contribute about 80 to 90 % of the radiation dose to population as compared to other man made radiation sources cannot be ignored especially when X ray diagnostic facilities are being made available to larger section of the society. The estimated frequency of radiological procedures in India is 12,000 procedures/ year/100,000 population, though it is quite less as compared to developed countries, its increasing day by day. As part of the project, a radiation protection survey of X ray installations and patient radiation dose measurement during various radiological procedures was undertaken. 193 X ray installations were surveyed and the radiation doses received by the patient during various radiological procedure was measured. For measurement of radiation doses, CaSO 4 : Dy thermoluminescence (T.L.) discs of size 13.3 mm diameter and 0.8 mm thickness were used. Pre annealed T.L. discs were fixed by adhesive tape on the patient skin at the center of entrance beam before the exposure. After exposure the T.L. discs were estimated f or entrance skin dose during that particular projection/ examination. 10,000 measurements at different centers during various radiological procedures were done. It was found that chest radiography accounts for 37 % of all radiological procedures and further it was observed that 70 % of the chest X rays were normal with out any pathology indicating scope for curtailing the unwarranted radiological procedures. The special investigations like barium swallow, barium meal and fallow through accounts for about 1.5 % of the total radiological procedures. The entrance skin dose [E.S.D.] during chest radiography was 0.3 + 0.1 mGy where as during K.U.B. and cervical spine radiography it was 6.2 + 1.1 mGy and 5.1 + 0.9 mGy respectively. The details of frequency of various radiological procedures and the

  6. Magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard; Haase, Axel

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Paramagnetic contrast agents have been used for a long time, but more recently superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have been discovered to influence MRI contrast as well. In contrast to paramagnetic contrast agents, SPIOs can be functionalized and size-tailored in order to adapt to various kinds of soft tissues. Although both types of contrast agents have a inducible magnetization, their mechanisms of influence on spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation of protons are different. A special emphasis on the basic magnetism of nanoparticles and their structures as well as on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance is made. Examples of different contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images are given. The potential use of magnetic nanoparticles as diagnostic tracers is explored. Additionally, SPIOs can be used in diagnostic magnetic resonance, since the spin relaxation time of water protons differs, whether magnetic nanoparticles are bound to a target or not.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis, tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis, and the spine (spondylitis. In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar DĂŠniz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  9. Accreditation of diagnostic imaging services in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Pablo; Borrás, Cari; Fleitas, Ileana

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades, medical imaging has experienced a technological revolution. After conducting several surveys to assess the quality and safety of diagnostic imaging services in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) developed a basic accreditation program that can be implemented by the ministry of health of any developing country. Patterned after the American College of Radiology's accreditation program, the PAHO program relies on a national accreditation committee to establish and maintain accreditation standards. The process involves a peer review evaluation of: (1) imaging and processing equipment, (2) physician and technologist staff qualifications, (3) quality control and quality assurance programs, and (4) image quality and, where applicable, radiation dose. Public and private conventional radiography/fluoroscopy, mammography, and ultrasound services may request accreditation. The radiography/fluoroscopy accreditation program has three modules from which to choose: chest radiography, general radiography, and fluoroscopy. The national accreditation committee verifies compliance with the standards. On behalf of the ministry of health, the accreditation committee also issues a three-year accreditation certificate. As needed, the accreditation committee consults with foreign technical and clinical experts.

  10. Validation of Diagnostic Imaging Based on Repeat Examinations. An Image Interpretation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isberg, B.; Jorulf, H.; Thorstensen, Oe.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an interpretation model, based on repeatedly acquired images, aimed at improving assessments of technical efficacy and diagnostic accuracy in the detection of small lesions. Material and Methods: A theoretical model is proposed. The studied population consists of subjects that develop focal lesions which increase in size in organs of interest during the study period. The imaging modality produces images that can be re-interpreted with high precision, e.g. conventional radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. At least four repeat examinations are carried out. Results: The interpretation is performed in four or five steps: 1. Independent readers interpret the examinations chronologically without access to previous or subsequent films. 2. Lesions found on images at the last examination are included in the analysis, with interpretation in consensus. 3. By concurrent back-reading in consensus, the lesions are identified on previous images until they are so small that even in retrospect they are undetectable. The earliest examination at which included lesions appear is recorded, and the lesions are verified by their growth (imaging reference standard). Lesion size and other characteristics may be recorded. 4. Records made at step 1 are corrected to those of steps 2 and 3. False positives are recorded. 5. (Optional) Lesion type is confirmed by another diagnostic test. Conclusion: Applied on subjects with progressive disease, the proposed image interpretation model may improve assessments of technical efficacy and diagnostic accuracy in the detection of small focal lesions. The model may provide an accurate imaging reference standard as well as repeated detection rates and false-positive rates for tested imaging modalities. However, potential review bias necessitates a strict protocol

  11. Quality control procedure for a general diagnostic x-ray machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion Salikin; Mazlyfarina Mohamad

    2001-01-01

    Performance tests of a particular medical diagnostic x-ray machine have to be carried out regularly in order to ensure that the machine always complies with the required standard. A performance report which is prepared based on the performance tests on the x-ray machine is used as one of the requirement by the authority for issuance and renewal licence to operate and use of the x-ray machine in a clinic or hospital. The Ministry of Health will only issue a licence to the clinic or hospital to use and operate x-ray machines, if the machines have complied with the standards. The clinic or hospital may get the service to carry out performance tests on a diagnostic x-ray machine from any licence H holder, issued by the authority under Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984. A comparative study between the standard procedure and other procedures on performance test of a general diagnostic x-ray machine is carried out and presented in brief in this paper. The criteria for compliance or otherwise as required by the Ministry of Health Malaysia is discussed and explained in brief. (Author)

  12. Assessment of patient doses and image quality in X-ray diagnostics in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerud, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Results from other industrialized countries indicate that the annual number of diagnostic procedures approaches one for every member of the population, and in many cases the individual radiation doses are higher than from any other human activity. Furthermore, the doses to patients for the same type of examination differ widely from place to place, suggesting that there is a considerable potential for dose reduction. This motivated an investigation of the diagnostic use of X-rays in Norway. The trends in the number of X-ray examinations performed annually have been studied. The patient doses (all diagnostics) and image quality (mammography and computed tomography) have been assessed for various radiological procedures. This form the basis for the assessment of total collective effective dose (CED) from X-rays in Norway, and further risk estimates. The radiological practice has then been evaluated according to the radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation. Based on the 1993 examination frequency, the total CED was assessed to 3400 manSv (0.78 mSv/inhabitant). It is estimated that this radiation burden may cause about 100 excess cancer deaths annually. The frequency of CT examination has doubled every fifth year, and did in 1993 represent 7% of the total number of examinations and 30% of the total CED. 129 refs

  13. Assessment of patient doses and image quality in X-ray diagnostics in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olerud, H M

    1998-06-01

    Results from other industrialized countries indicate that the annual number of diagnostic procedures approaches one for every member of the population, and in many cases the individual radiation doses are higher than from any other human activity. Furthermore, the doses to patients for the same type of examination differ widely from place to place, suggesting that there is a considerable potential for dose reduction. This motivated an investigation of the diagnostic use of X-rays in Norway. The trends in the number of X-ray examinations performed annually have been studied. The patient doses (all diagnostics) and image quality (mammography and computed tomography) have been assessed for various radiological procedures. This form the basis for the assessment of total collective effective dose (CED) from X-rays in Norway, and further risk estimates. The radiological practice has then been evaluated according to the radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation. Based on the 1993 examination frequency, the total CED was assessed to 3400 manSv (0.78 mSv/inhabitant). It is estimated that this radiation burden may cause about 100 excess cancer deaths annually. The frequency of CT examination has doubled every fifth year, and did in 1993 represent 7% of the total number of examinations and 30% of the total CED. 129 refs.

  14. Overview of radiation protection programme in nuclear medicine facility for diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ezzeldein Mohammed Nour Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    This project was conducted to review Radiation Protection Program in Nuclear Medicine facility for diagnostic procedures which will provide guide for meeting the standard and regulatory requirements in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The main objective of this project is to keep dose to staff, patient and public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The specific objectives were to review the Radiation Protection Program (RPP) in diagnostic nuclear medicine and to make some recommendation for improving the level of radiation protection in diagnostic nuclear medicine that will help to control normal exposure and prevent or mitigate potential exposure. The methodology used is review of various documents. The review showed that if the Radiation Protection Program is inadequate it leads to unjustified exposure to radiation. Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a qualified Radiation Protection Officer (RPO) should be appointed to lay down and oversee a radiation protection in the nuclear medicine department. The RPO must be given the full authority and the adequate time to enable him to perform his duties effectively. (au)

  15. [Future perspectives for diagnostic imaging in urology: from anatomic and functional to molecular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macis, Giuseppe; Di Giovanni, Silvia; Di Franco, Davide; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The future approach of diagnostic imaging in urology follows the technological progress, which made the visualization of in vivo molecular processes possible. From anatomo-morphological diagnostic imaging and through functional imaging molecular radiology is reached. Based on molecular probes, imaging is aimed at assessing the in vivo molecular processes, their physiology and function at cellular level. The future imaging will investigate the complex tumor functioning as metabolism, aerobic glycolysis in particular, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, metastatic potential, hypoxia, apoptosis and receptors expressed by neoplastic cells. Methods for performing molecular radiology are CT, MRI, PET-CT, PET-MRI, SPECT and optical imaging. Molecular ultrasound combines technological advancement with targeted contrast media based on microbubbles, this allowing the selective registration of microbubble signal while that of stationary tissues is suppressed. An experimental study was carried out where the ultrasound molecular probe BR55 strictly bound to prostate tumor results in strong enhancement in the early phase after contrast, this contrast being maintained in the late phase. This late enhancement is markedly significant for the detection of prostatic cancer foci and to guide the biopsy sampling. The 124I-cG250 molecular antibody which is strictly linked to cellular carbonic anhydrase IX of clear cell renal carcinoma, allows the acquisition of diagnostic PET images of clear cell renal carcinoma without biopsy. This WG-250 (RENCAREX) antibody was used as a therapy in metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Future advancements and applications will result in early cancer diagnosis, personalized therapy that will be specific according to the molecular features of cancer and leading to the development of catheter-based multichannel molecular imaging devices for cystoscopy-based molecular imaging diagnosis and intervention.

  16. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  17. Optimization of image quality in diagnostic radiology associated with exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulea, C.; Ramboiu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Optimal parameters for a high quality image and minimal radiation risk for the patients were established. The characteristics that affect image quality speed, contrast factor, latitude, base density, fog density, reciprocity law failure and latent image fading were analyzed. Base density on the radiographic image was measured for Azoix film and it is 0.1 log units. Fog density is a function of development time and it will increase with 20% through the increase with 2 minutes of development time. The curve Hurter-Driffield was used to characterize photographic emulsion for Azoix film. The value of latitude of 0.7 log units is in the normally useful range of densities found in radiographs. The speed of Azoix film, as a function of the time interval between exposure and development, increase with 10% for the first 24 hours. The reduction in the patient exposure that could be effected by delaying the development of Azoix is so small, that it is far outweighed by the possible disadvantage of a delay in the acquisition of diagnostic information. Therefore, latent image fading is not very important from the point of view of patient exposure. The speeds evaluated for exposure times 0.08s, 0.16s, 0.64s were unmodified, that is reciprocity law failure was unimportant for Azoix film Perlux screen. The romania films Azoix used with Perlux screen and processed with original solutions are determined an optical density of 1.0 (average density of medical radiograph) with a minimum radiation exposure for the patient (59·10 -7 C/kg). (author)

  18. Sonography as a new diagnostic procedure for investigating abnormalities of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapf, C.; Furtschegger, A.; Resch, H.; Innsbruck Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-one sonographic examinations of patients with complaints relating to the shoulder joint have shown that this is the method next in value to radiological examination. So far, lesions of the rotator cuff and of the long head of the biceps could only be demonstrated by invasive procedures such as arthrography or arthroscopy. In these situations, sonography attains a similar accuracy. Diffuse lesions can also be diagnosed correctly, making arthrography and arthroscopy unnecessary. In addition, sonography can demonstrate inflammatory and degenerative changes and incomplete sub-acromial and intermediary tears of the rotator cuff, unlike conventional diagnostic methods. In future, arthrography and arthroscopy will only be necessary as additional diagnostic methods if sonography remains inconclusive. (orig.) [de

  19. A necessary evil: The experiences of men with prostate cancer undergoing imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathers, Sandra A.; McKenzie, Graham A.; Robertson, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to explore the experience of people with a diagnosis of cancer while attending for imaging procedures. The diversity and complexity of the issues described within individual interviews made it impossible to include all cancer groups in one paper. This paper focuses on the cohort of men with prostate cancer. Method: An opportunistic sample of men (n = 8) were recruited from Cancer Support Groups throughout the North-east of Scotland. A qualitative, exploratory and retrospective study design was employed using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio taped and full transcripts produced. These were analysed following the recommendations of Miles and Huberman (1994). Main findings: Men were keen to take part in the study, and described experiences from pre-diagnosis to the date of interview. Participants reported different routes to diagnosis, then having a range of diagnostic procedures indicating a very personal journey with no standardised approach. Imaging was not seen as a separate event but part of the whole story. The provision of radiology patient information material was haphazard. Participants could explain why they were having these procedures, and saw them as a 'necessary evil'. The provision of results of their tests was complex and chaotic, and was described as an anxious time. Conclusion: This study provides a unique insight into the experiences of men with prostate cancer relating to their attendance for imaging. Health professionals need to listen to their patients and learn, in order to provide a high quality, patient-centred imaging service.

  20. Phase contrast imaging diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, Lukas-Georg; Grulke, Olaf [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic allows for non-invasive measurements of density fluctuations in high temperature plasmas. Since the index of refraction in a plasma is a function of the electron density, an incoming laser beam experiences a phase shift, which can be converted to intensity variations via interference after passing a phase plate. Generally speaking, the signal contains only the line-integrated information along the beam path. This limitation can be circumvented by using the fact that the density fluctuations form filamentary structures that are well aligned with the local magnetic field. If the magnetic field direction significantly varies along the beam path, optical filtering allows for localization of the density fluctuations. In order to identify the best diagnostic position regarding localization performance three figures of merit are introduced. They allow for quantitative comparison of different lines of sight and different magnetic field configurations. The results of the optimization process and a comparison with other fusion experiments are shown in this contribution.

  1. Targeting SR-BI for cancer diagnostics, imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Amrita Rajora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumours and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents. This brief review highlights these key developments in SR-BI-targeted cancer therapies and imaging probes. Special attention is given to the exploration of high density lipoprotein nanomimetic platforms that take advantage of upregulated SR-BI expression to facilitate targeted drug-delivery and cancer diagnostics, and promising future directions in the development of these agents.

  2. Biomedical nanotechnology for molecular imaging, diagnostics, and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuming

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology is a cross-disciplinary area of research in science, engineering and medicine with broad applications for molecular imaging, molecular diagnosis, and targeted therapy. The basic rationale is that nanometer-sized particles such as semiconductor quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals have optical, magnetic or structural properties that are not available from either molecules or bulk solids. When linked with biotargeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules, these nanoparticles can be used to target diseased cells and organs (such as malignant tumors and cardiovascular plaques) with high affinity and specificity. In the "mesoscopic" size range of 5-100 nm diameter, nanoparticles also have large surface areas and functional groups for conjugating to multiple diagnostic (e.g., optical, radioisotopic, or magnetic) and therapeutic (e.g., anticancer) agents.

  3. Valuation of the paranasal sinus by means of diagnostic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano Alfonso, Javier; Araque, Julio Mario

    1997-01-01

    The development and popularization of the surgery functional endoscopy, a bigger understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the mucociliary system of the superior airway and new techniques in diagnostics images, have allowed a better understanding of the pathology of the paranasal cavities, facilitating to make an early diagnosis and a more effective treatment. The complexity in the handling of the illnesses that affect the pearliness cavities makes obligatory that the doctors have clear concepts on the indication of each one of the modalities and the alternative in the diagnosis and pursuit of the different alterations. The paper includes topics as development and anatomy, physiology, radiology, tomography, magnetic resonance, protocol of exams and conclusions

  4. The radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures and the problem of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ftacnikova, S [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper equivalent dose from Auger electron emitters was reevaluated. The presented approach represents a practical step toward the estimation of equivalent dose for incorporated Auger electron emitters, an aspects that has not been given adequate consideration so far. Given the widespread use of this class of radionuclides in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research, the formalism and practical calculation presented here may be of value to assessing the risk associated with this radionuclides (in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures), as well as predicting their therapeutic efficiency. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 11 refs.

  5. Prenatal Radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.; Hellman, S.; Helmrot, E.; Persliden, J.; Cederlund, T.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data has shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% up to 0.14% per 10 mSv. In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy, and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period. The frequency of foetus exposure is not well documented. In Sweden, there are well-established routines to track down pregnant patients before examinations are being performed. However, there are no general obligations or routines to document the cases either (i) when

  6. Diagnostic procedure on brake pad assembly based on Young's modulus estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiariotti, P; Santolini, C; Tomasini, E P; Martarelli, M

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of brake pads is an important issue, since the pad is a key component of the braking system. Typical damage of a brake pad assembly is the pad–backing plate detachment that affects and modifies the mechanical properties of the whole system. The most sensitive parameter to the damage is the effective Young's modulus, since the damage induces a decrease of the pad assembly stiffness and therefore of its effective Young's modulus: indeed its variation could be used for diagnostic purposes. The effective Young's modulus can be estimated from the first bending resonance frequency identified from the frequency response function measured on the pad assembly. Two kinds of excitation methods, i.e. conventional impulse excitation and magnetic actuation, will be presented and two different measurement sensors, e.g. laser Doppler vibrometer and microphone, analyzed. The robustness of the effective Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature will be demonstrated in comparison to the first bending resonance frequency, which is more sensitive to geometrical dimensions. Variability in the sample dimension, in fact, will induce a variation of the resonance frequency which could be mistaken for damage. The diagnostic approach has been applied to a set of undamaged and damaged pad assemblies showing good performance in terms of damage identification. The environmental temperature can be an important interfering input for the diagnostic procedure, since it influences the effective Young's modulus of the assembly. For that reason, a test at different temperatures in the range between 15 °C and 30 °C has been performed, evidencing that damage identification technique is efficient at any temperature. The robustness of the Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature with respect to damping is also presented. (paper)

  7. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 4. Medical Imaging Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, Russell; Keith, Lauren; Bartos, Christopher; St Claire, Marisa; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Holbrook, Michael R; Janosko, Krisztina; Barr, Jason; Pusl, Daniela; Bollinger, Laura; Wada, Jiro; Coe, Linda; Hensley, Lisa E; Jahrling, Peter B; Kuhn, Jens H; Lentz, Margaret R

    2016-10-03

    Medical imaging using animal models for human diseases has been utilized for decades; however, until recently, medical imaging of diseases induced by high-consequence pathogens has not been possible. In 2014, the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick opened an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL-4) facility to assess the clinical course and pathology of infectious diseases in experimentally infected animals. Multiple imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography are available to researchers for these evaluations. The focus of this article is to describe the workflow for safely obtaining a CT image of a live guinea pig in an ABSL-4 facility. These procedures include animal handling, anesthesia, and preparing and monitoring the animal until recovery from sedation. We will also discuss preparing the imaging equipment, performing quality checks, communication methods from "hot side" (containing pathogens) to "cold side," and moving the animal from the holding room to the imaging suite.

  8. Diagnostic imaging of compression neuropathy; Bildgebende Diagnostik von Nervenkompressionssyndromen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weishaupt, D.; Andreisek, G. [Universitaetsspital, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    Compression-induced neuropathy of peripheral nerves can cause severe pain of the foot and ankle. Early diagnosis is important to institute prompt treatment and to minimize potential injury. Although clinical examination combined with electrophysiological studies remain the cornerstone of the diagnostic work-up, in certain cases, imaging may provide key information with regard to the exact anatomic location of the lesion or aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis. In other patients with peripheral neuropathies of the foot and ankle, imaging may establish the etiology of the condition and provide information crucial for management and/or surgical planning. MR imaging and ultrasound provide direct visualization of the nerve and surrounding abnormalities. Bony abnormalities contributing to nerve compression are best assessed by radiographs and CT. Knowledge of the anatomy, the etiology, typical clinical findings, and imaging features of peripheral neuropathies affecting the peripheral nerves of the foot and ankle will allow for a more confident diagnosis. (orig.) [German] Kompressionsbedingte Schaedigungen peripherer Nerven koennen die Ursache hartnaeckiger Schmerzen im Bereich des Sprunggelenks und Fusses sein. Eine fruehzeitige Diagnose ist entscheidend, um den Patienten der richtigen Therapie zuzufuehren und potenzielle Schaedigungen zu vermeiden oder zu verringern. Obschon die klinische Untersuchung und die elektrophysiologische Abklaerungen die wichtigsten Elemente der Diagnostik peripherer Nervenkompressionssyndrome sind, kann die Bildgebung entscheidend sein, wenn es darum geht, die Hoehe des Nervenschadens festzulegen oder die Differenzialdiagnose einzugrenzen. In gewissen Faellen kann durch Bildgebung sogar die Ursache der Nervenkompression gefunden werden. In anderen Faellen ist die Bildgebung wichtig bei der Therapieplanung, insbesondere dann, wenn die Laesion chirurgisch angegangen wird. Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und Sonographie ermoeglichen eine

  9. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoever, B. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, CC6, Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in 'battered child syndrome' and brain injuries in 'shaken baby syndrome'. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [German] In der Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung ist die Bildgebung ein wesentlicher Faktor. Trotz scheinbar leerer Anamnese gelingt es, typische Verletzungsmuster als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen, sowohl im Bereich des Skeletts, der Weichteile, des Abdomens ('battered child syndrome', heute: 'non accidental injury', NAI) als auch im ZNS ('shaken baby syndrome'). Den klinischen Symptomen entsprechend, wird im Verdachtsfall ein adaequates diagnostisches Verfahren eingesetzt, das erwartete charakteristische Befunde nachweist, den Mechanismus der Verletzung aufzeigt und das Alter der Laesionen annaehernd festlegt. Radiologische Skelettbefunde werden hinsichtlich ihrer Spezifitaet fuer eine Misshandlung bewertet. Alle Resultate der Bildgebung sind zusammen mit Anamnese und klinischen Befunden zu deuten. Bei schwerer Misshandlung ohne aeussere Verletzungszeichen ist das rechtzeitige Erfassen einer ZNS

  10. Diagnostic imaging capabilities of the Ocelot -Optical Coherence Tomography System, ex-vivo evaluation and clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohad, Suhail; Shao, John; Cawich, Ian; Kankaria, Manish; Desai, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution sub-surface imaging modality using near-infrared light to provide accurate and high contrast intra-vascular images. This enables accurate assessment of diseased arteries before and after intravascular intervention. This study was designed to corroborate diagnostic imaging equivalence between the Ocelot and the Dragonfly OCT systems with regards to the intravascular features that are most important in clinical management of patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease. These intravascular features were then corroborated in vivo during treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) pathology using the Ocelot catheter. In order to compare the diagnostic information obtained by Ocelot (Avinger Inc., Redwood City, CA) and Dragonfly (St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN) OCT systems, we utilized ex-vivo preparations of arterial segments. Ocelot and Dragonfly catheters were inserted into identical cadaveric femoral peripheral arteries for image acquisition and interpretation. Three independent physician interpreters assessed the images to establish accuracy and sensitivity of the diagnostic information. Histologic evaluation of the corresponding arterial segments provided the gold standard for image interpretation. In vivo clinical images were obtained during therapeutic interventions that included crossing of peripheral chronic total occlusions (CTOs) using the Ocelot catheter. Strong concordance was demonstrated when matching image characteristics between both OCT systems and histology. The Dragonfly and Ocelot system’s vessel features were interpreted with high sensitivity (91.1–100 %) and specificity (86.7–100 %). Inter-observer concordance was documented with excellent correlation across all vessel features. The clinical benefit that the Ocelot OCT system provided was demonstrated by comparable procedural images acquired at the point of therapy. The study demonstrates equivalence of image acquisition and

  11. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome.

  12. Diagnosing alcoholism in high-risk drinking drivers: comparing different diagnostic procedures with estimated prevalence of hazardous alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzec, A.; Bär, M.; Koeter, M. W.; de Kieviet, W.

    2001-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under influence (DUI), suspected of an alcohol use disorder (AUD, 'alcoholism') are referred for diagnostic examination. The accuracy of diagnostic procedures used in diagnosing AUD in the DUI population is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare three

  13. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework.

  14. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion

  15. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa [Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion.

  16. Pulled elbow in infancy: diagnostic role of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapinelli, Raffaele; Borgo, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Pulled elbow is a common injury in infancy. Typically the child, after a sudden pull, refuses to use the arm. The history and clinical findings are sufficient to make the diagnosis, and radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary. When imaging procedures are performed, a few small signs are useful to confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Materials and methods. The authors reviewed the radiographic and ultrasonographic signs reported to be suggestive of pulled elbow (increased radio-condylar distance, increased radio-coronoid distance, proximal radio-ulnar diastasis, deviation of the radio-condylar line) and attempted to confirm their presence in children affected by this trauma. Results. Increased radio-condylar and radio-coronoid distance were present in 8 of 8 cases: proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line were inconsistently present. Ultrasonography gave contradictory results. Conclusions. In typical cases of pulled elbow, radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary for diagnosis and treatment. imaging procedures are recommended only in the case of non typical history, in the presence of deformity or traumatic skin lesions and in children over six years of age. Increased radio-coronoid distance on the affected side is the most frequent and visible sign, which can confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Increased radio-condylar distance is also present, but it is not easy to visualize. Proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line are inconstant. Ultrasonography is difficult to standardize [it

  17. Survey of prenatal counselling practices regarding aneuploidy risk modification, invasive diagnostic procedure risks, and procedure eligibility criteria in Canadian centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Danna; Davies, Gregory; Armour, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    To explore prenatal practices related to aneuploidy screening, risk modification, and invasive diagnostic procedures across Canadian centres. We conducted a survey of members of the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, the Canadian College of Medical Genetics, and the Canadian Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine, who provide direct counselling or management of prenatal patients in Canada. Eighty-two of 157 respondents indicated that their centre's definition of advanced maternal age was ≥ 35 years, with 33/157 respondents reporting an advanced maternal age definition of ≥ 40 years. The majority of respondents reported that prenatal serum screening for aneuploidy is provincially funded in their province or territory (121/147). The majority of respondents who reported that prenatal screening is not provincially funded (17/147) were from Quebec (14/17). Thirty-nine of 123 respondents reported that their centre defines increased nuchal translucency as ≥ 3.0 mm, whereas 49/123 reported a definition of ≥ 3.5 mm. Sixty-four of 150 respondents reported that the aneuploidy risk provided by serum screening is modified by a soft marker likelihood ratio, whereas 46/150 respondents reported that both age-related and serum screening risks are modified. Fifty-nine of 124 respondents reported that their centre will modify aneuploidy risk after a normal ultrasound; the most commonly cited negative likelihood ratio was 0.5. The most commonly reported procedure-related risk for chorionic villus sampling was 1/100 (123/147) and for amniocentesis was 1/200 (73/142). This study demonstrates inconsistencies in prenatal practices and access to screening programs across Canada. The information gained from this study will inform policy advisors developing prenatal practice guidelines at both the provincial and national levels.

  18. Activities identification for activity-based cost/management applications of the diagnostics outpatient procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Abdalla; Momani, Amer; Ababneh, Tamador

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems facing healthcare providers is to determine the actual cost for their procedures, which is important for internal accounting and price justification to insurers. The objective of this paper is to find suitable categories to identify the diagnostic outpatient medical procedures and translate them from functional orientation to process orientation. A hierarchal task tree is developed based on a classification schema of procedural activities. Each procedure is seen as a process consisting of a number of activities. This makes a powerful foundation for activity-based cost/management implementation and provides enough information to discover the value-added and non-value-added activities that assist in process improvement and eventually may lead to cost reduction. Work measurement techniques are used to identify the standard time of each activity at the lowest level of the task tree. A real case study at a private hospital is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  19. Diagnostic imaging of blunt abdominal trauma in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Vittorio; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Trinci, Margherita; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Brunese, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood, and blunt trauma accounts for 80-90 % of abdominal injuries. The mechanism of trauma is quite similar to that of the adults, but there are important physiologic differences between children and adults in this field, such as the smaller blood vessels and the high vasoconstrictive response, leading to the spreading of a non-operative management. The early imaging of children undergoing a low-energy trauma can be performed by CEUS, a valuable diagnostic tool to demonstrate solid organ injuries with almost the same sensitivity of CT scans; nevertheless, as for as urinary tract injuries, MDCT remains still the technique of choice, because of its high sensitivity and accuracy, helping to discriminate between an intra-peritoneal form a retroperitoneal urinary leakage, requiring two different managements. The liver is the most common organ injured in blunt abdominal trauma followed by the spleen. Renal, pancreatic, and bowel injuries are quite rare. In this review we present various imaging findings of blunt abdominal trauma in children.

  20. PACS and diagnostic imaging service delivery-A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Laurence N.

    2011-01-01

    This review sets out the current position with regard to the implementation of PACS throughout the United Kingdom and the impact this has had on improving patient care. In December 2007 England had implemented full hospital-wide PACS in all hospitals: a major achievement in the relatively short time period of three years. The different approaches used by each country of the UK to achieve full national PACS are described in addition to the current issues with the sharing of images and reports across different healthcare organisations with regard to technical solutions, clinical safety and governance. The review gives insight into the changing methods of service delivery to address increasing demand pressures on diagnostic imaging services and how the national PACS implementation, specifically in England, has made a significant contribution to measures to improve efficiencies. The role of Teleradiology is discussed in the context of supporting local patient services rather than undermining them and the concept of cross-healthcare reporting 'Grids' is described. Finally, in the summary it is recognised that the vast wealth of knowledge accumulated during the national implementations has placed the UK in a strong position to facilitate full national data sharing across all healthcare organisations to improve patient care.

  1. Multiple imaging procedures including MRI for the bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Noriharu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Takumi; Kunisawa, Yositaka; Fukutani, Keiko; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1986-01-01

    Endoscopic photography, double contrast cystography, transurethral echography, X-ray CT scan, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were utilized for the staging diagnosis of the four patients with carcinoma of the bladder. In the first case, a 70-year-old man, since all of the five imaging procedures suggested a superficial and pedunculated tumor, his bladder cancer was considered T1. The classification of stage T3 carcinoma was made for the second 86-year-old male. Because all of his imaging examinations showed a tumor infiltrating deep muscle and penetrating the bladder wall. The third case was a 36-year-old male. His clinical stage was diagnosed as T2 or T3a by cystophotography, double contrast cystogram, ultrasonography, and X-ray CT scan. However, MRI showed only thickened bladder wall and the infiltrating tumor could not be distinguished from the hypertrophic wall. The last patient, a 85-year-old female, had a smaller Ta cancer. Her double contrast cystography revealed the small tumor at the lateral bladder wall. But, the tumor could not be detected by transaxial, sagittal and coronal scans. Multiple imaging procedures combining MRI and staging diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma were discussed. (author)

  2. Refining a complex diagnostic construct: subtyping Dysthymia with the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Defife, Jared; Westen, Drew

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether meaningful subtypes of Dysthymic patients could be identified when grouping them by similar personality profiles. A random, national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (n=1201) described a randomly selected current patient with personality pathology using the descriptors in the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II (SWAP-II), completed assessments of patients' adaptive functioning, and provided DSM-IV Axis I and II diagnoses. We applied Q-factor cluster analyses to those patients diagnosed with Dysthymic Disorder. Four clusters were identified-High Functioning, Anxious/Dysphoric, Emotionally Dysregulated, and Narcissistic. These factor scores corresponded with a priori hypotheses regarding diagnostic comorbidity and level of adaptive functioning. We compared these groups to diagnostic constructs described and empirically identified in the past literature. The results converge with past and current ideas about the ways in which chronic depression and personality are related and offer an enhanced means by which to understand a heterogeneous diagnostic category that is empirically grounded and clinically useful. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Optimization of diagnostic imaging use in patients with acute abdominal pain (OPTIMA): Design and rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laméris, Wytze; van Randen, Adrienne; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The acute abdomen is a frequent entity at the Emergency Department (ED), which usually needs rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. Diagnostic work-up with imaging can consist of plain X-ray, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and even diagnostic laparoscopy.

  4. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  5. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added

  6. Perceived risk of prenatal diagnostic procedure-related miscarriage and Down syndrome among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Aaron B; Washington, A Eugene; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to identify correlates of perceived risk of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or experiencing a procedure-related miscarriage among a diverse group of pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1081 English-, Spanish-, or Chinese-speaking women receiving prenatal care in the San Francisco Bay area. Perceived risk of procedure-related miscarriage or carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus was assessed using a linear rating scale from 0 (no risk) to 1 (high risk). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to explore associations between maternal characteristics including age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status and perceived risks of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or experiencing a procedure-related miscarriage. Women aged 35 years old or older had a higher perceived risk of Down syndrome than younger women (0.28 vs 0.22 on a scale from 0 to 1, P self-perceived health status (+0.08, P = .045). Latinas (+0.11, P = .008), women with an annual income less than $35,000 (+0.09, P = .003), and those who had difficulty conceiving (+0.09, P = .026) had higher perceived procedure-related miscarriage risk. Among women aged 35 years or older, perceived risk of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus was associated with the inclination to undergo prenatal diagnosis. Women's perceived risks of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or having a procedure-related miscarriage are associated with numerous characteristics that have not been shown to be associated with the actual risks of these events. These perceived risks are associated with prenatal diagnostic test inclination. Understanding patients' risk perceptions and effectively communicating risk is critical to helping patients make informed decisions regarding use of invasive prenatal testing.

  7. The effectiveness of drama therapy on preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilievová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The integral part of the treatment of pediatric oncological patients is a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures are often associated with the fear and anxiety of the suffering child. We investigated whether a psychological preparation through drama therapy and the therapeutic puppet may reduce the anxiety related to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the preschool or early school children suffering from cancer.Methods: Twenty consecutive pediatric patients of preschool and early school age, with the diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia, were included in the study. The patients were alternatingly assigned to experimental or control group, and subjected or not subjected to drama therapy, respectively. We measured the changes in heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate as indicators of anxiety and fear, before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.Results: Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in pediatric oncological patients before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure were significantly lower in the experimental group of patients.Conclusion: Our results show that psychological preparation using drama therapy and therapeutic puppet reduced the fear and anxiety related to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in pediatric oncological patients.Key words: drama therapy; therapeutic puppet; children; oncology; psychology 

  8. Study design for concurrent development, assessment, and implementation of new diagnostic imaging technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWith current constraints on health care resources and emphasis on value for money, new diagnostic imaging technologies must be assessed and their value demonstrated. The state of the art in the field of diagnostic imaging technology assessment advocates a hierarchical

  9. Towards the definition of Institutional diagnostic reference levels in paediatric interventional cardiology procedures in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottou, S; Kollaros, N; Plemmenos, C; Mastorakou, I; Apostolopoulou, S C; Tsapaki, V

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate paediatric radiation doses in a dedicated cardiology hospital, with the objective of characterising patterns in dose variation. The ultimate purpose was to define Local (Institutional) Diagnostic Reference Levels (LDRLs) for different types of paediatric cardiac interventional procedures (IC), according to patient age. From a total of 710 cases performed during three consecutive years, by operators with more than 15 years of experience, the age was noted in only 477 IC procedures. The median values obtained for Fluoroscopy Time (FT), Number of Frames (N) and Kerma Area Product (P KA ) by age range were 5.8 min, 1322 and 2.0 Gy.cm 2 for definition of LDRLs presents challenges mainly due to the multiple clinical and technical factors affecting the outcome. On the other hand the lack of paediatric IC DRLs makes the identification of good practices more difficult. A consensus is needed on IC procedures nomenclature and grouping in order to allow a common assessment and comparison of doses. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation injury of the skin following diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, T.R.; Wagner, L.K.; Mettler, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Many radiation injuries to the skin, resulting from diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures, have been reported in recent years. In some cases skin damage was severe and debilitating. We analyzed 72 reports of skin injuries for progression and location of injury, type and number of procedures, and contributing patient and operator factors. Most cases (46) were related to coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). A smaller number was documented after cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation (12), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement (7), neuroradiological interventions (3) and other procedures (4). Important factors leading to skin injuries were long exposure times over the same skin area, use of high dose rates, irradiation through thick tissue masses, hypersensitivity to radiation, and positioning of arms or breasts into the radiation entrance beam. Physicians were frequently unaware of the high radiation doses involved and did not recognize the injuries as radiation induced. Based on these findings, recommendations to reduce dose and improve patient care are provided. (author)

  11. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccenini, E; Bettuzzi, M; Brancaccio, R; Casali, F; Morigi, M P; Albertin, F; Petrucci, F

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described

  12. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  13. Diagnostic imaging learning resources evaluated by students and recent graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kate; Bélisle, Marilou; Dallaire, Sébastien; Fernandez, Nicolas; Doucet, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    Many learning resources can help students develop the problem-solving abilities and clinical skills required for diagnostic imaging. This study explored veterinary students' perceptions of the usefulness of a variety of learning resources. Perceived resource usefulness was measured for different levels of students and for academic versus clinical preparation. Third-year (n=139) and final (fifth) year (n=105) students and recent graduates (n=56) completed questionnaires on perceived usefulness of each resource. Resources were grouped for comparison: abstract/low complexity (e.g., notes, multimedia presentations), abstract/high complexity (e.g., Web-based and film case repositories), concrete/low complexity (e.g., large-group "clicker" workshops), and concrete/high complexity (e.g., small-group interpretation workshops). Lower-level students considered abstract/low-complexity resources more useful for academic preparation and concrete resources more useful for clinical preparation. Higher-level students/recent graduates also considered abstract/low-complexity resources more useful for academic preparation. For all levels, lecture notes were considered highly useful. Multimedia slideshows were an interactive complement to notes. The usefulness of a Web-based case repository was limited by accessibility problems and difficulty. Traditional abstract/low-complexity resources were considered useful for more levels and contexts than expected. Concrete/high-complexity resources need to better represent clinical practice to be considered more useful for clinical preparation.

  14. Strategic planning in diagnostic imaging: meeting the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexa, Frank J

    2008-02-01

    The 21st century has raised new and significant challenges to the practice of diagnostic imaging. Radiologists will have to navigate a difficult path as they face threats from disruptive technologies, adverse demographic changes, pressures to limit reimbursement both from the public and from the private sectors, increased domestic and crossborder competition, and many others. Success in these trying times will require greater attention to strategic planning if we are to thrive and survive in radiology. Strategic planning and tactical implementation methodologies were reviewed, from Sun Tzu to the present day, for applicability to the needs of modern radiology groups. A framework for developing and implementing strategic plans was constructed to assist radiology leaders and groups in considering the spectrum of tasks, from gathering intelligence, to developing scenarios, to implementing and evaluating tactical plans. Strategy and tactics are too important to be ignored or left to others. They need to be core activities for all radiology leaders. Frameworks can be used to help in providing structure and rigour to strategic planning efforts at the department and group level.

  15. Current profile reconstruction using electron temperature imaging diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.F.; Finkenthal, M.; Pacella, D.; Kaita, R.; Stratton, B.; Sabbagh, S.

    2004-01-01

    Flux surface shape information can be used to constrain the current profile for reconstruction of the plasma equilibrium. One method of inferring flux surface shape relies on plasma x-ray emission; however, deviations from the flux surfaces due to impurity and density asymmetries complicate the interpretation. Electron isotherm surfaces should correspond well to the plasma flux surfaces, and equilibrium constraint modeling using this isotherm information constrains the current profile. The KFIT code is used to assess the profile uncertainty and to optimize the number, location and SNR required for the Te detectors. As Te imaging detectors we consider tangentially viewing, vertically spaced, linear gas electron multiplier arrays operated in pulse height analysis (PHA) mode and multifoil soft x-ray arrays. Isoflux coordinate sets provided by T e measurements offer a strong constraint on the equilibrium reconstruction in both a stacked horizontal array configuration and a crossed horizontal and vertical beam system, with q 0 determined to within ±4%. The required SNR can be provided with either PHA or multicolor diagnostic techniques, though the multicolor system requires ∼x4 better statistics for comparable final errors

  16. Diagnostic image quality of mammograms in German outpatient medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfandzelter, R.; Wuelfing, U.; Boedeker, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A total of 79 115 mammograms from statutory health insurance (SHI) physicians within German outpatient care were evaluated with respect to the diagnostic image quality. Materials and Methods: Mammograms were randomly selected between 2006 and 2008 by the regional Associations of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians and submitted to regional boards of experts for external evaluation. The mammogram quality was evaluated using a 3-point scale (adequate, borderline, failure) and documented using a nationally standardized protocol. Results: 87.6 % of the mammograms were classified as adequate, 11.0 % as borderline and 1.4 % as failure. Mediolateral oblique mammograms (mlo) had worse ratings than craniocaudal mammograms (cc). Main reasons for classifying the mammograms as borderline or failure were 'inframammary fold not adequately visualized' (mlo), 'pectoral muscle not in the correct angle or not to the level with the nipple' (mlo), 'the nipple not in profile' (mlo, cc) and 'breast not completely or not adequately visualized' (cc). Conclusion: The results show a good overall quality of mammograms in German outpatient medical care. Failures can be associated predominantly with incorrect positioning of the breast. More precisely defined quality criteria using objective measures are recommended, especially for craniocaudal mammograms (cc). (orig.)

  17. X-ray imaging spectroscopic diagnostics on Nike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Electron temperature and density diagnostics of the laser plasma produced within the focal spot of the NRL's Nike laser are being explored with the help of X-ray imaging spectroscopy. Spectra of He-like and H-like ions were taken by Nike focusing spectrometers in a range of lower (1.8 kev, Si XIV) and higher (6.7 kev, Fe XXV) x-ray energies. Data that were obtained with spatial resolution were translated into the temperature and density as functions of distance from the target. As an example electron density was determined from He-like satellites to Ly-alpha in Si XIV. The dielectronic satellites with intensity ratios that are sensitive to collisional transfer of population between different triplet groups of double-excited states 2l2l' in Si XIII were observed with high spatial and spectral resolution Lineouts taken at different axial distances from the planar Si target show changing spectral shapes due to the different electron densities as determined by supporting non-LTE simulations. These shapes are relatively insensitive to the plasma temperature which was measured using different spectral lines. This work was supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  18. Efficient medical image access in diagnostic environments with limited resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Venson

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A medical application running outside the workstation environment has to deal with several constraints, such as reduced available memory and low network bandwidth. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to optimize the data flow for fast image transfer and visualization on mobile devices and remote stationary devices. Methods We use a combination of client- and server-side procedures to reduce the amount of information transferred by the application. Our approach was implemented on top of a commercial PACS and evaluated through user experiments with specialists in typical diagnosis tasks. The quality of the system outcome was measured in relation to the accumulated amount of network data transference and the amount of memory used in the host device. Besides, the system's quality of use (usability was measured through participants’ feedback. Results Contrarily to previous approaches, ours keeps the application within the memory constraints, minimizing data transferring whenever possible, allowing the application to run on a variety of devices. Moreover, it does that without sacrificing the user experience. Experimental data point that over 90% of the users did not notice any delays or degraded image quality, and when they did, they did not impact on the clinical decisions. Conclusion The combined activities and orchestration of our methods allow the image viewer to run on resource-constrained environments, such as those with low network bandwidth or little available memory. These results demonstrate the ability to explore the use of mobile devices as a support tool in the medical workflow.

  19. Sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to procedural factors in fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Pasciak, Alexander S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37922 (United States); Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The John P. and Katharine G. McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP), used to quantify the protective value of radioprotective garments, to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the shape of the scattered x-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios, including interventional radiology and interventional cardiology (IC). Two clinical simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size, while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size, and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy (E{sub avg}) was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affect the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effect on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in IC, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusions: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle.

  20. Use of an Online Education Platform to Enhance Patients' Knowledge About Radiation in Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Joseph R; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shiao, Sue J; Wei, Wei; Shoemaker, Stowe; Parmar, Simrit

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of a digital interactive education platform and standard paper-based education on patients' knowledge regarding ionizing radiation. Beginning in January 2015, patients at a tertiary cancer center scheduled for diagnostic imaging procedures were randomized to receive information about ionizing radiation delivered through a web-based interactive education platform (interactive education group), the same information in document format (document education group), or no specialized education (control group). Patients who completed at least some education and control group patients were invited to complete a knowledge assessment; interactive education patients were invited to provide feedback about satisfaction with their experience. A total of 2,226 patients participated. Surveys were completed by 302 of 745 patients (40.5%) participating in interactive education, 488 of 993 (49.1%) participating in document education, and 363 of 488 (74.4%) in the control group. Patients in the interactive education group were significantly more likely to say that they knew the definition of ionizing radiation, outperformed the other groups in identifying which imaging examinations used ionizing radiation, were significantly more likely to identify from a list which imaging modality had the highest radiation dose, and tended to perform better when asked about the tissue effects of radiation in diagnostic imaging, although this difference was not significant. In the interactive education group, 84% of patients were satisfied with the experience, and 79% said that they would recommend the program. Complex information on a highly technical subject with personal implications for patients may be conveyed more effectively using electronic platforms, and this approach is well accepted. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lost in Translation? Ethical Challenges of Implementing a New Diagnostic Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Since cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments of placental origin can be isolated and analyzed from the blood of pregnant women. Applications of this finding have been developed and implemented in clinical care pathways worldwide at an unprecedented pace and manner. Implementation patterns, however, exhibit considerable insufficiencies. Different "motors" of implementation processes, like the market or various regulatory institutions, can be identified at a national level. Each "motor" entails characteristic ethical challenges which are exemplified impressively by a rising number of case reports.Empirical data demonstrate that there are significant "losses" in the respective translational processes, especially when the results from clinical research are to be translated into the clinical reality of NIPT (the so called "second roadblock" (T2)). These "losses" are perceived in the fields of knowledge transfer, professional standardization and ethical debate. Recommendations of professional organizations often fail to reach general practitioners. Blindsided by the new diagnostic procedure in their clinical practice, professionals in prenatal care express their insecurities with regard to its handling. Ethical debate appears to adhere to pre-existing (and partly already proven to be insufficient) normative frameworks for prenatal testing. While all of these deficits are typical for the implementation processes of many new molecular diagnostic procedures, especially in NIPT, they show a high variability between different nations.A critical assessment of the preferred strategy of implementation against the background of already existing national ethical frameworks is indispensable, if potential adverse effects are to be diminished. The described translational losses seem to be significantly reducible by granting the translational process in roadblock T2 more time.

  2. The diagnostic value of cine-MR imaging in diseases of great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeyuki; Yoshida, Hideaki; Matsui, Yoshiro; Sakuma, Makoto; Yasuda, Keihide; Tanabe, Tatsuzo; Chouji, H.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) was evaluated in 10 patients with diseases of great vessels. The parameters necessary to decide the appropriate treatment, such as presence and extension of intimal flap, DeBakey type classification, identification of the entry, differentiation between true and false lumen, and between thrombosis and slow flow were demonstrated in all patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm. However, abdominal aortic branches could not be demonstrated enough by cine-MRI, therefore conventional AOG was necessary to choose the operative procedure in these cases. In patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), cine-MRI was valuable in demonstrating both blood flow and thrombus in the lumen of aneurysm, and AOG was thought to be unnecessary in most cases. Cine-MRI is a promising new technique for the evaluation of diseases of great vessels. (author)

  3. Functional brain imaging with SPECT in normal again and dementia. Methodological, pathophysiological, and diagnostic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemar, G.

    1996-03-01

    New developments in instrumentation, radiochemistry, and data analysis, particularly the introduction of 99m Tc-labeled brain-retained tracers for perfusion studies, have opened up a new era of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review critical methodological issues relating to the SPECT instrument, the radioactive tracers, the scanning procedure, the data analysis and interpretation of data, and subject selection are discussed together with the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed in normal aging. An overview is given of the topography and the pathophysiological and diagnostic significance of focal rCBF deficits in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementia disorders, in which SPECT is capable of early or preclinical disease detection. In Alzheimer's disease, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of focal rCBF deficits measured with SPECT and brain-retained tracers are very high, in particular when combined with medial temporal lob atrophy on CT. Together with neuropsychological testing, SPECT serves to map the topography of brain dysfunction. Thus, in the clinical setting, SPECT provides information that is supplemental to that obtained in other studies. Future applications include neuroreceptor studies and treatment studies, in which SPECT may serve as a diagnostic aid in the selection of patients and as a potential mean for monitoring treatment effects. Although positron emission tomography is the best characterized tool for addressing some of these clinical and research issues in dementia, only the less expensive and technically simpler SPECT technique will have the potential of being available as a screening diagnostic instrument in the clinical setting. It is concluded that, properly approached, functional brain imaging with SPECT represents an important tool in the diagnosis, management, and research of dementia disorders. (au) 251 refs

  4. [Diagnostic imaging of high-grade astrocytoma: heterogeneity of clinical manifestation, image characteristics, and histopathological findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Kaoru; Ohta, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments in diagnostic radiology, which have enabled accurate differential diagnoses of brain tumors, have been well described in the last three decades. MR and PET imaging can also provide information to predict histological grades and prognoses that might influence treatment strategies. However, high-grade astrocytomas consist of many different subtypes that are associated with different imaging and histological characteristics. Hemorrhage and necrosis results in a variety of imaging features, and infiltrative tumor growth entrapping normal neurons may cause different clinical manifestations. We reviewed patients with high-grade astrocytomas that showed various imaging characteristics, with special emphasis on initial symptoms and histological features. Clinicopathological characteristics of astrocytomas were also compared with other malignant tumors. Neurological deficits were not notable in patients with grade 3-4 astrocytomas when they showed infiltrative tumor growth, while brain metastases with compact cellular proliferation caused more neurological symptoms. Infiltrative tumors did not show any enhancing masses on MR imaging, but these tumors may show intratumor heterogeneity. Seizures were reported to be more frequent in low-grade glioma and in secondary glioblastoma. Tumor heterogeneity was also reported in molecular genetic profile, and investigators identified some subsets of astrocytomas. They investigated IHD1/2 mutation, EGFR amplification, TP53 mutation, Ki-67 index, etc. In summary, high-grade astrocytomas are not homogenous groups of tumors, and this is associated with the heterogeneity of clinical manifestation, image characteristics, and histopathological findings. Molecular studies may explain the tumor heterogeneity in the near future.

  5. The use of X Rays in diagnostic and interventional imaging, excluding radiotherapy. Report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubousset, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray discovery (W.C. Roentgen, 1895) offers an immediate progress to the medical efficiency. Today, the medical diagnostic imaging knows a considerable and constant growing when becoming 'interventional', as a surgical help in the operating room. These 'ionizing' radiations, simultaneously, are the first treatment for cancers (A. Beclere, 1900's). But their use in diagnostic presents a potential danger, in children and young people who are the most sensible. The medical and paramedical members of the team are dangerously exposed, too, through the accumulative exposure. Our group reminds the consequences of the ionizing radiations. Invisible, they do not create the suspicion. Therefore, the radioprotection is mandatory because of the all-lifelong cumulative dose of exposure. Many Rules and obligations, international (WHO), European (EU), and national (Agencies, HAS, Ministry of health) with the close cooperation of Societe Francaise de Radiologie (SFR) and Societe Francaise de Radioprotection (SFRP) either in radiodiagnosis or in interventional (500.000 procedures each year in France). Closely concerned by the observance of this radioprotection, the ANM had given information and texts from more than 10 years. Alas, as a pediatric orthopedist surgeon, we observe that today half of the irradiation complications (in the past from radiotherapy) went from interventional radiological procedures (and dental exercise). We went to a 30 years bibliography about this question and to a memorandum about the new indications in modern imaging and its indications with minimization of the dose delivery. We insist on the non-ionizing radiations (MRI, echography, photonic techniques). Five guidelines, concluding the text are underlined. (authors)

  6. An image correlation procedure for digitally reconstructed radiographs and electronic portal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lei; Boyer, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To study a procedure that uses megavoltage digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) calculated from patient's three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) data as a reference image for correlation with on-line electronic portal images (EPIs) to detect patient setup errors. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage DRRs were generated by ray tracing through a modified volumetric CT data set in which CT numbers were converted into linear attenuation coefficients for the therapeutic beam energy. The DRR transmission image was transformed to the grayscale window of the EPI by a histogram-matching technique. An alternative approach was to calibrate the transmission DRR using a measured response curve of the electronic portal imaging device (EPID). This forces the calculated transmission fluence values to be distributed in the same range as that of the EPID image. A cross-correlation technique was used to determine the degree of alignment of the patient anatomy found in the EPID image relative to the reference DRR. Results: Phantom studies demonstrated that the correlation procedure had a standard deviation of 0.5 mm and 0.5 deg. in aligning translational shifts and in-plane rotations. Systematic errors were found between a reference DRR and a reference EPID image. The automated grayscale image-correlation process was completed within 3 s on a workstation computer or 12 s on a PC. Conclusion: The alignment procedure allows the direct comparison of a patient's treatment portal designed with a 3D planning computer with a patient's on-line portal image acquired at the treatment unit. The image registration process is automated to the extent that it requires minimal user intervention, and it is fast and accurate enough for on-line clinical applications

  7. NMR imaging of the liver. Diagnostics, differential diagnostics, therapeutic approaches; MRT der Leber. Diagnostik, Differenzialdiagnostik, Therapieansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbach, Frank; Fischbach, Katharina [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2017-03-01

    The book on NMR imaging of the liver covers the following issues: Fundamentals of NMR imaging, T1-weighted imaging; T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, cavernous hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasy; hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellulas carcinoma, cholangiocellular carcinoma, hepatic metastases.

  8. Efficacy of clinical diagnostic procedures utilized in nuclear medicine. Nine month progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the efficacy of nuclear medicine procedures in clinical practice. Several methods of determining efficacy will be evaluated to determine those most suitable. Nuclear medicine methods will be confined to the study of lung diseases by pulmonary perfusion and ventilation. In addition to evaluating the above methods data will be obtained to determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and efficiency of the test under consideration. These values, corrected for prevalence of the disease processes under consideration will then be compared to the values obtained by the MACRO and MICRO methods and will help to bound the clinical reliability of the diagnostic method depending on the degree to which the several methods trend together. Depending on the practicality of these two methods, in addition to the determination of efficacy, cost effectiveness factors and benefit-risk estimates which are used to apply to radiation effects will be determined for nuclear medicine studies of the brain, bone, heart, liver and thyroid subsequently. The measurement techniques will then be utilized to establish guidelines for the most useful applications of the given procedure so that clinicians will be able to obtain a pretest estimate of the utility of the nuclear medicine test.

  9. Exposure to rays and radiation hazards in connection with diagnostic X-ray procedures in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protzer, K.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, figures and data about radiation exposures for diagnostic purposes are surveyed that were collected in connection with X-ray procedures in children. The data were sorted according to body regions and techniques required for their examination so as to permit separate analyses of procedures in the urogenital tract (intravenous urogramme, micturition cystourethrography), thorax (angiocardiogramme, thoractic aortogramme, examinations using cardiac catheters), gastrointestinal system (fluoroscopy and contrast-enhanced irrigoscopy), pelvis (survey radiography), skull (computed tomography) as well as in miscellaneous group of further origins. The second part of the report discusses the uncertainties surrounding the assessment of radiation hazards and indicated radiation doses. A formula is represented for the calculation of life-time reductions that can be applied to any type of cancer and embraces a number of factors like life expectancy at age X, the patient's age at the time of radiotherapy, the five-year-survival rate for the condition under investigation and the diseased organ. At the end of the study, some methods are pointed out that may be helpful in limiting radiation exposure. (KST) [de

  10. From 'Image Gently' to image intelligently: a personalized perspective on diagnostic radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerman, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging has been a popular topic in the radiology literature and lay press. Communicating the magnitude of risk to patients and caregivers is problematic because of the uncertainty in estimates derived principally from epidemiological studies of large populations, and alternative approaches are needed to provide a scientific basis for personalized risk estimates. The underlying patient disease and life expectancy greatly influence risk projections. Research into the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair challenges the linear no-threshold dose-response assumption and reveals that individuals vary in sensitivity to radiation. Studies of decision-making psychology show that individuals are highly susceptible to irrational biases when judging risks. Truly informed medical decision-making that respects patient autonomy requires appropriate framing of radiation risks in perspective with other risks and with the benefits of imaging. To follow the principles of personalized medicine and treat patients according to their specific phenotypic and personality profiles, diagnostic imaging should optimally be tailored not only to patient size, body region and clinical indication, but also to underlying disease conditions, radio-sensitivity and risk perception and preferences that vary among individuals. (orig.)

  11. Medical image computing for computer-supported diagnostics and therapy. Advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handels, H; Ehrhardt, J

    2009-01-01

    Medical image computing has become one of the most challenging fields in medical informatics. In image-based diagnostics of the future software assistance will become more and more important, and image analysis systems integrating advanced image computing methods are needed to extract quantitative image parameters to characterize the state and changes of image structures of interest (e.g. tumors, organs, vessels, bones etc.) in a reproducible and objective way. Furthermore, in the field of software-assisted and navigated surgery medical image computing methods play a key role and have opened up new perspectives for patient treatment. However, further developments are needed to increase the grade of automation, accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, the systems developed have to be integrated into the clinical workflow. For the development of advanced image computing systems methods of different scientific fields have to be adapted and used in combination. The principal methodologies in medical image computing are the following: image segmentation, image registration, image analysis for quantification and computer assisted image interpretation, modeling and simulation as well as visualization and virtual reality. Especially, model-based image computing techniques open up new perspectives for prediction of organ changes and risk analysis of patients and will gain importance in diagnostic and therapy of the future. From a methodical point of view the authors identify the following future trends and perspectives in medical image computing: development of optimized application-specific systems and integration into the clinical workflow, enhanced computational models for image analysis and virtual reality training systems, integration of different image computing methods, further integration of multimodal image data and biosignals and advanced methods for 4D medical image computing. The development of image analysis systems for diagnostic support or

  12. Investigating the link between radiologists’ gaze, diagnostic decision, and image content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Voisin, Sophie; Paquit, Vincent; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from three breast imaging radiologists and three radiology residents who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Image analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists’ attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results By pooling the data from all readers, machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, and cognition. Potential linking of those with diagnostic error was also supported to some extent. Merging readers’ gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the readers’ diagnostic errors while confirming 97.3% of their correct diagnoses. The readers’ individual perceptual and cognitive behaviors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of others. However, personalized tuning was in many cases beneficial for capturing more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions There is clearly an interaction between radiologists’ gaze, diagnostic decision, and image content which can be modeled with machine learning algorithms. PMID:23788627

  13. Diagnostic imaging techniques in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, A.; Carcione, A.; Benenati, A.; Albano, S.; Rubino, F.P.; Reina, C.; Verde, V.; Giuffre, L.; Corsello, G.; Cammarata, M.; Piccione, M.

    1991-01-01

    Both etiology and pathogenesis of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) are still questionable, even though a genetic factor seems to be certain. A typical face, psychomotor delay, and thumb and halluces abnormalities (big, prevalently short, and often 'spoon-like' toes) are the main characteristic patterns of RTS. Eight subjects (4 male and 3 female children aged 26 days-7 years, and a 31-year old woman, mother of 1 of the affected children) with different signs of RTS were studied over the last 3 years. The results are here reported, with a special emphasis on malformations detected with conventional radiography (Rx), Computerized Tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US). Evaluated parameters were thumbs and halluces (Rx), bone age and skeleton (Rx), cranium (Rx) and encephalon (US, CT), cryptochidism (US, CT), and urogical (Rx, US) and carciovascolar (US) system. Atypical face and psycomotor delay were found in all cases, while thumb and halluces abnormalities were observed only in 6 cases. Among several clinical signs of RTS, we found: severe (<3rd centile) bone maturation delay in 4 cases; skull volume reduction (<50th centile) in 3 subjects and microcrania in 4; skeletal abnormalities in 7 cases (5 of them positive for bilateral coxofemoral abnormalities); urinary tract (4 cases) and cardiovascular (3 cases) malformation; and cryptorcidism in 3 of 4 males. A case was diagnosed during neonatal period (within the first month of life) it was a rare case associated with a variant form of Dandy-Walker anomaly; semiologic similarities were observed between mother and daughter patients. X-rays, US and CT rarely play an important role in the diagnosis of RTS, considering the several clinical signs, mainly tha face, affecting the patients. However, diagnostic imaging techniques help diagnose hidden malformations and confirm and integrate clinical signs

  14. Neuro-Behcet's disease: diagnostic usefulness of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Soo; Song, Chang June; Lee, Ae Young; Pak, Chung Ho

    2000-01-01

    To suggest the characteristic MR features and to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging for the diagnosis of neuro-Behcet's disease. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of clinically confirmed neuro-Behcet's disease in eight patients (M:F =3D 7:1) ranging in age from 28 to 47 (average, 36) years. The findings were analyzed in terms of the most frequently occurring sites, signal intensities, contrast enhancement, and the changing patterns seen on follow-up MR examination. Seven of the eight patients had parenchymal brain lesions and the other had dural sinus thrombosis without brain parenchymal brain abnormality. In descending order of frequency, lesions involved the pons, midbrain, medulla oblongata, internal capsule, basal ganglia, thalamus, temporal lobe, and corpus callosum. The brain stem was involved in six patients, five of whom showed extensive involvement of the entire stem. In five patients, brain stem lesions showed supratentorial involvement, and in one, involvement of this region only was noted. Signal intensities of the lesions were poorly defined and extensive, especially in the brain stem, usually showed prolongation of both T1 and T2 relaxation time. Three patients underwent follow-up examination, and this showed that while most lesions had disappeared in time, some had become small and cavitary. Initial MR examination showed that three patients had newly developed lesions as well as cavitary foci, suggesting the recurrence of disease. Contrast enhancement was noted in five of seven patients (71%), and various types, including nodular, linear, marginal, and ring. The MR features of neuro-Behcet's disease were fairly characteristic, and in clinically unsuspicious patients might be diagnostically useful. (author)

  15. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.

  16. A necessary evil: The experiences of men with prostate cancer undergoing imaging procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathers, Sandra A., E-mail: s.mathers@rgu.ac.uk [Robert Gordon University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QG (United Kingdom); McKenzie, Graham A.; Robertson, Elizabeth M. [Robert Gordon University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: This study sought to explore the experience of people with a diagnosis of cancer while attending for imaging procedures. The diversity and complexity of the issues described within individual interviews made it impossible to include all cancer groups in one paper. This paper focuses on the cohort of men with prostate cancer. Method: An opportunistic sample of men (n = 8) were recruited from Cancer Support Groups throughout the North-east of Scotland. A qualitative, exploratory and retrospective study design was employed using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio taped and full transcripts produced. These were analysed following the recommendations of Miles and Huberman (1994). Main findings: Men were keen to take part in the study, and described experiences from pre-diagnosis to the date of interview. Participants reported different routes to diagnosis, then having a range of diagnostic procedures indicating a very personal journey with no standardised approach. Imaging was not seen as a separate event but part of the whole story. The provision of radiology patient information material was haphazard. Participants could explain why they were having these procedures, and saw them as a 'necessary evil'. The provision of results of their tests was complex and chaotic, and was described as an anxious time. Conclusion: This study provides a unique insight into the experiences of men with prostate cancer relating to their attendance for imaging. Health professionals need to listen to their patients and learn, in order to provide a high quality, patient-centred imaging service.

  17. Safety and diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-thallium imaging in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, J.Y.; Chaitman, B.R.; Glaenzer, M.; Byers, S.; Fite, J.; Shah, Y.; Goodgold, H.; Samuels, L.

    1988-01-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease in the elderly can occasionally be difficult. Intravenous dipyridamole-thallium imaging is a potentially useful diagnostic test to determine presence and severity of coronary disease; however, the safety of the procedure has not been determined in an older population. The side effect profile and frequency of severe ischemic responses after 0.56 mg/kg of intravenous dipyridamole were compared in 101 patients greater than or equal to 70 years old and 236 patients less than 70 years old. There were no side effects in 64% and 62% of patients greater than or equal to 70 and less than 70 years old, respectively (p = NS). Among the 337 patients tested, there were no complications of myocardial infarction or death. The most common cardiac side effect was chest pain, which occurred in 21 (21%) of the 101 patients aged greater than or equal to 70 years and in 64 (27%) of the 236 patients less than 70 years (p = NS). Aminophylline was required to reverse cardiac or noncardiac side effects in 15 (15%) and 36 (15%) of the patients greater than or equal to 70 and less than 70 years old, respectively (p = NS). A severe ischemic response occurred in 2% and 2.5% of patients greater than or equal to 70 and less than 70 years old, respectively (p = NS). The sensitivity of intravenous dipyridamole-thallium imaging for obstructive coronary artery disease was 86% (25 of 29) and 83% (68 of 82) in older and younger patients, respectively (p = NS); the specificity was 75% (6 of 8) and 70% (16 of 23), respectively (p = NS). Thus, intravenous dipyridamole-thallium imaging is a safe noninvasive method for assessment of older patients with obstructive coronary disease; its side effect profile and diagnostic accuracy are similar to those seen in younger patients. The technique is associated with severe ischemic responses in only a small minority of patients

  18. New software for raw data mask processing increases diagnostic ability of myocardial SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Yoshioka, Katsunori; Seino, Kazue; Ohba, Muneo; Nakamura, Tomoharu; Shimada, Katsuhiko

    2011-05-01

    Increased activity of myocardial perfusion tracer technetium-99m in liver and hepatobiliary system causes streak artifacts, which may affect clinical diagnosis. We developed a mask-processing tool for raw data generated using technetium-99m as a myocardial perfusion tracer. Here, we describe improvements in image quality under the influence of artifacts caused by high accumulation in other organs. A heart phantom (RH-2) containing 15 MBq of pertechnetate was defined as model A. Model B was designed in the same phantom containing ten times of cardiac radioactivity overlapping with other organs. Variance in the vertical profile count in the lower part of the myocardial inferior wall and in the myocardial circumferential profile curve were investigated in a phantom and clinical cases using our raw data masking (RDM) software. The profile variances at lower parts of myocardial inferior walls were 965.43 in model A, 1390.11 in model B and 815.85 in B-RDM. The mean ± SD of myocardial circumferential profile curves were 83.91 ± 7.39 in model A, 69.61 ± 11.45 in model B and 82.68 ± 9.71 in model B-RDM. For 11 clinical images with streak artifacts, the average of the variance significantly differed between with and without RDM (3.95 vs. 21.05; P software. The waiting time between infusion and image acquisition should be decreased, thus reducing patient burden and improving the diagnostic ability of the procedure.

  19. Requesting diagnostic imaging examinations: a position paper of the Canadian Association of Radiologists. Special article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolberg, H.O.; Hynes, D.M.; Rainbow, A.J.; Moran, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The present document is directed at physicians who request diagnostic imaging examinations. Many of the imaging examinations currently requested are not useful in managing clinical problems. The intention is to provide general guidelines for the prescription of appropriate imaging examinations. This document does not address the use of specific imaging modalities in particular clinical situations. The purpose is to help doctors make the best use of the imaging examination by providing general guidelines to assist in deciding upon the most appropriate situation in which to use the examination. Similar guidelines for the prescription of diagnostic x-ray examinations have been suggested previously. (author). 19 refs.,

  20. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  1. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  2. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); St. Andrew' s Medical Institute, St. Andrew' s War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment

  3. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment performance

  4. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ricardo Braz F. da; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2011-01-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  5. TH-A-BRF-11: Image Intensity Non-Uniformities Between MRI Simulation and Diagnostic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: MRI simulation for MRI-based radiotherapy demands that patients be setup in treatment position, which frequently involves use of alternative radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations to accommodate immobilized patients. However, alternative RF coil geometries may exacerbate image intensity non-uniformities (IINU) beyond those observed in diagnostic MRI, which may challenge image segmentation and registration accuracy as well as confound studies assessing radiotherapy response when MR simulation images are used as baselines for evaluation. The goal of this work was to determine whether differences in IINU exist between MR simulation and diagnostic MR images. Methods: ACR-MRI phantom images were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo sequence (TE/TR:20/500ms, rBW:62.5kHz, TH/skip:5/5mm). MR simulation images were obtained by wrapping two flexible phased-array RF coils around the phantom. Diagnostic MR images were obtained by placing the phantom into a commercial phased-array head coil. Pre-scan normalization was enabled in both cases. Images were transferred offline and corrected for IINU using the MNI N3 algorithm. Coefficients of variation (CV=σ/μ) were calculated for each slice. Wilcoxon matched-pairs and Mann-Whitney tests compared CV values between original and N3 images and between MR simulation and diagnostic MR images. Results: Significant differences in CV were detected between original and N3 images in both MRI simulation and diagnostic MRI groups (p=0.010, p=0.010). In addition, significant differences in CV were detected between original MR simulation and original and N3 diagnostic MR images (p=0.0256, p=0.0016). However, no significant differences in CV were detected between N3 MR simulation images and original or N3 diagnostic MR images, demonstrating the importance of correcting MR simulation images beyond pre-scan normalization prior to use in radiotherapy. Conclusions: Alternative RF coil configurations used in MRI simulation can Result in

  6. Chaotic Dynamical State Variables Selection Procedure Based Image Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Bashir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the modern digital era, the use of computer technologies such as smartphones, tablets and the Internet, as well as the enormous quantity of confidential information being converted into digital form have resulted in raised security issues. This, in turn, has led to rapid developments in cryptography, due to the imminent need for system security. Low-dimensional chaotic systems have low complexity and key space, yet they achieve high encryption speed. An image encryption scheme is proposed that, without compromising the security, uses reasonable resources. We introduced a chaotic dynamic state variables selection procedure (CDSVSP to use all state variables of a hyper-chaotic four-dimensional dynamical system. As a result, less iterations of the dynamical system are required, and resources are saved, thus making the algorithm fast and suitable for practical use. The simulation results of security and other miscellaneous tests demonstrate that the suggested algorithm excels at robustness, security and high speed encryption.

  7. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  8. Machine-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quality Control Procedures for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ali; Taghizadeh, Somayeh; Yang, Claus Chunli; R Kanakamedala, Madhava; Morris, Bart; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2017-12-18

    Purpose Magnetic resonance (MR) images are necessary for accurate contouring of intracranial targets, determination of gross target volume and evaluation of organs at risk during stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning procedures. Many centers use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulators or regular diagnostic MRI machines for SRS treatment planning; while both types of machine require two stages of quality control (QC), both machine- and patient-specific, before use for SRS, no accepted guidelines for such QC currently exist. This article describes appropriate machine-specific QC procedures for SRS applications. Methods and materials We describe the adaptation of American College of Radiology (ACR)-recommended QC tests using an ACR MRI phantom for SRS treatment planning. In addition, commercial Quasar MRID 3D and Quasar GRID 3D phantoms were used to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field (B 0 ) inhomogeneity, gradient nonlinearity, and a Leksell G frame (SRS frame) and its accessories on geometrical distortion in MR images. Results QC procedures found in-plane distortions (Maximum = 3.5 mm, Mean = 0.91 mm, Standard deviation = 0.67 mm, >2.5 mm (%) = 2) in X-direction (Maximum = 2.51 mm, Mean = 0.52 mm, Standard deviation = 0.39 mm, > 2.5 mm (%) = 0) and in Y-direction (Maximum = 13. 1 mm , Mean = 2.38 mm, Standard deviation = 2.45 mm, > 2.5 mm (%) = 34) in Z-direction and < 1 mm distortion at a head-sized region of interest. MR images acquired using a Leksell G frame and localization devices showed a mean absolute deviation of 2.3 mm from isocenter. The results of modified ACR tests were all within recommended limits, and baseline measurements have been defined for regular weekly QC tests. Conclusions With appropriate QC procedures in place, it is possible to routinely obtain clinically useful MR images suitable for SRS treatment planning purposes. MRI examination for SRS planning can benefit from the improved localization and planning

  9. Endoscopic Laser-Based 3D Imaging for Functional Voice Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Semmler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported on the in vivo application of a miniaturized measuring device for 3D visualization of the superior vocal fold vibrations from high-speed recordings in combination with a laser projection unit (LPU. As a long-term vision for this proof of principle, we strive to integrate the further developed laserendoscopy as a diagnostic method in daily clinical routine. The new LPU mainly comprises a Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm/CW/2 ω and a diffractive optical element (DOE generating a regular laser grid (31 × 31 laser points that is projected on the vocal folds. By means of stereo triangulation, the 3D coordinates of the laser points are reconstructed from the endoscopic high-speed footage. The new design of the laserendoscope constitutes a compromise between robust image processing and laser safety regulations. The algorithms for calibration and analysis are now optimized with respect to their overall duration and the number of required interactions, which is objectively assessed using binary classifiers. The sensitivity and specificity of the calibration procedure are increased by 40.1% and 22.3%, which is statistically significant. The overall duration for the laser point detection is reduced by 41.9%. The suggested semi-automatic reconstruction software represents an important stepping-stone towards potential real time processing and a comprehensive, objective diagnostic tool of evidence-based medicine.

  10. What, why, and when we image: considerations for diagnostic imaging and clinical research in the Children's Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaman, Gregory H.

    2009-01-01

    Success in improving treatment outcomes in childhood cancer has been achieved almost exclusively through multicenter and multidisciplinary clinical and applied research over several decades. While biologically rational as well as empirical approaches have led to combination chemotherapy and multimodality approaches to therapy, which have given rise to evidence-based practice standards, similar scientific rigor has not always been as evidently applied to modalities utilized to assess initial disease burden and, more important, response to investigational approaches to therapy. As the empirical approach to therapeutic advances has likely maximized its benefit, future progress will require translation of biologic discovery most notably from the areas of genomics and proteomics. Hence, attempts to improve efficacy of therapy will require a parallel effort to minimize collateral damage of future therapeutic approaches, and such a parallel approach will mandate the continued dependence on advances in diagnostic imaging for improvements in staging methodologies to best define risk groups for risk-adjusted therapy. In addition, anatomic and functional assessment of response and surveillance for disease recurrence will require improved understanding of the biology as well as natural history of individual diseases, which one hopes will better inform investigators in designing trials. Clinical and research expertise is urgently needed in the selection of specific imaging studies and frequencies that best assess a response as well as to define disease-free intervals. Despite limited resources to develop sufficient infrastructure, emphasis on enabling early assessment of new technology to minimize risks associated with treatment advances and with those critical diagnostic and staging procedures must continue to be a focus of pediatric cancer clinical research. (orig.)

  11. Utilization Trends in Diagnostic Imaging for a Commercially Insured Population: A Study of Massachusetts Residents 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Stephen; Mortele, Koenraad J; Young, Gary J

    2018-06-01

    To report utilization trends in diagnostic imaging among commercially insured Massachusetts residents from 2009 to 2013. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify diagnostic imaging claims in the Massachusetts All-Payer Claims Database for the years 2009 to 2013. We reported utilization and spending annually by imaging modality using total claims, claims per 1,000 individuals, total expenditures, and average per claim payments. The number of diagnostic imaging claims per insured MA resident increased only 0.6% from 2009 to 2013, whereas nonradiology claims increased by 6% annually. Overall diagnostic imaging expenditures, adjusted for inflation, were 27% lower in 2009 than 2013, compared with an 18% increase in nonimaging expenditures. Average payments per claim were lower in 2013 than 2009 for all modalities except nuclear medicine. Imaging procedure claims per 1,000 MA residents increased from 2009 to 2013 by 13% in MRI, from 147 to 166; by 17% in ultrasound, from 453 to 530; and by 12% in radiography (x-ray), from 985 to 1,100. However, CT claims per 1,000 fell by 37%, from 341 to 213, and nuclear medicine declined 57%, from 89 claims per 1,000 to 38. Diagnostic imaging utilization exhibited negligible growth over the study period. Diagnostic imaging expenditures declined, largely the result of falling payments per claim in most imaging modalities, in contrast with increased utilization and spending on nonimaging services. Utilization of MRI, ultrasound, and x-ray increased from 2009 to 2013, whereas CT and nuclear medicine use decreased sharply, although CT was heavily impacted by billing code changes. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of ROC analysis in diagnostic image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The need for Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis is indicated by a discussion of the limitations of accuracy and of sensitivity and specificity as indices of diagnostic detection or discrmination performance. The concept of a variable decision threshold is shown to lead in a natural way to the ROC curve as a means for specifying diagnostic performance. Practical techniques for measuring ROC curves are described, and directions for possible generalizations of conventional ROC analysis are indicated

  13. Sedation for pediatric diagnostic imaging: use of pediatric and nursing resources as an alternative to a radiology department sedation team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, Lynne; O'Connor, Stephen C.; Mikita, Cecilia P.; Creamer, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To develop a pathway to provide safe, effective, and efficient sedation for pediatric diagnostic imaging studies using non-radiology personnel. Materials and methods. A multidisciplinary team considered manpower and training requirements and national sedation standards before designing a sedation pathway, which included scheduling, pre-sedation history and physical, medication protocols, and monitoring. Oral and IV medication protocols were developed based on patient age and weight. Sedation delays were defined as >15 min (IV) or >30 min (PO) from start of sedation to start of imaging. A sedation failure resulted in an incomplete diagnostic imaging study. Failure rates of 124 sedations before and 388 sedations after the pathway were compared.Results. The sedation failure rate for 7 months prior to pathway initiation was 15% (19/124). In the first 25 months after pathway initiation, failures were significantly reduced to 1.5% (6/388) (P 55 min). Deviation from the recommended medication protocol accounted for most of the 115 delays. Only minor adverse events were seen (12/388, 3.1%).Conclusion. Implementing a pediatric sedation pathway significantly decreases the sedation failure rate. Pediatric residents and nurses can safely, effectively and efficiently sedate pediatric patients for routine diagnostic imaging procedures without the need for a radiology department sedation team in a department with a small-to-moderate volume of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  14. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, C.L.; Wilson, D.J.; Coltman, T.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  15. Preliminary survey on the distribution of medical equipment and frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in Brazil: a contribution to the UNSCEAR report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazotto, Bruna; Taboza de Oliveira, Alexandre; Baptista de Freitas, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Information about Brazil published in the UNSCEAR 2000 report are still scarce when compared to others countries. In this study, a survey on the distribution of medical equipment (X-ray generators, ultrasound, CT and MRI scanners, nuclear medicine equipment and teletherapy and brachytherapy units) and frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures at the various Brazilian States was carried out. The overall information was obtained from a national database supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health through the Computer Science Department of the National Health System (SUS - Sistema Unico de Saude). The distribution of equipment and the annual frequency of each type of procedure were analyzed considering the five geographical regions that form the country and their respective population. Temporal and regional trends in the annual frequency of procedures for 2000-2007 were also summarized in this study. National annual frequencies for the total of all medical X-ray examinations (259.0 examinations per 1000 population) were evaluated. Some examples can be given from chest, mammography and CT examinations: 67.4, 30.2 and 7.2 per 1000 population, respectively. In addition, annual frequencies for other modalities of diagnostic imaging have also been estimated: 61.5, 1.6 and 1.4 per 1000 population for ultrasound, nuclear medicine and MRI procedures, respectively. A total of 38.7 therapeutic procedures per 1000 population (teletherapy and brachytherapy) are annually performed in the country. The health services localized in Brazil comprised a total number of 253.1 diagnostic imaging equipment per million population, without considering dental X-ray. Amongst them, X-ray equipment used in common radiological examinations (chest, skull, spine, etc.) stands for 39% (97.7 per million). As expected, a significant decrease in the offer of equipment is observed when technologically more sophisticated equipment is concerned: magnetic resonance (3.5 per million), gamma

  16. Investigating the Link Between Radiologists Gaze, Diagnostic Decision, and Image Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Krupinski, Elizabeth [University of Arizona

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods: Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from six radiologists who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Texture analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results: By pooling the data from all radiologists machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, cognition, and error. Merging radiologists gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the radiologists diagnostic errors while confirming 96.2% of their correct diagnoses. The radiologists individual errors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of their peers. However, personalized tuning appears to be beneficial in many cases to capture more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions: Machine learning algorithms combining image features with radiologists gaze data and diagnostic decisions can be effectively developed to recognize cognitive and perceptual errors associated with the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms.

  17. Patient and staff doses in fluoroscopically guided invasive diagnostic and interventional urology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Hristova-Popova, J.; Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Deyanova, Ts.; Dobrikov, R.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to evaluate patient and staff doses in fluoroscopically guided invasive diagnostic and interventional urology procedures. All the data were collected in the Emergency Hospital 'N. I. Pirogov'. While recording data for the patients, a real time dosimetry measurement of the medical staff was made. Air kerma-area product (KAP) was recorded for intravenous pyelogram (IVP), percutaneous nephrostomy (PN) and ureteral 'double-J' stenting. Patient data sex, age and weight were also taken. Staff doses were estimated with the system RaySafe i2. It contains four dosimeters, with a wireless connection to a real time display. The dosimeters were worn on the unprotected upper part of the body and measured the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). The mean KAP values for the procedures are: 3.21 Gy.cm 2 for IVP, 10.37 Gy.cm 2 for PN and 4.15 Gy.cm 2 for 'double-J' respectively. The highest staff dose for PN and 'double-J' is received by the urologist (160 μSv and 47.3 μSv, respectively), while for the IVP the radiographer has the highest exposure (20 μSv). Each member of the medical staff was on a different position in respect to the X-ray tube and the patient, which is the main reason for the differences in the staff doses. The variations in the mean patient and staff doses are mostly due to the interventions themselves, their complexity and the individual treatment of every patient. RaySafe i2 is very useful as guideline for making a choice of a better position and in the decreasing of radiation exposure to the staff

  18. Applications of 'edge-on' illuminated porous plate detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhaliev, P M

    2002-01-01

    Scanning X-ray imaging systems for non-invasive diagnostics have several advantages over conventional imaging systems using area detectors. They significantly reduce the detected scatter radiation, cover large areas and potentially provide high spatial resolution. Applications of one-dimensional gaseous detectors and 'edge-on' illuminated silicon strip detectors for scanning imaging systems are currently under intensive investigation. The purpose of this work is to investigate 'edge-on' illuminated Porous Plate (PP) detectors for applications in diagnostic X-ray imaging. MicroChannel Plate (MCP), which is a common type of PP, has previously been investigated as a detector in surface-on illumination mode for medical X-ray imaging. However, its detection efficiency was too low for medical imaging applications. In the present study, the PP are used in the 'edge-on' illumination mode. Furthermore, the structural parameters of different PP types are optimized to improve the detection efficiency in the diagnostic X...

  19. Improvement of Railroad Roller Bearing Test Procedures & Development of Roller Bearing Diagnostic Techniques. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive review of existing basic diagnostic techniques applicable to the railcar roller bearing defect and failure problem was made. Of the potentially feasible diagnostic techniques identified, high frequency vibration was selected for exper...

  20. Bladder outlet obstruction due to a small midline prostatic cyst - diagnostic imaging and interventional radiological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueppe, T.; Kopka, L.; Friedrich, M.; Kuehn, M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a bladder outlet obstruction due to a midline prostatic cyst. In the following clinical apperance, diagnostic imaging and therapy by CT-guided punction are reported. Differential diagnosis and therapy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Exercise echocardiography or exercise SPECT imaging? - A meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischmann, KE; Hunink, MGM; Kuntz, KM; Douglas, PS

    1998-01-01

    Context.-Cardiac imaging has advanced rapidly, providing clinicians with several choices for evaluating patients with suspected coronary artery disease, but few studies compare modalities directly. .-To review the contemporary literature and to compare the diagnostic performance of exercise

  2. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Weert, H.C. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Bindels, P.J.; Horst, H.E. van der

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evaluating

  3. Evaluating the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services to Assess Incorrect Error-Correction Procedures by Preschool Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Melissa; Sellers, Tyra P.

    2018-01-01

    The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) has been used to assess variables contributing to undesirable staff performance. In this study, three preschool teachers completed the PDC-HS to identify the factors contributing to four paraprofessionals' inaccurate implementation of error-correction procedures during discrete trial…

  4. Consensus guidelines for the use of bowel preparation prior to colonic diagnostic procedures: colonoscopy and small bowel video capsule endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth; Pellisé, Maria; Heresbach, Denis; Fischbach, Wolfgang; Dixon, Tricia; Belsey, Jonathan; Parente, Fabrizio; Rio-Tinto, Ricardo; Brown, Alistair; Toth, Ervin; Crosta, Cristiano; Layer, Peter; Epstein, Owen; Boustiere, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Adequate bowel preparation prior to colonic diagnostic procedures is essential to ensure adequate visualisation. This consensus aims to provide guidance as to the appropriate use of bowel preparation for a range of defined clinical circumstances. A consensus group from across Europe was convened and

  5. Automatic segmentation of rotational x-ray images for anatomic intra-procedural surface generation in atrial fibrillation ablation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzke, Robert; Meyer, Carsten; Ecabert, Olivier; Peters, Jochen; Noordhoek, Niels J; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Reddy, Vivek Y; Chan, Raymond C; Weese, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Since the introduction of 3-D rotational X-ray imaging, protocols for 3-D rotational coronary artery imaging have become widely available in routine clinical practice. Intra-procedural cardiac imaging in a computed tomography (CT)-like fashion has been particularly compelling due to the reduction of clinical overhead and ability to characterize anatomy at the time of intervention. We previously introduced a clinically feasible approach for imaging the left atrium and pulmonary veins (LAPVs) with short contrast bolus injections and scan times of approximately 4 -10 s. The resulting data have sufficient image quality for intra-procedural use during electro-anatomic mapping (EAM) and interventional guidance in atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation procedures. In this paper, we present a novel technique to intra-procedural surface generation which integrates fully-automated segmentation of the LAPVs for guidance in AF ablation interventions. Contrast-enhanced rotational X-ray angiography (3-D RA) acquisitions in combination with filtered-back-projection-based reconstruction allows for volumetric interrogation of LAPV anatomy in near-real-time. An automatic model-based segmentation algorithm allows for fast and accurate LAPV mesh generation despite the challenges posed by image quality; relative to pre-procedural cardiac CT/MR, 3-D RA images suffer from more artifacts and reduced signal-to-noise. We validate our integrated method by comparing 1) automatic and manual segmentations of intra-procedural 3-D RA data, 2) automatic segmentations of intra-procedural 3-D RA and pre-procedural CT/MR data, and 3) intra-procedural EAM point cloud data with automatic segmentations of 3-D RA and CT/MR data. Our validation results for automatically segmented intra-procedural 3-D RA data show average segmentation errors of 1) approximately 1.3 mm compared with manual 3-D RA segmentations 2) approximately 2.3 mm compared with automatic segmentation of pre-procedural CT/MR data and 3

  6. Hospital discharge diagnostic and procedure codes for upper gastro-intestinal cancer: how accurate are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Efty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-level health administrative datasets such as hospital discharge data are used increasingly to evaluate health services and outcomes of care. However information about the accuracy of Australian discharge data in identifying cancer, associated procedures and comorbidity is limited. The Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC is a census of inpatient hospital discharges in the state of New South Wales (NSW. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of the APDC in identifying upper gastro-intestinal (upper GI cancer cases, procedures for associated curative resection and comorbidities at the time of admission compared to data abstracted from medical records (the ‘gold standard’. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 240 patients with an incident upper GI cancer diagnosis derived from a clinical database in one NSW area health service from July 2006 to June 2007. Extracted case record data was matched to APDC discharge data to determine sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and agreement between the two data sources (κ-coefficient. Results The accuracy of the APDC diagnostic codes in identifying site-specific incident cancer ranged from 80-95% sensitivity. This was comparable to the accuracy of APDC procedure codes in identifying curative resection for upper GI cancer. PPV ranged from 42-80% for cancer diagnosis and 56-93% for curative surgery. Agreement between the data sources was >0.72 for most cancer diagnoses and curative resections. However, APDC discharge data was less accurate in reporting common comorbidities - for each condition, sensitivity ranged from 9-70%, whilst agreement ranged from κ = 0.64 for diabetes down to κ  Conclusions Identifying incident cases of upper GI cancer and curative resection from hospital administrative data is satisfactory but under-ascertained. Linkage of multiple population-health datasets is advisable to maximise case ascertainment and minimise false

  7. Tree-structured vector quantization of CT chest scans: Image quality and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosman, P.C.; Tseng, C.; Gray, R.M.; Olshen, R.A.; Moses, L.E.; Davidson, H.C.; Bergin, C.J.; Riskin, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The quality of lossy compressed images is often characterized by signal-to-noise ratios, informal tests of subjective quality, or receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves that include subjective appraisals of the value of an image for a particular application. The authors believe that for medical applications, lossy compressed images should be judged by a more natural and fundamental aspect of relative image quality: their use in making accurate diagnoses. They apply a lossy compression algorithm to medical images, and quantify the quality of the images by the diagnostic performance of radiologists, as well as by traditional signal-to-noise ratios and subjective ratings. The study is unlike previous studies of the effects of lossy compression in that they consider non-binary detection tasks, simulate actual diagnostic practice instead of using paired tests or confidence rankings, use statistical methods that are more appropriate for non-binary clinical data than are the popular ROC curves, and use low-complexity predictive tree-structured vector quantization for compression rather than DCT-based transform codes combined with entropy coding. Their diagnostic tasks are the identification of nodules (tumors) in the lungs and lymphadenopathy in the mediastinum from computerized tomography (CT) chest scans. For the image modality, compression algorithm, and diagnostic tasks they consider, the original 12 bit per pixel (bpp) CT image can be compressed to between 1 bpp and 2 bpp with no significant changes in diagnostic accuracy

  8. Diagnostic Imaging of the Lower Respiratory Tract in Neonatal Foals: Radiography and Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Kara M; Joslyn, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and monitoring of lower respiratory disease in neonatal foals. Radiography is most widely available to equine practitioners and is the primary modality that has been used for the characterization of respiratory disease in foals. Computed tomography imaging, although still limited in availability to the general practitioner, offers advantages over radiography and has been used diagnostically in neonatal foals with respiratory disease. Recognition of appropriate imaging protocols and patient-associated artifacts is critical for accurate image interpretation regardless of the modality used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole Slide Images for primary diagnostics in pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Janabi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Whole slide imaging is the process of digitizing glass slides resulting in the creation of Whole Slide Images (WSI). WSI are usually explored with the aid of an image viewer in a manner that closely simulates examining glass slides with a conventional microscope, permitting the manipulation of an

  10. Radiation: Rational use of diagnostic imaging studies in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to recognize the biological effects of radiation; explain the action of ionizing radiation on the cell; list the main sources of ionizing radiation; to indicate imaging studies considering the danger of radiation; select the method of imaging saving radiation; rational use of imaging studies without repeating exams. [es

  11. Prostatic carcinoma. Diagnostic and stating: MR imaging. Cancer de la prostate Diagnostic et bilan: role de l'imagerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C; Spittler, G; Jacqmin, D [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (FR); Morel, M [Clinique Saint-Francois, 67 Haguenau (FR)

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the second most commun cause of cancer death over 60 years. It is suspected by digital examination and prostatic specific antigen dosage. Transrectal ultrasound shows the tumor as an hypoechoic lesion. Sensitivity is good but specificity is low. Transrectal biopsy of prostate guided by transrectal ultrasound made the diagnosis. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging of prostatic carcinoma.

  12. Investigation of CT diagnostic imaging of 'Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Nobuhiro; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Ojiri, Hiroya; Kanou, Asami; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2011-01-01

    'Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS)' is a newly developed entity of chronic rhinosinusitis, which shows resistance against conventional treatment and poor prognosis. Pathologically, ECRS is manifested by high-degree of eosinophilic infiltration in the paranasal sinus mucosa. We structure the CT diagnostic criteria of ECRS and assess its availability. This diagnostic criteria consists of disease distribution (bilateral and predominant in the ethmoid sinus), existence of nasal polyp (s) and high attenuation which suggestive of allergic mucine. We retrospectively review CT of clinically diagnosed 14 ECRS cases to see if CT features of each case fit the criteria or not. The current CT diagnostic criteria of ECRS were proven to be useful to evaluate cases with clinical suspicion of ECRS. (author)

  13. Image formation in diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.A. den.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis deals with a physical description of the image formation in static radiographic shadow image X-ray equipment and an analysis of the optimization of such systems. For the latter criteria have been developed that take into account all relevant physical phenomena that relate to properties of the image and the radiation exposure of the patient. The discussion of image formation results in a number of relations between the X-ray system parameters on the one hand and properties of the X-ray image on the other. The three principal aspects considered are energy transfer, modulation transfer and noise. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Diagnostic radionuclide imaging of amyloid: biological targeting by circulating human serum amyloid P component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, P.N.; Lavender, J.P.; Myers, M.J.; Pepys, M.B.

    1988-06-25

    The specific molecular affinity of the normal plasma protein, serum amyloid P component (SAP), for all known types of amyloid fibrils was used to develop a new general diagnostic method for in-vivo radionuclide imaging of amyloid deposits. After intravenous injection of /sup 123/I-labelled purified human SAP there was specific uptake into amyloid deposits in all affected patients, 7 with systematic AL amyloid, 5 with AA amyloid, and 2 with ..beta../sub 2/M amyloid, in contrast to the complete absence of any tissue localisation in 5 control subjects. Distinctive high-resolution scintigraphic images, even of minor deposits in the carpal regions, bone marrow, or adrenals, were obtained. This procedure should yield much information on the natural history and the management of amyloidosis, the presence of which has hitherto been confirmed only by biopsy. Clearance and metabolic studies indicated that, in the presence of extensive amyloidosis, the rate of synthesis of SAP was greatly increased despite maintenance of normal plasma levels. Futhermore, once localised to amyloid deposits the /sup 123/I-SAP persisted for long periods and was apparently protected from its normal rapid degradation. These findings shed new light on the pathophysiology of amyloid and may have implications for therapeutic strategies based upon specific molecular targeting with SAP.

  15. CD-ROM training course in quality assurance in diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.J.; Machado, P.; Drexler, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the CD-ROM elaborated to provide a continuous professional formation and a practical guidance on the implementation and operation of routine quality assurance (QA) programme for medical physicists, regulator authorities and for those personnel concerned with the daily provision of diagnostic radiology services. The CD-ROM contains topics on the basic concepts of QA in radiodiagnostic, and it also allows the user to visualise effects on the variation of technical parameters (tube potential (kV) and current (mA), filtration) in the quality of the image. This possibility will contribute to the better understanding of the phenomena associated with the quality of the image. Besides, the program contains the procedures for the execution of the tests of the equipment and the route of implantation of program of quality assurance. It is interactive with the user, it fills a gap in the medical physics area and it allows the student's continuous formation because it assists the beginner, with the basic concepts, and the professional, with the aid in the implantation of the program of QA. The presentation is in the Portuguese language. (author)

  16. Current use of imaging and electromagnetic source localization procedures in epilepsy surgery centers across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthaan, Brian E; Rados, Matea; Barsi, Péter; Boon, Paul; Carmichael, David W; Carrette, Evelien; Craiu, Dana; Cross, J Helen; Diehl, Beate; Dimova, Petia; Fabo, Daniel; Francione, Stefano; Gaskin, Vladislav; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Grigoreva, Elena; Guekht, Alla; Hirsch, Edouard; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Jung, Julien; Kalviainen, Reetta; Kelemen, Anna; Kimiskidis, Vasilios; Kobulashvili, Teia; Krsek, Pavel; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Larsson, Pål G; Leitinger, Markus; Lossius, Morten I; Luzin, Roman; Malmgren, Kristina; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Marusic, Petr; Metin, Baris; Özkara, Cigdem; Pecina, Hrvoje; Quesada, Carlos M; Rugg-Gunn, Fergus; Rydenhag, Bertil; Ryvlin, Philippe; Scholly, Julia; Seeck, Margitta; Staack, Anke M; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Stepanov, Valentin; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Trinka, Eugen; Uzan, Mustafa; Vogt, Viola L; Vos, Sjoerd B; Vulliémoz, Serge; Huiskamp, Geertjan; Leijten, Frans S S; Van Eijsden, Pieter; Braun, Kees P J

    2016-05-01

    In 2014 the European Union-funded E-PILEPSY project was launched to improve awareness of, and accessibility to, epilepsy surgery across Europe. We aimed to investigate the current use of neuroimaging, electromagnetic source localization, and imaging postprocessing procedures in participating centers. A survey on the clinical use of imaging, electromagnetic source localization, and postprocessing methods in epilepsy surgery candidates was distributed among the 25 centers of the consortium. A descriptive analysis was performed, and results were compared to existing guidelines and recommendations. Response rate was 96%. Standard epilepsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols are acquired at 3 Tesla by 15 centers and at 1.5 Tesla by 9 centers. Three centers perform 3T MRI only if indicated. Twenty-six different MRI sequences were reported. Six centers follow all guideline-recommended MRI sequences with the proposed slice orientation and slice thickness or voxel size. Additional sequences are used by 22 centers. MRI postprocessing methods are used in 16 centers. Interictal positron emission tomography (PET) is available in 22 centers; all using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Seventeen centers perform PET postprocessing. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is used by 19 centers, of which 15 perform postprocessing. Four centers perform neither PET nor SPECT in children. Seven centers apply magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, and nine apply electroencephalography (EEG) source localization. Fourteen combinations of inverse methods and volume conduction models are used. We report a large variation in the presurgical diagnostic workup among epilepsy surgery centers across Europe. This diversity underscores the need for high-quality systematic reviews, evidence-based recommendations, and harmonization of available diagnostic presurgical methods. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Activities of radiopharmaceuticals administered for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine in Argentina: results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, Ana M.; Chiliutti, Claudia A.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear medicine in Argentine is carried out at 292 centres, distributed all over the country, mainly concentrated in the capital cities of the provinces. With the purpose of knowing the activity levels of radiopharmaceuticals that were administered to patients for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine, a national survey was conducted, during 2001 and 2002. This survey was answered voluntarily by 107 centres. Sixty-four percent of the participants centres are equipped with SPECT system while the other centres have a gamma camera or scintiscanner. There were 37 nuclear medicine procedures, chosen among those most frequently performed, were included in the survey. In those diagnostic procedures were included tests for: bone, brain, thyroid, kidney, liver, lung and cardiovascular system; and also activities administered for some therapeutic procedures. The nuclear medicine physicians reported the different radiopharmaceutical activities administered to typical adult patients. In this paper are presented the average radiopharmaceutical activity administered for each of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures included in the survey and the range and distribution of values. In order to place these data in a frame of reference, these average values were compared to the guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine mentioned at the Safety Series no. 115. From this comparison it was noticed that the activities administered in the 40% of the diagnostic procedures included in the survey were between ±30% of the reference values. For those nuclear medicine procedures that could not be compared with the above mentioned guidance levels, the comparison was made with values published by UNSCEAR or standards recommended by international bodies. As a result of this study, it is important to point out the need to continue the gathering of data in a wider scale survey to increase the knowledge about national trends. It is also essential to widely

  18. Comparison of diagnostic performance for perinatal and paediatric post-mortem imaging: CT versus MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Jacques, Thomas S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Guy, Anna; Chong, W.K.; Gunny, Roxanna; Saunders, Dawn; Olsen, Oystein E.; Thayyil, Sudhin; Wade, Angie; Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M.; Scott, Rosemary; Robertson, Nicola J.; Owens, Catherine M.; Offiah, Amaka C.; Chitty, Lyn S.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic yield of whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) imaging to post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) imaging in a prospective study of fetuses and children. We compared PMCT and PMMR to conventional autopsy as the gold standard for the detection of (a) major pathological abnormalities related to the cause of death and (b) all diagnostic findings in five different body organ systems. Eighty two cases (53 fetuses and 29 children) underwent PMCT and PMMR prior to autopsy, at which 55 major abnormalities were identified. Significantly more PMCT than PMMR examinations were non-diagnostic (18/82 vs. 4/82; 21.9 % vs. 4.9 %, diff 17.1 % (95 % CI 6.7, 27.6; p < 0.05)). PMMR gave an accurate diagnosis in 24/55 (43.64 %; 95 % CI 31.37, 56.73 %) compared to 18/55 PMCT (32.73 %; 95 % CI 21.81, 45.90). PMCT was particularly poor in fetuses <24 weeks, with 28.6 % (8.1, 46.4 %) more non-diagnostic scans. Where both PMCT and PMMR were diagnostic, PMMR gave slightly higher diagnostic accuracy than PMCT (62.8 % vs. 59.4 %). Unenhanced PMCT has limited value in detection of major pathology primarily because of poor-quality, non-diagnostic fetal images. On this basis, PMMR should be the modality of choice for non-invasive PM imaging in fetuses and children. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of artificially induced vertical root fractures: a comparison of direct digital periapical images with conventional periapical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Un; Kwon, Ki Jeong; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2004-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy for the detection of root fractures in CMOS-based digital periapical images with conventional film-based periapical images. Sixty extracted single-root human teeth with closed apices were prepared endodontically and divided into two groups; artificially induced vertical root fracture group and control group. All radiographs were obtained using the paralleling technique. The radiographs were examined by 4 observers three times within a 4 week interval. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using data obtained from four observers. Intra- and inter-examiner agreements were computed using kappa analysis. The area under the ROC curve (Az) was used as an indicator of the diagnostic accuracy of the imaging system. Az values were as follows: direct-digital images; 0.93, film-based images; 0.92, and inverted digital images; 0.91. There was no significant difference between imaging modalities(P<0.05). The kappa value of inter-observer agreement was 0.42(range:0.28-0.60) and intra-observer agreement was 0.57(range:0.44-0.75). There is no statistical difference in diagnostic accuracy for the detection of vertical root fractures between digital periapical images and conventional periapical images. The results indicate that the CMOS sensor is a good image detector for the evaluation of vertical root fractures.

  20. Diagnostic imaging in liver transplantation. Preoperative evaluation and postoperative complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Complimentary to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly considered a therapeutic option in the therapy of end-stage liver disease. Accurate pre- and postoperative imaging is crucial for the transplantation success and represents an established part of the current evaluation algorithms. This article summarizes the most important requirements and the current imaging standards. Preoperative imaging is important for exclusion of transplantation contraindications in the recipient and for reliable assessment of anatomical variants in the donor. The main purpose of postoperative imaging is the early detection and characterization of complications. In both instances, multislice CT currently represents the most versatile and reliable imaging modality, still superior to MRI. For postoperative follow-up, the imaging modality of first choice is still bedside ultrasound; however, unclear findings usually need to be further assessed by CT. (orig.) [de

  1. Cost-effectiveness of functional cardiac imaging in the diagnostic work-up of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher, Mark; Walker, Simon; Moschetti, Karine; Pinget, Christophe; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Greenwood, John P; Schwitter, Juerg; Girardin, François R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of eight common diagnostic work-up strategies for coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with stable angina symptoms in Switzerland. A decision analytical model was used to perform a cost-effectiveness comparison of eight common multitest strategies to diagnose CHD using combinations of four diagnostic techniques: exercise treadmill test (ETT), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), and coronary angiography (CA). We used a Markov state transition model to extrapolate the results over a life-time horizon, from a third-party payer perspective. We used a CHD prevalence rate of 39% in patients and a base-case scenario with 60-year-old male patients with intermediate symptom severity Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris 2 and at least one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor but without a history of myocardial infarction and without need for revascularization. Among the eight work-up strategies, one strategy was dominant, i.e. least costly and most effective: ETT followed by CMR if the ETT result was inconclusive and then CA if the CMR result was positive or inconclusive. The CMR features a favourable balance between false-negative diagnoses, associated with an elevated risk of CV events, and false-positive diagnoses, leading to unnecessary CA and related mortality. Key parameters guiding the diagnostic strategy are the prevalence of CHD in patients with angina symptoms and the diagnostic costs of CA and CMR. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging appears to be a cost-effective work-up strategy compared with other regimens using SPECT or direct CA. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging should be more widely recommended as a diagnostic procedure for patients with suspected angina symptoms.

  2. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer......This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  3. Synthesis and Development of Diagnostic Tools for Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Henrik

    was the synthesis of different materials. The first project introduces the development of injectable fiducial markers within the field of image-guided radiotherapy. Fiducial markers for computed tomography (CT)-imaging are today needed in order to correlate the positioning of the tumor to provide a more precise...... loading of liposomes. Long circulating contrast agents for blood pool imaging by CT-imaging are of interest due to the current limitations of short retention times and the considerable amounts needed to achieve a proper contrast. A small library of contrast agents designed for remote loading of liposomes...

  4. Diagnostic difficulties resulting from morphological image variation in spondylodiscitis MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziurzyńska-Białek, Ewa; Kruk-Bachonko, Joanna; Guz, Wiesław; Łosicki, Marek; Krupski, Witold

    2012-01-01

    Spinal infection (discitis; spondylodiscitis) presents a wide spectrum of pathologies. The method of choice for spondylodiscitis imaging is magnetic resonance (MR). It provides detailed anatomical information, especially concerning epidural space and spinal cord. The main aim of this article is the description and evaluation of spondylodiscitis morphological variation visible in magnetic resonance imaging. In this article we retrospectively analysed the patients diagnosed at the Department of Radiology of the Provincial Hospital No 2 in Rzeszów between October 2009 and October 2011. The subjects involved a group of five women aged 41–74 (mean 56.3 years) and eight men aged 46–69 (mean 61,3 years). All patients had spondylodiscitis symptoms. All patients underwent MRI examination before and after the contrast enhancement. In three patients additional CT examination was performed. Following the MRI procedure all patients were diagnosed with typical symptoms of spondylodiscitis. It also revealed a number of pathologies resulting from morphological spondylodiscitis variation. Other pathologies found on the MR images of the study group patients involved epidural intra-canal spinal pathological masses causing spinal cord compression, lung abscess, pyothorax, paravertebral abscesses and epidural empyemas, abscess between adjacent vertebral bodies, abscesses beneath anterior longitudinal ligament, and iliopsoas muscle abscesses. In all cases a destruction of vertebral bodies with end plates loss restriction and cortical layer discontinuity was observed. Moreover, one person was diagnosed with pathological vertebral body fractures and liquefactive necrosis of the vertebral body. Spondylodiscitis manifests itself in a great number of morphological variations visible on the radiological images. Apart from ordinary features of vertebral bodies and discs, progressive spinal destruction is observed together with reactive bone changes and soft tissue infiltration. The latter

  5. Role of imaging procedures in clarification of complications of pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampichler, K.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a considerable number of antimicrobial agents and interdisciplinary treatment options, lower respiratory tract infections are still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Infections of the respiratory tract can lead to severe complications, such as empyema, lung abscesses and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Besides intrapulmonary complications pneumonia can also impair other organs due to a systemic inflammatory response. Underlying cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure, arteriosclerosis and dysrhythmia can either deteriorate due to infections or be newly manifested as a result of pneumonia. Early diagnosis and therapy of these sometimes life-threatening complications are crucial and can have a severe impact on disease outcome. The most important imaging techniques include chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) of the chest. Although a definite diagnosis is sometimes difficult or even impossible to establish using chest X-ray or CT, there are several findings indicative of intrapulmonary or extrapulmonary complications of pneumonia. Another useful and portable tool is thoracic ultrasound directly on the patient, which can be used to further define the underlying disease or as guidance during procedures. The chest X-ray is useful in initial diagnosis and follow-up. If complications or disease progression are suspected or the clinical course differs from the X-ray interpretation, a subsequent CT of the chest should be performed. (orig.) [de

  6. WE-A-BRF-01: Dual-Energy CT Imaging in Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, S; Li, B; Yin, F; Chen, H

    2014-01-01

    classification based on calcium scores shows excellent agreement with classification on the basis of conventional coronary artery calcium scoring. These studies demonstrate dual-energy cardiovascular CT can potentially be a noninvasive and sensitive modality in high risk patients. On-board KV/MV Imaging. To enhance soft tissue contrast and reduce metal artifacts, we have developed a dual-energy CBCT technique and a novel on-board kV/MV imaging technique based on hardware available on modern linear accelerators. We have also evaluated the feasibility of these two techniques in various phantom studies. Optimal techniques (energy, beam filtration, # of overlapping projections, etc) have been investigated with unique calibration procedures, which leads to successful decomposition of imaged material into acrylic-aluminum basis material pair. This enables the synthesis of virtual monochromatic (VM) CBCT images that demonstrate much less beam hardening, significantly reduced metal artifacts, and/or higher soft tissue CNR compared to single-energy CBCT. Adaptive Radiation Therapy. DECT could actually contribute to the area of Dose-Guided Radiation Therapy (or Adaptive Therapy). The application of DECT imaging using 80kV and 140 kV combinations could potentially increase the image quality by reducing the bone or high density material artifacts and also increase the soft tissue contrast by a light contrast agent. The result of this higher contrast / quality images is beneficial for deformable image registration / segmentation algorithm to improve its accuracy hence to make adaptive therapy less time consuming in its recontouring process. The real time re-planning prior to per treatment fraction could become more realistic with this improvement especially in hypofractional SBRT cases. Learning Objectives: Learn recent developments of dual-energy imaging in diagnosis and radiation therapy; Understand the unique clinical problem and required quantification accuracy in each application

  7. Children's exposure to ionizing radiations linked with diagnostic procedures in 2010 in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the medical exposure of the French pediatric population to ionizing radiations (IR) in 2010. It only includes diagnostic procedures. Data are mainly provided by the French Health Insurance (CNAM-TS), through a representative sample of about 1% of the French population (the so-called 'EGB' sample). In 2010, more than 100,000 children from 0 to 15 years old were included in this sample. About 600 examinations per 1000 children were performed: 55% are radiological examinations and 42% dental. CT examinations are rather rare (about 2%). Nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent less than 1% of the examinations. Children from 10 to 15 years old and babies from new born to 1 year old are the most examined. Exposure of girls and boys are rather similar. From 10 to 15 years old, dental and limbs examinations are the most frequent. Chest and pelvic examinations are the most frequent examinations performed on babies. CT pediatric examinations concern mainly the head and the neck. In 2010, a third of the French children has been exposed to at least one examination using IR. The mean and median effective doses were respectively equal to 0.65 mSv and 0.025 mSv. These values were respectively 5.7 mSv and 1.7 mSv for the children exposed to at least one CT examination (about 1% of the studied population). This study brings reference data on pediatric exposure to IR, and makes them available for public health and epidemiological purposes. This analysis should be periodically carried out to assess the evolution of the pediatric exposure. (authors)

  8. Prenatal diagnostic procedures used in pregnancies with congenital malformations in 14 regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; de Vigan, Catherine; Scarano, Gioacchino; de Walle, Hermien; Gillerot, Yves; Stoll, Claude; Addor, Marie-Claude; Stone, David; Gener, Blanca; Feijoo, Maria; Mosquera-Tenreiro, Carmen; Gatt, Miriam; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Baena, Neus; Dolk, Helen

    2004-11-01

    To investigate outcomes of ultrasound investigations (US) and invasive diagnostic procedures in cases of congenital malformations (CM), and to compare the use of invasive prenatal test techniques (amniocentesis (AC) versus chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) among European populations. Analysis of data from population-based registries of CM. 25 400 cases of CM recorded by 14 EUROCAT registries covering a total population of 1,013,352 births 1995-99. US were performed in 91% of cases, and positively detected CM in 35% of cases. AC was performed in 24% of the cases and CVS in 3% of cases. Thirty-eight percent of invasive tests gave positive results. Fifty-two percent of cases with maternal age > or = 35 years had an invasive test performed compared to 20% of cases with younger mothers. Considerable variation was found between registries in the uptake rate of invasive tests in cases with older maternal age and on the use of invasive tests with only four regions employing CVS techniques in at least a third of the cases having invasive tests. For chromosomal anomalies US gave positive results in 46% of cases with maternal age or = 35 years with US performed. Prenatal US was performed in 91% of all pregnancies with CM but the test was only positive in a third of the cases. There was large regional variation in the uptake rate of invasive tests with maternal age of 35 years or more. For every CVS carried out there were nine AC tests. US is an important tool in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in Europe. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The estimation of radiation effective dose from diagnostic medical procedures in general population of northern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabestani Monfared, A.; Abdi, R.

    2006-01-01

    The risks of low-dose Ionizing radiation from radiology and nuclear medicine are not clearly determined. Effective dose to population is a very important factor in risk estimation. The study aimed to determine the effective dose from diagnostic radiation medicine in a northern province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data about various radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures were collected from all radiology and nuclear medicine departments In Mazandaran Province (population = 2,898,031); and using the standard dosimetry tables, the total dose, dose per examination, and annual effective dose per capita as well as the annual gonadal dose per capita were estimated. Results: 655,730 radiologic examinations in a year's period, lead to 1.45 mSv, 0.33 mSv and 0.31 mGy as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public, and annual average gonadal dose per capita, respectively. The frequency of medical radiologic examinations was 2,262 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. However, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations in the same period was 7074, with 4.37 mSv, 9.6 μSv and 9.8 μGy, as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public and annual average gonadal dose per caput, respectively. The frequency of nuclear medicine examination was 24 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. Conclusion: The average effective dose per examination was nearly similar to other studies. However, the average annual effective dose and annual average gonadal dose per capita were less than the similar values in other reports, which could be due to lesser number of radiation medicine examinations in the present study

  10. Intrathoracic kidney. Diagnostic value of CT scan imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillet, A.M.; Escure, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases are reported of an ectopic right kidney that was partially intrathoracic in position. Diagnosis was simple from CT scan imaging appearances, the examination being performed to investigate an intrathoracic mass. Images showed a tissular mass within a fatty zone in sections without contrast and the typical appearance of the kidney on sections with contrast [fr

  11. Digital imaging in conventional diagnostic radiology: status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiler, M.; Marhoff, P.; Schipper, P.

    1984-01-01

    Digital techniques, i.e. techniques using microcomputers of minicomputers, are getting increasingly common in so-called conventional radiography. These nonreconstructive techniques are referred to here as 'digital, direct-imaging radiography' in order to contrast them with the reconstructive techniques of computerized tomography. Digitalisation of imaging and image processing operation and control will change the jobs of the radiologist and radiological assistants in such manner that only X-ray units with film-foil systems or with X-ray image intensification should be classified as conventional systems. Digital and conventional systems differ in that digital techniques imply the possibility of establishing data pools which may eventually be developed into a digital image interconnection and archiving system. The authors first describe the general system in which the digital imaging systems must be integrated on a medium-term and long-term basis and then proceed to discuss digital imaging and image processing in some more detail. (orig./WU) [de

  12. A Bayesian nonrigid registration method to enhance intraoperative target definition in image-guided prostate procedures through uncertainty characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, Jennifer; Risholm, Petter; Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Wells, William M. III; Tempany, Clare M.; Cormack, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces a probabilistic nonrigid registration method for use in image-guided prostate brachytherapy. Intraoperative imaging for prostate procedures, usually transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), is typically inferior to diagnostic-quality imaging of the pelvis such as endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MR images contain superior detail of the prostate boundaries and provide substructure features not otherwise visible. Previous efforts to register diagnostic prostate images with the intraoperative coordinate system have been deterministic and did not offer a measure of the registration uncertainty. The authors developed a Bayesian registration method to estimate the posterior distribution on deformations and provide a case-specific measure of the associated registration uncertainty. Methods: The authors adapted a biomechanical-based probabilistic nonrigid method to register diagnostic to intraoperative images by aligning a physician's segmentations of the prostate in the two images. The posterior distribution was characterized with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method; the maximum a posteriori deformation and the associated uncertainty were estimated from the collection of deformation samples drawn from the posterior distribution. The authors validated the registration method using a dataset created from ten patients with MRI-guided prostate biopsies who had both diagnostic and intraprocedural 3 Tesla MRI scans. The accuracy and precision of the estimated posterior distribution on deformations were evaluated from two predictive distance distributions: between the deformed central zone-peripheral zone (CZ-PZ) interface and the physician-labeled interface, and based on physician-defined landmarks. Geometric margins on the registration of the prostate's peripheral zone were determined from the posterior predictive distance to the CZ-PZ interface separately for the base, mid-gland, and apical regions of the prostate. Results: The authors observed

  13. Functional MR-pancreatography with secretin - a comparison of imaging quality and diagnostic value pre and post secretin in the same patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, H.; Hellerhoff, K.; Ruell, T.; Brandt, C.; Gerhardt, P.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess imaging improvement and diagnostic value of secretin stimulated MR-pancreatography (MRP) compared to conventional MRP. Materials and Methods: 50 patients were studied with a 1.0 T system using a single-shot-TSE sequence (RARE). Imaging quality and diameter of the different parts of the pancreatic tract and diagnoses were monitored before and after secretin. Results: The visualization of the normal main pancreatic duct (MPD) was improved significantly in head, body and tail. Side branches were not depicted at all. Even in chronic pancreatitis a significant improvement of imaging quality could be observed, but only in patients without duct dilation before secretin. In advanced disease with duct dilation, secretin stimulation provided no further diagnostic improvement. Conclusions: In conclusion, secretin increases the diagnostic value of MRP especially in patients with normal or non-dilated native MPD and may help to avoid unnecessary invasive procedures such as ERCP. (orig.) [de

  14. Changes in patient exposure doses from diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan, 1974-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Ito, Yusuke; Asada, Yasuki; Hattori, S.; Kamei, S.; Koga, Sukehiko

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated changes in exposure dose in Japan in terms of the same items since 1974. An assessment was made of changes in exposure dose during a period of 33 years. Nationwide investigation was conducted six times from 1974 to 2007 with regard to 14 target areas (21 kinds of projections). The investigations we examined is as follows: tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA), exposure time (sec), focus surface distance, thickness of total filtration and type of generator system for diagnostic radiography for a typical patient. Entrance surface doses were evaluated in terms of the respective exposure conditions based on basic experiment. The results showed that the exposure doses decreased to less than 50% during a 15-year period till 1994, with the exposure doses in 1974 assumed to be 100%. The exposure doses in 2007 were equivalent to, or increased over the exposure doses in 1994 at some areas. A comparison with the international basic safety standard for protection against ionizing radiation set up by the IAEA, that is, the so-called guidance level, indicated that the exposure doses in 2007 were less than the standard in all areas. The comparison with past investigations also demonstrated that F/S system using film-intensifying screen has been increasingly replaced with computed radiography (CR) system using imaging plates (IP) and flat panel digital radiography (FPD) system. In the investigation in 2007, an attempt was made of a comparison between exposure dose by the digital radiography system and that by the F/S system as well. It was clarified that there was no large difference in the exposure dose between those systems. (author)

  15. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

    2012-06-15

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  16. [Dementias: diagnostic contribution of imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, E; Martínez-Granados, B; Marti-Bonmati, L; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Gil, A; Blasco, C; Celda, B

    2007-06-01

    The objective is analyze the complementarity between 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the global diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VD). We studied 168 patients with cognitive impairment from AD, VD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and major depression. All patients were evaluated by brain MR imaging and MRS using two sample volumes localized at right medial temporal gyrus and posterior parietal gyrus. Metabolites analyzed were N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-Inositol (mI), Choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr), as standard references for obtaining the Co/Cr, mI/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios. Imaging and spectroscopy alterations were graded from 0 to 4 and the average of both was used to draw ROC and SROC curves. Area under ROC curve (Az) was used as a measure of discriminative ability. Combination of MR imaging and MRS significantly improved AD diagnosis (Global Az: 0.722 vs. MR imaging Az: 0.624; p: 0.003). However, the combination of MR imaging and MRS did not improve VD diagnosis. SROC curve obtained for the diagnosis of global dementia was Az: 0.6658 with 0.67 sensitivity and 0.65 specificity. Combination of both MR techniques significantly improved AD diagnosis versus MR imaging alone. More studies are needed to enhance VD classification. Metabolic data found by MRS can be useful to differentiate cognitive impairment

  17. Radiopharmaceutical activities administered for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine in the first six months of the gamma camera use in the Clinical Center of Montenegro - Podgorica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, Nevenka; Aligrudic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear medicine procedures have carried out in the Clinical Center of Montenegro - Podgorica since 2006 by the dual-headed SPECT and Digital gamma camera NUCLINE Spirit DH-V. In the first six months of the gamma camera use (from September 2006 to March 2007) examinations of skeleton, kidneys, thyroid and lung were performed. For diagnostic skeletal imaging (102 patients) the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-MDP is used, and administered activities were in the range from 555 to 740 MBq. For thyroid imaging (203 patients) 99m Tc-pertechnetate is used, and administered activities were in the range (37-111) MBq. Lung imaging is performed for 3 patients, using 99m Tc-MAA and administered activities in the range (111-185) MBq. Renal imaging is carried out for 72 patients: 42 dynamic studies of kidneys were performed with 99m Tc-DTPA and administered activities from 207 to 282 MBq, and 30 static kidneys scintigraphies were performed using the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-DMSA. 6 patients in the last mentioned group were children with year of birth between 2000 and 2006, and administered activities were from 16.6 to 55.5 MBq. In the same group, activities 28.5 MBq, 74.4 MBq and 120 MBq were administered to three patients with age between 6 and 18 years, and in the other cases, administered activities to the patients (adults) were in the range (59.2 to 196) MBq. The administered activities presented here are basis for further estimations of cumulated activity and absorbed dose to the various organs, which is useful for comparison of the average dose to patient organs in various nuclear medicine procedures and calculation of effective dose equivalent and total effective dose, significant for an estimation of potential risk due to the radioactivity administered to a patient during nuclear medicine procedures. It is very important for procedures optimization and improvement of the radiation protection. (author)

  18. First Steps Toward Incorporating Image Based Diagnostics Into Particle Accelerator Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Edelen, J. P.

    2016-12-16

    At present, a variety of image-based diagnostics are used in particle accelerator systems. Often times, these are viewed by a human operator who then makes appropriate adjustments to the machine. Given recent advances in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image processing, it should be possible to use image diagnostics directly in control routines (NN-based or otherwise). This is especially appealing for non-intercepting diagnostics that could run continuously during beam operation. Here, we show results of a first step toward implementing such a controller: our trained CNN can predict multiple simulated downstream beam parameters at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility's low energy beamline using simulated virtual cathode laser images, gun phases, and solenoid strengths.

  19. WE-AB-206-01: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagzebski, J. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound and to provide updates in ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The first half of this workshop will include two presentations reviewing diagnostic ultrasound QA/QC and ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The second half of the workshop will include live demonstrations of basic QC tests. An array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be available for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations and on-site instructors. The targeted attendees are medical physicists in diagnostic imaging. Learning Objectives: Gain familiarity with common elements of a QA/QC program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging dentify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools Learn ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements Jennifer Walter is an employee of American College of Radiology on Ultrasound Accreditation.

  20. WE-AB-206-01: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagzebski, J.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound and to provide updates in ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The first half of this workshop will include two presentations reviewing diagnostic ultrasound QA/QC and ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements. The second half of the workshop will include live demonstrations of basic QC tests. An array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be available for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations and on-site instructors. The targeted attendees are medical physicists in diagnostic imaging. Learning Objectives: Gain familiarity with common elements of a QA/QC program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging dentify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools Learn ACR ultrasound accreditation requirements Jennifer Walter is an employee of American College of Radiology on Ultrasound Accreditation.

  1. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed.

  2. Primary ureteral carcinoma: MRI diagnosis and comparison with other diagnostic imaging facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Ningyu; Jiang Bo; Cai Youquan; Liang Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate MRI examination methods and imaging manifestations of primary ureteral carcinoma, and to evaluate its clinical values when comparing with other diagnostic imaging facilities. Methods: Eighty-seven cases of primary ureteral carcinoma who were operated within recent 8 years came into the study, among which, 35 cases had MRI examinations. For MRI examination, coronal heavy T 2 WI (water imaging) was performed to show the dilated ureter, then axial T 2 WI and T 1 WI were scanned at the obstruction level. 11 cases underwent additional Gd-DTPA dynamic contrast enhanced scans. The original pre-operative diagnostic reports of various imaging facilities were analyzed comparing with the results of operation and pathology. Results: MRI showed ureteral dilatation in 33 of 35 cases, no abnormal appearance in 1 case, and only primary kidney atrophy post renal transplantation in 1 case. Among the 33 cases with ureteral obstruction, soft mass at the obstruction level was detected on axial scans in 32 cases. The lesions showed gradual and homogeneous mild to moderate enhancement on contrast MRI. The overall employment rate of imaging facilities was as follows: ultrasound (94.3%), IVU (59.8%), CT (52.9%), MRI (40.2%), and RUP (35.6%). The accurate diagnostic rate was as follows :MRI (91.4%), RUP (80.6%), CT (63.0%), ultrasound (47.6%), and IVU (11.5%). Conclusion: Combination of MR water imaging and conventional sequences can demonstrate most primary ureteral carcinoma lesions and has a highest diagnostic accuracy among the current diagnostic imaging facilities. It should be taken as the first diagnostic imaging method of choice when primary ureteral carcinoma is suspected after ultrasound screening

  3. Diagnostic imaging of sport related musculoskeletal system injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Schivartche, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    The authors review the literature about musculoskeletal injuries related to sports, emphasizing the main findings with different imaging methods. They also present the specific characteristics of each method. (author)

  4. Diagnostic imaging of injuries and overuse in soccer players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, M.C. de; Maas, M.; Kuijk, C. van

    2002-01-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide. There is a high incidence of injuries in soccer in which several intrinsic and extrinsic factors play a part. Most injuries are minor, self-limiting and do not need extensive medical treatment or imaging. Imaging can be required for several reasons e.g. when the clinical findings are doubtful, to replace arthroscopy (i. e. of the knee) or for prognostic reasons. All imaging modalities available to the radiologist can be used but MRI is the most valuable imaging modality with its superior contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Basically, injuries in the soccer player can occur anywhere in the body like in every sport. The lower extremities, more specific the knee and ankle, are however the most injured parts. (orig.) [de

  5. Chronological alterations of diagnostic imaging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Kiminobu; Sugimura, Yoshiki; Yanagawa, Makoto; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1994-01-01

    A review of 156 cases of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed during a 20-year period demonstrated the changes of initial signs/symptoms and imaging modalities for detection and definition. According to the imaging modality used for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma, clinical pictures were chronologically examined over 4 periods: 1973 to 1979 (before CT era), 1980 to 1984 (early CT era), 1985 to 1987 (CT era) and 1988 to 1992 (CT/MRI era). With regards to initial signs or symptoms, the proportion of classical trials has gradually decreased, while that of tumors noted incidentally has increased. As for imaging modalities for detection, the proportion of IVP has gradually decreased and that of CT and US has increased over the periods. With regard to imaging modalities for definition, the proportion of angiography has decreased and that of CT has increased. From chronological changes in clinical pictures and imaging modalities, we suggested a decision tree of imaging modalities for detection and definition of renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  6. An image fiber based fluorescent probe with associated signal processing scheme for biomedical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishakh, M; Murukeshan, V M; Seah, L K

    2008-01-01

    A dual-modality image fiber based fluorescent probe that can be used for depth sensitive imaging and suppression of fluorescent emissions with nanosecond lifetime difference is proposed and illustrated in this paper. The system can give high optical sectioning and employs an algorithm for obtaining phase sensitive images. The system can find main application in in vivo biomedical diagnostics for detecting biochemical changes for distinguishing malignant tissue from healthy tissue

  7. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures; Unabsichtliche Strahlenexposition in der Schwangerschaft durch nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  8. Conventional diagnostic imaging of the temporal bone. A historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canigiani, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Viennese Medical School played an important role in the development of radiological examinations and signs of the temporal bone with conventional X-rays. Famous pioneers include E.G. Mayer (1893-1969) and L. Psenner (1910-1986). Nowadays conventional X-rays and tomography have lost their important role in diagnostic radiology of the temporal bone, but the basic principles established in those early years of radiology are still used now. This statement is correct not only for conventional X-rays, but particularly for 'poly'-tomography in comparison with CT. (orig.) [de

  9. Evaluation of compression ratio using JPEG 2000 on diagnostic images in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gi Hun; Han, Won Jeong; Yoo, Dong Soo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Soon Chul

    2005-01-01

    To find out the proper compression ratios without degrading image quality and affecting lesion detectability on diagnostic images used in dentistry compressed with JPEG 2000 algorithm. Sixty Digora peri apical images, sixty panoramic computed radiographic (CR) images, sixty computed tomography (CT) images, and sixty magnetic resonance (MR) images were compressed into JPEG 2000 with ratios of 10 levels from 5:1 to 50:1. To evaluate the lesion detectability, the images were graded with 5 levels (1 : definitely absent ; 2 : probably absent ; 3 : equivocal ; 4 : probably present ; 5 : definitely present), and then receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed using the original image as a gold standard. Also to evaluate subjectively the image quality, the images were graded with 5 levels (1 : definitely unacceptable ; 2 : probably unacceptable ; 3 : equivocal ; 4 : probably acceptable ; 5 : definitely acceptable), and then paired t-test was performed. In Digora, CR panoramic and CT images, compressed images up to ratios of 15:1 showed nearly the same lesion detectability as original images, and in MR images, compressed images did up to ratios of 25:1. In Digora and CR panoramic images, compressed images up to ratios of 5:1 showed little difference between the original and reconstructed images in subjective assessment of image quality. In CT images, compressed images did up to ratios of 10:1 and in MR images up to ratios of 15:1. We considered compression ratios up to 5:1 in Digora and CR panoramic images, up to 10:1 in CT images, up to 15:1 in MR images as clinically applicable compression ratios.

  10. Is there any advantage from the hybrid imaging diagnostic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid imaging methods- Single Photon Emission Tomography-Computer Tomography / SPECT-CT / and Positron Emission Tomography-Computer Tomography / PET-CT/ allow receiving of combined image of two different techniques. In such a way it is possible to superimpose detailed anatomical image of the multislice spiral computer tomography with specific and sensitive molecular images of the SPECT and PET in a single study, allowing utilization of the full possibilities of the both techniques. They have advantages and disadvantages, which basically stem from the differences in the used radiopharmaceuticals and their physical properties. In PET-CT-positron emitters are applied, most often 18F and 11C, while-in SPECT-CT - single photon emitters, most often 99mTc and 131I. A disadvantage of PET is a high cost, which is produced in cyclotron and its logistics is complicated. The great advantage of PET is its better spatial resolution, compared to SPECT, because of the possibility to for simultaneous detection of pared photons and better registration. These techniques, especially PET-CT are nowadays the most increasing imaging methods in the world in making diagnosis, staging and following the effect of treatment in patients with oncological, neurological, cardiological, orthopedic diseases and infections. Recently, they are applied for the purposes of radiotherapy planning on the basis of the metabolically active tumour. As a final result, compared to the conventional techniques- roentgenography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, it is possible in many cases to make an early and more precise diagnosis and to safe time for the patient for adequate treatment. As a conclusion it is clear, that the hybrid imaging has future and its application will increase in future

  11. Diagnostic imaging in the study of human hepatobiliary fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, V; Cantisani, C; Mortelé, K; Pagliara, E; D'Onofrio, M; Fernandez, M; D'Ambrosio, U; Lombardi, V; Marigliano, C; Ricci, P

    2010-02-01

    Fascioliasis is a rare zoonotic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. We present the typical patterns of hepatobiliary fascioliasis observed in ten patients studied with multimodality imaging. Between 2002 and 2005, ten women with fascioliasis were admitted to the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (BWH), with abdominal pain and mild fever. All imaging modalities, including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n = 2) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (n = 1) were reviewed by two expert radiologists working in consensus. In all patients (10/10, 100%), US showed parenchymal heterogeneity characterised by multiple subcapsular and peribiliary hypoechoic nodular lesions that were ill-defined and coalesced into tubular or tortuous structures. In six patients (6/10, 60%), the lesions appeared hypoechoic, whereas in four patients (4/10, 40%), there was an alternation of hyperechoic and hypoechoic nodules. On CT, all patients (10/10, 100%) showed hypodense patchy lesions in subcapsular, peribiliary or periportal locations, which coalesced to form tubular structures and were more evident during the portal phase. Lesion diameter ranged from 2 cm to 7 cm. Capsular enhancement was seen in four cases on CT (4/10, 40%) and in one also at MR imaging. MR imaging, performed in two patients, confirmed the presence of the lesions, which appeared hyperintense on T2-weighted images and were characterised by mild peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration. Four patients had gallbladder wall thickening (4/10, 40%), with parasites in the gallbladder lumen. Although rare, hepatobiliary fascioliasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in the appropriate clinical scenario, especially in patients coming from endemic areas. The typical imaging pattern of fascioliasis is the presence of subcapsular, peribiliary or periportal nodules that are usually ill-defined and coalesce

  12. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofides, S [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital (Cyprus)

    1994-12-31

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  13. Estimate of the Effective Dose Equivalent to the Cypriot Population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Procedures in the Public Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofides, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population due to Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine procedures has been estimated from data published by the Government of Cyprus, in its Health and Hospital Statistics Series for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992. The average EDE per patient was estimated to be 3,09, 3,75 and 4,01 microSievert for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, while the per caput EDE was estimated to be 11,75, 15,16 and 17,09 microSieverts for 1990, 1991 and 1992 respectively, from the procedures in the public sector. (author)

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of imaging modalities for internal derangements of temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Igarashi, Chinami; Yuasa, Masao; Imanaka, Masahiro; Kondoh, Toshirou

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and review the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of imaging diagnosis for temporomandibular disorders. The role of diagnostic imaging is to detect and document specific anatomic abnormalities associated with the signs and symptoms in the temporomandibular joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) can accurately depict disc displacement and disc deformity. MR imaging is our first choice among the various imaging modalities for the patients with clinical signs and symptoms. However, it has been shown that intra-capsular adhesions and perforations of the disc and retrodiscal tissue are sometimes not detected by MR imaging. To improve the diagnostic technique for adhesions and perforations, double-contrast arthrotomography with fluoroscopy should be employed. The irregular surface of the eminences and the glenoid fossae shown by MR imaging and tomography are correlated with subchondral bone exposure by arthroscopy. Erosion of the condyles detected by MR imaging, tomography and rotational panoramic radiography is correlated with subchondral bone exposure detected by arthroscopy. (author). 69 refs

  15. Genomics, proteomics, MEMS and SAIF: which role for diagnostic imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, R; Lagalla, R; Rotondo, A

    2008-09-01

    In these three words--genomics, proteomics and nanotechnologies--is the future of medicine of the third millennium, which will be characterised by more careful attention to disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Molecular imaging appears to satisfy this requirement. It is emerging as a new science that brings together molecular biology and in vivo imaging and represents the key for the application of personalized medicine. Micro-PET (positron emission tomography), micro-SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), micro-CT (computed tomography), micro-MR (magnetic resonance), micro-US (ultrasound) and optical imaging are all molecular imaging techniques, several of which are applied only in preclinical settings on animal models. Others, however, are applied routinely in both clinical and preclinical setting. Research on small animals allows investigation of the genesis and development of diseases, as well as drug efficacy and the development of personalized therapies, through the study of biological processes that precede the expression of common symptoms of a pathology. Advances in molecular imaging were made possible only by collaboration among scientists in the fields of radiology, chemistry, molecular and cell biology, physics, mathematics, pharmacology, gene therapy and oncology. Although until now researchers have traditionally limited their interactions, it is only by increasing these connections that the current gaps in terminology, methods and approaches that inhibit scientific progress can be eliminated.

  16. Doctoral theses in diagnostic imaging: a study of Spanish production between 1976 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machan, K; Sendra Portero, F

    2018-05-15

    To analyze the production of doctoral theses in diagnostic imaging in Spain in the period comprising 1976 through 2011 with the aim of a) determining the number of theses and their distribution over time, b) describing the production in terms of universities and directors, and c) analyzing the content of the theses according to the imaging technique, anatomic site, and type of research used. The TESEO database was searched for "radiología" and/or "diagnóstico por imagen" and for terms related to diagnostic imaging in the title of the thesis. A total of 1036 theses related to diagnostic imaging were produced in 37 Spanish universities (mean, 29.6 theses/year; range, 4-59). A total of 963 thesis directors were identified; 10 of these supervised 10 or more theses. Most candidates and directors were men, although since the 2000-2001 academic year the number of male and female candidates has been similar. The anatomic regions most often included in diagnostic imaging theses were the abdomen (22.5%), musculoskeletal system (21.8%), central nervous system (16.4%), and neck and face (15.6%). The imaging techniques most often included were ultrasonography in the entire period (25.5%) and magnetic resonance imaging in the last 5 years. Most theses (63.8%) were related to clinical research. Despite certain limitations, the TESEO database makes it possible to analyze the production of doctoral theses in Spain effectively. The annual mean production of theses in diagnostic imaging is higher than in other medical specialties. This analysis reflects the historic evolution of imaging techniques and research in radiology as well as the development of Spanish universities. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of organ doses in radiographic imaging and diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathjen, M.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier publications on diagnostic radiation exposure commonly presented data on the gonadal dose. This emphasis on the genetic radiation risk is no longer valid in view of recent radiobiological findings; equal attention should be paid to the somatic radiation risk which is manifested by the induction of malignant neoplasms, e.g. in the lungs, red bone marrow, thyroid and female breast (ICRP 26). The permissible radiation doses for these organs and the gonals for routine diagnostic radiology are determined. A formula is established on the basis of terms from relevant publications (e.g. open-air dose, backscattering factor) and from the author's own measurements in an Alderson-Rando phantom (depth dose curves, dose decrements). The measurements were carried out using CaP 2 thermoluminescence dosemeters, and the organ doses for the various techniques of X-ray examination were calculated by computer. Calculations of this type will enable the radiologist to determine the patient exposure quickly and easily from the records kept according to Sect. 29 of the X-ray Ordinance. Experimental value from relevant publications are compared with the author's own results. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Workflow optimisation for multimodal imaging procedures: a case of combined X-ray and MRI-guided TACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gutiérrez, Fabiola; Wolska-Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Buecker, Arno; Houston, J Graeme; Melzer, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    This study presents a framework for workflow optimisation of multimodal image-guided procedures (MIGP) based on discrete event simulation (DES). A case of a combined X-Ray and magnetic resonance image-guided transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is presented to illustrate the application of this method. We used a ranking and selection optimisation algorithm to measure the performance of a number of proposed alternatives to improve a current scenario. A DES model was implemented with detail data collected from 59 TACE procedures and durations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic procedures usually performed in a common MRI suite. Fourteen alternatives were proposed and assessed to minimise the waiting times and improve workflow. Data analysis observed an average of 20.68 (7.68) min of waiting between angiography and MRI for TACE patients in 71.19% of the cases. Following the optimisation analysis, an alternative was identified to reduce waiting times in angiography suite up to 48.74%. The model helped to understand and detect 'bottlenecks' during multimodal TACE procedures, identifying a better alternative to the current workflow and reducing waiting times. Simulation-based workflow analysis provides a cost-effective way to face some of the challenges of introducing MIGP in clinical radiology, highligthed in this study.

  19. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (179). Severe rhabdomyolysis complicated by myonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Shi Xian Shawn; Tan, Tien Jin

    2017-08-01

    A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department with severe right lower limb pain and swelling of three days' duration. He had multiple prior admissions for recurrent seizures and suicide attempts. Markedly elevated serum creatine kinase levels and urine myoglobinuria were consistent with a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Initial magnetic resonance imaging of the right lower limb revealed diffuse muscle oedema and features of myositis in the gluteal muscles and the adductor, anterior and posterior compartments of the thigh. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging performed 11 days later showed interval development of areas of myonecrosis and haemorrhage. The causes, clinical presentation and imaging features of rhabdomyolysis are discussed. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  20. Retroperitoneal schwannoma: diagnostic imaging findings in 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar, Alberto; Santamarina, Mario; Scalise, Gabriela; Ponce de Leon, Valeria; Bello, Lorena

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the different imaging findings (US, CT and MRI) in retroperitoneal schwannoma. Materials and methods: 5 patients (3 male and 2 females) with a diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannoma were retrospectively evaluated. Ages ranged from 33 to 63 years (means 54 years). The images (US, CT and MR) were analyzed and correlated to histopathologic results. Results: The most frequent clinical finding was abdominal pain (60%). A presumptive diagnosis prior to surgery was suggested in 3/5 cases that had well-defined masses with a predominant cystic appearance. All patients underwent surgery with tumoral resection. Only 2 patients (40%) had recurrence within a three years period of follow-up. Conclusion: Retroperitoneal schwannoma is an infrequent tumor. In our series, no pathognomotic features were observed on US, CT or MRI. However, 3/5 tumors showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images due to cystic areas. (author)

  1. Diagnostic imaging in 2001 - a health economics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Factors contributing to the growth and diffusion of new imaging technologies are discussed. The benefits derived from implementing and using new technologies are carefully evaluated against the associated costs to both patients and service providers. The need to invest in early scientific assessment of a new imaging technology in order to prevent wasted aquisition and utilisation later on is highlighted. Such assessment might involve evaluating the ability of the technology to improve diagnosis, positively impact on treatment plans and, above all, improve health. (orig.)

  2. Multispectral diagnostic imaging of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel K; Lukic, Ana; Yang, Yongyi; Wilensky, Jacob T; Wernick, Miles N

    2012-08-01

    To determine if wavelength selection with near infrared iris imaging may enhance iris transillumination defects (ITDs) in pigment dispersion syndrome. An experimental apparatus was used to acquire iris images in 6 African-American (AA) and 6 White patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Light-emitting diode probes of 6 different spectral bands (700 to 950 nm) were used to project light into patients' eyes. Iris patterns were photographed, ITD regions of interest were outlined, and region of interest contrasts were calculated for each spectral band. Contrasts varied as a function of wavelength (Ppigmented eyes may be slightly longer than for less pigmented eyes.

  3. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operator Using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David S.; Wang, Lui; Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  4. Autonomous Diagnostic Imaging Performed by Untrained Operators using Augmented Reality as a Form of "Just-in-Time" Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. S.; Wang, L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Fleischer, A. C.; Gibson, C. R.; Stenger, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will address the Human Factors and Performance Team, "Risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies" by improving the JIT training materials for ultrasound and OCT imaging by providing advanced guidance in a detailed, timely, and user-friendly manner. Specifically, we will (1) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR that guides non-experts through an abdominal trauma ultrasound protocol; (2) develop an audio-visual tutorial using AR to guide an untrained operator through the acquisition of OCT images; (3) evaluate the quality of abdominal ultrasound and OCT images acquired by untrained operators using AR guidance compared to images acquired using traditional JIT techniques (laptop-based training conducted before image acquisition); and (4) compare the time required to complete imaging studies using AR tutorials with images acquired using current JIT practices to identify areas for time efficiency improvements. Two groups of subjects will be recruited to participate in this study. Operator-subjects, without previous experience in ultrasound or OCT, will be asked to perform both procedures using either the JIT training with AR technology or the traditional JIT training via laptop. Images acquired by inexperienced operator-subjects will be scored by experts in that imaging modality for diagnostic and research quality; experts will be blinded to the form of JIT used to acquire the images. Operator-subjects also will be asked to submit feedback to improve the training modules used during the scans to improve future training modules. Scanned-subjects will be a small group individuals from whom all images will be acquired.

  5. Image-guided automated needle biopsy of 106 thoracic lesions: a retrospective review of diagnostic accuracy and complication rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.; Dyer, J.; Guest, P.

    2000-01-01

    We reviewed the diagnostic accuracy and complication rates of transthoracic needle biopsy (TNB) with an automated 18-gauge core biopsy needle and gun, using either fluoroscopic or CT guidance. One hundred six lesions were biopsied in 103 patients between 1992 and 1998. Hard-copy images, imaging reports, pathology reports and clinical notes were reviewed. In 3 patients it was not possible to establish the lesion as either malignant or benign from the available follow-up, so these were removed from the analysis of diagnostic accuracy. Adequate samples for histological diagnosis were obtained in 104 of 106 (98 %) biopsies. There were 75 of 85 (88 %) true-positive core biopsies for malignant lesions and a specific cell type was identified in 70 of 85 (82 %) cases. A specific histological diagnosis was obtained in 12 of 18 (66 %) biopsies. There was a 19 % rate of pneumothorax with only 2.4 % requiring drainage. Minor haemoptysis occurred in 3.8 % of procedures. The TNB technique with an automated core biopsy needle provides a high level of diagnostic accuracy, effectively distinguishes cell type in malignancy and provides a definite diagnosis in benign disease more frequently than fine needle aspiration (FNA). There is no increased complication rate compared with FNA. (orig.)

  6. Reliability of diagnostic imaging techniques in suspected acute appendicitis: proposed diagnostic protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura del, J. L.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.; Vela, A. C.; Ibanez, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    To study the utility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) in case of suspected appendicitis. To determine the diagnostic yield in terms of different clinical contexts and patient characteristics. to assess the costs and benefits of introducing these techniques and propose a protocol for their use. Negative appendectomies, complications and length of hospital stay in a group of 152 patients with suspected appendicitis who underwent ultrasound and CT were compared with those of 180 patients who underwent appendectomy during the same time period, but had not been selected for the first group: these patients costs for each group were calculated. In the first group, the diagnostic value of the clinical signs was also evaluated. The reliability of the clinical signs was limited, while the results with ultrasound and CT were excellent. The incidence of negative appendectomy was 9.6% in the study group and 12.2% in the control group. Moreover, there were fewer complications and a shorter hospital stay in the first group. Among men, however, the rate of negative appendectomy was lower in the control group. The cost of using ultrasound and CT in the management of appendicitis was only slightly higher than that of the control group. Although ultrasound and CT are not necessary in cases in which the probability of appendicitis is low or in men presenting clear clinical evidence, the use of these techniques is indicated in the remaining cases in which appendicitis is suspected. In children, ultrasound is the technique of choice. In all other patients, if negative results are obtained with one of the two techniques, the other should be performed. (Author) 49 refs

  7. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasoni...

  8. The Role of Anthropomorphic Phantoms in Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging for Disease Characterization (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, L. M.; King, D. M.; Browne, J. E.

    2009-04-01

    An anthropomorhic phantom is an object that can mimic a region of the human anatomy. Anthropomorphic phantoms have a variety of roles in diagnostic ultrasound. These roles include quality assurance testing of ultrasound machines, calibration and testing of new imaging techniques, training of sonographers, and-most importantly-use as a tool to obtain a better understanding of disease progression in the relevant anatomy. To be anthropomorphic a phantom must accurately mimic the body in terms of its ultrasonic and mechanical properties, as well as anatomically. The acoustic properties are speed of sound, attenuation, and backscatter. The mechanical properties are elasticity and density. Phantoms are constructed from tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs). TMMs are prepared from a variety of ingredients, such as gelatine, agar, safflower oil, and glass beads. These ingredients are then boiled and cooled under controlled conditions to produce a solid TMM. To determine if the TMM has the correct acoustic properties, acoustic measurements are performed using a scanning acoustic macroscope. Mechanical measurements are also performed to test the elasticity and density properties. TMMs with the correct properties are subsequently put through a series of moulding procedures to produce the anthropomorphic phantom.

  9. The Role of Anthropomorphic Phantoms in Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging for Disease Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, L. M.; King, D. M.; Browne, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    An anthropomorhic phantom is an object that can mimic a region of the human anatomy. Anthropomorphic phantoms have a variety of roles in diagnostic ultrasound. These roles include quality assurance testing of ultrasound machines, calibration and testing of new imaging techniques, training of sonographers, and--most importantly--use as a tool to obtain a better understanding of disease progression in the relevant anatomy. To be anthropomorphic a phantom must accurately mimic the body in terms of its ultrasonic and mechanical properties, as well as anatomically. The acoustic properties are speed of sound, attenuation, and backscatter. The mechanical properties are elasticity and density. Phantoms are constructed from tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs). TMMs are prepared from a variety of ingredients, such as gelatine, agar, safflower oil, and glass beads. These ingredients are then boiled and cooled under controlled conditions to produce a solid TMM. To determine if the TMM has the correct acoustic properties, acoustic measurements are performed using a scanning acoustic macroscope. Mechanical measurements are also performed to test the elasticity and density properties. TMMs with the correct properties are subsequently put through a series of moulding procedures to produce the anthropomorphic phantom.

  10. Investigation of star polymer nanoshells for use in diagnostic imaging and photothermal cancer therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Lizabeth

    Gold nanoshells can be designed to possess high light scattering and strong absorption of near-infrared light. Thus, they have the potential to be used in biological applications as contrast agents for diagnostic imaging as well as for thermal ablation of tumor cells in future cancer treatments. In this study, gold nanoshells with dye-loaded star polymer cores were investigated. Uniform near-infrared gold nanoshells with 100 nm diameters were successfully generated using different batches of star polymer templates and were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The star polymers used were block copolymer structures with a hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) core and a hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethylmethracrylate) (DMAEMA) outer shell. Within this work, a general procedure was established in order to achieve a desired gold nanoshell size regardless of the star polymer batch used, since the synthesis process conditions can cause star polymers to vary in size as well in the number and length of amino-functionalized arms. Control of the gold nanoshell diameter was optimized after an in-depth analysis of the synthesis parameters that affected the formation and final size of the dye-loaded star polymer gold nanoshells. The main parameters examined were pH of the gold seeds used to nucleate the templates and the ratio of star polymer to gold hydroxide used during the growth of the outer gold shell.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostics of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.P.; Tjoerstad, K.; Kaass, B.; Oedegaard, H.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an important and frequent neurological disease and the diagnosis might be difficult. The clinical criteria of multiple sclerosis and the role of laboratory examinations in the diagnosis of the disease are discussed. In particular the help offered by the magnetic resonance imaging method is the subject of this paper. Three patients are reported and discussed

  12. Real-time image fusion involving diagnostic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Săftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Lucian G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our article is to give an overview of the current and future possibilities of real-time image fusion involving ultrasound. We present a review of the existing English-language peer-reviewed literature assessing this technique, which covers technical solutions (for ultrasound...

  13. Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, M; Zhang, F; Chen, B; Bhartiya, A; Cunnea, K; Wagner, U; Cacho-Nerin, F; Schwenke, J; Robinson, I K

    2017-03-01

    Biological sample-preparation procedures have been developed for imaging human chromosomes under cryogenic conditions. A new experimental setup, developed for imaging frozen samples using beamline I13 at Diamond Light Source, is described. This manuscript describes the equipment and experimental procedures as well as the authors' first ptychographic reconstructions using X-rays.

  14. Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological sample-preparation procedures have been developed for imaging human chromosomes under cryogenic conditions. A new experimental setup, developed for imaging frozen samples using beamline I13 at Diamond Light Source, is described. This manuscript describes the equipment and experimental procedures as well as the authors' first ptychographic reconstructions using X-rays.

  15. X-ray imaging diagnostics for the inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Pawley, C.; Sethian, J.; Koch, J.A.; Holland, G.

    2000-01-01

    We report on our continued development of the advanced x-ray plasma diagnostics based on spherically curved crystals. The diagnostics include x-ray spectroscopy with 1-D spatial resolution, 2-D monochromatic self-imaging and back-lighting, and can be extended to the x-ray collimating and 2-D absorption and emission spectroscopy. The system is currently used, but not limited to the diagnostics of the targets ablatively accelerated by the NRL Nike KrF laser. In cooperation with LLNL a comprehensive test of the NIF prototype spherically curved crystal assembly has been performed on the Nova laser. (authors)

  16. Radiation exposure and image quality in x-Ray diagnostic radiology physical principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aichinger, Horst; Joite-Barfuß, Sigrid; Säbel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The largest contribution to radiation exposure to the population as a whole arises from diagnostic X-rays. Protecting the patient from radiation is a major aim of modern health policy, and an understanding of the relationship between radiation dose and image quality is of pivotal importance in optimising medical diagnostic radiology. In this volume the data provided for exploring these concerns are partly based on X-ray spectra, measured on diagnostic X-ray tube assemblies, and are supplemented by the results of measurements on phantoms and simulation calculations.

  17. X-ray imaging diagnostics for the inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Obenschain, S.; Pawley, C.; Sethian, J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J. [Naval Research Lab., Space Sciences Div, Washington, DC (United States); Koch, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Holland, G. [SFA, Landover MD (United States)

    2000-07-01

    We report on our continued development of the advanced x-ray plasma diagnostics based on spherically curved crystals. The diagnostics include x-ray spectroscopy with 1-D spatial resolution, 2-D monochromatic self-imaging and back-lighting, and can be extended to the x-ray collimating and 2-D absorption and emission spectroscopy. The system is currently used, but not limited to the diagnostics of the targets ablatively accelerated by the NRL Nike KrF laser. In cooperation with LLNL a comprehensive test of the NIF prototype spherically curved crystal assembly has been performed on the Nova laser. (authors)

  18. Assessing Leg length Discrepancy Using a Biplane Low Dose Imaging System. A Comparative Diagnostic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo Redder; Torfing, Trine

    study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of leg length (LL) measurements performed on low dose pre-view images acquired using a new bi-planar imaging system. The administered radiation dose from the pre-view image is approximately 20,17μGycm2 vs. 2670μGycm2 when acquiring the diagnostic image.......84) for the tibial measurements and the mean difference for total LLD was 0.01cm (p=0.92) and 0.03cm (p=0.73). All ICC calculations were >.99 indicating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Conclusion. The results strongly imply that LL measurements performed on pre-view images acquired with a new bi...

  19. From Clinical Symptoms to MR Imaging: Diagnostic Steps in Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krentel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyosis or endometriosis genitalis interna is a frequent benign disease of women in fertile age. It causes symptoms like bleeding disorders and dysmenorrhea and seems to have a negative effect on fertility. Adenomyosis can be part of a complex genital and extragenital endometriosis but also can be found as a solitary uterine disease. While peritoneal endometriosis can be easily diagnosed by laparoscopy with subsequent biopsy, the determination of adenomyosis is difficult. In the following literature review, the diagnostic methods clinical history and symptoms, gynecological examination, 2D and 3D transvaginal ultrasound, MRI, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy will be discussed step by step in order to evaluate their predictive value in the diagnosis of adenomyosis.

  20. Diagnostic imagings and embolotherapy for the superior mesenteric vein-inferior vena cava shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yutaka; Yamada, Masataka; Miyata, Mutsuhiko; Kubo, Kohzo.

    1994-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging and embolization therapy for the uncommon portal and mesenteric vein-inferior vena cave shunt (PV·SMV-IVC shunt) are reported. As the frequency of clinical symptoms such as hematemesis, melena and confusion caused by gastrointestinal varices, or hepatoencephalopathy was about 40%, it was important for this disease entity to be diagnosed with noninvasive diagnostic images. The careful examination of the area around the right renal vein was able to overcome the low diagnostic rate of 20-40% obtained with US and CT images. In cases of simple PV·SMV-IVC shut without gastrointestinal varices, embolization therapy using steel coils and done by the intravenous approach is easy and noninvasive. On the other hand, in cases of complex PV-SMV-IVC shunt with gastrointestinal varices, dual balloon occluded embolization therapy using a liquid sclerosing agent and done by the intravenous and portal approaches is preferable. (author)

  1. Three-dimensional imaging of acetabular dysplasia: diagnostic value and impact on surgical type classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, Maria-Helena; Marchal, Guy J.; Baert, Albert L.; Hoe, Lieven van; Cleynenbreugel, Johan van; Daniels, Hans; Molenaers, Guy; Moens, Pierre; Fabry, Guy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value and the impact on surgical type classification of three-dimensional (3D) images for pre-surgical evaluation of dysplastic hips. Materials and methods: Three children with a different surgical type of hip dysplasia were investigated with helical computed tomography. For each patient, two-dimensional (2D) images, 3D, and a stereolithographic model of the dysplastic hip were generated. In two separate sessions, 40 medical observers independently analyzed the 2D images (session 1), the 2D and 3D images (session 2), and tried to identify the corresponding stereolithographic hip model. The influence of both image presentation (2D versus 3D images) and observer (degree of experience, radiologist versus orthopedic surgeon) were statistically analyzed. The SL model choice reflected the impact on surgical type classification. Results: Image presentation was a significant factor whereas the individual observer was not. Three-dimensional images scored significantly better than 2D images (P=0.0003). Three-dimensional imaging increased the correct surgical type classification by 35%. Conclusion: Three-dimensional images significantly improve the pre-surgical diagnostic assessment and surgical type classification of dysplastic hips

  2. Three-dimensional imaging of acetabular dysplasia: diagnostic value and impact on surgical type classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Maria-Helena E-mail: marleen.smet@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; Marchal, Guy J.; Baert, Albert L.; Hoe, Lieven van; Cleynenbreugel, Johan van; Daniels, Hans; Molenaers, Guy; Moens, Pierre; Fabry, Guy

    2000-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value and the impact on surgical type classification of three-dimensional (3D) images for pre-surgical evaluation of dysplastic hips. Materials and methods: Three children with a different surgical type of hip dysplasia were investigated with helical computed tomography. For each patient, two-dimensional (2D) images, 3D, and a stereolithographic model of the dysplastic hip were generated. In two separate sessions, 40 medical observers independently analyzed the 2D images (session 1), the 2D and 3D images (session 2), and tried to identify the corresponding stereolithographic hip model. The influence of both image presentation (2D versus 3D images) and observer (degree of experience, radiologist versus orthopedic surgeon) were statistically analyzed. The SL model choice reflected the impact on surgical type classification. Results: Image presentation was a significant factor whereas the individual observer was not. Three-dimensional images scored significantly better than 2D images (P=0.0003). Three-dimensional imaging increased the correct surgical type classification by 35%. Conclusion: Three-dimensional images significantly improve the pre-surgical diagnostic assessment and surgical type classification of dysplastic hips.

  3. Quality control procedures of dental diagnostic radiology systems; Elaboracao de um procedimento para controle de qualidade em sistemas de radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Paula Serra Sasaki

    2007-07-01

    This work presents quality control reference procedures for dental diagnostic radiology systems, following the recommendations of the Publication 453 of the Brazilian Health Ministry (PF453), to be applied in dental clinics, in order to achieve an improvement in the radiological image qualities and the patient dose reduction. All tests were applied in an intraoral X rays system, following the methodology developed and the requirements of the PF 453. In order to verify the best quality of the image in relation to the smaller exposition time an object test was also developed in this work. The use of this object allowed the reduction of the exposition time of 0.5 seconds, the maximum value of the linear region of the characteristic curve, for 0.2 seconds. The tested X rays system showed a very good agreement with the applied procedures, detaching the reduction of the skin entrance dose using the film-holding devices. However, the size of the field increased and exceeded the maximum value of 6 cm recommended in the standard. The importance of the quality control in dental diagnostic radiology systems is essential due to the constant use of X radiation in dental clinics. The PF453 recommends the frequency of at least two years for the constancy tests. However, it is suggested that the professional, surgeon-dentist, should be responsible for the internal control of the image quality obtained from the X rays device. This can be done through monthly exposures of the object test developed in this work. (author)

  4. Diagnostic imaging in the staging of gynecologic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstner, R.; Graf, A.

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis in patients with gynecologic cancers depends not only on the stage but also on a wide spectrum of other findings. Cross-sectional imaging modalities, including sonography, CT and MRI, have increasingly been used for optimal treatment planning in gynecologic cancers. Their staging criteria are based on the well-established FIGO staging system. CT and MRI compete with sonography, which plays a pivotal role in the valuation of the female pelvis. This paper reviews the role of sonography, CT and MRI in the staging of gynecologic malignancies. It puts the emphasis on MRI, which has been established as imaging modality of choice in the preoperative evaluation of cervical and endometrial cancer, and which seems slightly superior to CT in the staging of ovarian cancer. (orig.) [de

  5. Brigham and Women's Hospital handbook of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, B.J.; Abrams, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    Basically there are 62 sections on some of the most common dilemmas dealt with. These are followed by four interesting appendixes. The clinical sections are grouped under eight headings: abdominal disease (12 sections), genito-urinary disease (seven), chest disease (seven), neurologic disease (nine), thyroid disease (one), bone disease (eight), peripheral vascular disease (one) and, finally, malignant disease (17). The four appendixes are on definitions, magnetic resonance imaging, radiation dose, and information about the range of the charges for individual studies

  6. Radiation Dose Risk and Diagnostic Benefit in Imaging Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Lidia; Rădulescu, Gheorghe-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents many facets of medical imaging investigations radiological risks. The total volume of prescribed medical investigations proves a serious lack in monitoring and tracking of the cumulative radiation doses in many health services. Modern radiological investigations equipment is continuously reducing the total dose of radiation due to improved technologies, so a decrease in per caput dose can be noticed, but the increasing number of investigations has determined a net increase ...

  7. Comparison of different phantoms used in digital diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor, Dogan, E-mail: bor@eng.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics. Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Elif, E-mail: elf.unall@gmail.com [Radat Dosimetry Laboratory Services, 06830, Golbasi, Ankara (Turkey); Uslu, Anil, E-mail: m.aniluslu@gmail.com [Radat Dosimetry Laboratory Services, 06830, Golbasi, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-21

    The organs of extremity, chest, skull and lumbar were physically simulated using uniform PMMA slabs with different thicknesses alone and using these slabs together with aluminum plates and air gaps (ANSI Phantoms). The variation of entrance surface air kerma and scatter fraction with X-ray beam qualities was investigated for these phantoms and the results were compared with those measured from anthropomorphic phantoms. A flat panel digital radiographic system was used for all the experiments. Considerable variations of entrance surface air kermas were found for the same organs of different designs, and highest doses were measured for the PMMA slabs. A low contrast test tool and a contrast detail test object (CDRAD) were used together with each organ simulation of PMMA slabs and ANSI phantoms in order to test the clinical image qualities. Digital images of these phantom combinations and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired in raw and clinically processed formats. Variation of image quality with kVp and post processing was evaluated using the numerical metrics of these test tools and measured contrast values from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Our results indicated that design of some phantoms may not be efficient enough to reveal the expected performance of the post processing algorithms.

  8. Measuring diagnostic accuracy of imaging parameters in pelvic lipomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yudong; Wu, Shiliang; Xi, Zhijun; Wang, Xiaoying; Jiang, Xuexiang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study whether the individual radiological findings can help predict diagnosis of pelvic lipomatosis (PL) or, specifically appreciate its progression. Methods: Data from 32 clinically proven cases of PL and 25 controls were collected. Two reviewers were recruited for a blinded evaluation, image features were recorded in terms of: (1) bladder shape; (2) bladder-rectosigmoid morphological indexes including ratio of superior–inferior to anterior–posterior length of bladder (SI/AP), angle between anterior and posterior wall (AAP), relative length of posterior urethra (rLPU), angle between bladder and seminal vesicle (ABS) and rectosigmoid morphological index (RMI); (3) secondary complications. Results were evaluated by an unpaired t test and ROC analysis. Results: The sensitivity and specificity were 40.6% and 100% for pear and banana-shaped bladder, 62.5% and 100% for SI/AP, 40.6% and 100% for AAP, 62.5% and 100% for ABS, 78.1% and 72% for rLPU, 59.4% and 96% for RMI, respectively. These radiological findings partially correlated with the severity of disease weighted by hydronephrosis and treatment grade. Image analysis demonstrated high prevalence of glandular cystitis (100%) and hydronephrosis (73.4%). Conclusion: We conclude that PL is a progressive disease involving multiple pelvic organs with high prevalence of intractable cystitis and hydronephrosis. The imaging characteristics can help predict diagnosis and, specifically appreciate progression.

  9. Measuring diagnostic accuracy of imaging parameters in pelvic lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yudong, E-mail: pku_zyd06@163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Wu, Shiliang, E-mail: wushiliangjsh@263.net [Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Xi, Zhijun, E-mail: xizhijun@hsc.pku.edu.cn [Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Xiaoying, E-mail: cjr.wangxiaoying@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Jiang, Xuexiang, E-mail: cjr.jxx@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To study whether the individual radiological findings can help predict diagnosis of pelvic lipomatosis (PL) or, specifically appreciate its progression. Methods: Data from 32 clinically proven cases of PL and 25 controls were collected. Two reviewers were recruited for a blinded evaluation, image features were recorded in terms of: (1) bladder shape; (2) bladder-rectosigmoid morphological indexes including ratio of superior-inferior to anterior-posterior length of bladder (SI/AP), angle between anterior and posterior wall (AAP), relative length of posterior urethra (rLPU), angle between bladder and seminal vesicle (ABS) and rectosigmoid morphological index (RMI); (3) secondary complications. Results were evaluated by an unpaired t test and ROC analysis. Results: The sensitivity and specificity were 40.6% and 100% for pear and banana-shaped bladder, 62.5% and 100% for SI/AP, 40.6% and 100% for AAP, 62.5% and 100% for ABS, 78.1% and 72% for rLPU, 59.4% and 96% for RMI, respectively. These radiological findings partially correlated with the severity of disease weighted by hydronephrosis and treatment grade. Image analysis demonstrated high prevalence of glandular cystitis (100%) and hydronephrosis (73.4%). Conclusion: We conclude that PL is a progressive disease involving multiple pelvic organs with high prevalence of intractable cystitis and hydronephrosis. The imaging characteristics can help predict diagnosis and, specifically appreciate progression.